WorldWideScience

Sample records for chiral symmetry breaking

  1. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  2. Chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giacomo, Adriano; Pucci, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To understand the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles, the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry breaking is calculated in the $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV]. First, we add one pair of monopoles, varying the monopole charges $m_{c}$ from zero to four, to SU(3) quenched configurations by a monopole creation operator. The low-lying eigenvalues of the Overlap Dirac operator are computed from the gauge links of the normal configurations and the configurations with additional monopoles. Next, we compare the distributions of the nearest-neighbor spacing of the low-lying eigenvalues with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The low-lying eigenvalues not depending on the scale parameter $\\Sigma$ are compared to the prediction of the random matrix theory. The results show the consistency with the random matrix theory. Thus, the additional monopoles do not affect the low-lying eigenvalues. Moreover, we discover that the additional monopoles increa...

  3. Catalysis of Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking by Chiral Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Braguta, V V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the properties of media with chiral imbalance parameterized by chiral chemical potential. It is shown that depending on the strength of interaction between constituents in the media the chiral chemical potential either creates or enhances dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Thus the chiral chemical potential plays a role of the catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Physically this effect results from the appearance of the Fermi surface and additional fermion states on this surface which take part in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. An interesting conclusion which can be drawn is that at sufficiently small temperature chiral plasma is unstable with respect to condensation of Cooper pairs and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking even for vanishingly small interactions between constituents.

  4. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the Tayler instability

    CERN Document Server

    Del Sordo, Fabio; Brandenburg, Axel; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2011-01-01

    The chiral symmetry breaking properties of the Tayler instability are discussed. Effective amplitude equations are determined in one case. This model has three free parameters that are determined numerically. Comparison with chiral symmetry breaking in biochemistry is made.

  5. Magnetic rotation and chiral symmetry breaking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Kumar Jain; Amita

    2001-08-01

    The deformed mean field of nuclei exhibits various geometrical and dynamical symmetries which manifest themselves as various types of rotational and decay patterns. Most of the symmetry operations considered so far have been defined for a situation wherein the angular momentum coincides with one of the principal axes and the principal axis cranking may be invoked. New possibilities arise with the observation of rotational features in weakly deformed nuclei and now interpreted as magnetic rotational bands. More than 120 MR bands have now been identified by filtering the existing data. We present a brief overview of these bands. The total angular momentum vector in such bands is tilted away from the principal axes. Such a situation gives rise to several new possibilities including breaking of chiral symmetry as discussed recently by Frauendorf. We present the outcome of such symmetries and their possible experimental verification. Some possible examples of chiral bands are presented.

  6. Spontaneous Planar Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Lubensky, David

    Recent progress in animal development has highlighted the central role played by planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Through PCP, cells have the ability to collectively polarize in the plane of the epithelium by localizing morphogenetic proteins along a certain axis. This allows direction-dependent modulation of tissue mechanical properties that can translate into the formation of complex, non-rotationally invariant shapes. Recent experimental observations[1] show that cells, in addition to being planar-polarized, can also spontaneously develop planar chirality, perhaps in the effort of making yet more complex shapes that are reflection non-invariant. In this talk we will present our work in characterizing general mechanisms that can lead to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in cells. We decompose interfacial concentration of polarity proteins in a hexagonal cell packing into irreducible representations. We find that in the case of polar concentration distributions, a chiral state can only be reached from a secondary instability after the cells are polarized. However in the case of nematic distributions, we show that a finite-amplitude (subcritical, or ``first-order'') nematic transition can send the system from disorder directly to a chiral state. In addition, we find that perturbing the system by stretching the hexagonal packing enables direct (supercritical, or ``second-order'') chiral transition in the nematic case. Finally, we do a Landau expansion to study competition between stretch-induced chirality and the tendency towards a non-chiral state in packings that have retained the full 6-fold symmetry.

  7. Chiral symmetry breaking, instantons, and monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giacomo, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show that monopoles induce the chiral symmetry breaking. In order to indicate the evidence, we add one pair of monopoles with magnetic charges to the quenched SU(3) configurations by a monopole creation operator, and investigate the propaties of the chiral symmetry breaking using the Overlap fermion. We show that instantons are created by the monopoles. The pseudoscalar meson mass and decay constant are computed from the correlation functions, and the renormalization constant $Z_{S}$ is determined by the non perturbative method. The renormalization group invariant chiral condensate in $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$-scheme at 2 [GeV] is evaluated by the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner formula, and the random matrix theory. Finally, we estimate the renormalization group invariant quark masses $\\bar{m} = (m_{u} + m_{d})/2$, and $m_{s}$ in $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$-scheme at 2 [GeV]. The preliminary results indicate that the chiral condensate decreases and the quark masses become slightly heavy by inc...

  8. A Molecular Model for Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank; Debenedetti, Pablo

    In this work, we present a new class of molecular models for chiral phenomena in condensed matter systems. A key feature of these models is the ability of the four-site (tetramer) ``molecules'' to inter-convert between two distinct chiral forms (enantiomers). Given this feature, we use analytical theory and computer simulations to investigate the emergent chiral properties (including symmetry breaking) over a range of conditions. In particular, we consider the single-molecule level and condensed-phase behavior of our model system. Interestingly, we find that our liquid-phase predictions are in excellent agreement with recent experimental reports on chiral self-sorting in isotropic liquids. From this perspective, our model demonstrates accurate predictive capabilities, as well as a platform for understanding the microscopic origins of a variety of chiral phenomena. In a broader context, we anticipate that this class of models will be relevant to chirality-dominated areas such as the pharmaceutical industry and pre-biotic geochemistry.

  9. Chiral symmetry breaking in continuum QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of chiral symmetry breaking in two-flavor continuum QCD in the quenched limit. The theory is set up at perturbative momenta, where asymptotic freedom leads to precise results. The evolution of QCD towards the hadronic phase is achieved by means of dynamical hadronization in the nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach. We use a vertex expansion scheme based on gauge-invariant operators and discuss its convergence properties and the remaining systematic errors. In particular, we present results for the quark propagator, the full tensor structure and momentum dependence of the quark-gluon vertex, and the four-Fermi scatterings.

  10. Spontaneous Chiral Symmetry Breaking as Condensation of Dynamical Chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) is equivalent to sufficient abundance of Dirac near-zeromodes. However, dynamical mechanism leading to breakdown of chiral symmetry should be naturally reflected in chiral properties of the modes. Here we offer such connection, presenting evidence that SChSB in QCD proceeds via the appearance of modes exhibiting dynamical tendency for local chiral polarization. These modes form a band of finite width Lambda_ch (chiral polarization scale) around the surface of otherwise anti--polarized Dirac sea, and condense. Lambda_ch characterizes the dynamics of the breaking phenomenon and can be converted to a quark mass scale, thus offering conceptual means to determine which quarks of nature are governed by broken chiral dynamics. It is proposed that, within the context of SU(3) gauge theories with fundamental Dirac quarks, mode condensation is equivalent to chiral polarization, making Lambda_ch an "order parameter" of SChSB. Several uses of these features, ...

  11. BIFURCATION-THEORY APPLIED TO CHIRAL SYMMETRY-BREAKING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ATKINSON, D

    1990-01-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking in quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics is considered as a problem in bifurcation theory. Inequalities and positivity play key roles, as they do in much of the work of Andre Martin.

  12. Fermion Determinant with Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qin; YANG Hua; WANG Qing

    2002-01-01

    One-loop fermion determinant is discussed for the case in which the dynamical chiral symmetry breakingcaused by momentum-dependent fermion self-energy ∑(p2) takes place. The obtained series generalizes the heat kernelexpansion for hard fermion mass.

  13. Chiral symmetry breaking with the Curtis-Pennington vertex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Gusynin, V. P.; Maris, P.

    1992-01-01

    Published in: Phys. Lett. B 303 (1993) 157-162 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We study chiral symmetry breaking in quenched QED$_4$, using a vertex Ansatz recently proposed by Curtis and Pennington. Bifurcation analysis is employed to establish the existence of a critical c

  14. Examining a possible cascade effect in chiral symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Fariborz, Amir H

    2016-01-01

    We examine a toy model and a cascade effect for confinement and chiral symmetry breaking which consists in several phase transitions corresponding to the formation of bound states and chiral condensates with different number of fermions for a strong group. We analyze two examples: regular QCD where we calculate the "four quark" vacuum condensate and a preon composite model based on QCD at higher scales. In this context we also determine the number of flavors at which the second chiral and confinement phase transitions occur and discuss the consequences.

  15. Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buballa, Michael; Carignano, Stefano [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Theoriezentrum, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in the core of compact stars, considering the cases of mass-radius relations and neutrino emissivity explicitly. (orig.)

  16. From Running Gluon Mass to Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Orlando; Dudal, D; Frederico, T; de Paula, W; Vandersickel, N

    2011-01-01

    The gluon propagator is one of the fundamental Green's functions of QCD. It is an essential ingredient in, for example, the modeling of the Schwinger-Dyson equation used to describe hadronic phenomenology. From the Landau gauge gluon propagator, computed with lattice QCD methods, we discuss its interpretation as a massive propagator and measure the gluon mass as a function of the momenta. Special attention is given to the mass at infrared scales. In the last part of the talk, the gluon mass and chiral symmetry breaking are related via an effective model for QCD.

  17. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in unquenched QED3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C. S.; Alkofer, R.; Dahm, T.; Maris, P.

    2004-10-01

    We investigate dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in unquenched QED3 using the coupled set of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the fermion and photon propagators. For the fermion-photon interaction we employ an ansatz which satisfies its Ward-Green-Takahashi identity. We present self-consistent analytical solutions in the infrared as well as numerical results for all momenta. In Landau gauge, we find a phase transition at a critical number of flavors of Ncritf≈4. In the chirally symmetric phase the infrared behavior of the propagators is described by power laws with interrelated exponents. For Nf=1 and Nf=2 we find small values for the chiral condensate in accordance with bounds from recent lattice calculations. We investigate the Dyson-Schwinger equations in other linear covariant gauges as well. A comparison of their solutions to the accordingly transformed Landau gauge solutions shows that the quenched solutions are approximately gauge covariant, but reveals a significant amount of violation of gauge covariance for the unquenched solutions.

  18. Two alternatives of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, J

    1998-01-01

    Considering QCD in an Euclidean box, the mechanism of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry (SB$\\chi$S) is analyzed in terms of average properties of lowest eigenstates of the Dirac operator. A formal analogy between the pion decay constant and conductivity in disordered systems is established. It follows that SB$\\chi$S results from a subtle balance between the density of Euclidean quark states and their mobility. SB$\\chi$S can be realized either with $ =0$, provided the low density of states is compensated by a high mobility, or with a non-vanishing condensate, provided the mobility is suppressed. It is conjectured that the first case corresponds to extended whereas the latter case to (weakly) localized quark states.

  19. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrand, Romain; Galtier, Sébastien

    2012-11-01

    Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is investigated through three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. We show that the Hall effect induces a spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the turbulent dynamics. The normalized magnetic polarization is introduced to separate the right- (R) and left-handed (L) fluctuations. A classical k(-7/3) spectrum is found at small scales for R magnetic fluctuations which corresponds to the electron MHD prediction. A spectrum compatible with k(-11/3) is obtained at large-scales for the L magnetic fluctuations; we call this regime the ion MHD. These results are explained heuristically by rewriting the Hall MHD equations in a succinct vortex dynamical form. Applications to solar wind turbulence are discussed.

  20. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in Chiral Gauge Theories with Direct-Product Gauge Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    We analyze patterns of dynamical symmetry breaking in strongly coupled chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups $G$. If the gauge coupling for a factor group $G_i \\subset G$ becomes sufficiently strong, it can produce bilinear fermion condensates that break the $G_i$ symmetry itself and/or break other gauge symmetries $G_j \\subset G$. Our comparative study of a number of strongly coupled direct-product chiral gauge theories elucidates how the patterns of symmetry breaking depend on the structure of $G$ and on the relative sizes of the gauge couplings corresponding to factor groups in the direct product.

  1. Dynamical symmetry breaking in chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Liang; Shrock, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We analyze patterns of dynamical symmetry breaking in strongly coupled chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups G . If the gauge coupling for a factor group Gi⊂G becomes sufficiently strong, it can produce bilinear fermion condensates that break the Gi symmetry itself and/or break other gauge symmetries Gj⊂G . Our comparative study of a number of strongly coupled direct-product chiral gauge theories elucidates how the patterns of symmetry breaking depend on the structure of G and on the relative sizes of the gauge couplings corresponding to factor groups in the direct product.

  2. Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Micro-Ring Optical Cavity By Engineered Dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Xu-Bo; Yang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to break the chiral symmetry of light in traveling wave resonators by coupling the optical modes to a lossy channel. Through the engineered dissipation, an indirect dissipative coupling between two oppositely propagating modes can be realized. Combining with reactive coupling, it can break the chiral symmetry of the resonator, allowing light propagating only in one direction. The chiral symmetry breaking is numerically verified by the simulation of an electromagnetic field in a micro-ring cavity, with proper refractive index distributions. This work provokes us to emphasize the dissipation engineering in photonics, and the generalized idea can also be applied to other systems.

  3. Sea quark transverse momentum distributions and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Peter [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Strikman, Mark [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Weiss, Christian [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have provided new insight into the intrinsic transverse momentum distributions of valence and sea quarks in the nucleon at a low scale. The valence quark transverse momentum distributions (q - qbar) are governed by the nucleon's inverse hadronic size R{sup -1} ~ 0.2 GeV and drop steeply at large p{sub T}. The sea quark distributions (qbar) are in large part generated by non-perturbative chiral-symmetry breaking interactions and extend up to the scale rho{sup -1} ~ 0.6 GeV. These findings have many implications for modeling the initial conditions of perturbative QCD evolution of TMD distributions (starting scale, shape of p{sub T}. distributions, coordinate-space correlation functions). The qualitative difference between valence and sea quark intrinsic p{sub T}. distributions could be observed experimentally, by comparing the transverse momentum distributions of selected hadrons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, or those of dileptons produced in pp and pbar-p scattering.

  4. WHY COLOR-FLAVOR LOCKING IS JUST LIKE CHIRAL SYMMETRY BREAKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PISARSKI,R.D.; RISCHKE,D.H.

    2000-05-10

    The authors review how a classification into representations of color and flavor can be used to understand the possible patterns of symmetry breaking for color superconductivity in dense quark matter. In particular, the authors show how for three flavors, color-flavor locking is precisely analogous to the usual pattern of chiral symmetry breaking in the QCD vacuum.

  5. Explicit chiral symmetry breaking in Gross-Neveu type models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Christian

    2011-07-25

    This thesis is devoted to the study of a 1+1-dimensional, fermionic quantum field theory with Lagrangian L= anti {psi}i{gamma}{sup {mu}}{partial_derivative}{sub {mu}}{psi}-m{sub 0} anti {psi}{psi}+(g{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}{psi}){sup 2}+(G{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}i{gamma}{sub 5}{psi}){sup 2} in the limit of an infinite number of flavors, using semiclassical methods. The main goal of the present work was to see what changes if we allow for explicit chiral symmetry breaking, either by a bare mass term, or a splitting of the scalar and pseudo-scalar coupling constants, or both. In the first case, this becomes the massive NJL{sub 2} model. In the 2nd and 3rd cases we are dealing with a model largely unexplored so far. The first half of this thesis deals with the massive NJL{sub 2} model. Before attacking the phase diagram, it was necessary to determine the baryons of the model. We have carried out full numerical Hartree-Fock calculations including the Dirac sea. The most important result is the first complete phase diagram of the massive NJL{sub 2} model in ({mu},T,{gamma}) space, where {gamma} arises from m{sub 0} through mass renormalization. In the 2nd half of the thesis we have studied a generalization of the massless NJL{sub 2} model with two different (scalar and pseudoscalar) coupling constants, first in the massless version. Renormalization of the 2 coupling constants leads to the usual dynamical mass by dynamical transmutation, but in addition to a novel {xi} parameter interpreted as chiral quenching parameter. As far as baryon structure is concerned, the most interesting result is the fact that the new baryons interpolate between the kink of the GN model and the massless baryon of the NJL{sub 2} model, always carrying fractional baryon number 1/2. The phase diagram of the massless model with 2 coupling constants has again been determined numerically. At zero temperature we have also investigated the massive, generalized GN model with 3 parameters. It is well

  6. Aspects of Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkel, Derek P.

    In this thesis we describe two studies concerting lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD): first, an analysis of the phase structure of Wilson and twisted-mass fermions with isospin breaking effects, second a computational study measuring non-perturbative Greens functions. We open with a brief overview of the formalism of QCD and LQCD, focusing on the aspects necessary for understanding how a lattice computation is performed and how discretization effects can be understood. Our work in Wilson and twisted-mass fermions investigates an increasingly relevant regime where lattice simulations are performed with quarks at or near their physical masses and both the mass difference of the up and down quarks and their differing electric charges are included. Our computation of a non-perturbative Greens functions on the lattice serves as a first attempt to validate recent work by Dine et. al. [24] in which they calculate Greens functions which vanish in perturbation theory, yet have a contribution from the one instanton background. In chapter 2, we determine the phase diagram and pion spectrum for Wilson and twisted-mass fermions in the presence of non-degeneracy between the up and down quark and discretization errors, using Wilson and twisted-mass chiral perturbation theory. We find that the CP-violating phase of the continuum theory (which occurs for sufficiently large non-degeneracy) is continuously connected to the Aoki phase of the lattice theory with degenerate quarks. We show that discretization effects can, in some cases, push simulations with physical masses closer to either the CP-violating phase or another phase not present in the continuum, so that at sufficiently large lattice spacings physical-point simulations could lie in one of these phases. In chapter 3, we extend the work in chapter 2 to include the effects of electromagnetism, so that it is applicable to recent simulations incorporating all sources of isospin breaking. For Wilson fermions, we find that the

  7. Conformal symmetry vs. chiral symmetry breaking in the SU(3) sextet model

    CERN Document Server

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We present new results for the SU(3) "sextet model" with two flavors transforming according to the two-index symmetric representation of the gauge group. The simulations are performed using unimproved Wilson fermions. We measure the meson and baryon spectrum of the theory for multiple bare quark masses at two different lattice spacings. To address the pressing issue of whether the model is inside or below the conformal window, we compare the spectrum to the expectations for a theory with spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and to those of an IR conformal theory. Regardless of the answer (conformal or chirally broken), the theory is a cornerstone in our understanding of near-conformal and composite dynamics, ranging from Technicolor models to unparticle physics. It is also interesting for the composite dynamics of vector-like singlets with respect to the Standard Model interactions.

  8. Cutoff effects of Wilson fermions in the absence of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Della Morte, M; Luz, Magdalena; Morte, Michele Della

    2006-01-01

    We simulate two dimensional QED with two degenerate Wilson fermions and plaquette gauge action. As a consequence of the Mermin-Wagner theorem, in the continuum limit chiral symmetry is realized a la Wigner. This property affects also the size of the cutoff effects. That can be understood in view of the fact that the leading lattice artifacts are described, in the continuum Symanzik effective theory, by chirality breaking terms. In particular, vacuum expectation values of non-chirality-breaking operators are expected to be O(a) improved in the chiral limit. We provide a numerical confirmation of this expectation by performing a scaling test.

  9. Mirror Symmetry Breaking by Chirality Synchronisation in Liquids and Liquid Crystals of Achiral Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschierske, Carsten; Ungar, Goran

    2016-01-04

    Spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking is an efficient way to obtain homogeneously chiral agents, pharmaceutical ingredients and materials. It is also in the focus of the discussion around the emergence of uniform chirality in biological systems. Tremendous progress has been made by symmetry breaking during crystallisation from supercooled melts or supersaturates solutions and by self-assembly on solid surfaces and in other highly ordered structures. However, recent observations of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in liquids and liquid crystals indicate that it is not limited to the well-ordered solid state. Herein, progress in the understanding of a new dynamic mode of symmetry breaking, based on chirality synchronisation of transiently chiral molecules in isotropic liquids and in bicontinuous cubic, columnar, smectic and nematic liquid crystalline phases is discussed. This process leads to spontaneous deracemisation in the liquid state under thermodynamic control, giving rise to long-term stable symmetry-broken fluids, even at high temperatures. These fluids form conglomerates that are capable of extraordinary strong chirality amplification, eventually leading to homochirality and providing a new view on the discussion of emergence of uniform chirality in prebiotic systems.

  10. Spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking of lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO XiangQian

    2007-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in QCD is the investigation of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking,which is characterized by the non-vanishing chiral condensate when the bare fermion mass is zero.In standard methods of the lattice gauge theory,one has to perform expensive simulations at multiple bare quark masses,and employ some modeled functions to extrapolate the data to the chiral limit.This paper applies the probability distribution function method to computing the chiral condensate in lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks,without any ambiguous mass extrapolation.The results for staggered quarks indicate that this might be a promising and efficient method for investigating the spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in lattice QCD,which deserves further investigation.

  11. Spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking of lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in QCD is the investigation of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking, which is characterized by the non-vanishing chiral condensate when the bare fermion mass is zero. In standard methods of the lattice gauge theory, one has to perform expensive simulations at multiple bare quark masses, and employ some modeled functions to extrapolate the data to the chiral limit. This paper applies the probability distribution function method to computing the chiral condensate in lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks, without any ambiguous mass extrapolation. The results for staggered quarks indicate that this might be a promising and efficient method for investigating the spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in lattice QCD, which deserves further investigation.

  12. Some Relations for Quark Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Hideo; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    We analytically study the relation between quark confinement and spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in QCD. In terms of the Dirac eigenmodes, we derive some formulae for the Polyakov loop, its fluctuations, and the string tension from the Wilson loop. We also investigate the Polyakov loop in terms of the eigenmodes of the Wilson, the clover and the domain wall fermion kernels, respectively. For the confinement quantities, the low-lying Dirac/fermion eigenmodes are found to give negligible contribution, while they are essential for chiral symmetry breaking. These relations indicate no direct one-to-one correspondence between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD, which seems to be natural because confinement is realized independently of the quark mass.

  13. Gauge fermions with flat bands and anomalous transport via chiral modes from breaking gauge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The dispersionless longitudinal photon in Maxwell theory is thought of as a redundant degree of freedom due to the gauge symmetry. We find that when there exist exactly flat bands with zero energy in a condensed matter system, the fermion field may locally transform as a gauge field and the system possesses a gauge symmetry. As the longitudinal photon, the redundant degrees of freedom from the flat bands must be gauged away from the physical states. As an example, we study spinless fermions on a generalized Lieb lattice in three dimensions. The flat band of the longitudinal fermion induces a gauge symmetry. An external magnetic field breaks this gauge symmetry and emerges a bunch of non-topologically chiral modes. Combining these emergent chiral modes with the chiral anomaly mode which is of an opposite chirality, rich anomalous electric transport phenomena exhibit and are expected to be observed in Pd$_3$Bi$_2$S$_2$ and Ag$_3$Se$_2$Au.

  14. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Biernat, Elmar P; Ribeiro, J E; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  15. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [Unibersidade de Lisboa, 104-001, Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, M. T. [Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, J. E. [Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal; Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  16. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmar P. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Peña, M. T. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidadede Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, J. E. [Centro de Física das Interações Fundamentais (CFIF), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora (Portugal); Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2016-01-22

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  17. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and weak nonperturbative renormalization group equation in gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theory with the nonperturbative renormalization group equation (NPRGE), which is a first order nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In case that the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking occurs, the NPRGE encounters some non-analytic singularities at the finite critical scale even though the initial function is continuous and smooth. Therefore there is no usual solution of the PDE beyond the critical scale. In this paper, we newly introduce the notion of a weak solution which is the global solution of the weak NPRGE. We show how to evaluate the physical quantities with the weak solution.

  18. Instanton-dyon Ensemble with two Dynamical Quarks: the Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This is the second paper of the series aimed at understanding of the ensemble of the instanton-dyons, now with two flavors of light dynamical quarks. The partition function is appended by the fermionic factor, $(det T)^{N_f}$ and Dirac eigenvalue spectra at small values are derived from the numerical simulation of 64 dyons. Those spectra show clear chiral symmetry breaking pattern at high dyon density. Within current accuracy, the confinement and chiral transitions occur at very similar densities.

  19. Chiral symmetry breaking as open string tachyon condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Casero, R; Paredes, A; Casero, Roberto; Kiritsis, Elias; Paredes, Angel

    2007-01-01

    We consider a general framework to study holographically the dynamics of fundamental quarks in a confining gauge theory. Flavors are introduced by placing a set of (coincident) branes and antibranes on a background dual to a confining color theory. The spectrum contains an open string tachyon and its condensation describes the U(N_f)_L x U(N_f)_R -> U(N_f)_V symmetry breaking. By studying worldvolume gauge transformations of the flavor brane action, we obtain the QCD global anomalies and an IR condition that allows to fix the quark condensate in terms of the quark mass. We find the expected N_f^2 Goldstone bosons (for m_q=0), the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation (for m_q small) and the \\eta' mass. Remarkably, the linear confinement behavior for the masses of highly excited spin-1 mesons, m_n^2 ~ n is naturally reproduced.

  20. Comments on the Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Soft Wall Holographic QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe qualitatively some aspects of the holographic QCD. Inspired by a successfull 4D description, we try to separate the Confinement and the Chiral Symmetry Breaking dynamics. We also discuss the realization of the baryons as skyrmions in Soft Wall Holographic QCD, and the is......, and the issue of the Vector Meson Dominance....

  1. Further Investigation on Chiral Symmetry Breaking in a Uniform External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Jasinski, P

    2004-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry breaking in QED when a uniform external magnetic field is present. We calculate higher order corrections to the dynamically generated fermion mass and find them to be small. In so doing we correct an error in the literature regarding the matrix structure of the fermion self-energy.

  2. Casimir effect as a source of chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floratos, E. (Crete Univ., Iraklion (Greece). Physics Dept.; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Papantonopoulos, E. (Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece). Physics Dept.); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1985-02-21

    The vacuum of QCD, defined on a space-time topology T/sup 3/ x R, breaks chiral symmetry. The physical mechanism responsible is the formation of fermionic condensates due to Casimir forces. Representations of coloured fermions, which possess asymptotic freedom, stabilize the formation of these condensates through their gauge interactions. Estimates of ratios of the order parameters are given for various representations.

  3. Eta' Mass and Chiral Symmetry Breaking at Large Nc and Nf

    CERN Document Server

    Girlanda, L; Talavera, P

    2001-01-01

    We propose a method for implementing the large-Nc, large-Nf limit of QCD at the effective Lagrangian level. Depending on the value of the ratio Nf/Nc, different patterns of chiral symmetry breaking can arise, leading in particular to different behaviors of the eta-prime mass in the combined large-N limit.

  4. Explicit versus Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking and Mass Matrix of Quarks and Leptons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, O.; Ishida, S.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1992-02-01

    By recourse to an analogy between strong and weak interactions, quark mass-matrices consisting of the two parts are proposed, which represent, respectively, dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and explicit one due to small preon mass. The sum rules among quark masses and mixing-matrix elements derived from it seem consistent with present experiments.

  5. Chiral-glass transition and replica symmetry breaking of a three-dimensional heisenberg spin glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukushima; Kawamura

    2000-02-01

    Extensive equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations are performed for a three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with the nearest-neighbor Gaussian coupling to investigate its spin-glass and chiral-glass orderings. The occurrence of a finite-temperature chiral-glass transition without the conventional spin-glass order is established. Critical exponents characterizing the transition are different from those of the standard Ising spin glass. The calculated overlap distribution suggests the appearance of a peculiar type of replica-symmetry breaking in the chiral-glass ordered state.

  6. Chiral symmetry breaking, color superconductivity and equation of state at high density a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, H; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Parikh, Jitendra C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss in this note simultaneous existence of chiral symmetry breakingand color superconductivity at finite temperature and density in aNambu-Jona-Lasinio type model. The methodology involves an explicitconstruction of a variational ground state and minimisation of thethermodynamic potential. There appears to be a phase at finite densities withboth quark antiquark as well as diquark condensates for the "ground" state.Chiral symmetry breaking phase appear to catalyse the threshold for the diquarkcondensates to appear. We also compute the equation of state in this model.

  7. Chiral symmetry breaking as open string tachyon condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casero, Roberto [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR du CNRS 7644, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Kiritsis, Elias [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR du CNRS 7644, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Paredes, Angel [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR du CNRS 7644, 91128 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: paredes@cpht.polytechnique.fr

    2007-12-24

    We consider a general framework to study holographically the dynamics of fundamental quarks in a confining gauge theory. Flavors are introduced by placing a set of (coincident) branes and antibranes on a background dual to a confining color theory. The spectrum contains an open string tachyon and its condensation describes the U(N{sub f}){sub L}xU(N{sub f}){sub R}{yields}U(N{sub f}){sub V} symmetry breaking. By studying worldvolume gauge transformations of the flavor brane action, we obtain the QCD global anomalies and an IR condition that allows to fix the quark condensate in terms of the quark mass. We find the expected N{sub f}{sup 2} Goldstone bosons (for m{sub q}=0), the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation (for m{sub q} small) and the {eta}{sup '} mass. Remarkably, the linear confinement behavior for the masses of highly excited spin-1 mesons, m{sub n}{sup 2}{approx}n is naturally reproduced.

  8. Chiral symmetry breaking from Ginsparg-Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Pilar; Lellouch, L P; Hernandez, Pilar; Jansen, Karl; Lellouch, Laurent

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the large-volume and small-mass dependences of the quark condensate in quenched QCD using Neuberger's operator. We find good agreement with the predictions of quenched chiral perturbation theory, enabling a determination of the chiral lagrangian parameter \\Sigma, up to a multiplicative renormalization.

  9. New method for dynamical fermions and chiral-symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Azcoiti, V; Grillo, A F; Laliena, V; Luo, X Q

    1994-01-01

    The reasons for the feasibility of the Microcanonical Fermionic Average ($MFA$) approach to lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions are discussed. We then present a new exact algorithm, which is free from systematic errors and convergent even in the chiral limit.

  10. Recent progress in understanding gauge topology, confinement and chiral symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Shuryak, Edward

    2016-12-01

    A model of interacting instanton-dyons as the dominant degrees of freedom was used to discuss confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in SU(2). The case without fermions and with two flavors of fermions was discussed. Numerical results show that within this model, both with and without fermions, confinement is induced by the repulsion between dyons of same type, as the density of dyons increase at lower temperature. With fermions, the result of confinement at lower temperature, combined with the increased density made the effective distance between fermionic zero-modes smaller, thus inducing a non-zero chiral condensate, obtained by fitting to a eigenvalue density formula from random matrix theory.

  11. A computational investigation of attrition-enhanced chiral symmetry breaking in conglomerate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Francesco; Stillinger, Frank H.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2013-11-01

    Attrition-enhanced chiral symmetry breaking in crystals, also known as Viedma ripening, is a remarkable phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. By providing a direct route to solid-phase homochirality in a controllable manner, it is of inherent interest to those who study chiral symmetry-breaking/amplification mechanisms. When applied to intrinsically chiral molecules, Viedma ripening may have implications for the origin of biological homochirality, as well as applications in chiral drug resolution. Despite an abundance of research, the mechanistic details underlying this phenomenon have not been unambiguously elucidated. We employ a Monte Carlo algorithm to study this driven system, in order to gain further insights into the mechanisms capable of reproducing key experimental signatures. We provide a comprehensive numerical investigation of how the model parameters (attrition rate, liquid-phase racemization kinetics, and the relative rates of growth and dissolution kinetics) impact the system's overall behavior. It is shown that size-dependent crystal solubility alone is insufficient to reproduce most of the experimental signatures of Viedma ripening, and that some form of a solid-phase chiral feedback mechanism must be invoked in order to reproduce experimentally observed behavior. In this work, such feedback mechanisms can take the form of agglomeration, or of artificial modification of the size dependent growth kinetics.

  12. Role of center vortices in chiral symmetry breaking in SU(3) gauge theory

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We study the behavior of the AsqTad quark propagator in Landau gauge on SU(3) Yang-Mills gauge configurations under the removal of center vortices. In SU(2) gauge theory, center vortices have been observed to generate chiral symmetry breaking and dominate the infrared behavior of the quark propagator. In contrast, we report a weak dependence on the vortex content of the gauge configurations, including the survival of dynamical mass generation on configurations with vanishing string tension.

  13. External Fields and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Sakai-Sugimoto Model

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2008-01-01

    Using the Sakai-Sugimoto model we study the effect of an external magnetic field on the dynamics of fundamental flavours in both the confined and deconfined phases of a large N_c gauge theory. We find that an external magnetic field promotes chiral symmetry breaking, consistent with the ``magnetic catalysis'' observed in the field theory literature, and seen in other studies using holographic duals. The external field increases the separation between the deconfinement temperature and the chiral symmetry restoring temperature. In the deconfined phase we investigate the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram and observe, for example, there exists a maximum critical temperature (at which symmetry is restored) for very large magnetic field. We find that this and certain other phenomena persist for the Sakai-Sugimoto type models with probe branes of diverse dimensions. We comment briefly on the dynamics in the presence of an external electric field.

  14. Chiral and herringbone symmetry breaking in water-surface monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, I.R.; Kenn, R.M.; Goudot, A.

    1996-01-01

    We report the observation from monolayers of eicosanoic acid in the L(2)' phase of three distinct out-of-plane first-order diffraction peaks, indicating molecular tilt in a nonsymmetry direction and hence the absence of mirror symmetry. At lower pressures the molecules tilt in the direction of th...

  15. A new Perspective on the Scalar meson Puzzle, from Spontaneous Chiral Symmetry Breaking Beyond BCS

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, P J A

    1998-01-01

    We introduce coupled channels of Bethe-Salpeter mesons both in the mass gap equation for chiral symmetry breaking and in the boundstate equation for mesons. Consistency is insured by the Ward Identities for axial currents, which preserve the Goldstone boson nature of the pion. We find that the coupling of channels yields the widths of resonances and contributes to mass splittings, but it does not shift globally the hadron spectrum. We find that coupled channels reduce the breaking of chiral symmetry. This reduction is constrained by the coupling of a scalar meson to a pair of pseudoscalar mesons. The light and wide $\\sigma-f_0(600)$, the narrow $f_0(980)$ and the relatively heavy $f_0(1370)$ are studied in order to comply with the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. Exact calculations are performed in a particular model. In this model we find that the $f_0(980)$ is the best candidate for the groundstate quark antiquark meson . In particular its width is naturally small. In this case the coupled channels ...

  16. Chiral Symmetry Breaking and External Fields in the Kuperstein-Sonnenschein Model

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M Sohaib; Kundu, Arnab

    2012-01-01

    A novel holographic model of chiral symmetry breaking has been proposed by Kuperstein and Sonnenschein by embedding non-supersymmetric probe D7 and anti-D7 branes in the Klebanov-Witten background. We study the dynamics of the probe flavours in this model in the presence of finite temperature and a constant electromagnetic field. In keeping with the weakly coupled field theory intuition, we find the magnetic field promotes spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry whereas the electric field restores it. The former effect is universally known as the "magnetic catalysis" in chiral symmetry breaking. In the presence of an electric field such a condensation is inhibited and a current flows. Thus we are faced with a steady-state situation rather than a system in equilibrium. We conjecture a definition of thermodynamic free energy for this steady-state phase and using this proposal we study the detailed phase structure when both electric and magnetic fields are present in two representative configurations: mutually p...

  17. Chirality and its spontaneous symmetry breaking in two liquid crystal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Louis

    Chirality, or handedness, is a key concept spanning all fields of natural science, from biology to mathematics. Chiral structures can arise from achiral building blocks that lack a handedness if their assembly is unstable to chiral deformations, a phenomenon called spontaneous symmetry breaking. We theoretically study the role of chirality in two systems composed of liquid crystals dissolved or suspended in water, and our results match those obtained experimentally by our collaborators. In the first system, we study achiral liquid crystals whose Frank twist modulus is much lower than their splay and bend Frank moduli and which are confined in capillaries. Under homeotropic anchoring, their ground state configuration undergoes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking when the twist modulus decreases enough relative to the splay and bend moduli. Under degenerate planar anchoring, a small twist-to-saddle-splay ratio of elastic moduli leads to degenerate twisted configurations even though an undeformed configuration is possible. Measuring the twist profile of an experimental system produces a value for the saddle-splay constant, which has been difficult to achieve previously. Under either boundary condition, domain walls and point defects, whose topological charges depend on chirality, separate domains with different degenerate configurations, and certain ones are energetically preferred over others. In the second system, we study filamentous viruses acting as colloidal liquid crystals under the influence of depletion, which promotes condensation of the viruses into 2D colloidal monolayers. These membranes have tunable chirality and show a rich array of emergent behaviors, including a transition from a circular shape to a striking starfish shape upon changing the chirality of constituent viruses, partial coalescence via domain walls through which the viruses twist by 180 degrees, and phase-separated rafts of a particular size when two virus species with different lengths

  18. Spectra of massive QCD Dirac Operators from Random Matrix Theory all three chiral symmetry breaking patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Akemann, G

    2001-01-01

    The microscopic spectral eigenvalue correlations of QCD Dirac operators in the presence of dynamical fermions are calculated within the framework of Random Matrix Theory (RMT). Our approach treats the low--energy correlation functions of all three chiral symmetry breaking patterns (labeled by the Dyson index $\\beta=1,2$ and 4) on the same footing, offering a unifying description of massive QCD Dirac spectra. RMT universality is explicitly proven for all three symmetry classes and the results are compared to the available lattice data for $\\beta=4$.

  19. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD:a finite-size scaling study on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo; Giusti, Leonardo; Necco, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD with massless quarks at infinite volume can be seen in a finite box by studying, for instance, the dependence of the chiral condensate from the volume and the quark mass. We perform a feasibility study of this program by computing the quark condensate on the lattice in the quenched approximation of QCD at small quark masses. We carry out simulations in various topological sectors of the theory at several volumes, quark masses and lattice spacings by employing fermions with an exact chiral symmetry, and we focus on observables which are infrared stable and free from mass-dependent ultraviolet divergences. The numerical calculation is carried out with an exact variance-reduction technique, which is designed to be particularly efficient when spontaneous symmetry breaking is at work in generating a few very small low-lying eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. The finite-size scaling behaviour of the condensate in the topological sectors considered agrees, within our stati...

  20. Shape Transitions and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Energy Landscape of the Mitotic Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G

    2016-06-17

    We derive an unbiased information theoretic energy landscape for chromosomes at metaphase using a maximum entropy approach that accurately reproduces the details of the experimentally measured pairwise contact probabilities between genomic loci. Dynamical simulations using this landscape lead to cylindrical, helically twisted structures reflecting liquid crystalline order. These structures are similar to those arising from a generic ideal homogenized chromosome energy landscape. The helical twist can be either right or left handed so chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ideal chromosome landscape when augmented by interactions like those leading to topologically associating domain formation in the interphase chromosome reproduces these behaviors. The phase diagram of this landscape shows that the helical fiber order and the cylindrical shape persist at temperatures above the onset of chiral symmetry breaking, which is limited by the topologically associating domain interaction strength.

  1. Shape Transitions and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Energy Landscape of the Mitotic Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2016-06-01

    We derive an unbiased information theoretic energy landscape for chromosomes at metaphase using a maximum entropy approach that accurately reproduces the details of the experimentally measured pairwise contact probabilities between genomic loci. Dynamical simulations using this landscape lead to cylindrical, helically twisted structures reflecting liquid crystalline order. These structures are similar to those arising from a generic ideal homogenized chromosome energy landscape. The helical twist can be either right or left handed so chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ideal chromosome landscape when augmented by interactions like those leading to topologically associating domain formation in the interphase chromosome reproduces these behaviors. The phase diagram of this landscape shows that the helical fiber order and the cylindrical shape persist at temperatures above the onset of chiral symmetry breaking, which is limited by the topologically associating domain interaction strength.

  2. Shape Transitions and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Energy Landscape of the Mitotic Chromosome

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We derive an unbiased information theoretic energy landscape for chromosomes at metaphase using a maximum entropy approach that accurately reproduces the details of the experimentally measured pair-wise contact probabilities between genomic loci. Dynamical simulations using this landscape lead to cylindrical, helically twisted structures reflecting liquid crystalline order. These structures are similar to those arising from a generic ideal homogenized chromosome energy landscape. The helical twist can be either right or left handed so chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ideal chromosome landscape when augmented by interactions like those leading to topologically associating domain (TAD) formation in the interphase chromosome reproduces these behaviors. The phase diagram of this landscape shows the helical fiber order and the cylindrical shape persist at temperatures above the onset of chiral symmetry breaking which is limited by the TAD interaction strength.

  3. Chiral symmetry breaking by spatial confinement in tactoidal droplets of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Luana; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2011-03-29

    In many colloidal systems, an orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase emerges from the isotropic (I) melt in the form of spindle-like birefringent tactoids. In cases studied so far, the tactoids always reveal a mirror-symmetric nonchiral structure, sometimes even when the building units are chiral. We report on chiral symmetry breaking in the nematic tactoids formed in molecularly nonchiral polymer-crowded aqueous solutions of low-molecular weight disodium cromoglycate. The parity is broken by twisted packing of self-assembled molecular aggregates within the tactoids as manifested by the observed optical activity. Fluorescent confocal microscopy reveals that the chiral N tactoids are located at the boundaries of cells. We explain the chirality induction as a replacement of energetically costly splay packing of the aggregates within the curved bipolar tactoidal shape with twisted packing. The effect represents a simple pathway of macroscopic chirality induction in an organic system with no molecular chirality, as the only requirements are orientational order and curved shape of confinement.

  4. Chiral symmetry breaking by spatial confinement in tactoidal droplets of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Luana; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2011-01-01

    In many colloidal systems, an orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase emerges from the isotropic (I) melt in the form of spindle-like birefringent tactoids. In cases studied so far, the tactoids always reveal a mirror-symmetric nonchiral structure, sometimes even when the building units are chiral. We report on chiral symmetry breaking in the nematic tactoids formed in molecularly nonchiral polymer-crowded aqueous solutions of low-molecular weight disodium cromoglycate. The parity is broken by twisted packing of self-assembled molecular aggregates within the tactoids as manifested by the observed optical activity. Fluorescent confocal microscopy reveals that the chiral N tactoids are located at the boundaries of cells. We explain the chirality induction as a replacement of energetically costly splay packing of the aggregates within the curved bipolar tactoidal shape with twisted packing. The effect represents a simple pathway of macroscopic chirality induction in an organic system with no molecular chirality, as the only requirements are orientational order and curved shape of confinement. PMID:21402929

  5. Imaging dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking: pion wave function on the light front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Cloët, I C; Cobos-Martinez, J J; Roberts, C D; Schmidt, S M; Tandy, P C

    2013-03-29

    We project onto the light front the pion's Poincaré-covariant Bethe-Salpeter wave function obtained using two different approximations to the kernels of quantum chromodynamics' Dyson-Schwinger equations. At an hadronic scale, both computed results are concave and significantly broader than the asymptotic distribution amplitude, φ(π)(asy)(x)=6x(1-x); e.g., the integral of φ(π)(x)/φ(π)(asy)(x) is 1.8 using the simplest kernel and 1.5 with the more sophisticated kernel. Independent of the kernels, the emergent phenomenon of dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking is responsible for hardening the amplitude.

  6. Chiral Symmetry Breaking for Domain Wall Fermions in Quenched Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, L

    2001-01-01

    The domain wall fermion formulation exhibits full chiral symmetry for finite lattice spacing except for the effects of mixing between the domain walls. Close to the continuum limit these symmetry breaking effects should be described by a single residual mass. We determine this mass from the conservation law obeyed by the conserved axial current in quenched simulations with beta=5.7 and 6.0 and domain wall separations varying between 12 and 48 on 8^3x32 and 16^3x32 lattices. Using the resulting values for the residual mass we perform two complete and independent calculations of the pion decay constant. Good agreement is found between these two methods and with experiment.

  7. Symmetries, Symmetry Breaking, Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of symmetry, symmetry breaking and gauge symmetries are discussed, their operational meaning being displayed by the observables {\\em and} the (physical) states. For infinitely extended systems the states fall into physically disjoint {\\em phases} characterized by their behavior at infinity or boundary conditions, encoded in the ground state, which provide the cause of symmetry breaking without contradicting Curie Principle. Global gauge symmetries, not seen by the observables, are nevertheless displayed by detectable properties of the states (superselected quantum numbers and parastatistics). Local gauge symmetries are not seen also by the physical states; they appear only in non-positive representations of field algebras. Their role at the Lagrangian level is merely to ensure the validity on the physical states of local Gauss laws, obeyed by the currents which generate the corresponding global gauge symmetries; they are responsible for most distinctive physical properties of gauge quantum field ...

  8. Breaking Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that πmix (the π-calculus with mixed choice is more expressive than πsep (its subset with only separate choice. The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla offered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of incestual processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (initial symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result - based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reasonable encoding from πmix into πsep. We indicate how the respective proofs can be adapted and exhibit the consequences of varying notions of uniformity and reasonableness. In each case, the ability to break initial symmetries turns out to be essential.

  9. Vacuum Polarization and Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking: Phase Diagram of QED with Four-Fermion Contact Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Akram, F; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L X; Masud, B; Rodriguez-Quintero, J; Calcaneo-Roldan, C; Tejeda-Yeomans, M E

    2012-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry breaking for fundamental charged fermions coupled electromagnetically to photons with the inclusion of four-fermion contact self-interaction term. We employ multiplicatively renormalizable models for the photon dressing function and the electron-photon vertex which minimally ensures mass anomalous dimension = 1. Vacuum polarization screens the interaction strength. Consequently, the pattern of dynamical mass generation for fermions is characterized by a critical number of massless fermion flavors above which chiral symmetry is restored. This effect is in diametrical opposition to the existence of criticality for the minimum interaction strength necessary to break chiral symmetry dynamically. The presence of virtual fermions dictates the nature of phase transition. Miransky scaling laws for the electromagnetic interaction strength and the four-fermion coupling, observed for quenched QED, are replaced by a mean-field power law behavior corresponding to a second order phase transition. T...

  10. Imaging chiral symmetry breaking from Kekulé bond order in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Christopher; Kim, Cheol-Joo; Brown, Lola; Schiros, Theanne; Nordlund, Dennis; Lochocki, Edward B.; Shen, Kyle M.; Park, Jiwoong; Pasupathy, Abhay N.

    2016-10-01

    Chirality--or `handedness’--is a symmetry property crucial to fields as diverse as biology, chemistry and high-energy physics. In graphene, chiral symmetry emerges naturally as a consequence of the carbon honeycomb lattice. This symmetry can be broken by interactions that couple electrons with opposite momenta in graphene. Here we directly visualize the formation of Kekulé bond order, one such phase of broken chiral symmetry, in an ultraflat graphene sheet grown epitaxially on a copper substrate. We show that its origin lies in the interactions between individual vacancies in the copper substrate that are mediated electronically by the graphene. We show that this interaction causes the bonds in graphene to distort, creating a phase with broken chiral symmetry. The Kekulé ordering is robust at ambient temperature and atmospheric conditions, indicating that intercalated atoms may be harnessed to drive graphene and other two-dimensional materials towards electronically desirable and exotic collective phases.

  11. Consequences of simultaneous chiral symmetry breaking and deconfinement for the isospin symmetric phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tobias; Klähn, Thomas; Hempel, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D χ SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Klähn and Fischer (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D χ SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium.

  12. The Tayler instability at low magnetic Prandtl numbers: Chiral symmetry breaking and synchronizable helicity oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Stefani, F; Giesecke, A; Weber, N; Weier, T

    2016-01-01

    The current-driven, kink-type Tayler instability (TI) is a key ingredient of the Tayler-Spruit dynamo model for the generation of stellar magnetic fields, but is also discussed as a mechanism that might hamper the up-scaling of liquid metal batteries. Under some circumstances, the TI involves a helical flow pattern which goes along with some alpha effect. Here we focus on the chiral symmetry breaking and the related impact on the alpha effect that would be needed to close the dynamo loop in the Tayler-Spruit model. For low magnetic Prandtl numbers, we observe intrinsic oscillations of the alpha effect. These oscillations serve then as the basis for a synchronized Tayler-Spruit dynamo model, which could possibly link the periodic tidal forces of planets with the oscillation periods of stellar dynamos.

  13. Consequences of simultaneous chiral symmetry breaking and deconfinement for the isospin symmetric phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\\chi$SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Kl\\"ahn and Fischer (2015) (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D$\\chi$SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium.

  14. Consequences of simultaneous chiral symmetry breaking and deconfinement for the isospin symmetric phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Tobias; Klaehn, Thomas [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Hempel, Matthias [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-08-15

    The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D χ SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Klaehn and Fischer (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D χ SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium. (orig.)

  15. Phase diagrams of charged colloidal rods: Can a uniaxial charge distribution break chiral symmetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drwenski, Tara; Dussi, Simone; Hermes, Michiel; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René

    2016-03-07

    We construct phase diagrams for charged rodlike colloids within the second-virial approximation as a function of rod concentration, salt concentration, and colloidal charge. Besides the expected isotropic-nematic transition, we also find parameter regimes with a coexistence between a nematic and a second, more highly aligned nematic phase including an isotropic-nematic-nematic triple point and a nematic-nematic critical point, which can all be explained in terms of the twisting effect. We compute the Frank elastic constants to see if the twist elastic constant can become negative, which would indicate the possibility of a cholesteric phase spontaneously forming. Although the twisting effect reduces the twist elastic constant, we find that it always remains positive. In addition, we find that for finite aspect-ratio rods the twist elastic constant is also always positive, such that there is no evidence of chiral symmetry breaking due to a uniaxial charge distribution.

  16. Optically probed symmetry breaking in the chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, R. B.; Vergara, I.; Schaefer, S. D.; Bischoff, D.; Aqeel, A.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Grueninger, M.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the linear optical properties of the chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3, specifically associated with the absence of inversion symmetry, the chiral crystallographic structure, and magnetic order. Through spectroscopic ellipsometry, we observe local crystal-field excitations below the charge-transfe

  17. Breaking Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that {\\pi}mix (the {\\pi}-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than {\\pi}sep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla of- fered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of "incestual" processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (ini- tial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result-based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries-without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reason- able encoding from {\\pi}mix i...

  18. Breaking Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Kirstin; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.10

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that \\pimix (the \\pi-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than \\pisep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla offered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of incestual processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (initial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result - based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reasonable encoding from \\pimix into \\pisep. We...

  19. Random matrix model for chiral symmetry breaking and color superconductivity in QCD at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderheyden, B J; Vanderheyden, Benoit

    2000-01-01

    We consider a random matrix model which describes the competition between chiral symmetry breaking and the formation of quark Cooper pairs in QCD at finite density. We study the evolution of the phase structure in temperature and chemical potential with variations of the strength of the interaction in the quark-quark channel and demonstrate that the phase diagram can realize a total of six different topologies. A vector interaction representing single-gluon exchange reproduces a topology commonly encountered in previous QCD models, in which a low-density chiral broken phase is separated from a high-density diquark phase by a first-order line. The other five topologies either do not possess a diquark phase or display a new phase and new critical points. Since these five cases require large variations of the coupling constants away from the values expected for a vector interaction, we conclude that the phase diagram of finite density QCD has the topology suggested by single-gluon exchange and that this topology...

  20. Symmetries and in-medium effects: Chiral symmetry breaking and modification of meson properties in a strongly interacting medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metag Volker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral symmetry is a fundamental symmetry of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD in the limit of vanishing quark masses. In the hadronic sector chiral symmetry is broken; otherwise chiral partners - hadronic states with the same spin but opposite parity - should be degenerate in mass which is not observed in nature. It has been suggested that chiral symmetry might at least be partially restored in a strongly interacting environment. As a consequence, properties of hadrons, encoded in their mass and width, may be modified when embedded in a nucleus. These ideas have motivated widespread theoretical and experimental activities. As an example, recent experimental results on the in-medium properties of the η′ meson are presented.

  1. Chiral Symmetry Breaking During Growing Process of NaClO3 Crystal under Direct-Current Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wan-Chun; CHEN Xiao-Long

    2007-01-01

    @@ We investigate the influence of dc electric field on chiral symmetry breaking during the growing process of NaClO3 crystal. Nucleation and growth of NaClO3 are completed from an aqueous solution by a fast cooling temperature technology. A pair of polarization microscopes are used to identify a distribution of chiral crystals. Experimental results indicate that the dc electric field has an effect on distribution of chirality, but the direction of the dc electric field is not sensitive to the chiral autocatalysis and selectivity, i.e. the nature convection driving by the gravity does not play an important role on a thin layer of NaClO3 solution. The experimental phenomena may be elucidated by the ECSN mechanism.

  2. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, Jose' Emilio F. [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal; Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  3. Chiral symmetry breaking, color superconductivity and quark matter phase diagram: a variational approach 12.38.Gc

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, H

    2001-01-01

    We discuss in this note simultaneous existence of chiral symmetry breaking and color superconductivity at finite temperature and density in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type model. The methodology involves an explicit construction of a variational ground state and minimisation of the thermodynamic potential. There exist nontrivial solutions to the gap equations at finite densities with both quark-antiquark as well as diquark condensates for the 'ground' state. However, such a phase is thermodynamically unstable with the pressure being negative in this region. We also compute the equation of state, and obtain the structure of the phase diagram in the model.

  4. Linking Dynamical Gluon Mass to Chiral Symmetry Breaking via a QCD Low Energy Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, O; Frederico, T

    2011-01-01

    A low energy effective field theory model for QCD with a scalar color octet field is discussed. The model relates the gluon mass, the constituent quark masses and the quark condensate. The gluon mass comes about $\\sqrt{N_c}\\, \\Lambda_{QCD}$ with the quark condensate being proportional to the gluon mass squared. The model suggests that the restoration of chiral symmetry and the deconfinement transition occur at the same temperature and that, near the transition, the critical exponent for the condensate is twice the gluon mass one. The model also favors the decoupling like solution for the gluon propagator.

  5. Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking via Domain-Like Structures in the QCD Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Kalloniatis, Alexander C; Kalloniatis, Alex C.; Nedelko, Sergei N.

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative mechanism for the emergence of domain structured background gluon fields due to singularities in gauge field configurations is considered, and a model displaying a type of mean field approximation to the QCD partition function based on this mechanism is formulated. Estimation of the vacuum parameters (gluon condensate, topological susceptibility, string constant and quark condensate) indicates that domain-like structures lead to an area law for the Wilson loop, nonzero topological susceptibility and spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Gluon and ghost propagators in the presence of domains are calculated explicitly and their analytical properties are discussed. The Fourier transforms of the propagators are entire functions and thus describe confined dynamical fields.

  6. Baryons and Chiral Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Keh-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of $\\pi N \\sigma$ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral $U(1)$ anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.

  7. Chiral and Parity Symmetry Breaking for Planar Fermions: Effects of a Heat Bath and Uniform External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Alejandro; Gutierrez, Enif; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel

    2010-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry breaking for relativistic fermions, described by a parity violating Lagrangian in 2+1-dimensions, in the presence of a heat bath and a uniform external magnetic field. Working within their four-component formalism allows for the inclusion of both parity-even and -odd mass terms. Therefore, we can define two types of fermion anti-fermion condensates. For a given value of the magnetic field, there exist two different critical temperatures which would render one of these condensates identically zero, while the other would survive. Our analysis is completely general: it requires no particular simplifying hierarchy among the energy scales involved, namely, bare masses, field strength and temperature. However, we do reproduce some earlier results, obtained or anticipated in literature, corresponding to special kinematical regimes for the parity conserving case. Relating the chiral condensate to the one-loop effective Lagrangian, we also obtain the magnetization and the pair production rate ...

  8. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  9. Duality between chiral symmetry breaking and charged pion condensation at large $N_c$: Consideration of an NJL$_2$ model with baryon-, isospin- and chiral isospin chemical potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, D; Klimenko, K G

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the phase structure of a (1+1)-dimensional schematic quark model with four-quark interaction and in the presence of baryon ($\\mu_B$), isospin ($\\mu_I$) and chiral isospin ($\\mu_{I5}$) chemical potentials. It is established that in the large-$N_c$ limit ($N_c$ is the number of colored quarks) there exists a duality correspondence between the chiral symmetry breaking phase and the charged pion condensation (PC) one. The role and influence of this property on the phase structure of the model are studied. Moreover, it is shown that the chemical potential $\\mu_{I5}$ promotes the appearance of the charged PC phase with nonzero baryon density.

  10. Sigma(770) Resonance and the Breaking of Scale and Chiral Symmetry in Effective QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Svec, M

    2002-01-01

    CERN measurements of pi(-)p->pi(-)pi(+)n on polarized target at 17.2 GeV/c enable experimental determination of partial wave production amplitudes below 1080 MeV. The measured S-wave transversity amplitudes provide evidence for a narrow scalar resonance sigma(770). The assumption of analyticity of production amplitudes in dipion mass allows to determine S-wave helicity amplitudes S_0 and S_1. The amplitude S_1 is related to pi(-)pi(+)->pi(-)pi(+) scattering. There are four "down" solutions (1, 1bar), (2, 1bar), (1, 2bar) and (2, 2bar) selected by unitarity in pipi scattering. Ellis-Lanik relation between the mass m_sigma and partial width Gamma(sigma->pi(-)pi(+)) derived from an effective QCD theory with broken scale and chiral symmetry selects solutions (1, 1bar) and (1, 2bar) and imparts the sigma(770) resonance with a dilaton-gluonium interpretation. Weinberg's mended symmetry selects solutions (1, 1bar) and (2, 1bar). The combin ed solution (1, 1bar) has m_sigma=769 +/- 13 MeV and Gamma_sigma=154 +/- 22 M...

  11. Applications of chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Pisarski, R D

    1995-01-01

    I discuss several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature, including: where the rho goes, disoriented chiral condensates, and the phase diagram for QCD with 2+1 flavors. (Based upon talks presented at the "Workshop on Finite Temperature QCD", Wuhan, P.R.C., April, 1994.)

  12. Symmetry Breaking in Chiral Ionic Liquids Evidenced by Vibrational Optical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulevey, Patric; Luber, Sandra; Varnholt, Birte; Bürgi, Thomas

    2016-09-19

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are receiving increasing interest for their use in synthetic laboratories and industry. Being composed of charged entities, they show a complex and widely unexplored dynamic behavior. Chiral ionic liquids (CILs) have a high potential as solvents for use in asymmetric synthesis. Chiroptical methods, owing to their sensitivity towards molecular conformation, offer unique possibilities to study the structure of these chiral ionic liquids. Raman optical activity proved particularly useful to study ionic liquids composed of amino acids and the achiral 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium counterion. We could substantiate, supported by selected theoretical methods, that the achiral counterion adopts an overall chiral conformation in the presence of chiral amino acid ions. These findings suggest that in the design of chiral ionic liquids for asymmetric synthesis, the structure of the achiral counter ion also has to be carefully considered.

  13. Applications of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  14. Breaking of Chiral Symmetry in 104Rh and Its Neighbouring Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭婧; 孟杰; 张双全

    2003-01-01

    The possible chiral doublet structures in 104Rh with the asymmetric configuration πrg-19/2⊕vh11/2 have been studied in the triaxial particle-rotor model. The spectra, the Ⅰ - ω relations and the transition probabilities support the existence of the chiral bands in this nucleus. The γ-deformation interval -35°≤γ≤-25°for appearance of chiral doublets in 104Rh is given. With appropriate moment of inertia and the configuration πrg-19/2⊕vh11/2, the experimental spectra in 104 Rh, 106Rh, 108Rh, 110Ag have been well reproduced by the yrast bands of the triaxial particle-rotor-model calculation.

  15. Complete chiral symmetry breaking of an amino acid derivative directed by circularly polarized light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, Wim L.; Bode, Arno A.C.; Meijden, Maarten van der; Meekes, Hugo; Etteger, Albert F. van; Enckevort, Willem J.P. van; Christianen, Peter C.M.; Kaptein, Bernard; Kellogg, Richard M.; Rasing, Theo; Vlieg, Elias

    2009-01-01

    Circularly polarized light (CPL) emitted from star-forming regions is an attractive candidate as a cause of single chirality in nature. It has remained difficult, however, to translate the relatively small chemical effects observed on irradiation of molecular systems with CPL into high enantiomeric

  16. Superconductivity and symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarasua, L.G., E-mail: sarasua@fisica.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-02-15

    In the present work we consider the relation between superconductivity and spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking (SGBS). We show that ODLRO does not require in principle SBGS, even in the presence of particle number fluctuations, by examining exact solutions of a fermionic pairing model. The criteria become equivalent if a symmetry breaking field is allowed, which can be attributed to the interaction with the environment. However, superconducting states without SBGS are not forbidden.

  17. Modeling spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and deracemization phenomena: discrete versus continuum approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Celia; Ribó, Josep M; Hochberg, David

    2015-02-01

    We derive the class of population balance equations (PBE), recently applied to model the Viedma deracemization experiment, from an underlying microreversible kinetic reaction scheme. The continuum limit establishing the relationship between the micro- and macroscopic processes and the associated particle fluxes erases the microreversible nature of the molecular interactions in the population growth rate functions and limits the scope of such PBE models to strict kinetic control. The irreversible binary agglomeration processes modeled in those PBEs contribute an additional source of kinetic control. These limitations are crucial regarding the question of the origin of biological homochirality, where the interest in any model lies precisely in its ability for absolute asymmetric synthesis and the amplification of the tiny inherent statistical chiral fluctuations about the ideal racemic composition up to observable enantiometric excess levels.

  18. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Chiral symmetry and the constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1995-01-01

    New results on baryon structure and spectrum developed in collaboration with Dan Riska [1-4] are reported. The main idea is that beyond the chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks.

  20. Dimensional reduction and dynamical symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgacs, P.; Zoupanos, G.

    1984-11-22

    We present a model in which the electroweak gauge group is broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the chiral symmetry breaking of high colour representations. The dynamical scenario requires also the existence of elementary Higgs fields, which in the present scheme come from the dimensional reduction of a pure gauge theory.

  1. Dimensional reduction and dynamical symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgacs, P.; Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1984-11-22

    We present a model in which the electroweak gauge group is broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the chiral symmetry breaking of high colour representations. The dynamical scenario also requires the existence of elementary Higgs fields, which in the present scheme come from the dimensional reduction of a pure gauge theory.

  2. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in particle physics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsou, ST

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry, in particular gauge symmetry, is a fundamental principle in theoretical physics. It is intimately connected to the geometry of fibre bundles. A refinement to the gauge principle, known as ``spontaneous symmetry breaking'', leads to one of the most successful theories in modern particle physics. In this short talk, I shall try to give a taste of this beautiful and exciting concept.

  3. Symmetry breaking. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strocchi, F. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Classe di Scienze, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    This new edition of Prof. Strocchi's well received primer on rigorous aspects of symmetry breaking presents a more detailed and thorough discussion of the mechanism of symmetry breaking in classical field theory in relation with the Noether theorem. Moreover, the link between symmetry breaking without massless Goldstone bosons in Coulomb systems and in gauge theories is made more explicit in terms of the delocalized Coulomb dynamics. Furthermore, the chapter on the Higgs mechanism has been significantly expanded with a non-perturbative treatment of the Higgs phenomenon, at the basis of the standard model of particle physics, in the local and in the Coulomb gauges. Last but not least, a subject index has been added and a number of misprints have been corrected. From the reviews of the first edition: The notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking has proven extremely valuable, the problem is that most derivations are perturbative and heuristic. Yet mathematically precise versions do exist, but are not widely known. It is precisely the aim of his book to correct this unbalance. - It is remarkable to see how much material can actually be presented in a rigorous way (incidentally, many of the results presented are due to Strocchi himself), yet this is largely ignored, the original heuristic derivations being, as a rule, more popular. - At each step he strongly emphasizes the physical meaning and motivation of the various notions introduced, a book that fills a conspicuous gap in the literature, and does it rather well. It could also be a good basis for a graduate course in mathematical physics. It can be recommended to physicists as well and, of course, for physics/mathematics libraries. J.-P. Antoine, Physicalia 28/2, 2006 Strocchi's main emphasis is on the fact that the loss of symmetric behaviour requires both the non-symmetric ground states and the infinite extension of the system. It is written in a pleasant style at a level suitable for graduate students in

  4. Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Sen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.

  5. Dileptons and Chiral Symmetry Restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Hohler, P M

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent work relating the medium effects observed in dilepton spectra in heavy-ion collisions to potential signals of chiral symmetry restoration. The key connection remains the approach to spectral function degeneracy between the vector-isovector channel with its chiral partner, the axialvector-isovector channel. Several approaches are discussed to elaborate this connection, namely QCD and Weinberg sum rules with input for chiral order parameters from lattice QCD, and chiral hadronic theory to directly evaluate the medium effects of the axialvector channel and the pertinent pion decay constant as function of temperature. A pattern emerges where the chiral mass splitting between rho and a_1 burns off and is accompanied by a strong broadening of the spectral distributions.

  6. Dynamical (Super)Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Murayama, H

    2001-01-01

    Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) is a concept theorists rely on very often in the discussions of strong dynamics, model building, and hierarchy problems. In this talk, I will discuss why this is such a permeating concept among theorists and how they are used in understanding physics. I also briefly review recent progress in using dynamical symmetry breaking to construct models of supersymmetry breaking and fermion masses.

  7. Fermion mass generation and electroweak symmetry breaking from colour forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1983-09-29

    The colour gauge group is extended to SU(3) x SU(3) and is subsequently broken to diagonal SU(3)sub(c). Under the diagonal SU(3)sub(c) the fundamental fermionic constituents of the larger strong group become ordinary quarks plus new quarks with exotic quantum numbers. Chiral symmetry breaking in the exotic quark sector may occur at much larger mass scales than ordinary chiral symmetry breaking, and could produce dynamical breaking of electroweak gauge symmetry and radiative masses for the light fermions.

  8. Exact Chiral Symmetry on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, H

    2001-01-01

    Developments during the last eight years have refuted the folklore that chiral symmetries cannot be preserved on the lattice. The mechanism that permits chiral symmetry to coexist with the lattice is quite general and may work in Nature as well. The reconciliation between chiral symmetry and the lattice is likely to revolutionize the field of numerical QCD.

  9. Symmetries of hadrons after unbreaking the chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya; Schröck, M

    2012-01-01

    We study hadron correlators upon artificial restoration of the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. In a dynamical lattice simulation we remove the lowest lying eigenmodes of the Dirac operator from the valence quark propagators and study evolution of the hadron masses obtained. All mesons and baryons in our study, except for a pion, survive unbreaking the chiral symmetry and their exponential decay signals become essentially better. From the analysis of the observed spectroscopic patterns we conclude that confinement still persists while the chiral symmetry is restored. All hadrons fall into different chiral multiplets. The broken U(1)_A symmetry does not get restored upon unbreaking the chiral symmetry. We also observe signals of some higher symmetry that includes chiral symmetry as a subgroup. Finally, from comparison of the \\Delta - N splitting before and after unbreaking of the chiral symmetry we conclude that both the color-magnetic and the flavor-spin quark-quark interactions are of equal importance.

  10. Random Matrices and Chiral Symmetry in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Janik, R A; Papp, G; Zahed, I; Janik, Romuald A.; Nowak, Maciej A.; Papp, Gabor; Zahed, Ismail

    1998-01-01

    In this talk we review some recent results from random matrix models as applied to some non-perturbative issues in QCD. All of the issues we will discuss touched upon the important phenomenon related to the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. The afore mentioned insights are: 1. Spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry and disorder. 2. Universal microscopic properties of the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in the vacuum. 3. Universal microscopic properties of the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in matter. 4. Structural changes of the Dirac spectrum - finite temperature. 5. Structural changes of the Dirac spectrum - finite baryonic density - ``phony vacua'' 6. Structural changes of the Dirac spectrum - finite baryonic density - ``true vacua'' . 7. Phase diagram. 8. Critical parameters. 9. Critical exponents. 10. $U(1)_A$ problem. 11. Screening of the pseudoscalar susceptibility. 12. Strong CP violation (finite $\\theta$).

  11. Hole localization and symmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, R; Nieuwpoort, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of some theoretical work on the symmetry breaking of electronic wavefunctions that followed the early work on Bagus and Schaefer who observed that a considerable lower SCF energy could be obtained for an ionized state of the O2 molecule with a 1s hole if the symmetry re

  12. Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson Chiral Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Mandula, Jeffrey E

    2009-01-01

    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luscher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter subgroup, and the factor group whose elements are its cosets is isomorphic to the continuum chiral symmetry group. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact that some different, non-commuting symmetry generators lead to the same Noether current. These are universal features of lattice chiral fermions based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation; they occur in the overlap, domain-wall, and perfect-action formulations. In a solvable example - free overlap fermions - these non-canonical elements of lattice chiral symmetry are...

  13. Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking and Tachyonic Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Greene, P B; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Tkachev, Igor I; Felder, Gary; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Greene, Patrick B.; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Tkachev, Igor

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the old problem of the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking using 3d lattice simulations, and develop a theory of tachyonic preheating, which occurs due to the spinodal instability of the scalar field. Tachyonic preheating is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. As an application of this theory we consider preheating in the hybrid inflation scenario, including SUSY-motivated F-term and D-term inflationary models. We show that preheating in hybrid inflation is typically tachyonic and the stage of oscillations of a homogeneous component of the scalar fields driving inflation ends after a single oscillation. Our results may also be relevant for the theory of the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in heavy ion collisions.

  14. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  15. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  16. Infinite Chiral Symmetry in Four Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Beem, Christopher; Liendo, Pedro; Peelaers, Wolfger; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new correspondence between four-dimensional conformal field theories with extended supersymmetry and two-dimensional chiral algebras. The meromorphic correlators of the chiral algebra compute correlators in a protected sector of the four-dimensional theory. Infinite chiral symmetry has far-reaching consequences for the spectral data, correlation functions, and central charges of any four-dimensional theory with ${\\mathcal N}=2$ superconformal symmetry.

  17. Explaining quantum spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Emch, Gérard G.

    Two accounts of quantum symmetry breaking (SSB) in the algebraic approach are compared: the representational and the decompositional account. The latter account is argued to be superior for understanding quantum SSB. Two exactly solvable models are given as applications of our account: the Weiss-Heisenberg model for ferromagnetism and the BCS model for superconductivity. Finally, the decompositional account is shown to be more conducive to the causal explanation of quantum SSB.

  18. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias O. Senge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.

  19. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  20. Symmetry Breaking for Answer Set Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Drescher, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the context of answer set programming, this work investigates symmetry detection and symmetry breaking to eliminate symmetric parts of the search space and, thereby, simplify the solution process. We contribute a reduction of symmetry detection to a graph automorphism problem which allows to extract symmetries of a logic program from the symmetries of the constructed coloured graph. We also propose an encoding of symmetry-breaking constraints in terms of permutation cycles and use only generators in this process which implicitly represent symmetries and always with exponential compression. These ideas are formulated as preprocessing and implemented in a completely automated flow that first detects symmetries from a given answer set program, adds symmetry-breaking constraints, and can be applied to any existing answer set solver. We demonstrate computational impact on benchmarks versus direct application of the solver. Furthermore, we explore symmetry breaking for answer set programming in two domains: firs...

  1. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  2. Renormalizable theories with symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo M

    2016-01-01

    The description of symmetry breaking proposed by K. Symanzik within the framework of renormalizable theories is generalized from the geometrical point of view. For an arbitrary compact Lie group, a soft breaking of arbitrary covariance, and an arbitrary field multiplet, the expected integrated Ward identities are shown to hold to all orders of renormalized perturbation theory provided the Lagrangian is suitably chosen. The corresponding local Ward identity which provides the Lagrangian version of current algebra through the coupling to an external, classical, Yang-Mills field, is then proved to hold up to the classical Adler-Bardeen anomaly whose general form is written down. The BPHZ renormalization scheme is used throughout in such a way that the algebraic structure analyzed in the present context may serve as an introduction to the study of fully quantized gauge theories.

  3. Mirror-Symmetry-Breaking in Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl-alt-biphenyl] (PF8P2 is Susceptible to Terpene Chirality, Achiral Solvents, and Mechanical Stirring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Nakao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solvent chirality transfer of (S-/(R-limonenes allows the instant generation of optically active PF8P2 aggregates with distinct circular dichroism (CD/circularly polarized luminescence (CPL amplitudes with a high quantum yield of 16–20%. The present paper also reports subtle mirror-symmetry-breaking effects in CD-/CPL-amplitude and sign, CD/UV-vis spectral wavelengths, and photodynamics of the aggregates, though the reasons for the anomaly are unsolved. However, these photophysical properties depend on (i the chemical natures of chiral and achiral molecules when used in solvent quantity, (ii clockwise and counterclockwise stirring operations, and (iii the order of addition of limonene and methanol to the chloroform solution.

  4. Introduction to Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson,S.

    2008-10-02

    The Standard Model (SM) is the backbone of elementary particle physics-not only does it provide a consistent framework for studying the interactions of quark and leptons, but it also gives predictions which have been extensively tested experimentally. In these notes, I review the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, discuss the calculation of electroweak radiative corrections to observables, and summarize the status of SM Higgs boson searches. Despite the impressive experimental successes, however, the electroweak theory is not completely satisfactory and the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking is untested. I will discuss the logic behind the oft-repeated statement: 'There must be new physics at the TeV scale'. These lectures reflect my strongly held belief that upcoming results from the LHC will fundamentally change our understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking. In these lectures, I review the status of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, with an emphasis on the importance of radiative corrections and searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson. A discussion of the special role of the TeV energy scale in electroweak physics is included.

  5. Master formula approach to broken chiral U(3)xU(3) symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroyuki Kamano

    2010-04-01

    The master formula approach to chiral symmetry breaking proposed by Yamagishi and Zahed is extended to the U_R(3)xU_L(3) group, in which effects of the U_A(1) anomaly and the flavor symmetry breaking m_u \

  6. Electroweak symmetry breaking via QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Jisuke; Lim, Kher Sham; Lindner, Manfred

    2014-08-29

    We propose a new mechanism to generate the electroweak scale within the framework of QCD, which is extended to include conformally invariant scalar degrees of freedom belonging to a larger irreducible representation of SU(3)c. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered dynamically via the Higgs portal by the condensation of the colored scalar field around 1 TeV. The mass of the colored boson is restricted to be 350  GeV≲mS≲3  TeV, with the upper bound obtained from perturbative renormalization group evolution. This implies that the colored boson can be produced at the LHC. If the colored boson is electrically charged, the branching fraction of the Higgs boson decaying into two photons can slightly increase, and moreover, it can be produced at future linear colliders. Our idea of nonperturbative electroweak scale generation can serve as a new starting point for more realistic model building in solving the hierarchy problem.

  7. Chiral Gauge Dynamics and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U.

    2009-05-07

    We study the dynamics of a chiral SU(2) gauge theory with a Weyl fermion in the I = 3/2 representation and of its supersymmetric generalization. In the former, we find a new and exotic mechanism of confinement, induced by topological excitations that we refer to as magnetic quintets. The supersymmetric version was examined earlier in the context of dynamical supersymmetry breaking by Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shenker, who showed that if this gauge theory confines at the origin of moduli space, one may break supersymmetry by adding a tree level superpotential. We examine the dynamics by deforming the theory on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}, and show that the infrared behavior of this theory is an interacting CFT at small S{sup 1}. We argue that this continues to hold at large S{sup 1}, and if so, that supersymmetry must remain unbroken. Our methods also provide the microscopic origin of various superpotentials in SQCD on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}--which were previously obtained by using symmetry and holomorphy--and resolve a long standing interpretational puzzle concerning a flux operator discovered by Affleck, Harvey, and Witten. It is generated by a topological excitation, a 'magnetic bion', whose stability is due to fermion pair exchange between its constituents. We also briefly comment on composite monopole operators as leading effects in two dimensional antiferromagnets.

  8. Projective symmetry group classification of chiral spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Samuel; Lhuillier, Claire; Messio, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We present a general review of the projective symmetry group classification of fermionic quantum spin liquids for lattice models of spin S =1 /2 . We then introduce a systematic generalization of the approach for symmetric Z2 quantum spin liquids to the one of chiral phases (i.e., singlet states that break time reversal and lattice reflection, but conserve their product). We apply this framework to classify and discuss possible chiral spin liquids on triangular and kagome lattices. We give a detailed prescription on how to construct quadratic spinon Hamiltonians and microscopic wave functions for each representation class on these lattices. Among the chiral Z2 states, we study the subset of U(1) phases variationally in the antiferromagnetic J1-J2-Jd Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice. We discuss static spin structure factors and symmetry constraints on the bulk spectra of these phases.

  9. Nonlinear Boundary Dynamics and Chiral Symmetry in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Dylan; Wilcox, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    In the hard-wall model of holographic QCD we find that nonlinear boundary dynamics are required in order to maintain the correct pattern of explicit and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking beyond leading order in the pion fields. With the help of a field redefinition, we demonstrate that the requisite nonlinear boundary conditions are consistent with the Sturm-Liouville structure required for the Kaluza-Klein decomposition of bulk fields. Observables insensitive to the chiral limit receive only small corrections in the improved description, and classical calculations in the hard-wall model remain surprisingly accurate.

  10. Precision spectroscopy of pionic atoms and chiral symmetry in nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itahashi Kenta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We conduct an experimental project to make spectroscopy of deeply bound pionic atoms systematically over wide range of nuclei. We aim at studying the strong interaction in the low energy region, which has close connection to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and its partial restoration in nuclear matter. First experimental results show improved spectral resolution and much better statistical sensitivity than previous experiments. Present status of the experiment is reported.

  11. Dynamical gauge symmetry breaking on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Zoupanos, G. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece))

    1990-10-11

    We study, using lattice techniques, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a three-dimensional theory that mimics the electroweak sector of the standard model. We show that in the strong coupling limit of a QCD-like theory the fermion condensates which are produced induce dynamical symmetry breaking of the sector corresponding to the electroweak gauge group. (orig.).

  12. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for Helium-4.

  13. Random matrix model approach to chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Verbaarschot, J J M

    1996-01-01

    We review the application of random matrix theory (RMT) to chiral symmetry in QCD. Starting from the general philosophy of RMT we introduce a chiral random matrix model with the global symmetries of QCD. Exact results are obtained for universal properties of the Dirac spectrum: i) finite volume corrections to valence quark mass dependence of the chiral condensate, and ii) microscopic fluctuations of Dirac spectra. Comparisons with lattice QCD simulations are made. Most notably, the variance of the number of levels in an interval containing $n$ levels on average is suppressed by a factor $(\\log n)/\\pi^2 n$. An extension of the random matrix model model to nonzero temperatures and chemical potential provides us with a schematic model of the chiral phase transition. In particular, this elucidates the nature of the quenched approximation at nonzero chemical potential.

  14. Chiral symmetry and lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Creutz, M

    1994-01-01

    I review the problem of formulating chiral symmetry in lattice gauge theory. I discuss recent approaches involving an infinite tower of additional heavy states to absorb Fermion doublers. For hadronic physics this provides a natural scheme for taking quark masses to zero without requiring a precise tuning of parameters. A mirror Fermion variation provides a possible way of extending the picture to chirally coupled light Fermions. Talk presented at "Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum," Como, Italy, 20-24 June 1994.

  15. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuan-Liu; ZHANG Shun-Li; QU Chang-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  16. Particle production from symmetry breaking after inflation

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Morales, Ester Ruiz

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the process of symmetry breaking after inflation typically occurs very fast, within a single oscillation of the symmetry-breaking field, due to the spinodal growth of its long-wave modes, otherwise known as `tachyonic preheating'. In this letter we show how this sudden transition from the false to the true vacuum can induce a significant production of particles, bosons and fermions, coupled to the symmetry-breaking field. We find that this new mechanism of particle production in the early Universe may have interesting consequences for the origin of dark matter and the generation of the observed baryon asymmetry through leptogenesis.

  17. Spontaneous R-symmetry breaking from the renormalization group flow

    CERN Document Server

    Amariti, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We propose a mechanism of R-symmetry breaking in four-dimensional DSB models based on the RG properties of the coupling constants. By constraining the UV sector, we generate new hierarchies amongst the couplings that allow a spontaneously broken R-symmetry in models with pure chiral fields of R-charges R = 0 and R = 2 only. The result is obtained by a combination of one- and two-loop effects, both at the origin of field space and in the region dominated by leading log potentials.

  18. Charge symmetry breaking in n p --> d pi^0

    CERN Document Server

    Opper, A K; Hutcheon, D A; Abegg, R; Davis, C A; Finlay, R W; Green, P W; Greeniaus, L G; Jordan, D V; Niskanen, J A; O'Rielly, G V; Porcelli, T A; Reitzner, S D; Walden, P L; Yen, S

    2003-01-01

    The forward--backward asymmetry in n p --> d pi^0, which must be zero in the center-of-mass system if charge symmetry is respected, has been measured to be [17.2 +/- 8 (stat) +/- 5.5 (sys)] * 10^{-4}, at an incident neutron energy of 279.5 MeV. This charge symmetry breaking observable was extracted by fitting the data with GEANT-based simulations and is compared to recent chiral effective field theory calculations, with implications regarding the value of the u d quark mass difference.

  19. Symmetry Breaking and Second Order Phase Transitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangFengshou; R.M.Lynden-Bell

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper we showed that symmetry breaking could be induced in the triiodide ion by varying the solvent. Experiments and simulations suggest that protic solvents which can form hydrogen bonds with a negative ion cause symmetry breaking of the ion, so that the charge becomes concentrated at one end of the ion and the corresponding bond elongates. We suggested that one could draw an analogy between the mean field Ising model with free energy,

  20. Is soft breaking of BRST symmetry consistent?

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, Peter; Reshetnyak, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A definition of soft breaking of BRST symmetry in the field-antifield formalism is proposed, valid for general gauge theories and arbitrary gauge fixing. The Ward identities for the generating functionals of Green's functions are derived, and their gauge dependence is investigated. We present a generalization of the Gribov-Zwanziger action to a one-parameter linear gauge. It is argued that gauge theories with a soft breaking of BRST symmetry are inconsistent.

  1. Phil Anderson and Gauge Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    In this article, I describe the celebrated paper that Phil Anderson wrote in 1962 with early contributions to the idea of gauge symmetry breaking in particle physics. To set the stage, I describe the work of Julian Schwinger to which Anderson was responding, and also some of Anderson's own work on superconductivity that provided part of the context. After describing Anderson's work I describe the later work of others, leading to the modern understanding of gauge symmetry breaking in weak interactions...

  2. Rotating optical microcavities with broken chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Raktim; Wiersig, Jan; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate in open microcavities with broken chiral symmetry, quasi-degenerate pairs of co-propagating modes in a non-rotating cavity evolve to counter-propagating modes with rotation. The emission patterns change dramatically by rotation, due to distinct output directions of CW and CCW waves. By tuning the degree of spatial chirality, we maximize the sensitivity of microcavity emission to rotation. The rotation-induced change of emission is orders of magnitude larger than the Sagnac effect, pointing to a promising direction for ultrasmall optical gyroscopes.

  3. Gedanken Worlds without Higgs: QCD-Induced Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /Karlsruhe U., TTP; Shrock, Robert; /YITP, Stony Brook

    2009-01-01

    To illuminate how electroweak symmetry breaking shapes the physical world, we investigate toy models in which no Higgs fields or other constructs are introduced to induce spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two models incorporate the standard SU(3){sub c} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(1){sub Y} gauge symmetry and fermion content similar to that of the standard model. The first class--like the standard electroweak theory--contains no bare mass terms, so the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry within quantum chromodynamics is the only source of electroweak symmetry breaking. The second class adds bare fermion masses sufficiently small that QCD remains the dominant source of electroweak symmetry breaking and the model can serve as a well-behaved low-energy effective field theory to energies somewhat above the hadronic scale. A third class of models is based on the left-right-symmetric SU(3){sub c} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} SU(2){sub R} {circle_times} U(1)B?L gauge group. In a fourth class of models, built on SU(4){sub PS} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} SU(2){sub R} gauge symmetry, lepton number is treated as a fourth color. Many interesting characteristics of the models stem from the fact that the effective strength of the weak interactions is much closer to that of the residual strong interactions than in the real world. The Higgs-free models not only provide informative contrasts to the real world, but also lead us to consider intriguing issues in the application of field theory to the real world.

  4. Symmetry Breaking in Neuroevolution: A Technical Report

    CERN Document Server

    Urfalioglu, Onay

    2011-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) comprise important symmetry properties, which can influence the performance of Monte Carlo methods in Neuroevolution. The problem of the symmetries is also known as the competing conventions problem or simply as the permutation problem. In the literature, symmetries are mainly addressed in Genetic Algoritm based approaches. However, investigations in this direction based on other Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are rare or missing. Furthermore, there are different and contradictionary reports on the efficacy of symmetry breaking. By using a novel viewpoint, we offer a possible explanation for this issue. As a result, we show that a strategy which is invariant to the global optimum can only be successfull on certain problems, whereas it must fail to improve the global convergence on others. We introduce the \\emph{Minimum Global Optimum Proximity} principle as a generalized and adaptive strategy to symmetry breaking, which depends on the location of the global optimum. We apply the...

  5. Breakdown of chiral symmetry during saturation of the Tayler instability

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, Alfio; Del Sordo, Fabio; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2012-01-01

    We study spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry during the nonlinear evolution of the Tayler instability. We start with an initial stationary state of zero helicity. Within linearized perturbation calculations, helical perturbations of this initial state have the same growth rate for either sign of helicity. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the fully nonlinear equations however shows that an infinitesimal excess of one sign of helicity in the initial perturbation gives rise to a saturated helical state. We further show that this symmetry-breaking can be described by weakly nonlinear finite amplitude equations with undetermined coefficients which can be deduced solely from symmetry consideration. By fitting solutions of the amplitude equations to data from DNS we further determine the coefficients of the amplitude equations.

  6. Chiral Symmetry restoration from the hadronic regime

    CERN Document Server

    Nicola, Angel Gomez; Morales, John; de Elvira, Jacobo Ruiz; Andres, Ricardo Torres

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent advances on QCD chiral symmetry restoration at finite temperature, within the theoretical framework of Effective Theories. $U(3)$ Ward Identities are derived between pseudoscalar susceptibilities and quark condensates, allowing to explain the behaviour of lattice meson screening masses. Unitarized interactions and the generated $f_0(500)$ thermal state are showed to play an essential role in the description of the transition through the scalar susceptibility

  7. Symmetry breaking around a wormhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A. L.

    1996-11-01

    We have modified the extended version Coule and Maeda's version (D. H. Coule and Kei-ichi Maeda, Class.Quant.Grav.7,995(1990)) of the Gidding-Strominger model (S. B. Giddings and A. Strominger, Nucl.Phys. B307, 854(l988)) of the euclidean gravitational field interacting with axion. The new model has R-symmetry in contrast to the previous model. At the lowest perturbation case the model retains a wormhole solution. We assume that the scalar expands adiabatically and satisfies ideal gas law in a crude first approximation. Under the Higg's mechanism the symmetry can be broken at the tree approximation. This mechanism, we hope, can be used to introduce the degeneracy of quark masses.

  8. Dense baryonic matter in conformally-compensated hidden local symmetry: Vector manifestation and chiral symmetry restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Liang; Harada, Masayasu; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Oh, Yongseok; Park, Byung-Yoon; Rho, Mannque

    2014-08-01

    We find that, when the dilaton is implemented as a (pseudo-)Nambu-Goldstone boson using a conformal compensator or "conformon" in a hidden gauge symmetric Lagrangian written to O(p4) from which baryons arise as solitons, namely, skyrmions, the vector manifestation and chiral symmetry restoration at high density predicted in hidden local symmetry theory—which is consistent with Brown-Rho scaling—are lost or sent to infinite density. It is shown that they can be restored if in medium the behavior of the ω field is taken to deviate from that of the ρ meson in such a way that the flavor U(2) symmetry is strongly broken at increasing density. The hitherto unexposed crucial role of the ω meson in the structure of elementary baryon and multibaryon systems is uncovered in this work. In the state of half-skyrmions to which the skyrmions transform at a density n1/2≳n0 (where n0 is the normal nuclear matter density), characterized by the vanishing (space averaged) quark condensate but nonzero pion decay constant, the nucleon mass remains more or less constant at a value ≳60% of the vacuum value, indicating a large component of the nucleon mass that is not associated with the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. We discuss its connection to the chiral-invariant mass m0 that figures in the parity-doublet baryon model.

  9. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.

  10. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in Warped Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Rius, N

    2001-01-01

    We study dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in the Randall-Sundrum scenario. We show that one extra dimension is enough to give the correct pattern of electroweak symmetry breaking in a simple model with gauge bosons and the right-handed top quark in the bulk. The top quark mass is also in agreement with experiment. Furthermore, we propose an extended scenario with all Standard Model gauge bosons and fermions propagating in the bulk, which naturally accommodates the fermion mass hierarchies. No new fields or interactions beyond the observed in the Standard Model are required.

  11. Effective dissipation: breaking time-reversal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Aidan I

    2016-01-01

    At molecular scales, fluctuations play a significant role and prevent biomolecular processes from always proceeding in a preferred direction, raising the question of how limited amounts of free energy can be dissipated to obtain directed progress. We examine the system and process characteristics that efficiently break time-reversal symmetry at fixed energy loss; in particular for a simple model of a molecular machine, an intermediate energy barrier produces unusually high asymmetry for a given dissipation. Such insight into symmetry-breaking factors that produce particularly high time asymmetry suggests generalizations to a broader class of systems.

  12. Catalysis of dynamical symmetry breaking by a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Miransky, V A

    1995-01-01

    A constant magnetic field in 3+1 and 2+1 dimensions is a strong catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, leading to the generation of a fermion mass even at the weakest attractive interaction between fermions. The essence of this effect is the dimensional reduction D/rightarrow D-2 in the dynamics of fermion pairing in a magnetic field. The effect is illustrated in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and QED. Possible applications of this effect and its extension to inhomogeneous field configurations are discussed.

  13. Insight into Phenomena of Symmetry Breaking Bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Tong; ZHANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    @@ We show that symmetry-breaking (SB) bifurcation is just a transition of different forms of symmetry, while still preserving system's symmetry. SB bifurcation always associates with a periodic saddle-node bifurcation, identifiable by a zero maximum of the top Lyapunov exponent of the system. In addition, we show a significant phase portrait of a newly born periodic saddle and its stable and unstable invariant manifolds, together with their neighbouring flow pattern of Poincaré mapping points just after the periodic saddle-node bifurcation, thus gaining an insight into the mechanism of SB bifurcation.

  14. From enemies to friends chiral symmetry on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Pilar; Lellouch, L P; Hernandez, Pilar; Jansen, Karl; Lellouch, Laurent

    2002-01-01

    The physics of strong interactions is invariant under the exchange of left-handed and right-handed quarks, at least in the massless limit. This invariance is reflected in the chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics. Surprisingly, it has become clear only recently how to implement this important symmetry in lattice formulations of quantum field theories. We will discuss realizations of exact lattice chiral symmetry and give an example of the computation of a physical observable in quantum chromodynamics where chiral symmetry is important. This calculation is performed by relying on finite size scaling methods as predicted by chiral perturbation theory.

  15. Chiral symmetry, constituent quarks and quasi-elastic electron-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E. M.; Krein, G.

    1989-11-01

    The effects of chiral symmetry breaking are examined for quasi-elastic electron scattering on nuclei. Nucleons are assumed to be composed of constituent quarks with masses that depend on density. This density dependence is determined on the basis of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is found that the effects of chiral symmetry breaking are in the right direction and the right order of magnitude to explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment. On leave from Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97100 Santa Maria, R.S., Brazil.

  16. Replica symmetry breaking transition of the weakly anisotropic Heisenberg spin glass in magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagawa, Daisuke; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2004-02-20

    The spin and the chirality orderings of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with the weak random anisotropy are studied under applied magnetic fields by equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations. A replica symmetry breaking transition occurs in the chiral sector accompanied by the simultaneous spin-glass order. The ordering behavior differs significantly from that of the Ising spin glass, despite the similarity in the global symmetry. Our observation is consistent with the spin-chirality decoupling-recoupling scenario of a spin-glass transition.

  17. Geometrical hierarchy and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Surridge, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1987-06-04

    A four-dimensional gauge theory, where Higgs fields and the corresponding potential appear naturally, is obtained by dimensionally reducing a pure gauge theory over a compact coset space S/R. We show, using an explicit example, that a hierarchy of the scales in the coset space can change the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the four-dimensional gauge theory.

  18. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kotvytskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  19. A gravity term from spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Moise, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    In this model, the gravity term in the Lagrangean comes from spontaneous symmetry breaking of an additional scalar quadruplet field $\\Upsilon$. The resulting gravitational field is approximate to one of the models of coframe gravity with parameters $\\rho_1 + 4 \\rho_2 = 0$, $\\rho_3 = 0$. This article includes an exact solution of coframe gravity with model parameters $\\rho_1 \

  20. Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-08-01

    Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillations.

  1. Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillation...

  2. Symmetry-breaking oscillations in membrane optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurl, C.; Alvermann, A.; Fehske, H.

    2016-12-01

    We study the classical dynamics of a membrane inside a cavity in the situation where this optomechanical system possesses a reflection symmetry. Symmetry breaking occurs through supercritical and subcritical pitchfork bifurcations of the static fixed-point solutions. Both bifurcations can be observed through variation of the laser-cavity detuning, which gives rise to a boomerang-like fixed-point pattern with hysteresis. The symmetry-breaking fixed points evolve into self-sustained oscillations when the laser intensity is increased. In addition to the analysis of the accompanying Hopf bifurcations we describe these oscillations at finite amplitudes with an ansatz that fully accounts for the frequency shift relative to the natural membrane frequency. We complete our study by following the route to chaos for the membrane dynamics.

  3. Phenomenology of symmetry breaking from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, J; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Rigolin, S; Salvatori, M

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the electroweak hierarchy problem, we study the symmetry breaking pattern induced by a background magnetic flux living on extra dimensions, with the four-dimensional scalar fields being gauge boson components in full space. For SU(N) and two compact, toroidal, extra dimensions, we determine analytically the possible field configurations of stable vacua and their symmetries. From the four-dimensional point of view, the system responds dynamically to the magnetic background by an infinite chain of vacuum expectation values so as to reach a stable vacuum. The equivalence between flux compactification and constant boundary conditions - either Scherk-Schwarz or twisted - is established.

  4. Cascading Multicriticality in Nonrelativistic Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Tom; Horava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi

    2015-01-01

    Without Lorentz invariance, spontaneous global symmetry breaking can lead to multicritical Nambu-Goldstone modes with a higher-order low-energy dispersion $\\omega\\sim k^n$ ($n=2,3,\\ldots$), whose naturalness is protected by polynomial shift symmetries. Here we investigate the role of infrared divergences and the nonrelativistic generalization of the Coleman-Hohenberg-Mermin-Wagner (CHMW) theorem. We find novel cascading phenomena with large hierarchies between the scales at which the value of $n$ changes, leading to an evasion of the "no-go" consequences of the relativistic CHMW theorem.

  5. Symmetry breaking in non conservative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pérez, N E

    2016-01-01

    We apply Noether's theorem to show how the invariances of conservative systems are broken for nonconservative systems, in the variational formulation of Galley. This formulation considers a conservative action, extended by the inclusion of a time reversed sector and a nonconservative generalized potential. We assume that this potential is invariant under the symmetries of the initial conservative system. The breaking occurs because the time reversed sector requires inverse symmetry transformations, under which the nonconservative potential is not invariant. The resulting violation of the conservation laws is consistent with the equations of motion. We generalize this formulation for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. In the case of a supersymmetric oscillator, the effect of damping is that the bosonic and fermionic components become different frequencies. Considering that initially the nonconservative action is invariant under supersymmetry, and that the breaking is associated to an instability, this resul...

  6. Dynamical symmetry breaking in quantum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Miransky, Vladimir A

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenon of dynamical symmetry breaking (DSB) in quantum field theory is discussed in a detailed and comprehensive way. The deep connection between this phenomenon in condensed matter physics and particle physics is emphasized. The realizations of DSB in such realistic theories as quantum chromodynamics and electroweak theory are considered. Issues intimately connected with DSB such as critical phenomenona and effective lagrangian approach are also discussed.

  7. Explicit and Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Bresking in an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗红石; 吴小华; 侯丰尧; 赵恩广

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator from an effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Within this approach both the explicit and dynamical chiral symmetry breakings are analysed. A comparison with the previous results is given.

  8. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Kun Guo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of O(ΛQCD/mQ, with ΛQCD the scale of QCD and mQ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we will show that a small S- and D-wave mixing in the wave function of the heavy quarkonium could induce a large breaking in the ratios of partial decay widths. As an example, we consider the decays of the ϒ(10860 into the χbJω (J=0,1,2, which were recently measured by the Belle Collaboration. These decays exhibit a huge breaking of the spin symmetry relation were the ϒ(10860 a pure 5S bottomonium state. We propose that this could be a consequence of a mixing of the S-wave and D-wave components in the ϒ(10860. Prediction on the ratio Γ(ϒ(10860→χb0ω/Γ(ϒ(10860→χb2ω is presented assuming that the decay of the D-wave component is dominated by the coupled-channel effects.

  9. Higgsless approach to electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Higgsless models are an attempt to achieve a breaking of the electroweak symmetry via boundary conditions at the end-points of a fifth dimension compactified on an interval, as an alternative to the usual Higgs mechanism. There is no physical Higgs scalar in the spectrum and the perturbative unitarity violation scale is delayed via the exchange of massive spin-1 KK resonances. The correct mass spectrum is reproduced in a model in warped space, which inherits a custodial symmetry from a left–right gauge symmetry in the bulk. Phenomenological challenges as well as collider signatures are presented. From the AdS/CFT perspective, this model appears as a weakly coupled dual to walking technicolour models.

  10. Golden Probe of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Lykken, Joe; Spiropulu, Maria; Stolarski, Daniel; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The ratio of the Higgs couplings to W W and Z Z pairs, λW Z, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level or one-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of λW Z. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that h →4 ℓ (4 ℓ≡2 e 2 μ , 4 e , 4 μ ) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in h →4 ℓ to the magnitude of λW Z. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumptions about the top quark Yukawa couplings which also enter at one loop. This makes h →4 ℓ a unique and independent probe of electroweak symmetry breaking and custodial symmetry.

  11. Baryons, their interactions and the chiral symmetry of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1997-01-01

    An implication of the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is that at low energy and resolution there appear quasiparticles - constituent quarks and Goldstone bosons. Thus, light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by Goldstone bosons between the constituent quarks. We show how the flavor-spin structure and sign of the short-range part of the Goldstone boson exchange interaction reduces the $SU(6)_{FS}$ symmetry down to $SU(3)_F \\times SU(2)_S$, induces hyperfine splittings and provides correct ordering of the lowest states with positive and negative parity. We present a unified description of light and strange baryon spectra calculated in a semirelativistic framework. It is demonstrated that the same short-range part of Goldstone boson exchange also induces strong short-range repulsion in $NN$ system when the latter is treated as $6Q$ system. Thus, all main ingredients of $NN$ interaction a...

  12. Hyperfine meson splittings: chiral symmetry versus transverse gluon exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J; Swanson, Eric S; Szczepaniak, Adam P; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Cotanch, Stephen R.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Swanson, Eric S.

    2004-01-01

    Meson spin splittings are examined within an effective Coulomb gauge QCD Hamiltonian incorporating chiral symmetry and a transverse hyperfine interaction necessary for heavy quarks. For light and heavy quarkonium systems the pseudoscalar-vector meson spectrum is generated by approximate BCS-RPA diagonalizations. This relativistic formulation includes both $S$ and $D$ waves for the vector mesons which generates a set of coupled integral equations. A smooth transition from the heavy to the light quark regime is found with chiral symmetry dominating the $\\pi$-$\\rho$ mass difference. A good, consistent description of the observed meson spin splittings and chiral quantities, such as the quark condensate and the $\\pi$ mass, is obtained. Similar comparisons with TDA diagonalizations, which violate chiral symmetry, are deficient for light pseudoscalar mesons indicating the need to simultaneously include both chiral symmetry and a hyperfine interaction. The $\\eta_b$ mass is predicted to be around 9400 MeV consistent w...

  13. Lattice realization of the generalized chiral symmetry in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarabayashi, Tohru; Aoki, Hideo; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-01

    While it has been pointed out that the chiral symmetry, which is important for the Dirac fermions in graphene, can be generalized to tilted Dirac fermions as in organic metals, such a generalized symmetry was so far defined only for a continuous low-energy Hamiltonian. Here we show that the generalized chiral symmetry can be rigorously defined for lattice fermions as well. A key concept is a continuous "algebraic deformation" of Hamiltonians, which generates lattice models with the generalized chiral symmetry from those with the conventional chiral symmetry. This enables us to explicitly express zero modes of the deformed Hamiltonian in terms of that of the original Hamiltonian. Another virtue is that the deformation can be extended to nonuniform systems, such as fermion-vortex systems and disordered systems. Application to fermion vortices in a deformed system shows how the zero modes for the conventional Dirac fermions with vortices can be extended to the tilted case.

  14. Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.

  15. Scale-setting, flavour dependence and chiral symmetry restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Binosi, Daniele; Rodriguez-Quintero, Jose

    2016-01-01

    We determine the flavour dependence of the renormalisation-group-invariant running interaction through judicious use of both unquenched Dyson-Schwinger equation and lattice results for QCD's gauge-sector two-point functions. An important step is the introduction of a physical scale setting procedure that enables a realistic expression of the effect of different numbers of active quark flavours on the interaction. Using this running interaction in concert with a well constrained class of dressed--gluon-quark vertices, we estimate the critical number of active lighter-quarks above which dynamical chiral symmetry breaking becomes impossible: $n_f^{\\rm cr}\\approx 9$; and hence in whose neighbourhood QCD is plausibly a conformal theory.

  16. Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Sveshnikov, K

    2016-01-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The reason is that such boundary conditions could yield a large magnitude of electronic wavefunction in some sector of the box boundary, what in turn promotes atomic displacement from the box center towards this part of the boundary, and so the underlying SO(3) symmetry spontaneously breaks. The emerging Goldstone modes, coinciding with rotations around the box center, restore the symmetry by spreading the atom over a spherical shell localized at some distances from the box center. Atomic confinement inside the cavity proceeds dynamically -- due to the boundary condition the deformation of electronic wavefunction near the boundary works as a spring, that returns the at...

  17. Chiral and U(1) axial symmetry restoration in linear sigma models with two quark flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Michalski, S

    2006-01-01

    We study the restoration of chiral symmetry in linear sigma models with two quark flavors. The models taken into consideration have a U(2) x U(2) and an O(N) internal symmetry. The physical mesons of these models are sigma, pion, \\eta and a_0 where the latter two are not present in the O(N) model. Including two-loop contributions through sunset graphs we calculate the temperature behavior of the order parameter and the masses for explicit chiral symmetry breaking with and without a U(1) axial anomaly. Decay threshold effects introduced by the sunset graphs alter the temperature dependence of the condensate and consequently that of the masses as well. Chiral symmetry tends to be restored at higher temperatures in the two-loop approximation than in the Hartree-Fock approximation. To model a dynamical restoration of the U(1) axial symmetry we imply a temperature-dependent anomaly parameter that sharply drops at about 175 MeV. This triggers the restoration of chiral symmetry before the full symmetry is restored a...

  18. Critical Temperature of Chiral Symmetry Restoration for Quark Matter with a Chiral Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggieri, M

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study restoration of chiral symmetry at finite temperature for quark matter with a chiral chemical potential, $\\mu_5$, by means of a quark-meson model with vacuum fluctuations included. Vacuum fluctuations give a divergent contribution to the vacuum energy, so the latter has to be renormalized before computing physical quantities. The vacuum term is important for restoration of chiral symmetry at finite temperature and $\\mu_5\

  19. Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemm, E. R.; Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Kapitulnik, A.

    2017-04-01

    The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. With the notable exception of 3He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral - that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) - superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. Here we review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a classical particle

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, L A; Sanchez, Luis Alberto; Mahecha, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Due to the fact that only matter fields have phase, frequently is believed that the gauge principle can induce gauge fields only in quantum systems. But this is not necessary. This paper, of pedagogical scope, presents a classical system constituted by a particle in a classical potential, which is used as a model to illustrate the gauge principle and the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Those concepts appear in the study of second order phase transitions. Ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, plasmons in a free electron gas, and the mass of vector bosons in the gauge field Yang-Mills theories, are some of the phenomena in which these transitions occur.

  1. Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Bhattacharyya

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking are addressed. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios shall be reviewed, then the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models shall be compared. Finally, a broad overview will be given on where we stand at the end of 2011.

  2. Cosmology of biased discrete symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    The cosmological consequences of spontaneous breaking of an approximate discrete symmetry are studied. The breaking leads to formation of proto-domains of false and true vacuum separated by domain walls of thickness determined by the mass scale of the model. The cosmological evolution of the walls is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the biasing; several scenarios are possible, depending on the interplay between the surface tension on the walls and the volume pressure from the biasing. Walls may disappear almost immediately after they form, or may live long enough to dominate the energy density of the Universe and cause power-law inflation. Limits are obtained on the biasing that characterizes each possible scenario.

  3. CERN LHC sensitivity to the resonance spectrum of a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector

    CERN Document Server

    Dobado, A; Peláez, J R; Ruiz-Morales, Ester

    2000-01-01

    We present a unified analysis of the two main production processes of vector boson pairs at the CERN LHC, VV-fusion and qq annihilation, in a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector. Using a unitarized electroweak chiral Lagrangian formalism and modeling the final V/sub L/V/sub L/ strong rescattering effects by a form factor, we describe qq annihilation processes in terms of the two chiral parameters that govern elastic V/sub L/V/sub L/ scattering. Depending on the values of these two chiral parameters, the unitarized amplitudes may present resonant enhancements in different angular momentum-isospin channels. Scanning this two parameter space, we generate the general resonance spectrum of a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector and determine the regions that can be probed at the CERN LHC. (47 refs).

  4. Can spontaneous symmetry breaking occur in potential with one minimum?

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs when the symmetry that a physical system possesses, is not preserved for the ground state of the system. Although the procedure of symmetry breaking is quite clear from the mathematical point of view, the physical interpretation of the phenomenon is worth to be better understood. In this note we present a simple and instructive example of the symmetry breaking in a mechanical system. It demonstrates that the spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur for the spatially extended solutions in a potential characterised by a single minimum.

  5. Inverse Symmetry Breaking and the Exact Renormalization Group

    CERN Document Server

    Pietroni, M; Tetradis, N

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the question of inverse symmetry breaking at non-zero temperature using the exact renormalization group. We study a two-scalar theory and concentrate on the nature of the phase transition during which the symmetry is broken. We also examine the persistence of symmetry breaking at temperatures higher than the critical one.

  6. An Investigation of the $K_{F}$-type Lorentz-Symmetry Breaking Gauge Models in $N=1$-Supersymmetric Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Belich, H; Helayël-Neto, J A; Leal, F J L; Spalenza, W

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present two possible venues to accomodate the $K_{F}$-type Lorentz-symmetry violating Electrodynamics in an $N=1$-supersymmetric framework. A chiral and a vector superfield are chosen to describe the background that signals Lorentz-symmetry breaking. In each case, the $\\ K_{\\mu \

  7. Edge states protected by chiral symmetry in disordered photonic graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Zeuner, Julia M; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the impact of uncorrelated composite and structural disorder in photonic graphene. We find that in case of structural disorder not only chiral symmetry, but also the vanishing of the density of states at zero energy is preserved. This is in contrast to composite disorder, where chiral symmetry as well as the vanishing of the density of states are destroyed. Our observations are experimentally proven by exciting edge states at the bearded edge in disordered photonic graphene.

  8. Review of Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    CERN Document Server

    Karliner, Marek

    2009-01-01

    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions -- breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  9. Soft breaking of BRST symmetry and gauge dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M; Reshetnyak, A A

    2012-01-01

    We continue investigation of soft breaking of BRST symmetry in the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism beyond regularizations like dimensional ones used in our previous paper. We generalize a definition of soft breaking of BRST symmetry valid for general gauge theories and arbitrary gauge fixing. The gauge dependence of generating functionals of Green's functions is investigated. It is proved that such introduction of a soft breaking of BRST symmetry into gauge theories leads to inconsistency of the conventional BV formalism.

  10. Self-consistent Models of Strong Interaction with Chiral Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Y.; Pascual, P.

    1963-04-01

    Some simple models of (renormalizable) meson-nucleon interaction are examined in which the nucleon mass is entirely due to interaction and the chiral ( gamma {sub 5}) symmetry is "broken'' to become a hidden symmetry. It is found that such a scheme is possible provided that a vector meson is introduced as an elementary field. (auth)

  11. Biased discrete symmetry breaking and Fermi balls

    CERN Document Server

    MacPherson, A L; Macpherson, Alick L; Campbell, Bruce A

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous breaking of an approximate discrete symmetry is considered, with the resulting protodomains of true and false vacuum being separated by domain walls. Given a strong, symmetric Yukawa coupling of the real scalar field to a generic fermion, the domain walls accumulate a gas of fermions, which modify the domain wall dynamics. The splitting of the degeneracy of the ground states results in the false vacuum protodomain structures eventually being fragmented into tiny false vacuum bags with a Fermi gas shell (Fermi balls), that may be cosmologically stable due to the Fermi gas pressure and wall curvature forces, acting on the domain walls. As fermions inhabiting the domain walls do not undergo number density freeze out, stable Fermi balls exist only if a fermion anti-fermion asymmetry occurs. Fermi balls formed with a new Dirac fermion that possesses no standard model gauge charges provide a novel cold dark matter candidate.

  12. Symmetry breaking at magnetic surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Z. Q.

    1998-11-20

    Examples represented of how symmetry breaking enters into consideration of the physical properties of magnetic surfaces and ultrathin films. The role of magnetic anisotropy is discussed to understand: (i) the existence of two-dimensional (2D) magnetic long-ranged order at finite temperature, (ii) magnetization scaling behavior at the Curie transition, (iii) the 2D spin reorientation transition, and (iv) step-induced magnetic behavior. Experimental examples cited include ultrathin magnetic Fe and Co overlayer and wedge structures grown onto single crystal substrates that are either flat or curved to produce vicinal surfaces with a continuous gradient in the step density. Also included is an example of an atomically flat manganite intergrowth that appears as a stacking fault in a bulk single crystal of a naturally layered structure.

  13. Symmetry breaking: The standard model and superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1988-08-31

    The outstanding unresolved issue of the highly successful standard model is the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and of the mechanism that determines its scale, namely the vacuum expectation value (vev)v that is fixed by experiment at the value v = 4m//sub w//sup 2///g/sup 2/ = (..sqrt..2G/sub F/)/sup /minus/1/ approx. = 1/4 TeV. In this talk I will discuss aspects of two approaches to this problem. One approach is straightforward and down to earth: the search for experimental signatures, as discussed previously by Pierre Darriulat. This approach covers the energy scales accessible to future and present laboratory experiments: roughly (10/sup /minus/9/ /minus/ 10/sup 3/)GeV. The second approach involves theoretical speculations, such as technicolor and supersymmetry, that attempt to explain the TeV scale. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Discrete Symmetry Breaking in Fractional Chern Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akshay; Roy, Rahul; Sondhi, S. L.

    2014-03-01

    We study the interplay between quantum hall ordering and spontaneous translational symmetry breaking in a multiple Chern number (C > 1) band at partial filling. We begin with non-interacting fermions in a family of square lattice models with flat C=2 bands and a wide band gap, and add nearest neighbor density-density repulsive interactions. By means of Hartree-Fock theory supplemented by numerical exact diagonalization for a small system at 1/2 filling, we find that the system generically develops charge density wave order with two degenerate ground states. We note that this physics is especially transparent in the limit in which the C=2 band describes two decoupled C=1 bands. We discuss the nature of domain walls in this phase and note the close analogy to the quantum Hall Ising ferromagnet in the multivalley problem. Finally we discuss generalizations to other fillings and higher Chern numbers.

  15. Information Content of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    We propose a measure of order in the context of nonequilibrium field theory and argue that this measure, which we call relative configurational entropy (RCE), may be used to quantify the emergence of coherent low-entropy configurations, such as time-dependent or time-independent topological and nontopological spatially-extended structures. As an illustration, we investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of spontaneous symmetry-breaking in three spatial dimensions. In particular, we focus on a model where a real scalar field, prepared initially in a symmetric thermal state, is quenched to a broken-symmetric state. For a certain range of initial temperatures, spatially-localized, long-lived structures known as oscillons emerge in synchrony and remain until the field reaches equilibrium again. We show that the RCE correlates with the number-density of oscillons, thus offering a quantitative measure of the emergence of nonperturbative spatiotemporal patterns that can be generalized to a variety of physical systems.

  16. Time-symmetry breaking in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Jucha, Jennifer; Pumir, Alain; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    In three-dimensional turbulent flows, the flux of energy from large to small scales breaks time symmetry. We show here that this irreversibility can be quantified by following the relative motion of several Lagrangian tracers. We find by analytical calculation, numerical analysis and experimental observation that the existence of the energy flux implies that, at short times, two particles separate temporally slower forwards than backwards, and the difference between forward and backward dispersion grows as $t^3$. We also find the geometric deformation of material volumes, surrogated by four points spanning an initially regular tetrahedron, to show sensitivity to the time-reversal with an effect growing linearly in $t$. We associate this with the structure of the strain rate in the flow.

  17. Breaking temporal symmetries for emission and absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Yakir; Soric, Jason C.; Alu, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Time-reversal symmetries impose stringent constraints on emission and absorption. Antennas, from radiofrequencies to optics, are bound to transmit and receive signals equally well from the same direction, making a directive antenna prone to receive echoes and reflections. Similarly, in thermodynamics Kirchhoff’s law dictates that the absorptivity and emissivity are bound to be equal in reciprocal systems at equilibrium, e(ω,θ)=a(ω,θ), with important consequences for thermal management and energy applications. This bound requires that a good absorber emits a portion of the absorbed energy back to the source, limiting its overall efficiency. Recent works have shown that weak time modulation or mechanical motion in suitably designed structures may largely break reciprocity and time-reversal symmetry. Here we show theoretically and experimentally that a spatiotemporally modulated device can be designed to have drastically different emission and absorption properties. The proposed concept may provide significant advances for compact and efficient radiofrequency communication systems, as well as for energy harvesting and thermal management when translated to infrared frequencies. PMID:26984502

  18. Golden Probe of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yi; Spiropulu, Maria; Stolarski, Daniel; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of the Higgs couplings to $WW$ and $ZZ$ pairs, $\\lambda_{WZ}$, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level/1-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that $h\\to4\\ell$ ($4\\ell \\equiv 2e2\\mu, 4e, 4\\mu$) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in $h\\to4\\ell$ to the magnitude of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumpti...

  19. Identical Wells, Symmetry Breaking, and the Near-Unitary Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, N. L.

    2017-03-01

    Energy level splitting from the unitary limit of contact interactions to the near unitary limit for a few identical atoms in an effectively one-dimensional well can be understood as an example of symmetry breaking. At the unitary limit in addition to particle permutation symmetry there is a larger symmetry corresponding to exchanging the N! possible orderings of N particles. In the near unitary limit, this larger symmetry is broken, and different shapes of traps break the symmetry to different degrees. This brief note exploits these symmetries to present a useful, geometric analogy with graph theory and build an algebraic framework for calculating energy splitting in the near unitary limit.

  20. A new dynamics of electroweak symmetry breaking with classically scale invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Kitazawa, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new dynamics of the electroweak symmetry breaking in a classically scale invariant version of the standard model. The scale invariance is broken by the condensations of additional fermions under a strong coupling dynamics. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by negative mass squared of the elementary Higgs doublet, which is dynamically generated through the bosonic seesaw mechanism. We introduce a real pseudo-scalar singlet field interacting with additional fermions and Higgs doublet in order to avoid massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the chiral symmetry breaking in a strong coupling sector. We investigate the mass spectra and decay rates of these pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons, and show they can decay fast enough without cosmological problems. We further evaluate the energy dependences of the couplings between elementary fields perturbatively, and find that our model is the first one which realizes the flatland scenario with the dimensional transmutation by the strong coupling dynam...

  1. A new dynamics of electroweak symmetry breaking with classically scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Haba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new dynamics of the electroweak symmetry breaking in a classically scale invariant version of the standard model. The scale invariance is broken by the condensations of additional fermions under a strong coupling dynamics. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by negative mass squared of the elementary Higgs doublet, which is dynamically generated through the bosonic seesaw mechanism. We introduce a real pseudo-scalar singlet field interacting with additional fermions and Higgs doublet in order to avoid massless Nambu–Goldstone bosons from the chiral symmetry breaking in a strong coupling sector. We investigate the mass spectra and decay rates of these pseudo-Nambu–Goldstone bosons, and show they can decay fast enough without cosmological problems. We further show that our model can make the electroweak vacuum stable.

  2. Spontaneous Breaking of Spatial and Spin Symmetry in Spinor Condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, M.; Lücke, B.; Gebreyesus, G.;

    2010-01-01

    Parametric amplification of quantum fluctuations constitutes a fundamental mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. In our experiments, a spinor condensate acts as a parametric amplifier of spin modes, resulting in a twofold spontaneous breaking of spatial and spin symmetry in the amplified...

  3. Chiral symmetry and scalar meson in hadron and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kunihiro, T

    1995-01-01

    After giving a short introduction to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with an anomaly term, we show the importance of the scalar-scalar correlation in the low-energy hadron dynamics, which correlation may be summarized by a scalar-isoscalar meson, the sigma meson. The discussion is based on the chiral quark model with the sigma-meson degrees of freedom. Possible experiments are proposed to produce the elusive meson in a nucleus and detect it. In relation to a precursory soft mode for the chiral transition, the reason is clarified why the dynamic properties of the superconductor may be described by the diffusive time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation. We indicate the chiral symmetry plays a significant role also in nuclei; one may say that the stability of nuclei is due to the chiral symmetry of QCD.

  4. The breaking of quantum double symmetries by defect condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, F. A.; Mathy, C. J. M.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we study the phenomenon of Hopf or more specifically quantum double symmetry breaking. We devise a criterion for this type of symmetry breaking which is more general than the one originally proposed in F.A. Bais, B.J. Schroers, J.K. Slingerland [Broken quantum symmetry and confinement phases in planar physics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 181601]; Hopf symmetry breaking and confinement in (2+1)-dimensional gauge theory, JHEP 05 (2003) 068], and therefore extends the number of possible breaking patterns that can be described consistently. We start by recalling why the extended symmetry notion of quantum double algebras is an optimal tool when analyzing a wide variety of two-dimensional physical systems including quantum fluids, crystals and liquid crystals. The power of this approach stems from the fact that one may characterize both ordinary and topological modes as representations of a single (generally nonabelian) Hopf symmetry. In principle a full classification of defect mediated as well as ordinary symmetry breaking patterns and subsequent confinement phenomena can be given. The formalism applies equally well to systems exhibiting global, local, internal and/or external (i.e. spatial) symmetries. The subtle differences in interpretation for the various situations are pointed out. We show that the Hopf symmetry breaking formalism reproduces the known results for ordinary (electric) condensates, and we derive formulae for defect (magnetic) condensates which also involve the phenomenon of symmetry restoration. These results are applied in two papers which will be published in parallel [C.J.M. Mathy, F.A. Bais, Nematic phases and the breaking of double symmetries, arXiv:cond-mat/0602109, 2006; F.A. Bais, C.J.M. Mathy, Defect mediated melting and the breaking of quantum double symmetries, arXiv:cond-mat/0602101, 2006].

  5. Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Furtado, C.; Bakke, K. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) correlations are discussed. From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the Lorentz symmetry violation and write an effective metric for the Minkowski spacetime. Then we obtain the Wigner rotation angle via the Fermi-Walker transport of spinors and consider the WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) approximation in order to study the influence of Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on the relativistic EPR correlations. (orig.)

  6. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, M; Yamawaki, K; Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the $D (=6,8,...)$-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D=8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, $m_t=173-180$ GeV, and the Higgs mass, $m_H=181-211$ GeV, for D=8, where we took the universal compactification scale $1/R = 1-100$ TeV.

  7. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the D(= 6, 8, ⋯)-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D = 8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, mt = 173 - 180 GeV, and the Higgs mass, mH = 181 - 211 GeV, for D = 8, where we took the universal compactification scale 1/R = 1 - 100 TeV.

  8. Parametric Symmetry Breaking in a Nonlinear Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuch, Anina; Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Degen, Christian L.; Chitra, R.; Eichler, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Much of the physical world around us can be described in terms of harmonic oscillators in thermodynamic equilibrium. At the same time, the far-from-equilibrium behavior of oscillators is important in many aspects of modern physics. Here, we investigate a resonating system subject to a fundamental interplay between intrinsic nonlinearities and a combination of several driving forces. We have constructed a controllable and robust realization of such a system using a macroscopic doubly clamped string. We experimentally observe a hitherto unseen double hysteresis in both the amplitude and the phase of the resonator's response function and present a theoretical model that is in excellent agreement with the experiment. Our work unveils that the double hysteresis is a manifestation of an out-of-equilibrium symmetry breaking between parametric phase states. Such a fundamental phenomenon, in the most ubiquitous building block of nature, paves the way for the investigation of new dynamical phases of matter in parametrically driven many-body systems and motivates applications ranging from ultrasensitive force detection to low-energy computing memory units.

  9. Warped electroweak breaking without custodial symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrer, Joan A.; von Gersdorff, Gero; Quirós, Mariano

    2011-03-01

    We propose an alternative to the introduction of an extra gauge (custodial) symmetry to suppress the contribution of KK modes to the T parameter in warped theories of electroweak breaking. The mechanism is based on a general class of warped 5D metrics and a Higgs propagating in the bulk. The metrics are nearly AdS in the UV region but depart from AdS in the IR region, towards where KK fluctuations are mainly localized, and have a singularity outside the slice between the UV and IR branes. This gravitational background is generated by a bulk stabilizing scalar field which triggers a natural solution to the hierarchy problem. Depending on the model parameters, gauge-boson KK modes can be consistent with present bounds on EWPT for mKK≳1 TeV at 95% CL. The model contains a light Higgs mode which unitarizes the four-dimensional theory. The reduction in the precision observables can be traced back to a large wave function renormalization for this mode.

  10. Warped Electroweak Breaking Without Custodial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrer, Joan A; Quiros, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    We propose an alternative to the introduction of an extra gauge (custodial) symmetry to suppress the contribution of KK modes to the T parameter in warped theories of electroweak breaking. The mechanism is based on a general class of warped 5D metrics and a Higgs propagating in the bulk. The metrics are nearly AdS in the UV region but depart from AdS in the IR region, towards where KK fluctuations are mainly localized, and have a singularity outside the slice between the UV and IR branes. This gravitational background is generated by a bulk stabilizing scalar field which triggers a natural solution to the hierarchy problem. Depending on the model parameters, gauge-boson KK modes can be consistent with present bounds on EWPT for m > 1 TeV at 95% CL. The model contains a light Higgs mode which unitarizes the four-dimensional theory. The reduction in the precision observables can be traced back to a large wave function renormalization for this mode.

  11. Electronic Localization Length of Carbon Nanotubes with Different Chiral Symmetries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨化通; 董锦明; 邢定钰

    2001-01-01

    The electronic localization lengths λ of metallic carbon nanotubes with different chiral symmetries have been calculated by one parameter scaling method. It is found that λ is independent of the nanotube chirality, but depends linearly on the diameter. The dependence of λ on the disorder strength W has also been studied, and a power-law relation between λ and W is also found to be independent of the tube chirality. Our numerical results are in good agreement with recent experimental observations and other theoretical results for only the "armchair"nanotubes.

  12. Chiral Random Matrix Theory and Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Damgaard, P H

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD has traditionally been inferred indirectly through low-energy theorems and comparison with experiments. Thanks to the understanding of an unexpected connection between chiral Random Matrix Theory and chiral Perturbation Theory, the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD can now be shown unequivocally from first principles and lattice simulations. In these lectures I give an introduction to the subject, starting with an elementary discussion of spontaneous breaking of global symmetries.

  13. Chiral Random Matrix Theory and Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damgaard, Poul H, E-mail: phdamg@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-04-01

    Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD has traditionally been inferred indirectly through low-energy theorems and comparison with experiments. Thanks to the understanding of an unexpected connection between chiral Random Matrix Theory and chiral Perturbation Theory, the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD can now be shown unequivocally from first principles and lattice simulations. In these lectures I give an introduction to the subject, starting with an elementary discussion of spontaneous breaking of global symmetries.

  14. Thermal and Nonthermal Pion Enhancements with Chiral Symmetry Restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, P

    2001-01-01

    The pion production by sigma decay and its relation with chiral symmetry restoration in a hot and dense matter are investigated in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The decay rate for the process sigma -> 2pion to the lowest order in a 1/N_c expansion is calculated as a function of temperature T and chemical potential mu. The thermal and nonthermal enhancements of pions generated by the decay before and after the freeze-out present only in the crossover region of the chiral symmetry transition. The strongest nonthermal enhancement is located in the vicinity of the endpoint of the first-order transition.

  15. Axion dark matter in the post-inflationary Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Saikawa, Ken' ichi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2015-12-15

    We consider extensions of the Standard Model in which a spontaneously broken global chiral Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry arises as an accidental symmetry of an exact Z{sub N} symmetry. For N=9 or 10, this symmetry can protect the axion - the Nambu-Goldstone boson arising from the spontaneous breaking of the accidental PQ symmetry - against semi-classical gravity effects, thus suppressing gravitational corrections to the effective potential, while it can at the same time provide for the small explicit symmetry breaking term needed to make models with domain wall number N{sub DW}>1, such as the popular Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitsky (DFSZ) model (N{sub DW}=6), cosmologically viable even in the case where spontaneous PQ symmetry breaking occurred after inflation. We find that N=10 DFSZ axions with mass m{sub A}∼3.5-4.2 meV can account for cold dark matter and simultaneously explain the hints for anomalous cooling of white dwarfs. The proposed helioscope International Axion Observatory - being sensitive to solar DFSZ axions with mass above a few meV - will decisively test this scenario.

  16. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, self-trapping, and Josephson oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a a number of contributions on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Current studies in this general field are going ahead at a full speed. The book present review chapters which give an overview on the major break throughs of recent years. It covers a number of different physical settings which are introduced when a nonlinearity is added to the underlying symmetric problems and its strength exceeds a certain critical value. The corresponding loss of symmetry, called spontaneous symmetry breaking, alias self-trapping into asymmetric states is extensively discussed in this book.

  17. Exploration of Chiral Aminophenols and Aminonaphthols with C2-Symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SUN; Zhi Min LI; Xiu Min SHEN; Feng Nian MA; Cong ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The exploration of C2-symmetric chiral aminophenols and aminonaphthols is described.Seven new ligands have been successfully synthesized using Mannich reaction as a key step.Four of them have C2-symmetry and their structure has been fully characterized by means of NMR and X-ray crystallography.

  18. Four-Fermion Theories with Exact Chiral Symmetry in Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Daniel; Wipf, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a class of four-fermion theories which includes well-known models like the Gross-Neveu model and the Thirring model. In three spacetime dimensions, they are used to model interesting solid state systems like high temperature superconductors and graphene. Additionally, they serve as toy models to study chiral symmetry breaking (CSB). For any number of fermion flavours the Gross-Neveu model has a broken and a symmetric phase, while the existence of a broken phase in the Thirring model depends on the number of flavours. The critical number of fermion flavours beyond which there exists no CSB is still subject of ongoing discussions. Using SLAC fermions we simulate the Thirring model with exact chiral symmetry. To obtain a chiral condensate one can introduce a symmetry-breaking mass term and carefully study the limits of infinite lattice and zero-mass. So far, we did not see CSB within this approach for the Thirring model with 2 or more (reducible) flavours. The talk presents alternative approaches ...

  19. ISOSPIN BREAKING AND THE CHIRAL CONDENSATE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ, M.

    2005-07-25

    With two degenerate quarks, the chiral condensate exhibits a jump as the quark masses pass through zero. I discuss how this single transition splits into two Ising like transitions when the quarks are made non-degenerate. The order parameter is the expectation of the neutral pion field. The transitions represent long distance coherent phenomena occurring without the Dirac operator having vanishingly small eigenvalues.

  20. Symmetry breaking and the geometry of reduced density matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauner, V.; Draxler, D.; Vanderstraeten, L.; Haegeman, J.; Verstraete, F.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of symmetry breaking and the emergence of corresponding local order parameters constitute the pillars of modern day many body physics. We demonstrate that the existence of symmetry breaking is a consequence of the geometric structure of the convex set of reduced density matrices of all possible many body wavefunctions. The surfaces of these convex bodies exhibit non-analyticities, which signal the emergence of symmetry breaking and of an associated order parameter and also show different characteristics for different types of phase transitions. We illustrate this with three paradigmatic examples of many body systems exhibiting symmetry breaking: the quantum Ising model, the classical q-state Potts model in two-dimensions at finite temperature and the ideal Bose gas in three-dimensions at finite temperature. This state based viewpoint on phase transitions provides a unique novel tool for studying exotic many body phenomena in quantum and classical systems.

  1. New Physics at the LHC: Strong vs Weak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    What kind of New Physics, if any, we expect to discover at the LHC? I will try to address this formidable question by re-formulating it as follows: is the breaking of the electroweak symmetry strong or weak ?

  2. Concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Bock, M. [Benemerita Univ., Puebla (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Mondragon, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Muehlleitner, M. [Laboratoire d' Annecy-Le-Vieux de Physique Theorique, 74 (France)]|[CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Spira, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. Theor. Physik E]|[Univ. Paris- Sud, Orsay (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique

    2007-12-15

    We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and prospects at the Tevatron, the LHC and e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics. Basic concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Bock, G.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pedraza, I. [Benemerita Univ. Auton. de Puebla, Pue (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica ' ' LRT' ' ; Mondragon, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Muehlleitner, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)]|[Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux Physique Theorique, LAPTH, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Spira, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and implications for future experiments at the LHC and e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Symmetry Breaking of Vibrating Interfaces a Mechanism for Morphogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    García, N

    2000-01-01

    We show that very small-amplitude oscillations of a highly symmetric, spheric or cylindrical, interface (thin membrane) between two fluids can result in inhomogeneous instability and breaking of the interface symmetry: the frequency of the breathing vibration selects the spatial symmetry. This mechanism may govern morphogenesis.

  5. Comments on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in supersymmetric theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, G.; Sorba, P.; Stora, R. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules)

    1984-08-30

    The role of the complex extension of the symmetry group in supersymmetric theories is revisited. We prove, in particular, that if symmetry breaking occurs at an extremum of the superpotential, then supersymmetry will be preserved if and only if the complex stabilizer of the vacuum is the complexified of its maximal compact part.

  6. Realisation of chiral symmetry in the domain model of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kalloniatis, Alexander C

    2003-01-01

    The domain model for the QCD vacuum has previously been developed and shown to exhibit confinement of quarks and strong correlation of the local chirality of quark modes and duality of the background domain-like gluon field. Quark fluctuations satisfy a chirality violating boundary conditions parametrized by a random chiral angle $\\alpha_j$ on the $j-th$ domain. The free energy of an ensemble of $N\\to\\infty$ domains depends on $\\{\\alpha_j, j=1... N\\}$ through the logarithm of the quark determinant. Its parity odd part is given by the axial anomaly. The anomaly contribution to the free energy suppresses continuous axial U(1) degeneracy in the ground state, leaving only a residual axial Z(2) symmetry. This discrete symmetry and flavour $SU(N_f)_L\\times SU(N_f)_R$ chiral symmetry in turn are spontaneously broken with a quark condensate arising due to the asymmetry of the spectrum of Dirac operator. In order to illustrate the splitting between the $\\eta'$ from octet pseudoscalar mesons realised in the domain mode...

  7. Chiral Symmetry Restoration with a Chiral Chemical Potential: the Role of Momentum Dependent Quark Self-energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggieri, M

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study restoration of chiral symmetry at finite temperature for quark matter with a chiral chemical potential, $\\mu_5$, by means of a nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This model allows to introduce in the simplest way possible a Euclidean momentum, $p_E$, dependent quark mass function which decays (neglecting logarithms) as $1/p_E^2$ for large $p_E$ in agreement with asymptotic behaviour expected in presence of a nonperturbative quark condensate. We show that the momentum dependence of the quark mass function, which has been neglected in all of the previous model studies, drastically affects the dependence of the critical temperature versus $\\mu_5$. We explain this in terms of a natural removal of ultraviolet modes at $T>0$ in the gap equation, as well as of the natural addition of these modes at $T=0$ which help to catalyze chiral symmetry breaking. As a result we find that within this model the critical temperature increases with $\\mu_5$.

  8. Symmetries and Exact Solutions of the Breaking Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美; 刘希强

    2011-01-01

    With the aid of the classical Lie group method and nonclassical Lie group method, we derive the classical Lie point symmetry and the nonclassical Lie point symmetry of (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton (BS) equation. Using the symmetries, we find six classical similarity reductions and two nonclassical similarity reductions of the BS equation. Varieties of exact solutions of the BS equation are obtained by solving the reduced equations.

  9. Mirror Symmetry Breaking of cis-[Ni(NCS)2tren]: Special Chiral Conformations of Chelate Rings%cis-[Ni(NCS)2tren]的镜面对称性破缺:螯环的特殊手性构象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成勇; 颜建新; 林以玑; 李丹; 方雪明; 章慧

    2012-01-01

    为了探究cis-[Ni(NCS)2tren] [tren:三(2-氨基乙基)胺]的手性来源,本文采用单晶X射线衍射、溶液紫外-可见-近红外(UV-Vis-NIR)光谱、固体紫外圆二色(CD)光谱和粉末X射线衍射(XRD)等对cis-[Ni(NCS )2tren]的一对手性晶体进行了表征.研究结果表明:该手性晶体由结晶过程中的镜面对称性破缺而形成;三角架型配体tren配位后的特殊手性构象(δδλ,λλδ)是cis-[Ni(NCS)2tren]的主要手性来源.络合物固体紫外CD谱所呈现的Cotton效应可能来自其螯环手性构象以及手性金属中心对NCS-配体的π-π*跃迁和荷移跃迁生色团的手性微扰.对20批次合成产物进行固体CD检测的统计结果表明:它们的对映体过量(ee)值在39%-100%之间.%In order to explore the chiral origin of c/s-[Ni(NCS)2tren] [tren: tris(2-aminoethyl) amine], a pair of chiral crystals of c;s-[Ni(NCS)jtren] was characterized by X-ray single crystal structural analysis, solution UV-Vis-near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, solid state UV-circular dichiroism (CD), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The results indicated that the chiral crystals of c/s-[Ni(NCS)2tren] were obtained by mirror symmetry-breaking crystallization, and the special chiral ring conformations (66A, AA6) of the coordinated tripod-type tren ligands are responsible for the chiral origin of c/s-[Ni(NCS)2tren]. The Cotton effects of Ni(ll) complexes in the solid-state UV-CD spectra are presumably attributed to the tt-tt* and charge-transfer chromophores of the NCS" ligands by the chiral perturbation of the helical ring conformations and metal-centered chirality. According to the statistical results of solid-state CD spectra of c/s-[Ni(NCS)2tren] for twenty batch syntheses, their enantiomeric excess (ee) values are between 39% and 100%.

  10. SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon vector coupling $f_1(0)$ in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon vector coupling $f_1(0)$ up to $\\mathcal{O}(p^4)$ in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with dynamical octet and decuplet contributions. We find that the decuplet contributions are of similar or even larger size than the octet ones. Combining both, we predict positive SU(3)-breaking corrections to all the four independent $f_1(0)$'s (assuming isospin symmetry), which are consistent, within uncertainties, with the latest results form large $N_c$ fits, chiral quark models, and quenched lattice QCD calculations.

  11. Testing Lorentz Symmetry using Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Noordmans, J P

    2016-01-01

    We consider the low-energy effects of a selected set of Lorentz- and CPT-violating quark and gluon operators by deriving the corresponding chiral effective lagrangian. Using this effective lagrangian, low-energy hadronic observables can be calculated. We apply this to magnetometer experiments and derive the best bounds on some of the Lorentz-violating coefficients. We point out that progress can be made by studying the nucleon-nucleon potential, and by considering storage-ring experiments for deuterons and other light nuclei.

  12. Chiral Symmetry in Light-Cone Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F; Thies, M; Yazaki, K

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry in light-cone field theory is presented. The non-locality inherent to light-cone field theory requires revision of the standard procedure in the derivation of Ward-Takahashi identities. We derive the general structure of chiral Ward-Takahashi identities and construct them explicitly for various model field theories. Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relations and relations between fermion propagators and the structure functions of Nambu-Goldstone bosons are discussed and the necessary modifications of the Ward-Takahashi identities due to the axial anomaly are indicated.

  13. New Mechanism of Flavor Symmetry Breaking from Supersymmetric Strong Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carone, C D; Moroi, T; Carone, Christopher D.; Hall, Lawrence J.; Moroi, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    We present a class of supersymmetric models in which flavor symmetries are broken dynamically, by a set of composite flavon fields. The strong dynamics that is responsible for confinement in the flavor sector also drives flavor symmetry breaking vacuum expectation values, as a consequence of a quantum-deformed moduli space. Yukawa couplings result as a power series in the ratio of the confinement to Planck scale, and the fermion mass hierarchy depends on the differing number of preons in different flavor symmetry-breaking operators. We present viable non-Abelian and Abelian flavor models that incorporate this mechanism.

  14. Possible chiral symmetry in $^{138}$Nd

    CERN Document Server

    Raduta, A A; Petrache, C M

    2015-01-01

    The pheomenological Generalized Coherent State Model Hamiltonian is amended with a many body term describing a set of nucleons moving in a shell model mean-field and interacting among themselves with paring, as well as with a particle-core interaction involving a quadrupole-quadrupole and a hexadecapole-hexdecapole force and a spin-spin interaction. The model Hamiltonian is treated in a restricted space consisting of the core projected states associated to the bands ground, $\\beta, \\gamma,\\widetilde{\\gamma}, 1^+$ and $\\widetilde{1^+}$ and two proton aligned quasiparticles coupled to the states of the ground band. The chirally transformed particle-core states are also included. The Hamiltonian contains two terms which are not invariant to the chiral transformations relating the right handed trihedral $({\\bf J_F}, {\\bf J_p}, {\\bf J_n})$ and the left handed ones $(-{\\bf J_F}, {\\bf J_p}, {\\bf J_n})$, $({\\bf J_F}, -{\\bf J_p}, {\\bf J_n})$, $({\\bf J_F}, {\\bf J_p}, -{\\bf J_n})$ where ${\\bf J_F}, {\\bf J_p}, {\\bf J_n}$...

  15. Symmetry-Break in Voronoi Tessellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Lucarini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse in a common framework the properties of the Voronoi tessellations resulting from regular 2D and 3D crystals and those of tessellations generated by Poisson distributions of points, thus joining on symmetry breaking processes and the approach to uniform random distributions of seeds. We perturb crystalline structures in 2D and 3D with a spatial Gaussian noise whose adimensional strength is α and analyse the statistical properties of the cells of the resulting Voronoi tessellations using an ensemble approach. In 2D we consider triangular, square and hexagonal regular lattices, resulting into hexagonal, square and triangular tessellations, respectively. In 3D we consider the simple cubic (SC, body-centred cubic (BCC, and face-centred cubic (FCC crystals, whose corresponding Voronoi cells are the cube, the truncated octahedron, and the rhombic dodecahedron, respectively. In 2D, for all values α>0, hexagons constitute the most common class of cells. Noise destroys the triangular and square tessellations, which are structurally unstable, as their topological properties are discontinuous in α=0. On the contrary, the honeycomb hexagonal tessellation is topologically stable and, experimentally, all Voronoi cells are hexagonal for small but finite noise with α<0.12. Basically, the same happens in the 3D case, where only the tessellation of the BCC crystal is topologically stable even against noise of small but finite intensity. In both 2D and 3D cases, already for a moderate amount of Gaussian noise (α>0.5, memory of the specific initial unperturbed state is lost, because the statistical properties of the three perturbed regular tessellations are indistinguishable. When α>2, results converge to those of Poisson-Voronoi tessellations. In 2D, while the isoperimetric ratio increases with noise for the perturbed hexagonal tessellation, for the perturbed triangular and square tessellations it is optimised for specific value of noise intensity

  16. Symmetry breaking of solitons in two-dimensional complex potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jianke

    2014-01-01

    Symmetry breaking is reported for continuous families of solitons in the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with a two-dimensional complex potential. This symmetry-breaking bifurcation is forbidden in generic complex potentials. However, for a special class of partially parity-time-symmetric potentials, such symmetry breaking is allowed. At the bifurcation point, two branches of asymmetric solitons bifurcate out from the base branch of symmetry-unbroken solitons. Stability of these solitons near the bifurcation point are also studied, and two novel stability properties for the bifurcated asymmetric solitons are revealed. One is that at the bifurcation point, zero and simple imaginary linear-stability eigenvalues of asymmetric solitons can move directly into the complex plane and create oscillatory instability. The other is that the two bifurcated asymmetric solitons, even though having identical powers and being related to each other by spatial mirror reflection, can possess different types of unstable eigenval...

  17. Perturbation treatment of symmetry breaking within random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, J.X. de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Hussein, M.S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)], E-mail: mhussein@mpipks-dresden.mpg.de; Pato, M.P.; Sargeant, A.J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2008-07-07

    We discuss the applicability, within the random matrix theory, of perturbative treatment of symmetry breaking to the experimental data on the flip symmetry breaking in quartz crystal. We found that the values of the parameter that measures this breaking are different for the spacing distribution as compared to those for the spectral rigidity. We consider both two-fold and three-fold symmetries. The latter was found to account better for the spectral rigidity than the former. Both cases, however, underestimate the experimental spectral rigidity at large L. This discrepancy can be resolved if an appropriate number of eigenfrequencies is considered to be missing in the sample. Our findings are relevant for symmetry violation studies in general.

  18. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Taeyoon

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity, whose action consists of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to the curvature with its potential. Performing dimensional reduction via ADM decomposition, we find that the model allows an exact solution giving rise to the 4D Minkowski vacuum. Exploiting the conformal invariance with Gaussian warp factor, we show that it also admits a solution which implement the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry. We investigate its stability by performing the tensor perturbation and find the resulting system is described by the conformal quantum mechanics. Possible applications to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of time-translational symmetry along the dynamical fifth direction and the brane-world scenario are discussed.

  19. Single photon induced symmetry breaking of H2 dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Fernandez, J.; Havermeier, T.; Foucar, L.; Weber, Th; Kreidi, K.; Schoffler, M.; Schmidt, L.; Jahnke, T.; Landers, A.L.; Jagutzki, O.; Czasch, A.; Benis, E.; Osipov, T.; Belkacem, A.; Prior,M.H.; Schmidt-Bocking, H.; Cocke, C.L.; Dorner, R.

    2006-12-06

    H{sub 2}, the smallest and most abundant molecule in the universe, has a perfectly symmetric ground state. What does it take to break this symmetry? Here we show that the inversion symmetry can be broken by absorption of a linearly polarized photon, which itself has inversion symmetry. In particular, the emission of a photoelectron with subsequent dissociation of the remaining H{sub 2}{sup +} fragment shows no symmetry with respect to the ionic H+ and neutral H atomic fragments. This result is the consequence of the entanglement between symmetric and antisymmetric H{sub 2}{sup +} states resulting from autoionization. The mechanisms behind this symmetry breaking are general for all molecules.

  20. Space Group Symmetry Fractionalization in a Chiral Kagome Heisenberg Antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Michael P; Zhu, Zhenyue; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Vishwanath, Ashvin; White, Steven R

    2016-05-13

    The anyonic excitations of a spin liquid can feature fractional quantum numbers under space group symmetries. Detecting these fractional quantum numbers, which are analogs of the fractional charge of Laughlin quasiparticles, may prove easier than the direct observation of anyonic braiding and statistics. Motivated by the recent numerical discovery of spin-liquid phases in the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet, we theoretically predict the pattern of space group symmetry fractionalization in the kagome lattice SO(3)-symmetric chiral spin liquid. We provide a method to detect these fractional quantum numbers in finite-size numerics which is simple to implement in the density matrix renormalization group. Applying these developments to the chiral spin liquid phase of a kagome Heisenberg model, we find perfect agreement between our theoretical prediction and numerical observations.

  1. Bose Symmetry and Chiral Decomposition of 2D Fermionic Determinants

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Everton M C; Wotzasek, C

    1998-01-01

    We show in a precise way, either in the fermionic or its bosonized version, that Bose symmetry provides a systematic way to carry out the chiral decomposition of the two dimensional fermionic determinant. Interpreted properly, we show that there is no obstruction of this decomposition to gauge invariance, as is usually claimed. Finally, a new way of interpreting the Polyakov-Wiegman identity is proposed.

  2. Bose symmetry and chiral decomposition of 2D fermionic determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, E. M. C.; Banerjee, R.; Wotzasek, C.

    1998-01-01

    We show in a precise way, either in the fermionic or its bosonized version, that Bose symmetry provides a systematic way to carry out the chiral decomposition of the two-dimensional fermionic determinant. Interpreted properly, we show that there is no obstruction of this decomposition to gauge invariance, as is usually claimed. Finally, a new way of interpreting the Polyakov-Wiegman identity is proposed.

  3. Bose symmetry and chiral decomposition of 2D fermionic determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, E.M.C.; Banerjee, R.; Wotzasek, C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1998-01-05

    We show in a precise way, either in the fermionic or its bosonized version, that Bose symmetry provides a systematic way to carry out the chiral decomposition of the two-dimensional fermionic determinant. Interpreted properly, we show that there is no obstruction of this decomposition to gauge invariance, as is usually claimed. Finally, a new way of interpreting the Polyakov-Wiegman identity is proposed. (orig.). 17 refs.

  4. Fermion condensates and Lorentz symmetry breaking in strongly-coupled large N gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Tomboulis, E T

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB) has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Spontaneous LSB, in particular, offers the attractive prospect of the graviton as a Nambu-Golstone boson. Here we consider the question of spontaneous LSB in lattice gauge theories via formation of fermion condensates in the strong coupling and large N limits. We employ naive massless fermions in a fermionic hopping expansion in the presence of sources coupled to various condensate operators of interest. The expansion is resumed in the large N limit in two equivalent ways: (i) direct resummation of all leading N graphs; and (ii) construction of the corresponding large N effective action for composite operators. When sources are turned off a variety of fermionic condensates is found to persist. These include the chiral symmetry breaking condensates, thus recovering previous results; but also some LSB condensates, in particular, axial vector and rank-2 tensor condensates. Furthermore, in the presence of inte...

  5. Rotational symmetry breaking in baby Skyrme models

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, Itay

    2007-01-01

    We consider multisolitons with charges 1 =< B =< 5 in the baby Skyrme model for the one-parametric family of potentials U=\\mu^2 (1-\\phi_3)^s with 0symmetry is exhibited only in the small s region; above a certain critical value of s, this symmetry is broken and a strong repulsion between the constituent one-Skyrmions becomes apparent. We also compute the spatial energy distributions of these solutions.

  6. Matter Representations and Gauge Symmetry Breaking via Compactified Space

    CERN Document Server

    Hatanaka, H

    1999-01-01

    We study dynamical gauge symmetry breaking via compactified space in the framework of SU($N$) gauge theory on $M^{d-1}\\times S^1$ ($d=4,5,6$) space-time. Especially, we study in detail the gauge symmetry breaking in SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories when the models contain both fundamental and adjoint matters. As the result, we find that any pattern of gauge symmetry breaking is realized by selecting appropriate set of numbers $(\\Nf,\\Nad)$ in these cases. It is achieved without tuning boundary conditions of matter fields. As the by-product, in some cases we get effective potential which has no curvature at the minimum thus leading to massless Higgs scalars, irrespectively of the size of compactified space.

  7. Radiatively induced breaking of conformal symmetry in a superpotential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuzov, A. B.; Cirilo-Lombardo, D. J.

    2016-07-01

    Radiatively induced symmetry breaking is considered for a toy model with one scalar and one fermion field unified in a superfield. It is shown that the classical quartic self-interaction of the superfield possesses a quantum infrared singularity. Application of the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism for effective potential leads to the appearance of condensates and masses for both scalar and fermion components. That induces a spontaneous breaking of the initial classical symmetries: the supersymmetry and the conformal one. The energy scales for the scalar and fermion condensates appear to be of the same order, while the renormalization scale is many orders of magnitude higher. A possibility to relate the considered toy model to conformal symmetry breaking in the Standard Model is discussed.

  8. Radiatively Induced Breaking of Conformal Symmetry in a Superpotential

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuzov, A B

    2015-01-01

    Radiatively induced symmetry breaking is considered for a toy model with one scalar and one fermion field unified in a superfield. It is shown that the classical quartic self-interaction of the superfield possesses a quantum infrared singularity. Application of the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism for effective potential leads to the appearance of condensates and masses for both scalar and fermion components. That induces a spontaneous breaking of the initial classical symmetries: the supersymmetry and the conformal one. The energy scales for the scalar and fermion condensates appear to be of the same order, while the renormalization scale is many orders of magnitude higher. A possibility to relate the considered toy model to conformal symmetry breaking in the Standard Model is discussed.

  9. Radiatively induced breaking of conformal symmetry in a superpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, A.B. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Department of Higher Mathematics, Dubna State University, 141982 Dubna (Russian Federation); Cirilo-Lombardo, D.J., E-mail: diego777jcl@gmail.com [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); National Institute of Plasma Physics (INFIP-CONICET), Department of Physics, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2016-07-10

    Radiatively induced symmetry breaking is considered for a toy model with one scalar and one fermion field unified in a superfield. It is shown that the classical quartic self-interaction of the superfield possesses a quantum infrared singularity. Application of the Coleman–Weinberg mechanism for effective potential leads to the appearance of condensates and masses for both scalar and fermion components. That induces a spontaneous breaking of the initial classical symmetries: the supersymmetry and the conformal one. The energy scales for the scalar and fermion condensates appear to be of the same order, while the renormalization scale is many orders of magnitude higher. A possibility to relate the considered toy model to conformal symmetry breaking in the Standard Model is discussed.

  10. Massive photons from Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Bonetti, Luca; Helayël-Neto, José A; Spallicci, Alessandro D A M

    2016-01-01

    In the context of Standard Model Extensions (SMEs), we analyse four general classes of Super Symmetry (SuSy) and Lorentz Symmetry (LoSy) breaking, leading to {observable} imprints at our energy scales. The photon dispersion relations show a non-Maxwellian behaviour for the CPT (Charge-Parity-Time reversal symmetry) odd and even sectors. The group velocities exhibit also a directional dependence with respect to the breaking background vector (odd CPT) or tensor (even CPT). In the former sector, the group velocity may decay following an inverse squared frequency behaviour. Thus, we extract a massive and gauge invariant Carroll-Field-Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the mass is proportional to the breaking vector. The latter is estimated by ground measurements and leads to a photon mass upper limit of $10^{-19}$ eV or $2 \\times 10^{-55}$ kg and thereby to a potentially measurable delay at low radio frequencies.

  11. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the composite-vector-boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garavaglia, T.

    1986-11-15

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is discussed in the Abelian, QED-like, composite-vector-boson model. When the auxiliary vector field has a nonzero vacuum expectation value, a global symmetry, Lorentz invariance, is broken. It is shown that the regularization of the saddle-point conditions for the quantum fluctuation generating functional is consistent only with a spacelike vacuum expectation value for the auxiliary vector field.

  12. Topological conditions for discrete symmetry breaking and phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, Fabrizio; Casetti, Lapo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy)

    2006-01-20

    In the framework of a recently proposed topological approach to phase transitions, some sufficient conditions ensuring the presence of the spontaneous breaking of a Z{sub 2} symmetry and of a symmetry-breaking phase transition are introduced and discussed. A very simple model, which we refer to as the hypercubic model, is introduced and solved. The main purpose of this model is that of illustrating the content of the sufficient conditions, but it is interesting also in itself due to its simplicity. Then some mean-field models already known in the literature are discussed in the light of the sufficient conditions introduced here.

  13. Symmetry-Breaking Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Broadband Light Bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Xingjie; Emani, Naresh K.; Kildishev, Alexander V.;

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate unparalleled wave-front control in a broadband, optical wavelength range from 1.0 μm to 1.9 μm, using a thin plasmonic layer (metasurface) consisting of a nanoantenna array that breaks the symmetry along the interface.......We experimentally demonstrate unparalleled wave-front control in a broadband, optical wavelength range from 1.0 μm to 1.9 μm, using a thin plasmonic layer (metasurface) consisting of a nanoantenna array that breaks the symmetry along the interface....

  14. Spontaneous breaking of nilpotent symmetry in boundary BLG theory

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2015-01-01

    We exploit boundary term to preserve the supersymmetric gauge invariance of Bagger--Lambert--Gustavsson (BLG) theory. The fermionic rigid BRST and anti-BRST symmetries are studied in linear and non-linear gauges. Remarkably, for Delbourgo-Jarvis-Baulieu-Thierry-Mieg (DJBTM) type gauge the spontaneous breaking of BRST symmetry occurs in the BLG theory. The responsible guy for such spontaneous breaking is ghost-anti-ghost condensation. Further, we discuss the ghost-anti-ghost condensates in the modified maximally Abelian (MMA) gauge in the BLG theory.

  15. Comment on "Electromagnetic Radiation under Explicit Symmetry Breaking"

    CERN Document Server

    Simovski, C; Belov, P; Krasnok, A

    2015-01-01

    Recently published paper [PRL 114, 147701 (2015)] contains several misleading statements and misinterpretations of known facts. The main massage of the paper [PRL 114, 147701 (2015)] is as follows: "We have shown that explicit symmetry breaking in the structural configuration of charges leads to symmetry breaking of the electric field which results in electromagnetic radiation due to non-conservative current within a localized region of space and time" seems to transcend mere empiricism, touching the theoretical foundations of electromagnetism. Moreover, basic mistakes are numerous in this article and its main claim is wrong. Below we prove it citing the paper and arguing against it.

  16. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in correlated wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Becca, Federico; Gros, Claudius

    2016-03-01

    We show that Jastrow-Slater wave functions, in which a density-density Jastrow factor is applied onto an uncorrelated fermionic state, may possess long-range order even when all symmetries are preserved in the wave function. This fact is mainly related to the presence of a sufficiently strong Jastrow term (also including the case of full Gutzwiller projection, suitable for describing spin models). Selected examples are reported, including the spawning of Néel order and dimerization in spin systems, and the stabilization of charge and orbital order in itinerant electronic systems.

  17. Mixed Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking in Models with Anomalous U(1) Gauge Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kiwoon, E-mail: kchoi@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    There can be various built-in sources of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, e.g. the U(1) D-term, the F-components of the modulus superfield required for the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism and the chiral matter superfields required to cancel the Fayet-Iliopoulos term, and finally the supergravity auxiliary component which can be parameterized by the F-component of chiral compensator. The relative strength between these supersymmetry breaking sources depends crucially on the characteristics of D-flat direction and also on how the D-flat direction is stabilized at a vacuum with nearly vanishing cosmological constant. We examine the possible pattern of the mediation of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, and find that various different mixed mediation scenarios can be realized, including the mirage mediation which corresponds to a mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, D-term domination giving a split sparticle spectrum, and also a mixed gauge-D-term mediation scenario.

  18. Probing Emergent Scale-Chiral Symmetry in Nuclear Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Paeng, Won-Gi

    2016-01-01

    In effective field theory for baryonic matter in which broken scale symmetry and hidden local symmetry are incorporated, both scale invariance and local gauge invariance, invisible or perhaps even absent in the QCD vacuum, could arise at high density as emergent symmetries, with a dilaton figuring as a scalar Nambu-Goldstone boson and the $\\rho$ and $a_1$ mesons as gauge fields, the former at the "dialton-limit (DL) fixed point" and the latter at the "vector manifestation (VM) fixed point." A novel phenomenon observed in a simplified model is that the dilaton condensate in nuclear medium "walks" as density increases beyond $n_{1/2}\\sim (2-3)n_0$ and induces the in-medium hidden gauge symmetry coupling, un-scaling up to density $n_{1/2}$, to start dropping rapidly towards the VM fixed point $n_{VM} >n_{1/2} $ at which the vector meson mass vanishes, coinciding, most likely, with chiral symmetry restoration. We discuss how to probe both VM and DL properties by means of the nuclear symmetry energy and the sound ...

  19. Simultaneous Chiral Symmetry Restoration and Deconfinement Consequences for the QCD Phase Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    For studies of quark matter in astrophysical scenarios, the thermodynamic bag model is commonly employed. Although successful, it does not account for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsions due to the vector interaction which is crucial to explain recent observations of massive, two solar mass neutron stars. In Klähn & Fischer we developed the novel vBag quark matter model which takes these effects into account. This article extends vBag to finite temperatures and isospin asymmetry. Another particular feature of vBag is the determination of the deconfinement bag constant {B}{dc} from a given hadronic equation of state in order to ensure that chiral and deconfinement transitions coincide. We discuss consequences of this novel approach for the phase transition construction, the phase diagram, and implications for protoneutron stars.

  20. Simultaneous chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement - Consequences for the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Klahn, Thomas; Hempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    For studies of quark matter in astrophysical scenarios the thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) is commonly employed. Although successful, it does not account for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\\chi$SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction which is crucial to explain recent observations of massive, two solar mass neutron stars. In Kl\\"ahn & Fischer (2015) we developed the novel vBag quark matter model which takes these effects into account. This article extends vBag to finite temperatures and isospin asymmetry. Another particular feature of vBag is the determination of the deconfinement bag constant $B_{\\rm dc}$ from a given hadronic equation of state (EoS) in order to ensure that chiral and deconfinement transitions coincide. We discuss consequences of this novel approach for the phase transition construction and the phase diagram.

  1. Charge Symmetry Breaking in the Nucleon and Parity Violating Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Gerald A

    2014-01-01

    The basic facts of charge symmetry breaking (CSB) phenomena are reviewed. The relevance of CSB to parity-violating electron-proton scattering experiments that seek to extract strange elastic form factors is discussed. Experimentalists have stated and written that the current uncertainty in our knowledge of CSB limits the ability to push further on the strange form factors. I discuss recent calculations using relativistic chiral perturbation theory and realistic values of strong coupling constants which show that the uncertainties due to lack of knowledge of CSB are at least ten times smaller than present experimental uncertainties. Estimates of CSB effects are made for the JLab Qweak and Mainz P2 experiments.

  2. Dynamical symmetry breaking with hypercolour and high colour representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoupanos, G.

    1985-03-01

    A model is presented in which the electroweak gauge group is spontaneously broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the existence of high colour representations. An unattractive feature of this scenario was the necessity to introduce elementary Higgs fields in order to obtain the spontaneous symmetry breaking of part of the theory. In the present model, this breaking can also be understood dynamically with the introduction of hypercolour interactions.

  3. Replica symmetry breaking for anisotropic magnets with quenched disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, E.; Kaveh, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study critical behaviour of a magnet with cubic anisotropy and quenched scalar disorder which is taken into account by replica method. We derive to first order in ε approximation the renormalization group equations taking into account possible replica symmetry breaking. We study the stability of the replica symmetric fixed points with respect to perturbations without (in general case) replica symmetry. However, we find that if a fixed point is stable with respect to replica symmetric deviations, it is also stable with respect to deviations without replica symmetry.

  4. Oscillatory symmetry breaking in the Soai reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micskei, Károly; Rábai, Gyula; Gál, Emese; Caglioti, Luciano; Pályi, Gyula

    2008-07-31

    A kinetic model of spontaneous amplification of enantiomeric excess in the autocatalytic addition of diisopropylzinc to prochiral pyrimidine carbaldehydes is extended by a negative feedback process. Simulations based on the extended model result in large-amplitude oscillations both in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and in a semibatch configuration under optimized initial conditions. When sustained oscillations are maintained in a CSTR, no enantiomeric product distribution could be observed in the calculated series; the system keeps its initial enantiomeric ratio endlessly. During damped oscillations, or steady-state conditions, however, chiral amplification from a very small initial enantiomeric excess to more than 99% occurs in a semibatch configuration. Calculations indicated spontaneous enantiomeric product enrichment (i.e., accumulation of one of the enantiomers at the cost of the other one) from strictly achiral starting conditions in a semibatch configuration due to the inherent numerical error of the integrator method, which can be regarded as a model of the statistical fluctuation in the numbers of enantiomeric molecules.

  5. Phenomenology of symmetry breaking from extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, Jorge [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Broncano, Alicia [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Belen Gavela, Maria [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, Stefano [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salvatori, Matteo [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    Motivated by the electroweak hierarchy problem, we consider theories with two extra dimensions in which the four-dimensional scalar fields are components of gauge boson in full space. We explore the Nielsen-Olesen instability for SU(N) on a torus, in the presence of a magnetic background. A field theory approach is developed, computing explicitly the minimum of the complete effective potential, including tri-linear and quartic couplings and determining the symmetries of the stable vacua. We also develop appropriate gauge-fixing terms when both Kaluza-Klein and Landau levels are present and interacting, discussing the interplay between the possible six and four dimensional choices. The equivalence between coordinate dependent and constant Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions - associated to either continuous or discrete Wilson lines - is analyzed.

  6. Topological protection of defect states from semi-chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, Charles; Bellec, Matthieu; Kuhl, Ulrich; Mortessagne, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Bipartite quantum systems from the chiral universality classes admit topologically protected zero modes at point defects. However, these states are difficult to separate from compacton-like localized states that arise from flat bands, formed if the two sublattices support a different number of sites within a unit cell. Here we identify a natural reduction of chiral symmetry, obtained by coupling sites on the majority sublattice, which gives rise to spectrally isolated point-defect states, topologically characterized as zero modes supported by the complementary minority sublattice. We observe these states in a microwave realization of a dimerized Lieb lattice with next-nearest neighbour coupling, and also demonstrate topological mode selection via sublattice-staggered absorption.

  7. Comment on "Electromagnetic potential vectors and spontaneous symmetry breaking"

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoeglazov, V V

    1993-01-01

    The appearance of terms, which are analogous to ones required for symmetry breaking, in Lagrangian of Ref.~\\cite{Shebalin} is shown to be caused by gauge invariance of quantum electrodynamics (QED) and by inaccuracy of the author in a choice of canonical variables. These terms in the Lagrangian (18) of~\\cite{Shebalin} do not have physical meaning.

  8. Nonlocal regularization of abelian models with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate how nonlocal regularization is applied to gauge invariant models with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Motivated by the ability to find a nonlocal BRST invariance that leads to the decoupling of longitudinal gauge bosons from physical amplitudes, we show that the original formulation of the method leads to a nontrivial relationship between the nonlocal form factors that can appear in the model.

  9. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Quantum Systems. A review for Scholarpedia

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, F

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum systems is briefly reviewed, rectifying part of the standard wisdom on logical and mathematical grounds. The crucial role of the localization properties of the time evolution for the conclusion of the Goldstone theorem is emphasized.

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Manuel; Lücke, Bernd; Peise, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    We present an analytical model for the theoretical analysis of spin dynamics and spontaneous symmetry breaking in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This allows for an excellent intuitive understanding of the processes and provides good quantitative agreement with the experimental results...

  11. Radiative breaking of conformal symmetry in the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuzov, A. B.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Pavlov, A. E.; Pervushin, V. N.; Zakharov, A. F.

    2016-02-01

    Radiative mechanism of conformal symmetry breaking in a comformal-invariant version of the Standard Model is considered. The Coleman-Weinberg mechanism of dimensional transmutation in this system gives rise to finite vacuum expectation values and, consequently, masses of scalar and spinor fields. A natural bootstrap between the energy scales of the top quark and Higgs boson is suggested.

  12. Enantioselective Symmetry Breaking Directed by the Order of Process Steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, Wim L.; Meekes, Hugo; Enckevort, Willem J.P. van; Kaptein, Bernard; Kellogg, Richard M.; Vlieg, Elias

    2010-01-01

    Going forward in reverse: The configuration of the product of grinding-induced symmetry breaking can be controlled simply by the order in which the different reaction-mixture components are combined. The underlying mechanism is based on a subtle balance between enantioselective crystal growth and di

  13. Competitive forms of symmetry breaking in linear antiferromagnetic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, W.J.; Magnus, W.

    1985-01-01

    Two different forms of symmetry breaking are considered for linear antiferromagnetic systems (S = 1/2 ). Their relative stability is examined by considering small fluctuations in the harmonic oscillator approximation. Imaginary frequencies correspond with an unstable phase, and the ground state repr

  14. Curvature-induced symmetry breaking in nonlinear Schrodinger models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Mingaleev, S. F.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2000-01-01

    We consider a curved chain of nonlinear oscillators and show that the interplay of curvature and nonlinearity leads to a symmetry breaking when an asymmetric stationary state becomes energetically more favorable than a symmetric stationary state. We show that the energy of localized states decrea...

  15. Quantum electroweak symmetry breaking through loop quadratic contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Bai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on two postulations that (i the Higgs boson has a large bare mass mH≫mh≃125 GeV at the characteristic energy scale Mc which defines the Standard Model (SM in the ultraviolet region, and (ii quadratic contributions of Feynman loop diagrams in quantum field theories are physically meaningful, we show that the SM electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by the quadratic contributions from loop effects. As the quadratic running of Higgs mass parameter leads to an additive renormalization, which distinguishes from the logarithmic running with a multiplicative renormalization, the symmetry breaking occurs once the sliding energy scale μ moves from Mc down to a transition scale μ=ΛEW at which the additive renormalized Higgs mass parameter mH2(Mc/μ gets to change the sign. With the input of current experimental data, this symmetry breaking energy scale is found to be ΛEW≃760 GeV, which provides another basic energy scale for the SM besides Mc. Studying such a symmetry breaking mechanism could play an important role in understanding both the hierarchy problem and naturalness problem. It also provides a possible way to explore the experimental implications of the quadratic contributions as ΛEW lies within the probing reach of the LHC and the future Great Collider.

  16. The symmetry breaking phenomenon in anharmonic oscillator model

    CERN Document Server

    Mastine, Antonio Carlos; Natti, Erica Regina Takano

    2010-01-01

    In this article a non-perturbative time-dependent technique is used to treat the initial value problem, in Quantum Mechanics context, for a non-equilibrium self-interacting fermionic system in the presence of an external magnetic field. Particularly, in mean-field regime, we study the dynamical symmetry breaking phenomenon, identifying the physical processes associated.

  17. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking with Vector Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Cynolter, G; Pócsik, G

    2004-01-01

    In the standard model of electroweak interactions the Higgs doublet is replaced by a complex vector doublet and a real vector singlet. The gauge symmetry is broken dynamically by a mixed condensate of the doublet and singlet vector fields. Gauge fields get their usual standard model masses by condensation. The new vector matter fields become massive by their gauge invariant selfcouplings and expected to have masses of few hundred GeV. Fermions are assigned to the gauge group in the usual manner. Fermion masses are coming from a gauge invariant fermion-vector field interaction by a mixed condensat, the Kobayashi-Maskawa description is unchanged. Perturbative unitarity estimates show that the model is valid up to 2-3 TeV. It is shown that from the new matter fields a large number of spin-one particle pairs is expected at future high energy e^{+}e^{-} linear colliders of 500-1500 GeV. The inclusive production cross section of new particle pairs is presented for hadron colliders, while at the Tevatron the new par...

  18. $\\mathcal{PT}$-Symmetry-Breaking Chaos in Optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Xin-You; Ma, Jin-Yong; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry-breaking chaos in optomechanical system (OMS), which features an ultralow driving threshold. In principle, this chaos will emerge once a driving laser is applied to the cavity mode and lasts for a period of time. The driving strength is inversely proportional to the starting time of chaos. This originally comes from the dynamical enhancement of nonlinearity by field localization in $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry-breaking phase ($\\mathcal{PT}$BP). Moreover, this chaos is switchable by tuning the system parameters so that a $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry phase transition occurs. This work may fundamentally broaden the regimes of cavity optomechanics and nonlinear optics. It offers the prospect of exploring ultralow-power-laser triggered chaos and its potential applications in secret communication.

  19. Symmetry Breaking Patterns for the Little Higgs from Strong Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Batra, Puneet

    2007-01-01

    We show how the symmetry breaking pattern of the simplest little Higgs model, and that of the smallest moose model that incorporates an approximate custodial SU(2), can be realized through the condensation of strongly coupled fermions. In each case a custodial SU(2) symmetry of the new strong dynamics limits the sizes of corrections to precision electroweak observables. In the case of the simplest little Higgs, there are no new light states beyond those present in the original model. However, our realization of the symmetry breaking pattern of the moose model predicts an additional scalar field with mass of order a TeV or higher that has exactly the same quantum numbers as the Standard Model Higgs and which decays primarily to third generation quarks.

  20. Lorentz symmetry breaking as a quantum field theory regulator

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Perturbative expansions of relativistic quantum field theories typically contain ultraviolet divergences requiring regularization and renormalization. Many different regularization techniques have been developed over the years, but most regularizations require severe mutilation of the logical foundations of the theory. In contrast, breaking Lorentz invariance, while it is certainly a radical step, at least does not damage the logical foundations of the theory. We shall explore the features of a Lorentz symmetry breaking regulator in a simple polynomial scalar field theory, and discuss its implications. We shall quantify just "how much" Lorentz symmetry breaking is required to fully regulate the theory and render it finite. This scalar field theory provides a simple way of understanding many of the key features of Horava's recent article [arXiv:0901.3775 [hep-th

  1. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in thermalization and anti-thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Wang, X G; Liu, X F; Sun, C P

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking is investigated in the dynamic thermalization of a degenerate quantum system. A three-level system interacting with a heat bath is carefully studied to this end. It is shown that the three-level system with degenerate ground states might have different behaviors depending on the details of the interaction with the heat bath when the temperature approaches zero. If we introduce an external field to break the degeneracy of the ground states and let it approach zero after letting the temperature approach zero, then two possibilities will arise: the steady state is a definite one of the degenerate states independent of the initial state, or the steady state is dependent on the initial state in a complicated way. The first possibility corresponds to a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the system and the second one implies that the heat bath could not totally erase the initial information in certain cases.

  2. Chiral symmetry and nuclear matter equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A B Santra

    2001-08-01

    We investigate the effect on the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) due to modification of meson and nucleon parameters in nuclear medium as a consequence of partial restoration of chiral symmetry. To get the EOS, we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Golstone formalism with Bonn- potential as two-body interaction and QCD sum rule and Brown–Rho scaling prescriptions for modification of hadron parameters. We find that EOS is very much sensitive to the meson parameters. We can fit, with two body interaction alone, both the saturation density and the binding energy per nucleon.

  3. Indications of partial chiral symmetry restoration from pionic atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive data on strong interaction effects in pionic atoms are analyzed with a density-dependent isovector scattering amplitude suggested recently by Weise to result from a density dependence of the pion decay constant. Most of the so-called 'missing s-wave repulsion' is removed when adopting this approach, thus indicating a partial chiral symmetry restoration in dense matter. The resulting potentials describe quite well also elastic scattering of 20 MeV pions on Ca. Further tests with elastic scattering are desirable.

  4. On the stability of multiscale models of dynamical symmetry breaking from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Anton F. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom); Departament de Física Fonamental and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Piai, Maurizio; Schofield, Daniel [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    We consider two classes of backgrounds of Type IIB supergravity obtained by wrapping D5-branes on a two-cycle inside the conifold. The field theory dual exhibits confinement and, in addition, a region in which the dynamics is walking, at least in the weak sense that the running of the coupling is anomalously slow. We introduce quenched matter in the fundamental, modeled by probe D7-branes which wrap an internal three-dimensional manifold and lie at the equator of the transverse two-sphere. In the space spanned by the remaining internal angle and the radial coordinate, the branes admit two embeddings. The first one is U-shaped: the branes merge at some finite value of the radius. The second one is disconnected and extends along the entire radial direction at fixed angular separation. We interpret these two configurations as corresponding to chiral-symmetry breaking and preserving phases, respectively. We present a simple diagnostic tool to examine the classical stability of the embedding, based on the concavity/convexity conditions for the relevant thermodynamic potentials. We use this criterion to show that U-shaped probes that explore the walking region are unstable, hence providing a dynamical origin for the tachyonic mode found in the literature. Whenever this occurs, the disconnected solution becomes favored energetically. We find that in one of the two classes of backgrounds the U-shaped embedding is always unstable, and thus never realized dynamically. Consequently, these models cannot be used to describe chiral-symmetry breaking. In the second category of solutions, our analysis reveals the presence of a first-order phase transition between chiral-symmetry broken and restored phases. Interestingly, this is in the same class that contains a parametrically light scalar in the spectrum of glueballs of the dual field theory.

  5. Lattice regularization of gauge theories without loss of chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    't Hooft, Gerardus

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: A lattice regularization procedure for gauge theories is proposed in which fermions are given a special treatment such that all chiral flavor symmetries that are free of Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are kept intact. There is no doubling of fermionic degrees of freedom. A price paid for this feature is that the number of fermionic degrees of freedom per unit cell is still infinite, although finiteness of the complete functional integrals can be proven (details are outlined in an Appendix). Therefore, although perhaps of limited usefulness for numerical simulations, our scheme can be applied for studying aspects such as analytic convergence questions, spontaneous symmetry breakdown and baryon number violation in non-Abelian gauge theories.

  6. Time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum billiards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Florian

    2009-01-26

    The present doctoral thesis describes experimentally measured properties of the resonance spectra of flat microwave billiards with partially broken timereversal invariance induced by an embedded magnetized ferrite. A vector network analyzer determines the complex scattering matrix elements. The data is interpreted in terms of the scattering formalism developed in nuclear physics. At low excitation frequencies the scattering matrix displays isolated resonances. At these the effect of the ferrite on isolated resonances (singlets) and pairs of nearly degenerate resonances (doublets) is investigated. The hallmark of time-reversal symmetry breaking is the violation of reciprocity, i.e. of the symmetry of the scattering matrix. One finds that reciprocity holds in singlets; it is violated in doublets. This is modeled by an effective Hamiltonian of the resonator. A comparison of the model to the data yields time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements in the order of the level spacing. Their dependence on the magnetization of the ferrite is understood in terms of its magnetic properties. At higher excitation frequencies the resonances overlap and the scattering matrix elements fluctuate irregularly (Ericson fluctuations). They are analyzed in terms of correlation functions. The data are compared to three models based on random matrix theory. The model by Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller and Zirnbauer describes time-reversal invariant scattering processes. The one by Fyodorov, Savin and Sommers achieves the same for systems with complete time-reversal symmetry breaking. An extended model has been developed that accounts for partial breaking of time-reversal invariance. This extended model is in general agreement with the data, while the applicability of the other two models is limited. The cross-correlation function between forward and backward reactions determines the time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements of the Hamiltonian to up to 0.3 mean level spacings. Finally

  7. Strange Baryon Electromagnetic Form Factors and SU(3) Flavor Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huey-Wen; Orginos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    We study the nucleon, Sigma and cascade octet baryon electromagnetic form factors and the effects of SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking from 2+1-flavor lattice calculations. We find that electric and magnetic radii are similar; the maximum discrepancy is about 10\\%. In the pion-mass region we explore, both the quark-component and full-baryon moments have small SU(3) symmetry breaking. We extrapolate the charge radii and the magnetic moments using three-flavor heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBXPT). The systematic errors due to chiral and continuum extrapolations remain significant, giving rise to charge radii for $p$ and $\\Sigma^-$ that are 3--4 standard deviations away from the known experimental ones. Within these systematics the predicted $\\Sigma^+$ and $\\Xi^-$ radii are 0.67(5) and 0.306(15)~fm$^2$ respectively. When the next-to-next-to-leading order of HBXPT is included, the extrapolated magnetic moments are less than 3 standard deviations away from PDG values, and the d

  8. Effective photon mass by Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Luca; dos Santos Filho, Luís R.; Helayël-Neto, José A.; Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of Standard Model Extensions (SMEs), we analyse four general classes of Super Symmetry (SuSy) and Lorentz Symmetry (LoSy) breaking, leading to observable imprints at our energy scales. The photon dispersion relations show a non-Maxwellian behaviour for the CPT (Charge-Parity-Time reversal symmetry) odd and even sectors. The group velocities exhibit also a directional dependence with respect to the breaking background vector (odd CPT) or tensor (even CPT). In the former sector, the group velocity may decay following an inverse squared frequency behaviour. Thus, we extract a massive Carroll-Field-Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the effective mass is proportional to the breaking vector and moderately dependent on the direction of observation. The breaking vector absolute value is estimated by ground measurements and leads to a photon mass upper limit of 10-19 eV or 2 ×10-55 kg, and thereby to a potentially measurable delay at low radio frequencies.

  9. Effective photon mass by Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bonetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Standard Model Extensions (SMEs, we analyse four general classes of Super Symmetry (SuSy and Lorentz Symmetry (LoSy breaking, leading to observable imprints at our energy scales. The photon dispersion relations show a non-Maxwellian behaviour for the CPT (Charge-Parity-Time reversal symmetry odd and even sectors. The group velocities exhibit also a directional dependence with respect to the breaking background vector (odd CPT or tensor (even CPT. In the former sector, the group velocity may decay following an inverse squared frequency behaviour. Thus, we extract a massive Carroll–Field–Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the effective mass is proportional to the breaking vector and moderately dependent on the direction of observation. The breaking vector absolute value is estimated by ground measurements and leads to a photon mass upper limit of 10−19 eV or 2×10−55 kg, and thereby to a potentially measurable delay at low radio frequencies.

  10. Nucleon Properties and Restoration of Chiral Symmetry at Finite\

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, C V; Göke, K; Christov, Chr.V.

    1993-01-01

    Modifications of baryon properties due to the restoration of the chiral symmetry in an external hot and dense baryon medium are investigated in an effective chiral quark-meson theory. The nucleon arises as a soliton of the Gell-Mann - L\\'evi $\\zs$-model, the parameters of which are chosen to be the medium-modified meson values evaluated within the Nambu - Jona-Lasinio model. The nucleon properties are obtained by means of variational projection techniques. The nucleon form factors as well as the nucleon delta transition form factors are evaluated for various densities and temperatures of the medium. Similar to the chiral phase transition line the critical curve in the $T-\\zr$ plane for delocalization of the nucleon is non-monotonic and this feature is reflected in all nucleon properties. At medium densities of about $(2-3) \\rnm$ the baryonic phase exists only at intermediate temperatures. For finite temperature and densities the nucleon form factors get strongly reduced at finite transfer momenta.

  11. 3D toroidal physics: Testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spong, Donald A., E-mail: spongda@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to provide the plasma control needed for a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D edge localized mode suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. This motivates the development of physics models that are applicable across the full range of 3D devices. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with the requirements of future fusion reactors.

  12. Density driven symmetry breaking and Butterfly effect in holographic superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Youngman; Sin, Sang-Jin

    2009-01-01

    We study the density driven symmetry breaking in holographic superconductors by considering positive mass squared case. We show that with small values of positive $m^2$, scalar condensation still forms. As $m^2$ increases, however, the phase space folds due to the non-linearity of the equation of motion, and two nearby points in phase space can represent symmetry broken and unbroken configurations respectively, leading to an analogue of the butterfly effect. We also calculate the specific heat and electrical conductivity for various $m^2$ and compare them with experimentally observed numbers in condensed matter systems.

  13. SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking and charmed states

    CERN Document Server

    Horsley, R; Nakamura, Y; Perlt, H; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Stüben, H; Zanotti, J M

    2013-01-01

    By extending the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion from up, down and strange sea quark masses to partially quenched valence quark masses we propose a method to determine charmed quark hadron masses including possible QCD isospin breaking effects. Initial results for some open charmed pseudoscalar meson states and singly and doubly charmed baryon states are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Essential for the method is the determination of the scale using singlet quantities, and to this end we also give here a preliminary estimation of the recently introduced Wilson flow scales.

  14. Symmetry Breaking on Density in Escaping Ants: Experiment and Alarm Pheromone Model

    OpenAIRE

    Geng Li; Di Huan; Bertrand Roehner; Yijuan Xu; Ling Zeng; Zengru Di; Zhangang Han

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collectiv...

  15. Novel local symmetries and chiral-symmetry-broken phases in S = 1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, G.

    1989-01-01

    Using a nonmean-field approach the triangular-lattice S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor couplings is shown undergo an Ising-type phase transition into a chiral-symmetry-broken phase (Kalmeyer-Laughlin-like state) at small T. Removal of next-nearest-neighbor coupling introduces a local Z2 symmetry, thereby suppressing any finite-T chiral order.

  16. Breaking discrete symmetries in the effective field theory of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannone, Dario [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università degli Studi di Padova,Padova, I-35131 (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Padova, I-35131 (Italy); Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics,Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics,Postech, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Tasinato, Gianmassimo [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-03

    We study the phenomenon of discrete symmetry breaking during the inflationary epoch, using a model-independent approach based on the effective field theory of inflation. We work in a context where both time reparameterization symmetry and spatial diffeomorphism invariance can be broken during inflation. We determine the leading derivative operators in the quadratic action for fluctuations that break parity and time-reversal. Within suitable approximations, we study their consequences for the dynamics of linearized fluctuations. Both in the scalar and tensor sectors, we show that such operators can lead to new direction-dependent phases for the modes involved. They do not affect the power spectra, but can have consequences for higher correlation functions. Moreover, a small quadrupole contribution to the sound speed can be generated.

  17. Curling Liquid Crystal Microswimmers: A Cascade of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Carsten; Klös, Gunnar; Bahr, Christian; Maass, Corinna C.

    2016-07-01

    We report curling self-propulsion in aqueous emulsions of common mesogenic compounds. Nematic liquid crystal droplets self-propel in a surfactant solution with concentrations above the critical micelle concentration while undergoing micellar solubilization [Herminghaus et al., Soft Matter 10, 7008 (2014)]. We analyzed trajectories both in a Hele-Shaw geometry and in a 3D setup at variable buoyancy. The coupling between the nematic director field and the convective flow inside the droplet leads to a second symmetry breaking which gives rise to curling motion in 2D. This is demonstrated through a reversible transition to nonhelical persistent swimming by heating to the isotropic phase. Furthermore, autochemotaxis can spontaneously break the inversion symmetry, leading to helical trajectories in 3D.

  18. Gauge symmetry breaking in gravity and auxiliary effective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Amin

    2017-02-01

    In the context of the covariant symmetry breaking in gravity, we study the quantum aspect of Chamseddine-Mukhanov model by making use of path integral method. Utilizing one of the gauge fixing constraints, we remove the specific ghost degree of freedom. In continuation, we define an auxiliary effective action. Introducing an auxiliary field, we will have a new dynamic field in addition to the fundamental field.

  19. Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking with color-sextet quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukazawa, Kenji; Muta, Taizo; Saito, Juichi; Watanabe, Isamu; Yonezawa, Minoru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Inoue, Masato

    1991-01-01

    Massive quarks belonging to a sextet representation of the color SU(3) of quantum chromodynamics are assumed to exist and to trigger the dynamical breaking of the electroweak SU(2) x U(1) symmetry. Quantum numbers are assigned to the color-sextet quarks and their masses are estimated together with the mass of the top quark by using the mass formulae for the weak-boson masses. Phenomenological implication of the model is discussed. (author).

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in synchronously pumped fiber ring cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidberger, Michael J; Biancalana, Fabio; Russell, Philip St J; Joly, Nicolas Y

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new equation that describes the spatio-temporal evolution of arbitrary pulses propagating in a fiber-ring cavity. This model is a significant extension of the traditionally used Lugiato-Lefever model. We demonstrate spontaneous symmetry breaking as well as multistability regimes in a synchronously pumped fiber-ring cavity. The equation can be applied to virtually any type of waveguide-based ring cavity.

  1. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V; de Valcárcel, Germán J; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We consider first type-II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators, but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave mixing cavity in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of the parameter values.

  2. Replica symmetry breaking in cold atoms and spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, P.; Tesio, E.; Caracciolo, S.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a system composed by N atoms trapped within a multimode cavity, whose theoretical description is captured by a disordered multimode Dicke model. We show that in the resonant, zero-field limit the system exactly realizes the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. Upon a redefinition of the temperature, the same dynamics is realized in the dispersive, strong-field limit. This regime also gives access to spin-glass observables which can be used to detect replica symmetry breaking.

  3. Symmetry-breaking instability in a prototypical driven granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Meerson, Baruch

    2002-08-01

    Symmetry-breaking instability of a laterally uniform granular cluster (strip state) in a prototypical driven granular gas is investigated. The system consists of smooth hard disks in a two-dimensional box, colliding inelastically with each other and driven, at zero gravity, by a "thermal" wall. The limit of nearly elastic particle collisions is considered, and granular hydrodynamics with the Jenkins-Richman constitutive relations is employed. The hydrodynamic problem is completely described by two scaled parameters and the aspect ratio of the box. Marginal stability analysis predicts a spontaneous symmetry-breaking instability of the strip state, similar to that predicted recently for a different set of constitutive relations. If the system is big enough, the marginal stability curve becomes independent of the details of the boundary condition at the driving wall. In this regime, the density perturbation is exponentially localized at the elastic wall opposite the thermal wall. The short- and long-wavelength asymptotics of the marginal stability curves are obtained analytically in the dilute limit. The physics of the symmetry-breaking instability is discussed.

  4. Frustrated topological symmetry breaking: Geometrical frustration and anyon condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc D.; Burnell, Fiona J.

    2016-10-01

    We study the phase diagram of a topological string-net-type lattice model in the presence of geometrically frustrated interactions. These interactions drive several phase transitions that reduce the topological order, leading to a rich phase diagram including both Abelian (Z2) and non-Abelian (Ising×Ising¯ ) topologically ordered phases, as well as phases with broken translational symmetry. Interestingly, one of these phases simultaneously exhibits (Abelian) topological order and long-ranged order due to translational symmetry breaking, with nontrivial interactions between excitations in the topological order and defects in the long-ranged order. We introduce a variety of effective models, valid along certain lines in the phase diagram, which can be used to characterize both topological and symmetry-breaking order in these phases and in many cases allow us to characterize the phase transitions that separate them. We use exact diagonalization and high-order series expansion to study areas of the phase diagram where these models break down and to approximate the location of the phase boundaries.

  5. Matter Mass Generation and Theta Vacuum Dynamical Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Roh, H S

    2001-01-01

    This work proposes a stringent concept of matter mass generation and Theta vacuum in the context of local gauge theory for the strong force under the constraint of the flat universe. The matter mass is generated as the consequence of dynamical spontaneous symmetry breaking (DSSB) of gauge symmetry and discrete symmetries, which is motivated by the parameter Theta representing the surface term. Matter mass generation introduces the typical features of constituent particle mass, dual Meissner effect, and hyperfine structure. The Theta term plays important roles on the DSSB of the gauge group and on the quantization of the matter and vacuum space. The Theta vacuum exhibits the intrinsic principal number and intrinsic angular momentum for intrinsic space quantization in analogy with the extrinsic principal number and extrinsic angular momentum for extrinsic space quantization.

  6. Quasiaverages, symmetry breaking and irreducible Green functions method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.Kuzemsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and applications of the method of quasiaverages to quantum statistical physics and to quantum solid state theory and, in particular, to quantum theory of magnetism, were considered. It was shown that the role of symmetry (and the breaking of symmetries in combination with the degeneracy of the system was reanalyzed and essentially clarified within the framework of the method of quasiaverages. The problem of finding the ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and superconducting "symmetry broken" solutions of the correlated lattice fermion models was discussed within the irreducible Green functions method. A unified scheme for the construction of generalized mean fields (elastic scattering corrections and self-energy (inelastic scattering in terms of the equations of motion and Dyson equation was generalized in order to include the "source fields". This approach complements previous studies of microscopic theory of antiferromagnetism and clarifies the concepts of Neel sublattices for localized and itinerant antiferromagnetism and "spin-aligning fields" of correlated lattice fermions.

  7. Symmetry breaking, subgroup embeddings and the Weyl group

    CERN Document Server

    George, Damien P; Thompson, Jayne E; Volkas, Raymond R

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic approach to writing adjoint Higgs vacuum expectation values (vevs), which break a symmetry G to differently embedded isomorphic copies of a subgroup belonging to the chain $G \\supset H_1 \\supset ... \\supset H_l $, as linear combinations of each other. Given an adjoint Higgs vacuum expectation value h breaking G \\rightarrow H, a full complement of vevs breaking G to different embeddings of the subgroup H can be generated through the Weyl group orbit of h. An explicit formula for recovering each vev is given. We focus on the case when H stabilizes the highest weight of the lowest dimensional fundamental representation, where the formula is exceedingly simple. We also discuss cases when the Higgs field is not in the adjoint representation and apply these techniques to current research problems, especially in domain-wall brane model building.

  8. The QCD chiral transition, $\\ua$ symmetry and the Dirac spectrum using domain wall fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H -T; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Mawhinney, R D; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao; Lin, Zhongjie

    2013-01-01

    We report on a study of the finite-temperature QCD transition region for temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV, with a pion mass of 200 MeV and two space-time volumes: $24^3\\times8$ and $32^3\\times8$, where the larger volume varies in linear size between 5.6 fm (at T=139 MeV) and 4.0 fm (at T=195 MeV). These results are compared with the results of an earlier calculation using the same action and quark masses but a smaller, $16^3\\times8$ volume. The chiral domain wall fermion formulation with a combined Iwasaki and dislocation suppressing determinant ratio gauge action are used. This lattice action accurately reproduces the $\\sua$ and $\\ua$ symmetries of the continuum. Results are reported for the chiral condensates, connected and disconnected susceptibilities and the Dirac eigenvalue spectrum. We find a pseudo-critical temperature, $T_c$, of approximately 165 MeV consistent with previous results and strong finite volume dependence below $T_c$. Clear evidence is seen for $\\ua$ symmetry breaking above $T_c$ whi...

  9. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE SNOWMASS 2001 WORKING GROUP : ELECTROWEAK SYMMETRY BREAKING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARENA,M.; GERDES,D.W.; HABER,H.E.; TURCOT,A.S.; ZERWAS,P.M.

    2001-06-30

    In this summary report of the 2001 Snowmass Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Working Group, the main candidates for theories of electroweak symmetry breaking are surveyed, and the criteria for distinguishing among the different approaches are discussed. The potential for observing electroweak symmetry breaking phenomena at the upgraded Tevatron and the LHC is described. We emphasize the importance of a high-luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider for precision measurements to clarify the underlying electroweak symmetry breaking dynamics. Finally, we note the possible roles of the {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} collider and VLHC for further elucidating the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking.

  10. Symmetry Breaking in an Edgeless Epithelium by Fat2-Regulated Microtubule Polarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yuan Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP information is a critical determinant of organ morphogenesis. While PCP in bounded epithelial sheets is increasingly well understood, how PCP is organized in tubular and acinar tissues is not. Drosophila egg chambers (follicles are an acinus-like “edgeless epithelium” and exhibit a continuous, circumferential PCP that does not depend on pathways active in bounded epithelia; this follicle PCP directs formation of an ellipsoid rather than a spherical egg. Here, we apply an imaging algorithm to “unroll” the entire 3D tissue surface and comprehensively analyze PCP onset. This approach traces chiral symmetry breaking to plus-end polarity of microtubules in the germarium, well before follicles form and rotate. PCP germarial microtubules provide chiral information that predicts the direction of whole-tissue rotation as soon as independent follicles form. Concordant microtubule polarity, but not microtubule alignment, requires the atypical cadherin Fat2, which acts at an early stage to translate plus-end bias into coordinated actin-mediated collective cell migration. Because microtubules are not required for PCP or migration after follicle rotation initiates, while dynamic actin and extracellular matrix are, polarized microtubules lie at the beginning of a handoff mechanism that passes early chiral PCP of the cytoskeleton to a supracellular planar polarized extracellular matrix and elongates the organ.

  11. Mirror Symmetry Breaking in Helical Polysilanes: Preference between Left and Right of Chemical and Physical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiya Fujiki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available From elemental particles to human beings, matter is dissymmetric with respect to mirror symmetry. In 1860, Pasteur conjectured that biomolecular handedness— homochirality—may originate from certain inherent dissymmetric forces existing in the universe. Kipping, a pioneer of organosilicon chemistry, was interested in the handedness of sodium chlorate during his early research life. Since Kipping first synthesized several Si-Si bonded oligomers bearing phenyl groups, Si-Si bonded high polymers carrying various organic groups—polysilanes—can be prepared by sodium-mediated condensation of the corresponding organodichlorosilanes. Among these polysilanes, optically active helical polysilanes with enantiomeric pairs of organic side groups may be used for testing the mirror symmetry-breaking hypothesis by weak neutral current (WNC origin in the realm of chemistry and material science. Several theoretical studies have predicted that WNC-existing chiral molecules with stereogenic centers and/or stereogenic bonds allow for distinguishing between image and mirror image molecules. Based on several amplification mechanisms, theorists claimed that minute differences, though still very subtle, may be detectable by precise spectroscopic and physicochemical measurements if proper chiral molecular pairs were employed. The present paper reports comprehensively an inequality between six pairs of helical polysilane high polymers, presumably, detectable by (chiroptical and achiral 29Si-/13C- NMR spectra, and viscometric measurements.

  12. SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon vector coupling $f_1(0)$ in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We report on a recent study of the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon vector coupling $f_1(0)$ up to $\\mathcal{O}(p^4)$ in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with dynamical octet and decuplet contributions. The decuplet contributions are taken into account for the first time in a covariant ChPT study and are found of similar or even larger size than the octet ones. We predict positive SU(3)-breaking corrections to all the four independent $f_1(0)$'s (assuming isospin symmetry), which are consistent, within uncertainties, with the latest results from large $N_c$ fits, chiral quark models, and quenched lattice QCD calculations. We also discuss briefly the implications of our results for the extraction of $V_{us}$ from hyperon decay data.

  13. Symmetry breaking and singularity structure in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeford, K. A.; Garcia-March, M. A.; Ferrando, A.; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2012-08-01

    We determine the trajectories of vortex singularities that arise after a single vortex is broken by a discretely symmetric impulse in the context of Bose-Einstein condensates in a harmonic trap. The dynamics of these singularities are analyzed to determine the form of the imprinted motion. We find that the symmetry-breaking process introduces two effective forces: a repulsive harmonic force that causes the daughter trajectories to be ejected from the parent singularity and a Magnus force that introduces a torque about the axis of symmetry. For the analytical noninteracting case we find that the parent singularity is reconstructed from the daughter singularities after one period of the trapping frequency. The interactions between singularities in the weakly interacting system do not allow the parent vortex to be reconstructed. Analytic trajectories were compared to the actual minima of the wave function, showing less than 0.5% error for an impulse strength of v=0.00005. We show that these solutions are valid within the impulse regime for various impulse strengths using numerical integration of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We also show that the actual duration of the symmetry-breaking potential does not significantly change the dynamics of the system as long as the strength is below v=0.0005.

  14. Quantum phase transitions with parity-symmetry breaking and hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkwalder, A.; Spagnolli, G.; Semeghini, G.; Coop, S.; Landini, M.; Castilho, P.; Pezzè, L.; Modugno, G.; Inguscio, M.; Smerzi, A.; Fattori, M.

    2016-09-01

    Symmetry-breaking quantum phase transitions play a key role in several condensed matter, cosmology and nuclear physics theoretical models. Its observation in real systems is often hampered by finite temperatures and limited control of the system parameters. In this work we report, for the first time, the experimental observation of the full quantum phase diagram across a transition where the spatial parity symmetry is broken. Our system consists of an ultracold gas with tunable attractive interactions trapped in a spatially symmetric double-well potential. At a critical value of the interaction strength, we observe a continuous quantum phase transition where the gas spontaneously localizes in one well or the other, thus breaking the underlying symmetry of the system. Furthermore, we show the robustness of the asymmetric state against controlled energy mismatch between the two wells. This is the result of hysteresis associated with an additional discontinuous quantum phase transition that we fully characterize. Our results pave the way to the study of quantum critical phenomena at finite temperature, the investigation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling of the order parameter in the hysteretic regime and the production of strongly quantum entangled states at critical points.

  15. Localization and chiral symmetry in 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Antonio; Kenneth C. Bowler; Peter A. Boyle; Norman H. Christ; Michael A. Clark; Saul D. Cohen; Chris Dawson; Alistair Hart; Balint Joó; Chulwoo Jung; Richard D. Kenway; Shu Li; Meifeng Lin; Robert D. Mawhinney; Christopher M. Maynard; Shigemi Ohta; Robert J. Tweedie; Azusa Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    We present results for the dependence of the residual mass of domain wall fermions (DWF) on the size of the fifth dimension and its relation to the density and localization properties of low-lying eigenvectors of the corresponding hermitian Wilson Dirac operator relevant to simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD. Using the DBW2 and Iwasaki gauge actions, we generate ensembles of configurations with a $16^3\\times 32$ space-time volume and an extent of 8 in the fifth dimension for the sea quarks. We demonstrate the existence of a regime where the degree of locality, the size of chiral symmetry breaking and the rate of topology change can be acceptable for inverse lattice spacings $a^{-1} \\ge 1.6$ GeV.

  16. Localization and chiral symmetry in 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Antonio, David J; Boyle, Peter A; Christ, Norman H; Clark, Michael A; Cohen, Saul D; Dawson, Chris; Hart, Alistair; Joó, Balint; Jung, Chulwoo; Kenway, Richard D; Li, Shu; Lin, Meifeng; Mawhinney, Robert D; Maynard, Christopher M; Ohta, Shigemi; Tweedie, Robert J; Yamaguchi, Azusa

    2007-01-01

    We present results for the dependence of the residual mass of domain wall fermions (DWF) on the size of the fifth dimension and its relation to the density and localization properties of low-lying eigenvectors of the corresponding hermitian Wilson Dirac operator for 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD. Using the DBW2 and Iwasaki gauge actions, we generate ensembles of configurations with a $16^3\\times 32$ space-time volume and an extent of 8 in the fifth dimension for the sea quarks. We demonstrate the existence of a regime where the degree of locality, the size of chiral symmetry breaking and the rate of topology change can be acceptable for inverse lattice spacings $a^{-1} \\ge 1.6$ GeV.

  17. Non-equilibrium evolution of a "Tsunami" Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, D; Holman, R; Kumar, S P; Pisarski, R D; Boyanovsky, Daniel; Vega, Hector J. de; Holman, Richard; Pisarski, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    We propose to study the non-equilibrium features of heavy-ion collisions by following the evolution of an initial state with a large number of quanta with a distribution around a momentum |\\vec k_0| corresponding to a thin spherical shell in momentum space, a `tsunami'. An O(N); ({\\vec \\Phi}^2)^2 model field theory in the large N limit is used as a framework to study the non-perturbative aspects of the non-equilibrium dynamics including a resummation of the effects of the medium (the initial particle distribution). In a theory where the symmetry is spontaneously broken in the absence of the medium, when the initial number of particles per correlation volume is chosen to be larger than a critical value the medium effects can restore the symmetry of the initial state. We show that if one begins with such a symmetry-restored, non-thermal, initial state, non-perturbative effects automatically induce spinodal instabilities leading to a dynamical breaking of the symmetry. As a result there is explosive particle pro...

  18. Matter inflation with A{sub 4} flavour symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, Basel, CH-4056 Switzerland (Switzerland); Nolde, David, E-mail: stefan.antusch@unibas.ch, E-mail: david.nolde@unibas.ch [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, München, D-80805 Germany (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    We discuss model building in tribrid inflation, which is a framework for realising inflation in the matter sector of supersymmetric particle physics models. The inflaton is a D-flat combination of matter fields, and inflation ends by a phase transition in which some Higgs field obtains a vacuum expectation value. We first describe the general procedure for implementing tribrid inflation in realistic models of particle physics that can be applied to a wide variety of BSM particle physics models around the GUT scale. We then demonstrate how the procedure works for an explicit lepton flavour model based on an A{sub 4} family symmetry. The model is both predictive and phenomenologically viable, and illustrates how tribrid inflation connects cosmological and particle physics parameters. In particular, it predicts a relation between the neutrino Yukawa coupling and the running of the spectral index α{sub s}. We also show how topological defects from the flavour symmetry breaking can be avoided automatically.

  19. Orbital engineering in symmetry-breaking polar heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disa, Ankit S; Kumah, Divine P; Malashevich, Andrei; Chen, Hanghui; Arena, Dario A; Specht, Eliot D; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, F J; Ahn, Charles H

    2015-01-16

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel approach to substantially modify orbital occupations and symmetries in electronically correlated oxides. In contrast to methods using strain or confinement, this orbital tuning is achieved by exploiting charge transfer and inversion symmetry breaking using atomically layered heterostructures. We illustrate the technique in the LaTiO_{3}-LaNiO_{3}-LaAlO_{3} system; a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio theory reveals electron transfer and concomitant polar fields, resulting in a ∼50% change in the occupation of Ni d orbitals. This change is sufficiently large to remove the orbital degeneracy of bulk LaNiO_{3} and creates an electronic configuration approaching a single-band Fermi surface. Furthermore, we theoretically show that such three-component heterostructuring is robust and tunable by choice of insulator in the heterostructure, providing a general method for engineering orbital configurations and designing novel electronic systems.

  20. Matter inflation with A_4 flavour symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Antusch, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We discuss model building in tribrid inflation, which is a framework for realising inflation in the matter sector of supersymmetric particle physics models. The inflaton is a D-flat combination of matter fields, and inflation ends by a phase transition in which some Higgs field obtains a vacuum expectation value. We first describe the general procedure for implementing tribrid inflation in realistic models of particle physics that can be applied to a wide variety of BSM particle physics models around the GUT scale. We then demonstrate how the procedure works for an explicit lepton flavour model based on an A_4 family symmetry. The model is both predictive and phenomenologically viable, and illustrates how tribrid inflation connects cosmological and particle physics parameters. In particular, it predicts a relation between the neutrino Yukawa coupling and the running of the spectral index alpha_s. We also show how topological defects from the flavour symmetry breaking can be avoided automatically.

  1. Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, T{sub R}>10 GeV.

  2. Quantum transport enhancement by time-reversal symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimborás, Zoltán; Faccin, Mauro; Kádár, Zoltán; Whitfield, James D; Lanyon, Ben P; Biamonte, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics still provides new unexpected effects when considering the transport of energy and information. Models of continuous time quantum walks, which implicitly use time-reversal symmetric Hamiltonians, have been intensely used to investigate the effectiveness of transport. Here we show how breaking time-reversal symmetry of the unitary dynamics in this model can enable directional control, enhancement, and suppression of quantum transport. Examples ranging from exciton transport to complex networks are presented. This opens new prospects for more efficient methods to transport energy and information.

  3. Charge symmetry breaking in mirror nuclei from quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Tsushima, K; Thomas, A W

    1999-01-01

    The binding energy differences of the valence proton and neutron of the mirror nuclei, $^{15}$O -- $^{15}$N, $^{17}$F -- $^{17}$O, $^{39}$Ca -- $^{39}$K and $^{41}$Sc -- $^{41}$Ca, are calculated using the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model. The calculation involves nuclear structure and shell effects explicitly. It is shown that binding energy differences of a few hundred keV arise from the strong interaction, even after subtracting all electromagnetic corrections. The origin of these differences may be ascribed to the charge symmetry breaking effects set in the strong interaction through the u and d current quark mass difference.

  4. Introduction to weak interaction theories with dynamical symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, K.D.; Peskin, M.E.

    1980-07-01

    A straightforward introduction to theories of the weak interactions with dynamical symmetry breaking-theories of technicolor or hypercolor is presented. The intent is to inform experimentalists, but also to goad theorists. The motivation for considering theories of this type is described. The structure that such a theory must possess, including new gauge interactions at mass scales of 1-100 TeV is then outlined. Despite their reliance on phenomena at such enormous energies, these theories contain new phenomena observable at currently accessible energies. Three such effects which are especially likely to be observed are described.

  5. Construction of a ferritin dimer by breaking its symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, B; Uenuma, M; Uraoka, Y; Yamashita, I [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2010-11-05

    Ferritin has a mono-dispersed structure and biomineralization properties that allow it to form various kinds of nanoparticles and play an important role in modern nanotechnology. Independent nanoparticles synthesized in ferritin are valuable, but moreover a pair of nanoparticles can bring new properties different from those of the independent nanoparticles. In this study, by breaking ferritin's symmetry, we successfully produced ferritin dimers which provide real protein frameworks for nanoparticle dimer formation. Identical nickel hydro-oxide nanoparticle dimers were produced by simply biomineralizing ferritin dimers. The method presented here can produce multi-functional ferritin dimers with different kinds of nanoparticles.

  6. Polarity Formation in Molecular Crystals as a Symmetry Breaking Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cannavacciuolo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition of molecular crystals into a polar state is modeled by a one-dimensional Ising Hamiltonian in multipole expansion and a suitable order parameter. Two symmetry breakings are necessary for the transition: the translational and the spin flip invariance—the former being broken by geometric constraints, the latter by the interaction of the first non-zero multipole with the next order multipole. Two different behaviors of the thermal average of the order parameter as a function of position are found. The free energy per lattice site converges to a finite value in the thermodynamic limit showing the consistency of the model in a macroscopic representation.

  7. Evanescent Wave-Assisted Symmetry Breaking of Gold Dipolar Nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Symmetry-breaking and scattering cancellation were observed in the dark-mode resonance of dipolar gold nanoantennas (NAs) on glass substrates coupled with oblique incidence and total internal reflection. With the assistance of evanescent waves, the coupling efficiency was twice as strong when the incidence angle was larger than the critical angle. The Hamiltonian equation and absorption spectra were used to analyze the hybridization model of symmetric dipolar gold NAs. The antibonding mode could be coupled successfully by both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarizations to NAs when the dimers orientation is parallel to the propagation direction of evanescent waves.

  8. Amplification of enantiomeric excess, mirror-image symmetry breaking and kinetic proofreading in Soai reaction models with different oligomeric orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheau, Jean-Claude; Coudret, Christophe; Cruz, José-Manuel; Buhse, Thomas

    2012-10-14

    A comprehensive kinetic analysis of three prototypical autocatalytic cycle models based on the absolute asymmetric Soai reaction is presented. The three models, which can give rise to amplification of enantiomeric excess and mirror-image symmetry breaking, vary by their monomeric, dimeric or trimeric order of the assumed catalytic species. Our numerical approach considered the entire chiral combinatorics of the diastereomeric interactions in the models as well as the multiplicity of coupled reversible reactions without applying fast equilibration or quasi-steady state approximations. For the simplest monomeric model, an extensive range of parameters was explored employing a random grid parameter scanning method that revealed the influence of the parameter values on the product distribution, the reaction-time, the attenuation or amplification of enantiomeric excess as well as on the presence or absence of mirror-image symmetry breaking. A symmetry breaking test was imposed on the three models showing that an increase in the catalytic oligomer size from one to three leads to a higher tolerance to poorer chiral recognition between the diastereoisomers and identifies the greater impact of the diastereoisomeric energy difference over an imperfect stereoselectivity in the catalytic step. This robustness is understood as a particular case of so-called kinetic proofreading in asymmetric autocatalysis.

  9. Charge symmetry breaking in dd→He4π0 with WASA-at-COSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Adlarson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Charge symmetry breaking (CSB observables are a suitable experimental tool to examine effects induced by quark masses on the nuclear level. Previous high precision data from TRIUMF and IUCF are currently used to develop a consistent description of CSB within the framework of chiral perturbation theory. In this work the experimental studies on the reaction dd→He4π0 have been extended towards higher excess energies in order to provide information on the contribution of p-waves in the final state. For this, an exclusive measurement has been carried out at a beam momentum of pd=1.2 GeV/c using the WASA-at-COSY facility. The total cross section amounts to σtot=(118±18stat±13sys±8ext pb and first data on the differential cross section are consistent with s-wave pion production.

  10. Charge Symmetry Breaking in dd->4He{\\pi}0 with WASA-at-COSY

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Augustyniak, W; Bardan, W; Bashkanov, M; Bergmann, F S; Berłowski, M; Bhatt, H; Bondar, A; Büscher, M; Calén, H; Ciepał, I; Clement, H; Coderre, D; Czerwiński, E; Demmich, K; Doroshkevich, E; Engels, R; Erven, A; Erven, W; Eyrich, W; Fedorets, P; Föhl, K; Fransson, K; Goldenbaum, F; Goslawski, P; Goswami, A; Grigoryev, K; Gullström, C -O; Hanhart, C; Hauenstein, F; Heijkenskjöld, L; Hejny, V; Höistad, B; Hüsken, N; Jarczyk, L; Johansson, T; Kamys, B; Kemmerling, G; Khan, F A; Khoukaz, A; Kirillov, D A; Kistryn, S; Kleines, H; Kłos, B; Krzemień, W; Kulessa, P; Kupść, A; Kuzmin, A; Lalwani, K; Lersch, D; Lorentz, B; Magiera, A; Maier, R; Marciniewski, P; Mariański, B; Mikirtychiants, M; Morsch, H -P; Moskal, P; Ohm, H; Ozerianska, I; del Rio, E Perez; Piskunov, N M; Podkopał, P; Prasuhn, D; Pricking, A; Pszczel, D; Pysz, K; Pyszniak, A; Redmer, C F; Ritman, J; Roy, A; Rudy, Z; Sawant, S; Schadmand, S; Sefzick, T; Serdyuk, V; Shwartz, B; Siudak, R; Skorodko, T; Skurzok, M; Smyrski, J; Sopov, V; Stassen, R; Stepaniak, J; Stephan, E; Sterzenbach, G; Stockhorst, H; Ströher, H; Szczurek, A; Täschner, A; Trzciński, A; Varma, R; Wolke, M; Wrońska, A; Wüstner, P; Wurm, P; Yamamoto, A; Yurev, L; Zabierowski, J; Zieliński, M J; Zink, A; Złomańczuk, J; Żuprański, P; Żurek, M

    2014-01-01

    Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) observables are a suitable experimental tool to examine effects induced by quark masses on the nuclear level. Previous high precision data from TRIUMF and IUCF are currently used to develop a consistent description of CSB within the framework of chiral perturbation theory. In this work the experimental studies on the reaction dd->4He{\\pi}0 have been extended towards higher excess energies in order to provide information on the contribution of p-waves in the final state. For this, an exclusive measurement has been carried out at a beam momentum of p=1.2 GeV/c using the WASA-at-COSY facility. The total cross section amounts to sigma(tot) = (118 +- 18(stat) +- 13(sys) +- 8(ext)) pb and first data on the differential cross section are consistent with s-wave pion production.

  11. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as a Basis of Particle Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2007-04-01

    Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions--so different in their manifestations--to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the ''standard model'' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout & Englert, and by Guralnik, Hagen, & Kibble: The agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W{sup {+-}} and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story--though an incomplete story--and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some ''Big Questions'' that will guide our explorations.

  12. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and masses numerical results in DFR noncommutative space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, M J

    2015-01-01

    With the elements of the Doplicher, Fredenhagen and Roberts (DFR) noncommutative formalism, we have constructed the standard electroweak model. To accomplish this task we have begun with the WM-product basis group of symmetry. We have introduced the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the hypercharge in DFR framework. The electroweak symmetry breaking was analyzed and the masses of the new bosons were computed.

  13. Orientational glass: Full replica symmetry breaking in generalized spin glass-like models without reflection symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tareyeva, E.E. [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142190 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Schelkacheva, T.I., E-mail: tanschelk@gmail.com [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142190 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Chtchelkatchev, N.M. [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142190 Troitsk (Russian Federation); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117940 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    We investigate near the point of glass transition the expansion of the free energy corresponding to the generalized Sherrington–Kirkpatrick model with arbitrary diagonal operators U{sup -hat} standing instead of Ising spins. We focus on the case when U{sup -hat} is an operator with broken reflection symmetry. Such a consideration is important for understanding the behavior of spin glass-like phases in a number of real physical systems, mainly in orientational glasses in mixed molecular crystals which present just the case. We build explicitly a full replica symmetry breaking (FRSB) solution of the equations for the orientational glass order parameters when the nonsymmetric part of U{sup -hat} is small. This particular result presents a counterexample in the context of usually adopted conjecture of the absence of FRSB solution in systems with no reflection symmetry.

  14. Orientational glass: Full replica symmetry breaking in generalized spin glass-like models without reflection symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareyeva, E. E.; Schelkacheva, T. I.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate near the point of glass transition the expansion of the free energy corresponding to the generalized Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model with arbitrary diagonal operators Uˆ standing instead of Ising spins. We focus on the case when Uˆ is an operator with broken reflection symmetry. Such a consideration is important for understanding the behavior of spin glass-like phases in a number of real physical systems, mainly in orientational glasses in mixed molecular crystals which present just the case. We build explicitly a full replica symmetry breaking (FRSB) solution of the equations for the orientational glass order parameters when the nonsymmetric part of Uˆ is small. This particular result presents a counterexample in the context of usually adopted conjecture of the absence of FRSB solution in systems with no reflection symmetry.

  15. Tachyonic Instability and Dynamics of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Linde, Andrei D; Felder, Gary; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking usually occurs due to the tachyonic (spinodal) instability of a scalar field near the top of its effective potential at $\\phi = 0$. Naively, one might expect the field $\\phi$ to fall from the top of the effective potential and then experience a long stage of oscillations with amplitude O(v) near the minimum of the effective potential at $\\phi = v$ until it gives its energy to particles produced during these oscillations. However, it was recently found that the tachyonic instability rapidly converts most of the potential energy V(0) into the energy of colliding classical waves of the scalar field. This conversion, which was called "tachyonic preheating," is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. In this paper we give a detailed description of tachyonic preheating and show that the dynamics of this process crucially depend on the shape of the effective ...

  16. Cosmological signature change in Cartan Gravity with dynamical symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, Joao; Westman, Hans; Zlosnik, T G

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the possibility for classical metric signature change in a straightforward generalization of the first order formulation of gravity, dubbed "Cartan gravity". The mathematical structure of this theory mimics the electroweak theory in that the basic ingredients are an $SO(1,4)$ Yang-Mills gauge field $A^{ab}_{\\phantom{ab}\\mu}$ and a symmetry breaking Higgs field $V^{a}$, with no metric or affine structure of spacetime presupposed. However, these structures can be recovered, with the predictions of General Relativity exactly reproduced, whenever the Higgs field breaking the symmetry to $SO(1,3)$ is forced to have a constant (positive) norm $V^aV_a$. This restriction is usually imposed "by hand", but in analogy with the electroweak theory we promote the gravitational Higgs field $V^a$ to a genuine dynamical field, subject to non-trivial equations of motion. Even though we limit ourselves to actions polynomial in these variables, we discover a rich phenomenology. Most notably we derive classical cos...

  17. Parity-time symmetry breaking in magnetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galda, Alexey; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2016-07-01

    The understanding of out-of-equilibrium physics, especially dynamic instabilities and dynamic phase transitions, is one of the major challenges of contemporary science, spanning the broadest wealth of research areas that range from quantum optics to living organisms. Focusing on nonequilibrium dynamics of an open dissipative spin system, we introduce a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian approach, in which non-Hermiticity reflects dissipation and deviation from equilibrium. The imaginary part of the proposed spin Hamiltonian describes the effects of Gilbert damping and applied Slonczewski spin-transfer torque. In the classical limit, our approach reproduces Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski dynamics of a large macrospin. We reveal the spin-transfer torque-driven parity-time symmetry-breaking phase transition corresponding to a transition from precessional to exponentially damped spin dynamics. Micromagnetic simulations for nanoscale ferromagnetic disks demonstrate the predicted effect. Our findings can pave the way to a general quantitative description of out-of-equilibrium phase transitions driven by spontaneous parity-time symmetry breaking.

  18. Connecting an effective model of confinement and chiral symmetry to lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, E; Fraga, Eduardo; Mocsy, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    We construct an effective model for the chiral field and the Polyakov loop in which we can investigate the interplay between the approximate chiral symmetry restoration and the deconfinement of color in a thermal SU(3) gauge theory with three flavors of massive quarks. The phenomenological couplings between these two sectors can then be related to the recent lattice data on the renormalized Polyakov loop and the chiral condensate close to the critical region.

  19. Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochel, Alexander Karl

    2009-05-11

    In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around m{sub {chi}{sup +}}{approx}100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around m{sub {chi}}{approx}90 GeV. At the LHC, the

  20. 3D toroidal physics: testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Don

    2014-10-01

    Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to lead to a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D ELM-suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. There is considerable interest in the development of unified physics models for the full range of 3D effects. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. Fortunately, significant progress is underway in theory, computation and plasma diagnostics on many issues such as magnetic surface quality, plasma screening vs. amplification of 3D perturbations, 3D transport, influence on edge pedestal structures, MHD stability effects, modification of fast ion-driven instabilities, prediction of energetic particle heat loads on plasma-facing materials, effects of 3D fields on turbulence, and magnetic coil design. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with future fusion reactors. The development of models to address 3D physics and progress in these areas will be described. This work is supported both by the US Department of Energy under Contract DE

  1. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in vortex systems with two repulsive lengthscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, P. J.; Desoky, W. M.; Milos̆ević, M. V.; Chaves, A.; Laloë, J.-B.; Moodera, J. S.; Bending, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) has been used to study vortex structures in thin epitaxial films of the superconductor MgB2. Unusual vortex patterns observed in MgB2 single crystals have previously been attributed to a competition between short-range repulsive and long-range attractive vortex-vortex interactions in this two band superconductor; the type 1.5 superconductivity scenario. Our films have much higher levels of disorder than bulk single crystals and therefore both superconducting condensates are expected to be pushed deep into the type 2 regime with purely repulsive vortex interactions. We observe broken symmetry vortex patterns at low fields in all samples after field-cooling from above Tc. These are consistent with those seen in systems with competing repulsions on disparate length scales, and remarkably similar structures are reproduced in dirty two band Ginzburg-Landau calculations, where the simulation parameters have been defined by experimental observations. This suggests that in our dirty MgB2 films, the symmetry of the vortex structures is broken by the presence of vortex repulsions with two different lengthscales, originating from the two distinct superconducting condensates. This represents an entirely new mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems of superconducting vortices, with important implications for pinning phenomena and high current density applications. PMID:26492969

  2. Medium modifications of mesons. Chiral symmetry restoration, in-medium QCD sum rules for D and ρ mesons, and Bethe-Salpeter equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilger, Thomas Uwe

    2012-04-11

    The interplay of hadron properties and their modification in an ambient nuclear medium on the one hand and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration on the other hand is investigated. QCD sum rules for D and B mesons embedded in cold nuclear matter are evaluated. We quantify the mass splitting of D- anti D and B- anti B mesons as a function of the nuclear matter density and investigate the impact of various condensates in linear density approximation. The analysis also includes D{sub s} and D{sup *}{sub 0} mesons. QCD sum rules for chiral partners in the open-charm meson sector are presented at nonzero baryon net density or temperature. We focus on the differences between pseudo-scalar and scalar as well as vector and axial-vector D mesons and derive the corresponding Weinberg type sum rules. Based on QCD sum rules we explore the consequences of a scenario for the ρ meson, where the chiral symmetry breaking condensates are set to zero whereas the chirally symmetric condensates remain at their vacuum values. The complementarity of mass shift and broadening is discussed. An alternative approach which utilizes coupled Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark bound states is investigated. For this purpose we analyze the analytic structure of the quark propagators in the complex plane numerically and test the possibility to widen the applicability of the method to the sector of heavy-light mesons in the scalar and pseudo-scalar channels, such as the D mesons, by varying the momentum partitioning parameter. The solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Wigner-Weyl phase of chiral symmetry at nonzero bare quark masses are used to investigate a scenario with explicit but without dynamical chiral symmetry breaking.

  3. Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeremy W., E-mail: jwholt.phys@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195 (United States); Rho, Mannque [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Weise, Wolfram [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); ECT*, Villa Tambosi, I-38123 Villazzano (Italy)

    2016-03-21

    Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970s for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early, germinal idea conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: “it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme”. Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.

  4. Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Jeremy W; Weise, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970's for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early germinal idea, conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era, has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: "it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme." Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.

  5. Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, D.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the presence of a phase transition early in the history of the universe, associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (believed to take place at very high temperatures at which the various fundamental interactions unify), significantly modifies its dynamics and evolution. This is due to the energy 'pumping' during the phase transition from the vacuum to the substance, rather than the gravitating effects of the vacuum. The expansion law of the universe then differs substantially from the relation considered so far for the very early time expansion. In particular it is shown that under certain conditions this expansion law is exponential. It is further argued that under reasonable assumptions for the mass of the associated Higgs boson this expansion stage could last long enough to potentially account for the observed isotropy of the universe.

  6. Wetting of crossed fibers: multiple steady states and symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Sauret, Alban; Duprat, Camille; Stone, Howard A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the wetting properties of the simplest element of an array of random fibers: two rigid fibers crossing with an inclination angle and in contact with a droplet of a perfectly wetting liquid. We show experimentally that the liquid adopts different morphologies when the inclination angle is increased: a column shape, a mixed morphology state where a drop lies at the end of a column, or a drop centered at the node. An analytical model is provided that predicts the wetting length as well as the presence of a non-symmetric state in the mixed morphology regime. The model also highlights a symmetry breaking at the transition between the column state and the mixed morphology. The possibility to tune the morphology of the liquid could have important implications for drying processes.

  7. Inertial blob-hole symmetry breaking in magnetised plasma filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kendl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Symmetry breaking between the propagation velocities of magnetised plasma filaments with large positive (blob) and negative (hole) amplitudes, as implied by a dimensional analysis scaling, is studied with global ("full-n") non-Boussinesq gyrofluid computations, which include finite inertia effects through nonlinear polarisation. Interchange blobs on a flat density background have higher inertia and propagate more slowly than holes. In the presence of a large enough density gradient, the effect is reversed: blobs accelerate down the gradient and holes are slowed in their propagation up the gradient. Drift wave blobs spread their initial vorticity rapidly into a fully developed turbulent state, whereas primary holes can remain coherent for many eddy turnover times. The results bear implications for plasma edge zonal flow evolution and tokamak scrape-off-layer transport.

  8. Structural topography-mediated high temperature wetting symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yahua; Hao, Chonglei; Li, Minfei; Chaudhury, Manoj K; Yao, Shuhuai

    2015-01-01

    Directed motion of liquid droplets is of considerable importance in various industrial processes. Despite extensive advances in this field of research, our understanding and the ability to control droplet dynamics at high temperature remain limited, in part due to the emergence of complex wetting states intertwined by the phase change process at the triple-phase interfaces. Here we show that two concurrent wetting states (Leidenfrost and contact boiling) can be manifested in a single droplet above its boiling point rectified by the presence of asymmetric textures. The breaking of the wetting symmetry at high temperature subsequently leads to the preferential motion towards the region with higher heat transfer coefficient. We demonstrate experimentally and analytically that the droplet vectoring is intricately dependent on the interplay between the structural topography and its imposed thermal state. Our fundamental understanding and the ability to control the droplet dynamics at high temperature represent an ...

  9. Further Study of BRST-Symmetry Breaking on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Cucchieri, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the so-called Bose-ghost propagator Q(p^2) for SU(2) gauge theory in minimal Landau gauge, considering lattice volumes up to 120^4 and physical lattice extents up to 13.5 f. In particular, we investigate discretization effects, as well as the infinite-volume and continuum limits. We recall that a nonzero value for this quantity provides direct evidence of BRST-symmetry breaking, related to the restriction of the functional measure to the first Gribov region. Our results show that the prediction (from cluster decomposition) for Q(p^2) in terms of gluon and ghost propagators is better satisfied as the continuum limit is approached.

  10. Curvature-induced symmetry breaking determines elastic surface patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Norbert; Lagrange, Romain; Terwagne, Denis; Reis, Pedro M.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2015-03-01

    Symmetry-breaking transitions associated with the buckling and folding of curved multilayered surfaces—which are common to a wide range of systems and processes such as embryogenesis, tissue differentiation and structure formation in heterogeneous thin films or on planetary surfaces—have been characterized experimentally. Yet owing to the nonlinearity of the underlying stretching and bending forces, the transitions cannot be reliably predicted by current theoretical models. Here, we report a generalized Swift-Hohenberg theory that describes wrinkling morphology and pattern selection in curved elastic bilayer materials. By testing the theory against experiments on spherically shaped surfaces, we find quantitative agreement with analytical predictions for the critical curves separating labyrinth, hybrid and hexagonal phases. Furthermore, a comparison to earlier experiments suggests that the theory is universally applicable to macroscopic and microscopic systems. Our approach builds on general differential-geometry principles and can thus be extended to arbitrarily shaped surfaces.

  11. Interacting line-node semimetal and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bitan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of short-range electronic interactions in a three dimensional line-node semimetal that supports linearly dispersing quasiparticles around an isolated closed loop in the Brillouin zone are discussed. Due to vanishing density of states various orderings in the bulk of the system, such as the antiferromagnet and charge-density-wave, set in for sufficiently strong onsite ($U$) and nearest-neighbor ($V$) repulsions, respectively. While onset of these two orderings from the semimetallic phase takes place through continuous quantum phase transitions, a first order transition separates two ordered phases. By contrast, topologically protected drumhead shaped surface states can undergo charge or spin orderings, depending on relative strength of $U$ and $V$, even when they are sufficiently weak. Such surface orderings as well as weak long range Coulomb interaction can be conducive to spontaneous symmetry breaking in the bulk for weaker interactions. We also discuss possible superconducting phases and interna...

  12. Electroweak symmetry breaking and bottom-top Yukawa unification

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, M S; Olechowski, M; Wagner, C E M

    1994-01-01

    The condition of unification of gauge couplings in the minimal supersymmetric standard model provides successful predictions for the weak mixing angle as a function of the strong gauge coupling and the supersymmetric threshold scale. In addition, in some scenarios, e.g.\\ in the minimal SO(10) model, the tau lepton and the bottom and top quark Yukawa couplings unify at the grand unification scale. The condition of Yukawa unification leads naturally to large values of $\\tan\\beta$, implying a proper top quark--bottom quark mass hierarchy. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of unification of the Yukawa couplings, in the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with (assumed) universal mass parameters at the unification scale and with radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry. We show that strong correlations between the parameters $\\mu_0$ and $M_{1/2}$ appear within this scheme. These correlations have relevant implications for the sparticle spectrum, which presents several characteri...

  13. Curvature-induced symmetry breaking determines elastic surface patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Norbert; Lagrange, Romain; Terwagne, Denis; Reis, Pedro M; Dunkel, Jörn

    2015-03-01

    Symmetry-breaking transitions associated with the buckling and folding of curved multilayered surfaces-which are common to a wide range of systems and processes such as embryogenesis, tissue differentiation and structure formation in heterogeneous thin films or on planetary surfaces-have been characterized experimentally. Yet owing to the nonlinearity of the underlying stretching and bending forces, the transitions cannot be reliably predicted by current theoretical models. Here, we report a generalized Swift-Hohenberg theory that describes wrinkling morphology and pattern selection in curved elastic bilayer materials. By testing the theory against experiments on spherically shaped surfaces, we find quantitative agreement with analytical predictions for the critical curves separating labyrinth, hybrid and hexagonal phases. Furthermore, a comparison to earlier experiments suggests that the theory is universally applicable to macroscopic and microscopic systems. Our approach builds on general differential-geometry principles and can thus be extended to arbitrarily shaped surfaces.

  14. Flavour symmetry breaking in the kaon parton distribution amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Shi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We compute the kaon's valence-quark (twist-two parton distribution amplitude (PDA by projecting its Poincaré-covariant Bethe–Salpeter wave-function onto the light-front. At a scale ζ=2 GeV, the PDA is a broad, concave and asymmetric function, whose peak is shifted 12–16% away from its position in QCD's conformal limit. These features are a clear expression of SU(3-flavour-symmetry breaking. They show that the heavier quark in the kaon carries more of the bound-state's momentum than the lighter quark and also that emergent phenomena in QCD modulate the magnitude of flavour-symmetry breaking: it is markedly smaller than one might expect based on the difference between light-quark current masses. Our results add to a body of evidence which indicates that at any energy scale accessible with existing or foreseeable facilities, a reliable guide to the interpretation of experiment requires the use of such nonperturbatively broadened PDAs in leading-order, leading-twist formulae for hard exclusive processes instead of the asymptotic PDA associated with QCD's conformal limit. We illustrate this via the ratio of kaon and pion electromagnetic form factors: using our nonperturbative PDAs in the appropriate formulae, FK/Fπ=1.23 at spacelike-Q2=17 GeV2, which compares satisfactorily with the value of 0.92(5 inferred in e+e− annihilation at s=17 GeV2.

  15. Symmetry breaking and convergent extension in early chordate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Yoram

    2006-10-01

    The initiation of axis, polarity, cell differentiation, and gastrulation in the very early chordate development is due to the breaking of radial symmetry. It is believed that this occurs by an external signal. We suggest instead spontaneous symmetry breaking through the agency of the Turing-Child field. Increased size or decreased diffusivity, both brought about by mitotic activity, cause the spontaneous loss of stability of the homogeneous state and the evolution of the metabolic pattern during development. The polar metabolic pattern is the cause of polar gene expression, polar morphogenesis (gastrulation), and polar mitotic activity. The Turing-Child theory explains not only the spontaneous formation of the invagination in gastrulation but also the coherent cell movement observed in convergence and extension during gastrulation and neurulation. The theory is demonstrated with respect to experimental observations on the early development of fish, amphibian, and the chick. The theory can explain a multitude of experimental details. For example, it explains the splayed polar progression of reduction in the fish blastoderm. Reduction starts on that side of the blastoderm margin, which will initiate invagination several hours later. It progresses toward the blastoderm center and somewhat laterally from this future "dorsal lip". This is precisely as predicted by a Turing-Child system in a circle. And for a fish like zebrafish with a blastoderm that is slightly oval, reduction is observed to progress along the long axis of the ellipse, which is what Turing-Child theory predicts. In general the shape and the chemical nature of the experimental patterns are the same as predicted by the Turing couple (cAMP, ATP). Embryological polarity and convergent extension are based on polar eigenfunction and saddle-shaped eigenfunction, respectively.

  16. Emergent spontaneous symmetry breaking and emergent symmetry restoration in rippling gravitational background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkov, Maxim A. [Universidade Federal do ABC, CMCC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    We study effects of a rippling gravitational background on a scalar field with a double well potential, focusing on the analogy with the well known dynamics of the Kapitza's pendulum. The ripples are rendered as infinitesimal but rapidly oscillating perturbations of the scale factor. We find that the resulting dynamics crucially depends on a value of the parameter ξ in the ξRφ{sup 2} vertex. For the time-dependent perturbations of a proper form the resulting effective action is generally covariant, and at a high enough frequency at ξ < 0 and at ξ > 1/6 the effective potential has a single minimum at zero, thereby restoring spontaneously broken symmetry of the ground state. On the other side, at 0 < ξ < 1/6 spontaneous symmetry breaking emerges even when it is absent in the unperturbed case. (orig.)

  17. Signatures of time reversal symmetry breaking in multiband superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Saurabh

    Multiband superconductors serve as natural host to several possible gound states that compete with each other. At the boundaries of such competing phases, the system usually compromises and settles for `mixed' phases that can show intriguing properties like co-existence of magnetism and superconductiivty or even co-existence of different superconducting phases. The latter is particularly interesting as it can lead to non-magnetic ground states that spontaneously break Time-Reversal symmetry. While the experimental verification of such states has proved to been challenging, the theoretical investigations have provided exciting new insights into the nature of the ground state and its excitations all of which have experimental consequences of some sort. These include extrinsic properties like spontaneous currents around impurity sites, and intrinsic properties in the form of collective excitations. These collective modes bear a unique signature and should provide clear evidence for time reversal symmetry broken state. While the results are general, in light of recent Raman scattering experiments, its direct relevance to extremely hole doped Ba(1-x)K(FeAs)2 will be presented where a strong competition of s-wave and d-wave ground state is expected.

  18. Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Planar QED in External Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We investigate planar quantum electrodynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. We argue that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak-coupling region. We extrapolate our lattice results to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  19. Magnetic Catalysis of Chiral Symmetry Breaking: A Holographic Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin Filev

    2010-01-01

    Zeeman splitting of the energy levels, and the existence of pseudo, Goldstone modes. An analytic derivation of the Gell-Mann-Oaks-Renner relation for the D3/D7 set up is reviewed. In the D3/D5 case, the pseudo-Goldstone modes satisfy nonrelativistic dispersion relation. The studies reviewed confirm the universal nature of the magnetic catalysis of mass generation.

  20. Gauge fields emerging from time-reversal symmetry breaking for spin-5/2 fermions in a honeycomb lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szirmai, G.; Szirmai, E. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zamora, A. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Lewenstein, M. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    We propose an experimentally feasible setup with ultracold alkaline-earth-metal atoms to simulate the dynamics of U(1) lattice gauge theories in 2 + 1 dimensions with a Chern-Simons term. To this end we consider the ground-state properties of spin-5/2 alkaline-earth-metal fermions in a honeycomb lattice. We use the Gutzwiller projected variational approach in the strongly repulsive regime in the case of filling 1/6. The ground state of the system is a chiral spin-liquid state with 2{pi}/3 flux per plaquette, which violates time-reversal invariance. We demonstrate that due to the breaking of time-reversal symmetry the system exhibits quantum Hall effect and chiral edge states. We relate the experimentally accessible spin fluctuations to the emerging gauge-field dynamics. We discuss also properties of the lowest energy competing orders.

  1. Generalized holographic electroweak symmetry breaking models and the possibility of negative S^

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Within an AdS/CFT inspired model of electroweak symmetry breaking, the effects of various boundary terms and modifications to the background are studied. The effect on the S^ precision parameter is discussed, with particular attention to its sign and whether the theory is unitary when S^<0. Connections between the various possible AdS slice models of symmetry breaking are discussed.

  2. Generalised Holographic Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Models and the Possibility of Negative S

    CERN Document Server

    Round, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Within an AdS/CFT inspired model of electroweak symmetry breaking the effects of various boundary terms and modifications to the background are studied. The effect on the S precision parameter is discussed with particular attention to its sign and whether the theory is unitary when S. Connections between the various possible AdS slice models of symmetry breaking are discussed.

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and masses numerical results in Doplicher-Fredenhagen-Roberts noncommutative space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, M. J.; Abreu, Everton M. C.

    2016-04-01

    With the elements of the Doplicher-Fredenhagen-Roberts (DFR) noncommutative formalism, we have constructed a standard electroweak model. We have introduced the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the hypercharge in DFR framework. The electroweak symmetry breaking was analyzed and the masses of the new bosons were computed.

  4. Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Li

    Full Text Available The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.

  5. Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Huan, Di; Roehner, Bertrand; Xu, Yijuan; Zeng, Ling; Di, Zengru; Han, Zhangang

    2014-01-01

    The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.

  6. Dicke superradiance, Bose-Einstein condensation of photons and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Vyas, Vivek M; Srinivasan, V

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the phenomenon of Dicke superradiance essentially occurs due to spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two generalised versions of the Dicke model are studied, and compared with a model that describes photonic Bose-Einstein condensate, which was experimentally realised. In all the models, it is seen that, the occurrence of spontaneous symmetry breaking is responsible for coherent radiation emission.

  7. Radiative symmetry breaking from interacting UV fixed points arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Steven

    It is shown that the addition of positive mass-squared terms to asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories with perturbative UV fixed points leads to calculable radiative symmetry breaking in the IR. This phenomenon, and the multiplicative running of the operators that lies behind it, is akin to the radiative symmetry breaking that occurs in the Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  8. Spin-rotation symmetry breaking in the superconducting state of CuxBi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, K.; Kriener, M.; Segawa, K.; Ando, Y.; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important concept for understanding physics ranging from the elementary particles to states of matter. For example, the superconducting state breaks global gauge symmetry, and unconventional superconductors can break further symmetries. In particular, spin-rotational symmetry is expected to be broken in spin-triplet superconductors. However, experimental evidence for such symmetry breaking has not been conclusively obtained so far in any candidate compounds. Here, using 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, we show that spin-rotation symmetry is spontaneously broken in the hexagonal plane of the electron-doped topological insulator Cu0.3Bi2Se3 below the superconducting transition temperature Tc = 3.4 K. Our results not only establish spin-triplet superconductivity in this compound, but may also serve to lay a foundation for the research of topological superconductivity.

  9. Extended ensemble theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming-wen

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, as a personal review, we suppose a possible extension of Gibbs ensemble theory so that it can provide a reasonable description of phase transitions and spontaneous symmetry breaking. The extension is founded on three hypotheses, and can be regarded as a microscopic edition of the Landau phenomenological theory of phase transitions. Within its framework, the stable state of a system is determined by the evolution of order parameter with temperature according to such a principle that the entropy of the system will reach its minimum in this state. The evolution of order parameter can cause a change in representation of the system Hamiltonian; different phases will realize different representations, respectively; a phase transition amounts to a representation transformation. Physically, it turns out that phase transitions originate from the automatic interference among matter waves as the temperature is cooled down. Typical quantum many-body systems are studied with this extended ensemble theory. We regain the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer solution for the weak-coupling superconductivity, and prove that it is stable. We find that negative-temperature and laser phases arise from the same mechanism as phase transitions, and that they are unstable. For the ideal Bose gas, we demonstrate that it will produce Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) in the thermodynamic limit, which confirms exactly Einstein's deep physical insight. In contrast, there is no BEC either within the phonon gas in a black body or within the ideal photon gas in a solid body. We prove that it is not admissible to quantize the Dirac field by using Bose Einstein statistics. We show that a structural phase transition belongs physically to the BEC happening in configuration space, and that a double-well anharmonic system will undergo a structural phase transition at a finite temperature. For the O(N)-symmetric vector model, we demonstrate that it will yield spontaneous symmetry breaking and produce

  10. Hidden Galilean symmetry, conservation laws and emergence of spin current in the soliton sector of chiral helimagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostrem, I.G. [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation); Kishine, J. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Lavrov, R.V. [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, A.S. [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: alexander.ovchinnikov@usu.ru

    2009-01-26

    An appearance of the transport spin current in chiral helimagnet is mathematically justified based on the symmetry arguments. Although the starting Lagrangian of the chiral magnet with the Berry phase term and the parity-violating Dzyaloshinskii-Morya coupling is not manifestly Galilean invariant, the Lie point group symmetry analysis and the variational symmetry analysis elucidate the hidden Galilean symmetry and the existence of the linear momentum as a conserved Noether current, respectively.

  11. Translational symmetry breaking in field theories and the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick; Morris, Tim R.; Scott, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We argue, at a very basic effective field theory level, that higher dimension operators in scalar theories that break symmetries at scales close to their ultraviolet completion cutoff include terms that favor the breaking of translation (Lorentz) invariance, potentially resulting in striped, checkerboard or general crystal-like phases. Such descriptions can be thought of as the effective low energy description of QCD-like gauge theories near their strong coupling scale where terms involving higher dimension operators are generated. Our low energy theory consists of scalar fields describing operators such as q ¯q and q ¯F(2 n )q . Such scalars can have kinetic mixing terms that generate effective momentum dependent contributions to the mass matrix. We show that these can destabilize the translationally invariant vacuum. It is possible that in some real gauge theory such operators could become sufficiently dominant to realize such phases, and it would be interesting to look for them in lattice simulations. We present a holographic model of the same phenomena which includes renormalization group running. A key phenomenological motive to look at such states is recent work that shows that the nonlinear response in R2 gravity to such short-range fluctuations can mimic a cosmological constant. Intriguingly in a cosmology with such a Starobinsky inflation term, to generate the observed value of the present day acceleration would require stripes at the electroweak scale. Unfortunately, low energy phenomenological constraints on Lorentz violation in the electron-photon system appear to strongly rule out any such possibility outside of a disconnected dark sector.

  12. Wavelength selection and symmetry breaking in orbital wave ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Perron, J. Taylor; Kao, Justin C. T.; Myrow, Paul M.

    2014-10-01

    Sand ripples formed by waves have a uniform wavelength while at equilibrium and develop defects while adjusting to changes in the flow. These patterns arise from the interaction of the flow with the bed topography, but the specific mechanisms have not been fully explained. We use numerical flow models and laboratory wave tank experiments to explore the origins of these patterns. The wavelength of "orbital" wave ripples (λ) is directly proportional to the oscillating flow's orbital diameter (d), with many experimental and field studies finding λ/d ≈ 0.65. We demonstrate a coupling that selects this ratio: the maximum length of the flow separation zone downstream of a ripple crest equals λ when λ/d ≈ 0.65. We show that this condition maximizes the growth rate of ripples. Ripples adjusting to changed flow conditions develop defects that break the bed's symmetry. When d is shortened sufficiently, two new incipient crests appear in every trough, but only one grows into a full-sized crest. Experiments have shown that the same side (right or left) wins in every trough. We find that this occurs because incipient secondary crests slow the flow and encourage the growth of crests on the next flank. Experiments have also shown that when d is lengthened, ripple crests become increasingly sinuous and eventually break up. We find that this occurs because crests migrate preferentially toward the nearest adjacent crest, amplifying any initial sinuosity. Our results reveal the mechanisms that form common wave ripple patterns and highlight interactions among unsteady flows, sediment transport, and bed topography.

  13. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking of Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Its Restoration at Finite Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu

    2008-01-01

    In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry for the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model is investigated. The gauge symmetry behavior at finite temperature is also investigated and it is shown that the gauge symmetry broken dynamically at zero temperature can be restored at finite temperatures.

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a split potential box

    CERN Document Server

    Shamriz, Elad; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    We report results of the analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in the basic (actually, simplest) model which is capable to produce the SSB phenomenology in the one-dimensional setting. It is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii - nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the cubic self-attractive term and a double-well-potential built as an infinitely deep potential box split by a narrow (delta-functional) barrier. The barrier's strength, epsilon, is the single free parameter of the scaled form of the model. It may be implemented in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics. The SSB bifurcation of the symmetric ground state (GS) is predicted analytically in two limit cases, viz., for deep or weak splitting of the potential box by the barrier. For the generic case, a variational approximation (VA) is elaborated. The analytical findings are presented along with systematic numerical results. Stability of stationary states is studied through the calculation of eigenvalues for small perturbations, an...

  15. Perversions driven spontaneous symmetry breaking in heterogeneous elastic ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuangping; Yao, Zhenwei; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Perversion structures in an otherwise uniform helical structure are associated with several important concepts in fundamental physics and materials science, including the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the elastic buckling. They also have strong connections with biological motifs (e.g., bacteria shapes and plant tendrils) and have potential applications in micro-muscles and soft robotics. In this work, using a three-dimensional elastomeric bi-stripe model, we investigate the properties of perversions that are independent of the specific ribbon shapes. Several intrinsic features of perversions are revealed, including the spontaneous condensation of energy as well as the distinct energy transfer modes within the perversion region. These properties of perversions associated with the storage of elastic energies can be exploited in the design of actuator devices. We thank the financial support from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  16. Charge symmetry breaking in the A=4 hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gazda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the $\\Lambda$-nucleon strong interaction generates a charge dependence of $\\Lambda$ separation energies in mirror hypernuclei, which in the case of the $A=4$ mirror hypernuclei $0^+$ ground states is sizable, $\\Delta B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}\\equiv B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda} (_{\\Lambda}^4{\\rm He})-B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4{\\rm H})=230\\pm 90$~keV, and of opposite sign to that induced by the Coulomb repulsion in light hypernuclei. Recent {\\it ab initio} calculations of the (\\lamb{4}{H}, \\lamb{4}{He}) mirror hypernuclei $0^+_{\\rm g.s.}$ and $1^+_{\\rm exc}$ levels have demonstrated that a $\\Lambda - \\Sigma^0$ mixing CSB model due to Dalitz and von Hippel (1964) is capable of reproducing this large value of $\\Delta B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}$. These calculations are discussed here with emphasis placed on the leading-order $\\chi$EFT hyperon-nucleon strong-interaction Bonn-J\\"{u}lich model used and the no-core shell-model calculational scheme applied. The role of one-pion exchange in producing sizable C...

  17. Spontaneous Electro-Weak Symmetry Breaking and Cold Dark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shou-Hua

    2007-01-01

    In the standard model, the weak gauge bosons and fermions obtain mass after spontaneous electro-weak symmetry breaking, which is realized by one fundamental scalar field, namely the Higgs field. We study the simplest scalar cold dark matter model in which the scalar cold dark matter also obtains mass by interaction with the weakdoublet Higgs field, in the same way as those of weak gauge bosons and fermions. Our study shows that the correct cold dark matter relic abundance within 3σ uncertainty (0.093 <Ωdmh2 < 0.129) and experimentally allowed Higgs boson mass (114.4 ≤ mh ≤ 208 GeV) constrain the scalar dark matter mass within 48 ≤ ms ≤ 78 GeV.This result is in excellent agreement with the result of de Boer et al. (50 ~ 100 GeV). Such a kind of dark matter annihilation can account for the observed gamma rays excess (10σ) at EGRET for energies above 1 GeV in comparison with the expectations from conventional Galactic models. We also investigate other phenomenological consequences of this model. For example, the Higgs boson decays dominantly into scalar cold dark matter if its mass lies within 48 ~ 64 GeV.

  18. Parafermionic phases with symmetry breaking and topological order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandradinata, A.; Regnault, N.; Fang, Chen; Gilbert, Matthew J.; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2016-09-01

    Parafermions are the simplest generalizations of Majorana fermions that realize topological order. We propose a less restrictive notion of topological order in one-dimensional open chains, which generalizes the seminal work by Fendley [J. Stat. Mech. (2012) P11020, 10.1088/1742-5468/2012/11/P11020]. The first essential property is that the ground states are mutually indistinguishable by local, symmetric probes, and the second is a generalized notion of zero edge modes which cyclically permute the ground states. These two properties are shown to be topologically robust, and applicable to a wider family of topologically ordered Hamiltonians than has been previously considered. As an application of these edge modes, we formulate a notion of twisted boundary conditions on a closed chain, which guarantees that the closed-chain ground state is topological, i.e., it originates from the topological manifold of the open chain. Finally, we generalize these ideas to describe symmetry-breaking phases with a parafermionic order parameter. These exotic phases are condensates of parafermion multiplets, which generalize Cooper pairing in superconductors. The stability of these condensates is investigated on both open and closed chains.

  19. Molecular chirality at surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Organic Chemistry Institute, University Zurich, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    With the adsorption of larger molecules being increasingly tackled by surface scientists, the aspect of chirality often plays a role. This paper gives a topical review of molecular chirality at surfaces and gives a phenomenological overview of different aspects of adsorption and self-assembly of chiral and prochiral molecules and the principles of mirror-symmetry breaking at a surface. After a brief introduction into the history of molecular chirality and the important role it played for understanding the spatial structure of molecules, definitions of chirality are presented. Topics treated here are principle ways to create single chiral adsorbates, chiral ensembles, and monolayers by achiral molecules, adsorption of intrinsically chiral molecules at achiral and chiral surfaces, long-range symmetry breaking in two-dimensional (2D) crystals due to additional chiral bias, chiral restructuring of solid surfaces under the influence of chiral molecules, switching the handedness of adsorbates, and chirality at the liquid/air interface. An outlook onto further potential research directions and recommendations for further reading, including nonsurface-related sources of chiral topics completes this paper. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Subtraction of power counting breaking terms in chiral perturbation theory: spinless matter fields

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Meng-Lin; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2016-01-01

    When matter fields are included in chiral perturbation theory, the nonvanishing mass in the chiral limit introduces a new energy scale so that the loop diagrams including such matter field propagators spoil the usual power counting. However, the power counting breaking terms can be absorbed into counterterms in the chiral Lagrangian. In this paper, we systematically derive these terms to leading one-loop order (next-to-next-to leading order in the chiral expansion) at once by calculating the generating functional using the path integral. They are then absorbed by counterterms in the next-to-leading order Lagrangian. The method can be extended to calculating power counting breaking terms for other matter fields.

  1. Radiative Effects and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in a Supersymmetric Preon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongbae

    We construct the low energy effective theory of composite quarks, leptons, and Higgs bosons for a supersymmetric preon model and study the effects of renormalization-group based radiative corrections. The study on the evolution of scalar masses for avoiding color and charge breakings leads us to conclude that Yukawa couplings are bounded from above. The implementation of electroweak symmetry breaking requires that only the purely dynamical symmetry breaking should be needed for the model, but the combined scheme of dynamical and radiative symmetry breaking as well as the purely radiative symmetry breaking scheme be disfavored. Our analysis of (mb)/(m_τ ) including radiative effects shows that, should a discrepancy be found between the observed and the theoretical value of (mb)/(m_τ ) after experimental determination of supersymmetric particle masses, it would imply that the complete quark-lepton universality in the supersymmetric preon model does not hold either for the Yukawa couplings, or for the condensates, or for both.

  2. Chiral magnetic conductivity in an interacting lattice model of parity-breaking Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buividovich, P. V.; Puhr, M.; Valgushev, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the mean-field study of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in static magnetic fields within a simple model of parity-breaking Weyl semimetal given by the lattice Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian with constant chiral chemical potential. We consider both the mean-field renormalization of the model parameters and nontrivial corrections to the CME originating from resummed ladder diagrams with arbitrary number of loops. We find that onsite repulsive interactions affect the chiral magnetic conductivity almost exclusively through the enhancement of the renormalized chiral chemical potential. Our results suggest that nontrivial corrections to the chiral magnetic conductivity due to interfermion interactions are not relevant in practice since they only become important when the CME response is strongly suppressed by the large gap in the energy spectrum.

  3. Symmetries and their breakings at microscopic and cosmic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ran

    We organize several research projects in the author's Ph.D. career which are distinct in nature into this thesis, in the view of symmetry fulfillments and breakings. Some broken gauge symmetry may give a massive neutral gauge boson Z', and this Z' may be the mediator between the SM and the dark matter sector, forming the dark portal. We consider the scenario of a leptophobic light Z' vector boson as the mediator, and study the prospect of searching for it at the 8 TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC). To improve the reach in the low mass region, we perform a detailed study of the processes that the Z' is produced in association with jet, photon, W+/- and Z 0. We show that in the region where the mass of Z' is between 80 and 400 GeV, the constraint from associated production can be comparable or even stronger than the known monojet and dijet constraints. We study an extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with a gauge group SU(2)1 ⊗ SU(2) 2 breaking to SU(2)L. The extra wino has an enhanced gauge coupling to the SM-like Higgs boson and, if light, has a relevant impact on the weak scale phenomenology. Compared with the MSSM case, the low energy Higgs quartic coupling is modified both by extra D-term corrections and by a modification of its renormalization group evolution from high energies. At low values of tan beta, the latter effect may be dominant. This leads to interesting regions of parameter space in which the model can accommodate a 125 GeV Higgs with relatively light third generation squarks and an increased h → gammagamma decay branching ratio, while still satisfying the constraints from electroweak precision data and Higgs vacuum stability. We also study some toy model towards electroweak baryogenesis, which in the wino-higgsino case can be fulfilled as the above gauge extension of the MSSM model. The fermionic component have a mixing through vector like mass terms, through which the Higgs diphoton decay branching ratio can be tuned, and

  4. Symmetry breaking and a dynamical property of a dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan-Sheng, E-mail: joiningnow@126.com; Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Zhu-Wen; Diao, Xin-Feng

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We investigate the symmetry breaking of a dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate. •The anisotropy of dipolar interaction affects the ground state structure. •Tuning the scattering length can realize the symmetry breaking phenomena. •Increasing the barrier height can realize the symmetry breaking phenomena.

  5. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a split potential box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamriz, Elad; Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A.

    2016-08-01

    We report results of an analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in a basic (actually, simplest) model that is capable of producing the SSB phenomenology in a one-dimensional setting. It is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii-nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the cubic self-attractive term and a double-well potential built as an infinitely deep potential box split by a narrow (δ functional) barrier. The barrier's strength ɛ is the single free parameter of the scaled form of the model. It may be implemented in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics. The SSB bifurcation of the symmetric ground state (g.s.) is predicted analytically in two limit cases, viz., for deep or weak splitting of the potential box by the barrier (ɛ ≫1 or ɛ ≪1 , respectively). For the generic case, a variational approximation (VA) is elaborated. The analytical findings are presented along with systematic numerical results. The stability of stationary states is studied through the calculation of eigenvalues for small perturbations and by means of direct simulations. The g.s. always undergoes the SSB bifurcation of the supercritical type, as predicted by the VA at moderate values of ɛ , although the VA fails at small ɛ , due to inapplicability of the underlying ansatz in that case. However, the latter case is correctly treated by the approximation based on a soliton ansatz. On top of the g.s., the first and second excited states are studied too. The antisymmetric mode (the first excited state) is destabilized at a critical value of its norm. The second excited state undergoes SSB bifurcation, like the g.s., but, unlike it, the bifurcation produces an unstable asymmetric mode. All unstable modes tend to spontaneously reshape into the asymmetric g.s.

  6. A theoretical study of symmetry-breaking organic overlayers on single- and bi-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cifuentes, Josue; Einstein, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    An ``overlayer'' of molecules that breaks the AB symmetry of graphene can produce (modify) a band gap in single- (bi-) layer graphene.[2] Since the triangular shaped trimesic acid (TMA) molecule forms two familiar symmetry breaking configurations, we are motivated to model TMA physisorption on graphene surfaces in conjunction with experiments by Groce et al. at UMD. Using VASP, with ab initio van der Waals density functionals (vdW-DF), we simulate adsorption of TMA onto a graphene surface in several symmetry-breaking arrangements in order to predict/understand the effect of TMA adsorption on experimental observables. Supported by NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR 05-20471.

  7. A Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan

    2005-01-01

    A generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part Vμ, also a scalar part S, is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  8. Mirror symmetry breaking with limited enantioselective autocatalysis and temperature gradients: a stability survey

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, Celia; Crusats, Joaquim; El-Hachemi, Zoubir; Moyano, Albert; Hochberg, David; 10.1039/C2CP43488A

    2012-01-01

    We analyze limited enantioselective (LES) autocatalysis in a temperature gradient and with internal flow/recycling of hot and cold material. Microreversibility forbids broken mirror symmetry for LES in the presence of a temperature gradient alone. This symmetry can be broken however when the auto-catalysis and limited enantioselective catalysis are each localized within the regions of low and high temperature, respectively. This scheme has been recently proposed as a plausible model for spontaneous emergence of chirality in abyssal hydrothermal vents. Regions in chemical parameter space are mapped out in which the racemic state is unstable and bifurcates to chiral solutions.

  9. Spiral Galaxies as Chiral Objects?

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Capozziello, Salvatore; Lattanzi, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Spiral galaxies show axial symmetry and an intrinsic 2D-chirality. Environmental effects can influence the chirality of originally isolated stellar systems and a progressive loss of chirality can be recognised in the Hubble sequence. We point out a preferential modality for genetic galaxies as in microscopic systems like aminoacids, sugars or neutrinos. This feature could be the remnant of a primordial symmetry breaking characterizing systems at all scales.

  10. Current-current interactions, dynamical symmetry-breaking, and quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuenschwander, D.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics with massive gluons (gluon mass triple bond xm/sub p/) in a contact-interaction limit called CQCD (strong coupling g..-->..infinity; x..-->..infinity), despite its non-renormalizability and lack of hope of confinement, is nevertheless interesting for at least two reasons. Some authors have suggested a relation between 4-Fermi and Yang-Mills theories. If g/x/sup 2/ much less than 1, then CQCD is not merely a 4-Fermi interaction, but includes 4,6,8 etc-Fermi non-Abelian contact interactions. With possibility of infrared slavery, perturbative evaluation of QCD in the infrared is a dubious practice. However, if g/sup 2//x/sup 2/ much less than 1 in CQCD, then the simplest 4-Fermi interaction is dominant, and CQCD admits perturbative treatment, but only in the infrared. With the dominant interaction, a dynamical Nambu-Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry-breaking (XSB) is found. Although in QCD the relation between confinement and XSB is controversial, XSB occurs in CQCD provided confinement is sacrificed.

  11. On the stability of multi-scale models of dynamical symmetry breaking from holography

    CERN Document Server

    Faedo, Anton F; Schofield, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We consider two classes of backgrounds of Type IIB supergravity obtained by wrapping D5-branes on a two-cycle inside the conifold. The field theory dual exhibits confinement and, in addition, a region in which the dynamics is walking, at least in the weak sense that the running of the coupling is anomalously slow. We introduce quenched matter in the fundamental, modelled by probe D7-branes which wrap an internal three-dimensional manifold and lie at the equator of the transverse two-sphere. In the space spanned by the remaining internal angle and the radial coordinate the branes admit two embeddings. The first one is U-shaped: the branes merge at some finite value of the radius. The second one is disconnected and extends along the entire radial direction at fixed angular separation. We interpret these two configurations as corresponding to chiral-symmetry breaking and preserving phases, respectively. We present a simple diagnostic tool to examine the classical stability of the embedding, based on the concavit...

  12. Symmetry breaking indication for supergravity inflation in light of the Planck 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Zhijin [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Astroparticle Physics Group, Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Mitchell Campus, Woodlands, TX 77381 (United States); Academy of Athens, Division of Natural Sciences, 28 Panepistimiou Avenue, Athens 10679 (Greece)

    2015-09-01

    Supergravity (SUGRA) theories with exact global U(1) symmetry or shift symmetry in Kähler potential provide natural frameworks for inflation. However, quadratic inflation is disfavoured by the new results on primordial tensor fluctuations from the Planck Collaboration. To be consistent with the new Planck data, we point out that the explicit symmetry breaking is needed, and study these two SUGRA inflation in detail. For SUGRA inflation with global U(1) symmetry, the symmetry breaking term leads to a trigonometric modulation on inflaton potential. Coefficient of the U(1) symmetry breaking term is of order 10{sup −2}, which is sufficient large to improve the inflationary predictions while its higher order corrections are negligible. Such models predict sizeable tensor fluctuations and highly agree with the Planck results. In particular, the model with a linear U(1) symmetry breaking term predicts the tensor-to-scalar ratio around r∼0.01 and running spectral index α{sub s}∼−0.004, which comfortably fit with the Planck observations. For SUGRA inflation with breaking shift symmetry, the inflaton potential is modulated by an exponential factor. The modulated linear and quadratic models are consistent with the Planck observations. In both types of models the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be of order 10{sup −2}, which will be tested by the near future observations.

  13. Highly Excited Mesons, Linear Regge Trajectories and the Pattern of the Chiral Symmetry Realization

    CERN Document Server

    Shifman, M

    2007-01-01

    The chiral symmetry of QCD shows up in the linear Weyl--Wigner mode at short Euclidean distances or at high temperatures. On the other hand, low-lying hadronic states exhibit the nonlinear Nambu--Goldstone mode. An interesting question was raised as to whether the linear realization of the chiral symmetry is asymptotically restored for highly excited states. We address it in a number of ways. On the phenomenological side we argue that to the extent the meson Regge trajectories are observed to be linear and equidistant, the Weyl--Wigner mode is not realized. This picture is supported by quasiclassical arguments implying that the quark spin interactions in high excitations are weak, the trajectories are linear, and there is no chiral symmetry restoration. Then we use the string/gauge duality. In the top-down Sakai--Sugimoto construction the nonlinear realization of the chiral symmetry is built in. In the bottom-up AdS/QCD construction by Erlich et al., and Karch et al. the situation is more ambiguous. However, ...

  14. Chirally Invariant Avatar in a Model of Neutrinos with Light Cone Reflection Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chodos, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In previous work we developed a model of neutrinos based on a new symmetry, Light Cone Reflection (LCR), that interchanges spacelike and timelike intervals. In this paper we start with the four-dimensional model, and construct a two-dimensional avatar that obeys the same equations of motion, and preserves both the light-cone reflection symmetry and the chiral symmetry of the original theory. The avatar also contains the interaction that rendered the four-dimensional model gauge invariant. In an addendum, we make some remarks about how to determine the scalar field that enters into the definition of the LCR-covariant derivative.

  15. Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bino, Leonardo; Silver, Jonathan M.; Stebbings, Sarah L.; Del'Haye, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a concept of fundamental importance in many areas of physics, underpinning such diverse phenomena as ferromagnetism, superconductivity, superfluidity and the Higgs mechanism. Here we demonstrate nonreciprocity and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) states of light to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, this effect can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. Our findings pave the way for a variety of applications including optically controllable circulators and isolators, all-optical switching, nonlinear-enhanced rotation sensing, optical flip-flops for photonic memories as well as exceptionally sensitive power and refractive index sensors. PMID:28220865

  16. Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Del Bino, Leonardo; Stebbings, Sarah L; Del'Haye, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Light is generally expected to travel through isotropic media independent of its direction. This makes it challenging to develop non-reciprocal optical elements like optical diodes or circulators, which currently rely on magneto-optical effects and birefringent materials. Here we present measurements of non-reciprocal transmission and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) light waves to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, the symmetry breaking can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. This effect is expected to take place in any dielectric ring-resonator and might constitute one of the m...

  17. A scenario for symmetry breaking in Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Dolbeault, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the phenomenon of symmetry breaking for optimal functions in functional inequalities by the numerical computations of some well chosen solutions of the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. For many of those inequalities it was believed that the only source of symmetry breaking would be the instability of the symmetric optimizer in the class of all admissible functions. But recently, it was shown by an indirect argument that for some Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg inequalities this conjecture was not true. In order to understand this new symmetry breaking mechanism we have computed the branch of minimal solutions for a simple problem. A reparametrization of this branch allows us to build a scenario for the new phenomenon of symmetry breaking. The computations have been performed using Freefem++.

  18. Notes on soft breaking of BRST symmetry in the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Radchenko, Olga V

    2012-01-01

    We have proved the nilpotency of the operators which describe the gauge dependence of the generating functionals of Green's functions for the gauge theories with the soft breaking of BRST symmetry in the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism.

  19. Symmetry breaking and coarsening of clusters in a prototypical driven granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V

    2002-11-01

    Granular hydrodynamics predicts symmetry-breaking instability in a two-dimensional ensemble of nearly elastically colliding smooth hard disks driven, at zero gravity, by a rapidly vibrating sidewall. Supercritical and subcritical symmetry-breaking bifurcations of the stripe state are identified, and the supercritical bifurcation curve is computed. The cluster dynamics proceed as a coarsening process mediated by the gas phase. Well above the bifurcation point the final steady state, selected by coarsening, represents a single strongly localized densely packed "droplet."

  20. Symmetry breaking and coarsening of clusters in a prototypical driven granular gas

    OpenAIRE

    Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2002-01-01

    Granular hydrodynamics predicts symmetry-breaking instability in a two-dimensional (2D) ensemble of nearly elastically colliding smooth hard spheres driven, at zero gravity, by a rapidly vibrating sidewall. Super- and subcritical symmetry-breaking bifurcations of the simple clustered state are identified, and the supercritical bifurcation curve is computed. The cluster dynamics proceed as a coarsening process mediated by the gas phase. Far above the bifurcation point the final steady state, s...

  1. Topological symmetry breaking of self-interacting fractional Klein-Gordon field theories on toroidal spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S C [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Teo, L P [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: sclim@mmu.edu.my, E-mail: lpteo@mmu.edu.my

    2008-04-11

    Quartic self-interacting fractional Klein-Gordon scalar massive and massless field theories on toroidal spacetime are studied. The effective potential and topologically generated mass are determined using zeta-function regularization technique. Renormalization of these quantities are derived. Conditions for symmetry breaking are obtained analytically. Simulations are carried out to illustrate regions or values of compactified dimensions where symmetry-breaking mechanisms appear.

  2. Liquid Crystal Phases of Molecular Bananas: Polarity and Chirality as Broken Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Noel

    2006-03-01

    The study of the interplay of chirality and polarity has been a particularly rich theme of soft matter science since Meyer's seminal discovery that tilted smectics of chiral molecules are macroscopically polar. This event, and the subsequent realization of polar domains and high-speed electro-optic switching in chiral smectics, engaged the liquid crystal community in a worldwide pursuit of novel smectics for applications, featured by the synthesis of more than 50,000 new liquid crystal compounds, and by a consequent broad diversification of the palette of liquid crystal phases and possibilities for supermolecular ordering. A current important activity in this scenario is the study of polar order in synthetically achiral molecules, for example, in molecular bananas, which, as their shape suggests, might be expected to organize in a polar way. Indeed they do, but beyond this, almost everything learned about them has been surprising, including their persistent tendency to exhibit chirality as a spontaneously broken symmetry. I will discuss some of these new phases and phenomena, including the discovery of fluid conglomerates (Pasteur's experiment in a fluid), triclinic fluid order, chiral twist grain boundary phases of achiral molecules, chirality flipping and field-induced deracemization, ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases with supermolecular- scale polarization modulation, and chiral thermotropic sponge phases.

  3. Chiral symmetry and the Yang--Mills gradient flow

    CERN Document Server

    Lüscher, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, the Yang--Mills gradient flow was shown to be an attractive tool for non-perturbative studies of non-Abelian gauge theories. Here a simple extension of the flow to the quark fields in QCD is considered. As in the case of the pure-gauge gradient flow, the renormalizability of correlation functions involving local fields at positive flow times can be established using a representation through a local field theory in 4+1 dimensions. Applications of the extended flow in lattice QCD include non-perturbative renormalization and O(a) improvement as well as accurate calculations of the chiral condensate and of the pseudo-scalar decay constant in the chiral limit.

  4. Chiral Symmetry Restoration for the large-$N$ pion gas

    CERN Document Server

    Cortés, Santiago; Morales, John

    2016-01-01

    We analyze chiral restoration within the $O(N+1)/O(N)$ Non-Linear Sigma Model for large $N$ as an effective theory for low-energy QCD at finite temperature $T$. The free energy is constructed diagramatically to $O(M^3)$ in the pion mass, which allows to derive the quark condensate and the scalar susceptibility in the chiral limit. At this order, we do not have to deal with renormalization, neither from divergences from mass tadpoles nor from those of higher order loop contributions. Our results for the critical behaviour are consistent with expectations from lattice analysis and with previous works where the susceptibility is saturated by the thermal $f_0(500)$ pole.

  5. Low symmetry tetrahedral nematic liquid crystal phases: Ambidextrous chirality and ambidextrous helicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the symmetry properties as well as the dynamic behavior of various non-polar nematic liquid crystal phases with tetrahedral order. We concentrate on systems that show biaxial nematic order coexisting with octupolar (tetrahedral) order. Non-polar examples are phases with D2 and S4 symmetries, which can be characterized as biaxial nematics lacking inversion symmetry. It is this combination that allows for new features in the statics and dynamics of these phases. The D2-symmetric phase is chiral, even for achiral molecules, and shows ambidextrous chirality in all three preferred directions. The achiral S4-symmetric phase allows for ambidextrous helicity, similar to the higher-symmetric D2d-symmetric phase. Such phases are candidates for nematic phases made from banana-shaped molecules.

  6. From physics to biology by extending criticality and symmetry breakings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, G; Montévil, M

    2011-08-01

    Symmetries play a major role in physics, in particular since the work by E. Noether and H. Weyl in the first half of last century. Herein, we briefly review their role by recalling how symmetry changes allow to conceptually move from classical to relativistic and quantum physics. We then introduce our ongoing theoretical analysis in biology and show that symmetries play a radically different role in this discipline, when compared to those in current physics. By this comparison, we stress that symmetries must be understood in relation to conservation and stability properties, as represented in the theories. We posit that the dynamics of biological organisms, in their various levels of organization, are not "just" processes, but permanent (extended, in our terminology) critical transitions and, thus, symmetry changes. Within the limits of a relative structural stability (or interval of viability), variability is at the core of these transitions.

  7. Evaluating chiral symmetry restoration through the use of sum rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Ralf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We pursue the idea of assessing chiral restoration via in-medium modifications of hadronic spectral functions of chiral partners. The usefulness of sum rules in this endeavor is illustrated, focusing on the vector/axial-vector channel. We first present an update on obtaining quantitative results for pertinent vacuum spectral functions. These serve as a basis upon which the in-medium spectral functions can be constructed. A novel feature of our analysis of the vacuum spectral functions is the need to include excited resonances, dictated by satisfying the Weinberg-type sum rules. This includes excited states in both the vector and axial-vector channels.We also analyze the QCD sum rule for the finite temperature vector spectral function, based on a ρ spectral function tested in dilepton data which develops a shoulder at low energies.We find that the ρ′ peak flattens off which may be a sign of chiral restoration, though a study of the finite temperature axial-vector spectral function remains to be carried out.

  8. The chiral transition and U(1)_A symmetry restoration from lattice QCD using Domain Wall Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; Buchoff, Michael I; Cheng, Michael; Christ, N H; Ding, H -T; Gupta, Rajan; Hegde, Prasad; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2012-01-01

    We present results on both the restoration of the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry and the effective restoration of the anomalously broken U(1)_A symmetry in finite temperature QCD at zero chemical potential using lattice QCD. We employ domain wall fermions on lattices with fixed temporal extent N_\\tau = 8 and spatial extent N_\\sigma = 16 in a temperature range of T = 139 - 195 MeV, corresponding to lattice spacings of a \\approx 0.12 - 0.18 fm. In these calculations, we include two degenerate light quarks and a strange quark at fixed pion mass m_\\pi = 200 MeV. The strange quark mass is set near its physical value. We also present results from a second set of finite temperature gauge configurations at the same volume and temporal extent with slightly heavier pion mass. To study chiral symmetry restoration, we calculate the chiral condensate, the disconnected chiral susceptibility, and susceptibilities in several meson channels of different quantum numbers. To study U(1)_A restoration, we calculate spatial ...

  9. U(1) chiral symmetry in a one-dimensional interacting electron system with spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taejin

    2016-11-01

    We study a spin-dependent Tomonaga-Luttinger model in one dimension, which describes electron transport through a single barrier. Using the Fermi-Bose equivalence in one dimension, we map the model onto a massless Thirring model with a boundary interaction. A field theoretical perturbation theory for the model has been developed, and the chiral symmetry is found to play an important role. The classical bulk action possesses a global U A (1)4 chiral symmetry because the fermion fields are massless. This global chiral symmetry is broken by the boundary interaction, and the bosonic degrees of freedom, corresponding to a chiral phase transformation, become dynamical. They acquire an additional kinetic action from the fermion path-integral measure and govern the critical behaviors of the physical operators. On the critical line where the boundary interaction becomes marginal, they decouple from the fermi fields. Consequently, the action reduces to the free-field action, which contains only a fermion bilinear boundary mass term as an interaction term. By using a renormalization group analysis, we obtain a new critical line, which differs from the previously known critical lines in the literature. The result of this work implies that the phase diagram of the one-dimensional electron system may have a richer structure than previously thought.

  10. Anomalous breaking of anisotropic scaling symmetry in the quantum lifshitz model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggio, M.; de Boer, J.; Holsheimer, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this note we investigate the anomalous breaking of anisotropic scaling symmetry (t, x) → (λ z t, λ x) in a non-relativistic field theory with dynamical exponent z = 2. On general grounds, one can show that there exist two possible "central charges" which characterize the breaking of scale invaria

  11. Field sources in a Lorentz-symmetry breaking scenario with a single background vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, L.H.C. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [IFQ, Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Av. BPS 1303, Pinheirinho, Caixa Postal 50, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    This paper is devoted to an investigation of the interactions between stationary sources of the electromagnetic field, in a model which exhibits explicit Lorentz-symmetry breaking due to the presence of a single background vector. We focus on physical phenomena that emerge from this kind of breaking and which have no counterpart in Maxwell electrodynamics. (orig.)

  12. Chiral symmetry in a hot and dense magnetic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Gabriel N.; Pinto, Marcus B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    We consider the Linear Sigma Model (LSM) in the Mean Field Approximation (MFA) in order to analyze hot and dense two flavor quark matter subject to strong magnetic fields. We pay especial attention to the case of a finite chemical potential, which has not yet been fully explored. Here, we investigate the strength of the chiral transition and the behavior of the sigma meson mass for {mu}= 0 and {mu}{ne} 0 under strong magnetic fields, as well as its effects over the T-{mu} plane.

  13. Wigner–Souriau translations and Lorentz symmetry of chiral fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Duval

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chiral fermions can be embedded into Souriau's massless spinning particle model by “enslaving” the spin, viewed as a gauge constraint. The latter is not invariant under Lorentz boosts; spin enslavement can be restored, however, by a Wigner–Souriau (WS translation, analogous to a compensating gauge transformation. The combined transformation is precisely the recently uncovered twisted boost, which we now extend to finite transformations. WS-translations are identified with the stability group of a motion acting on the right on the Poincaré group, whereas the natural Poincaré action corresponds to action on the left.

  14. Wigner-Souriau translations and Lorentz symmetry of chiral fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Duval, C; Horvathy, P A; Zhang, P -M

    2014-01-01

    Chiral fermions can be embedded into Souriau's massless spinning particle model by "enslaving" the spin, viewed as a gauge constraint. The latter is not invariant under Lorentz boosts; spin enslavement can be restored, however, by a subsequent Wigner-Souriau (WS) translation, analogous to a compensating gauge transformation. The combined transformation is precisely the recently uncovered twisted boost, which we now extend to finite transformations. WS-translations are identified with the stability group of a motion acting on the right on the Poincare group, whereas the natural Poincare action corresponds to action on the left.

  15. Spontaneous versus explicit replica symmetry breaking in the theory of disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhanna, D.; Tarjus, G.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the relation between spontaneous and explicit replica symmetry breaking in the theory of disordered systems. On general ground, we prove the equivalence between the replicon operator associated with the stability of the replica-symmetric solution in the standard replica scheme and the operator signaling a breakdown of the solution with analytic field dependence in a scheme in which replica symmetry is explicitly broken by applied sources. This opens the possibility to study, via the recently developed functional renormalization group, unresolved questions related to spontaneous replica symmetry breaking and spin-glass behavior in finite-dimensional disordered systems.

  16. The Effective Kahler Potential, Metastable Vacua and R-Symmetry Breaking in O'Raifeartaigh Models

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Shermane; Kain, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Much has been learned about metastable vacua and R-symmetry breaking in O'Raifeartaigh models. Such work has largely been done from the perspective of the superpotential and by including Coleman-Weinberg corrections to the scalar potential. Instead, we consider these ideas from the perspective of the one loop effective Kahler potential. We translate known ideas to this framework and construct convenient formulas for computing individual terms in the expanded effective Kahler potential. We do so for arbitrary R-charge assignments and allow for small R-symmetry violating terms so that both spontaneous and explicit R-symmetry breaking is allowed in our analysis.

  17. Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, L. H. C.; Barone, F. A.

    2016-02-01

    Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector.

  18. Interacting spins in a cavity: Finite-size effects and symmetry-breaking dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    , and for small chains, we find significant and nontrivial finite-size effects. Below the first-order phase transition, even quite large spin chains of 30–40 spins give rise to a mean photon number and number fluctuations significantly above the mean-field vacuum result. Near the second-order phase critical point......-transition the random character of the measurement process causes a measurement-induced symmetry breaking in the system. This symmetry breaking occurs on the time scale needed for an observer to gather sufficient information to distinguish between the two possible (mean-field) symmetry-broken states....

  19. Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, L.H.C. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [IFQ-Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector. (orig.)

  20. On The Complexity and Completeness of Static Constraints for Breaking Row and Column Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Katsirelos, George; Walsh, Toby

    2010-01-01

    We consider a common type of symmetry where we have a matrix of decision variables with interchangeable rows and columns. A simple and efficient method to deal with such row and column symmetry is to post symmetry breaking constraints like DOUBLELEX and SNAKELEX. We provide a number of positive and negative results on posting such symmetry breaking constraints. On the positive side, we prove that we can compute in polynomial time a unique representative of an equivalence class in a matrix model with row and column symmetry if the number of rows (or of columns) is bounded and in a number of other special cases. On the negative side, we show that whilst DOUBLELEX and SNAKELEX are often effective in practice, they can leave a large number of symmetric solutions in the worst case. In addition, we prove that propagating DOUBLELEX completely is NP-hard. Finally we consider how to break row, column and value symmetry, correcting a result in the literature about the safeness of combining different symmetry breaking c...

  1. Supersymmetry and R-symmetry Breaking in Meta-stable Vacua at Finite Temperature and Density

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Masato; Sasaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    We study a meta-stable supersymmetry-breaking vacuum in a generalized O'Raifeartaigh model at finite temperature and chemical potentials. Fields in the generalized O'Raifeartaigh model possess different R-charges to realize R-symmetry breaking. Accordingly, at finite density and temperature, the chemical potentials have to be introduced in a non-uniform way. Based on the formulation elaborated in our previous work we study the one-loop thermal effective potential including the chemical potentials in the generalized O'Raifeartaigh model. We perform the numerical analysis and find that the R-symmetry breaking vacua, which exist at zero temperature and zero chemical potential, are destabilized for some parameter regions. In addition, we find that there are parameter regions where new R-symmetry breaking vacua are realized even at high temperature by the finite density effects.

  2. Charge symmetry breaking in d d →4Heπ0 with WASA-at-COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlarson, P.; Augustyniak, W.; Bardan, W.; Bashkanov, M.; Bergmann, F. S.; Berłowski, M.; Bhatt, H.; Bondar, A.; Büscher, M.; Calén, H.; Ciepał, I.; Clement, H.; Coderre, D.; Czerwiński, E.; Demmich, K.; Doroshkevich, E.; Engels, R.; Erven, A.; Erven, W.; Eyrich, W.; Fedorets, P.; Föhl, K.; Fransson, K.; Goldenbaum, F.; Goslawski, P.; Goswami, A.; Grigoryev, K.; Gullström, C.-O.; Hanhart, C.; Hauenstein, F.; Heijkenskjöld, L.; Hejny, V.; Höistad, B.; Hüsken, N.; Jarczyk, L.; Johansson, T.; Kamys, B.; Kemmerling, G.; Khan, F. A.; Khoukaz, A.; Kirillov, D. A.; Kistryn, S.; Kleines, H.; Kłos, B.; Krzemień, W.; Kulessa, P.; Kupść, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Lalwani, K.; Lersch, D.; Lorentz, B.; Magiera, A.; Maier, R.; Marciniewski, P.; Mariański, B.; Mikirtychiants, M.; Morsch, H.-P.; Moskal, P.; Ohm, H.; Ozerianska, I.; Perez del Rio, E.; Piskunov, N. M.; Podkopał, P.; Prasuhn, D.; Pricking, A.; Pszczel, D.; Pysz, K.; Pyszniak, A.; Redmer, C. F.; Ritman, J.; Roy, A.; Rudy, Z.; Sawant, S.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Shwartz, B.; Siudak, R.; Skorodko, T.; Skurzok, M.; Smyrski, J.; Sopov, V.; Stassen, R.; Stepaniak, J.; Stephan, E.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Szczurek, A.; Täschner, A.; Trzciński, A.; Varma, R.; Wolke, M.; Wrońska, A.; Wüstner, P.; Wurm, P.; Yamamoto, A.; Yurev, L.; Zabierowski, J.; Zieliński, M. J.; Zink, A.; Złomańczuk, J.; Żuprański, P.; Żurek, M.

    2014-12-01

    Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) observables are a suitable experimental tool to examine effects induced by quark masses on the nuclear level. Previous high precision data from TRIUMF and IUCF are currently used to develop a consistent description of CSB within the framework of chiral perturbation theory. In this work the experimental studies on the reaction dd →4Heπ0 have been extended towards higher excess energies in order to provide information on the contribution of p-waves in the final state. For this, an exclusive measurement has been carried out at a beam momentum of pd = 1.2 GeV / c using the WASA-at-COSY facility. The total cross section amounts to σtot = (118 ±18stat ±13sys ±8ext) pb and first data on the differential cross section are consistent with s-wave pion production.

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the $S_3$-symmetric scalar sector

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanuel-Costa, D.; Osland, P.; Rebelo, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the vacua of the $S_3$-symmetric three-Higgs-doublet potential, specifying the region of parameters where these minimisation solutions occur. We work with a CP conserving scalar potential and analyse the possible real and complex vacua with emphasis on the cases in which the CP symmetry can be spontaneously broken. Results are presented both in the reducible-representation framework of Derman, and in the irreducible-representation framework. Mappings between these are given. Some of these implementations can in principle accommodate dark matter and for that purpose it is important to identify the residual symmetries of the potential after spontaneous symmetry breakdown. We are also concerned with constraints from vacuum stability.

  4. $B_K$ from quenched QCD with exact chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Garron, N; Hölbling, C; Lellouch, L P; Rebbi, C; Garron, Nicolas; Giusti, Leonardo; Hoelbling, Christian; Lellouch, Laurent; Rebbi, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    We present a calculation of the standard model Delta S=2 matrix element relevant to indirect CP violation in K->pipi decays which uses Neuberger's chiral formulation of lattice fermions. The computation is performed in the quenched approximation on a 16^3x32 lattice that has a lattice spacing asim 0.1 fm. The resulting bare matrix element is renormalized non-perturbatively. Our main result is B_K^{RGI}=0.87(8)^{+2+14}_{-1-14}, where the first error is statistical, the second is systematic and the third is an estimate of the uncertainty associated with the quenched approximation and with the fact that our kaons are composed of degenerate s and d quarks with masses sim m_s/2.

  5. \\pi N transition distribution amplitudes: their symmetries and constraints from chiral dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pire, Bernard; Szymanowski, Lech

    2011-01-01

    Baryon to meson Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDAs) extend the concept of generalized parton distributions. Baryon to meson TDAs appear as building blocks in the colinear factorized description of amplitudes for a class of hard exclusive reactions, prominent examples of which being hard exclusive meson electroproduction off a nucleon in the backward region and baryon-antibaryon annihilation into a meson and a lepton pair. We study general properties of these objects following from the underlying symmetries of QCD. In particular, the Lorentz symmetry results in the polynomiality property of the Mellin moments in longitudinal momentum fractions. We present a detailed account of isotopic and permutation symmetry properties of nucleon to pion (\\pi N) TDAs. This restricts the number of independent leading twist \\pi N TDAs to eight functions providing description of all isotopic channels. Using chiral symmetry and the crossing relation between \\pi N TDAs and \\pi N generalized distribution amplitudes we establ...

  6. Fermat Surface and Group Theory in Symmetry of Rapidity Family in Chiral Potts Model

    CERN Document Server

    Roan, Shi-shyr

    2013-01-01

    The present paper discusses various mathematical aspects about the rapidity symmetry in chiral Potts model (CPM) in the context of algebraic geometry and group theory . We re-analyze the symmetry group of a rapidity curve in $N$-state CPM, explore the universal group structure for all $N$, and further enlarge it to modular symmetries of the complete rapidity family in CPM. As will be shown in the article that all rapidity curves in $N$-state CPM constitute a Fermat hypersurface in $\\PZ^3$ of degree 2N as the natural generalization of the Fermat K3 elliptic surface $(N=2)$, we conduct a thorough algebraic geometry study about the rapidity fibration of Fermat surface and its reduced hyperelliptic fibration via techniques in algebraic surface theory. Symmetries of rapidity family in CPM and hyperelliptic family in $\\tau^{(2)}$-model are exhibited through the geometrical representation of the universal structural group in mathematics.

  7. Topological Insulators and Nematic Phases from Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K.

    2010-05-26

    We investigate the stability of a quadratic band-crossing point (QBCP) in 2D fermionic systems. At the non-interacting level, we show that a QBCP exists and is topologically stable for a Berry flux {-+}2{pi}, if the point symmetry group has either fourfold or sixfold rotational symmetries. This putative topologically stable free-fermion QBCP is marginally unstable to arbitrarily weak shortrange repulsive interactions. We consider both spinless and spin-1/2 fermions. Four possible ordered states result: a quantum anomalous Hall phase, a quantum spin Hall phase, a nematic phase, and a nematic-spin-nematic phase.

  8. SU(3)-breaking corrections to the baryon-octet magnetic moments in chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Camalich, J Martin; Geng, L S; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We report a calculation of the baryon magnetic moments using covariant chiral perturbation theory within the extended-on-mass-shell renormalization scheme including intermediate octet and decuplet contributions. By fitting the two available low-energy constants, we improve the Coleman-Glashow description of the data when we include the leading SU(3) breaking effects coming from the lowest-order loops. We compare with previous attempts at the same order using heavy-baryon and covariant infrared chiral perturbation theory, and discuss the source of the differences.

  9. Observation of parity-time symmetry breaking transitions in a dissipative Floquet system of ultracold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiaming; Liu, Ji; de Melo, Leonardo; Joglekar, Yogesh N; Luo, Le

    2016-01-01

    Open physical systems with balanced loss and gain exhibit a transition, absent in their solitary counterparts, which engenders modes that exponentially decay or grow with time and thus spontaneously breaks the parity-time PT symmetry. This PT-symmetry breaking is induced by modulating the strength or the temporal profile of the loss and gain, but also occurs in a pure dissipative system without gain. It has been observed that, in classical systems with mechanical, electrical, and electromagnetic setups with static loss and gain, the PT-symmetry breaking transition leads to extraordinary behavior and functionalities. However, its observation in a quantum system is yet to be realized. Here we report on the first quantum simulation of PT-symmetry breaking transitions using ultracold Li-6 atoms. We simulate static and Floquet dissipative Hamiltonians by generating state-dependent atom loss in a noninteracting Fermi gas, and observe the PT-symmetry breaking transitions by tracking the atom number for each state. W...

  10. Molecular model for chirality phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank H; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2016-10-21

    Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations. Using this model, we explore a range of chirality-specific phenomena, including the kinetics of chiral inversion, the mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the liquid, chirally driven liquid-liquid phase separation, and chiral crystal structures.

  11. Quantum structure of T-dualized models with symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Casteill, P Y

    2000-01-01

    We study the principal sigma-models defined on any group manifold GL x GR/GD with breaking of GR, and their T-dual transforms. For abritary breaking we can express the torsion and Ricci tensor of the dual model in terms of the frame geometry of the initial principal model. Using these results, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the dual model to be torsionless and prove that the one-loop renormalizability of a given principal model is inherited by its dual partner, who shares the same beta-functions. These results are shown to hold also if the principal model is endowed with torsion. As an application we compute the beta-functions for the full Bianchi family and show that for some choices of the breaking parameters the dilaton anomaly is absent: for these choices the dual torsion vanishes. For the dualized Bianchi V model (which is torsionless for any breaking), we take advantage of its simpler structure, to study its two-loops renormalizability.

  12. Vortex anomaly in low-dimensional fermionic condensates: Quantum confinement breaks chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yajiang; Shanenko, A. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2014-02-01

    Chiral fermions are responsible for low-temperature properties of vortices in fermionic condensates, both superconducting (charged) and superfluid (neutral). One of the most striking consequences of this fact is that the core of a single-quantum vortex collapses at low temperatures, T →0 (i.e., the Kramer-Pesch effect for superconductors), due to the presence of chiral quasiparticles in the vortex-core region. We show that the situation changes drastically for fermionic condensates confined in quasi-one-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional geometries. Here quantum confinement breaks the chirality of in-core fermions. As a result, instead of the ultimate shrinking, the core of a single-quantum vortex extends at low temperatures, and the condensate profile surprisingly mimics the multiquantum vortex behavior. Our findings are relevant for nanoscale superconductors, such as recent metallic nanoislands on silicon, and also for ultracold superfluid Fermi gases in cigar-shaped and pancake-shaped atomic traps.

  13. Spontaneous Breaking of Lorentz Symmetry with an antisymmetric tensor

    CERN Document Server

    Hernaski, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous violation of Lorentz symmetry by the vacuum condensation of an antisymmetric $2$-tensor is considered. The coset construction for nonlinear realization of spacetime symmetries is employed to build the most general low-energy effective action for the Goldstone modes interacting with photons. We analyze the model within the context of the Standard-Model Extension and noncommutative QED. Experimental bounds for some parameters of the model are discussed, and we readdress the subtle issues of stability and causality in Lorentz non-invariant scenarios. Besides the two photon polarizations, just one Goldstone mode must be dynamical to set a sensible low-energy effective model, and the enhancement of the stability by accounting interaction terms points to a protection against observational Lorentz violation.

  14. Light meson electromagnetic form factors from three-flavor lattice QCD with exact chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, S; Feng, X; Hashimoto, S; Kaneko, T; Noaki, J; Onogi, T

    2015-01-01

    We study the chiral behavior of the electromagnetic (EM) form factors of pion and kaon in three-flavor lattice QCD. In order to make a direct comparison of the lattice data with chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), we employ the overlap quark action that has exact chiral symmetry. Gauge ensembles are generated at a lattice spacing of 0.11 fm with four pion masses ranging between M_pi \\simeq 290 MeV and 540 MeV and with a strange quark mass m_s close to its physical value. We utilize the all-to-all quark propagator technique to calculate the EM form factors with high precision. Their dependence on m_s and on the momentum transfer is studied by using the reweighting technique and the twisted boundary conditions for the quark fields, respectively. A detailed comparison with SU(2) and SU(3) ChPT reveals that the next-to-next-to-leading order terms in the chiral expansion are important to describe the chiral behavior of the form factors in the pion mass range studied in this work. We estimate the relevant low-energy...

  15. Light meson electromagnetic form factors from three-flavor lattice QCD with exact chiral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Cossu, G.; Feng, X.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Noaki, J.; Onogi, T.

    2016-02-01

    We study the chiral behavior of the electromagnetic (EM) form factors of pions and kaons in three-flavor lattice QCD. In order to make a direct comparison of the lattice data with chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), we employ the overlap quark action that has exact chiral symmetry. Gauge ensembles are generated at a lattice spacing of 0.11 fm with four pion masses ranging between Mπ≃290 MeV and 540 MeV and with a strange quark mass ms close to its physical value. We utilize the all-to-all quark propagator technique to calculate the EM form factors with high precision. Their dependence on ms and on the momentum transfer is studied by using the reweighting technique and the twisted boundary conditions for the quark fields, respectively. A detailed comparison with SU(2) and SU(3) ChPT reveals that the next-to-next-to-leading order terms in the chiral expansion are important to describe the chiral behavior of the form factors in the pion mass range studied in this work. We estimate the relevant low-energy constants and the charge radii, and find reasonable agreement with phenomenological and experimental results.

  16. The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules as probes of constraints from analyticity and chiral symmetry in dynamical models for pion-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyuk, S; Myhrer, F; Scholten, O

    2004-01-01

    The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules are calculated within a relativistic, unitary and crossing symmetric dynamical model for pion-nucleon scattering using two different methods: 1) by evaluating of the scattering amplitude at the corresponding low-energy kinematics and 2) by evaluating the sum-rule integrals with the calculated total cross section. The discrepancy between the results of the two methods provides a measure of the breaking of analyticity and chiral symmetry in the model. The contribution of the $\\Delta$ resonance, including its dressing with meson loops, is discussed in some detail and found to be small.

  17. PT-symmetry breaking with divergent potentials: lattice and continuum cases

    CERN Document Server

    Joglekar, Yogesh N; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the parity- and time-reversal ($\\mathcal{PT}$)-symmetry breaking in lattice models in the presence of long-ranged, non-hermitian, $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric potentials that remain finite or become divergent in the continuum limit. By scaling analysis of the fragile $\\mathcal{PT}$ threshold for an open finite lattice, we show that continuum loss-gain potentials $V_\\alpha(x)\\propto i |x|^\\alpha \\mathrm{sign}(x)$ have a positive $\\mathcal{PT}$-breaking threshold for $\\alpha>-2$, and a zero threshold for $\\alpha\\leq -2$. When $\\alpha<0$ localized states with complex (conjugate) energies in the continuum energy-band occur at higher loss-gain strengths. We investigate the signatures of $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry breaking in coupled waveguides, and show that the emergence of localized states dramatically shortens the relevant time-scale in the $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry broken region.

  18. Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A maximally generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part Vμ, also an axial-vector part Aμ, a scalar part S, a pseudoscalar part P, and a tensor part Tμv, is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  19. Exit from accelerated regimes by symmetry breaking in a universe filled with fermionic and bosonic sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ribas, Marlos O; Devecchi, Fernando P; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate a universe filled with a fermionic field and a complex scalar field, exchanging energy through a Yukawa potential; the model encodes a symmetry breaking mechanism (on the bosonic sector). In a first case, when the mechanism is not included, the cosmological model furnishes a pure accelerated regime. In a second case, when including the symmetry breaking mechanism, we verify that the fermion and one of the bosons, of Higgs type, become massive, while the other boson is massless. Besides, the mechanism shows to be responsible for a transition from an accelerated to a decelerated regime, which certifies the importance, in cosmological terms, of its role. After symmetry breaking, the total pressure of the fields change its sign from negative to positive corresponding to the accelerated-decelerated transition. For large times the universe becomes a dust (pressureless) dominated Universe.

  20. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in String Models with D-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong coupling gauge interaction in models with D-branes in String Theory is examined. Instead of elementary scalar Higgs doublet fields, the gauge symmetry with strong coupling (technicolor) is introduced. As the first step of this direction, a toy model, which is not fully realistic, is concretely analyzed in some detail. The model consists of D-branes and anti-D-branes at orbifold singularities in (T^2 x T^2 x T^2)/Z_3 which preserves supersymmetry. Supersymmetry is broken through the brane supersymmetry breaking. It is pointed out that the problem of large S parameter in dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scenario may be solved by natural existence of kinetic term mixings between hypercharge U(1) gauge boson and massive anomalous U(1) gauge bosons. The problems to be solved toward constructing more realistic models are clarified in the analysis.

  1. Symmetry breaking in MAST plasma turbulence due to toroidal flow shear

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, M F J; Field, A R; Ghim, Y -c; Parra, F I; Schekochihin, A A

    2016-01-01

    The flow shear associated with the differential toroidal rotation of tokamak plasmas breaks an underlying symmetry of the turbulent fluctuations imposed by the up-down symmetry of the magnetic equilibrium. Using experimental Beam-Emission-Spectroscopy (BES) measurements and gyrokinetic simulations, this symmetry breaking in ion-scale turbulence in MAST is shown to manifest itself as a tilt of the spatial correlation function and a finite skew in the distribution of the fluctuating density field. The tilt is a statistical expression of the "shearing" of the turbulent structures by the mean flow. The skewness of the distribution is related to the emergence of long-lived density structures in sheared, near-marginal plasma turbulence. The extent to which these effects are pronounced is argued (with the aid of the simulations) to depend on the distance from the nonlinear stability threshold. Away from the threshold, the symmetry is effectively restored.

  2. Symmetry breaking in MAST plasma turbulence due to toroidal flow shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M. F. J.; van Wyk, F.; Field, A. R.; Ghim, Y.-c.; Parra, F. I.; Schekochihin, A. A.; the MAST Team

    2017-03-01

    The flow shear associated with the differential toroidal rotation of tokamak plasmas breaks an underlying symmetry of the turbulent fluctuations imposed by the up–down symmetry of the magnetic equilibrium. Using experimental beam-emission-spectroscopy measurements and gyrokinetic simulations, this symmetry breaking in ion-scale turbulence in MAST is shown to manifest itself as a tilt of the spatial correlation function and a finite skew in the distribution of the fluctuating density field. The tilt is a statistical expression of the ‘shearing’ of the turbulent structures by the mean flow. The skewness of the distribution is related to the emergence of long-lived density structures in sheared, near-marginal plasma turbulence. The extent to which these effects are pronounced is argued (with the aid of the simulations) to depend on the distance from the nonlinear stability threshold. Away from the threshold, the symmetry is effectively restored.

  3. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu–Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Brauner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a general principle that constitutes the underlying concept of a vast number of physical phenomena ranging from ferromagnetism and superconductivity in condensed matter physics to the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particles. I focus on manifestations of spontaneously broken symmetries in systems that are not Lorentz invariant, which include both nonrelativistic systems as well as relativistic systems at nonzero density, providing a self-contained review of the properties of spontaneously broken symmetries specific to such theories. Topics covered include: (i Introduction to the mathematics of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem. (ii Minimization of Higgs-type potentials for higher-dimensional representations. (iii Counting rules for Nambu–Goldstone bosons and their dispersion relations. (iv Construction of effective Lagrangians. Specific examples in both relativistic and nonrelativistic physics are worked out in detail.

  4. Unified model of fermion masses with Wilson line flavor symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Seidl, Gerhart

    2008-01-01

    We present a supersymmetric SU(5) GUT model with a discrete non-Abelian flavor symmetry that is broken by Wilson lines. The model is formulated in 4+3 dimensions compactified on a manifold S^3/Z_n. Symmetry breaking by Wilson lines is topological and allows to realize the necessary flavor symmetry breaking without a vacuum alignment mechanism. The model predicts the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and quark mixing angles. Small normal hierarchical neutrino masses are generated by the type-I seesaw mechanism. The non-Abelian flavor symmetry predicts to leading order exact maximal atmospheric mixing while the solar angle emerges from quark-lepton complementarity. The resulting leptonic mixing matrix is in excellent agreement with current data and could be tested in future neutrino oscillation experiments.

  5. Uniform trace formulae for SU(2) and SO(3) symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Brack, M; Tanaka, K

    1999-01-01

    We develop uniform approximations for the trace formula for non-integrable systems in which SU(2) symmetry is broken by a non-linear term of the Hamiltonian. As specific examples, we investigate Hénon-Heiles type potentials. Our formalism can also be applied to the breaking of SO(3) symmetry in a three-dimensional cavity with axially-symmetric quadrupole deformation.

  6. Electroweak symmetry breaking and beyond the Standard Model physics – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Bhattacharyya

    2009-01-01

    In this talk, I shall first discuss the Standard Model Higgs mechanism and then highlight some of its deficiencies making a case for the need to go beyond the Standard Model (BSM). The BSM tour will be guided by symmetry arguments. I shall pick up four specific BSM scenarios, namely, supersymmetry, little Higgs, gauge-Higgs unification, and the Higgsless approach. The discussion will be confined mainly on their electroweak symmetry breaking aspects.

  7. Chiral phases of fundamental and adjoint quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natale, A. A. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, Bl.II - 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-22

    We consider a QCD chiral symmetry breaking model where the gap equation contains an effective confining propagator and a dressed gluon propagator with a dynamically generated mass. This model is able to explain the ratios between the chiral transition and deconfinement temperatures in the case of fundamental and adjoint quarks. It also predicts the recovery of the chiral symmetry for a large number of quarks (n{sub f} ≈ 11 – 13) in agreement with lattice data.

  8. Mass Formulas Derived by Symmetry Breaking and Prediction of Masses on Heavy Flavor Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The base is the Lagrangian of symmetry and its dynamical breaking or Higgs breaking. When the soliton-like solutions of the scalar field equations are substituted into the spinor field equations, in the approximation of non-relativity we derive the Morse-type potential, whose energy spectrum is the GMO mass formula and its modified accurate mass formula. According to the symmetry of s-c quarks, the heavy flavor hadrons which made of u,d and c quarks may be classified by SU(3) octet and decuplet. Then some simple mass formulas are obtained, from this we predict some masses of unknown hadrons.

  9. Spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries in QCD on a small volume

    CERN Document Server

    Lucini, Biagio; Pica, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    In a compact space with non-trivial cycles, for sufficiently small values of the compact dimensions, charge conjugation (C), spatial reflection (P) and time reversal (T) are spontaneously broken in QCD. The order parameter for the symmetry breaking is the trace of the Wilson line wrapping around the compact dimension, which acquires an imaginary part in the broken phase. We show that a physical signature for the symmetry breaking is a persistent baryonic current wrapping in the compact directions. The existence of such a current is derived analytically at first order in perturbation theory and confirmed in the non-perturbative regime by lattice simulations.

  10. Effective dissipation: Breaking time-reversal symmetry in driven microscopic energy transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aidan I.; Sivak, David A.

    2016-09-01

    At molecular scales, fluctuations play a significant role and prevent biomolecular processes from always proceeding in a preferred direction, raising the question of how limited amounts of free energy can be dissipated to obtain directed progress. We examine the system and process characteristics that efficiently break time-reversal symmetry at fixed energy loss; in particular for a simple model of a molecular machine, an intermediate energy barrier produces unusually high asymmetry for a given dissipation. We relate the symmetry-breaking factors found in this model to recent observations of biomolecular machines.

  11. Semiclassical treatment of symmetry breaking and bifurcations in a non-integrable potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliesnik, M. V.; Krivenko-Emetov, Ya D.; Magner, A. G.; Arita, K.; Brack, M.

    2015-11-01

    We have derived an analytical trace formula for the level density of the Hénon-Heiles potential using the improved stationary phase method, based on extensions of Gutzwiller's semiclassical path integral approach. This trace formula has the correct limit to the standard Gutzwiller trace formula for the isolated periodic orbits far from all (critical) symmetry-breaking points. It continuously joins all critical points at which an enhancement of the semiclassical amplitudes occurs. We found a good agreement between the semiclassical and the quantum oscillating level densities for the gross shell structures and for the energy shell corrections, solving the symmetry breaking problem at small energies.

  12. The Szilard engine revisited: Entropy, macroscopic randomness, and symmetry breaking phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    2001-09-01

    The role of symmetry breaking phase transitions in the Szilard engine is analyzed. It is shown that symmetry breaking is the only necessary ingredient for the engine to work. To support this idea, we show that the Ising model behaves exactly as the Szilard engine. We design a purely macroscopic Maxwell demon from an Ising model, demonstrating that a demon can operate with information about the macrostate of the system. We finally discuss some aspects of the definition of entropy and how thermodynamics should be modified to account for the variations of entropy in second-order phase transitions.

  13. Semiclassical treatment of symmetry breaking and bifurcations in a non-integrable potential

    CERN Document Server

    Koliesnik, M V; Magner, A G; Arita, K; Brack, M

    2014-01-01

    We have derived an analytical trace formula for the level density of the H\\'enon-Heiles potential using the improved stationary phase method, based on extensions of Gutzwiller's semiclassical path integral approach. This trace formula has the correct limit to the standard Gutzwiller trace formula for the isolated periodic orbits far from all (critical) symmetry-breaking points. It continuously joins all critical points at which an enhancement of the semiclassical amplitudes occurs. We found a good agreement between the semi- classical and the quantum oscillating level densities for the gross shell structures and for the energy shell corrections, solving the symmetry breaking problem at small energies.

  14. In Search of a Pristine Signal for (Scale-)Chiral Symmetry in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque

    2016-01-01

    I describe the long-standing search for a "smoking-gun" signal for the manifestation of (scale-)chiral symmetry in nuclear interactions. It is prompted by Gerry Brown's last unpublished note, reproduced verbatim below, on the preeminent role of pions and vector ($\\rho$,$\\omega$) mesons in providing a simple and elegant description of strongly correlated nuclear interactions. In this note written in tribute to Gerry Brown, I first describe a case of an unambiguous signal in axial-charge transitions in nuclei and then combine his ideas with the more recent development on the role of hidden symmetries in nuclear physics. What transpires is the surprising conclusion that the Landau-Migdal fixed point interaction $G_0^\\prime$, the nuclear tensor forces and Brown-Rho scaling, all encoded in scale-invariant hidden local symmetry, as Gerry put, "run the show and make all forces equal."

  15. Graphene symmetry-breaking with molecular adsorbates: modeling and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, M. A.; Hawkins, M. K.; Wang, Y. L.; Cullen, W. G.; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-02-01

    Graphene's structure and electronic properties provide a framework for understanding molecule-substrate interactions and developing techniques for band gap engineering. Controlled deposition of molecular adsorbates can create superlattices which break the degeneracy of graphene's two-atom unit cell, opening a band gap. We simulate scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements for a variety of organic molecule/graphene systems, including pyridine, trimesic acid, and isonicotinic acid, based on density functional theory calculations using VASP. We also compare our simulations to ultra-high vacuum STM and STS results.

  16. Loop suppressed electroweak symmetry breaking and naturally heavy superpartners

    CERN Document Server

    Dermisek, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented in which O(10 TeV) stop masses, typically required by the Higgs boson mass in supersymmetric models, do not originate from soft supersymmetry breaking terms that would drive the Higgs mass squared parameter to large negative values but rather from the mixing with vectorlike partners. Their contribution to the Higgs mass squared parameter is reduced to threshold corrections and thus it is one loop suppressed compared to usual scenarios. New fermion and scalar partners of the top quark with O(10 TeV) masses are predicted.

  17. Symmetry Breaking and Adaptation The Genetic Code of Retroviral Env Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, S

    1996-01-01

    Although several synonymous codons can encode the same aminoacid, this symmetry is generally broken in natural genetic systems. In this article, we show that the symmetry breaking can result from selective pressures due to the violation of the synonym symmetry by mutation and recombination. We conjecture that this enhances the probability to produce mutants that are well-adapted to the current environment. Evidence is found in the codon frequencies of the HIV resistant to the current immunological attack, are found with a greater frequency than their less mutable synonyms.

  18. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics; Symetrie et brisure de symetrie en mechanique quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Philippe [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1998-12-31

    In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation 17 refs., 16 figs.

  19. Optical waveguide arrays: quantum effects and PT symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Joglekar, Yogesh N; Scott, Derek D; Vemuri, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, advances in fabrication have led to significant progress in creating patterned heterostructures that support either carriers, such as electrons or holes, with specific band structure or electromagnetic waves with a given mode structure and dispersion. In this article, we review the properties of light in coupled optical waveguides that support specific energy spectra, with or without the effects of disorder, that are well-described by a Hermitian tight-binding model. We show that with a judicious choice of the initial wave packet, this system displays the characteristics of a quantum particle, including transverse photonic transport and localization, and that of a classical particle. We extend the analysis to non-Hermitian, parity and time-reversal ($\\mathcal{PT}$) symmetric Hamiltonians which physically represent waveguide arrays with spatially separated, balanced absorption or amplification. We show that coupled waveguides are an ideal candidate to simulate $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetri...

  20. Breaking Instance-Independent Symmetries In Exact Graph Coloring

    CERN Document Server

    Aloul, F A; Ramani, A; Sakallah, K A; 10.1613/jair.1637

    2011-01-01

    Code optimization and high level synthesis can be posed as constraint satisfaction and optimization problems, such as graph coloring used in register allocation. Graph coloring is also used to model more traditional CSPs relevant to AI, such as planning, time-tabling and scheduling. Provably optimal solutions may be desirable for commercial and defense applications. Additionally, for applications such as register allocation and code optimization, naturally-occurring instances of graph coloring are often small and can be solved optimally. A recent wave of improvements in algorithms for Boolean satisfiability (SAT) and 0-1 Integer Linear Programming (ILP) suggests generic problem-reduction methods, rather than problem-specific heuristics, because (1) heuristics may be upset by new constraints, (2) heuristics tend to ignore structure, and (3) many relevant problems are provably inapproximable. Problem reductions often lead to highly symmetric SAT instances, and symmetries are known to slow down SAT solvers. In t...

  1. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Metal Adsorbed Graphene Sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Jalbout, A F

    2012-01-01

    Graphene has received a great deal of attention and this has more recently extended to boron nitride sheets (BNS) with a similar structure. Both have hexagonal lattices and it is only the alternation of atoms in boron nitride, which changes the symmetry structure. This difference can for example be seen in the mean field equations, which for the corners of the Brillouin Zone are Dirac equations. For the case of graphene (equal atoms) we have the equation for massless particles, while for Boron Nitride has a finite gap and is more near a Dirac equation with mass near this gap.. Carbon structures in general and in particular also graphene can adsorb electron donors, such as alkaline atoms or molecules with a dipole moment. Typically these atoms and the dipoles can only attach in the sense to donate electron density. Some results for small sheet like structures are available.

  2. UNIVERSALITY OF PHASE TRANSITION DYNAMICS: TOPOLOGICAL DEFECTS FROM SYMMETRY BREAKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, Wojciech H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Del Campo, Adolfo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-13

    In the course of a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition, the dynamics ceases to be adiabatic in the vicinity of the critical point as a result of the critical slowing down (the divergence of the relaxation time in the neighborhood of the critical point). This enforces a local choice of the broken symmetry and can lead to the formation of topological defects. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) was developed to describe the associated nonequilibrium dynamics and to estimate the density of defects as a function of the quench rate through the transition. During recent years, several new experiments investigating formation of defects in phase transitions induced by a quench both in classical and quantum mechanical systems were carried out. At the same time, some established results were called into question. We review and analyze the Kibble-Zurek mechanism focusing in particular on this surge of activity, and suggest possible directions for further progress.

  3. Chiral gap effect in curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Flachi, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a new type of QCD phenomenon induced in curved space. In the QCD vacuum a mass gap of Dirac fermions is attributed to the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. If the curvature is positive large, the chiral condensate melts but a chiral invariant mass gap can still remain, which we name the chiral gap effect in curved space. This leads to decoupling of quark deconfinement which implies a view of black holes surrounded by a first-order QCD phase transition.

  4. Chiral random matrix theory for staggered fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Osborn, James C

    2012-01-01

    We present a completed random matrix theory for staggered fermions which incorporates all taste symmetry breaking terms at their leading order from the staggered chiral Lagrangian. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also discuss the effects of taste symmetry breaking on the eigenvalues in the weak and strong taste breaking limits, and compare with some results from lattice simulations.

  5. Conformal symmetry vs. chiral symmetry breaking in the SU(3) sextet model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hansen, Martin; Hietanen, Ari;

    2015-01-01

    We present new results for the SU(3) "sextet model" with two flavors transforming according to the two-index symmetric representation of the gauge group. The simulations are performed using unimproved Wilson fermions. We measure the meson and baryon spectrum of the theory for multiple bare quark ...

  6. Large-radius Holstein polaron and the problem of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhno, V.D.

    2014-01-01

    A translation-invariant solution is found for a large-radius Holstein polaron whose energy in the strong coupling limit is lower than that obtained by Holstein. The wave function corresponding to this solution is delocalized. A conclusion is made about the absence of a spontaneous symmetry breaking in the quantum system discussed.

  7. Symmetry breaking of decaying magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Green flows and consequences for universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, V; Alexakis, A

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the evolution and stability of a decaying magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Green flow, using pseudospectral simulations with resolutions up to 2048(3). The chosen flow has been shown to result in a steep total energy spectrum with power law behavior k(-2). We study the symmetry breaking of this flow by exciting perturbations of different amplitudes. It is shown that for any finite amplitude perturbation there is a high enough Reynolds number for which the perturbation will grow enough at the peak of dissipation rate resulting in a nonlinear feedback into the flow and subsequently break the Taylor-Green symmetries. In particular, we show that symmetry breaking at large scales occurs if the amplitude of the perturbation is σ(crit)∼Re(-1) and at small scales occurs if σ(crit)∼Re(-3/2). This symmetry breaking modifies the scaling laws of the energy spectra at the peak of dissipation rate away from the k(-2) scaling and towards the classical k(-5/3) and k(-3/2) power laws.

  8. Origin of Symmetry Breaking and Confinement in Conducting Polymers with Ring Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A model to describe the main features of conjugated polymers with ring structures, such as polythiophene and polypyrrole, is constructed. It is shown that the origin of the symmetry breaking and confinement of a soliton and anti-soliton pair is branch hopping in the polymer rings.

  9. Symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of meso-linked BODIPY dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Whited, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of symmetric BODIPY dyads where the chromophores are attached at the meso position, using either a phenylene bridge or direct linkage. Both molecules undergo symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state, and the directly linked dyad serves as a visible-light-absorbing analogue of 9,9′-bianthryl.

  10. Charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei: updated HYP 2015 progress report

    CERN Document Server

    Gal, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing progress in understanding and evaluating charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei is discussed in connection to recent measurements of the $_{\\Lambda}^{4}{\\rm H}(0^+_{\\rm g.s.})$ binding energy at MAMI [A1 Collaboration: PRL 114 (2015) 232501] and of the $_{\\Lambda}^{4}{\\rm He}(1^+_{\\rm exc})$ excitation energy at J-PARC [E13 Collaboration: PRL 115 (2015) 222501].

  11. Strong coupling of gold dipolar nanoantennas by symmetry-breaking in evanescent wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Observing the resonance wavelengths of nanoantennas (NAs) with changing incident angles in TM and TE polarization. Extinction cross section shows the dark and bright coupling modes at resonance wavelength of NAs with symmetry breaking oblique incidence. The plasmonic enhancement is stronger under evanescent wave in total internal reflection.

  12. Aspects of semilocal BPS vortex in systems with Lorentz symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalobos, C.H.C.; Silva, J.M.H. da; Hott, M.B. [UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espi rito Santo (UFES), Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    The existence is shown of a static self-dual semilocal vortex configuration for the Maxwell-Higgs system with a Lorentz-violating CPT-even term. The dependence of the vorticity upper limit on the Lorentz-symmetry-breaking term is also investigated. (orig.)

  13. Up and down cascade in a dynamo model: spontaneous symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanter, E M; Narteau, C; Shnirman, M G; Le Mouël, J L

    1999-05-01

    A multiscale turbulent model of dynamo is proposed. A secondary magnetic field is generated from a primary field by a flow made of turbulent helical vortices (cyclones) of different ranges, and amplified by an up and down cascade mechanism. The model displays symmetry breakings of different ranges although the system construction is completely symmetric. Large-scale symmetry breakings for symmetric conditions of the system evolution are investigated for all kinds of cascades: pure direct cascade, pure inverse cascade, and up and down cascade. It is shown that long lived symmetry breakings of high scales can be obtained only in the case of the up and down cascade. The symmetry breakings find expression in intervals of constant polarity of the secondary field (called chrons of the geomagnetic field). Long intervals of constant polarity with quick reversals are obtained in the model; conditions for such a behavior are investigated. Strong variations of the generated magnetic field during intervals of constant polarity are also observed in the model. Possible applications of the model to geodynamo modeling and various directions of future investigation are briefly discussed.

  14. Symmetry Breaking in the Hidden-Order Phase of URu2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibauchi, Takasada

    2013-03-01

    In the heavy fermion compound URu2Si2, the hidden-order transition occurs at 17.5 K, whose nature has posed a long-standing mystery. A second-order phase transition is characterized by spontaneous symmetry breaking, and thus the nature of the hidden order cannot be determined without understanding which symmetry is being broken. Our magnetic torque measurements in small pure crystals reveal the emergence of an in-plane anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility below the transition temperature, indicating the spontaneous breaking of four-fold rotational symmetry of the tetragonal URu2Si2. In addition, our recent observation of cyclotron resonance allows the full determination of the electron-mass structure of the main Fermi-surface sheets, which implies an anomalous in-plane mass anisotropy consistent with the rotational symmetry breaking. These results impose strong constraints on the symmetry of the hidden order parameter. This work has been done in collaboration with R. Okazaki, S. Tonegawa, K. Hashimoto, K. Ikada, Y. H. Lin, H. Shishido, H. J. Shi, Y. Haga, T. D. Matsuda, E. Yamamoto, Y. Onuki, H. Ikeda, and Y. Matsuda.

  15. Supersolid formation in a quantum gas breaking a continuous translational symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, Julian; Morales, Andrea; Zupancic, Philip; Esslinger, Tilman; Donner, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    The concept of a supersolid state combines the crystallization of a many-body system with dissipationless flow of the atoms from which it is built. This quantum phase requires the breaking of two continuous symmetries: the phase invariance of a superfluid and the continuous translational invariance to form the crystal. Despite having been proposed for helium almost 50 years ago, experimental verification of supersolidity remains elusive. A variant with only discrete translational symmetry breaking on a preimposed lattice structure—the ‘lattice supersolid’—has been realized, based on self-organization of a Bose–Einstein condensate. However, lattice supersolids do not feature the continuous ground-state degeneracy that characterizes the supersolid state as originally proposed. Here we report the realization of a supersolid with continuous translational symmetry breaking along one direction in a quantum gas. The continuous symmetry that is broken emerges from two discrete spatial symmetries by symmetrically coupling a Bose–Einstein condensate to the modes of two optical cavities. We establish the phase coherence of the supersolid and find a high ground-state degeneracy by measuring the crystal position over many realizations through the light fields that leak from the cavities. These light fields are also used to monitor the position fluctuations in real time. Our concept provides a route to creating and studying glassy many-body systems with controllably lifted ground-state degeneracies, such as supersolids in the presence of disorder.

  16. Probing symmetry and symmetry breaking in resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.; Guo, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Conventional non-resonant soft X-ray emission brings about information about electronic structure through its symmetry and polarization selectivity, the character of which is governed by simple dipole rules. For centro-symmetric molecules with the emitting atom at the inversion center these rules lead to selective emission through the required parity change. For the more common classes of molecules which have lower symmetry or for systems with degenerate core orbitals (delocalized over identical sites), it is merely the local symmetry selectivity that provides a probe of the local atomic orbital contribution to the molecular orbital. For instance, in X-ray spectra of first row species the intensities essentially map the p-density at each particular atomic site, and, in a molecular orbital picture, the contribution of the local p-type atomic orbitals in the LCAO description of the molecular orbitals. The situation is different for resonant X-ray fluorescence spectra. Here strict parity and symmetry selectivity gives rise to a strong frequency dependence for all molecules with an element of symmetry. In addition to symmetry selectivity the strong frequency dependence of resonant X-ray emission is caused by the interplay between the shape of a narrow X-ray excitation energy function and the lifetime and vibrational broadenings of the resonantly excited core states. This interplay leads to various observable effects, such as linear dispersion, resonance narrowing and emission line (Stokes) doubling. Also from the point of view of polarization selectivity, the resonantly excited X-ray spectra are much more informative than the corresponding non-resonant spectra. Examples are presented for nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide molecules.

  17. Chiral symmetry and pi-pi scattering in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Biernat, Elmar P; Ribeiro, J E; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2014-01-01

    The pi-pi scattering amplitude calculated with a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST) is shown to satisfy the Adler zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. The CST formalism is established in Minkowski space and our calculations are performed in momentum space. We prove that the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is satisfied by our model. Then we show that, similarly to what happens within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism, application of the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity to the CST pi-pi scattering amplitude allows us to sum the intermediate quark-quark interactions to all orders. The Adler self-consistency zero for pi-pi scattering in the chiral limit emerges as the result for this sum.

  18. Mirror-symmetry breakings in human sperm rheotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Norbert; Bukatin, Anton; Kukhtevich, Igor; Dunkel, Joern; Kantsler, Vasily

    Rheotaxis, the directed response to fluid velocity gradients, has been shown to facilitate stable upstream-swimming of mammalian sperm cells along solid surfaces, suggesting a robust mechanism for long-distance navigation during fertilization. However, the dynamics by which a human sperm orients itself w.r.t. ambient flows is poorly understood. Here, we combine microfluidic experiments with mathematical modeling and 3D flagellar beat reconstruction to quantify the response of individual sperm cells in time-varying flow fields. Single-cell tracking reveals two kinematically distinct swimming states that entail opposite turning behaviors under flow reversal. We constrain an effective 2D model for the turning dynamics through systematic large-scale parameter scans, and find good quantitative agreement with experiments. We present comprehensive 3D data demonstrating the rolling dynamics of freely swimming sperm cells around their longitudinal axis. Contrary to current beliefs, this analysis uncovers ambidextrous flagellar waveforms and shows that the cell's turning direction is is not defined by the rolling direction. Instead, the different rheotactic turning behaviors are linked to a broken mirror-symmetry in the midpiece section, likely arising from a buckling instability.

  19. Laser-induced spatial symmetry breaking in quantum and classical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ignacio; Brumer, Paul

    2006-07-28

    Phase-controllable transport in laser-irradiated spatially symmetric systems is shown to arise both quantum mechanically and classically from a common field-driven interference mechanism. Specifically, the quantum-to-classical transition for symmetry breaking in a quartic oscillator driven by an omega+2omega field is studied. For this, a double perturbation theory in the oscillator anharmonicity and external field strength, that admits an analytic classical limit, is carried out in the Heisenberg picture. The interferences responsible for the symmetry breaking are shown to survive in the classical limit and are the origins of classical control. Differences between reflection symmetry that plays a key role in the analysis, and parity that does not, are discussed.

  20. Inversion symmetry breaking of atomic bound states in strong and short laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stooß, Veit; Ott, Christian; Blättermann, Alexander; Ding, Thomas; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In any atomic species, the spherically symmetric potential originating from the charged nucleus results in fundamental symmetry properties governing the structure of atomic states and transition rules between them. If atoms are exposed to external electric fields, these properties are modified giving rise to energy shifts such as the AC Stark-effect in varying fields and, contrary to this in a constant (DC) electric field for high enough field strengths, the breaking of the atomic symmetry which causes fundamental changes in the atom's properties. This has already been observed for atomic Rydberg states with high principal quantum numbers. Here, we report on the observation of symmetry breaking effects in Helium atoms for states with principal quantum number n=2 utilizing strong visible laser fields. These findings were enabled by temporally resolving the dynamics better than the sub-optical cycle of the applied laser field, utilizing the method of attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS). We ident...

  1. Symmetry Breaking, Unification, and Theories Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2009-07-31

    A model was constructed in which the supersymmetric fine-tuning problem is solved without extending the Higgs sector at the weak scale. We have demonstrated that the model can avoid all the phenomenological constraints, while avoiding excessive fine-tuning. We have also studied implications of the model on dark matter physics and collider physics. I have proposed in an extremely simple construction for models of gauge mediation. We found that the {mu} problem can be simply and elegantly solved in a class of models where the Higgs fields couple directly to the supersymmetry breaking sector. We proposed a new way of addressing the flavor problem of supersymmetric theories. We have proposed a new framework of constructing theories of grand unification. We constructed a simple and elegant model of dark matter which explains excess flux of electrons/positrons. We constructed a model of dark energy in which evolving quintessence-type dark energy is naturally obtained. We studied if we can find evidence of the multiverse.

  2. Simplified R-Symmetry Breaking and Low-Scale Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jason L; Sudano, Matthew; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2011-01-01

    We argue that some of the difficulties in constructing realistic models of low-scale gauge mediation are artifacts of the narrow set of models that have been studied. In particular, much attention has been payed to the scenario in which the Goldstino superfield in an O'Raifeartaigh model is responsible for both supersymmetry breaking and R-symmetry breaking. In such models, the competing problems of generating sufficiently massive gauginos while preserving an acceptably light gravitino can be quite challenging. We show that by sharing the burdens of breaking supersymmetry and R-symmetry with a second field, these problems are easily solved even within the O'Raifeartaigh framework. We present explicit models realizing minimal gauge mediation with a gravitino mass in the eV range that are both calculable and falsifiable.

  3. Simplified R-symmetry breaking and low-scale gauge mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason L.; Ibe, Masahiro; Sudano, Matthew; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2012-03-01

    We argue that some of the difficulties in constructing realistic models of lowscale gauge mediation are artifacts of the narrow set of models that have been studied. In particular, much attention has been payed to the scenario in which the Goldstino superfield in an O'Raifeartaigh model is responsible for both supersymmetry breaking and R-symmetry breaking. In such models, the competing problems of generating sufficiently massive gauginos while preserving an acceptably light gravitino can be quite challenging. We show that by sharing the burdens of breaking supersymmetry and R-symmetry with a second field, these problems are easily solved even within the O'Raifeartaigh framework. We present explicit models realizing minimal gauge mediation with a gravitino mass in the eV range that are both calculable and falsifiable.

  4. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ookouchi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the $U(1)_R$ breaking scale $f_a$ is constrained as $f_a<10^{12-14}\\GeV$ regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  5. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, D-22607 (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka, E-mail: hamada@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kohei.kamada@epfl.ch, E-mail: kobayash@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yutaka.ookouchi@artsci.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819–0395 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1){sub R} breaking scale f{sub a} is constrained as f{sub a} < 10{sup 12−14} GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  6. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Arts and Science

    2013-10-15

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1){sub R} breaking scale f{sub a} is constrained as f{sub a}<10{sup 12-14} GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  7. Neutrino-induced Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Supersymmetric SO(10) Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, K; Yoshioka, K; Inoue, Kenzo; Kojima, Kentaro; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    The radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, the unification of third-generation Yukawa couplings, and flavor-changing rare decay are investigated in two types of supersymmetric SO(10) scenarios taking into account of the effects of neutrino physics, i.e. the observed large generation mixing and tiny mass scale. The first scenario is minimal, including right-handed neutrinos at intermediate scale with the unification of third-generation Yukawa couplings. Another is the case that the large mixing of atmospheric neutrinos originates from the charged-lepton sector. Under the SO(10)-motivated boundary conditions for supersymmetry-breaking parameters, typical low-energy particle spectrum is discussed and the parameter space is identified which satisfies the conditions for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and the experimental mass bounds of superparticles. In particular, the predictions of the bottom quark mass and the b \\to s gamma branching ratio are fully analyzed. In both two scenarios, new ty...

  8. Confinement/deconfinement transition from symmetry breaking in gauge/gravity duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čubrović, Mihailo

    2016-10-01

    We study the confinement/deconfinement transition in a strongly coupled system triggered by an independent symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition in gauge/gravity duality. The gravity dual is an Einstein-scalar-dilaton system with AdS near-boundary behavior and soft wall interior at zero scalar condensate. We study the cases of neutral and charged condensate separately. In the former case the condensation breaks the discrete {Z}_2 symmetry while a charged condensate breaks the continuous U(1) symmetry. After the condensation of the order parameter, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the scalar couples to the dilaton, changing the soft wall geometry into a non-confining and anisotropically scale-invariant infrared metric. In other words, the formation of long-range order is immediately followed by the deconfinement transition and the two critical points coincide. The confined phase has a scale — the confinement scale (energy gap) which vanishes in the deconfined case. Therefore, the breaking of the symmetry of the scalar ( {Z}_2 or U(1)) in turn restores the scaling symmetry in the system and neither phase has a higher overall symmetry than the other. When the scalar is charged the phase transition is continuous which goes against the Ginzburg-Landau theory where such transitions generically only occur discontinuously. This phenomenon has some commonalities with the scenario of deconfined criticality. The mechanism we have found has applications mainly in effective field theories such as quantum magnetic systems. We briefly discuss these applications and the relation to real-world systems.

  9. 750 GeV messenger of dark conformal symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Zhang, Cen

    2016-03-01

    The tentative hints for a diphoton resonance at a mass of ˜750 GeV from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC may be interpreted as first contact with a "dark" sector with a spontaneously broken conformal symmetry. The implied TeV scale of the dark sector may be motivated by the interaction strength required to accommodate a viable thermal relic dark matter (DM) candidate. We model the conformal dynamics using a Randall-Sundrum-type five-dimensional geometry whose IR boundary is identified with the dynamics of the composite dark sector, while the Standard Model (SM) matter content resides on the UV boundary, corresponding to "elementary" fields. We allow the gauge fields to reside in the five-dimensional bulk, which can be minimally chosen to be S U (3 )c×U (1 )Y. The "dark" radion is identified as the putative 750 GeV resonance. Heavy vectorlike fermions, often invoked to explain the diphoton excess, are not explicitly present in our model and are not predicted to appear in the spectrum of TeV scale states. Our minimal setup favors scalar DM of O (TeV ) mass. A generic expectation in this scenario, suggested by DM considerations, is the appearance of vector bosons at ˜ few TeV, corresponding to the gluon and hypercharge Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes that couple to UV boundary states with strengths that are suppressed uniformly compared to their SM values. Our analysis suggests that these KK modes could be within the reach of the LHC in the coming years.

  10. Meson Effects on the Chiral Condensate at Finite Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Mei; ZHUANG Peng-Fei; ZHAO Wei-Qin

    2002-01-01

    Meson corrections on the chiral condensate up to next-to-leading order in a 1/Nc expansion at finite densityare investigated in the NJL model with explicit chiral symmetry breaking. Compared with mean-field results, the chiralphase transition is still of the first order while the properties near the critical density for chiral phase transition are foundto change significantly.

  11. Coleman-Weinberg symmetry breaking in $SU(8)$ induced by a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    We study $SU(8)$ symmetry breaking induced by minimizing the Coleman-Weinberg effective potential for a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar field in the 56 representation. Instead of breaking $SU(8) \\supset SU(3) \\times SU(5)$, we find that the stable minimum of the potential breaks the original symmetry according to $SU(8) \\supset SU(3) \\times Sp(4)$. Using both numerical and analytical methods, we present results for the potential minimum, the corresponding Goldstone boson structure and BEH mechanism, and the group-theoretic classification of the residual states after symmetry breaking.

  12. Coleman-Weinberg symmetry breaking in SU(8) induced by a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2016-08-01

    We study SU(8) symmetry breaking induced by minimizing the Coleman-Weinberg effective potential for a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar field in the 56 representation. Instead of breaking {SU}(8)\\supset {SU}(3)× {SU}(5), we find that the stable minimum of the potential breaks the original symmetry according to {SU}(8)\\supset {SU}(3)× {Sp}(4). Using both numerical and analytical methods, we present results for the potential minimum, the corresponding Goldstone boson structure and BEH mechanism, and the group-theoretic classification of the residual states after symmetry breaking.

  13. Spontaneous symmetry breaking for geometrical trajectories of actin-based motility in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fu-Lai; Leung, Kwan-tai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-07-01

    Actin-based motility is important for many cellular processes. In this article we extend our previous studies of an actin-propelled circular disk in two dimensions to an actin-propelled spherical bead in three dimensions. We find that for an achiral load the couplings between the motion of the load and the actin network induce a series of bifurcations, starting with a transition from rest to moving state, followed by a transition from straight to planar curves, and finally a further transition from motion in a plane to one with torsion. To address the intriguing, experimentally observed chiral motility of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, we also study the motility of a spherical load with a built-in chirality. For such a chiral load, stable circular trajectories are no longer found in numerical simulations. Instead, helical trajectories with handedness that depends on the chirality of the load are found. Our results reveal the relation between the symmetry of actin network and the trajectories of actin-propelled loads.

  14. Probing the Source of Proton Mass by"Unbreaking" Scale-Chiral Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque

    2016-01-01

    I describe a possible scenario for the origin of proton mass in terms of Cheshire Cat, half-skyrmions, topology change and interplay between hidden chiral-scale symmetry and induced local symmetry. This differs from the standard constituent-quark scenario. As the baryonic matter density is increased toward the vector manifestation (VM) fixed-point at which the $\\rho$ mass is to vanish, the effective in-medium mass ratio $m^*_\\rho/m^*_N$ is to tend to zero proportionally to $g^*_\\rho$ where $g^*_\\rho$ is the in-medium hidden gauge coupling constant. I develop the thesis that the intricacy involved in the mass generation could be decoded from experiments at RIB accelerators and massive compact stars.

  15. Kagome Chiral Spin Liquid as a Gauged U (1 ) Symmetry Protected Topological Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin-Chen; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank; Moessner, R.

    2015-12-01

    While the existence of a chiral spin liquid (CSL) on a class of spin-1 /2 kagome antiferromagnets is by now well established numerically, a controlled theoretical path from the lattice model leading to a low-energy topological field theory is still lacking. This we provide via an explicit construction starting from reformulating a microscopic model for a CSL as a lattice gauge theory and deriving the low-energy form of its continuum limit. A crucial ingredient is the realization that the bosonic spinons of the gauge theory exhibit a U (1 ) symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase, which upon promoting its U (1 ) global symmetry to a local gauge structure ("gauging"), yields the CSL. We suggest that such an explicit lattice-based construction involving gauging of a SPT phase can be applied more generally to understand topological spin liquids.

  16. Kagome Chiral Spin Liquid as a Gauged U(1) Symmetry Protected Topological Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin-Chen; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank; Moessner, R

    2015-12-31

    While the existence of a chiral spin liquid (CSL) on a class of spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnets is by now well established numerically, a controlled theoretical path from the lattice model leading to a low-energy topological field theory is still lacking. This we provide via an explicit construction starting from reformulating a microscopic model for a CSL as a lattice gauge theory and deriving the low-energy form of its continuum limit. A crucial ingredient is the realization that the bosonic spinons of the gauge theory exhibit a U(1) symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase, which upon promoting its U(1) global symmetry to a local gauge structure ("gauging"), yields the CSL. We suggest that such an explicit lattice-based construction involving gauging of a SPT phase can be applied more generally to understand topological spin liquids.

  17. Simulation of Vortex-Antivortex Pair Production in a Phase Transition with Explicit Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Digal, S; Srivastava, A M; Digal, Sanatan; Sengupta, Supratim; Srivastava, Ajit M.

    1998-01-01

    We carry out numerical simulation of the formation of U(1) global vortices in a first order phase transition in 2+1 dimensions in the presence of small explicit symmetry breaking. Bubbles of broken symmetry phase are randomly nucleated, which grow and coalesce. Vortices are formed at junctions of bubbles via standard Kibble mechanism as well as due to a new mechanism, recently proposed by us, where defect-antidefect pairs can be produced due to field oscillations. We find that, due to explicit symmetry breaking, vortex production is completely dominated by this new mechanism, which account for the production of about 80% of the vortices and antivortices, remaining 20% being produced via the Kibble mechanism. We study the dependence of the effectiveness of the new mechanism on the magnitude of explicit symmetry breaking, as well as on the nucleation rate of bubbles. We also study the effect of damping on this mechanism and show that damping suppresses this mode of vortex production.

  18. Confinement/deconfinement transition from symmetry breaking in gauge/gravity duality

    CERN Document Server

    Čubrović, Mihailo

    2016-01-01

    We study the confinement/deconfinement transition in a strongly coupled system triggered by an independent symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition in gauge/gravity duality. The gravity dual is an Einstein-scalar-dilaton system with AdS near-boundary behavior and soft wall interior at zero scalar condensate. We study the cases of neutral and charged condensate separately. In the former case the condensation breaks the discrete $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry while a charged condensate breaks the continuous $U(1)$ symmetry. After the condensation of the order parameter, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the scalar couples to the dilaton, changing the soft wall geometry into a non-confining and anisotropically scale-invariant infrared metric. In other words, the formation of long-range order is immediately followed by the deconfinement transition and the two critical points coincide. The confined phase has a scale -- the confinement scale (energy gap) which vanishes in the deconfined case. Therefore, the break...

  19. Vector chirality for effective total momentum Jeff in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator: Effects of strong spin-orbit coupling and broken inversion symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Naoya

    2016-11-01

    I propose the emergence of the spin-orbital-coupled vector chirality in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator with the strong spin-orbit coupling due to a b -plane's inversion-symmetry (IS) breaking. I derive the superexchange interactions for a t2 g-orbital Hubbard model on a square lattice with the strong spin-orbit coupling and the IS-breaking-induced hopping integrals, and explain the microscopic origins of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) -type and the Kitaev-type interactions. Then, by adopting the mean-field approximation to a minimal model including only the Heisenberg-type and the DM-type nearest-neighbor interactions, I show that the IS breaking causes the spin-orbital-coupled chirality as a result of stabilizing the screw state. I also highlight the limit of the hard-pseudospin approximation in discussing the stability of the screw states in the presence of both the DM-type and the Kitaev-type interactions, and discuss its meaning. I finally discuss the effects of tetragonal crystal field and Jeff=3/2 states, and the application to the iridates near the [001 ] surface of Sr2IrO4 and the interface between Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7 .

  20. Breaking inversion symmetry induces excitonic peak in optical absorption of topological semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadsetani, Mehrdad; Ebrahimian, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present ab initio study on linear optical properties of Dirac and Weyl semimetals and tried to find the consequences of inversion symmetry breaking in the optical properties of topological semimetal. The real and imaginary part of dielectric function in addition to energy loss spectra of topological semimetal with and without inversion symmetry have been calculated within Random phase approximation (RPA) then the electron-hole interaction is included by solving the Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE) for the electron-hole Green's function. We find that the lack of inversion symmetry and spin-orbit interaction increases the density of states at Fermi level, giving rise to excitonic peak in optical absorption of topological semimetal. It is remarkable that the excitonic effects in high energy range of the spectrum are stronger than in the lower one. To explore the breaking of inversion symmetry related optical properties, we have investigated the optical properties of Dirac semimetals Na3Bi and BaPt and compared them to corresponding ones in Weyl semimetals NbP and Na3Bi0.75Sb0.25. Our calculations show that NbP, which lacks inversion symmetry, has high energy exciton at 10 and 10.8 eV. In contrast with Na3Bi, electron-hole interactions give rise to several weak peaks at different energy in the optical absorption of Na3Bi0.75Sb0.25 while its red shift is less pronounced.