Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)
Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation. (orig.)
Chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles
Di Giacomo, Adriano; Pucci, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
To understand the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles, the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry breaking is calculated in the $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV]. First, we add one pair of monopoles, varying the monopole charges $m_{c}$ from zero to four, to SU(3) quenched configurations by a monopole creation operator. The low-lying eigenvalues of the Overlap Dirac operator are computed from the gauge links of the normal configurations and the configurations with additional monopoles. Next, we compare the distributions of the nearest-neighbor spacing of the low-lying eigenvalues with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The low-lying eigenvalues not depending on the scale parameter $\\Sigma$ are compared to the prediction of the random matrix theory. The results show the consistency with the random matrix theory. Thus, the additional monopoles do not affect the low-lying eigenvalues. Moreover, we discover that the additional monopoles increa...
Catalysis of Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking by Chiral Chemical Potential
Braguta, V V
2016-01-01
In this paper we study the properties of media with chiral imbalance parameterized by chiral chemical potential. It is shown that depending on the strength of interaction between constituents in the media the chiral chemical potential either creates or enhances dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Thus the chiral chemical potential plays a role of the catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Physically this effect results from the appearance of the Fermi surface and additional fermion states on this surface which take part in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. An interesting conclusion which can be drawn is that at sufficiently small temperature chiral plasma is unstable with respect to condensation of Cooper pairs and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking even for vanishingly small interactions between constituents.
Implications of Local Chiral Symmetry Breaking
La, H S
2003-01-01
The spontaneous symmetry breaking of a local chiral symmetry to its diagonal vector symmetry naturally realizes a complete geometrical structure more general than that of Yang-Mills (YM) theory, rather similar to that of gravity. A good example is the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with respect to the Chiral Color model. Also, a new anomaly-free particle content for a Chiral Color model is introduced: the Chiral Color can be realized without introducing whole new generations of quarks and leptons, but by simply enlarging each generation with new exotic fermions.
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials
Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2014-07-01
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.
Center vortices, confinement and chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The center vortex model, proposed as an explanation of confinement in non-abelian gauge theories is introduced. Some checks of the confinement properties of center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with improved Luescher-Weisz gauge action are presented. Phenomena related to chiral symmetry, such as topological charge and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SCSB) are studied within the vortex model. In particular the influence of center vortices on the low-lying spectrum of the Dirac operator is analyzed. (author)
Chiral Symmetry Breaking from Center Vortices
Höllwieser, Roman; Schweigler, Thomas; Heller, Urs M
2014-01-01
We analyze the creation of near-zero modes from would-be zero modes of various topological charge contributions from classical center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. We show that colorful spherical vortex and instanton configurations have very similar Dirac eigenmodes and also vortex intersections are able to give rise to a finite density of near-zero modes, leading to chiral symmetry breaking via the Banks-Casher formula. We discuss the influence of the magnetic vortex fluxes on quarks and how center vortices may break chiral symmetry.
Chiral symmetry breaking in brane models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the chiral symmetry breaking in general intersecting Dq/Dp brane models consisting of Nc Dq-branes and a single Dp-brane with an s-dimensional intersection. There exists a QCD-like theory localized at the intersection and the Dq/Dp model gives a holographic description of it. The rotational symmetry of directions transverse to both of the Dq and Dp-branes can be identified with a chiral symmetry, which is non-Abelian for certain cases. The asymptotic distance between the Dq-branes and the Dp-brane corresponds to a quark mass. By studying the probe Dp-brane dynamics in a Dq-brane background in the near horizon and large Nc limit we find that the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken and there appear (pseudo-)Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We also discuss the models at finite temperature
Testing Chiral Symmetry Breaking at DAPHNE
M. R. Pennington
1996-01-01
The spontaneous breakdown of the chiral symmetry of the QCD Lagrangian ensures that $\\pi\\pi$ interactions are weak at low energies. How weak depends on the nature of explicit symmetry breaking. Measurements of $K_{e4}$ decays at DA$\\Phi$NE will provide a unique insight into this mechanism and test whether the $q{\\overline q}$--condensate is large or small.
Analysis of chiral symmetry breaking mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The renormalization group invariant quark condensate μ is determinate both from the consistent equation for quark condensate in the chiral limit and from the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation improved by the intermediate range QCD force singular like δ (q) which is associated with the gluon condensate. The solutions of μ in these two equations are consistent. We also obtain the critical strong coupling constant αc above which chiral symmetry breaks in two approaches. The nonperturbative kernel of the SD equation makes αc smaller and μ bigger. An intuitive picture of the condensation above αc is discussed. In addition, with the help of the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward (STW) identity we derive the equations for the nonperturbative quark propagator from SD equation in the presence of the intermediate-range force is also responsible for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. (author)
A strict QCD inequality and mechanisms for chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A strict QCD inequality allows one to discuss mechanisms proposed for breaking the chiral symmetry in QCD. ''Order parameters'' are identified such that if sufficiently many gauge field configurations contribute to them, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking follows. As an application the role of instantons is discussed in chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. (orig.)
Chiral symmetry breaking in lattice electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiral symmetry breaking is studied in lattice quantum electrodynamics in the quenched approximation by computer-simulation methods. Simulations at zero temperature show that in non-zero for all couplings e2 greater than a critical value e2/sub c/. The sensitivity of to short-distance features of the lattice Action is studied by simulating variant gauge Actions. Simulations on asymmetric lattices do not reveal significant temperature dependence in the symmetry-breaking dynamics. Subtle effects and limitations of quenched calculations are discussed
Magnetic rotation and chiral symmetry breaking
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok Kumar Jain; Amita
2001-08-01
The deformed mean ﬁeld of nuclei exhibits various geometrical and dynamical symmetries which manifest themselves as various types of rotational and decay patterns. Most of the symmetry operations considered so far have been deﬁned for a situation wherein the angular momentum coincides with one of the principal axes and the principal axis cranking may be invoked. New possibilities arise with the observation of rotational features in weakly deformed nuclei and now interpreted as magnetic rotational bands. More than 120 MR bands have now been identiﬁed by ﬁltering the existing data. We present a brief overview of these bands. The total angular momentum vector in such bands is tilted away from the principal axes. Such a situation gives rise to several new possibilities including breaking of chiral symmetry as discussed recently by Frauendorf. We present the outcome of such symmetries and their possible experimental veriﬁcation. Some possible examples of chiral bands are presented.
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking by hydromagnetic buoyancy
Chatterjee, Piyali; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel; Rheinhardt, Matthias
2011-08-01
Evidence for the parity-breaking nature of the magnetic buoyancy instability in a stably stratified gas is reported. In the absence of rotation, no helicity is produced, but the nonhelical state is found to be unstable to small helical perturbations during the development of the instability. The parity-breaking nature of this magnetohydrodynamic instability appears to be the first of its kind and has properties similar to those in chiral symmetry breaking in biochemistry. Applications to the production of mean fields in galaxy clusters are discussed.
Chiral Symmetry Breaking and Cooling in Lattice QCD
Woloshyn, R. M.; Lee, F. X.
1995-01-01
Chiral symmetry breaking is calculated as a function of cooling in quenched lattice QCD. A non-zero signal is found for the chiral condensate beyond one hundred cooling steps, suggesting that there is chiral symmetry breaking associated with instantons. Quantitatively, the chiral condensate in cooled gauge field configurations is small compared to the value without cooling.
On chiral symmetry breaking, topology and confinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuryak, Edward
2014-08-15
We start with the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and gauge field topology. New lattice results further enhance the notion of Zero Mode Zone, a very narrow strip of states with quasizero Dirac eigenvalues. Then we move to the issue of “origin of mass” and Brown–Rho scaling: a number of empirical facts contradicts to the idea that masses of quarks and such hadrons as ρ,N decrease near T{sub c}. We argue that while at T=0 the main contribution to the effective quark mass is chirally odd m{sub χ/}, near T{sub c} it rotates to chirally-even component m{sub χ}, because “infinite clusters” of topological solitons gets split into finite ones. Recent progress in understanding of topology require introduction of nonzero holonomy 〈A{sub 0}〉≠0, which splits instantons into N{sub c} (anti)selfdual “instanton–dyons”. Qualitative progress, as well as first numerical studies of the dyon ensemble are reported. New connections between chiral symmetry breaking and confinement are recently understood, since instanton–dyons generate holonomy potential with a minimum at confining value, if the ensemble is dense enough.
Chiral symmetry breaking in QCD Lite
Engel, Georg P; Lottini, Stefano; Sommer, Rainer
2014-01-01
A distinctive feature of the presence of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is the condensation of low modes of the Dirac operator near the origin. The rate of condensation must be equal to the slope of (Mpi^2 Fpi^2)/2 with respect to the quark mass m in the chiral limit, where Mpi and Fpi are the mass and the decay constant of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We compute the spectral density of the (Hermitian) Dirac operator, the quark mass, the pseudoscalar meson mass and decay constant by numerical simulations of lattice QCD with two light degenerate Wilson quarks. We use CLS lattices at three values of the lattice spacing in the range 0.05-0.08 fm, and for several quark masses corresponding to pseudoscalar mesons masses down to 190 MeV. Thanks to this coverage of parameters space, we can extrapolate all quantities to the chiral and continuum limits with confidence. The results show that the low quark modes do condense in the continuum as expected by the Banks-Casher mechanism, and the rate of condensat...
Personal recollections on chiral symmetry breaking
Kobayashi, Makoto
2016-07-01
The author's work on the mass of pseudoscalar mesons is briefly reviewed. The emergence of the study of CP violation in the renormalizable gauge theory from consideration of chiral symmetry in the quark model is discussed.
Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter
Buballa, Michael
2015-01-01
An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color-superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking...
Mapping chiral symmetry breaking in the excited baryon spectrum
Bicudo, Pedro; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J; Van Cauteren, Tim
2016-01-01
We study the conjectured "Insensitivity to Chiral Symmetry Breaking" in the highly excited light baryon spectrum. While the experimental spectrum is being measured at JLab and CBELSA/TAPS, this insensitivity remains to be computed theoretically in detail. As the only existing option to have both confinement, highly excited states and chiral symmetry, we adopt the truncated Coulomb gauge formulation of QCD, considering a linearly confining Coulomb term. Adopting a systematic and numerically intensive variational treatment up to 12 harmonic oscillator shells we are able to access several angular and radial excitations. We compute both the excited spectra of $I=1/2$ and $I=3/2$ baryons, up to large spin $J=13/2$, and study in detail the proposed chiral multiplets. While the static-light and light-light spectra clearly show chiral symmetry restoration high in the spectrum, the realization of chiral symmetry is more complicated in the baryon spectrum than earlier expected.
Examining a possible cascade effect in chiral symmetry breaking
Fariborz, Amir H
2016-01-01
We examine a toy model and a cascade effect for confinement and chiral symmetry breaking which consists in several phase transitions corresponding to the formation of bound states and chiral condensates with different number of fermions for a strong group. We analyze two examples: regular QCD where we calculate the "four quark" vacuum condensate and a preon composite model based on QCD at higher scales. In this context we also determine the number of flavors at which the second chiral and confinement phase transitions occur and discuss the consequences.
Realization of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration in holographic QCD
Chelabi, Kaddour; Huang, Mei; Li, Danning; Wu, Yue-Liang
2015-01-01
With proper profiles of the scalar potential and the dilaton field, for the first time, the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and its restoration at finite temperature are correctly realized in the holographic QCD framework. In the chiral limit, a nonzero chiral condensate develops in the vacuum and decreases with temperature, and the phase transition is of 2nd order for two-flavor case and of 1st order for three-flavor case. In the case of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, in two-flavor case, the 2nd order phase transition turns to crossover with any nonzero current quark mass, and in three-flavor case, the 1st order phase transition turns to crossover at a finite current quark mass. The correct description of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration makes the holographic QCD models more powerful in dealing with non-perturbative QCD phenomena. This framework can be regarded as a general set up in application of AdS/CFT to describe conventional Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson type phase transitions, ...
Partial quenching and chiral symmetry breaking
Creutz, Michael
2014-01-01
Partially quenched chiral perturbation theory assumes that valence quarks propagating on gauge configurations prepared with sea quarks of different masses will form a chiral condensate as the valence quark mass goes to zero. I present a counterexample involving non-degenerate sea quarks where the valence condensate does not form.
Domain Walls and Vortices in Chiral Symmetry Breaking
Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto
2013-01-01
We study domain walls and vortices in chiral symmetry breaking in QCD with N flavors in the chiral limit. If the axial anomaly was absent, there exist stable Abelian axial vortices winding around the spontaneously broken U(1)_A symmetry and non-Abelian axial vortices winding around both the U(1)_A and non-Abelian SU(N) chiral symmetries. In the presence of the axial anomaly term, metastable domain walls are present and Abelian axial vortices must be attached by N domain walls, forming domain wall junctions. We show that a domain wall junction decays into N non-Abelian vortices attached by domain walls, implying its metastability. We also show that domain walls decay through the quantum tunneling by creating a hole bounded by a closed non-Abelian vortex.
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in collective active motion
Breier, Rebekka E.; Selinger, Robin L. B.; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Herminghaus, Stephan; Mazza, Marco G.
2016-02-01
Chiral symmetry breaking is ubiquitous in biological systems, from DNA to bacterial suspensions. A key unresolved problem is how chiral structures may spontaneously emerge from achiral interactions. We study a simple model of active swimmers in three dimensions that effectively incorporates hydrodynamic interactions. We perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations (up to 106 particles) and find long-lived metastable collective states that exhibit chiral organization although the interactions are achiral. We elucidate under which conditions these chiral states will emerge and grow to large scales. To explore the complex phase space available to the system, we perform nonequilibrium quenches on a one-dimensional Lebwohl-Lasher model with periodic boundary conditions to study the likelihood of formation of chiral structures.
Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buballa, Michael; Carignano, Stefano [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Theoriezentrum, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)
2016-03-15
An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in the core of compact stars, considering the cases of mass-radius relations and neutrino emissivity explicitly. (orig.)
Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in the core of compact stars, considering the cases of mass-radius relations and neutrino emissivity explicitly. (orig.)
Continuum strong QCD: Confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Continuum strong QCD is the application of models and continuum quantum field theory to the study of phenomena in hadronic physics, which includes; e.g., the spectrum of QCD bound states and their interactions. Herein the author provides a Dyson-Schwinger equation perspective, focusing on qualitative aspects of confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in cold, sparse QCD, and also elucidating consequences of the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity and features of the heavy-quark limit
Symmetry-breaking in chiral polymerisation
Wattis, J A D; Wattis, Jonathan AD; Coveney, Peter V.
2004-01-01
We propose a model for chiral polymerisation and investigate its symmetric and asymmetric solutions. The model has a source species which decays into left- and right-handed types of monomer, each of which can polymerise to form homochiral chains; these chains are susceptible to `poisoning' by the opposite handed monomer. Homochiral polymers are assumed to influence the proportion of each type of monomer formed from the precursor. We show that for certain parameter values a positive feedback mechanism makes the symmetric steady-state solution unstable. The kinetics of polymer formation are then analysed in the case where the system starts from zero concentrations of monomer and chains. We show that following a long induction time, extremely large concentrations of polymers are formed for a short time, during this time an asymmetry introduced into the system by a random external perturbation may be massively amplified. The system then approaches one of the steady-state solutions described above.
Intrinsic transverse momentum and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christian Weiss, Peter Schweitzer, Mark Strikman
2013-01-01
We study the effect of QCD vacuum structure on the intrinsic transverse momentum distribution of partons in the nucleon at a low scale. The dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry is caused by non-perturbative interactions at distances of the order rho ~ 0.2 - 0.3 fm, much smaller than the typical nucleon size R ~ 1 fm, resulting in a two-scale picture of nucleon structure. Using an effective dynamical model based on chiral constituent quark degrees of freedom and the 1/N_c expansion (chiral quark-soliton model), we calculate the transverse momentum distribution of quarks and antiquarks at a low scale. The distribution of valence quarks is localized at p_T ~ 1/R. The distribution of flavor-singlet unpolarized sea quarks exhibits a power-like tail extending up to the chiral-symmetry-breaking scale 1/{rho}. A similar tail is present in the flavor-nonsinglet polarized sea. These features are model-independent and represent the imprint of the QCD vacuum on the nucleon's partonic structure. At the level of the nucleon's light-cone wave function, we show that sea quarks partly exist in correlated pairs of transverse size {rho} << R, analogous to short-range NN correlations in nuclei. We discuss the implications of our findings for the transverse momentum distributions in hard scattering processes (semi-inclusive DIS, Drell-Yan pair production) and possible experimental tests of the non-perturbative parton correlations induced by QCD vacuum structure.
A note on Seiberg duality and chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Following (arXiv:1310.2027) and (arXiv:0801.0762), we consider a non-supersymmetric Seiberg duality between electric and magnetic “orientifold field theories”. These theories live on brane configurations of type 0′ string theory. In the electric theory side the scalars acquire a mass and decouple, resulting in an SU(Nc) gauge theory coupled to Nf massless quarks and an additional massless fermion that transforms in the two-index antisymmetric representation. In the magnetic theory side there exists a fundamental meson field that develops a Coleman–Weinberg potential. At the one-loop approximation the potential admits a minimum with chiral symmetry breaking of the form SU(Nf)L×SU(Nf)R→SU(Nf)V and an additional breaking of an axial U(1) symmetry. The resulting theory admits a spectrum whose massless degrees of freedom are Nf2 Nambu–Goldstone bosons
Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry as a consequence of confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that at the leading order in large N-expansion a confinement potential, linearly rising at large distances, leads to a non-local four-quark interaction which realizes spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in the same way as the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model does. The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio phenomenological constant G1, which is responsible for SBCS, is expressed in terms of the string tension and the confinement radius. The dynamical quark mass is found as a function on the string tension m=2√σ/π=0.33GeV at σ=0.27 GeV2. (author). 13 refs
Schwinger-Dyson equations: Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking and Confinement
Roberts, Craig D.(Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA)
1993-01-01
A representative but not exhaustive review of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) approach to the nonperturbative study of QCD is presented. The main focus is the SDE for the quark self energy but studies of the gluon propagator and quark-gluon vertex are also discussed insofar as they are important to the quark SDE. The scope of this article is the application of these equations to the study of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, quark confinement and the phenomenology of the spectrum and dyn...
Universality of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate one-flavor QCD with an additional chiral scalar field. For a large domain in the space of coupling constants, this model belongs to the same universality class as QCD, and the effects of the scalar become unobservable. This is connected to a 'bound-state fixed point' of the renormalization flow for which all memory of the microscopic scalar interactions is lost. The QCD domain includes a microscopic scalar potential with minima at a nonzero field. On the other hand, for a scalar mass term m2 below a critical value mc2, the universality class is characterized by perturbative spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking which renders the quarks massive. Our renormalization group analysis shows how this universality class is continuously connected with the QCD universality class
Chiral symmetry breaking in lattice QED model with fermion brane
Shintani, E
2012-01-01
We propose a novel approach of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at near zero temperature in 4 dimensional QED model with 3+1 dimensional fermion brane using Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation. We consider an anisotropic QED coupling in non-compact QED action with the manifest gauge invariant interaction and fermi-velocity which is less than speed of light. This model allows for the scaling study at low temperature and strong coupling region with reduced computational cost. We compute the chiral condensate and its susceptibility with different coupling constant, velocity parameter and flavor number, and therefore obtain a compatible behavior with gap equation in broken phase. We also discuss about the comparison of Graphene model.
Chiral polarization scale of QCD vacuum and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It has recently been found that dynamics of pure glue QCD supports the low energy band of Dirac modes with local chiral properties qualitatively different from that of a bulk: while bulk modes suppress chirality relative to statistical independence between left and right, the band modes enhance it. The width of such chirally polarized zone – chiral polarization scale bigwedgech – has been shown to be finite in the continuum limit at fixed physical volume. Here we present evidence that bigwedgech remains non-zero also in the infinite volume, and is therefore a dynamical scale in the theory. Our experiments in Nf = 2+1 QCD support the proposition that the same holds in the massless limit, connecting bigwedgech to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In addition, our results suggest that thermal agitation in quenched QCD destroys both chiral polarization and condensation of Dirac modes at the same temperature Tch > Tc.
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in unquenched QED3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in unquenched QED3 using the coupled set of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the fermion and photon propagators. For the fermion-photon interaction we employ an ansatz which satisfies its Ward-Green-Takahashi identity. We present self-consistent analytical solutions in the infrared as well as numerical results for all momenta. In Landau gauge, we find a phase transition at a critical number of flavors of Nfcrit≅4. In the chirally symmetric phase the infrared behavior of the propagators is described by power laws with interrelated exponents. For Nf=1 and Nf=2 we find small values for the chiral condensate in accordance with bounds from recent lattice calculations. We investigate the Dyson-Schwinger equations in other linear covariant gauges as well. A comparison of their solutions to the accordingly transformed Landau gauge solutions shows that the quenched solutions are approximately gauge covariant, but reveals a significant amount of violation of gauge covariance for the unquenched solutions
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Meyrand, Romain; Galtier, Sébastien
2012-11-01
Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is investigated through three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. We show that the Hall effect induces a spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the turbulent dynamics. The normalized magnetic polarization is introduced to separate the right- (R) and left-handed (L) fluctuations. A classical k(-7/3) spectrum is found at small scales for R magnetic fluctuations which corresponds to the electron MHD prediction. A spectrum compatible with k(-11/3) is obtained at large-scales for the L magnetic fluctuations; we call this regime the ion MHD. These results are explained heuristically by rewriting the Hall MHD equations in a succinct vortex dynamical form. Applications to solar wind turbulence are discussed. PMID:23215387
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in Chiral Gauge Theories with Direct-Product Gauge Groups
Shi, Yan-Liang
2016-01-01
We analyze patterns of dynamical symmetry breaking in strongly coupled chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups $G$. If the gauge coupling for a factor group $G_i \\subset G$ becomes sufficiently strong, it can produce bilinear fermion condensates that break the $G_i$ symmetry itself and/or break other gauge symmetries $G_j \\subset G$. Our comparative study of a number of strongly coupled direct-product chiral gauge theories elucidates how the patterns of symmetry breaking depend on the structure of $G$ and on the relative sizes of the gauge couplings corresponding to factor groups in the direct product.
Chiral symmetry breaking and chiral polarization: Tests for finite temperature and many flavors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei Alexandru
2015-02-01
Full Text Available It was recently conjectured that, in SU(3 gauge theories with fundamental quarks, valence spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is equivalent to condensation of local dynamical chirality and appearance of chiral polarization scale Λch. Here we consider more general association involving the low-energy layer of chirally polarized modes which, in addition to its width (Λch, is also characterized by volume density of participating modes (Ω and the volume density of total chirality (Ωch. Few possible forms of the correspondence are discussed, paying particular attention to singular cases where Ω emerges as the most versatile characteristic. The notion of finite-volume “order parameter”, capturing the nature of these connections, is proposed. We study the effects of temperature (in Nf=0 QCD and light quarks (in Nf=12, both in the regime of possible symmetry restoration, and find agreement with these ideas. In Nf=0 QCD, results from several volumes indicate that, at the lattice cutoff studied, the deconfinement temperature Tc is strictly smaller than the overlap–valence chiral transition temperature Tch in real Polyakov line vacuum. Somewhat similar intermediate phase (in quark mass is also seen in Nf=12. It is suggested that deconfinement in Nf=0 is related to indefinite convexity of absolute X-distributions.
Gauge-Invariant Formalism with Dirac-mode Expansion for Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking
Gongyo, Shinya; Suganuma, Hideo
2012-01-01
We develop a manifestly gauge-covariant expansion of the QCD operator such as the Wilson loop, using the eigen-mode of the QCD Dirac operator $\\Slash D=\\gamma^\\mu D^\\mu$. With this method, we perform a direct analysis of the correlation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in lattice QCD Monte Carlo calculation on $6^4$ at $\\beta$=5.6. As a remarkable fact, the confinement force is almost unchanged even after removing the low-lying Dirac modes, which are responsible to chiral symmetry breaking. This indicates that one-to-one correspondence does not hold for between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this analysis, we carefully amputate only the "essence of chiral symmetry breaking" by cutting off the low-lying Dirac modes, and can artificially realize the "confined but chiral restored situation" in QCD.
Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Micro-Ring Optical Cavity By Engineered Dissipation
Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Xu-Bo; Yang, Lan
2016-01-01
We propose a method to break the chiral symmetry of light in traveling wave resonators by coupling the optical modes to a lossy channel. Through the engineered dissipation, an indirect dissipative coupling between two oppositely propagating modes can be realized. Combining with reactive coupling, it can break the chiral symmetry of the resonator, allowing light propagating only in one direction. The chiral symmetry breaking is numerically verified by the simulation of an electromagnetic field in a micro-ring cavity, with proper refractive index distributions. This work provokes us to emphasize the dissipation engineering in photonics, and the generalized idea can also be applied to other systems.
Sea quark transverse momentum distributions and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schweitzer, Peter [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Strikman, Mark [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Weiss, Christian [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
Recent theoretical studies have provided new insight into the intrinsic transverse momentum distributions of valence and sea quarks in the nucleon at a low scale. The valence quark transverse momentum distributions (q - qbar) are governed by the nucleon's inverse hadronic size R{sup -1} ~ 0.2 GeV and drop steeply at large p{sub T}. The sea quark distributions (qbar) are in large part generated by non-perturbative chiral-symmetry breaking interactions and extend up to the scale rho{sup -1} ~ 0.6 GeV. These findings have many implications for modeling the initial conditions of perturbative QCD evolution of TMD distributions (starting scale, shape of p{sub T}. distributions, coordinate-space correlation functions). The qualitative difference between valence and sea quark intrinsic p{sub T}. distributions could be observed experimentally, by comparing the transverse momentum distributions of selected hadrons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, or those of dileptons produced in pp and pbar-p scattering.
Magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking and the Pauli problem
Ng, Y. Jack
1998-01-01
The non-perturbative Schwinger-Dyson equation is used to show that chiral symmetry is dynamically broken in QED at weak gauge couplings when an external uniform magnetic field is present. A complete analysis of this phenomenon may shed light on the Pauli problem, namely, why $\\alpha$ = 1/137.
Explicit chiral symmetry breaking in Gross-Neveu type models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boehmer, Christian
2011-07-25
This thesis is devoted to the study of a 1+1-dimensional, fermionic quantum field theory with Lagrangian L= anti {psi}i{gamma}{sup {mu}}{partial_derivative}{sub {mu}}{psi}-m{sub 0} anti {psi}{psi}+(g{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}{psi}){sup 2}+(G{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}i{gamma}{sub 5}{psi}){sup 2} in the limit of an infinite number of flavors, using semiclassical methods. The main goal of the present work was to see what changes if we allow for explicit chiral symmetry breaking, either by a bare mass term, or a splitting of the scalar and pseudo-scalar coupling constants, or both. In the first case, this becomes the massive NJL{sub 2} model. In the 2nd and 3rd cases we are dealing with a model largely unexplored so far. The first half of this thesis deals with the massive NJL{sub 2} model. Before attacking the phase diagram, it was necessary to determine the baryons of the model. We have carried out full numerical Hartree-Fock calculations including the Dirac sea. The most important result is the first complete phase diagram of the massive NJL{sub 2} model in ({mu},T,{gamma}) space, where {gamma} arises from m{sub 0} through mass renormalization. In the 2nd half of the thesis we have studied a generalization of the massless NJL{sub 2} model with two different (scalar and pseudoscalar) coupling constants, first in the massless version. Renormalization of the 2 coupling constants leads to the usual dynamical mass by dynamical transmutation, but in addition to a novel {xi} parameter interpreted as chiral quenching parameter. As far as baryon structure is concerned, the most interesting result is the fact that the new baryons interpolate between the kink of the GN model and the massless baryon of the NJL{sub 2} model, always carrying fractional baryon number 1/2. The phase diagram of the massless model with 2 coupling constants has again been determined numerically. At zero temperature we have also investigated the massive, generalized GN model with 3 parameters. It is well
Chiral symmetry breaking in d=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields
Gitman, D M
1996-01-01
The phase structure of d=3 Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with magnetic field is investigated in the leading order of the 1/N-expansion and in linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of the chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. At some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the gravitational field.
Chiral symmetry breaking in d=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields
Gitman, D. M.; Odintsov, S. D.; Shil'nov, Yu. I.
1996-01-01
The phase structure of $d=3$ Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with magnetic field is investigated in the leading order of the $1/N$-expansion and in linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of the chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. At some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the ...
Chiral symmetry of heavy-light scalar mesons with UA(1) symmetry breaking
Dmitrašinović, V.
2012-07-01
In a previous paper, based on a calculation in the nonrelativistic quark model, we advanced the hypothesis that the Ds(2317), D0(2308) mesons are predominantly four-quark states lowered in mass by the flavor-dependent Kobayashi-Kubo-Maskawa ’t Hooft UA(1) symmetry breaking effective interaction. Here we show similar results and conclusions in a relativistic effective chiral model calculation, based on three-light-quark (i.e., two q plus one q¯) local interpolators. To this end we classify the four-quark (three light plus one heavy quark) local interpolators according to their chiral transformation properties and then construct chiral invariant interactions. We evaluate the diagonal matrix elements of the Kobayashi-Kubo-Maskawa ’t Hooft interaction between different interpolating fields and show that the lowest-lying one is always the (antisymmetric) SU(3)F antitriplet belonging to the chiral (3, 3) multiplet. We predict bottom-strange Bs0 and the bottom-nonstrange B0 scalar mesons with equal masses at 5720 MeV, the strange meson being some 100 MeV lower than in most of the quark potential models. We also predict the JP=1+ bottom-nonstrange B1 and the bottom-strange Bs1 meson masses as 5732 MeV and 5765 MeV, respectively, using the Bardeen-Hill-Nowak-Rho-Zahed scalar-vector mass relation.
Spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking of lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
One of the most challenging issues in QCD is the investigation of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking, which is characterized by the non-vanishing chiral condensate when the bare fermion mass is zero. In standard methods of the lattice gauge theory, one has to perform expensive simulations at multiple bare quark masses, and employ some modeled functions to extrapolate the data to the chiral limit. This paper applies the probability distribution function method to computing the chiral condensate in lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks, without any ambiguous mass extrapolation. The results for staggered quarks indicate that this might be a promising and efficient method for investigating the spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in lattice QCD, which deserves further investigation.
Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab
Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space
Biernat, Elmar P; Ribeiro, J E; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz
2014-01-01
We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.
Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space
Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz
2016-01-01
We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.
Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biernat, Elmar P. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Peña, M. T. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidadede Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, J. E. [Centro de Física das Interações Fundamentais (CFIF), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora (Portugal); Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)
2016-01-22
We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.
Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Daisuke
2016-01-01
We analyze the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theory with the nonperturbative renormalization group equation (NPRGE), which is a first order nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In case that the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking occurs, the NPRGE encounters some non-analytic singularities at the finite critical scale even though the initial function is continuous and smooth. Therefore there is no usual solution of the PDE beyond the critical scale. In this paper, we newly introduce the notion of a weak solution which is the global solution of the weak NPRGE. We show how to evaluate the physical quantities with the weak solution.
Centre vortices underpin dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in $\\mathrm{SU}(3)$ gauge theory
Trewartha, Daniel; Leinweber, Derek
2015-01-01
The link between dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and centre vortices in the gauge fields of pure $\\mathrm{SU}(3)$ gauge theory is studied using the overlap-fermion quark propagator in Lattice QCD. Overlap fermions provide a lattice realisation of chiral symmetry and consequently offer a unique opportunity to explore the interplay of centre vortices, instantons and dynamical mass generation. Simulations are performed on gauge fields featuring the removal of centre vortices, identified through gauge transformations maximising the center of the gauge group. In contrast to previous results using the staggered-fermion action, the overlap-fermion results illustrate a loss of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking coincident with vortex removal. This result is linked to the overlap-fermion's sensitivity to the subtle manner in which instanton degrees of freedom are compromised through the process of centre vortex removal. Backgrounds consisting solely of the identified centre vortices are also investigated. After smo...
Instanton-dyon Ensemble with two Dynamical Quarks: the Chiral Symmetry Breaking
Larsen, Rasmus
2015-01-01
This is the second paper of the series aimed at understanding of the ensemble of the instanton-dyons, now with two flavors of light dynamical quarks. The partition function is appended by the fermionic factor, $(det T)^{N_f}$ and Dirac eigenvalue spectra at small values are derived from the numerical simulation of 64 dyons. Those spectra show clear chiral symmetry breaking pattern at high dyon density. Within current accuracy, the confinement and chiral transitions occur at very similar densities.
Magnetic Catalysis of Chiral Symmetry Breaking. A Holographic Prospective
Filev, Veselin G; 10.1155/2010/473206
2010-01-01
We review a recent investigation of the effect of magnetic catalysis of mass generation in holographic Yang-Mills theories. We aim at a self-contained and pedagogical form of the review. We provide a brief field theory background and review the basics of holographic flavordynamics. The main part of the review investigates the influence of external magnetic field on holographic gauge theories dual to the D3/D5-- and D3/D7-- brane intersections. Among the observed phenomena are the spontaneous breaking of a global internal symmetry, Zeeman splitting of the energy levels and the existence of pseudo Goldstone modes. An analytic derivation of the Gell-Mann--Oaks--Renner relation for the D3/D7 set up is reviewed. In the D3/D5 case the pseudo Goldstone modes satisfy non-relativistic dispersion relation. The studies reviewed confirm the universal nature of the magnetic catalysis of mass generation.
Comments on the Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Soft Wall Holographic QCD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bechi, Jacopo
2009-01-01
In this paper we describe qualitatively some aspects of the holographic QCD. Inspired by a successfull 4D description, we try to separate the Confinement and the Chiral Symmetry Breaking dynamics. We also discuss the realization of the baryons as skyrmions in Soft Wall Holographic QCD, and the...
Chiral symmetry breaking and vacuum polarization in a bag
Yasui, S
2006-01-01
We study the effects of a finite quark mass in the hedgehog configuration in the two phase chiral bag model. We discuss the chiral properties, such as the fractional baryon number and the chiral Casimir energy, by using the Debye expansion for the analytical calculation and the Strutinsky's smearing method for the numerical computation. It is shown that the fractional baryon number carried by massive quarks in the vacuum is canceled by that in the meson sector. A finite term of the chiral Casimir energy is obtained with subtraction of the logarithmic divergence term.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Claims that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in Q.C.D. is mediated by the U(1) axial anomaly are examined from the viewpoint of effective chiral lagrangians. The proofs are seen to arise from a use of effective chiral lagrangians in which the U(1) axial symmetry is explicitly broken by effects of the anomaly. A U(1) axial invariant chiral lagrangian (to be presented) offers no such proof. (author)
New method for dynamical fermions and chiral-symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The reasons for the feasibility of the Microcanonical Fermionic Average (M F A) approach to lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions are discussed. We then present a new exact algorithm, which is free from systematic errors and convergent even in the chiral limit. (orig.)
Confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in a non-perturbative renormalizable quark model
Dudal, D.; Guimaraes, M. S.; Palhares, L. F.; Sorella, S. P.
2016-02-01
Inspired by the construction of the Gribov-Zwanziger action in the Landau gauge, we introduce a quark model exhibiting both confinement and chiral symmetry aspects. An important feature is the incorporation of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in a renormalizable fashion. The quark propagator in the condensed vacuum turns out to be of a confining type. Besides a real pole, it exhibits complex conjugate poles. The resulting spectral form is explicitly shown to violate positivity, indicative of its unphysical character. Moreover, the ensuing quark mass function fits well to existing lattice data. To further validate the physical nature of the model, we identify a massless pseudoscalar (i.e. a pion) in the chiral limit and present estimates for the ρ meson mass and decay constant.
Baryons in QCD and chiral symmetry breaking parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate all baryons in the 56 representation using QCD sum rules. All masses are well predicted and require stringent values of the chiral parameters (0vertical strokeanti uuvertical stroke0) = -(230 +- 15 MeV)3 and ν = (anti ss)/(uu) - 1 = -0.19 +- 0.02. The determination of ν is the most precise to date, the strange quark mass and the quark condensate are also accurately fixed. (orig.)
Weber, Norbert; Stefani, Frank; Weier, Tom
2015-01-01
The Tayler instability is a kink-type, current driven instability that plays an important role in plasma physics but might also be relevant in liquid metal applications with high electrical currents. In the framework of the Tayler-Spruit dynamo model of stellar magnetic field generation, the question of spontaneous helical (chiral) symmetry breaking during the saturation of the Tayler instability has received considerable interest. Focusing on fluids with low magnetic Prandtl numbers, for which the quasistatic approximation can be applied, we utilize an integro-differential equation approach in order to investigate the saturation mechanism of the Tayler instability. Both the exponential growth phase and the saturated phase are analyzed in terms of the action of the alpha and beta effects of mean-field magnetohydrodynamics. In the exponential growth phase we always find a spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking which, however, disappears in the saturated phase. For higher degrees of supercriticality, we observe h...
Chiral symmetry breaking and violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in underdoped cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose that the recently observed violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in the normal state of underdoped cuprates is caused by spin-charge separation and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in a (2+1)-dimensional system consisting of massless Dirac fermions, charged bosons, and a gauge field. While the d-wave spinon gap vanishes at the Fermi points, the nodal fermions acquire a finite mass due to strong gauge fluctuations. This mass provides a gap below which no free fermions can be excited. This implies that there is not a residual linear term for the thermal conductivity, in good agreement with experiments. Other physical implications of the chiral symmetry breaking are also discussed
Patterns of chiral symmetry breaking and a candidate for a C-theorem in four dimensions
Levinsen, J
2002-01-01
We test a candidate for a four-dimensional C-function. This is done by considering all asymptotically free, vectorlike gauge theories with N_f flavors and fermions in arbitrary representations of any simple Lie group. Assuming spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in the infrared limit and that the value of the C-function in this limit is determined by the number of Goldstone bosons, we find that only in the case of a theory with two colors and fermions in one single pseudo-real representation of SU(2) the C-theorem seems to be violated. Conversely, this might also be a sign of new constraints, restricting the number of flavors consistent with spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. For all other groups and representations we find that this candidate C-function decreases along the renormalization group flow.
Anomalies, instantons and chiral symmetry breaking at a Lifshitz point
Bakas, Ioannis
2012-01-01
We give a new twist to an old-fashioned topic in quantum field theory describing violations of the chiral charge conservation of massless fermions through Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies in the background of instanton fields in the context of non-relativistic Lifshitz theories. The results we report here summarize in a nut-shell our earlier work on the subject found in arXiv:1103.5693 and arXiv:1110.1332. We present simple examples where index computations can be carried out explicitly focusing, in particular, to gravitational models of Lifshitz type and highlight their differences from ordinary gravity in four space-time dimensions.
Chiral symmetry breaking with a confining propagator and dynamically massive gluons
Natale, A. A.; Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Machado, F. A.
2011-01-01
Chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is studied introducing a confining effective propagator, as proposed recently by Cornwall, and considering the effect of dynamically massive gluons. The effective confining propagator has the form $1/(k^2+m^2)^2$ and we study the bifurcation equation finding limits on the parameter $m$ below which a satisfactory fermion mass solution is generated. Since the coupling constant and gluon propagator are damped in the infrared, due to the presence of a dynamical glu...
Chiral-symmetry breaking and pion structure in the Covariant Spectator Theory
Biernat, Elmar P; Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred; Ribeiro, Emílio
2016-01-01
We introduce a covariant approach in Minkowski space for the description of quarks and mesons that exhibits both chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement. In a simple model for the interquark interaction the quark mass function is obtained and used in the calculation of the pion form factor. We study the effects of the mass function and of the different quark pole contributions on the pion form factor.
Chiral and herringbone symmetry breaking in water-surface monolayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peterson, I.R.; Kenn, R.M.; Goudot, A.;
1996-01-01
We report the observation from monolayers of eicosanoic acid in the L(2)' phase of three distinct out-of-plane first-order diffraction peaks, indicating molecular tilt in a nonsymmetry direction and hence the absence of mirror symmetry. At lower pressures the molecules tilt in the direction of...
Chiral Symmetry Breaking and External Fields in the Kuperstein-Sonnenschein Model
Alam, M Sohaib; Kundu, Arnab
2012-01-01
A novel holographic model of chiral symmetry breaking has been proposed by Kuperstein and Sonnenschein by embedding non-supersymmetric probe D7 and anti-D7 branes in the Klebanov-Witten background. We study the dynamics of the probe flavours in this model in the presence of finite temperature and a constant electromagnetic field. In keeping with the weakly coupled field theory intuition, we find the magnetic field promotes spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry whereas the electric field restores it. The former effect is universally known as the "magnetic catalysis" in chiral symmetry breaking. In the presence of an electric field such a condensation is inhibited and a current flows. Thus we are faced with a steady-state situation rather than a system in equilibrium. We conjecture a definition of thermodynamic free energy for this steady-state phase and using this proposal we study the detailed phase structure when both electric and magnetic fields are present in two representative configurations: mutually p...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present many varied chiral symmetry models at the quark level which consistently describe strong interaction hadron dynamics. The pattern that emerges is a nonstrange current quark mass scale mcur ≅ (34-69) MeV and a current quark mass ratio (ms/m)cur ≅ 5-6 along with no strange quark content in nucleons. (orig./WL)
Residual Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Domain-Wall Fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the effective quark mass induced by the finite separation of the domain walls in the domain-wall formulation of chiral fermion as the function of the size of the fifth dimension (Ls), the gauge coupling (β) and the physical volume (V). We measure the mass by calculating the small eigenvalues of the hermitian domain-wall Dirac operator (HDWF(m0 = 1.8)) in the topologically-nontrivial quenched SU(3) gauge configurations. We find that the induced quark mass is nearly independent of the physical volume, decays exponentially as a function of Ls, and has a strong dependence on the size of quantum fluctuations controlled by β. The effect of the choice of the lattice gluon action is also studied
Residual Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Domain-Wall Fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors study the effective quark mass induced by the finite separation of the domain walls in the domain-wall formulation of chiral fermion as the function of the size of the fifth dimension ($L-s$), the gauge coupling $beta$ and the physical volume $V$. They measure the mass by calculating the small eigenvalues of the hermitian domain-wall Dirac operator ($H-[rm DWF](m-0))$ in the topologically-nontrivial quenched SU(3) gauge configurations. The authors find that the induced quark mass is nearly independent of the physical volume, decays exponentially as a function of $L-s$, and has a strong dependence on the size of quantum fluctuations controlled by $beta$. The effect of the choice of the lattice gluon action is also studied
Investigations of chiral symmetry breaking and topological aspects of lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is a fascinating phenomenon of QCD whose mechanism is still not well understood and it has fundamental phenomenological implications. It is, for instance, responsible for the low mass of the pions which are effectively Goldstone bosons of the spontaneously broken symmetry. Since these phenomena belong to the low energy regime of QCD, non-perturbative techniques have to be applied in order to study them. In this work we use the twisted mass lattice QCD regularization to compute the chiral condensate, the order parameter of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. To this end we apply the recently introduced method of spectral projectors which allows us to perform calculations in large volumes due to its inherently low computational cost. This approach, moreover, enables a direct calculation of the chiral condensate based on a theoretically clean definition of the observable via density chains. We thus present a continuum limit determination of the chirally extrapolated condensate for Nf=2 and Nf=2+1+1 flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. In addition we study the chiral behavior of the topological susceptibility, a measure of the topological fluctuations of the gauge fields. We again apply the spectral projector method for this calculation. We comment on the difficulties which appear in the calculation of this observable due to the large autocorrelations involved. Finally we present the continuum limit result of the topological susceptibility in the pure gluonic theory which allows us to perform a test of the Witten-Veneziano relation. We found that this relation is well satisfied. Our results support the validity of the Witten-Veneziano formula which relates the topological fluctuations of the gauge fields with the unexpectedly large value of the η' mass.
Lattice QCD analysis for relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking
Doi, Takahiro M.; Suganuma, Hideo; Iritani, Takumi
2016-01-01
The Polyakov loop and the Dirac modes are connected via a simple analytical relation on the temporally odd-number lattice, where the temporal lattice size is odd with the normal (nontwisted) periodic boundary condition. Using this relation, we investigate the relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this paper, we discuss the properties of this analytical relation and numerically investigate each Dirac-mode contribution to the Polyakov loop in both confinement and deconfinement phases at the quenched level. This relation indicates that low-lying Dirac modes have little contribution to the Polyakov loop, and we numerically confirmed this fact. From our analysis, it is suggested that there is no direct one-to-one corresponding between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. Also, in the confinement phase, we numerically find that there is a new "positive/negative symmetry" in the Dirac-mode matrix elements of link-variable operator which appear in the relation and the Polyakov loop becomes zero because of this symmetry. In the deconfinement phase, this symmetry is broken and the Polyakov loop is non-zero.
Evidence that centre vortices underpin dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in SU (3) gauge theory
Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek
2015-07-01
The link between dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and centre vortices in the gauge fields of pure SU (3) gauge theory is studied using the overlap-fermion quark propagator in Lattice QCD. Overlap fermions provide a lattice realisation of chiral symmetry and consequently offer a unique opportunity to explore the interplay of centre vortices, instantons and dynamical mass generation. Simulations are performed on gauge fields featuring the removal of centre vortices, identified through gauge transformations maximising the center of the gauge group. In contrast to previous results using the staggered-fermion action, the overlap-fermion results illustrate a loss of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking coincident with vortex removal. This result is linked to the overlap-fermion's sensitivity to the subtle manner in which instanton degrees of freedom are compromised through the process of centre vortex removal. Backgrounds consisting solely of the identified centre vortices are also investigated. After smoothing the vortex-only gauge fields, we observe dynamical mass generation on the vortex-only backgrounds consistent within errors with the original gauge-field ensemble following the same smoothing. Through visualizations of the instanton-like degrees of freedom in the various gauge-field ensembles, we find evidence of a link between the centre vortex and instanton structure of the vacuum. While vortex removal destabilizes instanton-like objects under O (a4)-improved cooling, vortex-only backgrounds provide gauge-field degrees of freedom sufficient to create instantons upon cooling.
Chiral symmetry breaking with a confining propagator and dynamically massive gluons
Natale, A A; Machado, F A
2011-01-01
Chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is studied introducing a confining effective propagator, as proposed recently by Cornwall, and considering the effect of dynamically massive gluons. The effective confining propagator has the form $1/(k^2+m^2)^2$ and we study the bifurcation equation finding limits on the parameter $m$ below which a satisfactory fermion mass solution is generated. Since the coupling constant and gluon propagator are damped in the infrared, due to the presence of a dynamical gluon mass, the major part of the chiral breaking is only due to the confining propagator and related to the low momentum region of the gap equation. We study the asymptotic behavior of the gap equation containing this confinement effect and massive gluon exchange, and find that the symmetry breaking can be approximated by an effective four-fermion interaction generated by the confining propagator. We compute some QCD chiral parameters as a function of $m$, finding values compatible with the experimental data. We find a simp...
Shape Transitions and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Energy Landscape of the Mitotic Chromosome
Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G.
2016-06-01
We derive an unbiased information theoretic energy landscape for chromosomes at metaphase using a maximum entropy approach that accurately reproduces the details of the experimentally measured pairwise contact probabilities between genomic loci. Dynamical simulations using this landscape lead to cylindrical, helically twisted structures reflecting liquid crystalline order. These structures are similar to those arising from a generic ideal homogenized chromosome energy landscape. The helical twist can be either right or left handed so chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ideal chromosome landscape when augmented by interactions like those leading to topologically associating domain formation in the interphase chromosome reproduces these behaviors. The phase diagram of this landscape shows that the helical fiber order and the cylindrical shape persist at temperatures above the onset of chiral symmetry breaking, which is limited by the topologically associating domain interaction strength.
Shape Transitions and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Energy Landscape of the Mitotic Chromosome
Zhang, Bin
2015-01-01
We derive an unbiased information theoretic energy landscape for chromosomes at metaphase using a maximum entropy approach that accurately reproduces the details of the experimentally measured pair-wise contact probabilities between genomic loci. Dynamical simulations using this landscape lead to cylindrical, helically twisted structures reflecting liquid crystalline order. These structures are similar to those arising from a generic ideal homogenized chromosome energy landscape. The helical twist can be either right or left handed so chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ideal chromosome landscape when augmented by interactions like those leading to topologically associating domain (TAD) formation in the interphase chromosome reproduces these behaviors. The phase diagram of this landscape shows the helical fiber order and the cylindrical shape persist at temperatures above the onset of chiral symmetry breaking which is limited by the TAD interaction strength.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the framework of this thesis, the interrelation between the two characteristic phenomena of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), i.e., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement, is investigated. To this end, we apply lattice gauge field theory techniques and adopt a method to artificially restore the dynamically broken chiral symmetry. The low-mode part of the Dirac eigenspectrum is tied to the dynamical breaking of the chiral symmetry according to the Banks--Casher relation. Utilizing two-flavor dynamical lattice gauge field configurations, we construct valence quark propagators that exclude a variable sized part of the low-mode Dirac spectrum, with the aim of using these as an input for meson and baryon interpolating fields. Subsequently, we explore the behavior of ground and excited states of the low-mode truncated hadrons using the variational analysis method. We look for the existence of confined hadron states and extract effective masses where applicable. Moreover, we explore the evolution of the quark wavefunction renormalization function and the renormalization point invariant mass function of the quark propagator under Dirac low-mode truncation in a gauge fixed setting. Motivated by the necessity of fixing the gauge in the aforementioned study of the quark propagator, we also developed a flexible high performance code for lattice gauge fixing, accelerated by graphic processing units (GPUs) using NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). Lastly, more related but unpublished work on the topic is presented. This includes a study of the locality violation of low-mode truncated Dirac operators, a discussion of the possible extension of the low-mode truncation method to the sea quark sector based on a reweighting scheme, as well as the presentation of an alternative way to restore the dynamically broken chiral symmetry. (author)
Lattice QCD analysis for relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doi, Takahiro M.; Suganuma, Hideo [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iritani, Takumi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2016-01-22
The Polyakov loop and the Dirac modes are connected via a simple analytical relation on the temporally odd-number lattice, where the temporal lattice size is odd with the normal (nontwisted) periodic boundary condition. Using this relation, we investigate the relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this paper, we discuss the properties of this analytical relation and numerically investigate each Dirac-mode contribution to the Polyakov loop in both confinement and deconfinement phases at the quenched level. This relation indicates that low-lying Dirac modes have little contribution to the Polyakov loop, and we numerically confirmed this fact. From our analysis, it is suggested that there is no direct one-to-one corresponding between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. Also, in the confinement phase, we numerically find that there is a new “positive/negative symmetry” in the Dirac-mode matrix elements of link-variable operator which appear in the relation and the Polyakov loop becomes zero because of this symmetry. In the deconfinement phase, this symmetry is broken and the Polyakov loop is non-zero.
Lattice QCD analysis for relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking
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The Polyakov loop and the Dirac modes are connected via a simple analytical relation on the temporally odd-number lattice, where the temporal lattice size is odd with the normal (nontwisted) periodic boundary condition. Using this relation, we investigate the relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this paper, we discuss the properties of this analytical relation and numerically investigate each Dirac-mode contribution to the Polyakov loop in both confinement and deconfinement phases at the quenched level. This relation indicates that low-lying Dirac modes have little contribution to the Polyakov loop, and we numerically confirmed this fact. From our analysis, it is suggested that there is no direct one-to-one corresponding between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. Also, in the confinement phase, we numerically find that there is a new “positive/negative symmetry” in the Dirac-mode matrix elements of link-variable operator which appear in the relation and the Polyakov loop becomes zero because of this symmetry. In the deconfinement phase, this symmetry is broken and the Polyakov loop is non-zero
Imaging dynamical chiral symmetry breaking: pion wave function on the light front
Chang, Lei; Cobos-Martinez, J J; Roberts, C D; Schmidt, S M; Tandy, P C
2013-01-01
We project onto the light-front the pion's Poincare'-covariant Bethe-Salpeter wave-function, obtained using two different approximations to the kernels of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations. At an hadronic scale both computed results are concave and significantly broader than the asymptotic distribution amplitude, \\phi_\\pi^{asy}(x)=6 x(1-x); e.g., the integral of \\phi_\\pi(x)/\\phi_\\pi^{asy}(x) is 1.8 using the simplest kernel and 1.5 with the more sophisticated kernel. Independent of the kernels, the emergent phenomenon of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is responsible for hardening the amplitude.
On the Isomorphic Description of Chiral Symmetry Breaking by Non-Unitary Lie Groups
Bietenholz, Wolfgang
2009-01-01
It is well-known that chiral symmetry breaking ($\\chi$SB) in QCD with $N_{f}=2$ light quark flavours can be described by orthogonal groups as $O(4) \\to O(3)$, due to local isomorphisms. Here we discuss the question how specific this property is. We consider generalised forms of $\\chi$SB involving an arbitrary number of light flavours of continuum or lattice fermions, in various representations. We search systematically for isomorphic descriptions by non-unitary, compact Lie groups. It turns o...
Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation
Herbut, Igor F
2016-01-01
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three dimensional ($d=3$) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions $N=N_c$. We discuss the root of universality of $N_c$ in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the $(d,N)$ plane. In particular, it is shown that as $d\\rightarrow 4$, $N_c\\rightarrow 0$ with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that $N_c = 2.89$ in $d=3$.
Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation
Herbut, Igor F.
2016-07-01
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional (d =3 ) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions N =Nc. We discuss the root of universality of Nc in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the (d ,N ) plane. In particular, it is shown that as d →4 , Nc→0 with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that Nc=2.89 in d =3 .
Confinement, quark mass functions, and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in Minkowski space
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We formulate the covariant equations for quark-antiquark bound states in Minkowski space in the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. We show that these equations are charge conjugation invariant, and that in the chiral limit of vanishing bare quark mass, a massless pseudoscalar bound state is produced in a Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, which is associated with the Goldstone boson of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In this introductory paper we test the formalism by using a simplified kernel consisting of a momentum-space $\\delta$-function with a vector Lorentz structure, to which one adds a mixed scalar and vector confining interaction. The scalar part of the confining interaction is not chirally invariant by itself, but decouples from the equations in the chiral limit and therefore allows the NJL mechanism to work. With this model we calculate the quark mass function, and we compare our Minkowski-space results to LQCD data obtained in Euclidean space. In a companion paper we apply this formalism to a calculation of the pion form factor
Universality in random matrix theory and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD
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In this work we review the topic of random matrix model universality with particular stress on its application to the study of chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. We highlight the role of microscopic and macroscopic matrix model correlation functions played in the description of the deep infrared eigenvalue spectrum of the Dirac operator. The universal microscopic correlation functions are presented for all three chiral symmetry breaking patterns, and the corresponding random matrix universality proofs are given for massless and massive fermions in a unified way. These analytic results have been widely confirmed from QCD lattice data and we present a comparison with the most recent analytic calculations describing data for dynamical SU(2) staggered fermions. The microscopic matrix model results are then re-expressed in terms of the finite-volume partition functions of Leutwyler and Smilga, where some of these expressions have been recently obtained using field theory only. The macroscopic random matrix universality is reviewed for the most simplest examples of bosonic and supersymmetric models. We also give an example for a non-universal deformation of a random matrix model - the restricted trace ensemble. (orig.)
Sum rules for the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking parameters of QCD
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We discuss in the spirit of the work of Shifman, Vainshtein and Zakharov (SVZ), sum rules involving current-current vacuum correlation functions, whose Wilson expansion starts off with the operators anti qq or (anti qq)2, and thus provide information about the chiral symmetry breaking parameters of QCD. We point out that under the type of crude approximations made by SVZ, a value of sub(vac) (250MeV)3 is obtained from one of these sum rules, in agreement with current expectations. Further we show that a Borel transformed version of the Weinberg sum rule, for VV - AA, current products seem only to make sense for an A1 mass close to 1.3GeV and it makes little sense with the current algebra mass Msub(A)=anti 2M. We also give an estimate for the chiral symmetry breaking parameters μ16=22(anti qsub(L) lambda sup(a)γsub(μ)qsub(L))(anti qsub(R) lambdasup(a) γsup(μ)qsub(R)) >sub(vac) entering in the Weinberg sum rules and μ26=g2sub(vac) entering in a new sum rule we propose involving antisymmetric tensor currents J=anti q σsub(μnu) q. (author)
(3+1)-dimensional light-front model with spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry
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We investigate a (3+1)-dimensional toy model that exhibits spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry, both in a light-front (LF) Hamiltonian and in a Euclidean Schwinger-Dyson (SD) formulation. We show that both formulations are completely equivalent, provided the renormalization is properly done. The counterterm can be constructed explicitly by eliminating zero-mode degrees of freedom, giving rise to to an effective interaction: i.e., zero-mode dynamics, in the sense of an effective action, leads to a very simple set of modifications for the nonzero modes. We find that it is sufficient to renormalize terms that exist already in the canonical LF Hamiltonian independently. Chiral symmetry breaking is manifested via a open-quotes kinetic massclose quotes counterterm, which is eventually responsible for the mass generation of the physical fermion of the model. The vertex mass in the LF calculation must be taken to be the same as the current quark mass in the SD calculation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Akram, F; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L X; Masud, B; Rodriguez-Quintero, J; Calcaneo-Roldan, C; Tejeda-Yeomans, M E
2012-01-01
We study chiral symmetry breaking for fundamental charged fermions coupled electromagnetically to photons with the inclusion of four-fermion contact self-interaction term. We employ multiplicatively renormalizable models for the photon dressing function and the electron-photon vertex which minimally ensures mass anomalous dimension = 1. Vacuum polarization screens the interaction strength. Consequently, the pattern of dynamical mass generation for fermions is characterized by a critical number of massless fermion flavors above which chiral symmetry is restored. This effect is in diametrical opposition to the existence of criticality for the minimum interaction strength necessary to break chiral symmetry dynamically. The presence of virtual fermions dictates the nature of phase transition. Miransky scaling laws for the electromagnetic interaction strength and the four-fermion coupling, observed for quenched QED, are replaced by a mean-field power law behavior corresponding to a second order phase transition. T...
Confinement, chiral symmetry breaking and continuum limits in quantum link models
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Using the example of compact U(1) lattice gauge theory we argue that quantum link models can be used to reproduce the physics of conventional Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories. In addition to the usual gauge coupling g, these models have a new parameter j which naturally cuts-off large electric flux quanta on each link while preserving exact U(1) gauge invariance. The j → ∞ limit recovers the conventional Hamiltonian. At strong couplings, the theory shows confinement and chiral symmetry breaking for all non-trivial values of j. The phase diagram of the 3+1 dimensional theory suggests that a coulomb phase is present at large but finite j. Setting g = 0, a new approach to the physics of compact U(1) gauge theory on the lattice emerges. In this case the parameter j takes over the role of the gauge coupling, and j → ∞ describes free photons
Top quark mass bounds in the hierarchical chiral symmetry-breaking framework
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By taking account of recent information on the Bd - antiBd mixing parameter, xd, and the product BB f2B, as well as uncertainties in the lighter quark masses, we are able to set search limits on the top quark mass of 84 ± 8 GeV for the Fritzsch mass matrices with two Higgs doublets or 78 ± 12 GeV for a modified set of Fritzsch mass matrices with minimal Higgs structure. We comment on the discovery complications involved when the top mass is very close to the W mass. If no top quark is eventually found with mass less than 100 - 110 GeV, the whole 3-family hierarchical chiral symmetry-breaking framework proposed by Fritzsch is ruled out
Chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement in the nilpotency expansion of QCD
Caracciolo, Sergio
2010-01-01
We apply to lattice QCD a bosonization method previously developed in which dynamical bosons are generated by time-dependent Bogoliubov transformations. The transformed action can be studied by an expansion in the inverse of the nilpotency index, which is the number of fermionic states in the structure function of composite bosons. When this number diverges the model is solved by the saddle point method which has a variational interpretation. We give a stationary covariant solution for a background matter field whose fluctuations describe mesons. In the saddle point approximations live fermionic quasiparticles with quark quantum numbers which are confined, in the sense that they propagate only in pointlike color singlets. Conditions for chiral symmetry breaking are determined, to be studied numerically, and a derivation of mesons-nucleons action is outlined.
Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias
2016-01-01
The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\\chi$SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Kl\\"ahn and Fischer (2015) (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D$\\chi$SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium.
On the Isomorphic Description of Chiral Symmetry Breaking by Non-Unitary Lie Groups
Bietenholz, Wolfgang
2009-01-01
It is well-known that chiral symmetry breaking ($\\chi$SB) in QCD with $N_{f}=2$ light quark flavours can be described by orthogonal groups as $O(4) \\to O(3)$, due to local isomorphisms. Here we discuss the question how specific this property is. We consider generalised forms of $\\chi$SB involving an arbitrary number of light flavours of continuum or lattice fermions, in various representations. We search systematically for isomorphic descriptions by non-unitary, compact Lie groups. It turns out that there are a few alternative options in terms of orthogonal groups, while we did not find any description entirely based on symplectic or exceptional Lie groups. If we adapt such an alternative as the symmetry breaking pattern for a generalised Higgs mechanism, we may consider a Higgs particle composed of bound fermions and trace back the mass generation to $\\chi$SB. In fact, some of the patterns that we encounter appear in technicolour models. In particular if one observes a Higgs mechanism that can be expressed i...
Symmetries, Symmetry Breaking, Gauge Symmetries
Strocchi, Franco
2015-01-01
The concepts of symmetry, symmetry breaking and gauge symmetries are discussed, their operational meaning being displayed by the observables {\\em and} the (physical) states. For infinitely extended systems the states fall into physically disjoint {\\em phases} characterized by their behavior at infinity or boundary conditions, encoded in the ground state, which provide the cause of symmetry breaking without contradicting Curie Principle. Global gauge symmetries, not seen by the observables, are nevertheless displayed by detectable properties of the states (superselected quantum numbers and parastatistics). Local gauge symmetries are not seen also by the physical states; they appear only in non-positive representations of field algebras. Their role at the Lagrangian level is merely to ensure the validity on the physical states of local Gauss laws, obeyed by the currents which generate the corresponding global gauge symmetries; they are responsible for most distinctive physical properties of gauge quantum field ...
Symmetries and Symmetry Breaking
Van Oers, W T H
2003-01-01
In understanding the world of matter, the introduction of symmetry principles following experimentation or using the predictive power of symmetry principles to guide experimentation is most profound. The conservation of energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, charge, and CPT involve fundamental symmetries. All other conservation laws are valid within a restricted subspace of the four interactions: the strong, the electromagnetic, the weak, and the gravitational interaction. In this paper comments are made regarding parity violation in hadronic systems, charge symmetry breaking in two nucleon and few nucleon systems, and time-reversal-invariance in hadronic systems.
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We analyze dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DχSB) in the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model by using the non-perturbative renormalization group equation. The equation takes the form of a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the multi-fermion effective interactions V(x,t) where x is the ψ-barψ operator and t is the logarithm of the renormalization scale. The DχSB occurs due to the quantum corrections, which means it emerges at some finite tc while integrating the equation with respect to t. At tc some singularities suddenly appear in V which is compulsory in the spontaneous symmetry breakdown. Therefore there is no solution of the equation beyond tc. We newly introduce the notion of a weak solution to get the global solution including the infrared limit t→∞ and investigate its properties. The obtained weak solution is global and unique, and it perfectly describes the physically correct vacuum even in the case of the first order phase transition appearing in a finite-density medium. The key logic of deduction is that the weak solution we defined automatically convexifies the effective potential when treating the singularities
Peters, Kirstin
2010-01-01
A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that {\\pi}mix (the {\\pi}-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than {\\pi}sep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla of- fered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of "incestual" processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (ini- tial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result-based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries-without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reason- able encoding from {\\pi}mix i...
Charge symmetry breaking from a chiral extrapolation of moments of quark distribution functions
Shanahan, P. E.; Thomas, A. W.; Young, R.D.(ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia)
2013-01-01
We present a determination, from lattice QCD, of charge symmetry violation in the spin- independent and spin-dependent parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is done by chirally extrapolating recent QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice simulations of the first several Mellin moments of the parton distribution functions of octet baryons to the physical point. We find small chiral corrections for the polarized moments, while the corrections are quantitatively significant in the unpolar...
Global Currents, Phase Transitions, and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Large N_c Gauge Theory
Albash, T; Johnson, C V; Kundu, A; Albash, Tameem; Filev, Veselin; Johnson, Clifford V.; Kundu, Arnab
2006-01-01
We study the finite temperature dynamics of SU(N_c) gauge theory for large N_c, with fundamental quark flavours in a quenched approximation, in the presence of a fixed charge under a global current. We observe several notable phenomena. There is a first order phase transition where the quark condensate jumps discontinuously at finite quark mass, generalizing similar transitions seen at zero charge. We find a non-zero condensate at zero quark mass above a critical value of the charge, corresponding to an analogue of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at finite number density. We find that the spectrum of mesons contains the expected associated Goldstone (``pion'') degrees of freedom with a mass dependence on the quark mass that is consistent with the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation. Our tool in these studies is holography, the string dual of the gauge theory being the geometry of $N_c$ spinning D3-branes at finite temperature, probed by a D7-brane.
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We study the color confinement, the qq pair creation and the dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking of nonperturbative QCD by using the dual Ginzburg-Landau theory, where the dual Higgs mechanism plays an essential role in the nonperturbative dynamics in the infrared region. As a result of the dual Meissner effect, the linear static quark potential, which characterizes the quark confinement, is obtained in the long distance within the quenched approximation. We obtain a simple expression for the string tension similar to the energy per unit length of a vortex in the superconductivity physics. The dynamical effect of light quarks on the quark confining potential is investigated in terms of the infrared screening effect due to the qq pair creation or the cut of the hadronic string. The screening length of the potential is estimated by using the Schwinger formula for the qq pair creation. We introduce the corresponding infrared cutoff to the strong long-range correlation factor in the gluon propagator as a dynamical effect of light quarks, and obtain a compact formula for the quark potential including the screening effect in the infrared region. We investigate the dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking by using the Schwinger-Dyson equation in the dual Ginzburg-Landau theory, where the gluon propagator includes the nonperturbative effect related to the color confinement. We find a large enhancement of the chiral-symmetry breaking by the dual Higgs mechanism, which supports the close relation between the color confinement and the chiral-symmetry breaking. The dynamical quark mass, the pion decay constant and the quark condensate are well reproduced by using the consistent values of the gauge coupling constant and the QCD scale parameter with the perturbative QCD and the quark confining potential. The light-quark confinement is also roughly examined in terms of the disappearance of physical poles in the light-quark propagator by using the smooth extrapolation of the quark mass
Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Machado, F. A.; Natale, A. A.
2011-01-01
We study chiral symmetry breaking in QCD-like gauge theories introducing a confining effective propagator, as proposed recently by Cornwall, and considering the effect of dynamical gauge boson mass generation. The effective confining propagator has the form $1/(k^2+m^2)^2$ and we study the bifurcation equation finding limits on $m$ below which a satisfactory fermion mass solution is generated. Since the coupling constant and gauge boson propagator are damped in the infrared, due to the presen...
Extended partially conserved axial-vector current hypothesis and chiral-symmetry breaking
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An extended partially conserved axial-vector current (PCAC) hypothesis that incorporates a family of heavy bosons in a model-independent way is proposed. This is motivated by the impossibility of accounting for the corrections to Goldberger-Treiman relations, both in SU(2) x SU(2) and SU(3) x SU(3), by means of ordinary dynamical mechanisms (many-particle intermediate states). This new hypothesis coupled with an assumption on the strong-coupling constants of the heavy bosons leads to the following results: (i) A universality among the corrections to Goldberger-Treiman relations for ΔS = 0 decays, Δ/sub π/, on the one hand and for ΔS not-equal 0 decays, Δ/sub K/, on the other. (ii) From this universality there follow two sets of sum rules involving masses and strong and weak coupling constants. These sum rules become identities in the chiral as well as in the SU(3) limit and although a definite check has to await for the advent of accurate hyperon data, there are indications that they might be saturated. (iii) By studying the Dashen-Weinstein sum rules, new sets of sum rules involving only strong coupling constants are predicted as well as an expression for Δ/sub π//Δ/sub K/ in good agreement with present data. (iv) It is found that Δ/sub π/ and Δ/sub K/, which are a measure of chiral-symmetry breaking, determine completely the on-mass-shell corrections to soft-meson theorems. Since both Δ/sub π/ and Δ/sub K/ are known experimentally, a calculation is made of the on-mass-shell amplitudes for π0 → γγ, eta → γγ, eta → ππγ, γ → πππ,and γγ → πππ starting from the zero-mass limits implied by anomalous Ward identities. In particular, it is found that the results for the radiative eta decays are in agreement with present experimental data without the need for invoking eta-eta' mixing
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In this thesis we consider two main subjects, both of them utilizing lattice QCD. This is a rigorously defined approach to quantum field theory and allows for both, for a theoretical analysis and subsequent numerical studies. All techniques and quantities, which need to be introduced, are shortly discussed in the first chapter, in order to fix the notation. Two of the key features of QCD, which are still challenging questions, are chiral symmetry breaking and confinement. For the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry the situation is clearer. The main part of this work focuses on gluonic quantities, like the Polyakov loop or the potential of two static color charged particles. They are all either order parameters or give a clear distinguishable signal as one crosses the phase transition from the confined to the deconfined phase. It will be shown that we can reconstruct these quantities out of Dirac spectra in a mathematically exact way. An essential part of the spectral representation is the use of various fermionic boundary conditions for the compactified time direction. When varying the boundary conditions the spectrum undergoes a shift and out of these shifts we can reconstruct our gluonic quantities. As a first observable we consider the thin Polyakov loop P, which signals the deconfinement transition, and analyse its spectral representation in full and quenched QCD. For SU(3) gauge theory the spectral representation of P is made from three Dirac spectra, each one for a different boundary condition in the temporal direction. We examine several aspects of the spectral representation of P, such as eigenvalue distributions, shifts due to varying boundary conditions, individual and accumulated contributions from particular eigenmodes. It turns out that the thin Polyakov loop P is, in both phases, strongly dominated from the ultraviolet part of the spectrum. Furthermore we observe a suppressed sensitivity of the spectrum to varying boundary conditions in the
Restoration of Chiral Symmetry in Excited Hadrons
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Physics of the low-lying and high-lying hadrons in the light flavor sector is reviewed. While the low-lying hadrons are strongly affected by the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, in the high-lying hadrons the chiral symmetry is restored. A manifestation of the chiral symmetry restoration in excited hadrons is a persistence of the chiral multiplet structure in both baryon and meson spectra. Meson and baryon chiral multiplets are classified. A relation between the chiral symmetry restoration and the string picture of excited hadrons is discussed. (author)
Chiral Symmetry Breaking on the Lattice a Study of the Strongly Coupled Lattice Schwinger Model
Berruto, F; Semenoff, Gordon W; Sodano, P
1998-01-01
We revisit the strong coupling limit of the Schwinger model on the lattice using staggered fermions and the hamiltonian approach to lattice gauge theories. Although staggered fermions have no continuous chiral symmetry, they posses a discrete axial invari ance which forbids fermion mass and which must be broken in order for the lattice Schwinger model to exhibit the features of the spectrum of the continuum theory. We show that this discrete symmetry is indeed broken spontaneously in the strong coupling li mit. Expanding around a gauge invariant ground state and carefully considering the normal ordering of the charge operator, we derive an improved strong coupling expansion and compute the masses of the low lying bosonic excitations as well as the chiral co ndensate of the model. We find very good agreement between our lattice calculations and known continuum values for these quantities already in the fourth order of strong coupling perturbation theory. We also find the exact ground state of the antiferromag ...
Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory
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Biernat Elmar P.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for π-π-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.
Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory
Biernat, Elmar P; Ribeiro, J E; Stadler, A; Gross, F
2015-01-01
We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.
Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory
Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, A.; Gross, F.
2016-03-01
We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for π-π-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.
Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory
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Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de FÃsica, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, Jose' Emilio F. [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de FÃsica, Universidade de Ãvora, 7000-671 Ãvora, Portugal; Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-03-01
We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.
Chiral symmetry breaking from two-loop effective potential of the holographic non-local NJL model
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We calculate the two-loop effective potential of the non-local Nambu–Jona–Lasinio (NJL) model derived from the Sakai–Sugimoto model in string theory. In contrast to the conventional NJL with 4-fermion contact interaction, the chiral symmetry was previously found to be dynamically broken for an arbitrary weak coupling at the one-loop level. As a confirmation, the approximate numerical solutions to the gap equation at the one-loop level are explicitly demonstrated for weak couplings. We then calculate the one- and two-loop contributions to the effective potential of the non-local NJL model and found that the two-loop contribution is negative. The two-loop potential for the chiral-symmetric vacuum is also negative but larger than the combined effective potential of the chiral broken vacuum at the two-loop level. The chiral symmetry breaking thus persists for the arbitrary weak coupling at the two-loop level. (paper)
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD by the use of the generalized Hartree-Fock method. The low energy quark mass is calculated to the second order of diagrammatic expansion around shifted perturbative vacuum where quarks are massive. We show that the low energy mass is finite and renormalization group invariant. We find that the finite mass gap emerges as the solutions of gap equation and stationarity condition, thereby breaking the chiral symmetry. We also discuss the possibility that the breaking solution may exist up to all orders. (author)
Introduction to chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented
Liu, Keh-Fei
2016-01-01
The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of $\\pi N \\sigma$ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral $U(1)$ anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.
Van Hooydonk, G
2009-01-01
Symmetry breaking in Hsub2, quantified with Kratzer bond theory, leads to vibrational levels with errors of only 0,00008 %. For quanta, 0,0011 % errors are smaller than with any ab initio QM method. Chiral behavior of covalent bond Hsub2 implies bonding between left- and right-handed atoms HsubL and HsubR or between hydrogen H and antihydrogen Hbar. This generic Hsub2 asymmetry is given away by a Hund-type Mexican hat curve, invisible in QM.
Mishra, H
2001-01-01
We discuss in this note simultaneous existence of chiral symmetry breaking and color superconductivity at finite temperature and density in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type model. The methodology involves an explicit construction of a variational ground state and minimisation of the thermodynamic potential. There exist nontrivial solutions to the gap equations at finite densities with both quark-antiquark as well as diquark condensates for the 'ground' state. However, such a phase is thermodynamically unstable with the pressure being negative in this region. We also compute the equation of state, and obtain the structure of the phase diagram in the model.
Torons, chiral symmetry breaking and U(1) problem in σ-model and gauge theories. Part 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main point of this work is the physical consenquences of the existence of fractional charge in the σ-models and espesially in the physically interesting theory QCD. It is shown that the corresponding fluctuations ensure spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry and give a nonzero contribution to the chiral condensate. Toron solution is determined on the manifold with boundary. In this case many questions arise such as: global boundary conditions, the stability of the solution, self-adjointness of Dirac operator, single-valuedness of the physical values and so on. These questions are interconnected and turn out to be self cobsistent only for the special choice of the topological number (Q=1/2 for SU(2)). It is shown that in the Dirac's spectrum of the quarks the gap between zero and the continuum is absent. 50 refs.; 10 figs
Dark chiral symmetry breaking and the origin of the electroweak scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carone, Christopher D., E-mail: cdcaro@wm.edu; Ramos, Raymundo, E-mail: raramos@email.wm.edu
2015-06-30
We study a classically scale-invariant model in which strong dynamics in a dark sector sets the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking. Our model is distinct from others of this type that have appeared in the recent literature. We show that the Higgs sector of the model is phenomenologically viable and that the spectrum of dark sector states includes a partially composite dark matter candidate.
Dark chiral symmetry breaking and the origin of the electroweak scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a classically scale-invariant model in which strong dynamics in a dark sector sets the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking. Our model is distinct from others of this type that have appeared in the recent literature. We show that the Higgs sector of the model is phenomenologically viable and that the spectrum of dark sector states includes a partially composite dark matter candidate
Chiral symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space QED2+1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Without any analytical assumption we solve the ladder QED2+1 in Minkowski space. Obtained complex fermion propagator exhibits confinement in the sense that it has no pole. Further, we transform Greens functions to the Temporal Euclidean space, wherein we show that in the special case of ladder QED2+1 the solution is fully equivalent to the Minkowski one. Obvious invalidity of Wick rotation is briefly discussed. The infrared value of the dynamical mass is compared with other known approaches, e. g. with the standard Euclidean calculation. We have presented for the first analysis of the electron gap equation in Minkowski and Temporal Euclidean space. The dynamical generation of imaginary part of the fermion mass leads to the absence of Khallen-Lehmann representation, providing thus confining solution for all value of m. Apart very small κ the real pole in the propagator is absent as well. Similarly to Euclidean QED3 Minkowski QED2+1 exhibits spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking the mass function has nontrivial solution in the limit m = 0, however the mass is complex function. Furthermore, we compare with QED solved in similar approximation in spacelike Euclidean and Temporal Euclidean space. As a interesting results, although based on the simple ladder approximation, is the proof of the exact equivalence between the theories defined in Minkowski 2+1 and 3D Temporal Euclidean space. We expect large quantitative changes when the polarization effect is taken account, especially the existence of critical number of flavors can be different when compared to the known Euclidean space estimates. Opposite to naive belief we showed and explained that the Wick rotation -the well known calculational trick in quantum theory- provides continuation of Schwinger function of the Euclidean theory which do not correspond with the Greens function calculated directly in the original Minkowski space. We can note our finding has a little to do with the know usefulness of various
Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Shu Hou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700 GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.
Ebert, D; Klimenko, K G
2016-01-01
In this paper we investigate the phase structure of a (1+1)-dimensional schematic quark model with four-quark interaction and in the presence of baryon ($\\mu_B$), isospin ($\\mu_I$) and chiral isospin ($\\mu_{I5}$) chemical potentials. It is established that in the large-$N_c$ limit ($N_c$ is the number of colored quarks) there exists a duality correspondence between the chiral symmetry breaking phase and the charged pion condensation (PC) one. The role and influence of this property on the phase structure of the model are studied. Moreover, it is shown that the chemical potential $\\mu_{I5}$ promotes the appearance of the charged PC phase with nonzero baryon density.
Sigma(770) Resonance and the Breaking of Scale and Chiral Symmetry in Effective QCD
Svec, M
2002-01-01
CERN measurements of pi(-)p->pi(-)pi(+)n on polarized target at 17.2 GeV/c enable experimental determination of partial wave production amplitudes below 1080 MeV. The measured S-wave transversity amplitudes provide evidence for a narrow scalar resonance sigma(770). The assumption of analyticity of production amplitudes in dipion mass allows to determine S-wave helicity amplitudes S_0 and S_1. The amplitude S_1 is related to pi(-)pi(+)->pi(-)pi(+) scattering. There are four "down" solutions (1, 1bar), (2, 1bar), (1, 2bar) and (2, 2bar) selected by unitarity in pipi scattering. Ellis-Lanik relation between the mass m_sigma and partial width Gamma(sigma->pi(-)pi(+)) derived from an effective QCD theory with broken scale and chiral symmetry selects solutions (1, 1bar) and (1, 2bar) and imparts the sigma(770) resonance with a dilaton-gluonium interpretation. Weinberg's mended symmetry selects solutions (1, 1bar) and (2, 1bar). The combin ed solution (1, 1bar) has m_sigma=769 +/- 13 MeV and Gamma_sigma=154 +/- 22 M...
Katanin, A.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider the possibility of chiral (charge or spin density wave) symmetry breaking in graphene due to long-range Coulomb interaction by comparing the results of the Bethe-Salpeter and functional renormalization-group approaches. The former approach performs a summation of ladder diagrams in the particle-hole channel and reproduces the results of the Schwinger-Dyson approach for the critical interaction strength of the quantum phase transition. The renormalization-group approach combines the effect of different channels and allows to study the role of vertex corrections. The critical interaction strength, which is necessary to induce the symmetry breaking in the latter approach, is found in the static approximation to be αc=e2/(ɛ vF) ≈1.05 without considering the Fermi velocity renormalization, and αc=3.7 with accounting the renormailzation of the Fermi velocity. The latter value is expected to be, however, reduced, when the dynamic screening effects are taken into account, yielding the critical interaction, which may be comparable to the one in freely suspended graphene. We show that the vertex corrections are crucially important to obtain the mentioned values of critical interactions.
Moodera, Jagadeesh
Breaking time reversal symmetry (TRS) in a topological insulator (TI) with ferromagnetic perturbation can lead to many exotic quantum phenomena exhibited by Dirac surface states including the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect and dissipationless quantized Hall transport. The realization of the QAH effect in realistic materials requires ferromagnetic insulating materials and topologically non-trivial electronic band structures. In a TI, the ferromagnetic order and TRS breaking is achievable by conventional way, through doping with a magnetic element, or by ferromagnetic proximity coupling. Our experimental studies by both approaches will be discussed. In doped TI van Vleck ferromagnetism was observed. The proximity induced magnetism at the interface was stable, beyond the expected temperature range. We shall describe in a hard ferromagnetic TI system a robust QAH state and dissipationless edge current flow is achieved,1,2 a major step towards dissipationless electronic applications with no external fields, making such devices more amenable for metrology and spintronics applications. Our study of the gate and temperature dependences of local and nonlocal magnetoresistance, may elucidate the causes of the dissipative edge channels and the need for very low temperature to observe QAH. In close collaboration with: CuiZu Chang,2,3 Ferhat Katmis, 1 . 2 , 3 Peng Wei. 1 , 2 , 3 ; From Nuclear Eng. Dept. MIT, M. Li, J. Li; From Penn State U, W-W. Zhao, D. Y. Kim, C-x. Liu, J. K. Jain, M. H. W. Chan; From Oakridge National Lab, V. Lauter; From Northeastern U., B. A. Assaf, M. E. Jamer, D. Heiman; From Argonne Lab, J. W. Freeland; From Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany), F. S. Nogueira, I. Eremin; From Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (India), B. Satpati. Work supported by NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant DMR-1231319.
Applications of chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature Tχ implies that the ρ and a1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, mρ(Tχ) > mρ(0). The author conjectures that at Tχ the thermal ρ - a1, peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by Tχ. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates
Chiral Symmetry Restoration from a Boundary
Tiburzi, B C
2013-01-01
The boundary of a manifold can alter the phase of a theory in the bulk. We explore the possibility of a boundary-induced phase transition for the chiral symmetry of QCD. In particular, we investigate the consequences of imposing homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions on the quark fields. Such boundary conditions are employed on occasion in lattice gauge theory computations, for example, when including external electromagnetic fields, or when computing quark propagators with a reduced temporal extent. Homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions force the chiral condensate to vanish at the boundary, and thereby obstruct the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in the bulk. As the restoration of chiral symmetry due to a boundary is a non-perturbative phenomenon, we utilize the sigma model to exemplify the issues. Using this model, we find that chiral symmetry is completely restored if the length of the compact direction is less than 2.0 fm. For lengths greater than about 4 fm, an approximately uniform chiral...
Chiral symmetry in hadron physics methods and ideas of chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Methods and ideas of chiral symmetry is presented based on a lecture note to help the future researches in hadron dynamics along with the chiral symmetry. The chiral symmetry was originally developed as the symmetry between currents before the discovery of QCD. It has come to be understood in principle by now that the symmetry is spontaneously broken and only the part of flavor symmetry remains explicitly. In QCD, however, the chiral symmetry has come to be regarded as the base of the symmetry of the global flavor space of quarks. One of the recent topics of the lattice gauge theory is how the hadron properties will change when the broken symmetry is going to be restored. Since the chiral symmetry is global, it is different from gauge symmetry which is local. It explains the degeneracy of hadron masses and relations between the elements of S-matrix in which same number of particles are included. In practice, however, the symmetry of the axial part is spontaneously broken and pions which behave like gauge particles come to play. Chiral symmetry is defined as the (internal) flavor symmetry for the two independent chirality states of quarks. It discriminates two different fundamental quarks defined for the Lorentz groups O(4) - SL(2, C). The symmetry transformation itself is, however, different from the chirality. They should not be confused. In this lecture note, fundamental properties of pions are described on the basis of the interaction with nucleons at first. General properties of the chiral symmetry and some of the low energy theorems on current algebra are introduced. Then, linear sigma model and nonlinear sigma model are introduced. Then the Skyrme-model, which provides an idea as important as quarks, is explained. One of the interesting topics at present is to restore the broken axial symmetry experimentally to investigate the mechanism of symmetry breaking. (S. Funahashi)
What the Gribov copy tells on the confinment and the theory of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
Furui, S; Furui, Sadataka; Nakajima, Hideo
2004-01-01
We performed lattice Landau gauge QCD simulation on $\\beta=6.0, 16^4, 24^4, 32^4$ and $\\beta=6.4, 32^4, 48^4$ and $56^4$ by adopting the gauge fixing that minimizes the norm of the gauge field, and measured the running coupling by using the gluon propagator and the ghost propagator. It has a maximum $\\alpha_s(q)\\simeq 1.1$ at around $q=0.5$ GeV and decreases as $q$ approaches 0. The infrared exponent of the ghost propagator is $\\kappa=0.2$ in the gauge fixing, but there is an exceptional configuration $\\kappa=0.27$, and the running coupling using this configuration is consistent with the Dyson-Schwinger approach with infrared fixed point $\\alpha_0=1.5$. The features of the exceptional configuration are investigated by measuring one-dimensional Fourier transform(1-d FT) of the gluon propagator transverse to 4 lattice axes. We observe that the rotational symmetry of the exceptional configuration is broken and the 1-d FT along a specific axis violates reflection positivity and the average of the Cartan subalgebr...
On the symmetry breaking phenomenon
Birtea, Petre; Puta, Mircea; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Tudoran, Ruazvan Micu
2006-01-01
We investigate the problem of symmetry breaking in the framework of dynamical systems with symmetry on a smooth manifold. Two cases will be analyzed: general and Hamiltonian dynamical systems. We give sufficient conditions for symmetry breaking in both cases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs
Quarks, baryons and chiral symmetry
Hosaka, Atsushi
2001-01-01
This book describes baryon models constructed from quarks, mesons and chiral symmetry. The role of chiral symmetry and of quark model structure with SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry are discussed in detail, starting from a pedagogic introduction. Emphasis is placed on symmetry aspects of the theories. As an application, the chiral bag model is studied for nucleon structure, where important methods of theoretical physics, mostly related to the semiclassical approach for a system of strong interactions, are demonstrated. The text is more practical than formal; tools and ideas are explained in detail w
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The suggestion by Jaffe that if σ is a light q2q-bar2 state 0++ then even the fundamental chiral transformation properties of the σ becomes unclear, has stimulated much interest. Adler pointed out that in fact the seminal work on chiral symmetry via PCAC consistency, is really quite consistent with the σ being predominantly q2q-bar2. This interpretation was actually backed by subsequent work on effective Lagrangian methods for linear and non linear realizations. More recent work of Achasov suggests that intermediate four-quark states determine amplitudes involving other scalars a0(980) and f0(980) below 1 GeV, and the report by Ning Wu that study on σ meson in J/ψ → ωπ+π- continue to support a non qq-bar σ with mass as low as 390 MeV. It is also noted that more recent re-analysis of πK scattering by S. Ishida et al. together with the work of the E791 Collaboration, support the existence of the scalar κ particle with comparatively light mass as well
Ribó, Josep M; El-Hachemi, Zoubir; Moyano, Albert; Blanco, Celia; Hochberg, David; 10.1089/ast.2012.0904
2013-01-01
The emergence of chirality in enantioselective autocatalysis for compounds unable to transform according to the Frank-like reaction network is discussed with respect to the controversial limited enantioselectivity (LES) model composed of coupled enantioselective and non-enantioselective autocatalyses. The LES model cannot lead to spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking (SMSB) either in closed systems with a homogeneous temperature distribution nor in closed systems with a stationary non-uniform temperature distribution. However, simulations of chemical kinetics in a two-compartment model demonstrate that SMSB may occur if both autocatalytic reactions are spatially separated at different temperatures in different compartments but coupled under the action of a continous internal flow. In such conditions the system can evolve, for certain reaction and system parameters, towards a chiral stationary state, i.e., the system is able to reach a bifurcation point leading to SMSB. Numerical simulations using reasonable ch...
Chiral symmetry restoration in effective Lagrangian models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The restoration is studied of chiral symmetry in dense baryon matter using effective lagrangian models of QCD, in which baryons are described as topological solitons. Starting from the breaking of scale invariance and chiral symmetry in the QCD vacuum, the foundations are discussed of effective lagrangians and their relevance for applications to dense matter. Soliton models, such a the Skyrme model, show a phase transition at high densities, whose order parameter is the average scalar field. The properties are investigated of the two phases of the effective theory and show that the phase transition corresponds to the restoration of the chiral symmetry of QCD. It is argued that it should not be understood as deconfinement. The author then considers this phase transition in the context of the Cheshire Cat principle, which provides the link to the underlying quarks of QCD. An analogue of the Cheshire Cat property of this chiral bag model for baryons is found in solitons of effective lagrangians with a scalar glueball field. The Cheshire Cat interpretation of the results of effective lagrangians provides a consistent picture of chiral symmetry restoration at high densities. To verify this interpretation explicitly, the author finally generalizes the effective lagrangian approach to dense matter to a chiral bag model description with quark degrees of freedom
Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hošek, Jiří; Smetana, Adam
Berlin: Springer, 2014, s. 17-28. ISBN 978-3-319-07072-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0734; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking * top-quark condensation * neutriono condensation * strong Yukawa dynamics * flavor gauge dynamics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This new edition of Prof. Strocchi's well received primer on rigorous aspects of symmetry breaking presents a more detailed and thorough discussion of the mechanism of symmetry breaking in classical field theory in relation with the Noether theorem. Moreover, the link between symmetry breaking without massless Goldstone bosons in Coulomb systems and in gauge theories is made more explicit in terms of the delocalized Coulomb dynamics. Furthermore, the chapter on the Higgs mechanism has been significantly expanded with a non-perturbative treatment of the Higgs phenomenon, at the basis of the standard model of particle physics, in the local and in the Coulomb gauges. Last but not least, a subject index has been added and a number of misprints have been corrected. From the reviews of the first edition: The notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking has proven extremely valuable, the problem is that most derivations are perturbative and heuristic. Yet mathematically precise versions do exist, but are not widely known. It is precisely the aim of his book to correct this unbalance. - It is remarkable to see how much material can actually be presented in a rigorous way (incidentally, many of the results presented are due to Strocchi himself), yet this is largely ignored, the original heuristic derivations being, as a rule, more popular. - At each step he strongly emphasizes the physical meaning and motivation of the various notions introduced, a book that fills a conspicuous gap in the literature, and does it rather well. It could also be a good basis for a graduate course in mathematical physics. It can be recommended to physicists as well and, of course, for physics/mathematics libraries. J.-P. Antoine, Physicalia 28/2, 2006 Strocchi's main emphasis is on the fact that the loss of symmetric behaviour requires both the non-symmetric ground states and the infinite extension of the system. It is written in a pleasant style at a level suitable for graduate students in
Spontaneous chiral parity breaking by hydromagnetic buoyancy
Chatterjee, Piyali; Brandenburg, Axel; Rheinhardt, Matthias
2010-01-01
Evidence for a parity-breaking nature of the magnetic buoyancy instability in a stably stratified gas is reported. In the absence of rotation, no helicity is produced, but the non-helical state is found to be unstable to small helical perturbations during the development of the instability. The parity-breaking nature of an instability in magnetohydrodynamics appears to be the first of its kind and is similar to chiral symmetry breaking in biochemistry. Applications to the production of mean fields in galaxy clusters are being discussed.
Chiral symmetry on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model
Chiral symmetry on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creutz, M.
1994-11-01
The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model.
Chiral symmetry in rotating systems
Malik, Sham S.
2015-08-01
The triaxial rotating system at critical angular momentum I ≥Iband exhibits two enatiomeric (the left- and right-handed) forms. These enatiomers are related to each other through dynamical chiral symmetry. The chiral symmetry in rotating system is defined by an operator χ ˆ =Rˆy (π) T ˆ, which involves the product of two distinct symmetries, namely, continuous and discrete. Therefore, new guidelines are required for testing its commutation with the system Hamiltonian. One of the primary objectives of this study is to lay down these guidelines. Further, the possible impact of chiral symmetry on the geometrical arrangement of angular momentum vectors and investigation of observables unique to nuclear chiral-twins is carried out. In our model, the angular momentum components (J1, J2, J3) occupy three mutually perpendicular axes of triaxial shape and represent a non-planar configuration. At certain threshold energy, the equation of motion in angular momentum develops a second order phase transition and as a result two distinct frames (i.e., the left- and right-handed) are formed. These left- and right-handed states correspond to a double well system and are related to each other through chiral operator. At this critical angular momentum, the centrifugal and Coriolis interactions lower the barrier in the double well system. The tunneling through the double well starts, which subsequently lifts the degeneracy among the rotational states. A detailed analysis of the behavior of rotational energies, spin-staggering, and the electromagnetic transition probabilities of the resulting twin-rotational bands is presented. The ensuing model results exhibit similarities with many observed features of the chiral-twins. An advantage of our formalism is that it is quite simple and it allows us to pinpoint the understanding of physical phenomenon which lead to chiral-twins in rotating systems.
Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siddhartha Sen
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.
Chiral symmetry in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics with massless quarks is unbroken in perturbation theory. Dimensional regularization is used. The ratio of the vector and axial vector renormalization constante is shown to be independent of the renormalization mass. The general results are explicitly verified to fourth order in g, the QCD coupling constant
Restoration of chiral symmetry: a supergravity perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The supergravity dual of N regular and M fractional D3-branes on the conifold has a naked singularity in the infrared. Supersymmetric resolution of this singularity requires deforming the conifold: this is the supergravity dual of chiral symmetry breaking. Buchel suggested that at sufficiently high temperature there is no need to deform the conifold: the singularity may be cloaked by a horizon. This would be the supergravity manifestation of chiral symmetry restoration. In previous work [hep-th/0102105] the ansatz and the system of second-order radial differential equations necessary to find such a solution were written down. In this paper we find smooth solutions to this system in a perturbation theory that is valid when the Hawking temperature of the horizon is very high. (author)
Symmetry and symmetry breaking. Symetrie et brisure de symetrie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balian, R. (CEA/Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere (DSM), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Lambert, D. (Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium)); Brack, A. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire); Englert, F. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique)
1999-01-01
The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.) 103 refs.
Symmetry and symmetry breaking; Symetrie et brisure de symetrie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balian, R. [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere (DSM), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lambert, D. [Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium); Brack, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire; Englert, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique; Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Lachieze-Rey, M. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Emery, E. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y
1999-11-01
The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.) 103 refs.
Chiral symmetry and nucleon structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holstein, B.R. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astromony Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory)
1992-01-01
Recently it has been realized that significant tests of the validity of QCD are available in low energy experiments (E < 500 MeV) by exploiting the property of (broken) chiral symmetry. This technique has been highly developed in The Goldstone boson sector by the work of Gasser and Leutwyler. Application to the nucleon system is much more difficult and is now being carefully developed.
Electroweak symmetry breaking through supersymmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The connection between the scales of SU(2) x U(1) gauge symmetry breaking and supersymmetry breaking is didactically displayed in the framework of a T.O.Y. (Theory Overestimating Yukawas) model, a version of the (M + 1) SSM (supersymmetric extension of the standard model with a gauge singlet) in which the relevant parameters are determined in the fixed point regime. Some conspicuous features of supersymmetric particle physics are reviewed in the light of this simplified model. An alternative theory corresponding to lim (M + 1) SSM → MSSM, leads to interesting inequalities among the supersymmetric breaking parameters of the MSSM
Sequential flavor symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.
CP breaking in lattice chiral gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The CP symmetry is not manifestly implemented for the local and doubler-free Ginsparg-Wilson operator in lattice chiral gauge theory. We precisely identify where the effects of this CP breaking appear. We show that they appear in: (I) Overall constant phase of the fermion generating functional. (II) Overall constant coefficient of the fermion generating functional. (III) Fermion propagator appearing in external fermion lines and the propagator connected to Yukawa vertices. The first effect appears from the transformation of the path integral measure and it is absorbed into a suitable definition of the constant phase factor for each topological sector; in this sense there appears no 'CP anomaly'. The second constant arises from the explicit breaking in the action and it is absorbed by the suitable weights with which topological sectors are summed. The last one in the propagator is inherent to this formulation and cannot be avoided by a mere modification of the projection operator, for example, in the framework of the Ginsparg-Wilson operator. This breaking emerges as an (almost) contact term in the propagator when the Higgs field, which is treated perturbatively, has no vacuum expectation value. In the presence of the vacuum expectation value, however, a completely new situation arises and the breaking becomes intrinsically non-local, though this breaking may still be removed in a suitable continuum limit. This non-local CP breaking is expected to persist for a non-perturbative treatment of the Higgs coupling. (author)
Is chiral symmetry manifested in nuclear structure?
Furnstahl, R. J.; Schwenk, A
2010-01-01
Spontaneously broken chiral symmetry is an established property of low-energy quantum chromodynamics, but finding direct evidence for it from nuclear structure data is a difficult challenge. Indeed, phenomenologically successful energy-density functional approaches do not even have explicit pions. Are there smoking guns for chiral symmetry in nuclei?
Symmetry breaking in molecular ferroelectrics.
Shi, Ping-Ping; Tang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Ye, Qiong; Xiong, Ren-Gen
2016-07-11
Ferroelectrics are inseparable from symmetry breaking. Accompanying the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition, the paraelectric phase adopting one of the 32 crystallographic point groups is broken into subgroups belonging to one of the 10 ferroelectric point groups, i.e. C1, C2, C1h, C2v, C4, C4v, C3, C3v, C6 and C6v. The symmetry breaking is captured by the order parameter known as spontaneous polarization, whose switching under an external electric field results in a typical ferroelectric hysteresis loop. In addition, the responses of spontaneous polarization to other external excitations are related to a number of physical effects such as second-harmonic generation, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and dielectric properties. Based on these, this review summarizes recent developments in molecular ferroelectrics since 2011 and focuses on the relationship between symmetry breaking and ferroelectricity, offering ideas for exploring high-performance molecular ferroelectrics. PMID:27051889
Chiral symmetry aspects in supersymmetric confining gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We provide a detailed analysis of the interplay between chiral symmetry and supersymmetry within the context of supersymmetric confining gauge theories. We describe a general method leading to exact results on quark mass dependences of physical quantities such as bound-state masses, bilinear condensates,... We also establish the commutation relations satisfied by the supersymmetric and chiral charges in presence of the soft breaking due to quark masses. We show that, if the chiral limit is unique, the global SUsub(L)(Nsub(f)) x SUsub(R)(Nsub(f)) symmetry is not spontaneously broken. If this limit is not unique, a spontaneous breakdown of the axial symmetry is allowed, but only at the cost of a simultaneous breakdown of the vector symmetry
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.
Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathias O. Senge
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.
A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2013-11-01
Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.
Chiral symmetry breakdown and the spectrum of pseudoscalar mesons in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recently suggested mechanism of the dynamical chiral symmetry breakdown in quantum chromodynamics is extended to the realistic situation when both spontaneous and explicit chiral symmetry breaking take place (current masses of the light quarks are different from zero). The mass relations for pseudoscalar nonet are obtained
Symmetry breaking in supersymmetric GUTs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper analyzes the first step of symmetry breaking in N=1 supersymmetric unified theories. The possible patterns of gauge symmetry breaking consistent with supersymmetry are characterized. Some well-known properties of the scalar potential in supersymmetric gauge theories are reviewed. Simple methods to discover which v.e.v.'s of a given multiplet of scalar fields are consistent with the conditions of given equations are introduced. The vanishing of the D2-term and of the F2-term is discussed and a simple lemma derived from the former. The results of these discussions are applied to some possible candidates for a supersymmetric gauge theory based on the gauge groups SU(5), 0(10), and E6
Breaking of de Sitter Symmetry
Bander, Myron
2010-01-01
We show that an interacting spin-0 field on a de Sitter space background will break the underlying de Sitter symmetry. This is done first for a (1+1) de Sitter space where a boson-fermion correspondence permits us to solve certain interacting theories by transforming them into free ones of opposite statistics. A massless boson interacting by a sine-Gordon potential is shown to be equivalent to a free massive fermion with the mass depending on the de Sitter time thus breaking the symmetry explicitly. We then show that for larger dimensions and any boson potential, to one loop, an anomaly develops and the currents generating the de Sitter transformations are not conserved.
Electroweak symmetry breaking at photon colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector of the standard model can be weakly-coupled or can be strongly-coupled, which is characterized by some kinds of strong interaction among the Goldstone bosons of the electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector. In this paper, we summarize an investigation of probing the strong electroweak-symmetry-breaking effects at photon colliders. ((orig.))
Symmetry Breaking in Finite Volume
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chuan
2000-01-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a cooperative phenomenon for systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom and it plays an essential role in quantum field theories. Lattice O(N) model is studied within the Hamiltonian approach using an adiabatic approximation. It is shown that the low-lying spectrum of the system in the broken phase can be understood by using the adiabatic, or Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which turns out to become an expansion in the inverse power of volume. In the infinite volume limit, the symmetry is broken while in the finite volume the slow rotation of the zero-momentum mode restores the symmetry and gives rise to the rotator spectrum, which has been observed in realistic Monte Carlo simulations.
Miller, G A
2003-01-01
Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...
Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics with spontaneous symmetry breaking
Pujol, C
2003-01-01
In this paper we consider dissipative hydrodynamic equations for systems with continuous broken symmetries. We first present the case of superfluidity, in which the symmetry U(1) is broken and then generalize to the chiral symmetry $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R$. New transport coefficients are introduced and the consequences of their existence are discussed.
History of electroweak symmetry breaking
Kibble, T W B
2015-01-01
In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.
History of electroweak symmetry breaking
Kibble, T. W. B.
2015-07-01
In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.
Spontaneous Breaking of Flavor Symmetry
Törnqvist, N A
1996-01-01
It is shown that part of the quark masses of the standard model can be generated spontaneously within the strong interactions of QCD. After the breaking of U(Nf) x U(Nf) symmetry by the vacuum, also the resulting flavor symmetric, degenerate meson mass spectrum is shown to be unstable with respect to quantum loops, for rather general models. For a C-degenerate meson spectrum the stable mass spectrum obeys the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and the approximateequal spacing rule.
Progress in Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Dawson, S
2015-01-01
In this talk, I discuss theoretical advances in understanding the properties of the Higgs boson and the implications for models of electroweak symmetry breaking. I begin by reviewing some of the recent progress in Standard Model calculations for Higgs boson production and decay rates, followed by a lightning tour of the use of effective field theories in the search for new physics in the Higgs sector. I end with a discussion of the complementarity of precision Higgs coupling measurements and direct searches for heavy particles for the discovery of Beyond the Standard Model physics in the electroweak sector.
Renormalizable theories with symmetry breaking
Becchi, Carlo M
2016-01-01
The description of symmetry breaking proposed by K. Symanzik within the framework of renormalizable theories is generalized from the geometrical point of view. For an arbitrary compact Lie group, a soft breaking of arbitrary covariance, and an arbitrary field multiplet, the expected integrated Ward identities are shown to hold to all orders of renormalized perturbation theory provided the Lagrangian is suitably chosen. The corresponding local Ward identity which provides the Lagrangian version of current algebra through the coupling to an external, classical, Yang-Mills field, is then proved to hold up to the classical Adler-Bardeen anomaly whose general form is written down. The BPHZ renormalization scheme is used throughout in such a way that the algebraic structure analyzed in the present context may serve as an introduction to the study of fully quantized gauge theories.
CHIRAL SYMMETRIES IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The theoretical concepts of a chirally symmetric meson field theory are reviewed and an overview of the most relevant applications in nuclear physics is given. This includes a unified description of the vacuum properties of hadrons, finite nuclei and hot, dense and strange nuclear matter in an extended chiral SU(3)L/SU(3)R σ-ω model
Introduction to Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dawson,S.
2008-10-02
The Standard Model (SM) is the backbone of elementary particle physics-not only does it provide a consistent framework for studying the interactions of quark and leptons, but it also gives predictions which have been extensively tested experimentally. In these notes, I review the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, discuss the calculation of electroweak radiative corrections to observables, and summarize the status of SM Higgs boson searches. Despite the impressive experimental successes, however, the electroweak theory is not completely satisfactory and the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking is untested. I will discuss the logic behind the oft-repeated statement: 'There must be new physics at the TeV scale'. These lectures reflect my strongly held belief that upcoming results from the LHC will fundamentally change our understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking. In these lectures, I review the status of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, with an emphasis on the importance of radiative corrections and searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson. A discussion of the special role of the TeV energy scale in electroweak physics is included.
Nonlinear Boundary Dynamics and Chiral Symmetry in Holographic QCD
Albrecht, Dylan; Wilcox, Ronald J
2011-01-01
In the hard-wall model of holographic QCD we find that nonlinear boundary dynamics are required in order to maintain the correct pattern of explicit and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking beyond leading order in the pion fields. With the help of a field redefinition, we demonstrate that the requisite nonlinear boundary conditions are consistent with the Sturm-Liouville structure required for the Kaluza-Klein decomposition of bulk fields. Observables insensitive to the chiral limit receive only small corrections in the improved description, and classical calculations in the hard-wall model remain surprisingly accurate.
Chiral symmetry restoration and axial vector renormalization for Wilson fermions
Reisz, T
2000-01-01
Lattice gauge theories with Wilson fermions break chiral symmetry. In theU(1) axial vector current this manifests itself in the anomaly. On the otherhand it is generally expected that the axial vector flavour mixing current isnon-anomalous. We give a short, but strict proof of this to all orders ofperturbation theory, and show that chiral symmetry restauration implies aunique multiplicative renormalization constant for the current. This constantis determined entirely from an irrelevant operator in the Ward identity. Thebasic ingredients going into the proof are the lattice Ward identity, chargeconjugation symmetry and the power counting theorem. We compute therenormalization constant to one loop order. It is largely independent of theparticular lattice realization of the current.
Chiral symmetry and lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I review the problem of formulating chiral symmetry in lattice gauge theory. I discuss recent approaches involving an infinite tower of additional heavy states to absorb Fermion doublers. For hadronic physics this provides a natural scheme for taking quark masses to zero without requiring a precise tuning of parameters. A mirror Fermion variation provides a possible way of extending the picture to chirally coupled light Fermions
Chiral symmetry and lattice fermions
Creutz, Michael
2013-01-01
Lattice gauge theory and chiral perturbation theory are among the primary tools for understanding non-perturbative aspects of QCD. I review several subtle and sometimes controversial issues that arise when combining these techniques. Among these are one failure of partially quenched chiral perturbation theory when the valence quarks become lighter than the average sea quark mass and a potential ambiguity in comparisons of perturbative and lattice properties of non-degenerate quarks.
Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.
2015-01-01
We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions, and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g. at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and t...
Yet another symmetry breaking to be discovered
Yoshimura, M
2016-01-01
The discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics was the greatest contribution in Nambu's achievements. There is another class of symmetries that exist in the low energy nature, yet is doomed to be broken at high energy, due to a lack of protection of the gauge symmetry. I shall review our approach to search for this class of symmetry breaking, the lepton number violation linked to generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe.
Yet another symmetry breaking to be discovered
Yoshimura, M.
2016-07-01
The discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics was the greatest contribution in Nambu's achievements. There is another class of symmetries that exist in low-energy nature, yet is doomed to be broken at high energy, due to a lack of protection of the gauge symmetry. I shall review our approach to searching for this class of symmetry breaking, the lepton number violation linked to the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe.
Electroweak Symmetry Breaking by QCD
Kubo, Jisuke; Lindner, Manfred
2014-01-01
We propose a new mechanism to generate the electroweak scale within the framework of QCD, which is extended to include conformally invariant scalar degrees of freedom belonging to a larger irreducible representation of $SU(3)_c$. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered dynamically via the Higgs portal by the condensation of the colored scalar field around $1$ TeV. The mass of the colored boson is restricted to be $350$ GeV $\\lesssim m_S\\lesssim 3$ TeV, with the upper bound obtained from renormalization group evolution. This implies that the colored boson can be produced at LHC. If the colored boson is electrically charged, the branching fraction of the Higgs decaying into two photons can slightly increase, and moreover, it can be produced at future linear colliders.
Chiral symmetry and finite temperature effects in quantum theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A computer simulation of the harmonic oscillator at finite temperature has been carried out, using the Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm. Accurate results for the energy and fluctuations have been obtained, with special attention to the manifestation of the temperature effects. Varying the degree of symmetry breaking, the finite temperature behaviour of the asymmetric linear model in a linearized mean field approximation has been studied. In a study of the effects of chiral symmetry on baryon mass splittings, reasonable agreement with experiment has been obtained in a non-relativistic harmonic oscillator model
Enhanced global symmetries and the chiral phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine the possibility that the physical spectrum of a vectorlike gauge field theory exhibits an enhanced global symmetry near a chiral phase transition. A transition from the Goldstone phase to the symmetric phase is expected as the number of fermions Nf is increased to some critical value. Various investigations have suggested that a parity-doubled spectrum develops as the critical value is approached. Using an effective Lagrangian as a guide, we note that parity doubling is associated with the appearance of an enhanced global symmetry in the spectrum of the theory. The enhanced symmetry would develop as the spectrum splits into two sectors, with the first exhibiting the usual pattern of a spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, and the second exhibiting an additional, unbroken symmetry and parity doubling. The first sector includes the Goldstone bosons and other states such as massive scalar partners. The second includes a parity-degenerate vector and axial vector along with other possible parity partners. We note that if such a near-critical theory describes symmetry breaking in the electroweak theory, the additional symmetry suppresses the contribution of the parity-doubled sector to the S parameter. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society
Role of Chiral symmetry in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spurred by some recent experiments in electron scattering, we reassess the role that chiral symmetry plays in nuclear structure. Though difficult to formulate precisely, some of the ideas put forward many years ago, combined with the recent revival of the Skyrmion picture of the nucleon, are seen to be move relevant now than ever
Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs Boson
Pich, Antonio
2015-01-01
The first LHC run has confirmed the Standard Model as the correct theory at the electroweak scale, and the existence of a Higgs-like particle associated with the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak gauge symmetry. These lectures overview the present knowledge on the Higgs boson and discuss alternative scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking which are already being constrained by the experimental data.
Four Top Production and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Cheung, Kingman
1995-01-01
With the recent discovery of a heavy top quark $(m_t \\approx 175 - 200$ GeV), the top quark opens an window to electroweak symmetry breaking. We propose the study of four-top, $t\\bar t t\\bar t$, production at hadronic supercolliders as a probe to electroweak symmetry breaking.
Chiral symmetry and functional integral
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gamboa Saravi, R.E.; Muschietti, M.A.; Schaposnik, F.A.; Solomin, J.E.
1984-10-15
The change in the fermionic functional integral measure under chiral rotations is analyzed. Using the zeta-function method, the evaluation of chiral Jacobians to theories including non-hermitian Dirac operators D, can be extended in a natural way. (This being of interest, for example, in connection with the Weinberg-Salam model or with the relativistic string theory). Results are compared with those obtained following other approaches, the possible discrepancies are analyzed and the equivalence of the different methods under certain conditions on D is proved. Also shown is how to compute the Jacobian for the case of a finite chiral transformation and this result is used to develop a sort of path-integral version of bosonization in d = 2 space-time dimensions. This result is used to solve in a very simple and economical way relevant d = 2 fermionic models. Furthermore, some interesting features in connection with the theta-vacuum in d = 2,4 gauge theories are discussed.
Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation
Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Xuan-Liu; ZHANG Shun-Li; QU Chang-Zheng
2007-01-01
Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.
Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations
Yang, Xuan-Liu; Zhang, Shun-Li; Qu, Chang-Zheng
2007-06-01
Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.
Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.
Chiral Perturbation in the Hidden Local Symmetry and Vector Manifestation of Chiral Symmetry
Harada, Masayasu
2001-01-01
In this talk I summarize our recent works on the chiral phase transition in the large flavor QCD studied by the hidden local symmetry (HLS). Bare parameters in the HLS are determined by matching the HLS with the underlying QCD at the matching scale through the Wilsonian matching. This leads to the vector manifestation of the Wigner realization of the chiral symmetry in which the symmetry is restored by the massless degenerate pion (and its flavor partners) and rho meson (and its flavor partne...
Confinement and flavor symmetry breaking via monopole condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss dynamics of N=2 supersymmetric SU (nc) gauge theories with nf quark hypermultiplets. Upon N=1 perturbation of introducing a finite mass for the adjoint chiral multiplet, we show that the flavor U(nf) symmetry is dynamically broken to U(r) x U(nf - r), where r ≤ [nf/2] is an integer. This flavor symmetry breaking occurs due to the condensates of magnetic degrees of freedom which acquire flavor quantum numbers due to the quark zero modes. We briefly comment on the U Sp(2nc) gauge theories. This talk is based on works with Giuseppe Carlino and Ken Konishi. (author)
Chiral symmetry and strangeness at SIS energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this talk we review the consequences of the chiral SU(3) symmetry for strangeness propagation in nuclear matter. Objects of crucial importance are the meson-baryon scattering amplitudes obtained within the chiral coupled-channel effective field theory. Results for antikaon and hyperon-resonance spectral functions in cold nuclear matter are presented and discussed. The importance of the Σ(1385) resonance for the subthreshold antikaon production in heavy-ion reaction at SIS is pointed out. The in-medium properties of the latter together with an antikaon spectral function based on chiral SU(3) dynamics suggest a significant enhancement of the π Λ → anti Κ N reaction in nuclear matter. (orig.)
Mirror symmetry breaking at the molecular level.
Avetisov, V; Goldanskii, V.
1996-01-01
Reasoning from two basic principles of molecular physics, P invariance of electromagnetic interaction and the second law of thermodynamics, one would conclude that mirror symmetry retained in the world of chiral molecules. This inference is fully consistent with what is observed in inorganic nature. However, in the bioorganic world, the reverse is true. Mirror symmetry there is definitely broken. Is it possible to account for this phenomenon without going beyond conventional concepts of the k...
Chimera Death: Symmetry Breaking in Dynamical Networks
Zakharova, Anna; Kapeller, Marie; Schöll, Eckehard
2014-01-01
For a network of generic oscillators with nonlocal topology and symmetry-breaking coupling we establish novel partially coherent inhomogeneous spatial patterns, which combine the features of chimera states (coexisting incongruous coherent and incoherent domains) and oscillation death (oscillation suppression), which we call chimera death. We show that due to the interplay of nonlocality and breaking of rotational symmetry by the coupling two distinct scenarios from oscillatory behavior to a s...
Gedanken Worlds without Higgs: QCD-Induced Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /Karlsruhe U., TTP; Shrock, Robert; /YITP, Stony Brook
2009-01-01
To illuminate how electroweak symmetry breaking shapes the physical world, we investigate toy models in which no Higgs fields or other constructs are introduced to induce spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two models incorporate the standard SU(3){sub c} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(1){sub Y} gauge symmetry and fermion content similar to that of the standard model. The first class--like the standard electroweak theory--contains no bare mass terms, so the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry within quantum chromodynamics is the only source of electroweak symmetry breaking. The second class adds bare fermion masses sufficiently small that QCD remains the dominant source of electroweak symmetry breaking and the model can serve as a well-behaved low-energy effective field theory to energies somewhat above the hadronic scale. A third class of models is based on the left-right-symmetric SU(3){sub c} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} SU(2){sub R} {circle_times} U(1)B?L gauge group. In a fourth class of models, built on SU(4){sub PS} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} SU(2){sub R} gauge symmetry, lepton number is treated as a fourth color. Many interesting characteristics of the models stem from the fact that the effective strength of the weak interactions is much closer to that of the residual strong interactions than in the real world. The Higgs-free models not only provide informative contrasts to the real world, but also lead us to consider intriguing issues in the application of field theory to the real world.
Symmetry breaking and restoration in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A review is made of the utilization of the Higgs mechanism in spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that such as ideas came from an analogy with the superconductivity phenomenological theory based on a Ginzburg-Landau lagrangean. The symmetry restoration through the temperature influence is studied. (L.C.)
Chiral symmetry and parametrization of scalar resonances
Arantes, L O
2005-01-01
The linear $\\s$-model is used to study the effects of chiral symmetry in unitarized amplitudes incorporating scalar resonances. When just a single resonance is present, we show that the iteration of a chiral tree amplitude by means of regularized two-pion loops preserves the smallness of $\\p\\p$ interaction at low energies and estimate the importance of pion off-shell contributions. The inclusion of a second resonance is performed by means of a chiral extension of the linear $\\s$-model lagrangian. The new $\\p\\p$ ampitude at tree level complies with low-energy theorems, depends on a mixing angle and has a zero for a given energy between the resonance masses. The unitarization of this amplitude by means of two-pion loops preserves both its chiral low energy behavior and the position of this zero confirming, in a lagrangian framework, conclusions drawn previously by T\\"ornqvist. Finally, we approximate and generalize our results and give a friendly expression that can be used in the parametrization of $N$ coupled...
Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry
Guo, Feng-Kun; Shen, Cheng-Ping
2014-01-01
Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of $O({\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}/m_Q})$, with $\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}$ the scale of QCD and $m_Q$ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism to enhance the spin symmetry breaking. Taking the decays of the $\\Upsilon(10860)$ into the $\\chi_{bJ}\\omega\\, (J=0,1,2)$ as an example, we show that a small $S$- and $D$-wave mixing can induce a significant breaking of the spin symmetry relations for the ratios of the branching fractions of these decays, owing to an enhancement of the decays of the $D$-wave component due to nearby coupled channels.
From enemies to friends: chiral symmetry on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The physics of strong interactions is invariant under the exchange of left-handed and right-handed quarks, at least in the massless limit. This invariance is reflected in the chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics. Surprisingly, it has become clear only recently how to implement this important symmetry in lattice formulations of quantum field theories. We will discuss realizations of exact lattice chiral symmetry and give an example of the computation of a physical observable in quantum chromodynamics where chiral symmetry is important. This calculation is performed by relying on finite size scaling methods as predicted by chiral perturbation theory. (orig.)
Symmetry Breaking in Neuroevolution: A Technical Report
Urfalioglu, Onay
2011-01-01
Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) comprise important symmetry properties, which can influence the performance of Monte Carlo methods in Neuroevolution. The problem of the symmetries is also known as the competing conventions problem or simply as the permutation problem. In the literature, symmetries are mainly addressed in Genetic Algoritm based approaches. However, investigations in this direction based on other Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are rare or missing. Furthermore, there are different and contradictionary reports on the efficacy of symmetry breaking. By using a novel viewpoint, we offer a possible explanation for this issue. As a result, we show that a strategy which is invariant to the global optimum can only be successfull on certain problems, whereas it must fail to improve the global convergence on others. We introduce the \\emph{Minimum Global Optimum Proximity} principle as a generalized and adaptive strategy to symmetry breaking, which depends on the location of the global optimum. We apply the...
Charge Symmetry Breaking and Nuclear Pion Production Reactions
Bolton, Daniel R
2011-01-01
Large momentum transfer reactions such as pion production represent the frontier of Chiral Perturbation Theory and must be understood before more complex reactions can be considered. Pion production is also interesting in its own right, one application being the hadronic extraction of a charge symmetry breaking parameter: the contribution of the down-up quark mass difference to the neutron-proton mass difference. This dissertation reports on two primary projects: (1) a calculation of the charge symmetry breaking forward-backward asymmetry of the differential cross section of the n p -> d pi^0 reaction, and (2) the development of a new theoretical framework addressing the issue of reducibility in the impulse approximation's contribution to pion production. It is shown that the traditional one-body impulse approximation must be replaced by a two-body operator which makes a larger contribution to s-wave pion production.
Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.
1981-07-15
The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately.
Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented
Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)
1984-10-01
A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use the permutation symmetry between the product of several group manifolds in combination with orbifolds and T-duality to construct new classes of symmetry breaking branes on products of group manifolds. The resulting branes mix the submanifolds and break part of the diagonal chiral algebra of the theory. We perform a Langrangian analysis as well as a boundary CFT construction of these branes and find agreement between the two methods
The Scalar Mesons, Symmetry Breaking, Three Colors and Confinement
Törnqvist, N A
2006-01-01
The same, well known, det(Sigma)+det(Sigma)* term, which 't Hooft showed is generated by instantons in QCD and which resolves the U(1) problem giving mass in, particular, to the eta' is argued to be the dominant term in the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. It generates not one, but three classical minima along the axial U(1) circle which connect to color through Fermi-Dirac statistics. The term also contributes, in a similar way as the diquark model of Jaffe, to an inverted scalar mass spectrum for the light scalars, and suggests a simple confinement mechanism.
Effective dissipation: breaking time-reversal symmetry
Brown, Aidan I
2016-01-01
At molecular scales, fluctuations play a significant role and prevent biomolecular processes from always proceeding in a preferred direction, raising the question of how limited amounts of free energy can be dissipated to obtain directed progress. We examine the system and process characteristics that efficiently break time-reversal symmetry at fixed energy loss; in particular for a simple model of a molecular machine, an intermediate energy barrier produces unusually high asymmetry for a given dissipation. Such insight into symmetry-breaking factors that produce particularly high time asymmetry suggests generalizations to a broader class of systems.
New aspects of scale and discrete flavor symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Kher Sham
2014-11-05
The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is complete with the discovery of the Higgs particle. However the SM cannot be a complete theory of nature as it does not explain the origin of neutrino mass, dark matter (DM), dark energy, matter-antimatter asymmetry and smallness of the strong CP parameter. From theoretical point of view we do not understand the origin of the scale separation between the electroweak (EW) and the Planck scale, and also the flavor puzzle. In this work we tackle the hierarchy problem with scale symmetry and the flavor puzzle with discrete flavor symmetries, charting new symmetry groups and their breaking, while investigating their implied phenomenologies along the way. In the first part we provide two novel mechanisms to explain the origin of the EW scale generated by quantum effects from an anomalous breaking of a classical scale invariant extension of the SM. For the first model we utilize a direct scale transmission from condensation of a scalar, charged under a high representation of QCD, to trigger EW symmetry breaking (EWSB) dynamically. In the second model, we use the indirect scale transmission approach to generate the EW scale transmitted by a singlet scalar mediator which couples to the SM and a strongly coupled hidden sector. Chiral symmetry in the dark fermion sector is broken spontaneously due to nonperturbative effects of the running coupling in the hidden sector, triggering indirectly EWSB due to dimensional transmutation and providing stable DM candidates in the form of dark pions. In the last part of this work we focus on charting new discrete flavor symmetry groups to obtain experimentally acceptable leptonic and quark mixing patterns. The interesting new discrete groups that we have found are classified mathematically and provide a new starting point for model building in discrete flavor symmetry.
Studies on phenomenological hadron models with chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this report we consider, in the context of phenomenological models for hadrons, several aspects of Skyrme-type and hybrid bag models. In the first of the two central parts we discuss two qualitatively different generalizations of the minimal SU(2) Skyrme model. One of these consists in adding to the Lagrangian density a symmetric term of fourth order in the field derivatives. Its consequences are determined for solutions and observables by analytical and numerical investigations. In the other we propose a contribution for explicit isospin symmetry breaking in the mesonic as well as the baryonic sector. Together with the standard nonlinear σ-model term it allows for exact time-dependent classical soliton solutions. Their quantization leads to a quantitative connection between the hadronic isospin mass differenced of pions and nucleons. The second main part of this report is devoted to the generalization of SU(2) bag models under the aspect of chiral symmetry. We first show that the construction of appropriate surface terms in the Lagrangian density necessitates the introduction of dynamical bosonic degrees of freedom. This allows for a variety of bag scenarios (including the 'endopionic' bag). We then consider explicit isospin symmetry breaking for hybrid bag models with a nonlinear mesonic sector. An intimate relationship is revealed between the effects of a quark mass difference and the time-dependent bosonic solutions found for the purely mesonic case. It is reflected in a nontrivial interdependence between quark and meson masses, bag radius and chiral angle. We provide an especially extensive list of references for the topics discussed in this report. (orig.)
Weak mixing matrix under permutation symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The two-Higgs-doublet extension of the standard electroweak model is considered. A permutation symmetry-breaking scheme is proposed and used to calculate the weak mixing matrix up to second order. The CP-violation factor J and the correction to Bjorken's approximation are then given. A special case is considered
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. T. Kotvytskiy
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.
Physical implications of dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some model-independent physical implications of a class of hypercolorbased theories of dynamical symmetry-breaking are described and discussed. The role which e+e- colliders can play, in distinguishing between such theories and the canonical methodology, is underlined
On the Manifestation of Chiral Symmetry in Nuclei and Dense Nuclear Matter
Brown, G E; Rho, Mannque
2002-01-01
This article reviews our view on how chiral symmetry, its pattern of breaking and restoration under extreme conditions manifest themselves in the nucleon, nuclei, nuclear matter and dense hadronic matter. Topics treated are nucleon structure in terms of chiral symmetry, "first-principle" (QCD) calculations of the properties of finite nuclei effectuated by embedding the ``standard nuclear physics approach" into the framework of effective field theories of nuclei with predictions for certain astrophysical processes, a reinterpretation of the Brown-Rho (BR) scaling that implements chiral symmetry property of baryon-rich medium \\`a la "vector manifestation" of hidden local symmetry, evidences for BR scaling in nuclear processes at normal nuclear matter density and at higher density, the notion of "broadband equilibration" in heavy-ion processes, and the role of strangeness in the formation of compact stars and their collapse into black-holes. We revisit the "Cheshire-Cat phenomenon" recently revived in the form o...
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QED3%三维 QED中的动力学手征对称破缺
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周雨青
2014-01-01
In order to examine how a propagator behaves in non-perturbative theories and how its behavior is influenced by the choice of a covariant gauge a truncated Dyson-Schwinger equation is used to numerically investigate the properties of fermions and bosons in 3D quantum electrodynamics QED and a series of self-consistent solutions for the fermion propagator in the Nambu and Wigner phases are obtained. These numerical solutions show that the propagator behaves very differently in the Landau gauge domain and in the infrared energy region outside it.By using the propagators in the Nambu and Wigner phases under various gauges it is further investigated how the fermion equivalent pressure difference and fermion condensation change with the gauge parameters.These results indicate that the phase transition described by the CJT equivalent potential and the chiral phase transition described by the chiral condensation are not completely identical.%为了研究非微扰理论中的传播子行为，以及协变规范对其行为的影响，以常用的截断方案下的Dyson－Schwinger方程为基础，采用数值联立求解的方法研究了三维量子电动力学（ QED）中的费米子和玻色子的行为，并获得了一系列不同规范下费米传播子在Nambu和Wigner相中的自洽解。对这些数值解的分析表明，远离Landau规范的红外区处，传播子行为明显不同于Landau规范中的行为。基于Nambu和Wigner相中的不同规范下的传播子，进一步对等效压力差和费米凝聚随规范参数的变化做了比较，结果表明，采用CJT等效势描述的相变与手征凝聚描述的手征相变两者之间不完全自洽。
Explicit and Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Bresking in an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宗红石; 吴小华; 侯丰尧; 赵恩广
2004-01-01
A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator from an effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Within this approach both the explicit and dynamical chiral symmetry breakings are analysed. A comparison with the previous results is given.
Dynamical quarks effects on the gluon propagation and chiral symmetry restoration
Bashir, A; Rodríguez-Quintero, J
2014-01-01
We exploit the recent lattice results for the infrared gluon propagator with light dynamical quarks and solve the gap equation for the quark propagator. Chiral symmetry breaking and confinement (intimately tied with the analytic properties of QCD Schwinger functions) order parameters are then studied.
Chiral symmety breaking in 3-flavor Nambu-Jona Lasinio model in magnetic background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chatterjee, Bhaswar; Mishra, Hiranmaya [Theory Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Mishra, Amruta [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi-110016 (India)
2011-07-15
Effect of magnetic field on chiral symmetry breaking in a 3-flavor Nambu Jona Lasinio (NJL) model at finite temperature and densities is considered here using an explicit structure of ground state in terms of quark and antiquark condensates. While at zero chemical potential and finite temperature, magnetic field enhances the condensates, at zero temperature, the critical chemical potential decreases with increasing magnetic field.
Chiral symmety breaking in 3-flavor Nambu-Jona Lasinio model in magnetic background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effect of magnetic field on chiral symmetry breaking in a 3-flavor Nambu Jona Lasinio (NJL) model at finite temperature and densities is considered here using an explicit structure of ground state in terms of quark and antiquark condensates. While at zero chemical potential and finite temperature, magnetic field enhances the condensates, at zero temperature, the critical chemical potential decreases with increasing magnetic field.
Chiral symmety breaking in 3-flavor Nambu-Jona Lasinio model in magnetic background
Chatterjee, Bhaswar; Mishra, Amruta
2011-01-01
Effect of magnetic field on chiral symmetry breaking in a 3-flavor Nambu Jona Lasinio (NJL) model at finite temperature and densities is considered here using an explicit structure of ground state in terms of quark and antiquark condensates. While at zero chemical potential and finite temperature, magnetic field enhances the condensates, at zero temperature, the critical chemical potential decreases with increasing magnetic field.
Hyperfine meson splittings: chiral symmetry versus transverse gluon exchange
Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J; Swanson, Eric S; Szczepaniak, Adam P; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Cotanch, Stephen R.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Swanson, Eric S.
2004-01-01
Meson spin splittings are examined within an effective Coulomb gauge QCD Hamiltonian incorporating chiral symmetry and a transverse hyperfine interaction necessary for heavy quarks. For light and heavy quarkonium systems the pseudoscalar-vector meson spectrum is generated by approximate BCS-RPA diagonalizations. This relativistic formulation includes both $S$ and $D$ waves for the vector mesons which generates a set of coupled integral equations. A smooth transition from the heavy to the light quark regime is found with chiral symmetry dominating the $\\pi$-$\\rho$ mass difference. A good, consistent description of the observed meson spin splittings and chiral quantities, such as the quark condensate and the $\\pi$ mass, is obtained. Similar comparisons with TDA diagonalizations, which violate chiral symmetry, are deficient for light pseudoscalar mesons indicating the need to simultaneously include both chiral symmetry and a hyperfine interaction. The $\\eta_b$ mass is predicted to be around 9400 MeV consistent w...
A Fourth Chiral Generation And Susy Breaking
Wingerter, Akin
2011-01-01
We revisit four generations within the context of supersymmetry. We compute the perturbativity limits for the fourth generation Yukawa couplings and show that if the masses of the fourth generation lie within reasonable limits of their present experimental lower bounds, it is possible to have perturbativity only up to scales around 1000 TeV, i.e. the current experimental bounds and perturbative unification are mutually exclusive. Such low scales are ideally suited to incorporate gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, where the mediation scale can be as low as 10-20 TeV. The minimal messenger model, however, is highly constrained. Lack of electroweak symmetry breaking rules out a large part of the parameter space, and in the remaining part, the fourth generation stau is tachyonic.
Partial restoration of chiral symmetry in the color flux tube
Iritani, Takumi; Hashimoto, Shoji
2015-01-01
Using the quark eigenmodes computed on the lattice with the overlap-Dirac operator, we investigate the spatial distribution of the chiral condensate around static color sources corresponding to quark-antiquark and three-quark systems. A flux structure of chromo fields appears in the presence of such color charges. The magnitude of the chiral condensate is reduced inside the color flux, which implies partial restoration of chiral symmetry inside hadrons. Taking a static baryon source in a periodic box as a toy model of the nuclear matter, we estimate the magnitude of the chiral symmetry restoration as a function of baryon matter density.
Cascading Multicriticality in Nonrelativistic Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
Griffin, Tom; Horava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi
2015-01-01
Without Lorentz invariance, spontaneous global symmetry breaking can lead to multicritical Nambu-Goldstone modes with a higher-order low-energy dispersion $\\omega\\sim k^n$ ($n=2,3,\\ldots$), whose naturalness is protected by polynomial shift symmetries. Here we investigate the role of infrared divergences and the nonrelativistic generalization of the Coleman-Hohenberg-Mermin-Wagner (CHMW) theorem. We find novel cascading phenomena with large hierarchies between the scales at which the value of $n$ changes, leading to an evasion of the "no-go" consequences of the relativistic CHMW theorem.
Heavy quark solitons strangeness and symmetry breaking
Momen, A; Subbaraman, A; Momen, Arshad; Schechter, Joseph; Subbaraman, Anand
1994-01-01
We discuss the generalization of the Callan-Klebanov model to the case of heavy quark baryons. The light flavor group is considered to be $SU(3)$ and the limit of heavy spin symmetry is taken. The presence of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term permits the neat development of a picture , at the collective level, of a light diquark bound to a ``heavy" quark with decoupled spin degree of freedom. The consequences of $SU(3)$ symmetry breaking are discussed in detail. We point out that the $SU(3)$ mass splittings of the heavy baryons essentially measure the ``low energy" physics once more and that the comparison with experiment is satisfactory.
Heavy quark solitons: Strangeness and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the generalization of the Callan-Klebanov model to the case of heavy quark baryons. The light flavor group is considered to be SU(3) and the limit of heavy spin symmetry is taken. The presence of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term permits the neat development of a picture, at the collective level, of a light diquark bound to a ''heavy'' quark with decoupled spin degree of freedom. The consequences of SU(3) symmetry breaking are discussed in detail. We point out that the SU(3) mass splitting of the heavy baryons essentially measure the ''low energy'' physics once more and that the comparison with experiment is satisfactory
Mesons in Nuclei and Partial Restoration of Chiral Symmetry
Jido, Daisuke
2016-01-01
Recent topics on mesons in nuclei are discussed by especially emphasizing the role of the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in the nuclear medium. The spontaneously broken chiral symmetry in vacuum is considered to be incompletely restored in finite nuclear density systems with moderate reduction of the magnitude of the quark condensate. On the partial restoration of chiral symmetry, the wave function renormalization is important to be taken into account for the Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We also discuss the possible change of the meson properties in the nuclear medium and meson-nucleus systems for the $\\bar K$, $\\eta$, $K^{+}$ and $\\eta^{\\prime}$ mesons.
Symmetry breaking in non conservative systems
Martínez-Pérez, N E
2016-01-01
We apply Noether's theorem to show how the invariances of conservative systems are broken for nonconservative systems, in the variational formulation of Galley. This formulation considers a conservative action, extended by the inclusion of a time reversed sector and a nonconservative generalized potential. We assume that this potential is invariant under the symmetries of the initial conservative system. The breaking occurs because the time reversed sector requires inverse symmetry transformations, under which the nonconservative potential is not invariant. The resulting violation of the conservation laws is consistent with the equations of motion. We generalize this formulation for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. In the case of a supersymmetric oscillator, the effect of damping is that the bosonic and fermionic components become different frequencies. Considering that initially the nonconservative action is invariant under supersymmetry, and that the breaking is associated to an instability, this resul...
Electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/whatever
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the first of these two lectures the Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, which does not necessarily require the existence of Higgs bosons. The general consequences of the hypothesis that electroweak symmetry breaking is due to the Higgs mechanism are deduced just from gauge invariance and unitarity. In the second lecture the general properties are illustrated with three specific models: the Weinberg-Salam model, its minimal supersymmetric extension, and technicolor. The second lecture concludes with a discussion of the experiment signals for strong WW scattering, whose presence or absence will allow us to determine whether the symmetry breaking sector lies above or below 1 TeV. 57 refs
Dynamical symmetry breaking in quantum field theories
Miransky, Vladimir A
1993-01-01
The phenomenon of dynamical symmetry breaking (DSB) in quantum field theory is discussed in a detailed and comprehensive way. The deep connection between this phenomenon in condensed matter physics and particle physics is emphasized. The realizations of DSB in such realistic theories as quantum chromodynamics and electroweak theory are considered. Issues intimately connected with DSB such as critical phenomenona and effective lagrangian approach are also discussed.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking of SU(n)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The spontaneous symmetry breaking pattern for the gauge group SU(n) is found by studying the absolute minimum of the Higgs potential, chosen as a polynomial of degree 4 of one adjoint and one fundamental representation. SU(n) may be broken into SU(n - 1) or SU(h) x SU(n - 1 - h) x U(1) (h = 1,...n - 2), depending on the values of the parameters, but without any assumption on their smallness. (orig.)
Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Beyond the Standard Model
Bhattacharyya, Gautam
2012-01-01
In this talk, I shall address two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, I shall first review the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios. I shall then compare and contrast the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models. Finally, I shall summariz...
Induced Higgs couplings and spontaneous symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that spontaneous symmetry breaking can arise in a non-Abelian gauge theory free of quartic scalar couplings only if fermions are present in the theory. A sufficiency condition is developed for positivity of the induced PHI4-potential as PHI→infinity. The same condition guarantees the existence of asymptotically free positive-eigenvalue solutions to the renormalization group equations for running coupling constants. Correspondence is established between ''eigenvalue'' and induced-potential approaches toward total asymptotic freedom. (author)
Symmetry Breaking in Topological Quantum Gravity
Mielke, Eckehard W.
2015-01-01
A SL(5, R) gauge-invariant topological field theory of gravity and possible gauge unifications are considered in four-dimensions. The problem of quantization is evaluated in the asymptotic safety scenario. `Minimal' BF type models for the high energy limit are physically not quite realistic, a tiny symmetry breaking is needed to recover standard Einsteinian gravity for the oscopic metrical background with induced cosmological constant.
Breaking of Nanotube Symmetry by Substrate Polarization
Petrov, Alexey G.; Rotkin, Slava V.
2003-01-01
Substrate and nanotube polarization are shown to change qualitatively a nanotube bandstructure. The effect is studied in a linear approximation in an external potential which causes the changes. A work function difference between the nanotube and gold surface is estimated to be large enough to break the band symmetry and lift a degeneracy of a lowest but one subband of a metallic nanotube. This subband splitting for [10,10] nanotube is about 50 meV in absence of other external potential.
Phenomenological approach to symmetry breaking pattern of democratic mass matrix
Harada, J
2002-01-01
We investigate the symmetry breaking pattern of the democratic mass matrix model, which leads to the small flavor mixing in quark sector and bi-large mixing in lepton sector. We present the symmetry breaking matrices in quark sector which are determined by alternative ways instead of conventional ansatz. These matrices might be useful for understanding the origin of democratic symmetry and its breaking.
Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of O(ΛQCD/mQ), with ΛQCD the scale of QCD and mQ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we will show that a small S- and D-wave mixing in the wave function of the heavy quarkonium could induce a large breaking in the ratios of partial decay widths. As an example, we consider the decays of the ϒ(10860) into the χbJω(J=0,1,2), which were recently measured by the Belle Collaboration. These decays exhibit a huge breaking of the spin symmetry relation were the ϒ(10860) a pure 5S bottomonium state. We propose that this could be a consequence of a mixing of the S-wave and D-wave components in the ϒ(10860). Prediction on the ratio Γ(ϒ(10860)→χb0ω)/Γ(ϒ(10860)→χb2ω) is presented assuming that the decay of the D-wave component is dominated by the coupled-channel effects
Medium effect on charge symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine the nuclear medium effect on charge symmetry breaking (CSB) caused by isospin mixing of two neutral vector mesons interacting with nucleons in the nuclear medium. Isospin mixing is assumed to occur through the transition between isoscalar and isovector mesons. We use a quantum hadrodynamic nuclear model in the mean-field approximation for the meson fields involved. We find that (i) charge symmetry is gradually restored in nuclear matter in β equilibrium as the nucleon density increases; (ii) when the system departs from β equilibrium, CSB is much enhanced because the isospin mixing depends strongly on the nucleon isovector density; (iii) this leads to the symmetry energy coefficient of 32MeV, of which more than 50 percent arises from the mesonic mean fields; (iv) the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly regarding the masses of neighboring mirror nuclei can be resolved by considering these aspects of CSB in nuclear medium. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement
Sveshnikov, K
2016-01-01
The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The reason is that such boundary conditions could yield a large magnitude of electronic wavefunction in some sector of the box boundary, what in turn promotes atomic displacement from the box center towards this part of the boundary, and so the underlying SO(3) symmetry spontaneously breaks. The emerging Goldstone modes, coinciding with rotations around the box center, restore the symmetry by spreading the atom over a spherical shell localized at some distances from the box center. Atomic confinement inside the cavity proceeds dynamically -- due to the boundary condition the deformation of electronic wavefunction near the boundary works as a spring, that returns the at...
Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems
Lima, Ricardo M.
2015-12-11
This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.
Dobado, A; Peláez, J R; Ruiz-Morales, Ester
2000-01-01
We present a unified analysis of the two main production processes of vector boson pairs at the CERN LHC, VV-fusion and qq annihilation, in a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector. Using a unitarized electroweak chiral Lagrangian formalism and modeling the final V/sub L/V/sub L/ strong rescattering effects by a form factor, we describe qq annihilation processes in terms of the two chiral parameters that govern elastic V/sub L/V/sub L/ scattering. Depending on the values of these two chiral parameters, the unitarized amplitudes may present resonant enhancements in different angular momentum-isospin channels. Scanning this two parameter space, we generate the general resonance spectrum of a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector and determine the regions that can be probed at the CERN LHC. (47 refs).
Thick brane solitons breaking $Z_2$ symmetry
Peyravi, Marzieh; Lobo, Francisco S N
2015-01-01
New soliton solutions for thick branes in 4 + 1 dimensions are considered in this article. In particular, brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), $\\varphi^{4}$ and $\\varphi^{6}$ scalar fields are investigated; in some cases $Z_{2}$ symmetry is broken. Besides, these soliton solutions are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. In these models, the origin of the symmetry breaking resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacuua and these non-degenerate vacuua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. At last, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane, the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension are studied.
Exploring Cartan gravity with dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It has been known for some time that General Relativity can be regarded as a Yang–Mills-type gauge theory in a symmetry broken phase. In this picture the gravity sector is described by an SO(1, 4) or SO(2, 3) gauge field Abμa and Higgs field Va which acts to break the symmetry down to that of the Lorentz group SO(1, 3). This symmetry breaking mirrors that of electroweak theory. However, a notable difference is that while the Higgs field Φ of electroweak theory is taken as a genuine dynamical field satisfying a Klein–Gordon equation, the gauge independent norm V2 ≡ ηabVaVb of the Higgs-type field Va is typically regarded as non-dynamical. Instead, in many treatments Va does not appear explicitly in the formalism or is required to satisfy V2 = const. ≠ 0 by means of a Lagrangian constraint. As an alternative to this we propose a class of polynomial actions that treat both the gauge connection Abμa and Higgs field Va as genuine dynamical fields with no ad hoc constraints imposed. The resultant equations of motion consist of a set of first-order partial differential equations. We show that for certain actions these equations may be cast in a second-order form, corresponding to a scalar–tensor model of gravity. One simple choice leads to the extensively studied Peebles–Ratra rolling quintessence model. Another choice yields a scalar–tensor symmetry broken phase of the theory with positive cosmological constant and an effective mass M of the gravitational Higgs field ensuring the constancy of V2 at low energies and agreement with empirical data if M is sufficiently large. More general cases are discussed corresponding to variants of Chern–Simons modified gravity and scalar-Euler form gravity, each of which yield propagating torsion. (paper)
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a classical particle
Sánchez, L A; Sanchez, Luis Alberto; Mahecha, Jorge
2003-01-01
Due to the fact that only matter fields have phase, frequently is believed that the gauge principle can induce gauge fields only in quantum systems. But this is not necessary. This paper, of pedagogical scope, presents a classical system constituted by a particle in a classical potential, which is used as a model to illustrate the gauge principle and the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Those concepts appear in the study of second order phase transitions. Ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, plasmons in a free electron gas, and the mass of vector bosons in the gauge field Yang-Mills theories, are some of the phenomena in which these transitions occur.
Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Gautam Bhattacharyya
2012-10-01
In this paper, two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking are addressed. First, how ﬁne-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, the ﬁne-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios shall be reviewed, then the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models shall be compared. Finally, a broad overview will be given on where we stand at the end of 2011.
Belich, H; Helayël-Neto, J A; Leal, F J L; Spalenza, W
2010-01-01
In this work, we present two possible venues to accomodate the $K_{F}$-type Lorentz-symmetry violating Electrodynamics in an $N=1$-supersymmetric framework. A chiral and a vector superfield are chosen to describe the background that signals Lorentz-symmetry breaking. In each case, the $\\ K_{\\mu \
Hyperscaling violation and electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in a Minimal 3-3-1 Model
Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Natale, A. A.
2012-01-01
The gauge symmetry breaking in some versions of 3-3-1 models can be implemented dynamically because at the scale of a few TeVs the $U(1)_X$ coupling constant becomes strong. In this work we consider the dynamical symmetry breaking in a minimal $SU(3)_{{}_{TC}}\\times SU(3)_{{}_{L}}\\times U(1)_{X}$ model, where we propose a new scheme to cancel the chiral anomalies, including two-index symmetric (6) technifermions, which incorporates naturally the walking behavior in the TC sector. The composit...
Chiral symmetry and scalar meson in hadron and nuclear physics
Kunihiro, T
1995-01-01
After giving a short introduction to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with an anomaly term, we show the importance of the scalar-scalar correlation in the low-energy hadron dynamics, which correlation may be summarized by a scalar-isoscalar meson, the sigma meson. The discussion is based on the chiral quark model with the sigma-meson degrees of freedom. Possible experiments are proposed to produce the elusive meson in a nucleus and detect it. In relation to a precursory soft mode for the chiral transition, the reason is clarified why the dynamic properties of the superconductor may be described by the diffusive time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation. We indicate the chiral symmetry plays a significant role also in nuclei; one may say that the stability of nuclei is due to the chiral symmetry of QCD.
On the breaking of mu-tau flavor symmetry
Zhao, Zhen-hua
2016-01-01
In light of the observation of a relatively large $\\theta^{}_{13}$, one has to consider breaking the $\\mu$-$\\tau$ symmetry properly which would otherwise result in a vanishing $\\theta^{}_{13}$ (as well as $\\theta^{}_{23} = \\pi/4$). Therefore, we investigate various symmetry-breaking patterns and accordingly identify those that are phenomenologically viable. Furthermore, the symmetry-breaking effects arising from some specific physics (e.g., the renormalization group equation running effect) are discussed as well.
Structure of the vacuum in the color dielectric model: confinement and chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two of the most important properties of Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD), spontaneous symmetry breaking of the vacuum and quark confinement at low energy, are first presented. Some important effective models for hadronic physics are then described. Putting QCD on the lattice and using the block-spin method, the color-dielectric model effective Lagrangian is obtained. The structure of the vacuum and the behaviour of uniform quark matter at high intensity are investigated in this model. Its original formulation is extended to handle chiral symmetry (by use of sigma model) and to include negative energy orbitals. At high baryonic density, the model describes the two phase transitions which are expected in QCD: deconfinement of quarks and chiral symmetry restoration. Finally, a heavy meson composed by a charmed quark anti-quark pair, is constructed, and the valence quarks confinement and the vacuum structure around them are studied
Chiral Symmetry in algebraic and analytic approaches
Vereshagin, V.; Dillig, M.; Vereshagin, A.
1996-01-01
We compare among themselves two different methods for the derivation of results following from the requirement of polynomial boundedness of tree-level chiral amplitudes. It is shown that the results of the algebraic approach are valid also in the framework of the analytical one. This means that the system of Sum Rules and Bootstrap equations previously obtained with the help of the latter approach can be analyzed in terms of reducible representations of the unbroken Chiral group with the know...
A (critical) overview of electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This presentation discusses the following points: The standard Higgs, big vs. little hierarchy; Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in supersymmetry and little hierarchy of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM): Buried Higgs, Bigger quartic (D-terms, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), fat Higgs,..); Strong dynamics and related models: Technicolor, Monopole condensate, Warped extra dimensions, Realistic RS, Higgs-less, Composite Higgs, Little Higgs. In summary, we do not understand how Higgs is light and still no trace of new physics. In Supersymmetry (SUSY) it calls for extension of MSSM. In strong dynamics models: electroweak penguin (EWP) usually issue (Warped extra dimension - composite Higgs, Higgs-less, Little Higgs, Technicolor, monopole condensation,..). None of them is fully convincing but LHC should settle these
Black Holes and Abelian Symmetry Breaking
Chagoya, Javier; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2016-01-01
Black hole configurations offer insights on the non-linear aspects of gravitational theories, and can suggest testable predictions for modifications of General Relativity. In this work, we examine exact black hole configurations in vector-tensor theories, originally proposed to explain dark energy by breaking the Abelian symmetry with a non-minimal coupling of the vector to gravity. We are able to evade the no-go theorems by Bekenstein on the existence of regular black holes in vector-tensor theories with Proca mass terms, and exhibit regular black hole solutions with a profile for the longitudinal vector polarization, characterised by an additional charge. We analytically find the most general static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions with and without a cosmological constant, and study in some detail their features, such as how the geometry depends on the vector charges. We also include angular momentum, and find solutions describing slowly-rotating black holes. Finally, we extend some of these solu...
Cosmic acceleration from Abelian symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss a consistent theory for a self-interacting vector field, breaking an Abelian symmetry in such a way to obtain an interesting behavior for its longitudinal polarization. In an appropriate decoupling limit, the dynamics of the longitudinal mode is controlled by Galileon interactions. The full theory away from the decoupling limit does not propagate ghost modes, and can be investigated in regimes where non-linearities become important. When coupled to gravity, this theory provides a candidate for dark energy, since it admits de Sitter cosmological solutions characterized by a technically natural value for the Hubble parameter. We also consider the homogeneous evolution when, besides the vector, additional matter in the form of perfect fluids is included. We find that the vector can have an important role in characterizing the universe expansion
Passive appendages aid locomotion through symmetry breaking
Bagheri, Shervin; Lacis, Ugis; Mazzino, Andrea; Kellay, Hamid; Brosse, Nicolas; Lundell, Fredrik; Ingremeau, Francois
2014-11-01
Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs, fins, and other types of appendages to aid locomotion. Despite their enormous variation, passive appendages may contribute to locomotion by exploiting the same physical mechanism. We present a new mechanism that applies to body appendages surrounded by a separated flow, which often develops behind moving bodies larger than a few millimeters. We use theory, experiments, and numerical simulations to show that bodies with protrusions turn and drift by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in flowing fluid is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming fluid flow direction. The discovery suggests a new mechanism of locomotion that may be relevant for certain organisms; for example, how plumed seeds may drift without wind and how motile animals may passively reorient themselves.
Passive appendages generate drift through symmetry breaking
Lācis, U.; Brosse, N.; Ingremeau, F.; Mazzino, A.; Lundell, F.; Kellay, H.; Bagheri, S.
2014-10-01
Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs and fins to aid locomotion. Many of these appendages are not actively controlled, instead they have to interact passively with the surrounding fluid to generate motion. Here, we use theory, experiments and numerical simulations to show that an object with a protrusion in a separated flow drifts sideways by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in a fluid flow is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming flow direction. It is plausible that organisms with appendages in a separated flow use this newly discovered mechanism for locomotion; examples include the drift of plumed seeds without wind and the passive reorientation of motile animals.
Information Content of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
Gleiser, Marcelo
2012-01-01
We propose a measure of order in the context of nonequilibrium field theory and argue that this measure, which we call relative configurational entropy (RCE), may be used to quantify the emergence of coherent low-entropy configurations, such as time-dependent or time-independent topological and nontopological spatially-extended structures. As an illustration, we investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of spontaneous symmetry-breaking in three spatial dimensions. In particular, we focus on a model where a real scalar field, prepared initially in a symmetric thermal state, is quenched to a broken-symmetric state. For a certain range of initial temperatures, spatially-localized, long-lived structures known as oscillons emerge in synchrony and remain until the field reaches equilibrium again. We show that the RCE correlates with the number-density of oscillons, thus offering a quantitative measure of the emergence of nonperturbative spatiotemporal patterns that can be generalized to a variety of physical systems.
Electronic Localization Length of Carbon Nanotubes with Different Chiral Symmetries
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨化通; 董锦明; 邢定钰
2001-01-01
The electronic localization lengths λ of metallic carbon nanotubes with different chiral symmetries have been calculated by one parameter scaling method. It is found that λ is independent of the nanotube chirality, but depends linearly on the diameter. The dependence of λ on the disorder strength W has also been studied, and a power-law relation between λ and W is also found to be independent of the tube chirality. Our numerical results are in good agreement with recent experimental observations and other theoretical results for only the "armchair"nanotubes.
Chiral Lagrangian with Heavy Quark-Diquark Symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jie Hu; Thomas Mehen
2005-11-29
We construct a chiral Lagrangian for doubly heavy baryons and heavy mesons that is invariant under heavy quark-diquark symmetry at leading order and includes the leading O(1/m{sub Q}) symmetry violating operators. The theory is used to predict the electromagnetic decay width of the J=3/2 member of the ground state doubly heavy baryon doublet. Numerical estimates are provided for doubly charm baryons. We also calculate chiral corrections to doubly heavy baryon masses and strong decay widths of low lying excited doubly heavy baryons.
Chiral symmetry and exclusive B decays in the SCET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct a chiral formalism for processes involving both energetic hadrons and soft Goldstone bosons, which extends the application of soft-collinear effective theory to multibody B decays. The nonfactorizable helicity amplitudes for heavy meson decays into multibody final states satisfy symmetry relations analogous to the large energy form factor relations, which are broken at leading order in Λ/mb by calculable factorizable terms. We use the chiral effective theory to compute the leading corrections to these symmetry relations in B->Mnπ-bar ν-bar and B->Mnπ-bar +-bar - decays, with one energetic meson Mn and one soft pion
Breaking of electroweak symmetry: origin and effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Higgs boson appears as the corner stone of high energy physics, it might be the cause of the excess of matter that led to the formation of the structures of the universe and it seems that it drives the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. Moreover, when the stability at low energies of the Higgs boson is assured by an extra space dimension, it appears that this extra dimension can explain most issues in the flavor physics that are not understood by the standard model. The first chapter presents the main tools of effective field theories, the role of experimental data in the construction of theories valid beyond the standard model is discussed. The second chapter focuses on the electroweak baryogenesis that allows the testing of new physics via the electroweak phase transition. We detail the calculation of a Higgs potential at finite temperature. We follow the dynamics of the phase transition including nucleation an supercooling. Finally we investigate the prospects of gravity wave detection to see the effects of a strong electroweak phase transition. The 2 last chapters are dedicated to the physics of extra-dimension. The properties of the dynamics of scalar, vector fields with a 1/2 spin plunged in a 5 d. Anti de Sitter geometry are reviewed. We present a model of lepton masses and mixings based on the A4 non-Abelian discrete symmetry. It is shown that this model does not contradict the tests of electroweak precision. (A.C.)
Breaking temporal symmetries for emission and absorption
Hadad, Yakir; Soric, Jason C.; Alu, Andrea
2016-03-01
Time-reversal symmetries impose stringent constraints on emission and absorption. Antennas, from radiofrequencies to optics, are bound to transmit and receive signals equally well from the same direction, making a directive antenna prone to receive echoes and reflections. Similarly, in thermodynamics Kirchhoff's law dictates that the absorptivity and emissivity are bound to be equal in reciprocal systems at equilibrium, e(ω,θ)=a(ω,θ), with important consequences for thermal management and energy applications. This bound requires that a good absorber emits a portion of the absorbed energy back to the source, limiting its overall efficiency. Recent works have shown that weak time modulation or mechanical motion in suitably designed structures may largely break reciprocity and time-reversal symmetry. Here we show theoretically and experimentally that a spatiotemporally modulated device can be designed to have drastically different emission and absorption properties. The proposed concept may provide significant advances for compact and efficient radiofrequency communication systems, as well as for energy harvesting and thermal management when translated to infrared frequencies.
Breaking temporal symmetries for emission and absorption.
Hadad, Yakir; Soric, Jason C; Alu, Andrea
2016-03-29
Time-reversal symmetries impose stringent constraints on emission and absorption. Antennas, from radiofrequencies to optics, are bound to transmit and receive signals equally well from the same direction, making a directive antenna prone to receive echoes and reflections. Similarly, in thermodynamics Kirchhoff's law dictates that the absorptivity and emissivity are bound to be equal in reciprocal systems at equilibrium,[Formula: see text], with important consequences for thermal management and energy applications. This bound requires that a good absorber emits a portion of the absorbed energy back to the source, limiting its overall efficiency. Recent works have shown that weak time modulation or mechanical motion in suitably designed structures may largely break reciprocity and time-reversal symmetry. Here we show theoretically and experimentally that a spatiotemporally modulated device can be designed to have drastically different emission and absorption properties. The proposed concept may provide significant advances for compact and efficient radiofrequency communication systems, as well as for energy harvesting and thermal management when translated to infrared frequencies. PMID:26984502
Isospin symmetry breaking in sd shell nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the thesis, we develop a microscopic approach to describe the isospin-symmetry breaking effects in sd-shell nuclei. The work is performed within the nuclear shell model. A realistic isospin-conserving Hamiltonian is perfected by a charge-dependent part consisting of the Coulomb interaction and Yukawa-type meson exchange potentials to model charge-dependent forces of nuclear origin. The extended database of the experimental isobaric mass multiplet equation coefficients was compiled during the thesis work and has been used in a fit of the Hamiltonian parameters. The constructed Hamiltonian provides an accurate theoretical description of the isospin mixing nuclear states. A specific behaviour of the IMME (Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation) coefficients have been revealed. We present two important applications: (i) calculations of isospin-forbidden proton emission amplitudes, which is often of interest for nuclear astrophysics, and (ii) calculation on corrections to nuclear Fermi beta decay, which is crucial for the tests of fundamental symmetries of the weak interaction. (author)
Golden Probe of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Chen, Yi; Spiropulu, Maria; Stolarski, Daniel; Vega-Morales, Roberto
2016-01-01
The ratio of the Higgs couplings to $WW$ and $ZZ$ pairs, $\\lambda_{WZ}$, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level/1-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that $h\\to4\\ell$ ($4\\ell \\equiv 2e2\\mu, 4e, 4\\mu$) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in $h\\to4\\ell$ to the magnitude of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumpti...
Effective meson lagrangian with chiral and heavy quark symmetries from quark flavor dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By bosonization of an extended NJL model we derive an effective meson theory which describes the interplay between chiral symmetry and heavy quark dynamics. This effective theory is worked out in the low-energy regime using the gradient expansion. The resulting effective lagrangian describes strong and weak interactions of heavy B and D mesons with pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons and light vector and axial-vector mesons. Heavy meson weak decay constants, coupling constants and the Isgur-Wise function are predicted in terms of the model parameters partially fixed from the light quark sector. Explicit SU(3)F symmetry breaking effects are estimated and, if possible, confronted with experiment. ((orig.))
A unique SU(5) and SO(10) unification with complete dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A unique asymptotically free, anomaly-free, SU(5) gauge theory is proposed as a possible complete unification of the standard model in which all symmetry-breaking is dynamical. The asymptotic freedom constraint is saturated, removing renormalon divergences and leaving well-defined instanton interactions as the only non-perturbative ingredient of the theory. Consequently, it is argued, topological vacuum polarization of a very heavy, unconventional quantum number, quark sector dominates the dynamics, producing SU(5) symmetry breaking and a three generation low energy spectrum. Electroweak symmetry breaking is due to a chiral condensate of color sextet quarks. The embedding of the theory in a single SO(10) representation is used for the dynamical analysis and may also have physical significance. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
ISOSPIN BREAKING AND THE CHIRAL CONDENSATE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CREUTZ, M.
2005-07-25
With two degenerate quarks, the chiral condensate exhibits a jump as the quark masses pass through zero. I discuss how this single transition splits into two Ising like transitions when the quarks are made non-degenerate. The order parameter is the expectation of the neutral pion field. The transitions represent long distance coherent phenomena occurring without the Dirac operator having vanishingly small eigenvalues.
SU(3) Chiral Symmetry in Non-Relativistic Field Theory
Ouellette, S M
2001-01-01
Applications imposing SU(3) chiral symmetry on non-relativistic field theory are considered. The first example is a calculation of the self-energy shifts of the spin-3/2 decuplet baryons in nuclear matter, from the chiral effective Lagrangian coupling octet and decuplet baryon fields. Special attention is paid to the self-energy of the delta baryon near the saturation density of nuclear matter. We find contributions to the mass shifts from contact terms in the effective Lagrangian with coefficients of unknown value. As a second application, we formulate an effecive field theory with manifest SU(2) chiral symmetry for the interactions of K and eta mesons with pions at low energy. SU(3) chiral symmetry is imposed on the effective field theory by a matching calculation onto three-flavor chiral perturbation theory. The effective Lagrangian for the pi-K and pi-eta sectors is worked out to order Q^4; the effective Lagrangian for the K-K sector is worked out to order Q^2 with contact interactions to order Q^4. As an...
Spontaneous Breaking of Spatial and Spin Symmetry in Spinor Condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scherer, M.; Lücke, B.; Gebreyesus, G.;
2010-01-01
Parametric amplification of quantum fluctuations constitutes a fundamental mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. In our experiments, a spinor condensate acts as a parametric amplifier of spin modes, resulting in a twofold spontaneous breaking of spatial and spin symmetry in the amplified c...
Salam-Weinberg symmetry breaking with superheavy Higgs particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss here the possibility of the breaking of the Salam-Weinberg symmetry by Higgs particles which are superheavy. The symmetry-breaking is associated with a nonzero vacuum expectation value of fermion condensates. This mechanism, if operative in nature, will imply the absence of Higgs particles at the weak scale. (author)
Discrete R symmetries and F-term supersymmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have shown that in a large number of generic and renormalizable Wess-Zumino models, existence of a Zn R-symmetry is sufficient to break supersymmetry spontaneously. This implies that the existence of a Zn R-symmetry is a necessary condition for supersymmetry breaking in generic and renormalizable Wess-Zumino models.
Dark Matter and Dark Energy from Gravitational Symmetry Breaking
Fuzfa, A
2010-01-01
We build a mechanism of gravitational symmetry breaking (GSB) of a global U(1) symmetry based on the relaxation of the equivalence principle due to the mass variation of pseudo Nambu-Goldstone dark matter (DM) particles. This GSB process is described by the modified cosmological convergence mechanism of the Abnormally Weighting Energy (AWE) Hypothesis previously introduced by the authors. Several remarkable constraints from the Hubble diagram of far-away supernovae are derived, notably on the explicit and gravitational symmetry breaking energy scales of the model. We then briefly present some consequences on neutrino masses when this mechanism is applied to the particular case of the breaking of lepton number symmetry.
Chiral symmetry in the path-integral approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The derivation of anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities related to chiral symmetries in the path-integral framework is presented. Some two-dimensional models in both abelian and non-abelian cases are discussed. The quantization of such theories using Weyl fermions is also presented. (L.C.)
Composite BPS skyrmions from an exact isospin symmetry breaking
Klimas, Pawel
2016-01-01
We study the BPS Skyrme model with potentials breaking the isospin symmetry and analyse how properties of exact solitonic solutions depend on a form of the isospin breaking potential. In the case of the strong symmetry breaking a new topologic structure is observed which enables us to decompose a BPS skyrmion into a lower dimensional defect localised on a brane (kink). We investigate some thermodynamical properties of such solitons as well as the role of the symmetry breaking potential in the resulting mean-field equation of state.
Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR correlations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Furtado, C.; Bakke, K. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2015-09-15
Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) correlations are discussed. From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the Lorentz symmetry violation and write an effective metric for the Minkowski spacetime. Then we obtain the Wigner rotation angle via the Fermi-Walker transport of spinors and consider the WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) approximation in order to study the influence of Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on the relativistic EPR correlations. (orig.)
Optimal Spatial Harvesting Strategy and Symmetry-Breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A reaction-diffusion model with logistic growth and constant effort harvesting is considered. By minimizing an intrinsic biological energy function, we obtain an optimal spatial harvesting strategy which will benefit the population the most. The symmetry properties of the optimal strategy are also discussed, and related symmetry preserving and symmetry breaking phenomena are shown with several typical examples of habitats
Charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei revisited
Gal, Avraham
2015-01-01
The large charge symmetry breaking (CSB) implied by the $\\Lambda$ binding energy difference $\\Delta B^{4}_{\\Lambda}(0^+_{\\rm g.s.})\\equiv B_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4$He)$-$$B_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4$H) = 0.35$\\pm$0.06 MeV of the $A=4$ mirror hypernuclei ground states, determined from emulsion studies, has defied theoretical attempts to reproduce it in terms of CSB in hyperon masses and in hyperon-nucleon interactions, including one pion exchange arising from $\\Lambda-\\Sigma^0$ mixing. Using a schematic strong-interaction $\\Lambda N\\leftrightarrow\\Sigma N$ coupling model developed by Akaishi and collaborators for $s$-shell $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, we revisit the evaluation of CSB in the $A=4$ $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei and extend it to $p$-shell mirror $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. The model yields values of $\\Delta B^{4}_{\\Lambda} (0^+_{\\rm g.s.})\\sim 0.25$ MeV. Smaller size and mostly negative $p$-shell binding energy differences are calculated for the $A=7-10$ mirror hypernuclei, in rough agreement with the few available dat...
Black holes and Abelian symmetry breaking
Chagoya, Javier; Niz, Gustavo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2016-09-01
Black hole configurations offer insights on the nonlinear aspects of gravitational theories, and can suggest testable predictions for modifications of General Relativity. In this work, we examine exact black hole configurations in vector–tensor theories, originally proposed to explain dark energy by breaking the Abelian symmetry with a non-minimal coupling of the vector to gravity. We are able to evade the no-go theorems by Bekenstein on the existence of regular black holes in vector–tensor theories with Proca mass terms, and exhibit regular black hole solutions with a profile for the longitudinal vector polarisation, characterised by an additional charge. We analytically find the most general static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions with and without a cosmological constant, and study in some detail their features, such as how the geometry depends on the vector charges. We also include angular momentum, and find solutions describing slowly-rotating black holes. Finally, we extend some of these solutions to higher dimensions.
Chiral-symmetry restoration in baryon-rich environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiral symmetry restoration in an environment rich in baryons is studied by computer simulation methods in SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories in the quenched approximation. The basic theory of symmetry restoration as a function of chemical potential is illustrated and the implementation of the ideas on a lattice is made explicit. A simple mean field model is presented to guide one's expectations. The second order conjugate-gradient iterative method and the pseudo-fermion Monte Carlo procedure are convergent methods of calculating the fermion propagator in an environment rich in baryons. Computer simulations of SU(3) gauge theory show an abrupt chiral symmetry restoring transition and the critical chemical potential and induced baryon density are estimated crudely. A smoother transition is observed for the color group SU(2)
Alexandru, Andrei
2014-01-01
The validity of recently proposed equivalence between valence spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (vSChSB) and chiral polarization of low energy Dirac spectrum (ChP) in SU(3) gauge theory, is examined for the case of twelve mass-degenerate fundamental quark flavors. We find that the vSChSB-ChP correspondence holds for regularized systems studied. Moreover, our results suggest that vSChSB occurs in two qualitatively different circumstances: there is a quark mass $m_c$ such that for $m > m_c$ the mode condensing Dirac spectrum exhibits standard monotonically increasing density, while for $m_{ch} < m < m_c$ the peak around zero separates from the bulk of the spectrum, with density showing a pronounced depletion at intermediate scales. Valence chiral symmetry restoration may occur at yet smaller masses $m < m_{ch}$, but this has not yet been seen by overlap valence probe, leaving the $m_{ch}=0$ possibility open. The latter option could place massless N$_f$=12 theory outside of conformal window. Anomalou...
Alexandru, Andrei; Horváth, Ivan
2016-01-01
The validity of recently proposed equivalence between valence spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (vSChSB) and chiral polarization of low energy Dirac spectrum (ChP) in SU(3) gauge theory, is examined for the case of twelve mass-degenerate fundamental quark flavors. We find that the vSChSB-ChP correspondence holds for regularized systems studied. Moreover, our results suggest that vSChSB occurs in two qualitatively different circumstances: there is a quark mass mc such that for m > mc the mode condensing Dirac spectrum exhibits standard monotonically increasing density, while for mch < m < mc the peak around zero separates from the bulk of the spectrum, with density showing a pronounced depletion at intermediate scales. Valence chiral symmetry restoration may occur at yet smaller masses m < mch, but this has not yet been seen by overlap valence probe, leaving the mch = 0 possibility open. The latter option could place massless Nf=12 theory outside of conformal window. Anomalous behavior of overlap Dirac spectrum for mch < m < mc is qualitatively similar to one observed previously in zero and few-flavor theories as an effect of thermal agitation.
A UV-complete Composite Higgs model for Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: Minimal Conformal Technicolor
Tacchi, Ruggero Altair
The Large Hadron Collider is currently collecting data. One of the main goals of the experiment is to find evidence of the mechanism responsible for the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. There are many different models attempting to explain this breaking and traditionally most of them involve the use of supersymmetry near the scale of the breaking. This work is focused on exploring a viable model that is not based on a weakly coupled low scale supersymmetry sector to explain the electroweak symmetry breaking. We build a model based on a new strong interaction, in the fashion of theories commonly called "technicolor", name that is reminiscent of one of the first attempts of explaining the electroweak symmetry breaking using a strong interaction similar to the one whose charges are called colors. We explicitly study the minimal model of conformal technicolor, an SU(2) gauge theory near a strongly coupled conformal fixed point, with conformal symmetry softly broken by technifermion mass terms. Conformal symmetry breaking triggers chiral symmetry breaking in the pattern SU(4) → Sp (4), which gives rise to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson that can act as a composite Higgs boson. There is an additional composite pseudoscalar A with mass larger than mh and suppressed direct production at LHC. We discuss the electroweak fit in this model in detail. A good fit requires fine tuning at the 10% level. We construct a complete, realistic, and natural UV completion of the model, that explains the origin of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. We embed conformal technicolor in a supersymmetric theory, with supersymmetry broken at a high scale. The effective theory below the supersymmetry breaking scale is minimal conformal technicolor with an additional light technicolor gaugino that might give rise to an additional pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson that is observable at the LHC.
Accion dark matter in the post-inflationary Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scenario
Ringwald, Andreas
2015-01-01
We consider extensions of the Standard Model in which a spontaneously broken global chiral Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry arises as an accidental symmetry of an exact $Z_N$ symmetry. For $N = 9$ or $10$, this symmetry can protect the accion - the Nambu-Goldstone boson arising from the spontaneous breaking of the accidental PQ symmetry - against semi-classical gravity effects, thus providing a proper solution of the strong CP problem, while it can at the same time provide for the small explicit symmetry breaking term needed to make models with domain wall number $N_{\\rm DW}>1$, such as the popular DFSZ model ($N_{\\rm DW}=6$), cosmologically viable even in the case where spontaneous PQ symmetry breaking occurred after inflation. We find that $N=10$ DFSZ accions with mass $m_A \\approx 3.5$-$4.2\\,\\mathrm{meV}$ can account for cold dark matter and simultaneously explain the hints for anomalous cooling of white dwarfs. The proposed helioscope IAXO - being sensitive to solar DFSZ accions with mass above a few meV - will...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the behaviour that correlation functions ought to have on the lattice in order to reproduce QCD sum rules in the continuum limit. We formulate a set of relations between lattice correlation functions of meson operators at small time separation and the quark condensates responsible for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. We suggest that the degree to which such relations are satisfied will provide a set of consistency checks on the ability of lattice Monte Carlo simulations to reproduce the correct spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the continuum limit. (author)
Testing Lorentz Symmetry using Chiral Perturbation Theory
Noordmans, J P
2016-01-01
We consider the low-energy effects of a selected set of Lorentz- and CPT-violating quark and gluon operators by deriving the corresponding chiral effective lagrangian. Using this effective lagrangian, low-energy hadronic observables can be calculated. We apply this to magnetometer experiments and derive the best bounds on some of the Lorentz-violating coefficients. We point out that progress can be made by studying the nucleon-nucleon potential, and by considering storage-ring experiments for deuterons and other light nuclei.
Is Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Still Natural in the MSSM?
Dutta, Bhaskar
2016-01-01
The absence of any signal of supersymmetry (SUSY) at the LHC has raised the SUSY particle mass scale compared to $Z$ boson mass $M_Z$. We investigate the naturalness of the electroweak symmetry breaking after considering radiative symmetry breaking along with 125 GeV Higgs mass. We find that the important quantity to measure the naturalness of the hierarchy between the SUSY scale and $M_Z$ is the separation between the radiative symmetry breaking scale, i.e., where $m_{H_u}^2+\\mu^2$ turns negative for large $\\tan\\beta$ case ($\\mu$ is the Higgsino mass and $m_{H_u}$ is the SUSY breaking up-type Higgs boson mass) and the average stop mass. Using this measure, one can show that the electroweak symmetry breaking can be natural even if $\\mu$ is large contrary to the prevailing claim that $\\mu$ is needed to be small to maintain the naturalness.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking, self-trapping, and Josephson oscillations
2013-01-01
This volume collects a a number of contributions on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Current studies in this general field are going ahead at a full speed. The book present review chapters which give an overview on the major break throughs of recent years. It covers a number of different physical settings which are introduced when a nonlinearity is added to the underlying symmetric problems and its strength exceeds a certain critical value. The corresponding loss of symmetry, called spontaneous symmetry breaking, alias self-trapping into asymmetric states is extensively discussed in this book.
Chiral Symmetry and the Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruprecht Machleidt
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We review how nuclear forces emerge from low-energy quantum chromodynamics (QCD via chiral effective field theory (EFT. During the past two decades, this approach has evolved into a powerful tool to derive nuclear two- and many-body forces in a systematic and model-independent way. We then focus on the nucleon-nucleon (N N interaction and show in detail how, governed by chiral symmetry, the long- and intermediate-range of the N N potential builds up order by order. We proceed up to sixth order in small momenta, where convergence is achieved. The final result allows for a full assessment of the validity of the chiral EFT approach to the N N interaction.
Ohsaku, T
2006-01-01
We investigate the phenomena of the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB ), color superconductivity (CSC), and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a supersymmetric (SUSY) vector-like $SU(N_{c})$ gauge model at finite temperature and density. Both the ${\\cal N}=1$ four-dimensional and ${\\cal N}=2$ three-dimensional cases are considered. We employ the ${\\cal N}=1$ four-dimensional generalized SUSY Nambu$-$Jona-Lasinio model (${\\cal N}=1$ generalized ${\\rm SNJL}_{4}$) with a chemical potential as the model Lagrangian. The ${\\cal N}=2$ three-dimensional theory is obtained by a simple dimensional reduction scheme of the four-dimensional counterpart. In order to realize the DCSB and BCS-type CSC in this model, we introduce a SUSY soft mass term. After adopting the method of SUSY auxiliary fields with the Fierz transformation in the color and flavor spaces, we discuss several possible breaking schemes of the global symmetries of the model. The effective potential is obtained by the method of large-$N_{c}N_{f}$ e...
Microscopic nuclear structure models and methods: chiral symmetry, wobbling motion and γ–bands
Sheikh, Javid A.; Bhat, Gowhar H.; Dar, Waheed A.; Jehangir, Sheikh; Ganai, Prince A.
2016-06-01
A systematic investigation of the nuclear observables related to the triaxial degree of freedom is presented using the multi-quasiparticle triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) approach. These properties correspond to the observation of γ-bands, chiral doublet bands and the wobbling mode. In the TPSM approach, γ-bands are built on each quasiparticle configuration and it is demonstrated that some observations in high-spin spectroscopy that have remained unresolved for quite some time could be explained by considering γ-bands based on two-quasiparticle configurations. It is shown in some Ce-, Nd- and Ge-isotopes that the two observed aligned or s-bands originate from the same intrinsic configuration with one of them as the γ-band based on a two-quasiparticle configuration. In the present work, we have also performed a detailed study of γ-bands observed up to the highest spin in dysposium, hafnium, mercury and uranium isotopes. Furthermore, several measurements related to chiral symmetry breaking and wobbling motion have been reported recently. These phenomena, which are possible only for triaxial nuclei, have been investigated using the TPSM approach. It is shown that doublet bands observed in lighter odd–odd Cs-isotopes can be considered as candidates for chiral symmetry breaking. Transverse wobbling motion recently observed in 135Pr has also been investigated and it is shown that TPSM approach provides a reasonable description of the measured properties.
Space Group Symmetry Fractionalization in a Chiral Kagome Heisenberg Antiferromagnet.
Zaletel, Michael P; Zhu, Zhenyue; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Vishwanath, Ashvin; White, Steven R
2016-05-13
The anyonic excitations of a spin liquid can feature fractional quantum numbers under space group symmetries. Detecting these fractional quantum numbers, which are analogs of the fractional charge of Laughlin quasiparticles, may prove easier than the direct observation of anyonic braiding and statistics. Motivated by the recent numerical discovery of spin-liquid phases in the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet, we theoretically predict the pattern of space group symmetry fractionalization in the kagome lattice SO(3)-symmetric chiral spin liquid. We provide a method to detect these fractional quantum numbers in finite-size numerics which is simple to implement in the density matrix renormalization group. Applying these developments to the chiral spin liquid phase of a kagome Heisenberg model, we find perfect agreement between our theoretical prediction and numerical observations. PMID:27232041
Axion dark matter in the post-inflationary Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scenario
Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken'ichi
2016-04-01
We consider extensions of the Standard Model in which a spontaneously broken global chiral Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry arises as an accidental symmetry of an exact ZN symmetry. For N =9 or 10, this symmetry can protect the accion—the Nambu-Goldstone boson arising from the spontaneous breaking of the accidental PQ symmetry—against semiclassical gravity effects, thus suppressing gravitational corrections to the effective potential, while it can at the same time provide for the small explicit symmetry breaking term needed to make models with domain wall number NDW>1 , such as the popular Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitsky (DFSZ) model (NDW=6 ), cosmologically viable even in the case where spontaneous PQ symmetry breaking occurred after inflation. We find that N =10 DFSZ accions with mass mA≈3.5 - 4.2 meV can account for cold dark matter and simultaneously explain the hints for anomalous cooling of white dwarfs. The proposed helioscope International Axion Observatory—being sensitive to solar DFSZ accions with mass above a few meV—will decisively test this scenario.
Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in a photonic molecule
Hamel, Philippe; Raineri, Fabrice; Monnier, Paul; Beaudoin, Gregoire; Sagnes, Isabelle; Levenson, Ariel; Yacomotti, Alejandro M
2014-01-01
Multi-cavity photonic systems, known as photonic molecules (PMs), are ideal multi-well potential building blocks for advanced quantum and nonlinear optics. A key phenomenon arising in double well potentials is the spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry, i.e. a transition from a delocalized to two localized states in the wells, which are mirror images of each other. Although few theoretical studies have addressed mirror-symmetry breaking in micro and nanophotonic systems, no experimental evidence has been reported to date. Thanks to the potential barrier engineering implemented here, we demonstrate spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking through a pitchfork bifurcation in a PM composed of two coupled photonic crystal nanolasers. Coexistence of localized states is shown by switching them with short pulses. This offers exciting prospects for the realization of ultra-compact, integrated, scalable optical flip-flops based on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict such transitions with few intr...
Vacuum polarization and dynamical symmetry breaking in de Sitter space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theory of free and interacting massless fields is constructed in static de Sitter space and also in the conic de Sitter space containing a straight-line cosmic string. Vacuum-polarization effects and dynamical symmetry breaking are studied
Chiral symmetry and its partial restoration in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model is used to discuss the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear media at zero and finite temperatures. Effects considered are (a) the proton-neutron mass difference and the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly, (b) quasi-elastic electron scattering, and (c) the nuclear response function. Finally, the likely effects of confinement for the NJL model are examined. 8 refs., 14 figs
Concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez-Bock, M. [Benemerita Univ., Puebla (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Mondragon, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Muehlleitner, M. [Laboratoire d' Annecy-Le-Vieux de Physique Theorique, 74 (France)]|[CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Spira, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. Theor. Physik E]|[Univ. Paris- Sud, Orsay (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique
2007-12-15
We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and prospects at the Tevatron, the LHC and e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders are discussed. (orig.)
Concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and prospects at the Tevatron, the LHC and e+e- linear colliders are discussed. (orig.)
Impact of symmetry breaking in networks of globally coupled oscillators
Premalatha, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2015-01-01
We analyze the consequences of symmetry breaking in the coupling in a network of globally coupled identical Stuart-Landau oscillators. We observe that symmetry breaking leads to increased disorderliness in the dynamical behavior of oscillatory states and consequently results in a rich variety of dynamical states. Depending on the strength of the nonisochronicity parameter, we find various dynamical states such as amplitude chimera, amplitude cluster, frequency chimera and frequency cluster st...
Relativistic chiral SU(3) symmetry, large Nc sum rules and meson-baryon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The relativistic chiral SU(3) Lagrangian is used to describe kaon-nucleon scattering imposing constraints from the pion-nucleon sector and the axial-vector coupling constants of the baryon octet states. We solve the covariant coupled-channel Bethe-Salpeter equation with the interaction kernel truncated at chiral order Q3 where we include only those terms which are leading in the large Nc limit of QCD. The baryon decuplet states are an important explicit ingredient in our scheme, because together with the baryon octet states they form the large Nc baryon ground states of QCD. Part of our technical developments is a minimal chiral subtraction scheme within dimensional regularization, which leads to a manifest realization of the covariant chiral counting rules. All SU(3) symmetry-breaking effects are well controlled by the combined chiral and large Nc expansion, but still found to play a crucial role in understanding the empirical data. We achieve an excellent description of the data set typically up to laboratory momenta of plab ≅ 500 MeV. (orig.)
Gedanken worlds without Higgs fields: QCD-induced electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To illuminate how electroweak symmetry breaking shapes the physical world, we investigate toy models in which no Higgs fields or other constructs are introduced to induce spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two models incorporate the standard SU(3)c x SU(2)L x U(1)Y gauge symmetry and fermion content similar to that of the standard model. The first class--like the standard electroweak theory--contains no bare mass terms, so the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry within quantum chromodynamics is the only source of electroweak symmetry breaking. The second class adds bare fermion masses sufficiently small that QCD remains the dominant source of electroweak symmetry breaking and the model can serve as a well-behaved low-energy effective field theory to energies somewhat above the hadronic scale. A third class of models is based on the left-right-symmetric SU(3)c x SU(2)L x SU(2)R x U(1) gauge group. In a fourth class of models, built on SU(4)PS x SU(2)L x SU(2)R gauge symmetry, the lepton number is treated as a fourth color and the color gauge group is enlarged to the SU(4)PS of Pati and Salam (PS). Many interesting characteristics of the models stem from the fact that the effective strength of the weak interactions is much closer to that of the residual strong interactions than in the real world. The Higgs-free models not only provide informative contrasts to the real world, but also lead us to consider intriguing issues in the application of field theory to the real world.
Symmetry Breaking of Vibrating Interfaces a Mechanism for Morphogenesis
García, N
2000-01-01
We show that very small-amplitude oscillations of a highly symmetric, spheric or cylindrical, interface (thin membrane) between two fluids can result in inhomogeneous instability and breaking of the interface symmetry: the frequency of the breathing vibration selects the spatial symmetry. This mechanism may govern morphogenesis.
Spontaneous disordering and symmetry breaking in complex plasmas
Zhdanov, Sergey K; Morfill, Gregor E
2010-01-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an essential feature of modern science. We demonstrate that it also plays an important role in the physics of complex plasmas. Complex plasmas can serve as a powerful tool for observing and studying discrete types of symmetry and disordering at the kinetic level that numerous many-body systems exhibit.
Effect of symmetry breaking on transition strength distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum numbers of over 100 states in 30P have been determined from the ground state to 8 MeV. Previous measurements had provided complete spectroscopy in 26Al. For these N=Z=odd nuclei, states of isospin T=0 and T=1 coexist at all energies. These spectra provide a unique opportunity to test the effect of symmetry breaking (of the approximate symmetry isospin) on the level statistics and on the transition strength distributions. The level statistics are strongly affected by the small symmetry breaking and the transition strength distributions differ from the Porter-Thomas distribution
Symmetry-Break in Voronoi Tessellations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valerio Lucarini
2009-08-01
Full Text Available We analyse in a common framework the properties of the Voronoi tessellations resulting from regular 2D and 3D crystals and those of tessellations generated by Poisson distributions of points, thus joining on symmetry breaking processes and the approach to uniform random distributions of seeds. We perturb crystalline structures in 2D and 3D with a spatial Gaussian noise whose adimensional strength is α and analyse the statistical properties of the cells of the resulting Voronoi tessellations using an ensemble approach. In 2D we consider triangular, square and hexagonal regular lattices, resulting into hexagonal, square and triangular tessellations, respectively. In 3D we consider the simple cubic (SC, body-centred cubic (BCC, and face-centred cubic (FCC crystals, whose corresponding Voronoi cells are the cube, the truncated octahedron, and the rhombic dodecahedron, respectively. In 2D, for all values α>0, hexagons constitute the most common class of cells. Noise destroys the triangular and square tessellations, which are structurally unstable, as their topological properties are discontinuous in α=0. On the contrary, the honeycomb hexagonal tessellation is topologically stable and, experimentally, all Voronoi cells are hexagonal for small but finite noise with α<0.12. Basically, the same happens in the 3D case, where only the tessellation of the BCC crystal is topologically stable even against noise of small but finite intensity. In both 2D and 3D cases, already for a moderate amount of Gaussian noise (α>0.5, memory of the specific initial unperturbed state is lost, because the statistical properties of the three perturbed regular tessellations are indistinguishable. When α>2, results converge to those of Poisson-Voronoi tessellations. In 2D, while the isoperimetric ratio increases with noise for the perturbed hexagonal tessellation, for the perturbed triangular and square tessellations it is optimised for specific value of noise intensity
Local Activity Principle:. the Cause of Complexity and Symmetry Breaking
Mainzer, Klaus
2013-01-01
The principle of local activity is precisely the missing concept to explain the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous medium. Leon O. Chua discovered and defined this principle in the theory of nonlinear electronic circuits in a mathematically rigorous way. The local principle can be generalized and proven at least for the class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems in physics, chemistry, biology and brain research. Recently, it was realized by memristors for nanoelectronic device applications in technical brains. In general, the emergence of complex patterns and structures is explained by symmetry breaking in homogeneous media. The principle of local activity is the cause of symmetry breaking in homogeneous media. We argue that the principle of local activity is really fundamental in science and can even be identified in quantum cosmology as symmetry breaking of local gauge symmetries generating the complexity of matter and forces in our universe. Finally, we consider applications in economic, financial, and social systems with the emergence of equilibrium states, symmetry breaking at critical points of phase transitions and risky acting at the edge of chaos. In any case, the driving causes of symmetry breaking and the emergence of complexity are locally active elements, cells, units, or agents.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity
Moon, Taeyoon
2016-01-01
We explore the possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity, whose action consists of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to the curvature with its potential. Performing dimensional reduction via ADM decomposition, we find that the model allows an exact solution giving rise to the 4D Minkowski vacuum. Exploiting the conformal invariance with Gaussian warp factor, we show that it also admits a solution which implement the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry. We investigate its stability by performing the tensor perturbation and find the resulting system is described by the conformal quantum mechanics. Possible applications to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of time-translational symmetry along the dynamical fifth direction and the brane-world scenario are discussed.
Simultaneous chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement - Consequences for the QCD phase diagram
Klahn, Thomas; Hempel, Matthias
2016-01-01
For studies of quark matter in astrophysical scenarios the thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) is commonly employed. Although successful, it does not account for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\\chi$SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction which is crucial to explain recent observations of massive, two solar mass neutron stars. In Kl\\"ahn & Fischer (2015) we developed the novel vBag quark matter model which takes these effects into account. This article extends vBag to finite temperatures and isospin asymmetry. Another particular feature of vBag is the determination of the deconfinement bag constant $B_{\\rm dc}$ from a given hadronic equation of state (EoS) in order to ensure that chiral and deconfinement transitions coincide. We discuss consequences of this novel approach for the phase transition construction and the phase diagram.
Probing Emergent Scale-Chiral Symmetry in Nuclear Interactions
Paeng, Won-Gi
2016-01-01
In effective field theory for baryonic matter in which broken scale symmetry and hidden local symmetry are incorporated, both scale invariance and local gauge invariance, invisible or perhaps even absent in the QCD vacuum, could arise at high density as emergent symmetries, with a dilaton figuring as a scalar Nambu-Goldstone boson and the $\\rho$ and $a_1$ mesons as gauge fields, the former at the "dialton-limit (DL) fixed point" and the latter at the "vector manifestation (VM) fixed point." A novel phenomenon observed in a simplified model is that the dilaton condensate in nuclear medium "walks" as density increases beyond $n_{1/2}\\sim (2-3)n_0$ and induces the in-medium hidden gauge symmetry coupling, un-scaling up to density $n_{1/2}$, to start dropping rapidly towards the VM fixed point $n_{VM} >n_{1/2} $ at which the vector meson mass vanishes, coinciding, most likely, with chiral symmetry restoration. We discuss how to probe both VM and DL properties by means of the nuclear symmetry energy and the sound ...
Experimental demonstration of decoherence-induced spontaneous symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We experimentally investigate the variations of exchange-symmetry properties of the four Bell states in an exchange-symmetric pure dephasing process with a two-photon system generated from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). Experiment results show that under such an exchange-symmetric local-noise Hamiltonian, the exchange-symmetry property remains unchanged for two of the three symmetric Bell states, i.e., the states |Φ>±=(1/√(2))(|00>±|11>). For the antisymmetric Bell state |Ψ>-=(1/√(2))(|01>-|10>), the exchange-symmetry property increases and achieves a maximum value of 0.5 at the asymptotic limit. However, for the third exchange-symmetric Bell state |Ψ>+=(1/√(2))(|01>+|10>), the exchange-symmetry property breaks, surviving with a probability of 0.5 at the asymptotic limit, which provides some evidence supporting such decoherence-induced spontaneous-symmetry-breaking phenomena.
Peripheral Nucleon-Nucleon Phase Shifts and Chiral Symmetry
Kaiser, N; Weise, W
1997-01-01
Within the one-loop approximation of baryon chiral perturbation theory we calculate all one-pion and two-pion exchange contributions to the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In fact we construct the elastic NN-scattering amplitude up to and including third order in small momenta. The phase shifts with orbital angular momentum $L\\geq2 $ and the mixing angles with $J\\geq2$ are given parameterfree and thus allow for a detailed test of chiral symmetry in the two-nucleon system. We find that for the D-waves the $2\\pi$-exchange corrections are too large as compared with empirical phase shifts, signaling the increasing importance of shorter range effects in lower partial waves. For higher partial waves, especially for G-waves, the model independent $2\\pi$-exchange corrections bring the chiral prediction close to empirical NN phase shifts. We propose to use the chiral NN phase shifts with $L\\geq 3$ as input in a future phase shift analysis. Furthermore, we compute the irreducible two-pion exchange NN-potentials in coordin...
Intermediate Symmetries in the Spontaneous Breaking of Supersymmetric SO(10)
Buccella, F.; Savoy, C.A.
2002-01-01
We study the supersymmetric spontaneous symmetry breaking of SO(10) into SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) for the most physically interesting cases of SU(5) or flipped SU(5)xU(1) intermediate symmetries. The first case is more easily realized while the second one requires a fine-tuning condition on the parameters of the superpotential. This is because in the case of SU(5) symmetry there is at most one singlet of the residual symmetry in each SO(10) irreducible representation. We also point out on more genera...
Fermion condensates and Lorentz symmetry breaking in strongly-coupled large N gauge theories
Tomboulis, E T
2012-01-01
The possibility of Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB) has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Spontaneous LSB, in particular, offers the attractive prospect of the graviton as a Nambu-Golstone boson. Here we consider the question of spontaneous LSB in lattice gauge theories via formation of fermion condensates in the strong coupling and large N limits. We employ naive massless fermions in a fermionic hopping expansion in the presence of sources coupled to various condensate operators of interest. The expansion is resumed in the large N limit in two equivalent ways: (i) direct resummation of all leading N graphs; and (ii) construction of the corresponding large N effective action for composite operators. When sources are turned off a variety of fermionic condensates is found to persist. These include the chiral symmetry breaking condensates, thus recovering previous results; but also some LSB condensates, in particular, axial vector and rank-2 tensor condensates. Furthermore, in the presence of inte...
New Evidence about the Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking: Action of an Asymmetric Weak Heat Source.
Mineo, Placido; Villari, Valentina; Scamporrino, Emilio; Micali, Norberto
2015-09-17
In the present study, we show how, in a stagnant water solution of uncharged aggregated achiral porphyrin-based molecules, a mirror-symmetry breaking (SB) can be induced and controlled by means of a weak asymmetric thermal gradient. In particular, it is shown that the optical activity of the aggregate porphyrin solution can be generated and reversed, in sign, only acting on the thermal ramp direction (heating or cooling). In order to avoid data misinterpretation, the aggregate structure modifications with the temperature change and the linear dichroism contribution to circular dichroism spectra were evaluated. A model simulation, using a finite element analysis approach describing the thermal flows, shows that small thermal gradients are able to give rise to asymmetric heat flow. The results reported here can be considered new evidence about the spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomenon induced by very weak forces having an important role in the natural chiral selective processes. PMID:26315854
Deconfinement and Chiral Symmetry Restoration in a Strong Magnetic Background
Gatto, Raoul
2010-01-01
We perform a model study of deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration in a strong magnetic background. We use a Nambu-Jona Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop, taking into account a possible dependence of the coupling on the Polyakov loop expectation value, as suggested by the recent literature. Our main result is that, within this model, the deconfinement and chiral crossovers of QCD in strong magnetic field are entangled even at the largest value of $eB$ considered here, namely $eB=30 m_\\pi^2$ (that is, $B \\approx 6\\times 10^{15}$ Tesla). The amount of split that we measure is, at this value of $eB$, of the order of 2%. We also study briefly the role of the 8-quark term on the entanglement of the two crossovers. We then compare the phase diagram of this model with previous results, as well as with available Lattice data.
Topological protection of defect states from semi-chiral symmetry
Poli, Charles; Bellec, Matthieu; Kuhl, Ulrich; Mortessagne, Fabrice
2015-01-01
Bipartite quantum systems from the chiral universality classes admit topologically protected zero modes at point defects. However, these states are difficult to separate from compacton-like localized states that arise from flat bands, formed if the two sublattices support a different number of sites within a unit cell. Here we identify a natural reduction of chiral symmetry, obtained by coupling sites on the majority sublattice, which gives rise to spectrally isolated point-defect states, topologically characterized as zero modes supported by the complementary minority sublattice. We observe these states in a microwave realization of a dimerized Lieb lattice with next-nearest neighbour coupling, and also demonstrate topological mode selection via sublattice-staggered absorption.
Deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration in a strong magnetic background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform a model study of deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration in a strong magnetic background. We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop, taking into account a possible dependence of the coupling on the Polyakov-loop expectation value, as suggested by the recent literature. Our main result is that, within this model, the deconfinement and chiral crossovers of QCD in strong magnetic field are entangled even at the largest value of eB considered here, namely eB=30mπ2 (that is, B≅6x1015 T). The amount of split that we measure is, at this value of eB, of the order of 2%. We also study briefly the role of the 8-quark term on the entanglement of the two crossovers. We then compare the phase diagram of this model with previous results, as well as with available lattice data.
Unified dark matter with intermediate symmetry breaking scales
Lonsdale, Stephen J.
2015-06-01
Asymmetric symmetry breaking models dynamically break the G ×G gauge symmetries of mirror models to distinct subgroups in the two sectors. The coincidental abundances of visible and dark matter, ΩDM≃5 ΩVM , motivates asymmetric dark matter theories where similar number densities of baryons in each sector are explained by their connected origins. However, the question of why the baryons of two sectors should have similar mass remains. In this work we develop an alternative class of asymmetric symmetry breaking models which unify the dark and visible sectors while generating a small difference in the mass scale of the baryons of each sector. By examining the different paths that the SO(10) GUT group can take in breaking to gauge symmetries containing SU(3), we can adapt the mechanism of asymmetric symmetry breaking to demonstrate models in which originally unified visible and dark sectors have isomorphic color gauge groups at low energy yet pass through different intermediate gauge groups at high energy. Through this, slight differences in the running coupling evolutions and, thus, the confinement scales of the two sectors are generated.
Unified dark matter with intermediate symmetry breaking scales
Lonsdale, Stephen J
2014-01-01
Asymmetric symmetry breaking models dynamically break the G X G gauge symmetries of mirror models to distinct subgroups in the two sectors. The coincidental abundances of visible and dark matter, $\\Omega_{DM} \\simeq 5\\Omega_{VM}$, motivates asymmetric dark matter theories where similar number densities of baryons in each sector are explained by their connected origins. However the question of why the baryons of two sectors should have similar mass remains. In this work we develop an alternative class of asymmetric symmetry breaking models which unify the dark and visible sectors while generating a small difference in the mass scale of the baryons of each sector. By examining the different paths that the SO(10) GUT group can take in breaking to gauge symmetries containing SU(3) we can adapt the mechanism of asymmetric symmetry breaking to demonstrate models in which originally unified visible and dark sectors have isomorphic color gauge groups at low energy yet pass through different intermediate gauge groups ...
Higgs-like mechanism for spontaneous spacetime symmetry breaking
Nishimura, Kimihide
2015-10-01
The study of spontaneous breakdown of spacetime symmetries leads to the discovery of another type of Higgs mechanism operating in a chiral SU(2) model. Some of the Nambu-Goldstone vector mesons emergent from simultaneous violations of gauge and Lorentz symmetries are, in this case, absorbed by a left-handed doublet and endow one of the fermions with a right-handed state, while another part becomes emergent as photons. Accordingly, this mechanism allows a chiral fermion to acquire a mass, and it may enable the emergent theory to reproduce the electromagnetism equivalent to the QED sector in the standard theory. It is also mentioned that the "fermion-boson puzzle" known in the presence of a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole does not exist in our theory.
Spontaneous breaking of spatial symmetries in collective neutrino oscillations
Duan, Huaiyu
2014-01-01
A dense neutrino medium can experience collective oscillations or self-induced flavor transformation through nonlinear neutrino-neutrino refraction. To make the problem of collective neutrino oscillations more tractable, all previous studies on this subject have assumed some spatial symmetry or symmetries in the neutrino medium (e.g., translation symmetries in the early universe and spherical symmetry in core-collapse supernovae). We point out that the collective oscillation modes studied in such models are very special. Using a simple toy model we show that spatial symmetries can be broken spontaneously in collective neutrino oscillations. We also show that the spatial-symmetry-breaking (SSB) modes of neutrino oscillations can exist for both neutrino mass hierarchies and even in the regimes where collective neutrino oscillations were previously thought to be suppressed. This finding calls for study of collective neutrino oscillations in multi-dimensional models.
Chiral symmetry and pion condensation. II. General formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of chiral symmetry in pion condensation was explored through model calculations in the preceding paper. Here we present model-independent results which justify and sometimes go beyond the previous work. Our methods are based on functional techniques used in field theory. The paper is not self-contained and is meant to be read in conjunction with the preceding one. In the course of this work we were led to look at low-energy π-N interactions. In a brief survey, it is pointed out that they are more complicated than is commonly assumed
Instabilities of Hexagonal Patterns with Broken Chiral Symmetry
Echebarria, B; Echebarria, Blas; Riecke, Hermann
1999-01-01
Three coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations for hexagonal patterns with broken chiral symmetry are investigated. They are relevant for the dynamics close to onset of rotating non-Boussinesq or surface-tension-driven convection. Steady and oscillatory, long- and short-wave instabilities of the hexagons are found. For the long-wave behavior coupled phase equations are derived. Numerical simulations of the Ginzburg-Landau equations indicate bistability between spatio-temporally chaotic patterns and stable steady hexagons. The chaotic state can, however, not be described properly with the Ginzburg-Landau equations.
Chiral symmetry and nuclear matter equation of state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A B Santra
2001-08-01
We investigate the effect on the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) due to modiﬁcation of meson and nucleon parameters in nuclear medium as a consequence of partial restoration of chiral symmetry. To get the EOS, we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Golstone formalism with Bonn- potential as two-body interaction and QCD sum rule and Brown–Rho scaling prescriptions for modiﬁcation of hadron parameters. We ﬁnd that EOS is very much sensitive to the meson parameters. We can ﬁt, with two body interaction alone, both the saturation density and the binding energy per nucleon.
Radiatively induced breaking of conformal symmetry in a superpotential
Arbuzov, A. B.; Cirilo-Lombardo, D. J.
2016-07-01
Radiatively induced symmetry breaking is considered for a toy model with one scalar and one fermion field unified in a superfield. It is shown that the classical quartic self-interaction of the superfield possesses a quantum infrared singularity. Application of the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism for effective potential leads to the appearance of condensates and masses for both scalar and fermion components. That induces a spontaneous breaking of the initial classical symmetries: the supersymmetry and the conformal one. The energy scales for the scalar and fermion condensates appear to be of the same order, while the renormalization scale is many orders of magnitude higher. A possibility to relate the considered toy model to conformal symmetry breaking in the Standard Model is discussed.
Radiatively Induced Breaking of Conformal Symmetry in a Superpotential
Arbuzov, A B
2015-01-01
Radiatively induced symmetry breaking is considered for a toy model with one scalar and one fermion field unified in a superfield. It is shown that the classical quartic self-interaction of the superfield possesses a quantum infrared singularity. Application of the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism for effective potential leads to the appearance of condensates and masses for both scalar and fermion components. That induces a spontaneous breaking of the initial classical symmetries: the supersymmetry and the conformal one. The energy scales for the scalar and fermion condensates appear to be of the same order, while the renormalization scale is many orders of magnitude higher. A possibility to relate the considered toy model to conformal symmetry breaking in the Standard Model is discussed.
Massive photons from Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking
Bonetti, Luca; Helayël-Neto, José A; Spallicci, Alessandro D A M
2016-01-01
In the context of Standard Model Extensions (SMEs), we analyse four general classes of Super Symmetry (SuSy) and Lorentz Symmetry (LoSy) breaking, leading to {observable} imprints at our energy scales. The photon dispersion relations show a non-Maxwellian behaviour for the CPT (Charge-Parity-Time reversal symmetry) odd and even sectors. The group velocities exhibit also a directional dependence with respect to the breaking background vector (odd CPT) or tensor (even CPT). In the former sector, the group velocity may decay following an inverse squared frequency behaviour. Thus, we extract a massive and gauge invariant Carroll-Field-Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the mass is proportional to the breaking vector. The latter is estimated by ground measurements and leads to a photon mass upper limit of $10^{-19}$ eV or $2 \\times 10^{-55}$ kg and thereby to a potentially measurable delay at low radio frequencies.
Symmetries and symmetry breaking beyond the electroweak theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Glashow-Salam-Weinberg theory describing electroweak interactions is one of the best successes of quantum field theory; it has passed all the experimental tests of particles physics with a high accuracy. However, this theory suffers from some deficiencies in the sense that some parameters, especially those involved in the generation of the mass of the elementary particles, are fixed to unnatural values. Moreover gravitation whose quantization cannot be achieved in ordinary quantum filed theory is hot taken into account. The aim of this PhD dissertation is to study some theories beyond the Standard Model and inspired by superstring theories. My endeavour has been to develop theoretical aspects of an effective dynamical description of one of the soltonic states of the strongly coupled strings. An important part of my results is also devoted to a more phenomenological analysis of the low energy effects of the symmetries that assure the coherence of the theories at high energy: these symmetries could explain the fermion mass hierarchy and could be directly observable in collider experiments. It is also shown how the geometrical properties of compactified spaces characterize the vacuum of string theory in a non-perturbative regime; such a vacuum can be used to construct a unified theory of gauge and gravitational interactions with a supersymmetry softy broken at a TcV scale. (author)
Mixed Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking in Models with Anomalous U(1) Gauge Symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Kiwoon, E-mail: kchoi@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2010-11-01
There can be various built-in sources of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, e.g. the U(1) D-term, the F-components of the modulus superfield required for the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism and the chiral matter superfields required to cancel the Fayet-Iliopoulos term, and finally the supergravity auxiliary component which can be parameterized by the F-component of chiral compensator. The relative strength between these supersymmetry breaking sources depends crucially on the characteristics of D-flat direction and also on how the D-flat direction is stabilized at a vacuum with nearly vanishing cosmological constant. We examine the possible pattern of the mediation of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, and find that various different mixed mediation scenarios can be realized, including the mirage mediation which corresponds to a mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, D-term domination giving a split sparticle spectrum, and also a mixed gauge-D-term mediation scenario.
Mixed Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking in Models with Anomalous U(1) Gauge Symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There can be various built-in sources of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, e.g. the U(1) D-term, the F-components of the modulus superfield required for the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism and the chiral matter superfields required to cancel the Fayet-Iliopoulos term, and finally the supergravity auxiliary component which can be parameterized by the F-component of chiral compensator. The relative strength between these supersymmetry breaking sources depends crucially on the characteristics of D-flat direction and also on how the D-flat direction is stabilized at a vacuum with nearly vanishing cosmological constant. We examine the possible pattern of the mediation of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, and find that various different mixed mediation scenarios can be realized, including the mirage mediation which corresponds to a mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, D-term domination giving a split sparticle spectrum, and also a mixed gauge-D-term mediation scenario.
Symmetry breaking and restoration in Lifshitz type theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farakos, K., E-mail: kfarakos@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Metaxas, D., E-mail: metaxas@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)
2012-02-07
We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in scalar field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling. For z=2, there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature. For z=3, we considered at first the case with a positive mass term at tree level and found no symmetry breaking effects induced at one loop, and then we study the case with a negative mass term at tree level where we cannot conclude about symmetry restoration effects at high temperature because of the imaginary parts that appear in the effective potential for small values of the scalar field.
Symmetry breaking and restoration in Lifshitz type theories
Farakos, K.; Metaxas, D.
2012-02-01
We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in scalar field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling. For z = 2, there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature. For z = 3, we considered at first the case with a positive mass term at tree level and found no symmetry breaking effects induced at one loop, and then we study the case with a negative mass term at tree level where we cannot conclude about symmetry restoration effects at high temperature because of the imaginary parts that appear in the effective potential for small values of the scalar field.
Symmetry breaking and restoration in Lifshitz type theories
Farakos, K
2011-01-01
We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in scalar field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling. For $z=2$, there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one-loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature. For $z=3$, we considered at first the case with a positive mass term at tree level and found no symmetry breaking effects induced at one-loop, and then we study the case with a negative mass term at tree level where we cannot conclude about symmetry restoration effects at high temperature because of the imaginary parts that appear in the effective potential for small values of the scalar field.
Charge symmetry breaking in pn {yields} d {pi}{sup 0}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filin, Arseniy [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Baru, Vadim [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Epelbaum, Evgeny [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Haidenbauer, Johann; Hanhart, Christoph [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kudryavtsev, Alexander [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Meissner, Ulf G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2010-07-01
We study charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the reaction pn {yields} d {pi}{sup 0}. CSB manifests itself in a forward-backward asymmetry of the differential cross section measured recently at TRIUMF. A complete calculation of CSB effects at leading order in chiral perturbation theory is performed. A new leading-order operator is included. This allowed us to extract the strong contribution to the neutron-proton mass difference. The value obtained is consistent with the result of Gasser and Leutwyler based on Cottingham sum rule and an extraction from lattice QCD.
Charge Symmetry Breaking in the Nucleon and Parity Violating Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering
Miller, Gerald A
2014-01-01
The basic facts of charge symmetry breaking (CSB) phenomena are reviewed. The relevance of CSB to parity-violating electron-proton scattering experiments that seek to extract strange elastic form factors is discussed. Experimentalists have stated and written that the current uncertainty in our knowledge of CSB limits the ability to push further on the strange form factors. I discuss recent calculations using relativistic chiral perturbation theory and realistic values of strong coupling constants which show that the uncertainties due to lack of knowledge of CSB are at least ten times smaller than present experimental uncertainties. Estimates of CSB effects are made for the JLab Qweak and Mainz P2 experiments.
Symmetry breaking effects on spin and electronic transport in graphene
Asmar, Mahmoud M; Ulloa, Sergio E.
2015-01-01
The decoration of graphene samples with adatoms or nanoparticles leads to the enhancement of spin-orbit interactions as well as to the introduction of symmetry-breaking effects that could have drastic effects on spin and electronic transport phenomena. We present an analysis based on symmetry considerations and examine the impact on the scattering matrix for graphene systems containing defects that enhance spin-orbit interactions, while conserving the electronic total angular momentum. We sho...
Origin of fermion masses without spontaneous symmetry breaking
Ayyar, Venkitesh
2015-01-01
Using a simple three dimensional lattice four-fermion model we argue that massless fermions can become massive due to interactions without the need for any spontaneous symmetry breaking. Using large scale Monte Carlo calculations within our model, we show that this non-traditional mass generation mechanism occurs at a second order quantum critical point that separates phases with the same symmetries. Universality then suggests that the new origin for the fermion mass should be of wide interest.
Origin of fermion masses without spontaneous symmetry breaking
Ayyar, Venkitesh; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh
2016-04-01
Using large scale Monte Carlo calculations in a simple three dimensional lattice fermion model, we establish the existence of a second order quantum phase transition between a massless fermion phase and a massive one, both of which have the same symmetries. This shows that fermion masses can arise due to dynamics without the need for spontaneous symmetry breaking. Universality suggests that this alternate origin of the fermion mass should be of fundamental interest.
Analogue symmetry breaking in superallowed Fermi β-decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The change in the Fermi matrix element due to deviations from perfect analogue symmetry has been estimated in a single-particle model with both harmonic oscillator and Saxon-Woods radial wave functions. A limitation of earlier calculations, in which the ground state of the A-1 nucleus was taken as the unique parent, is removed to allow the whole spectrum of parent states to be operative. This improvement leads to slightly larger analogue symmetry breaking effects. (Auth.)
Higgs mechanism without spontaneous symmetry breaking and quark confinement
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2016-01-01
We propose a novel description for the Higgs mechanism by which a gauge boson acquires the mass in a manifestly gauge-invariant way. In the Higgs mechanism, we do not assume spontaneous breakdown of gauge symmetry signaled by a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of the scalar field. The spontaneous symmetry breaking is sufficient but not necessary for the Higgs mechanism to work. This enables us to discuss the confinement-Higgs complementarity from a new perspective.
Symmetry-Breaking Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Broadband Light Bending
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ni, Xingjie; Emani, Naresh K.; Kildishev, Alexander V.;
2012-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate unparalleled wave-front control in a broadband, optical wavelength range from 1.0 μm to 1.9 μm, using a thin plasmonic layer (metasurface) consisting of a nanoantenna array that breaks the symmetry along the interface.......We experimentally demonstrate unparalleled wave-front control in a broadband, optical wavelength range from 1.0 μm to 1.9 μm, using a thin plasmonic layer (metasurface) consisting of a nanoantenna array that breaks the symmetry along the interface....
Finding strongly interacting symmetry breaking at the SSC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golden, M.
1989-02-01
Pairs of gauge bosons, W and Z, are a probe of the electroweak symmetry-breaking sector, since the numbers of two gauge boson events are much larger in strongly coupled models than weak. The doubly charged channels W/sup +/W/sup +/ and W/sup /minus//W/sup/minus// are cleanest, since they do not suffer from q/bar q/ or gg fusion backgrounds. The like-charged gauge boson events are observable only if the symmetry breaking sector is strongly interacting. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in annealed and quenched gauge field models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structure of annealed and quenched models with local U(1) gauge invariance is studied in terms of the Helmholtz free energy. The first non-trivial, or one-loop, account of fluctuations in the annealed model suggests that spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in two and three dimensions, through a first-order phase transition. Within the same approximation scheme, the quenched model displays a continuous phase transition. A more complete account of the fluctuations in the annealed model changes the nature of the transition to a continuous one, whereas spontaneous symmetry breaking is then absent with quenched disorder. (author)
Modular Ground State for SU(8) Symmetry Breaking
Adler, Stephen L
2015-01-01
We elaborate on our recent proposal of a modular ground state structure for the first stage of $SU(8)$ symmetry breaking by a scalar in the 56 representation. We review the arguments for $U(1)$ generator modularity 15, and show that this can lead to a vanishing mass for the $U(1)$ gauge boson, as needed for the symmetry breaking pattern $SU(8) \\supset SU(3) \\times SU(5) \\times U(1)$. We then give a simplified form for the modulo 5 ground state obeying clustering, that we have conjectured to lead from broken $SU(8)$ to the flipped $SU(5)$ model. Generalizations of these results are also given.
Comment on "Electromagnetic Radiation under Explicit Symmetry Breaking"
Simovski, C; Belov, P; Krasnok, A
2015-01-01
Recently published paper [PRL 114, 147701 (2015)] contains several misleading statements and misinterpretations of known facts. The main massage of the paper [PRL 114, 147701 (2015)] is as follows: "We have shown that explicit symmetry breaking in the structural configuration of charges leads to symmetry breaking of the electric field which results in electromagnetic radiation due to non-conservative current within a localized region of space and time" seems to transcend mere empiricism, touching the theoretical foundations of electromagnetism. Moreover, basic mistakes are numerous in this article and its main claim is wrong. Below we prove it citing the paper and arguing against it.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in correlated wave functions
Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Becca, Federico; Gros, Claudius
2016-03-01
We show that Jastrow-Slater wave functions, in which a density-density Jastrow factor is applied onto an uncorrelated fermionic state, may possess long-range order even when all symmetries are preserved in the wave function. This fact is mainly related to the presence of a sufficiently strong Jastrow term (also including the case of full Gutzwiller projection, suitable for describing spin models). Selected examples are reported, including the spawning of Néel order and dimerization in spin systems, and the stabilization of charge and orbital order in itinerant electronic systems.
Dynamical 'breaking' of time reversal symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is a common assumption that quantum systems with time reversal invariance and classically chaotic dynamics have energy spectra distributed according to GOE type of statistics. Here we present a class of systems which fail to follow this rule. We show that for convex billiards of constant width with time reversal symmetry and 'almost' chaotic dynamics the energy-level distribution is of GUE type. The effect is due to the lack of ergodicity in the 'momentum' part of the phase space and, as we argue, is generic in two dimensions. (fast track communication)
Relating spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking in the presence of the Higgs mechanism
Pedro, Leonardo
2016-01-01
One common way to define spontaneous symmetry breaking involves necessarily explicit symmetry breaking. We add explicit symmetry breaking terms to the Higgs potential, so that the spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry in multi-Higgs-doublet models is a particular case of explicit symmetry breaking. Then we show that it is possible to study the Higgs potential without assuming that the local gauge $SU(2)_L$ symmetry is spontaneously broken or not (it is known that gauge symmetries may not be possible to break spontaneously). We also discuss the physical spectrum of multi-Higgs-doublet models and the related custodial symmetry. We review background symmetries: these are symmetries that despite already explicitly broken, can still be spontaneously broken. We show that the CP background symmetry is not spontaneously broken, based on this fact: we explain in part a recent conjecture relating spontaneous and explicit breaking of the charge-parity (CP) symmetry; we also relate explicit and spontaneous geometric ...
Spontaneous Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Moving Media
Silveirinha, M G
2014-01-01
Optical instabilities in moving media are linked to a spontaneous parity-time symmetry breaking of the system. It is shown that in general the time evolution of the electromagnetic waves in moving media is determined by a non-Hermitian parity-time symmetric operator. For lossless systems the frequency spectrum of the time evolution operator may be complex valued, and has a mirror symmetry with respect to the real-frequency axis. The possibility of optical amplification of a light pulse in the broken parity-time symmetry regime is demonstrated.
Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Coupled Nanobeam Cavities
Zhang, Senlin; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Sailing
2015-01-01
The parity-time symmetry (PT symmetry) breaking phenomenon is investigated in a coupled nanobeam cavity system. An exceptional point is observed during the tuning of the relation of the gain/loss and coupling strength of the closely placed nanobeam pairs. The PT symmetry concept can be applied to realize unidirectional light propagation and single mode operation lasers, which may allow for a new way to harness the optical signal in photonic integrated circuits. Otherwise, operating at this particular exceptional point, sensitivity of tiny perturbation detection can be enhanced greatly compared with conventional sensors.
Contact process with sublattice symmetry breaking.
de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins; Dickman, Ronald
2011-07-01
We study a contact process with creation at first- and second-neighbor sites and inhibition at first neighbors, in the form of an annihilation rate that increases with the number of occupied first neighbors. Mean-field theory predicts three phases: inactive (absorbing), active symmetric, and active asymmetric, the latter exhibiting distinct sublattice densities on a bipartite lattice. These phases are separated by continuous transitions; the phase diagram is re-entrant. Monte Carlo simulations in two dimensions verify these predictions qualitatively, except for a first-neighbor creation rate of zero. (In the latter case one of the phase transitions is discontinuous.) Our numerical results confirm that the symmetric-asymmetric transition belongs to the Ising universality class, and that the active-absorbing transition belongs to the directed percolation class, as expected from symmetry considerations. PMID:21867131
Relativistic symmetry breaking in light kaonic nuclei
Yang, Rong-Yao; Xiang, Qian-Fei; Zhang, Dong-Rui; Wei, Si-Na
2014-01-01
As the experimental data from kaonic atoms and $K^{-}N$ scatterings imply that the $K^{-}$-nucleon interaction is strongly attractive at saturation density, there is a possibility to form $K^{-}$-nuclear bound states or kaonic nuclei. In this work, we investigate the ground-state properties of the light kaonic nuclei with the relativistic mean field theory. It is found that the strong attraction between $K^{-}$ and nucleons reshapes the scalar and vector meson fields, leading to the remarkable enhancement of the nuclear density in the interior of light kaonic nuclei and the manifest shift of the single-nucleon energy spectra and magic numbers therein. As a consequence, the pseudospin symmetry is shown to be violated together with enlarged spin-orbit splittings in these kaonic nuclei.
Spectral signatures of high-symmetry quantum dots and effects of symmetry breaking
Karlsson, K. F.; Oberli, D. Y.; Dupertuis, M. A.; Troncale, V.; Byszewski, M.; Pelucchi, E.; Rudra, A.; Holtz, P. O.; Kapon, E.
2015-10-01
High symmetry epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) with three or more symmetry planes provide a very promising route for the generation of entangled photons for quantum information applications. The great challenge to fabricate nanoscopic high symmetry QDs is further complicated by the lack of structural characterization techniques able to resolve small symmetry breaking. In this work, we present an approach for identifying and analyzing the signatures of symmetry breaking in the optical spectra of QDs. Exciton complexes in InGaAs/AlGaAs QDs grown along the [111]B crystalline axis in inverted tetrahedral pyramids are studied by polarization resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy combined with lattice temperature dependence, excitation power dependence and temporal photon correlation measurements. By combining such a systematic experimental approach with a simple theoretical approach based on a point-group symmetry analysis of the polarized emission patterns of each exciton complex, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a strict and coherent identification of all the observable spectral patterns of numerous exciton complexes and a quantitative determination of the fine structure splittings of their quantum states. This analysis is found to be particularly powerful for selecting QDs with the highest degree of symmetry (C3v and {D}3h) for potential applications of these QDs as polarization entangled photon sources. We exhibit the optical spectra when evolving towards asymmetrical QDs, and show the higher sensitivity of certain exciton complexes to symmetry breaking.
On the symmetry of the vacuum in theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking
Perez, Alejandro
2008-01-01
We review the usual account of the phenomena of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), pointing out the common misunderstandings surrounding the issue, in particular within the context of quantum field theory. In fact, the common explanations one finds in this context, indicate that under certain conditions corresponding to the situation called SSB, the vacuum of the theory does not share the symmetries of the Lagrangian. We explain in detail why this statement is incorrect in general, and in what limited set of circumstances such situation could arise. We concentrate on the case of global symmetries, for which we found no satisfactory exposition in the existing literature, and briefly comment on the case of gauge symmetries where, although insufficiently publicized, accurate and complete descriptions exist. We briefly discuss the implications for the phenomenological manifestations usually attributed to the phenomena of spontaneous symmetry breaking, analyzing which might be affected by our analysis and which ...
Radiative decays, nonet symmetry, and SU(3) breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We reexamine the problem of simultaneously describing in a consistent way all radiative and leptonic decays of light mesons (V→Pγ, P→Vγ, P→γγ, V→e+e-). For this purpose, we rely on the hidden local symmetry model in both its anomalous and non-anomalous sectors. We show that the SU(3) symmetry breaking scheme proposed by Bando, Kugo and Yamawaki, supplemented with nonet symmetry breaking in the pseudoscalar sector, allows one to reach a nice agreement with all data, except for the K*± radiative decay. An extension of this breaking pattern allows one to account for this particular decay mode too. Considered together, the whole set of radiative decays provides a pseudoscalar mixing angle θP≅-11 degree and a value for θV which is ≅3 degree from that of ideal mixing. We also show that it is impossible, in a practical sense, to disentangle the effects of nonet symmetry breaking and those of glue inside the η', using only light meson decays. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism for quaternion fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the context of quaternion valued fields spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism are investigated. In particular, for the potential -(μ2/2)phi-barphi-(λ/4)(phi-barphi)2, Goldstone's theorem is studied and, for the gauge theory of automorphisms of the quaternions, a Higgs mechanism investigated
The symmetry breaking phenomenon in anharmonic oscillator model
Mastine, Antonio Carlos; Natti, Erica Regina Takano
2010-01-01
In this article a non-perturbative time-dependent technique is used to treat the initial value problem, in Quantum Mechanics context, for a non-equilibrium self-interacting fermionic system in the presence of an external magnetic field. Particularly, in mean-field regime, we study the dynamical symmetry breaking phenomenon, identifying the physical processes associated.
Quantum electroweak symmetry breaking through loop quadratic contributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Bai
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Based on two postulations that (i the Higgs boson has a large bare mass mH≫mh≃125 GeV at the characteristic energy scale Mc which defines the Standard Model (SM in the ultraviolet region, and (ii quadratic contributions of Feynman loop diagrams in quantum field theories are physically meaningful, we show that the SM electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by the quadratic contributions from loop effects. As the quadratic running of Higgs mass parameter leads to an additive renormalization, which distinguishes from the logarithmic running with a multiplicative renormalization, the symmetry breaking occurs once the sliding energy scale μ moves from Mc down to a transition scale μ=ΛEW at which the additive renormalized Higgs mass parameter mH2(Mc/μ gets to change the sign. With the input of current experimental data, this symmetry breaking energy scale is found to be ΛEW≃760 GeV, which provides another basic energy scale for the SM besides Mc. Studying such a symmetry breaking mechanism could play an important role in understanding both the hierarchy problem and naturalness problem. It also provides a possible way to explore the experimental implications of the quadratic contributions as ΛEW lies within the probing reach of the LHC and the future Great Collider.
Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buccella, F. [Napoli Federico II Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche; INFN, Napoli (Italy); Hoegaasen, H. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics (Norway); Richard, J.M. [Universite Joseph Fourier-IN2P3-CNRS 53, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Sorba, P. [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Theorique (LAPTH) (France)
2007-02-15
The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty. (orig.)
Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty. (orig.)
Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks
Buccella, F.; Høgaasen, H.; Richard, J.-M.; Sorba, P.
2007-02-01
The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty.
Symmetry breaking patterns for unitary and orthogonal groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buccella, F.; Ruegg, H.; Savoy, C.A.
1980-04-01
The spontaneous symmetry breaking pattern for SU(n) and 0(10) is discussed. It is based on the exact treatment of the absolute minimum of the Higgs potential as a function of scalar fields belonging to the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(n), the spinor and adjoint representations of 0(10). 2 tables.
Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks
Buccella, F; Richard, J M; Sorba, Paul; Buccella, Franco; Hogaasen, Hallstein; Richard, Jean-Marc; Sorba, Paul
2007-01-01
The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty.
Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks
Buccella, Franco; Hogaasen, Hallstein; Richard, Jean-Marc; Sorba, Paul
2006-01-01
The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism for quaternion fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nash, C.; Joshi, G.C.
1987-02-01
In the context of quaternion valued fields spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism are investigated. In particular, for the potential -(..mu../sup 2//2)phi-barphi-(lambda/4)(phi-barphi)/sup 2/, Goldstone's theorem is studied and, for the gauge theory of automorphisms of the quaternions, a Higgs mechanism investigated.
Ads/CFT correspondence and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study, using the dual AdS description, the vacua of field theories where some of the gauge symmetry is broken by expectation values of scalar fields. In such vacua, operators built out of the scalar fields acquire expectation values, and we show how to calculate them from the behavior of perturbations to the AdS background near the boundary. Specific examples include the N = 4 SYM theory, and theories on D3-branes placed on orbifolds and conifolds. We also clarify some subtleties of the AdS/CFT correspondence that arise in this analysis. In particular, we explain how scalar fields in AdS space of sufficiently negative mass-squared can be associated with CFT operators of two possible dimensions. All dimensions are bounded from below by (d-2)/2; this is the unitarity bound for scalar operators in d-dimensional field theory. We further argue that the generating functional for correlators in the theory with one choice of operator dimension is a Legendre transform of the generating functional in the theory with the other choice
Unified framework for symmetry breaking in SO(10)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new SO(10) unified model is proposed based on a one-step breaking of SO(10) to the standard model gauge group SU(3)CxSU(2)LxU(1)Y using a single 144 of Higgs. The symmetry breaking occurs when the SU(5) 24-plet component of 144 develops a vacuum expectation value. Further, it is possible to obtain from the same 144 a light Higgs doublet necessary for electroweak symmetry breaking using recent ideas of string vacua landscapes and fine-tuning. Thus the breaking of SO(10) down to SU(3)CxU(1)em can be accomplished with a single Higgs. We analyze this symmetry breaking pattern in the nonsupersymmetric as well as in the supersymmetric SO(10) model. In this scenario masses of the quarks and leptons arise via quartic couplings. We show that the resulting mass pattern is consistent with experimental data, including neutrino oscillations. The model represents an alternative to the currently popular grand unified scenarios
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in General Relativity. Brane World Concept
Meierovich, Boris E
2009-01-01
Gravitational properties of a hedge-hog type topological defect in two extra dimensions are considered in General Relativity employing a vector as the order parameter. The developed macroscopic theory of phase transitions with spontaneous symmetry breaking is applied to the analysis of possible "thick" brane structures. The previous considerations were done using the order parameter in the form of a multiplet in a target space of scalar fields. The difference of these two approaches is analyzed and demonstrated in detail. There are two different symmetries of regular solutions of Einstein equations for a hedgehog type vector order parameter. Both solutions are analyzed in parallel analytically and numerically. Regular configurations in cases of vector order parameter have one more free parameter in comparison with the scalar multiplet solutions. It is shown that the existence of a negative cosmological constant is sufficient for the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the initially plain bulk. Regular configurat...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filin, A.; Baru, V. [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie) and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Epelbaum, E. [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie) and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Haidenbauer, J., E-mail: j.haidenbauer@fz-juelich.d [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie) and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Hanhart, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie) and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kudryavtsev, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Meissner, U.-G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie) and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2009-11-16
We perform a complete calculation of charge symmetry breaking effects for the reaction pn->dpi{sup 0} at leading order in chiral perturbation theory. A new leading-order operator is included. From our analysis we extract deltam{sub N}{sup str}, the strong contribution to the neutron-proton mass difference. The value obtained, deltam{sub N}{sup str}=(1.5+-0.8 (exp.)+-0.5 (th.)) MeV, is consistent with the result based on the Cottingham sum rule. This agreement provides a non-trivial test of our current understanding of the chiral structure of QCD.
Strange Baryon Electromagnetic Form Factors and SU(3) Flavor Symmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Huey-Wen; Orginos, Konstantinos
2009-01-01
We study the nucleon, Sigma and cascade octet baryon electromagnetic form factors and the effects of SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking from 2+1-flavor lattice calculations. We find that electric and magnetic radii are similar; the maximum discrepancy is about 10\\%. In the pion-mass region we explore, both the quark-component and full-baryon moments have small SU(3) symmetry breaking. We extrapolate the charge radii and the magnetic moments using three-flavor heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBXPT). The systematic errors due to chiral and continuum extrapolations remain significant, giving rise to charge radii for $p$ and $\\Sigma^-$ that are 3--4 standard deviations away from the known experimental ones. Within these systematics the predicted $\\Sigma^+$ and $\\Xi^-$ radii are 0.67(5) and 0.306(15)~fm$^2$ respectively. When the next-to-next-to-leading order of HBXPT is included, the extrapolated magnetic moments are less than 3 standard deviations away from PDG values, and the d
Time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum billiards
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Florian
2009-01-26
The present doctoral thesis describes experimentally measured properties of the resonance spectra of flat microwave billiards with partially broken timereversal invariance induced by an embedded magnetized ferrite. A vector network analyzer determines the complex scattering matrix elements. The data is interpreted in terms of the scattering formalism developed in nuclear physics. At low excitation frequencies the scattering matrix displays isolated resonances. At these the effect of the ferrite on isolated resonances (singlets) and pairs of nearly degenerate resonances (doublets) is investigated. The hallmark of time-reversal symmetry breaking is the violation of reciprocity, i.e. of the symmetry of the scattering matrix. One finds that reciprocity holds in singlets; it is violated in doublets. This is modeled by an effective Hamiltonian of the resonator. A comparison of the model to the data yields time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements in the order of the level spacing. Their dependence on the magnetization of the ferrite is understood in terms of its magnetic properties. At higher excitation frequencies the resonances overlap and the scattering matrix elements fluctuate irregularly (Ericson fluctuations). They are analyzed in terms of correlation functions. The data are compared to three models based on random matrix theory. The model by Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller and Zirnbauer describes time-reversal invariant scattering processes. The one by Fyodorov, Savin and Sommers achieves the same for systems with complete time-reversal symmetry breaking. An extended model has been developed that accounts for partial breaking of time-reversal invariance. This extended model is in general agreement with the data, while the applicability of the other two models is limited. The cross-correlation function between forward and backward reactions determines the time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements of the Hamiltonian to up to 0.3 mean level spacings. Finally
Time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum billiards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present doctoral thesis describes experimentally measured properties of the resonance spectra of flat microwave billiards with partially broken timereversal invariance induced by an embedded magnetized ferrite. A vector network analyzer determines the complex scattering matrix elements. The data is interpreted in terms of the scattering formalism developed in nuclear physics. At low excitation frequencies the scattering matrix displays isolated resonances. At these the effect of the ferrite on isolated resonances (singlets) and pairs of nearly degenerate resonances (doublets) is investigated. The hallmark of time-reversal symmetry breaking is the violation of reciprocity, i.e. of the symmetry of the scattering matrix. One finds that reciprocity holds in singlets; it is violated in doublets. This is modeled by an effective Hamiltonian of the resonator. A comparison of the model to the data yields time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements in the order of the level spacing. Their dependence on the magnetization of the ferrite is understood in terms of its magnetic properties. At higher excitation frequencies the resonances overlap and the scattering matrix elements fluctuate irregularly (Ericson fluctuations). They are analyzed in terms of correlation functions. The data are compared to three models based on random matrix theory. The model by Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller and Zirnbauer describes time-reversal invariant scattering processes. The one by Fyodorov, Savin and Sommers achieves the same for systems with complete time-reversal symmetry breaking. An extended model has been developed that accounts for partial breaking of time-reversal invariance. This extended model is in general agreement with the data, while the applicability of the other two models is limited. The cross-correlation function between forward and backward reactions determines the time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements of the Hamiltonian to up to 0.3 mean level spacings. Finally
The QCD chiral transition, $\\ua$ symmetry and the Dirac spectrum using domain wall fermions
Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H -T; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Mawhinney, R D; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao; Lin, Zhongjie
2013-01-01
We report on a study of the finite-temperature QCD transition region for temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV, with a pion mass of 200 MeV and two space-time volumes: $24^3\\times8$ and $32^3\\times8$, where the larger volume varies in linear size between 5.6 fm (at T=139 MeV) and 4.0 fm (at T=195 MeV). These results are compared with the results of an earlier calculation using the same action and quark masses but a smaller, $16^3\\times8$ volume. The chiral domain wall fermion formulation with a combined Iwasaki and dislocation suppressing determinant ratio gauge action are used. This lattice action accurately reproduces the $\\sua$ and $\\ua$ symmetries of the continuum. Results are reported for the chiral condensates, connected and disconnected susceptibilities and the Dirac eigenvalue spectrum. We find a pseudo-critical temperature, $T_c$, of approximately 165 MeV consistent with previous results and strong finite volume dependence below $T_c$. Clear evidence is seen for $\\ua$ symmetry breaking above $T_c$ whi...
Eta Photoproduction as a Test of the Extended Chiral Symmetry
Fernandez-Ramirez, C; Udias, J M
2007-01-01
We analyze the $\\gamma p \\to \\eta p$ process from threshold up to 1.2 GeV, employing an effective Lagrangian approach that allows for a mixing of eta couplings of pseudoscalar and pseudovector nature. The mixing ratio of the couplings may serve as a quantitative estimation of the $SU_L(3)\\times SU_R(3)$ extended chiral symmetry violation in this energy regime. The data analyzed (differential cross sections and asymmetries) show a preference for the pseudoscalar coupling -- 91% of pseudoscalar coupling component for the best fit. We stress that a more conclusive answer to this question requires a more complete electromagnetic multipole database than the presently available one.
Chiral symmetry effect on the pion-nucleon coupling constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we study the effects of chiral symmetry in the pion-nucleon coupling constant in the context of the linear σ- model. First, we introduce the linear σ-model and we discuss the phenomenological hypothesis of CVC and PCAC. Next, we calculate the coupling constant g+πNN(q2) and the nucleon pionic mean square radius considering the contribution of all the diagrams up to one-loop in the framework of the linear σ-model for different values of the mass of the sigma meson and we compare them with the phenomenological form factors. Finally we make an extension of the linear σ-model that consists of taking into account the mass differences of ions and nucleons into the Lagrangian of the model, to study the change dependence of gπnn (q2) and of the mean square radius. (author)
Lorentz Symmetry Breaking and its consequences on Thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: In this work, we study the effects of Lorentz Symmetry Breaking on thermodynamics properties of ideal gases. We start from a dispersion relation obtained from the Carroll-Field-Jackiw model to Electrodynamics with Lorentz and CPT violation term. With this, we compute the thermodynamics quantities for a Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions. Two regimes are analyzed: the non-relativistic and the relativistic one. In the first case we show that the topological mass induced by the Chern-Simons term behaves as a chemical potential. For the Bose-Einstein condensates with these Lorentz breaking, the critical values as particle number, and temperature, are modified. These results are the same that were obtained by Colladay et al, whose perform the non-relativistic limit directly in the Hamiltonian for a Lorentz symmetry violating theory and used this to study the Bose-Einstein condensate to obtain a bound for the background field which perform the breaking. The original contribution of these work is in the relativistic regime, where we show that a new phase transition for a Bose -Einstein gas, can be induced by the Lorentz Symmetry Breaking parameters. Some applications in cosmology and astrophysics are commented. (author)
Lorentz Symmetry Breaking and its consequences on Thermodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa-Soares, T.; Sales, J.A. de; Otoya, V.J. Vasques [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Sudeste de Minas Gerais (IF Sudeste MG), MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text: In this work, we study the effects of Lorentz Symmetry Breaking on thermodynamics properties of ideal gases. We start from a dispersion relation obtained from the Carroll-Field-Jackiw model to Electrodynamics with Lorentz and CPT violation term. With this, we compute the thermodynamics quantities for a Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions. Two regimes are analyzed: the non-relativistic and the relativistic one. In the first case we show that the topological mass induced by the Chern-Simons term behaves as a chemical potential. For the Bose-Einstein condensates with these Lorentz breaking, the critical values as particle number, and temperature, are modified. These results are the same that were obtained by Colladay et al, whose perform the non-relativistic limit directly in the Hamiltonian for a Lorentz symmetry violating theory and used this to study the Bose-Einstein condensate to obtain a bound for the background field which perform the breaking. The original contribution of these work is in the relativistic regime, where we show that a new phase transition for a Bose -Einstein gas, can be induced by the Lorentz Symmetry Breaking parameters. Some applications in cosmology and astrophysics are commented. (author)
Intermediate Symmetries in the Spontaneous Breaking of Supersymmetric SO(10)
Buccella, F.; Savoy, C. A.
We study the supersymmetric spontaneous symmetry breaking of SO(10) into SU(3) ⊗ SU(2) ⊗ U(1) for the most physically interesting cases of SU(5) or flipped SU(5) ⊗ U(1) intermediate symmetries. The first case is more easily realized while the second one requires a fine-tuning condition on the parameters of the superpotential. This is because in the case of SU(5) symmetry there is at most one singlet of the residual symmetry in each SO(10) irreducible representation. We also point out on more general grounds in supersymmetric GUTs that some intermediate symmetries can be exactly realized and others can only be approximated by fine-tuning. In the first category, there could occur some tunneling between the vacua with exact and approximate intermediate symmetry. The flipped SU(5) ⊗ U(1) symmetry improves the unification of gauge couplings if (B-L) is broken by ∥(B-L)∥ =1 scalars yielding right-handed neutrino masses below 1014 GeV.
Intermediate Symmetries in the Spontaneous Breaking of Supersymmetric SO(10)
Buccella, F
2002-01-01
We study the supersymmetric spontaneous symmetry breaking of SO(10) into SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) for the most physically interesting cases of SU(5) or flipped SU(5)xU(1) intermediate symmetries. The first case is more easily realized while the second one requires a fine-tuning condition on the parameters of the superpotential. This is because in the case of SU(5) symmetry there is at most one singlet of the residual symmetry in each SO(10) irreducible representation. We also point out on more general grounds in supersymmetric GUT's that some intermediate symmetries can be exactly realized and others can only be approximated by fine-tuning. In the first category, there could occur some tunneling between the vacua with exact and approximate intermediate symmetry. The flipped SU(5)xU(1) symmetry improves the unification of gauge couplings if (B-L) is broken by (B-L)=1 scalars yielding right handed neutrino masses below 10^{14} GeV}.
3D toroidal physics: Testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spong, Donald A., E-mail: spongda@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States)
2015-05-15
Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to provide the plasma control needed for a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D edge localized mode suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. This motivates the development of physics models that are applicable across the full range of 3D devices. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with the requirements of future fusion reactors.
Mode conversion by symmetry breaking of propagating spin waves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clausen, P.; Vogt, K.; Schultheiss, H.; Schafer, S.; Obry, B.; Wolf, G.; Pirro, P.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B. (Materials Science Division); (Technische Universitat Kaiserslautern); (Grad. School of Excellence Mater. Sci. in Mainz); (Univ. Albama)
2011-10-01
We study spin-wave transport in a microstructured Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} waveguide exhibiting broken translational symmetry. We observe the conversion of a beam profile composed of symmetric spin-wave width modes with odd numbers of antinodes n = 1, 3,... into a mixed set of symmetric and asymmetric modes. Due to the spatial homogeneity of the exciting field along the used microstrip antenna, quantized spin-wave modes with an even number n of antinodes across the stripe's width cannot be directly excited. We show that a break in translational symmetry may result in a partial conversion of even spin-wave waveguide modes.
SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking and charmed states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By extending the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion from up, down and strange sea quark masses to partially quenched valence quark masses we propose a method to determine charmed quark hadron masses including possible QCD isospin breaking effects. Initial results for some open charmed pseudoscalar meson states and singly and doubly charmed baryon states are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Essential for the method is the determination of the scale using singlet quantities, and to this end we also give here a preliminary estimation of the recently introduced Wilson flow scales.
SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking and charmed states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Hyogo (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Collaboration: QCDSF-UKQCD Collaborations
2013-11-15
By extending the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion from up, down and strange sea quark masses to partially quenched valence quark masses we propose a method to determine charmed quark hadron masses including possible QCD isospin breaking effects. Initial results for some open charmed pseudoscalar meson states and singly and doubly charmed baryon states are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Essential for the method is the determination of the scale using singlet quantities, and to this end we also give here a preliminary estimation of the recently introduced Wilson flow scales.
Breaking of flavor permutational symmetry and the CKM matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phase equivalence of the theoretical quark mixing matrix Vth derived from the breaking of the flavor permutational symmetry and the standard parameterization VPDG advocated by the Particle Data Group is explicity exhibited. From here, we derive exact explicit expressions for the three mixing angles θ12,θ13,θ23, and the CP violating phase δ13 in terms of the quark mass ratios (mu/mt,mc/mt,md/mb,ms/mb) and the parameters Z*1/2 and Φ* characterizing the preferred symmetry breaking pattern. The computed values for the CP violating phase and the mixing angles are: δ13*=75 deg., sin θ12*=0.221, sin θ13*=0.0034, and sin θ23*=0.040, which coincide almost exactly with the central values of the experimentally determined quantities
The CKM matrix from a scheme of flavour symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theoretical |VCKMth| mixing matrix which is a function of the four mass ratios and the CP violating phase α is derived from a simple scheme for breaking the flavour permutational symmetry. We assumed that the symmetry breaking pattern is the same in the u and d-sectors, and imposed a phenomenologically motivated constraint on the amount of mixing of singlet and doublet irreducible representations of S(3)L x S(3)R. A χ2 fit of the matrix of the absolute values |VCKMth| to the experimentally determined |VCKMexp| gives the best value for α=76.7 deg. and the value Jth=-2.18x10-5 for the Jarlskog invariant in good agreement with the experimental values. The agreement between |VCKMth| and |VCKMexp| is also very good with χ2=0.28
Breaking discrete symmetries in the effective field theory of inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the phenomenon of discrete symmetry breaking during the inflationary epoch, using a model-independent approach based on the effective field theory of inflation. We work in a context where both time reparameterization symmetry and spatial diffeomorphism invariance can be broken during inflation. We determine the leading derivative operators in the quadratic action for fluctuations that break parity and time-reversal. Within suitable approximations, we study their consequences for the dynamics of linearized fluctuations. Both in the scalar and tensor sectors, we show that such operators can lead to new direction-dependent phases for the modes involved. They do not affect the power spectra, but can have consequences for higher correlation functions. Moreover, a small quadrupole contribution to the sound speed can be generated
Electroweak symmetry breaking after LEP1 and LEP2
Barbieri, Riccardo; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Strumia, Alessandro; Barbieri, Riccardo; Pomarol, Alex; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Strumia, Alessandro
2004-01-01
In a generic 'universal' theory of electroweak symmetry breaking, non fine-tuned heavy new physics affects the low-energy data through four parameters, which include and properly extend the generally insufficient S and T. Only by adding the LEP2 data to the global electroweak fit, can all these four form factors be determined and deviations from the SM be strongly constrained. Several of the recently proposed models (little Higgs, gauge bosons in extra dimensions or Higgsless models in 5D) are recognized to be 'universal' in a straightforward way after a proper definition of the effective vector boson fields. Among various applications, we show that proposed Higgsless models in 5D, when calculable, do not provide a viable description of electroweak symmetry breaking in their full range of parameters.
Capdevilla, R. M.; Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Natale, A. A.
2015-01-01
Considering a QCD chiral symmetry breaking model where the gap equation contains an effective confining propagator and a dressed gluon propagator with a dynamically generated mass, we verify that the chiral symmetry is restored for a large number of quarks $n_{f}\\approx 7-13$. We discuss the uncertainty in the results, that is related to the determination of the string tension ($K_{F}$), appearing in the confining propagator, and the effective gluon mass ($m_{g}$) at large $n_{f}$.
Localization and chiral symmetry in 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present results for the dependence of the residual mass of domain wall fermions (DWF) on the size of the fifth dimension and its relation to the density and localization properties of low-lying eigenvectors of the corresponding hermitian Wilson Dirac operator relevant to simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD. Using the DBW2 and Iwasaki gauge actions, we generate ensembles of configurations with a 163 x 32 space-time volume and an extent of 8 in the fifth dimension for the sea quarks. We demonstrate the existence of a regime where the degree of locality, the size of chiral symmetry breaking and the rate of topology change can be acceptable for inverse lattice spacings a-1 (ge) 1.6 GeV
Localization and chiral symmetry in 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David J. Antonio; Kenneth C. Bowler; Peter A. Boyle; Norman H. Christ; Michael A. Clark; Saul D. Cohen; Chris Dawson; Alistair Hart; Balint Joó; Chulwoo Jung; Richard D. Kenway; Shu Li; Meifeng Lin; Robert D. Mawhinney; Christopher M. Maynard; Shigemi Ohta; Robert J. Tweedie; Azusa Yamaguchi
2008-01-01
We present results for the dependence of the residual mass of domain wall fermions (DWF) on the size of the fifth dimension and its relation to the density and localization properties of low-lying eigenvectors of the corresponding hermitian Wilson Dirac operator relevant to simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD. Using the DBW2 and Iwasaki gauge actions, we generate ensembles of configurations with a $16^3\\times 32$ space-time volume and an extent of 8 in the fifth dimension for the sea quarks. We demonstrate the existence of a regime where the degree of locality, the size of chiral symmetry breaking and the rate of topology change can be acceptable for inverse lattice spacings $a^{-1} \\ge 1.6$ GeV.
Symmetry-Breaking Metamaterials Enabling Broadband Negative Permeability
Trang, Pham Thi; Nguyen, Bui Huu; Tiep, Dinh Hong; Thuy, Le Minh; Lam, Vu Dinh; Tung, Nguyen Thanh
2016-05-01
Looking for a metamaterial, which can operate over a broad frequency band, has been indispensable towards promising applications. In this report, we propose a simple approach, allowing enlargement of the negative permeability band by breaking the structural symmetry in conventional cut-wire-pair metamaterials. Equivalent LC circuit and finite integration simulations are performed to explain underlying physics of the band expansion. Microwave samples are also prepared and measured to verify the proposed idea.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking and Goldstone theorem for composite states revisited
Fariborz, Amir H
2016-01-01
We discuss the well-known phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking for a linear sigma model for scalar and pseudoscalar mesons based on the meson composite structure and the normalization of the quantum states. To test our formulation and validate our approach we give another proof of the Goldstone theorem and derive the corresponding mass eigenstates of the theory. We briefly describe the possible wave function of a meson that leads to the adequate mass eigenstates.
Cosmological Symmetry Breaking and Generation of Electromagnetic Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michiyasu Nagasawa
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Cosmological phase transitions accompanied by some kind of symmetry breaking would cause the creation of topological defects and the resulting production of primordial magnetic field. Moreover, such a procedure inevitably affects the cosmic background radiation and it may be observed today. Motivated by the existence of stabilized embedded defects in the standard model of elementary interactions, we discuss their application to the cosmological electromagnetic field generation.
Symmetry-breaking dynamics of the modulational instability spectrum.
Droques, M; Barviau, B; Kudlinski, A; Taki, M; Boucon, A; Sylvestre, T; Mussot, A
2011-04-15
We demonstrate in an optical fiber that third-order dispersion yields an unexpected symmetry-breaking dynamics of the modulational instability spectrum. It is found in particular that this spectral asymmetry does not smoothly and monotonically increase when approaching the zero-dispersion wavelength. Instead, it exhibits several local extrema and it can even be reversed at a particular dispersion value. We interpret this behavior as resulting from interactions between dispersive waves and solitons generated from modulation instability. PMID:21499356
Neutrino Masses in Theories with Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Appelquist, Thomas; Shrock, Robert
2002-01-01
We address the problem of accounting for light neutrino masses in theories with dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We discuss this in the context of a class of (extended) technicolor (ETC) models and analyze the full set of Dirac and Majorana masses that arise in such theories. As a possible solution, we propose a combination of suppressed Dirac masses and a seesaw involving dynamically generated $|\\Delta L|=2$ condensates of standard-model singlet, ETC-nonsinglet fermions. We show how ...
Breaking of flavor permutational symmetry and the CKM matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Different ansaetze for the breaking of the flavor permutational symmetry according to SL(3) x SR(3) superset of SL(2) x SR(2) give different Hermitian mass matrices which differ in the symmetry breaking pattern. In this work we obtain a clear and precise indication on the preferred symmetry breaking pattern. The preferred pattern allows us to compute the CKM mixing matrix, the Jarlskog invariant J, and the three inner angles of the unitarity triangle in terms of four quark mass ratios and the CP violating phase Φ. Excellent agreement with the experimentally determined absolute values of the entries in the CKM matrix is obtained for Φ=90 deg. The corresponding computed values of the Jarlskog invariant and the inner angles are J=3.00x10-5, α=84 deg., β=24 deg. and γ=72 deg. in very good agreement with current data on CP violation in the neutral kaon-antikaon system and oscillations in the Bs deg.-B-bars deg. system
Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores
Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osmanović, D.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J. [London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kerr-Winter, M.; Eccleston, R. C. [Centre for Mathematics, Physics and Engineering in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2015-01-21
The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.
Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Coupled Nanobeam Cavities
Zhang, Senlin; Yong, Zhengdong; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Sailing
2016-04-01
The concept of parity-time symmetry (PT symmetry) originates from the canonical quantum mechanics and has become a hot topic recently. As a versatile platform to investigate the intriguing concept, both theoretical and experimental works in optics have been implemented. In this paper, the PT symmetry breaking phenomenon is investigated in a coupled nanobeam cavity system. An exceptional point is observed during the tuning of the gain/loss level and the coupling strength of the closely placed nanobeam pair. Unidirectional light propagation is investigated, as well as enhanced sensitivity of single particle detection in the vicinity of the exceptional point. The proposed system is easy to be integrated with photonic integrated circuits and can be strongly coupled to optical waveguides.
Quasiaverages, symmetry breaking and irreducible Green functions method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.L.Kuzemsky
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The development and applications of the method of quasiaverages to quantum statistical physics and to quantum solid state theory and, in particular, to quantum theory of magnetism, were considered. It was shown that the role of symmetry (and the breaking of symmetries in combination with the degeneracy of the system was reanalyzed and essentially clarified within the framework of the method of quasiaverages. The problem of finding the ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and superconducting "symmetry broken" solutions of the correlated lattice fermion models was discussed within the irreducible Green functions method. A unified scheme for the construction of generalized mean fields (elastic scattering corrections and self-energy (inelastic scattering in terms of the equations of motion and Dyson equation was generalized in order to include the "source fields". This approach complements previous studies of microscopic theory of antiferromagnetism and clarifies the concepts of Neel sublattices for localized and itinerant antiferromagnetism and "spin-aligning fields" of correlated lattice fermions.
Matter Mass Generation and Theta Vacuum Dynamical Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
Roh, H S
2001-01-01
This work proposes a stringent concept of matter mass generation and Theta vacuum in the context of local gauge theory for the strong force under the constraint of the flat universe. The matter mass is generated as the consequence of dynamical spontaneous symmetry breaking (DSSB) of gauge symmetry and discrete symmetries, which is motivated by the parameter Theta representing the surface term. Matter mass generation introduces the typical features of constituent particle mass, dual Meissner effect, and hyperfine structure. The Theta term plays important roles on the DSSB of the gauge group and on the quantization of the matter and vacuum space. The Theta vacuum exhibits the intrinsic principal number and intrinsic angular momentum for intrinsic space quantization in analogy with the extrinsic principal number and extrinsic angular momentum for extrinsic space quantization.
Subtle Is The Manifestation Of Chiral Symmetry In Nuclei And Dense Nuclear Matter
Rho, Mannque
2010-01-01
The history of how chiral symmetry has entered in nuclear physics, in which Gerry Brown and I have participated from 1970 up to today, is described from my personal viewpoint. The route of development we have traversed together goes from meson exchange currents, to ``little chiral bag," to chiral effective field theory, to ``Brown-Rho scaling" and then to dense matter and chiral phase transition. It has been a great fun and exciting, some right and some wrong in what we have done together, but none that can be dismissed as ``not even wrong." We have found all along that whatever signal there may be for the manifestation of chiral symmetry in nuclear medium, be it at low density in meson exchange currents or at high density approaching the chiral phase transition, is very similar in its intricacy and subtlety.
Hebeler, K.; Schwenk, A.
2014-01-01
We discuss neutron matter calculations based on chiral effective field theory interactions and their predictions for the symmetry energy, the neutron skin of 208 Pb, and for the radius of neutron stars.
Executive summary of the Snowmass 2001 working group (P1) ''Electroweak Symmetry Breaking''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this summary report of the 2001 Snowmass Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Working Group, the main candidates for theories of electroweak symmetry breaking are surveyed, and the criteria for distinguishing among the different approaches are discussed. The potential for observing electroweak symmetry breaking phenomena at the upgraded Tevatron and the LHC is described. We emphasize the importance of a high-luminosity e+e- linear collider for precision measurements to clarify the underlying electroweak symmetry breaking dynamics. Finally, we note the possible roles of the μ+μ- collider and VLHC for further elucidating the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michiya Fujiki
2010-08-01
Full Text Available From elemental particles to human beings, matter is dissymmetric with respect to mirror symmetry. In 1860, Pasteur conjectured that biomolecular handedness— homochirality—may originate from certain inherent dissymmetric forces existing in the universe. Kipping, a pioneer of organosilicon chemistry, was interested in the handedness of sodium chlorate during his early research life. Since Kipping first synthesized several Si-Si bonded oligomers bearing phenyl groups, Si-Si bonded high polymers carrying various organic groups—polysilanes—can be prepared by sodium-mediated condensation of the corresponding organodichlorosilanes. Among these polysilanes, optically active helical polysilanes with enantiomeric pairs of organic side groups may be used for testing the mirror symmetry-breaking hypothesis by weak neutral current (WNC origin in the realm of chemistry and material science. Several theoretical studies have predicted that WNC-existing chiral molecules with stereogenic centers and/or stereogenic bonds allow for distinguishing between image and mirror image molecules. Based on several amplification mechanisms, theorists claimed that minute differences, though still very subtle, may be detectable by precise spectroscopic and physicochemical measurements if proper chiral molecular pairs were employed. The present paper reports comprehensively an inequality between six pairs of helical polysilane high polymers, presumably, detectable by (chiroptical and achiral 29Si-/13C- NMR spectra, and viscometric measurements.
Effect of Symmetry Breaking on Electronic Band Structure: Gap Opening at the High Symmetry Points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillaume Vasseur
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Some characteristic features of band structures, like the band degeneracy at high symmetry points or the existence of energy gaps, usually reflect the symmetry of the crystal or, more precisely, the symmetry of the wave vector group at the relevant points of the Brillouin zone. In this paper, we will illustrate this property by considering two-dimensional (2D-hexagonal lattices characterized by a possible two-fold degenerate band at the K points with a linear dispersion (Dirac points. By combining scanning tunneling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission, we study the electronic properties of a similar system: the Ag/Cu(111 interface reconstruction characterized by a hexagonal superlattice, and we show that the gap opening at the K points of the Brillouin zone of the reconstructed cell is due to the symmetry breaking of the wave vector group.
Manifestation of chiral symmetry and the effective potential in a strong color-electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the manifestation of chiral symmetry and the effective potential in an external color-electromagnetic field, using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We derive the effective potential, the dynamical quark mass and the q-anti q pair creation rate for the covariantly-constant color-electromagnetic field. In the flux-tube picture, chiral symmetry restoration would occur inside mesons and at the early stage of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexandru, Andrei [George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Horváth, Ivan [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA (the speaker) (United States)
2016-01-22
The validity of recently proposed equivalence between valence spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (vSChSB) and chiral polarization of low energy Dirac spectrum (ChP) in SU(3) gauge theory, is examined for the case of twelve mass–degenerate fundamental quark flavors. We find that the vSChSB–ChP correspondence holds for regularized systems studied. Moreover, our results suggest that vSChSB occurs in two qualitatively different circumstances: there is a quark mass m{sub c} such that for m > m{sub c} the mode condensing Dirac spectrum exhibits standard monotonically increasing density, while for m{sub ch} < m < m{sub c} the peak around zero separates from the bulk of the spectrum, with density showing a pronounced depletion at intermediate scales. Valence chiral symmetry restoration may occur at yet smaller masses m < m{sub ch}, but this has not yet been seen by overlap valence probe, leaving the m{sub ch} = 0 possibility open. The latter option could place massless N{sub f}=12 theory outside of conformal window. Anomalous behavior of overlap Dirac spectrum for m{sub ch} < m < m{sub c} is qualitatively similar to one observed previously in zero and few–flavor theories as an effect of thermal agitation.
Electroweak symmetry breaking without the μ2 term
Goertz, Florian
2016-07-01
We demonstrate that from a low-energy perspective a viable breaking of the electroweak symmetry, as present in nature, can be achieved without the (negative sign) μ2 mass term in the Higgs potential, thereby avoiding completely the appearance of relevant operators, featuring coefficients with a positive mass dimension, in the theory. We show that such a setup is self-consistent and not ruled out by Higgs physics. In particular, we point out that it is the lightness of the Higgs boson that allows for the electroweak symmetry to be broken dynamically via operators of D ≥4 , consistent with the power expansion. Beyond that, we entertain how this scenario might even be preferred phenomenologically compared to the ordinary mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, as realized in the Standard Model, and argue that it can be fully tested at the LHC. In the Appendix, we classify UV completions that could lead to such a setup, considering also the option of generating all scales dynamically.
How is chiral symmetry restored at finite density?
Tatsumi, T.; Nakano, E.
2005-01-01
Taking into account pseudoscalar as well as scalar condensates, we reexamine the chiral restoration path on the chiral manifold. We shall see both condensates coherently produce a density wave at a certain density, which delays chiral restoration as density or temperature is increased.
Highly excited mesons, linear Regge trajectories, and the pattern of the chiral symmetry realization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chiral symmetry of QCD shows up in the linear Weyl-Wigner mode at short Euclidean distances or at high temperatures. On the other hand, low-lying hadronic states exhibit the nonlinear Nambu-Goldstone mode. An interesting question was raised as to whether the linear realization of the chiral symmetry is asymptotically restored for highly excited states. We address it in a number of ways. On the phenomenological side we argue that to the extent the meson Regge trajectories are observed to be linear and equidistant, the Weyl-Wigner mode is not realized. This picture is supported by quasiclassical arguments implying that the quark spin interactions in high excitations are weak, the trajectories are linear, and there is no chiral symmetry restoration. Then we use the string/gauge duality. In the top-down Sakai-Sugimoto construction the nonlinear realization of the chiral symmetry is built in. In the bottom-up AdS/QCD construction by Erlich et al. and Karch et al. the situation is more ambiguous. However, in this approach linearity and equidistance of the Regge trajectories can be naturally implemented, with the chiral symmetry in the Nambu-Goldstone mode. Asymptotic chiral symmetry restoration might be possible if a nonlinearity (convergence) of the Regge trajectories in an 'intermediate window' of n, J, beyond the explored domain, takes place. This would signal the failure of the quasiclassical picture
Micheau, Jean-Claude; Coudret, Christophe; Cruz, José-Manuel; Buhse, Thomas
2012-10-14
A comprehensive kinetic analysis of three prototypical autocatalytic cycle models based on the absolute asymmetric Soai reaction is presented. The three models, which can give rise to amplification of enantiomeric excess and mirror-image symmetry breaking, vary by their monomeric, dimeric or trimeric order of the assumed catalytic species. Our numerical approach considered the entire chiral combinatorics of the diastereomeric interactions in the models as well as the multiplicity of coupled reversible reactions without applying fast equilibration or quasi-steady state approximations. For the simplest monomeric model, an extensive range of parameters was explored employing a random grid parameter scanning method that revealed the influence of the parameter values on the product distribution, the reaction-time, the attenuation or amplification of enantiomeric excess as well as on the presence or absence of mirror-image symmetry breaking. A symmetry breaking test was imposed on the three models showing that an increase in the catalytic oligomer size from one to three leads to a higher tolerance to poorer chiral recognition between the diastereoisomers and identifies the greater impact of the diastereoisomeric energy difference over an imperfect stereoselectivity in the catalytic step. This robustness is understood as a particular case of so-called kinetic proofreading in asymmetric autocatalysis. PMID:22914796
Matter inflation with A4 flavour symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss model building in tribrid inflation, which is a framework for realising inflation in the matter sector of supersymmetric particle physics models. The inflaton is a D-flat combination of matter fields, and inflation ends by a phase transition in which some Higgs field obtains a vacuum expectation value. We first describe the general procedure for implementing tribrid inflation in realistic models of particle physics that can be applied to a wide variety of BSM particle physics models around the GUT scale. We then demonstrate how the procedure works for an explicit lepton flavour model based on an A4 family symmetry. The model is both predictive and phenomenologically viable, and illustrates how tribrid inflation connects cosmological and particle physics parameters. In particular, it predicts a relation between the neutrino Yukawa coupling and the running of the spectral index αs. We also show how topological defects from the flavour symmetry breaking can be avoided automatically
Revolving D-branes and spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking
Iso, Satoshi; Kitazawa, Noriaki
2015-12-01
We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T^6/Z_3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes, and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the Ramond-Ramond tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but, when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3- and anti-D7-branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on the D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the initial condition of the cosmological evolution of the D-brane configurations. The distance corresponds to the vacuum expectation values of brane moduli fields in the world-volume theory and, if it is written as M/M_s^2 in terms of the string scale M_s, the scale of gauge-symmetry breaking is given by M. Angular momentum conservation of revolving D3-branes assures the stability of the scale M against M_s.
Revolving D-branes and spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T6/Z3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes, and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the Ramond–Ramond tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but, when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3- and anti-D7-branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on the D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the initial condition of the cosmological evolution of the D-brane configurations. The distance corresponds to the vacuum expectation values of brane moduli fields in the world-volume theory and, if it is written as M/Ms2 in terms of the string scale Ms, the scale of gauge-symmetry breaking is given by M. Angular momentum conservation of revolving D3-branes assures the stability of the scale M against Ms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interplay of hadron properties and their modification in an ambient nuclear medium on the one hand and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration on the other hand is investigated. QCD sum rules for D and B mesons embedded in cold nuclear matter are evaluated. We quantify the mass splitting of D- anti D and B- anti B mesons as a function of the nuclear matter density and investigate the impact of various condensates in linear density approximation. The analysis also includes Ds and D*0 mesons. QCD sum rules for chiral partners in the open-charm meson sector are presented at nonzero baryon net density or temperature. We focus on the differences between pseudo-scalar and scalar as well as vector and axial-vector D mesons and derive the corresponding Weinberg type sum rules. Based on QCD sum rules we explore the consequences of a scenario for the ρ meson, where the chiral symmetry breaking condensates are set to zero whereas the chirally symmetric condensates remain at their vacuum values. The complementarity of mass shift and broadening is discussed. An alternative approach which utilizes coupled Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark bound states is investigated. For this purpose we analyze the analytic structure of the quark propagators in the complex plane numerically and test the possibility to widen the applicability of the method to the sector of heavy-light mesons in the scalar and pseudo-scalar channels, such as the D mesons, by varying the momentum partitioning parameter. The solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Wigner-Weyl phase of chiral symmetry at nonzero bare quark masses are used to investigate a scenario with explicit but without dynamical chiral symmetry breaking.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hilger, Thomas Uwe
2012-04-11
The interplay of hadron properties and their modification in an ambient nuclear medium on the one hand and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration on the other hand is investigated. QCD sum rules for D and B mesons embedded in cold nuclear matter are evaluated. We quantify the mass splitting of D- anti D and B- anti B mesons as a function of the nuclear matter density and investigate the impact of various condensates in linear density approximation. The analysis also includes D{sub s} and D{sup *}{sub 0} mesons. QCD sum rules for chiral partners in the open-charm meson sector are presented at nonzero baryon net density or temperature. We focus on the differences between pseudo-scalar and scalar as well as vector and axial-vector D mesons and derive the corresponding Weinberg type sum rules. Based on QCD sum rules we explore the consequences of a scenario for the ρ meson, where the chiral symmetry breaking condensates are set to zero whereas the chirally symmetric condensates remain at their vacuum values. The complementarity of mass shift and broadening is discussed. An alternative approach which utilizes coupled Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark bound states is investigated. For this purpose we analyze the analytic structure of the quark propagators in the complex plane numerically and test the possibility to widen the applicability of the method to the sector of heavy-light mesons in the scalar and pseudo-scalar channels, such as the D mesons, by varying the momentum partitioning parameter. The solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Wigner-Weyl phase of chiral symmetry at nonzero bare quark masses are used to investigate a scenario with explicit but without dynamical chiral symmetry breaking.
Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking
Marzola, Luca
2016-01-01
We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the r\\^ole of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio $r \\approx 10^{-3}$, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index $n_s \\simeq 0.97$ which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.
Local activity principle the cause of complexity and symmetry breaking
Mainzer, Klaus
2013-01-01
The principle of local activity explains the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous medium. At first defined in the theory of nonlinear electronic circuits in a mathematically rigorous way, it can be generalized and proven at least for the class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems in physics, chemistry, biology, and brain research. Recently, it was realized by memristors for nanoelectronic device applications. In general, the emergence of complex patterns and structures is explained by symmetry breaking in homogeneous media, which is caused by local activity. This book argues that
Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models
Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ookouchi, Yutaka
2012-01-01
We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, $T_R>10$ GeV.
Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka, E-mail: hamada@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kohei.kamada@desy.de, E-mail: kobayash@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yutaka@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan)
2013-04-01
We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, T{sub R} > 10 GeV.
Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Dept. of Physics
2012-11-15
We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, T{sub R}>10 GeV.
Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, TR > 10 GeV
Stochastic model of nanomechanical electron shuttles and symmetry breaking
Zhao, Mo; Blick, Robert H.
2016-06-01
Nanomechanical electron shuttles can work as ratchets for radio-frequency rectification. We develop a full stochastic model of coupled shuttles, where the mechanical motion of nanopillars and the incoherent electronic tunneling are modeled by a Markov chain. In particular, the interaction of their randomness is taken into account, so that a linear master equation is constructed. Numerical solutions from our fast approximate method and analytical derivation reveal the symmetry breaking, which results in the direct current observed in earlier measurements [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 067204 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.067204]. Additionally, the method can facilitate device simulation of more complex designs such as shuttle arrays.
Quantum transport enhancement by time-reversal symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum mechanics still provides new unexpected effects when considering the transport of energy and information. Models of continuous time quantum walks, which implicitly use time-reversal symmetric Hamiltonians, have been intensely used to investigate the effectiveness of transport. Here we show how breaking time-reversal symmetry in this model can enable directional control, enhancement, and suppression of quantum transport. Examples ranging from exciton transport to complex networks are presented. This opens new prospects for more efficient methods to transport energy and information.
Evanescent Wave-Assisted Symmetry Breaking of Gold Dipolar Nanoantennas.
Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping
2016-01-01
Symmetry-breaking and scattering cancellation were observed in the dark-mode resonance of dipolar gold nanoantennas (NAs) on glass substrates coupled with oblique incidence and total internal reflection. With the assistance of evanescent waves, the coupling efficiency was twice as strong when the incidence angle was larger than the critical angle. The Hamiltonian equation and absorption spectra were used to analyze the hybridization model of symmetric dipolar gold NAs. The antibonding mode could be coupled successfully by both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarizations to NAs when the dimers orientation is parallel to the propagation direction of evanescent waves. PMID:27581766
Symmetry-breaking transitions in networks of nonlinear circuit elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinrich, Martin; Dahms, Thomas; Flunkert, Valentin; Schoell, Eckehard [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Teitsworth, Stephen W, E-mail: schoell@physik.tu-berlin.d [Department of Physics, Duke University, PO Box 90305, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States)
2010-11-15
We investigate a nonlinear circuit consisting of N tunnel diodes in series, which shows close similarities to a semiconductor superlattice or to a neural network. Each tunnel diode is modeled by a three-variable FitzHugh-Nagumo-like system. The tunnel diodes are coupled globally through a load resistor. We find complex bifurcation scenarios with symmetry-breaking transitions that generate multiple fixed points off the synchronization manifold. We show that multiply degenerate zero-eigenvalue bifurcations occur, which lead to multistable current branches, and that these bifurcations are also degenerate with a Hopf bifurcation. These predicted scenarios of multiple branches and degenerate bifurcations are also found experimentally.
Colour-symmetry-breaking effects in hard processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A possibility of colour symmetry U(1)xSU(3)sub(C) spontaneous breaking and integer-charged quarks is considered. It is argued that one-photon processes are sensitive only to the colour-averaged charges of quarks and gluons. The true charges can be observed in rigid processes involving at least two real photons. The available now experimental data on processes #betta#p → #betta#X, #betta##betta# → jet+jet are in better agreement with the integer-charges than with the standard QCD
Introduction to weak interaction theories with dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A straightforward introduction to theories of the weak interactions with dynamical symmetry breaking-theories of technicolor or hypercolor is presented. The intent is to inform experimentalists, but also to goad theorists. The motivation for considering theories of this type is described. The structure that such a theory must possess, including new gauge interactions at mass scales of 1-100 TeV is then outlined. Despite their reliance on phenomena at such enormous energies, these theories contain new phenomena observable at currently accessible energies. Three such effects which are especially likely to be observed are described
Strong electroweak symmetry breaking at future super collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the most important questions in particle physics which has to be answered today by future super collider is what the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking is. I a light Higgs is absent below 1 TeV, longitudinally polarized W's, i.e., WL should interact strongly with themselves at high energies, since the theory without a scalar gives a bad high energy behavior. This inevitably leads us to a new strong interactions. To investigate new physics, we use the techniques of strong interactions which had bloomed in 1960's with new modification. This new method can also be applied to hadron physics. (author)
Charge Symmetry Breaking in dd->4He{\\pi}0 with WASA-at-COSY
:,; Augustyniak, W; Bardan, W; Bashkanov, M; Bergmann, F S; Berłowski, M; Bhatt, H; Bondar, A; Büscher, M; Calén, H; Ciepał, I; Clement, H; Coderre, D; Czerwiński, E; Demmich, K; Doroshkevich, E; Engels, R; Erven, A; Erven, W; Eyrich, W; Fedorets, P; Föhl, K; Fransson, K; Goldenbaum, F; Goslawski, P; Goswami, A; Grigoryev, K; Gullström, C -O; Hanhart, C; Hauenstein, F; Heijkenskjöld, L; Hejny, V; Höistad, B; Hüsken, N; Jarczyk, L; Johansson, T; Kamys, B; Kemmerling, G; Khan, F A; Khoukaz, A; Kirillov, D A; Kistryn, S; Kleines, H; Kłos, B; Krzemień, W; Kulessa, P; Kupść, A; Kuzmin, A; Lalwani, K; Lersch, D; Lorentz, B; Magiera, A; Maier, R; Marciniewski, P; Mariański, B; Mikirtychiants, M; Morsch, H -P; Moskal, P; Ohm, H; Ozerianska, I; del Rio, E Perez; Piskunov, N M; Podkopał, P; Prasuhn, D; Pricking, A; Pszczel, D; Pysz, K; Pyszniak, A; Redmer, C F; Ritman, J; Roy, A; Rudy, Z; Sawant, S; Schadmand, S; Sefzick, T; Serdyuk, V; Shwartz, B; Siudak, R; Skorodko, T; Skurzok, M; Smyrski, J; Sopov, V; Stassen, R; Stepaniak, J; Stephan, E; Sterzenbach, G; Stockhorst, H; Ströher, H; Szczurek, A; Täschner, A; Trzciński, A; Varma, R; Wolke, M; Wrońska, A; Wüstner, P; Wurm, P; Yamamoto, A; Yurev, L; Zabierowski, J; Zieliński, M J; Zink, A; Złomańczuk, J; Żuprański, P; Żurek, M
2014-01-01
Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) observables are a suitable experimental tool to examine effects induced by quark masses on the nuclear level. Previous high precision data from TRIUMF and IUCF are currently used to develop a consistent description of CSB within the framework of chiral perturbation theory. In this work the experimental studies on the reaction dd->4He{\\pi}0 have been extended towards higher excess energies in order to provide information on the contribution of p-waves in the final state. For this, an exclusive measurement has been carried out at a beam momentum of p=1.2 GeV/c using the WASA-at-COSY facility. The total cross section amounts to sigma(tot) = (118 +- 18(stat) +- 13(sys) +- 8(ext)) pb and first data on the differential cross section are consistent with s-wave pion production.
Electroweak Symmetry Breaking via UV Insensitive Anomaly Mediation
Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Kribs, Graham D.; Murayama, Hitoshi
2004-01-01
Anomaly mediation solves the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. This is because the superconformal anomaly dictates that supersymmetry breaking is transmitted through nearly flavor-blind infrared physics that is highly predictive and UV insensitive. Slepton mass squareds, however, are predicted to be negative. This can be solved by adding D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_{B-L} while retaining the UV insensitivity. In this paper we consider electroweak symmetry breaking via UV insensitive anomaly mediation in several models. For the MSSM we find a stable vacuum when tanbeta < 1, but in this region the top Yukawa coupling blows up only slightly above the supersymmetry breaking scale. For the NMSSM, we find a stable electroweak breaking vacuum but with a chargino that is too light. Replacing the cubic singlet term in the NMSSM superpotential with a term linear in the singlet we find a stable vacuum and viable spectrum. Most of the parameter region with correct vacua requires a large superpotential coupling, pr...
Ab initio Calculations of Charge Symmetry Breaking in the A =4 Hypernuclei
Gazda, Daniel; Gal, Avraham
2016-03-01
We report on ab initio no-core shell model calculations of the mirror Λ hypernuclei H4Λ and He4Λ , using the Bonn-Jülich leading-order chiral effective field theory hyperon-nucleon potentials plus a charge symmetry breaking Λ -Σ0 mixing vertex. In addition to reproducing rather well the 0g.s . + and 1exc+ binding energies, these four-body calculations demonstrate for the first time that the observed charge symmetry breaking splitting of mirror levels, reaching hundreds of keV for 0g.s . +, can be reproduced using realistic theoretical interaction models, although with a non-negligible momentum cutoff dependence. Our results are discussed in relation to recent measurements of the H4Λ(0g.s . +) binding energy at the Mainz Microtron [A. Esser et al. (A1 Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 232501 (2015)] and the He4Λ(1exc+) excitation energy [T.O. Yamamoto et al. (J-PARC E13 Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 222501 (2015)].
Subtle Is The Manifestation Of Chiral Symmetry In Nuclei And Dense Nuclear Matter
Rho, Mannque
2010-01-01
The history of how chiral symmetry has entered in nuclear physics, in which Gerry Brown and I have participated from 1970 up to today, is described from my personal viewpoint. The route of development we have traversed together goes from meson exchange currents, to "little chiral bag," to chiral effective field theory, to "Brown-Rho scaling" and then to dense matter and chiral phase transition. It has been a great fun and exciting, some right and some wrong in what we have done together, but ...
$U(1)$ Chiral Symmetry in One-Dimensional Interacting Electron System with Spin
Lee, Taejin
2015-01-01
We study a spin dependent Tomonaga-Luttinger model in one dimension, which describes electron transport through a single barrier. Using the Fermi-Bose equivalence in one dimension, we map the model onto a massless Thirring model with a boundary interaction. A field theoretical perturbation theory for the model has been developed and the chiral symmetry is found to play an important role. The classical bulk action possesses a global $U_A(1)^4$ chiral symmetry, since the fermion fields are massless. This global chiral symmetry is broken by the boundary interaction and the bosonic degrees of freedom, corresponding to the chiral phase transformation, become dynamical. They acquire an additional kinetic action from the fermion path integral measure and govern the critical behaviors of physical operators. On the critical line where the boundary interaction becomes marginal, they decouple from the fermi fields. Consequently the action reduces to the free field action, which contains only a fermion bilinear boundary ...
Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter
Holt, Jeremy W; Weise, Wolfram
2014-01-01
Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970's for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early germinal idea, conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era, has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: "it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme." Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as a Basis of Particle Mass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN
2007-04-01
Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions--so different in their manifestations--to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the ''standard model'' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout & Englert, and by Guralnik, Hagen, & Kibble: The agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W{sup {+-}} and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story--though an incomplete story--and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some ''Big Questions'' that will guide our explorations.
Analytical methods for calculating Continuous Symmetry Measures and the Chirality Measure.
Pinsky, Mark; Dryzun, Chaim; Casanova, David; Alemany, Pere; Avnir, David
2008-12-01
We provide analytical solutions of the Continuous Symmetry Measure (CSM) equation for several symmetry point-groups, and for the associated Continuous Chirality Measure (CCM), which are quantitative estimates of the degree of a symmetry-point group or chirality in a structure, respectively. We do it by solving analytically the problem of finding the minimal distance between the original structure and the result obtained by operating on it all of the operations of a specific G symmetry point group. Specifically, we provide solutions for the symmetry measures of all of the improper rotations point group symmetries, S(n), including the mirror (S(1), C(S)), inversion (S(2), C(i)) as well as the higher S(n)s (n > 2 is even) point group symmetries, for the rotational C(2) point group symmetry, for the higher rotational C(n) symmetries (n > 2), and finally for the C(nh) symmetry point group. The chirality measure is the minimal of all S(n) measures. PMID:18484634
Parity-time symmetry breaking in magnetic systems
Galda, Alexey; Vinokur, Valerii M.
2016-07-01
The understanding of out-of-equilibrium physics, especially dynamic instabilities and dynamic phase transitions, is one of the major challenges of contemporary science, spanning the broadest wealth of research areas that range from quantum optics to living organisms. Focusing on nonequilibrium dynamics of an open dissipative spin system, we introduce a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian approach, in which non-Hermiticity reflects dissipation and deviation from equilibrium. The imaginary part of the proposed spin Hamiltonian describes the effects of Gilbert damping and applied Slonczewski spin-transfer torque. In the classical limit, our approach reproduces Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski dynamics of a large macrospin. We reveal the spin-transfer torque-driven parity-time symmetry-breaking phase transition corresponding to a transition from precessional to exponentially damped spin dynamics. Micromagnetic simulations for nanoscale ferromagnetic disks demonstrate the predicted effect. Our findings can pave the way to a general quantitative description of out-of-equilibrium phase transitions driven by spontaneous parity-time symmetry breaking.
Bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in germanium nanowires.
Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong-Min
2014-08-13
From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on the one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics and on the other the electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending the GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion. PMID:25025296
Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium Nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.
2014-08-01
From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics, and on the other electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion.
Revolving D-branes and Spontaneous Gauge Symmetry Breaking
Iso, Satoshi
2015-01-01
We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T6/Z3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the R-R tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are forced to be pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3 and anti-D7 branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at our will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the...
Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around mχ+∼100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around mχ∼90 GeV. At the LHC, the standard particle content of our model
Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knochel, Alexander Karl
2009-05-11
In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around m{sub {chi}{sup +}}{approx}100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around m{sub {chi}}{approx}90 GeV. At the LHC, the
Stock market speculation: Spontaneous symmetry breaking of economic valuation
Sornette, Didier
2000-09-01
Firm foundation theory estimates a security's firm fundamental value based on four determinants: expected growth rate, expected dividend payout, the market interest rate and the degree of risk. In contrast, other views of decision-making in the stock market, using alternatives such as human psychology and behavior, bounded rationality, agent-based modeling and evolutionary game theory, expound that speculative and crowd behavior of investors may play a major role in shaping market prices. Here, we propose that the two views refer to two classes of companies connected through a "phase transition". Our theory is based on (1) the identification of the fundamental parity symmetry of prices (p→-p), which results from the relative direction of payment flux compared to commodity flux and (2) the observation that a company's risk-adjusted growth rate discounted by the market interest rate behaves as a control parameter for the observable price. We find a critical value of this control parameter at which a spontaneous symmetry-breaking of prices occurs, leading to a spontaneous valuation in absence of earnings, similarly to the emergence of a spontaneous magnetization in Ising models in absence of a magnetic field. The low growth rate phase is described by the firm foundation theory while the large growth rate phase is the regime of speculation and crowd behavior. In practice, while large "finite-time horizon" effects round off the predicted singularities, our symmetry-breaking speculation theory accounts for the apparent over-pricing and the high volatility of fast growing companies on the stock markets.
3D toroidal physics: testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking
Spong, Don
2014-10-01
Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to lead to a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D ELM-suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. There is considerable interest in the development of unified physics models for the full range of 3D effects. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. Fortunately, significant progress is underway in theory, computation and plasma diagnostics on many issues such as magnetic surface quality, plasma screening vs. amplification of 3D perturbations, 3D transport, influence on edge pedestal structures, MHD stability effects, modification of fast ion-driven instabilities, prediction of energetic particle heat loads on plasma-facing materials, effects of 3D fields on turbulence, and magnetic coil design. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with future fusion reactors. The development of models to address 3D physics and progress in these areas will be described. This work is supported both by the US Department of Energy under Contract DE
Geomagnetic Reversals Caused by Breaking Mirror Symmetry of Core Dynamics
Petrelis, F; Dormy, E; Valet, J P
2008-01-01
The Earth's magnetic field can be geometrically described by a strong axial dipole and higher degree terms, which belong to the dipolar (even) or quadrupolar (odd) family depending on their symmetry with respect to the equatorial plane. It is established that the field has frequently (and maybe always) reversed its polarity. It has been suggested by Merrill and Mc Fadden \\cite{Merrill} that reversals occur because the fluid flow in the outer core breaks the equatorial symmetry. This results in a coupling between the dipolar and quadrupolar families. Field reversals have now been reported in several numerical simulations of dynamos and very recently for the first time in a laboratory experiment involving a Von Karman swirling flow of liquid sodium (VKS) \\cite{Berhanu}. In this experiment, reversals are observed when the velocities of the two counter rotating disks driving the flow are different, thus when a symmetry is broken. Here, we show how the interaction between the dipolar and quadrupolar modes, that re...
Hidden symmetry of the two-dimensional chiral fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The non-Abelian Goldstone boson (chiral field) interaction in two dimensions is examined. As was shown earlier, this theory strongly resembles the Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. It is shown that dynamics of chiral fields is governed by the infinite number of the non-trivial conservation laws, which impose strong limitations on the S matrix. (Auth.)
Models for chiral amplification in spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking
Blanco de Torres, Celia
2014-01-01
Es un hecho empírico que hay un desequilibrio quiral absoluto (o ruptura de simetría especular) en todos los sistemas biológicos conocidos, dónde los procesos cruciales para la vida, como la replicación, implican estructuras supramoleculares que comparten el mismo signo quiral (homoquiralidad). Estas estructuras quirales son proteinas, compuestas de amino ácidos encontrados como L-enantiómeros; y polímeros de ADN y ARN y azúcares, compuestos de R-monocarbohidratos. Basándonos en el hecho de q...
A Note on Seiberg Duality and Chiral Symmetry Breaking
Armoni, Adi
2013-01-01
Following arXiv:1310.2027 and arXiv:0801.0762 , we consider a non-supersymmetric Seiberg duality between electric and magnetic “orientifold field theories”. These theories live on brane configurations of type 0′ string theory. In the electric theory side the scalars acquire a mass and decouple, resulting in an SU(Nc) gauge theory coupled to Nf massless quarks and an additional massless fermion that transforms in the two-index antisymmetric representation. In the magnetic theory side there exi...
Constraints of dynamical symmetry breaking mechanisms from electroweak data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Consistency of the Salam-Weinberg theory, including quantum corrections, with high precision data from LEP and elsewhere imposes non-trivial bounds on the parameters of this theory, in particular the top quark mass. We take stock of the available experimental information in the electroweak sector with the view of constraining possible additional interactions, such as present in dynamical symmetry breaking scenarios. Using the Peskin-Takeuchi isospin conserving, S and -violating, T, parametrization of new physics contribution to vacuum polarization corrections, we show here that the full one family technicolor models are ruled out at the 95% C.L. from the LEP data and mW-measurements alone. We stress the role of improved precision measurements of the W-boson mass and the decay width Γ(Z→banti b) in the enhanced sensitivity gained on such interactions. (orig.)
Structural topography-mediated high temperature wetting symmetry breaking
Li, Jing; Liu, Yahua; Hao, Chonglei; Li, Minfei; Chaudhury, Manoj K; Yao, Shuhuai
2015-01-01
Directed motion of liquid droplets is of considerable importance in various industrial processes. Despite extensive advances in this field of research, our understanding and the ability to control droplet dynamics at high temperature remain limited, in part due to the emergence of complex wetting states intertwined by the phase change process at the triple-phase interfaces. Here we show that two concurrent wetting states (Leidenfrost and contact boiling) can be manifested in a single droplet above its boiling point rectified by the presence of asymmetric textures. The breaking of the wetting symmetry at high temperature subsequently leads to the preferential motion towards the region with higher heat transfer coefficient. We demonstrate experimentally and analytically that the droplet vectoring is intricately dependent on the interplay between the structural topography and its imposed thermal state. Our fundamental understanding and the ability to control the droplet dynamics at high temperature represent an ...
Micropropulsion and microrheology in complex fluids via symmetry breaking
Pak, On Shun; Brandt, Luca; Lauga, Eric; 10.1063/1.4758811
2013-01-01
Many biological fluids have polymeric microstructures and display non-Newtonian rheology. We take advantage of such nonlinear fluid behavior and combine it with geometrical symmetry-breaking to design a novel small-scale propeller able to move only in complex fluids. Its propulsion characteristics are explored numerically in an Oldroyd-B fluid for finite Deborah numbers while the small Deborah number limit is investigated analytically using a second-order fluid model. We then derive expressions relating the propulsion speed to the rheological properties of the complex fluid, allowing thus to infer the normal stress coefficients in the fluid from the locomotion of the propeller. Our simple mechanism can therefore be used either as a non-Newtonian micro-propeller or as a micro-rheometer.
Inertial blob-hole symmetry breaking in magnetised plasma filaments
Kendl, Alexander
2015-01-01
Symmetry breaking between the propagation velocities of magnetised plasma filaments with large positive (blob) and negative (hole) amplitudes, as implied by a dimensional analysis scaling, is studied with global ("full-n") non-Boussinesq gyrofluid computations, which include finite inertia effects through nonlinear polarisation. Interchange blobs on a flat density background have higher inertia and propagate more slowly than holes. In the presence of a large enough density gradient, the effect is reversed: blobs accelerate down the gradient and holes are slowed in their propagation up the gradient. Drift wave blobs spread their initial vorticity rapidly into a fully developed turbulent state, whereas primary holes can remain coherent for many eddy turnover times. The results bear implications for plasma edge zonal flow evolution and tokamak scrape-off-layer transport.
Probing SU(2) symmetry breaking in the nucleon sea
Arash, Firooz; Tomio, Lauro
1997-02-01
Investigation of invariant cross-sections for production of K*- and overlineK*0, in the fragmentation region of the proton, in p - p and γ - p reactions, gives a direct and unambiguous probe to the symmetry breaking of the nucleon sea. Based on existing data, we clearly found a large asymmetry of the sea. Our result is in excellent agreement with NA51 measurement, signaling lack of any nuclear effect. The measurement can be carried out in a single experimental set up. The ratio K*-/overlineK*0 is equivalent to u/d, with easy access to the x-dependence of the asymmetry. The observed asymmetry from available experimental data is used to improve the valon-recombination model.
Interacting line-node semimetal and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Roy, Bitan
2016-01-01
The effects of short-range electronic interactions in a three dimensional line-node semimetal that supports linearly dispersing quasiparticles around an isolated closed loop in the Brillouin zone are discussed. Due to vanishing density of states various orderings in the bulk of the system, such as the antiferromagnet and charge-density-wave, set in for sufficiently strong onsite ($U$) and nearest-neighbor ($V$) repulsions, respectively. While onset of these two orderings from the semimetallic phase takes place through continuous quantum phase transitions, a first order transition separates two ordered phases. By contrast, topologically protected drumhead shaped surface states can undergo charge or spin orderings, depending on relative strength of $U$ and $V$, even when they are sufficiently weak. Such surface orderings as well as weak long range Coulomb interaction can be conducive to spontaneous symmetry breaking in the bulk for weaker interactions. We also discuss possible superconducting phases and interna...
Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Kazanas, D.
1980-01-01
It is shown that the presence of a phase transition early in the history of the universe, associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (believed to take place at very high temperatures at which the various fundamental interactions unify), significantly modifies its dynamics and evolution. This is due to the energy 'pumping' during the phase transition from the vacuum to the substance, rather than the gravitating effects of the vacuum. The expansion law of the universe then differs substantially from the relation considered so far for the very early time expansion. In particular it is shown that under certain conditions this expansion law is exponential. It is further argued that under reasonable assumptions for the mass of the associated Higgs boson this expansion stage could last long enough to potentially account for the observed isotropy of the universe.
Lorentz Symmetry Breaking in $\\mathcal{N} =2$ Superspace
Faizal, Mir
2015-01-01
In this paper, we will study the deformation of a three dimensional theory with $\\mathcal{N} =2$ supersymmetry. This theory will be deformed by the presence of a constant vector field. This deformation will break the Lorentz symmetry. So, we will analyse this theory using $\\mathcal{N} =2$ aether superspace. The $\\mathcal{N} =2$ aether superspace will be obtained from a deformation of the usual $\\mathcal{N} =2$ superspace. This will be done by deforming the generators of the three dimensional $\\mathcal{N} =2$ supersymmetry. After analysing this deformed superalgebra, we will derive an explicit expression for the superspace propagators in this deformed superspace. Finally, we will use these propagators for performing perturbative calculations.
D-term inflation after spontaneous symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that one-loop quantum corrections to the potential energy density in supersymmetric hybrid inflation, outside the inflationary valley, cannot be neglected. A method is presented to calculate these one-loop corrections and they are applied to the case of D-term hybrid inflation, where a significant amount of inflation is shown to occur after spontaneous symmetry breaking. Taking this into account improves the agreement with WMAP measurements. A gauge coupling of up to 0.3 is still consistent with the CMB density perturbation. The spectral index is predicted in between 0.98 and 1.00 and the cosmic string contribution to the CMB anisotropy is sufficiently reduced
Flavour symmetry breaking in the kaon parton distribution amplitude
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Shi
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We compute the kaon's valence-quark (twist-two parton distribution amplitude (PDA by projecting its Poincaré-covariant Bethe–Salpeter wave-function onto the light-front. At a scale ζ=2 GeV, the PDA is a broad, concave and asymmetric function, whose peak is shifted 12–16% away from its position in QCD's conformal limit. These features are a clear expression of SU(3-flavour-symmetry breaking. They show that the heavier quark in the kaon carries more of the bound-state's momentum than the lighter quark and also that emergent phenomena in QCD modulate the magnitude of flavour-symmetry breaking: it is markedly smaller than one might expect based on the difference between light-quark current masses. Our results add to a body of evidence which indicates that at any energy scale accessible with existing or foreseeable facilities, a reliable guide to the interpretation of experiment requires the use of such nonperturbatively broadened PDAs in leading-order, leading-twist formulae for hard exclusive processes instead of the asymptotic PDA associated with QCD's conformal limit. We illustrate this via the ratio of kaon and pion electromagnetic form factors: using our nonperturbative PDAs in the appropriate formulae, FK/Fπ=1.23 at spacelike-Q2=17 GeV2, which compares satisfactorily with the value of 0.92(5 inferred in e+e− annihilation at s=17 GeV2.
Second order optical nonlinearity in silicon by symmetry breaking
Cazzanelli, Massimo; Schilling, Joerg
2016-03-01
Although silicon does not possess a dipolar bulk second order nonlinear susceptibility due to its centro-symmetric crystal structure, in recent years several attempts were undertaken to create such a property in silicon. This review presents the different sources of a second order susceptibility (χ(2)) in silicon and the connected second order nonlinear effects which were investigated up to now. After an introduction, a theoretical overview discusses the second order nonlinearity in general and distinguishes between the dipolar contribution—which is usually dominating in non-centrosymmetric structures—and the quadrupolar contribution, which even exists in centro-symmetric materials. Afterwards, the classic work on second harmonic generation from silicon surfaces in reflection measurements is reviewed. Due to the abrupt symmetry breaking at surfaces and interfaces locally a dipolar second order susceptibility appears, resulting in, e.g., second harmonic generation. Since the bulk contribution is usually small, the study of this second harmonic signal allows a sensitive observation of the surface/interface conditions. The impact of covering films, strain, electric fields, and defect states at the interfaces was already investigated in this way. With the advent of silicon photonics and the search for ever faster electrooptic modulators, the interest turned to the creation of a dipolar bulk χ(2) in silicon. These efforts have been focussing on several experiments applying an inhomogeneous strain to the silicon lattice to break its centro-symmetry. Recent results suggesting the impact of electric fields which are exerted from fixed charges in adjacent covering layers are also included. After a subsequent summary on "competing" concepts using not Si but Si-related materials, the paper will end with some final conclusions, suggesting possible future research direction in this dynamically developing field.
Flavour symmetry breaking in the kaon parton distribution amplitude
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Chao [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chang, Lei [CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Roberts, Craig D. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Schmidt, Sebastian M. [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Jülich and JARA, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Tandy, Peter C. [Center for Nuclear Research, Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States); Zong, Hong-shi [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2014-11-10
We compute the kaon's valence-quark (twist-two parton) distribution amplitude (PDA) by projecting its Poincaré-covariant Bethe–Salpeter wave-function onto the light-front. At a scale ζ=2 GeV, the PDA is a broad, concave and asymmetric function, whose peak is shifted 12–16% away from its position in QCD's conformal limit. These features are a clear expression of SU(3)-flavour-symmetry breaking. They show that the heavier quark in the kaon carries more of the bound-state's momentum than the lighter quark and also that emergent phenomena in QCD modulate the magnitude of flavour-symmetry breaking: it is markedly smaller than one might expect based on the difference between light-quark current masses. Our results add to a body of evidence which indicates that at any energy scale accessible with existing or foreseeable facilities, a reliable guide to the interpretation of experiment requires the use of such nonperturbatively broadened PDAs in leading-order, leading-twist formulae for hard exclusive processes instead of the asymptotic PDA associated with QCD's conformal limit. We illustrate this via the ratio of kaon and pion electromagnetic form factors: using our nonperturbative PDAs in the appropriate formulae, F{sub K}/F{sub π}=1.23 at spacelike-Q{sup 2}=17 GeV{sup 2}, which compares satisfactorily with the value of 0.92(5) inferred in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation at s=17 GeV{sup 2}.
Weyl semimetal from spontaneous inversion symmetry breaking in pyrochlore oxides
Bzdušek, Tomáš; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred
2015-04-01
We study the electronic properties of strongly spin-orbit coupled electrons on the elastic pyrochlore lattice. Akin to the Peierls transition in one-dimensional systems, the coupling of the lattice to the electronic degrees of freedom can stabilize a spontaneous deformation of the crystal. This deformation corresponds to a breathing mode, which breaks the inversion symmetry. We find that for intermediate values of the staggered strain, the inversion-symmetry broken phase realizes a topological Weyl semimetal. In the temperature-elasticity phase diagram, the Weyl semimetal shows a reentrant phase behavior: it can be reached from a symmetric phase realized both at higher and at lower temperatures. The symmetric phase is a Dirac semimetal, which is protected by the nonsymmorphic space group of the pyrochlore lattice. Beyond a critical value of the staggered strain, the symmetry-broken phase is a fully gapped trivial insulator. The surface states of the Weyl semimetal form open Fermi arcs and we observe that their connectivity depends on the termination of the crystal. In particular, for the {111 } films, the semiclassical closed electronic orbits of the surface states in a magnetic field cross the bulk either twice, four, six, or twelve times. We demonstrate how one can tune the number of bulk crossings through a Lifshitz-like transition of the Fermi arcs, which we call Weyl-Lifshitz transition, by applying a surface potential. Our results offer a route to a topological Weyl semimetal in nonmagnetic materials and might be relevant for pyrochlore oxides with heavy transition-metal ions such as alloys of iridates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: In recent years much attention has been devoted to the study of the issue of the Gribov copies and of its relevance for confinement in Yang-Mills theories. The existence of the Gribov copies is a general feature of the gauge-fixing quantization procedure, being related to the impossibility of finding a local gauge condition which picks up only one gauge configuration for each gauge orbit. As it has been shown by Gribov and Zwanziger, a partial solution of the Gribov problem in the Landau gauge can be achieved by restricting the domain of integration in the functional Euclidean integral to the first Gribov horizon. Among the various open aspects of the Gribov-Zwanziger framework, the issue of the BRST symmetry is a source of continuous investigations. In a recent work, we have been able to obtain an equivalent formulation of the Gribov-Zwanziger action which displays an exact BRST symmetry which turns out to be spontaneously broken by the restriction of the domain of integration to the Gribov horizon. In particular, the BRST operator retains the important property of being nilpotent. Moreover, it has also been shown that the Goldstone mode associated to the spontaneous breaking of the BRST symmetry is completely decoupled. The aim of the present work is that of fills up a gap not addressed in the previous work, namely, the renormalizability to all orders of the spontaneous symmetry breaking formulation of the Gribov-Zwanziger theory. As we shall see, the action obtained enjoys a large set of Ward identities which enables to prove that it is, in fact, multiplicatively renormalizable to all orders. (author)
Weyl geometric gravity and "breaking" of electroweak symmetry
Scholz, Erhard
2011-01-01
A Weyl geometric scale covariant approach to gravity due to Omote, Dirac, and Utiyama (1971ff) is reconsidered. It can be extended to the electroweak sector of elementary particle fields, taking into account their basic scaling freedom. Already Cheng (1988) indicated that electroweak symmetry breaking, usually attributed to the Higgs field with a boson expected at $0.1 - 1 \\,TeV$, may be due to a coupling between Weyl geometric gravity and electroweak interactions. Weyl geometry seems to be well suited for treating questions of elementary particle physics, which relate to scale invariance and its "breaking". This setting suggests the existence of a scalar field boson at the surprisingly low energy of $\\sim 1\\, eV$. That may appear unlikely; but, as a payoff, the naturalness problem of the standard Higgs field seems to become immaterial. Moreover, the acquirement of mass arises as a result of coupling to gravity in agreement with the understanding of mass as the gravitational charge of fields. Finally, the pot...
Chiral symmetry and quark-antiquark pair creation in a strong color-electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the manifestation of chiral symmetry and q-q-bar pair creation in the presence of the external color-electromagnetic field, using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We derive the compact formulae of the effective potential, the Dyson equation for the dynamical quark mass and the q-q-bar pair creation rate in the covariantly constant color-electromagnetic field. Our results are compared with those in other approaches. The chiral-symmetry restoration takes place by a strong color-electric field, and the rapid reduction of the dynamical quark mass is found around the critical field strength, εcr≅4GeV/fm. Natural extension to the three-flavor case including s-quarks is also done. Around quarks or antiquarks, chiral symmetry would be restored by the sufficiently strong color-electric field, which may lead to the chiral bag picture of hadrons. For the early stage for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the possibility of the chiral-symmetry restoration is indicated in the central region just after the collisions. (author)
Chiral magnetic conductivity in an interacting lattice model of parity-breaking Weyl semimetal
Buividovich, P. V.; Puhr, M.; Valgushev, S. N.
2015-11-01
We report on the mean-field study of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in static magnetic fields within a simple model of parity-breaking Weyl semimetal given by the lattice Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian with constant chiral chemical potential. We consider both the mean-field renormalization of the model parameters and nontrivial corrections to the CME originating from resummed ladder diagrams with arbitrary number of loops. We find that onsite repulsive interactions affect the chiral magnetic conductivity almost exclusively through the enhancement of the renormalized chiral chemical potential. Our results suggest that nontrivial corrections to the chiral magnetic conductivity due to interfermion interactions are not relevant in practice since they only become important when the CME response is strongly suppressed by the large gap in the energy spectrum.
Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geng Li
Full Text Available The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.
Dicke superradiance, Bose-Einstein condensation of photons and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Vyas, Vivek M; Srinivasan, V
2016-01-01
It is shown that the phenomenon of Dicke superradiance essentially occurs due to spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two generalised versions of the Dicke model are studied, and compared with a model that describes photonic Bose-Einstein condensate, which was experimentally realised. In all the models, it is seen that, the occurrence of spontaneous symmetry breaking is responsible for coherent radiation emission.
Electroweak symmetry breaking in the light of LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The extra-dimensional extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of particles are now in a very active epoch of development. The motivations of introducing extra dimensions are based on one hand on string theories that require the existence of new dimensions to be consistent. On the other hand such theories can potentially explain the hierarchy problem, number of fermion generations, proton stability and other enigmas of the Standard Model. The common feature of these models is that they provide a new neutral weakly interacting particle - perfect candidate to the Dark Matter (DM). Its stability is preserved by the so-called KK parity which prohibits the decays of the the lightest Kaluza-Klein particle (LKP) into SM particles. The geometry of the underlying space determines the particle spectrum of the model, thus the mass and the spin of the DM candidate, which in turn plays the key role in the phenomenological studies We present a model with two universal extra dimensions compactified on a real projective plane. This particular geometry is chosen because chiral fermions can be defined on such orbifold and the stability of the neutral dark matter candidate arise naturally from the intrinsic geometrical properties of the space without adding any new symmetries ad hoc. We present the particle spectrum at loop order up to the second level in Kaluza-Klein expansion. The particularity of the spectrum is that the mass splittings within each KK level are highly degenerated providing a very interesting potential signatures in the LHC. We study the dark matter phenomenology in our model and constrain the parameter space by comparing our results with WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) data and direct detection experiments. Using the obtained bounds we focus on the collider phenomenology of our model. (author)
Wavelength selection and symmetry breaking in orbital wave ripples
Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Perron, J. Taylor; Kao, Justin C. T.; Myrow, Paul M.
2014-10-01
Sand ripples formed by waves have a uniform wavelength while at equilibrium and develop defects while adjusting to changes in the flow. These patterns arise from the interaction of the flow with the bed topography, but the specific mechanisms have not been fully explained. We use numerical flow models and laboratory wave tank experiments to explore the origins of these patterns. The wavelength of "orbital" wave ripples (λ) is directly proportional to the oscillating flow's orbital diameter (d), with many experimental and field studies finding λ/d ≈ 0.65. We demonstrate a coupling that selects this ratio: the maximum length of the flow separation zone downstream of a ripple crest equals λ when λ/d ≈ 0.65. We show that this condition maximizes the growth rate of ripples. Ripples adjusting to changed flow conditions develop defects that break the bed's symmetry. When d is shortened sufficiently, two new incipient crests appear in every trough, but only one grows into a full-sized crest. Experiments have shown that the same side (right or left) wins in every trough. We find that this occurs because incipient secondary crests slow the flow and encourage the growth of crests on the next flank. Experiments have also shown that when d is lengthened, ripple crests become increasingly sinuous and eventually break up. We find that this occurs because crests migrate preferentially toward the nearest adjacent crest, amplifying any initial sinuosity. Our results reveal the mechanisms that form common wave ripple patterns and highlight interactions among unsteady flows, sediment transport, and bed topography.
Chiral doubling of heavy-light hadrons and the vector manifestation of hidden local symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starting with a hidden local symmetry Lagrangian at the vector manifestation (VM) fixed point that incorporates heavy-quark symmetry and matching the bare theory to QCD, we calculate the splitting of chiral doublers of heavy-light mesons proposed by Nowak, Rho, and Zahed [M. A. Nowak, M. Rho, and I. Zahed, Phys. Rev. D 48, 4370 (1993).] and Bardeen and Hill [W. A. Bardeen and C. T. Hill, Phys. Rev. D 49, 409 (1994).]. We show, in the three-flavor chiral limit, that the splitting is directly proportional to the light-quark condensate and comes out to be ∼(1/3)mN where mN is the nucleon mass, implying that the splitting vanishes in the chiral limit at the chiral restoration point--temperature Tc, density nc, or number of flavors Nfc. The result turns out to be surprisingly simple with the vector (ρ) meson playing the crucial role in quantum corrections, pointing to the relevance of the VM to QCD in the way chiral symmetry is manifested in hadronic matter. We also make predictions on the hadronic decay processes of the excited heavy- (charm) light mesons D
Quantum solitons of the nonlinear sigma-model with broken chiral symmetry
Kostyuk, A P; Chepilko, N M; Okazaki, T
1995-01-01
It is proved that the quantum-mechanical consideration of global breathing of a hedgehog-like field configuration leads to the dynamically stable soliton solutions in the nonlinear sigma-model without the Skyrme term. Such solutions exist only when chiral symmetry of the model is broken.
Minimally doubled chiral fermions with C, P and T symmetry on the staggered lattice
Haegeman, Jutho
2008-01-01
Recently, the interest in local lattice actions for chiral fermions has revived, with the proposition of new local actions in which only the minimal number of doublers appear. The trigger role of graphene having a minimally doubled, chirally invariant, Dirac-like excitation spectrum can not be neglected. The challenge is to construct an action which preserves enough symmetries to be useful in lattice gauge calculations. We present a new approach to obtain local lattice actions for fermions using a reinterpretation of the staggered lattice approach of Kogut and Susskind. This interpretation is based on the similarity with the staggered lattice approach in FDTD simulations of acoustics and electromagnetism. It allows us to construct a local action for chiral fermions which has all discrete symmetries and the minimal number of fermion flavors, but which is non-Hermitian in real space. However, we argue that this will not pose a threat to the usability of the theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The low-energy effective theory of electroweak symmetry-breaking without a Higgs particle is constructed using the methods of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Weinberg's power-counting formula demonstrates the consistency of the loop expansion, with the corresponding renormalization. We find that the suppression of effective operators by a mass scale, which was automatic in the case of the Standard Model, no longer holds in the Higgs-less case. Moreover, the incriminated operators appear at leading order in the chiral expansion, at variance with experiments. To account for their suppression, invariance under a larger symmetry is required, corresponding to the composite sector (which produces the three Goldstone modes) being decoupled from the elementary sector (quarks, leptons and Yang-Mills fields). The couplings are introduced via spurions: this reduces the symmetry to SU(2) x U(1). In the simultaneous expansion in powers of momenta and spurions, the aforementioned operators are relegated to higher orders. In addition, the method allows for a systematic treatment of weak isospin breaking. The Weinberg power-counting formula can be recovered, and small neutrino masses accounted for. The three right-handed neutrinos (lighter than the TeV), which are introduced in connection with the custodial symmetry, are quasi-sterile and stable. A constraint on the underlying theory is obtained by studying the anomaly-matching in the composite sector and generalizing the Wess-Zumino construction. The spurion formalism is also applied to open linear moose models, for which generalized Weinberg sum rules are derived. (author)
A pedagogical review of electroweak symmetry breaking scenarios
Bhattacharyya, Gautam
2011-02-01
We review different avenues of electroweak symmetry breaking explored over the years. This constitutes a timely exercise as the world's largest and the highest energy particle accelerator, namely, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN near Geneva, has started running whose primary mission is to find the Higgs or some phenomena that mimic the effects of the Higgs, i.e. to unravel the mysteries of electroweak phase transition. In the beginning, we discuss the Standard Model Higgs mechanism. After that we review the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. Then we take up three relatively recent ideas: little Higgs, gauge-Higgs unification and Higgsless scenarios. For the latter three cases, we first present the basic ideas and restrict our illustration to some instructive toy models to provide an intuitive feel of the underlying dynamics, and then discuss, for each of the three cases, how more realistic scenarios are constructed and how to decipher their experimental signatures. Wherever possible, we provide pedagogical details, which beginners might find useful.
A Pedagogical Review of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Scenarios
Bhattacharyya, Gautam
2009-01-01
The aim of this set of lectures is to review different avenues of electroweak symmetry breaking explored over the years. This constitutes a timely exercise as the world's largest and the highest energy particle accelerator, namely, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN near Geneva, is all set to start running whose primary mission is to unravel the mysteries of electroweak phase transition. In the beginning, we discuss the Standard Model Higgs mechanism. After that we review the Higgs sector of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Then we take up three relatively recent ideas: Little Higgs, Gauge-Higgs Unification, and Higgsless scenarios. For the latter three cases, we present the basic ideas and restrict our illustrations to some instructive toy models, as our intention is rather to provide an intuitive feel of the underlying dynamics than to get into an in-depth analysis of realistic scenarios. Wherever possible, we provide enough pedagogical details, which the beginners of the subject might find u...
Charge symmetry breaking in the neutron proton system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two consequences of charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the n-p system are examined. In n-p elastic scattering, CSB nuclear forces cause a difference between the polarizations of the neutron and the proton scattered in opposite directions in the center of mass system. The expected differences in polarizations due to one boson exchanges, particularly a photon exchange, isospin mixed mesons, and a pion (with the n-p mass difference taken into account), are computed. The calculated polarization difference is typically of the order of several tenths of a percent. In np → dπ0, the CSB of nuclear forces can be tested by measuring the asymmetry of the angular distribution of deuterons about 900 in the center of mass frame. The expected asymmetry is calculated for one boson exchange CSB mechanisms, as in the elastic scattering. The asymmetry caused by the mixed n-π0 exchange is dominant, but all of the mechanisms contribute asymmetries with similar angular dependences. The maximum assymmetry is about 0.8% at 0; the average is about 0.2%
Charge symmetry breaking in the neutron-proton system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two consequences of charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the n-p system are examined. In n-p elastic scattering, CSB nuclear forces cause a difference between the polarizations of the neutron and the proton scattered in opposite directions in the center of mass system. The expected differences in polarizations due to one-boson exchanges, particulary a photon exchange, isospin mixed mesons, and a pion (with the n-p mass difference taken into account), are computed. The calculated polarization difference is typically of the order of several tenths of a percent. In np → dπ0, the CSB of nuclear forces can be tested by measuring the asymmetry of the angular distribution of deuterons about 900 in the center of mass frame. The expected asymmetry is calculated for one-boson exchange CSB mechanisms, as in the elstic scattering. The asymmetry caused by the mixed eta-π0 exchange is dominant, but all of the mechanisms contribute asymmetries with similar angular dependences. The maximum asymmetry is about 0.8% at 00; the average is about 0.2%. (orig.)
Charge symmetry breaking in the A=4 hypernuclei
Gazda, Daniel
2016-01-01
Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the $\\Lambda$-nucleon strong interaction generates a charge dependence of $\\Lambda$ separation energies in mirror hypernuclei, which in the case of the $A=4$ mirror hypernuclei $0^+$ ground states is sizable, $\\Delta B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}\\equiv B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda} (_{\\Lambda}^4{\\rm He})-B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4{\\rm H})=230\\pm 90$~keV, and of opposite sign to that induced by the Coulomb repulsion in light hypernuclei. Recent {\\it ab initio} calculations of the (\\lamb{4}{H}, \\lamb{4}{He}) mirror hypernuclei $0^+_{\\rm g.s.}$ and $1^+_{\\rm exc}$ levels have demonstrated that a $\\Lambda - \\Sigma^0$ mixing CSB model due to Dalitz and von Hippel (1964) is capable of reproducing this large value of $\\Delta B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}$. These calculations are discussed here with emphasis placed on the leading-order $\\chi$EFT hyperon-nucleon strong-interaction Bonn-J\\"{u}lich model used and the no-core shell-model calculational scheme applied. The role of one-pion exchange in producing sizable C...
A pedagogical review of electroweak symmetry breaking scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review different avenues of electroweak symmetry breaking explored over the years. This constitutes a timely exercise as the world's largest and the highest energy particle accelerator, namely, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN near Geneva, has started running whose primary mission is to find the Higgs or some phenomena that mimic the effects of the Higgs, i.e. to unravel the mysteries of electroweak phase transition. In the beginning, we discuss the Standard Model Higgs mechanism. After that we review the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. Then we take up three relatively recent ideas: little Higgs, gauge-Higgs unification and Higgsless scenarios. For the latter three cases, we first present the basic ideas and restrict our illustration to some instructive toy models to provide an intuitive feel of the underlying dynamics, and then discuss, for each of the three cases, how more realistic scenarios are constructed and how to decipher their experimental signatures. Wherever possible, we provide pedagogical details, which beginners might find useful.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a split potential box
Shamriz, Elad; Malomed, Boris A
2016-01-01
We report results of the analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in the basic (actually, simplest) model which is capable to produce the SSB phenomenology in the one-dimensional setting. It is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii - nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the cubic self-attractive term and a double-well-potential built as an infinitely deep potential box split by a narrow (delta-functional) barrier. The barrier's strength, epsilon, is the single free parameter of the scaled form of the model. It may be implemented in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics. The SSB bifurcation of the symmetric ground state (GS) is predicted analytically in two limit cases, viz., for deep or weak splitting of the potential box by the barrier. For the generic case, a variational approximation (VA) is elaborated. The analytical findings are presented along with systematic numerical results. Stability of stationary states is studied through the calculation of eigenvalues for small perturbations, an...
Spontaneous Electro-Weak Symmetry Breaking and Cold Dark Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Shou-Hua
2007-01-01
In the standard model, the weak gauge bosons and fermions obtain mass after spontaneous electro-weak symmetry breaking, which is realized by one fundamental scalar field, namely the Higgs field. We study the simplest scalar cold dark matter model in which the scalar cold dark matter also obtains mass by interaction with the weakdoublet Higgs field, in the same way as those of weak gauge bosons and fermions. Our study shows that the correct cold dark matter relic abundance within 3σ uncertainty (0.093 ＜Ωdmh2 ＜ 0.129) and experimentally allowed Higgs boson mass (114.4 ≤ mh ≤ 208 GeV) constrain the scalar dark matter mass within 48 ≤ ms ≤ 78 GeV.This result is in excellent agreement with the result of de Boer et al. (50 ～ 100 GeV). Such a kind of dark matter annihilation can account for the observed gamma rays excess (10σ) at EGRET for energies above 1 GeV in comparison with the expectations from conventional Galactic models. We also investigate other phenomenological consequences of this model. For example, the Higgs boson decays dominantly into scalar cold dark matter if its mass lies within 48 ～ 64 GeV.
Natural cold baryogenesis from strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The mechanism of ''cold electroweak baryogenesis'' has been so far unpopular because its proposal has relied on the ad-hoc assumption of a period of hybrid inflation at the electroweak scale with the Higgs acting as the waterfall field. We argue here that cold baryogenesis can be naturally realized without the need to introduce any slow-roll potential. Our point is that composite Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking arises via a strongly first-order phase transition provide a well-motivated framework for cold baryogenesis. In this case, reheating proceeds by bubble collisions and we argue that this can induce changes in Chern-Simons number, which in the presence of new sources of CP violation commonly lead to baryogenesis. We illustrate this mechanism using as a source of CP violation an effective dimension-six operator which is free from EDM constraints, another advantage of cold baryogenesis compared to the standard theory of electroweak baryogenesis. Our results are general as they do not rely on any particular UV completion but only on a stage of supercooling ended by a first-order phase transition in the evolution of the universe, which can be natural if there is nearly conformal dynamics at the TeV scale. Besides, baryon-number violation originates from the Standard Model only
Chirally Invariant Avatar in a Model of Neutrinos with Light Cone Reflection Symmetry
Chodos, Alan
2016-01-01
In previous work we developed a model of neutrinos based on a new symmetry, Light Cone Reflection (LCR), that interchanges spacelike and timelike intervals. In this paper we start with the four-dimensional model, and construct a two-dimensional avatar that obeys the same equations of motion, and preserves both the light-cone reflection symmetry and the chiral symmetry of the original theory. The avatar also contains the interaction that rendered the four-dimensional model gauge invariant. In an addendum, we make some remarks about how to determine the scalar field that enters into the definition of the LCR-covariant derivative.
In a search for a chiral symmetry in 102Rh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Excited states in 102Rh were populated in the fusion-evaporation reaction 94Zr(nB, 3n)102Rh at a beam energy of 36 MeV, using the INGA spectrometer at IUAC, New Delhi. The angular correlations and the electromagnetic character of some of the γ-ray transitions observed in 102Rh were investigated in detail. A new candidate for a chiral twin band was identified in 102Rh for the first time.
Chiral Symmetry and N*(1440) -> N pi pi Decay
Kamano, H; Arima, M
2004-01-01
The N*(1440) -> N pi pi decay is studied by making use of the chiral reduction formula. This formula suggests a scalar-isoscalar pion-baryon contact interaction which is absent in the recent study of Hern{\\'a}ndez et al. The contact interaction is introduced into their model, and is found to be necessary for the simultaneous description of g_{RN pi pi} and the pi-pi and pi-N invariant mass distributions.
Chiral Symmetry Restoration and Scalar-Pseudoscalar partners in QCD
Nicola, A Gomez; Andres, R Torres
2013-01-01
We present a consistent description of Scalar-Pseudoscalar partner degeneration at the QCD chiral transition in terms of the dominant low-energy physical states for the light quark sector. First, we obtain within model-independent one-loop Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) that the QCD pseudoscalar susceptibility is proportional to the quark condensate. We also show that this chiral-restoring behaviour is compatible with recent lattice results for screening masses and gives rise to degeneration between the scalar and pseudoscalar susceptibilities ($\\chi_S$,$\\chi_P$) around the transition point, consistently with an O(4)-like current restoration pattern. This scenario is clearly confirmed by lattice data when we compare $\\chi_S(T)$ with the quark condensate, expected to scale as $\\chi_P(T)$. In addition, we show that saturating $\\chi_S$ with the $\\sigma/f_0(500)$ broad resonance observed in pion scattering and including its finite temperature dependence, account for the peak structure of $\\chi_S(T)$ in lattice...
Evaluating chiral symmetry restoration through the use of sum rules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rapp Ralf
2012-11-01
Full Text Available We pursue the idea of assessing chiral restoration via in-medium modifications of hadronic spectral functions of chiral partners. The usefulness of sum rules in this endeavor is illustrated, focusing on the vector/axial-vector channel. We first present an update on obtaining quantitative results for pertinent vacuum spectral functions. These serve as a basis upon which the in-medium spectral functions can be constructed. A novel feature of our analysis of the vacuum spectral functions is the need to include excited resonances, dictated by satisfying the Weinberg-type sum rules. This includes excited states in both the vector and axial-vector channels.We also analyze the QCD sum rule for the finite temperature vector spectral function, based on a ρ spectral function tested in dilepton data which develops a shoulder at low energies.We find that the ρ′ peak flattens off which may be a sign of chiral restoration, though a study of the finite temperature axial-vector spectral function remains to be carried out.
Evaluating chiral symmetry restoration through the use of sum rules
Hohler, Paul M
2012-01-01
We pursue the idea of assessing chiral restoration via in-medium modifications of hadronic spectral functions of chiral partners. The usefulness of sum rules in this endeavor is illustrated, focusing on the vector and axial-vector channels. We first present an update on constructing quantitative results for pertinent vacuum spectral functions. These spectral functions serve as a basis upon which the in-medium spectral functions can be constructed. A striking feature of our analysis of the vacuum spectral functions is the need to include excited resonances, dictated by satisfying the Weinberg-type sum rules. This includes excited states in both the vector and axial-vector channels. Preliminary results for the finite temperature vector spectral function are presented. Based on a rho spectral function tested in dilepton data which develops a shoulder at low energies, we find that the rho' peak flattens off. The flattening may be a sign of chiral restoration, though a study of the finite temperature axial-vector ...
Symmetry breaking for toral actions in simple mechanical systems
Birtea, Petre; Puta, Mircea; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Tudoran, Ruazvan Micu
2003-01-01
For simple mechanical systems, bifurcating branches of relative equilibria with trivial symmetry from a given set of relative equilibria with toral symmetry are found. Lyapunov stability conditions along these branches are given.
Particle-Hole Symmetry Breaking in the Pseudogap State of Bi2201
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashimoto, M.; /SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /LBNL, ALS; He, R.-H.; /aff SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Tanaka, K.; /aff SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /LBNL, ALS /Osaka U.; Testaud, J.P.; /SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /LBNL, ALS; Meevasana1, W.; Moore, R.G.; Lu, D.H.; /SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Yao, H.; /SIMES, Stanford; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; /AIST, Tsukuba; Devereaux, T.P.; /SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Hussain, Z.; /LBNL, ALS; Shen, Z.-X.; /SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.
2011-08-19
In conventional superconductors, a gap exists in the energy absorption spectrum only below the transition temperature (T{sub c}), corresponding to the energy price to pay for breaking a Cooper pair of electrons. In high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors above T{sub c}, an energy gap called the pseudogap exists, and is controversially attributed either to pre-formed superconducting pairs, which would exhibit particle-hole symmetry, or to competing phases which would typically break it. Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) studies suggest that the pseudogap stems from lattice translational symmetry breaking and is associated with a different characteristic spectrum for adding or removing electrons (particle-hole asymmetry). However, no signature of either spatial or energy symmetry breaking of the pseudogap has previously been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Here we report ARPES data from Bi2201 which reveals both particle-hole symmetry breaking and dramatic spectral broadening indicative of spatial symmetry breaking without long range order, upon crossing through T* into the pseudogap state. This symmetry breaking is found in the dominant region of the momentum space for the pseudogap, around the so-called anti-node near the Brillouin zone boundary. Our finding supports the STM conclusion that the pseudogap state is a broken-symmetry state that is distinct from homogeneous superconductivity.
Blanco, Celia; Crusats, Joaquim; El-Hachemi, Zoubir; Moyano, Albert; Hochberg, David; 10.1039/C2CP43488A
2012-01-01
We analyze limited enantioselective (LES) autocatalysis in a temperature gradient and with internal flow/recycling of hot and cold material. Microreversibility forbids broken mirror symmetry for LES in the presence of a temperature gradient alone. This symmetry can be broken however when the auto-catalysis and limited enantioselective catalysis are each localized within the regions of low and high temperature, respectively. This scheme has been recently proposed as a plausible model for spontaneous emergence of chirality in abyssal hydrothermal vents. Regions in chemical parameter space are mapped out in which the racemic state is unstable and bifurcates to chiral solutions.
Dynamics of symmetry breaking during quantum real-time evolution in a minimal model system.
Heyl, Markus; Vojta, Matthias
2014-10-31
One necessary criterion for the thermalization of a nonequilibrium quantum many-particle system is ergodicity. It is, however, not sufficient in cases where the asymptotic long-time state lies in a symmetry-broken phase but the initial state of nonequilibrium time evolution is fully symmetric with respect to this symmetry. In equilibrium, one particular symmetry-broken state is chosen as a result of an infinitesimal symmetry-breaking perturbation. From a dynamical point of view the question is: Can such an infinitesimal perturbation be sufficient for the system to establish a nonvanishing order during quantum real-time evolution? We study this question analytically for a minimal model system that can be associated with symmetry breaking, the ferromagnetic Kondo model. We show that after a quantum quench from a completely symmetric state the system is able to break its symmetry dynamically and discuss how these features can be observed experimentally. PMID:25396355
Roles of chiral symmetry and the sigma meson in hadron and nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We first review the recent accumulating evidences of the existence of a scalar-isoscalar meson with the mass 500 to 800 MeV which may be identified with the sigma meson as the quantum fluctuation of the amplitude of the chiral order parameter . We indicate that phase shift analyses which respect chiral symmetry (ChS), analyticity and crossing symmetry of the scattering amplitude show the sigma meson pole in the s-channel as well as the ρ meson pole in the t-channel in the π-π scattering in the I=J=0 channel. We emphasize that the existence of the σ resonance does not contradict with the success of the chiral perturbation theory; phenomenological difficulties with the renormalizable linear sigma model do not necessarily deny the validity of the linear representation of ChS of QCD as given by the NJL-like models which not only admit the σ resonance but also reproduce the coupling constants Li and Hi appearing the nonlinear chiral lagrangian. We give some examples of the hadronic phenomena which are naturally accounted for with the σ meson. We show that the σ meson as the amplitude fluctuation of the chiral order parameter may be more clearly identified than in free space in hot and/or dense matter, even in finite nuclei where partial restoration of ChS may be realized. (author)
The chiral transition and U(1)_A symmetry restoration from lattice QCD using Domain Wall Fermions
Bazavov, A; Buchoff, Michael I; Cheng, Michael; Christ, N H; Ding, H -T; Gupta, Rajan; Hegde, Prasad; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao
2012-01-01
We present results on both the restoration of the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry and the effective restoration of the anomalously broken U(1)_A symmetry in finite temperature QCD at zero chemical potential using lattice QCD. We employ domain wall fermions on lattices with fixed temporal extent N_\\tau = 8 and spatial extent N_\\sigma = 16 in a temperature range of T = 139 - 195 MeV, corresponding to lattice spacings of a \\approx 0.12 - 0.18 fm. In these calculations, we include two degenerate light quarks and a strange quark at fixed pion mass m_\\pi = 200 MeV. The strange quark mass is set near its physical value. We also present results from a second set of finite temperature gauge configurations at the same volume and temporal extent with slightly heavier pion mass. To study chiral symmetry restoration, we calculate the chiral condensate, the disconnected chiral susceptibility, and susceptibilities in several meson channels of different quantum numbers. To study U(1)_A restoration, we calculate spatial ...