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Sample records for chipmunks

  1. Observations of Sympatric Populations of Least Chipmunks (Tamias minimus) and Hopi Chipmunks (Tamias rufus) in Western Colorado, 1995–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, Jeffrey B.; Jeffrey Root, J.; Calisher, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    From 1995 through 2006, we studied a rodent community in western Colorado, observing weather conditions and their effects on least chipmunk (Tamias minimus) and Hopi chipmunk (T. rufus) populations. There are few studies that have assessed relative abundances of chipmunks over long durations and none have been conducted on least chipmunks or Hopi chipmunks. This study is unique in that it assesses abundances of sympatric populations of these chipmunks over a 12-year period. We captured 116 le...

  2. Observations of Sympatric Populations of Least Chipmunks (Tamias minimus) and Hopi Chipmunks (Tamias rufus) in Western Colorado, 1995-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1995 through 2006, we studied a rodent community in western Colorado, observing weather conditions and their effects on least chipmunk (Tamias minimus) and Hopi chipmunk (T. rufus) populations. There are few studies that have assessed relative abundances of chipmunks over long durations and none have been conducted on least chipmunks or Hopi chipmunks. This study is unique in that it assesses abundances of sympatric populations of these chipmunks over a 12-year period. We captured 116 least chipmunks and 62 Hopi chipmunks during 47,850 trap nights of effort. Results indicated that year-to-year precipitation and temperature fluctuations had little effect on these chipmunk populations. However, the relative abundances of Hopi chipmunks and least chipmunks appear to have an inverse relationship with each other, suggesting the potential for resource competition between these congeners.

  3. Sustentabilidade da Frota DHC1 CHIPMUNK

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luís

    2012-01-01

    O sistema de armas Chipmunk está ao serviço da Força Aérea Portuguesa desde 1951. Desde essa altura, já comportou diversas modificações, tendo procurado manter-se a aeronave operacional e o mais adequada possível à missão e aos padrões de segurança dos nossos dias. Há já 14 anos que a aeronave foi remotorizada, com um novo motor mais potente, tendo sido introduzida ao serviço da Academia da Força Aérea para efetuar a atividade aérea curricular com os alunos daquele estabelec...

  4. The ecology of tick-transmitted infections in the redwood chipmunk (Tamias ochrogenys)

    OpenAIRE

    Janet E. Foley; Nieto, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The redwood chipmunk contributes to the maintenance of tick-borne diseases in northern California. The range of redwood chipmunks overlaps that of western black-legged ticks and tick-borne disease, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme borreliosis. Chipmunks have high Anaplasma phagocytophilum PCR- and seroprevalence, are infested with a diversity of Ixodes spp. ticks, and are reservoir competent for Borrelia burgdorferi. We hypothesized that chipmunks could maintain tick-borne disease...

  5. Subtyping novel zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaqiong; Cebelinski, Elizabeth; Matusevich, Christine; Alderisio, Kerri A; Lebbad, Marianne; McEvoy, John; Roellig, Dawn M; Yang, Chunfu; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-05-01

    Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I is an emerging zoonotic pathogen in humans. The lack of subtyping tools makes it impossible to determine the role of zoonotic transmission in epidemiology. To identify potential subtyping markers, we sequenced the genome of a human chipmunk genotype I isolate. Altogether, 9,509,783 bp of assembled sequences in 853 contigs were obtained, with an N50 of 117,886 bp and >200-fold coverage. Based on the whole-genome sequence data, two genetic markers encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) and a mucin protein (ortholog of cgd1_470) were selected for the development of a subtyping tool. The tool was used for characterizing chipmunk genotype I in 25 human specimens from four U.S. states and Sweden, one specimen each from an eastern gray squirrel, a chipmunk, and a deer mouse, and 4 water samples from New York. At the gp60 locus, although different subtypes were seen among the animals, water, and humans, the 15 subtypes identified differed mostly in the numbers of trinucleotide repeats (TCA, TCG, or TCT) in the serine repeat region, with only two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nonrepeat region. Some geographic differences were found in the subtype distribution of chipmunk genotype I from humans. In contrast, only two subtypes were found at the mucin locus, which differed from each other in the numbers of a 30-bp minisatellite repeat. Thus, Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I isolates from humans and wildlife are genetically similar, and zoonotic transmission might play a potential role in human infections. PMID:25762767

  6. Alvin and the Chipmunks Ⅲ%鼠来宝3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑婷

    2011-01-01

    The three chipmunks (花栗鼠) and the female chipmunks get on a cruise(豪华游轮) and then begin their happy journey(旅行).%三只花栗鼠和鼠妹们登上了一艘豪华游轮,并开始了一段充满了欢乐的航海旅程。在船上,艾尔文变成了名副其实的捣蛋鬼,闹出了不少让人好笑又让人生气的乱子,

  7. Biology of the eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major goals of this project were development of baseline ecological data for the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) over time and space; and determination of the effect of sublethal ionizing radiation on populations of this species. The study focussed on free-ranging populations in southern Vermont, was long term 1965-1973, and was simultaneously descriptive and experimental. Data were integrated with those from a concurrent similar study in Pennsylvania. The work has produced one of the most extensive sets of ecological data available on a native, free-ranging small mammal and makes the eastern chipmunk a useful and desirable species for experimental studies in physiology, behavior, ecology, and evolution. Eastern chipmunk densities are correlated in general with production of mast, their staple food. Variation in production of young from season to season is one of the major ways in which numbers are regulated. Single insults of 200 R or 400 R of gamma radiation decreased the rate of disappearance of individuals from the populations so treated. In a population in which average range size of males was quite large, irradiation resulted in reduction in home range in comparison to a control group

  8. Habitat features and predictive habitat modeling for the Colorado chipmunk in southern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivieccio, M.; Thompson, B.C.; Gould, W.R.; Boykin, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    Two subspecies of Colorado chipmunk (state threatened and federal species of concern) occur in southern New Mexico: Tamias quadrivittatus australis in the Organ Mountains and T. q. oscuraensis in the Oscura Mountains. We developed a GIS model of potentially suitable habitat based on vegetation and elevation features, evaluated site classifications of the GIS model, and determined vegetation and terrain features associated with chipmunk occurrence. We compared GIS model classifications with actual vegetation and elevation features measured at 37 sites. At 60 sites we measured 18 habitat variables regarding slope, aspect, tree species, shrub species, and ground cover. We used logistic regression to analyze habitat variables associated with chipmunk presence/absence. All (100%) 37 sample sites (28 predicted suitable, 9 predicted unsuitable) were classified correctly by the GIS model regarding elevation and vegetation. For 28 sites predicted suitable by the GIS model, 18 sites (64%) appeared visually suitable based on habitat variables selected from logistic regression analyses, of which 10 sites (36%) were specifically predicted as suitable habitat via logistic regression. We detected chipmunks at 70% of sites deemed suitable via the logistic regression models. Shrub cover, tree density, plant proximity, presence of logs, and presence of rock outcrop were retained in the logistic model for the Oscura Mountains; litter, shrub cover, and grass cover were retained in the logistic model for the Organ Mountains. Evaluation of predictive models illustrates the need for multi-stage analyses to best judge performance. Microhabitat analyses indicate prospective needs for different management strategies between the subspecies. Sensitivities of each population of the Colorado chipmunk to natural and prescribed fire suggest that partial burnings of areas inhabited by Colorado chipmunks in southern New Mexico may be beneficial. These partial burnings may later help avoid a fire

  9. West Nile Virus Viremia in Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias striatus) Sufficient for Infecting Different Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Kenneth B.; Tucker, Bradley J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Blitvich, Bradley J; Fabiosa, Flor G.; BARTHOLOMAY, LYRIC C.; Rowley, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    In eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) inoculated intramuscularly with 101.5 to 105.7 PFU of West Nile virus (WNV), serum titers developed sufficient to infect Aedes triseriatus (Say), Ae. vexans (Meigen), and Culex pipiens (L.). Mean titers (95% confidence interval) of 8 chipmunks were 103.9(3.3–4.5), 106.7(6.4–7.0), and 105.8(4.1–7.5) PFU/mL on days 1–3 postinoculation (p.i.) and 105.8 PFU/mL in 1 chipmunk on day 4 p.i. Mean estimated days that WNV titers were >104.8 and >105.6 were 1.7 (1....

  10. A Virus Similar to Human Hepatitis B Virus in Manchurian Chipmunks +

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Byung Chul; Park, Sil Moo; Kim, Chung Yong; Park, Hyo Sook; Seo, Jeong Sun

    1988-01-01

    In searching for a new host of the hepadna virus, we found a virus with many of the unique properties of the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) in sera from Manchurian chipmunks inhabiting Korea. Of 192 tested animals, 8 chipmunks were found to have weak HBsAg reactivities and particles similar in size and shape to the particles assoicated with HBV infection. The HBsAg-reactive particles contained DNA of similar size to that of HBV and a DNA polymerase activity which appeared to repair a single-st...

  11. Visual landmark-directed scatter-hoarding of Siberian chipmunks Tamias sibiricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyuan; Li, Jia; Wang, Zhenyu; Yi, Xianfeng

    2016-05-01

    Spatial memory of cached food items plays an important role in cache recovery by scatter-hoarding animals. However, whether scatter-hoarding animals intentionally select cache sites with respect to visual landmarks in the environment and then rely on them to recover their cached seeds for later use has not been extensively explored. Furthermore, there is a lack of evidence on whether there are sex differences in visual landmark-based food-hoarding behaviors in small rodents even though male and female animals exhibit different spatial abilities. In the present study, we used a scatter-hoarding animal, the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus to explore these questions in semi-natural enclosures. Our results showed that T. sibiricus preferred to establish caches in the shallow pits labeled with visual landmarks (branches of Pinus sylvestris, leaves of Athyrium brevifrons and PVC tubes). In addition, visual landmarks of P. sylvestris facilitated cache recovery by T. sibiricus. We also found significant sex differences in visual landmark-based food-hoarding strategies in Siberian chipmunks. Males, rather than females, chipmunks tended to establish their caches with respect to the visual landmarks. Our studies show that T. sibiricus rely on visual landmarks to establish and recover their caches, and that sex differences exist in visual landmark-based food hoarding in Siberian chipmunks. PMID:27160702

  12. Helminth fauna of the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus Laxmann (Rodentia, Sciuridae) introduced in suburban French forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Benoît; Jerusalem, Christelle; Huchery, Cindy; Marmet, Julie; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2007-05-01

    The spread of an immigrant host species can be influenced both by its specific helminth parasites that come along with it and by newly acquired infections from native fauna. The Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus Laxmann (Rodentia, Sciuridae), a northeastern Eurasiatic ground nesting Sciurid, has been introduced in France for less than three decades. Thirty individuals were collected from three suburban forests in the Ile-de-France Region between 2002 and 2006. Two intestinal nematode species dominated the helminth fauna: Brevistriata skrjabini [Prevalence, P, 99% C.I., 87% (64-97%); mean intensity, M.I., 99% C.I., 43 (28-78)] and Aonchotheca annulosa [P, 47% (25-69%); M.I., 35 (3-157)]. B. skrjabini is a direct life cycle nematode species of North Eurasiatic origin, with a restricted spectrum of phylogenetically related suitable hosts. This result indicates that B. skrjabini successfully settled and spread with founder pet chipmunks maintained in captivity and released in natura. Chipmunks acquired A. annulosa, a nematode species with a large spectrum of phylogenetically unrelated suitable host species, from local Muroid rodent species with similar behavior, life-history traits and habitats. Quantitative studies are needed to evaluate the potential for both B. skrjabini and A. annulosa to impede the spread of Tamias and for B. skrjabini to favor chipmunk colonization through detrimental effects upon native co-inhabiting host species.

  13. Chipmunk IV: development of and experience with a new generation of radiation area monitors for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of a high-energy accelerator complex presents challenging problems for radiation monitoring during 'beam-on' conditions. As a response to these needs, Fermilab has developed several families of radiation monitoring instruments intended for use under beam-on conditions. One of these instruments is a tissue equivalent, ion chamber based, area monitor called a 'Chipmunk'. This article describes the latest version of these monitors, specifically the Chipmunk IV, as developed at Fermilab

  14. Chipmunk IV: development of and experience with a new generation of radiation area monitors for accelerator applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, F

    2002-01-01

    The operation of a high-energy accelerator complex presents challenging problems for radiation monitoring during 'beam-on' conditions. As a response to these needs, Fermilab has developed several families of radiation monitoring instruments intended for use under beam-on conditions. One of these instruments is a tissue equivalent, ion chamber based, area monitor called a 'Chipmunk'. This article describes the latest version of these monitors, specifically the Chipmunk IV, as developed at Fermilab.

  15. 花鼠耗氧量的研究%Research on the Oxygen Consumption of Chipmunk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽欣; 金志民; 刘铸; 吕延鑫

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The rate of the oxygen consumption of chipmunk at different temperatures was measured to understand its standard metabolism. [Method] The rate of the oxygen consumption of chipmunk under the condition of 5 temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ℃ , was measured. [ Results] In the range of the temperature from 15 - 20 ℃, the amount and rate of oxygen consumption of chipmunk were generally increased with temperature-increasing and in the range of the temperature from 20-35 ℃ range, the amount and rate of oxygen consumption of chipmunk were generally reduced with temperature-increasing. There was little relation between the body weight of the chipmunk and the a-mount and rate of its oxygen consumption. Both the amount and rate of oxygen consumption of the chipmunk showed a significant linear regression relationship with temperature. And a linear regression equation of the oxygen consumption X0 (ml/ h) and the temperature t was: X0 = 244. 03 - 2. 66f and a linear regression equation of the rate oxygen consumption (Q0 [ L/( kg · H)] and the temperature t was Q0 =2 249. 3 - 24. 49t. [Conclusion] The basic data for the protection and in-depth research on mice was accumulated.%[目的]了解花鼠的标准代谢水平,测定了花鼠在不同温度情况下的耗氧率.[方法]测定了15、20、25、30、35℃,5种温度下,花鼠的耗氧量.[结果]在15 -20℃,花鼠的耗氧量和耗氧率总体是随温度升高而升高.20~35℃范围内,花鼠的耗氧量和耗氧率总体是随温度升高而减少.体重与耗氧量和耗氧率关系不大,另外花鼠的耗氧量、耗氧率与温度均呈显著的线性回归关系.并得出耗氧量X0( ml/h)与温度t的一元线性回归方程:X0=244.03 -2.66t,耗氧率Q0[ml/(kg· h)]与温度t的一元线性回归方程Q0 =2249.3 -24.49t.[结论]为该种鼠的保护和深入研究积累基础资料.

  16. Reservoir Competence of the Redwood Chipmunk (Tamias Ochrogenys) for Anaplasma Phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, Nathan C.; Janet E. Foley

    2009-01-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) is an emerging tick-transmitted disease that persists in rodent- Ixodes ricinus-complex tick cycles across the Holarctic. Although the putative reservoir for anaplasmosis in the western United States is the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), this rodent was not shown reservoir-competent because of failure of infection from woodrats to other animals via ticks. Redwood chipmunks are common in habitats where Anaplasma phagocytophilum is common, have high PCR-...

  17. Fungi in the diets of northern flying squirrels and lodgepole chipmunks in the Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, M D; North, M P; D. A. Kelt

    2005-01-01

    The diets of a fungal specialist, northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw, 1801)), and a dietary generalist, lodgepole chipmunk (Neotamias speciosus (Merriam, 1890)), were examined in the old-growth, mixed-conifer forest at the Teakettle Experimental Forest in California's southern Sierra Nevada. Spores of fungi were identified from fecal pellets collected from both species during spring and summer of 1999 through 2002. Frequency of fungi in the diets of both squirrel species was c...

  18. Contrasting stress responses of two co-occurring chipmunk species (Tamias alpinus and T. speciosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Talisin T; Palme, Rupert; Lacey, Eileen A

    2015-01-15

    Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are important mediators of responses to environmental conditions. Accordingly, differences in GC physiology may contribute to interspecific variation in response to anthropogenically-induced patterns of climate change. To begin exploring this possibility, we validated the use of fecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites (FCM) to measure baseline glucocorticoid levels in two species of co-occurring chipmunks that have exhibited markedly different patterns of response to environmental change. In Yosemite National Park, the alpine chipmunk (Tamias alpinus) has undergone a significant upward contraction of its elevational range over the past century; in contrast, the lodgepole chipmunk (Tamiasspeciosus) has experienced no significant change in elevational distribution over this period. To determine if GC levels in these species vary in response to external stimuli and to assess whether these responses differ between species, we compared FCM levels for the same individuals (1) at the time of capture in the field, (2) after a short period of captivity, and (3) after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), (4) handling, and (5) trapping challenges conducted while these animals were held in captivity. Our analyses indicate that T. alpinus was more responsive to several of these changes in external conditions. Although both species displayed a significant FCM response to ACTH challenge, only T. alpinus showed a significant response to our handling challenge and to captive housing conditions. These findings underscore the importance of species-specific validation studies and support the potential for studies of GC physiology to generate insights into interspecific differences in response to environmental change. PMID:25461808

  19. Morphological and dietary responses of chipmunks to a century of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rachel E; Aprígio Assis, Ana Paula; Patton, James L; Marroig, Gabriel; Dawson, Todd E; Lacey, Eileen A

    2016-09-01

    Predicting how individual taxa will respond to climatic change is challenging, in part because the impacts of environmental conditions can vary markedly, even among closely related species. Studies of chipmunks (Tamias spp.) in Yosemite National Park provide an important opportunity to explore the reasons for this variation in response. While the alpine chipmunk (T. alpinus) has undergone a significant elevational range contraction over the past century, the congeneric and partially sympatric lodgepole chipmunk (T. speciosus) has not experienced an elevational range shift during this period. As a first step toward identifying the factors underlying this difference in response, we examined evidence for dietary changes and changes in cranial morphology in these species over the past century. Stable isotope analyses of fur samples from modern and historical museum specimens of these species collected at the same localities indicated that signatures of dietary change were more pronounced in T. alpinus, although diet breadth did not differ consistently between the study species. Morphometric analyses of crania from these specimens revealed significant changes in cranial shape for T. alpinus, with less pronounced changes in shape for T. speciosus; evidence of selection on skull morphology was detected for T. alpinus, but not for T. speciosus. These results are consistent with growing evidence that T. alpinus is generally more responsive to environmental change than T. speciosus, but emphasize the complex and often geographically variable nature of such responses. Accordingly, future studies that make use of the taxonomically and spatially integrative approach employed here may prove particularly informative regarding relationships between environmental conditions, range changes, and patterns of phenotypic variation. PMID:26732228

  20. Effect of chronic gamma-irradiation on chipmunks kept in vivarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity, the dynamics of changes in the body mass and the weight of some internal organs of chipmunks at different physiological status were studied in normal conditions (0.86 pA/kg) and during chronic gamma-irradiation at low dose-rates (46.3 pA/kg). The stated higher indications of body mass and the lower activity of the animals from the experirental group during the hbernation period can be regarded as the favourable protective reaction of the organism to the chronic effects of gamma-irradiation with low doses

  1. Introduced Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) harbor more-diverse Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies than native bank voles (Myodes glareolus)

    OpenAIRE

    Marsot, Maud; Sigaud, M.; Chapuis, J L; Ferquel, E.; Vourc'H, Gwenaël

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has been given in scientific literature to how introduced species may act as a new host for native infectious agents and modify the epidemiology of a disease. In this study, we investigated whether an introduced species, the Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus barberi), was a potentially new reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease. First, we ascertained whether chipmunks were infected by all of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato geno...

  2. Introduced Siberian Chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) Harbor More-Diverse Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Genospecies than Native Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus)▿

    OpenAIRE

    Marsot, M.; Sigaud, M.; Chapuis, J L; Ferquel, E.; Cornet, M.; Vourc'h, G

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has been given in scientific literature to how introduced species may act as a new host for native infectious agents and modify the epidemiology of a disease. In this study, we investigated whether an introduced species, the Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus barberi), was a potentially new reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease. First, we ascertained whether chipmunks were infected by all of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato geno...

  3. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Brianna L S; Clark, Mark E; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W; Dyer, Neil W; Schultz, Jessie L; McEvoy, John M

    2015-06-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans, livestock, and other vertebrates. Much of the knowledge on Cryptosporidium diversity is derived from 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) phylogenies. Eukaryote genomes generally have multiple 18S rDNA copies that evolve in concert, which is necessary for the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships. However, 18S rDNA copies in some genomes evolve by a birth-and-death process that can result in sequence divergence among copies. Most notably, divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in the apicomplexan Plasmodium share only 89-95% sequence similarity, encode structurally distinct rRNA molecules, and are expressed at different life cycle stages. In the present study, Cryptosporidium 18S rDNA was amplified from 28/72 (38.9%) eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Phylogenetic analyses showed the co-occurrence of two 18S rDNA types, Type A and Type B, in 26 chipmunks, and Type B clustered with a sequence previously identified as Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Types A and B had a sister group relationship but shared less than 93% sequence similarity. In contrast, actin and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences were homogeneous in samples with both Types A and B present. It was therefore concluded that Types A and B are divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Substitution patterns in Types A and B were consistent with functionally constrained evolution; however, Type B evolved more rapidly than Type A and had a higher G+C content (46.3% versus 41.0%). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II measured 4.17 μm (3.73-5.04 μm) × 3.94 μm (3.50-4.98 μm) with a length-to-width ratio of 1.06 ± 0.06 μm, and infection occurred naturally in the jejunum, cecum, and colon of eastern chipmunks. The findings of this study have implications for the use of 18S rDNA sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships.

  4. Chipmunk parvovirus is distinct from members in the genus Erythrovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Chen

    Full Text Available The transcription profile of chipmunk parvovirus (ChpPV, a tentative member of the genus Erythrovirus in the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, was characterized by transfecting a nearly full-length genome. We found that it is unique from the profiles of human parvovirus B19 and simian parvovirus, the members in the genus Erythrovirus so far characterized, in that the small RNA transcripts were not processed for encoding small non-structural proteins. However, like the large non-structural protein NS1 of the human parvovirus B19, the ChpPV NS1 is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Further phylogenetic analysis of ChpPV with other parvoviruses in the subfamily Parvovirinae indicates that ChpPV is distinct from the members in genus Erythrovirus. Thus, we conclude that ChpPV may represent a new genus in the family Parvoviridae.

  5. Comparison between effects of caffeine and ryanodine on electromechanical coupling in myocardium of hibernating chipmunks: role of internal Ca stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, N

    1988-01-01

    1. To clarify the cause of uncoupling of Ca influx through Ca channels and the contractility of the myocardium in hibernating chipmunks, the electromechanical effects of two different internal Ca store inhibitors, caffeine and ryanodine, and a cardiotonic agent, isoprenaline, were investigated in papillary muscles of hibernating animals. 2. Ryanodine (10(-6) M), an inhibitor of internal Ca release, abolished the contraction with a marked inhibition of the action potential plateau (APp). In su...

  6. The Roles of Ecology and Habitat Use in Explaining Range Shifts by Chipmunks in Yosemite National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence that global climates are changing, predicting organismal responses to such changes poses a vexing research challenge, in part because responses can vary dramatically, even among closely related species. Studies of chipmunks (Tamias spp.) in Yosemite National Park provide a unique opportunity to explore the reasons for variation in species-specific spatial and temporal responses to a century of environmental change. Comparisons of historic and modern distribution...

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on range parameters in the eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free-ranging eastern chipmunks at two sites in northwestern Pennsylvania were treated with a single insult of either 200 R or 400 R of gamma radiation. Controls consisted of the untreated individuals at each site. The minimum area and the length of the home range were estimated from repeated live-trapping of individuals. Also calculated was the distance between successive captures of each individual. Significance of the results was tested by a least squares analysis of variance. At one site the control group males had larger and longer ranges and moved farther between captures than did males of either treated group. Females in this population were inconsistent in that range parameters in the 400 R and control groups were similar and larger than in the 200 R group. At the other site treatment effects were not shown by either sex. The significant difference in range and movement between treated and control groups ocurred only in the populations which utilized the largest ranges. Thus, it was speculated that reduction in range size as a result of radiation exposure may occur only when that range size exceeds some threshold level. Males consistently had larger ranges and moved farther between captures than did the females in the same site and treatment category. Likewise sex and treatment groups at one site consistently utilized larger ranges than the comparable groups at the other site

  8. Induction of Unseasonable Hibernation and Involvement of Serotonin in Entrance into and Maintenance of Its Hibernation of Chipmunks T. asiaticus

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Noboru; Kono, Ryota; Nakahara, Keiko; Ida, Takanori; Kuroda, Haruto

    2000-01-01

    Chipmunks that had been housed at 22℃ under a light-dark cycle of 14L:10D for at least one year were exposed to a short photoperiod (10L:14D) and low temperature to induce unseasonable hibernation. We were able to induce hibernation at any time of year and there was no significant difference in the duration of the hibernation bout, the duration of interbout euthermia and duration of bouts of torpor throughout the year, however entrance into hibernation took about 60 days in summer but only ab...

  9. Biphasic mortality response of chipmunks in the wild to single doses of ionizing radiation: Toxicity and longevity hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on survivalship data from Tryon and Snyder, wild chipmunks (Tamias striatus), captured, exposed to single doses of either 200 or 400 rad ionizing radiation, and subsequently returned to their natural habitat, exhibited a biphasic response in age-specific mortality rate (omega x). On the one hand, a residuum of unrepaired toxicity (injury) appeared to persist and manifest itself throughout life (enhancement of omega x values). A second response, termed longevity hormesis (of unknown mechanism), was also observed. This phenomenon initially reduced omega x values but was reversible. A relatively simple mathematical model characterizing differences in mortality experience between control and irradiated populations was formulated and tested. Although there were some shortcomings, the model characterized the data reasonably well

  10. Ecology, distribution, and predictive occurrence modeling of Palmers chipmunk (Tamias palmeri): a high-elevation small mammal endemic to the Spring Mountains in southern Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Chris E.; Longshore, Kathleen; Riddle, Brett R.; Mantooth, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Although montane sky islands surrounded by desert scrub and shrub steppe comprise a large part of the biological diversity of the Basin and Range Province of southwestern North America, comprehensive ecological and population demographic studies for high-elevation small mammals within these areas are rare. Here, we examine the ecology and population parameters of the Palmer’s chipmunk (Tamias palmeri) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, and present a predictive GIS-based distribution and probability of occurrence model at both home range and geographic spatial scales. Logistic regression analyses and Akaike Information Criterion model selection found variables of forest type, slope, and distance to water sources as predictive of chipmunk occurrence at the geographic scale. At the home range scale, increasing population density, decreasing overstory canopy cover, and decreasing understory canopy cover contributed to increased survival rates.

  11. Electrophysiological effects of Ca antagonists, tetrodotoxin, [Ca]o and [Na]o on myocardium of hibernating chipmunks: possible involvement of Na-Ca exchange mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, N

    1987-01-01

    The electrophysiological performance of myocardium of hibernating chipmunks was investigated in the presence of Ca antagonists and tetrodotoxin, and the effects of high [Ca]o and low [Na]o were examined. The action potential of the preparations was characterized by the low amplitude of the plateau phase (APp). Ca antagonists, nifedipine (10(-6) M) and nitrendipine (2 X 10(-6) M), did not significantly inhibit this APp or the contraction. These nifedipine-insensitive electromechanical response...

  12. 同种或异种干扰对花鼠分散贮藏点选择的影响%Effects of conspecific and interspecific interference competitions on cache site selection of Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申圳; 董钟; 曹令立; 张明明; 刘国强; 易现峰

    2012-01-01

    同种和异种干扰竞争可以增强花鼠(Tamias sibiricus)分散贮食强度,但对其贮藏点选择的影响还不清楚.在半自然围栏内,研究了同种(干扰源为不同性别花鼠)或异种(干扰源为大林姬鼠,Apodemus peninsulae)干扰竞争对花鼠贮藏点选择的影响.结果发现:(1)同种和异种干扰竞争均显著降低了花鼠在高竞争区内的贮藏比例;(2)同种个体存在时,雌性花鼠显著降低了在高竞争区内的贮藏比例,雄性花鼠则显著增加了在中竞争区的埋藏比例.结果表明,花鼠贮藏食物时会避开高竞争区域以降低同种或异种的盗食损失,同时雌雄个体对同种竞争干扰的响应有所差异.%Siberian chipmunks ( Tamias sibiricus) tend to increase scatter-hoarding intensity in face of competitions posited by conspecifics and / or interspecifics; however, little is known how they deposit their caches in response to these competitions. Within outdoor enclosures, we investigated how Siberian chipmunks response to conspecifics ( females and males) and interspecifics (Korean field mice, Apodemus peninsulae) in cache site selection. We found; (1) Siberian chipmunks avoided to cache in the areas of high competitions in face of both conspecifics and interspecifics; ( 2) female chipmunks decreased to cache in the high competition areas, while males increased to cache in the median competition areas when conspecifics presented. These results suggest that when competition is high, Siberian chipmunks tend to reduce hoarding foods in the areas with high competition to avoid pilferage; however, males and females may response differently to conspecifics in cache site selection.

  13. SKIN AND HAIR FOLLICLES BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHIPMUNKS%花鼠皮肤毛囊的生物学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿婧; 郭俊; 王潇; 徐秋筠; 尹俊

    2012-01-01

    本实验通过石蜡切片和HE染色等技术研究花鼠皮肤毛囊的基本结构及生长过程中形态的变化.结果显示:花鼠兴盛期皮肤变厚,且毛囊深入到近皮下组织部位;休止期皮肤变薄,毛囊萎缩,能够观察到得毛囊数量变少.为进一步研究花鼠毛被生长和色素合成的分子机制提供组织学基础.%This experiment studied on the structure and the change of Chipmunk skin and hair follicles by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE staining).The results showed that:during the anagen,the skin became thicker,and the hair follicles extend near to the subcutaneous tissue; in the telogen,the skin turned thin,hair follicles gradually shrank,the hair follicles that could be observed were little.

  14. Effects of intra-and inter-specific interference competition on scatter-hoarding behavior of Siberian chipmunk(Eutamias sibiricus) in semi-natural enclosures%种内及种间干扰对围栏内花鼠分散贮藏行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦广强; 于飞; 牛可坤; 易现峰

    2011-01-01

    The effects of intra- (different gender) and inter-specific (Apodemus penisulae) interferences on scatter-hoarding behavior of Siberian chipmunk ( Eutamias sibiricus) were investigated in 10 m × 10 m semi-natural enclosures in Heilongjiang province in September 2009.Four treatments were established and performed within two batches, i.e., control group with single chipmunk; intraspecific intrasexual interference competition; intraspecific inter-sexual interference competition; and inter-specific interference.Our results showed that: ( 1 ) Female chipmunks scatter-hoarded more seeds than did males; (2) Inter-specific interference by A.penisulae significantly increased seed scatter-hoarding by chipmunks,while intra-specific interference showed no influence; ( 3 ) Both intra- and inter-sexual interference showed no effect on scatter-hoarding of chipmunks; (4) Male chipmunks scatter-hoarded more seeds when interfered by females, but did not change when interfered by males; ( 5 ) Both inter- and intra-sexual competitions showed no significant influence on scatter-hoarding of female individuals.%2009年9月在黑龙江省带岭区东方红林场10 m×10 m半天然围栏内模拟花鼠种内(不同性别)和种间(大林姬鼠)干扰竞争对花鼠分散埋藏红松种子行为的影响.实验分四个处理两个批次进行,依次为单只花鼠对照实验(雄性7只,雌性9只)、种内同性干扰竞争、种内异性干扰竞争和种间干扰竞争.结果表明:(1)花鼠雌性个体的分散埋藏强度明显高于雄性个体;(2)种间干扰竞争引起花鼠对红松分散埋藏比例明显增加,而种内干扰对花鼠分散埋藏行为的影响不显著;(3)种内干扰竞争条件下,同性干扰竞争和异性干扰竞争对花鼠分散埋藏行为均无显著影响;(4)雄性个体在同性干扰下,埋藏强度不变;而在雌性个体干扰竞争下,埋藏强度增加;(5)雌性个体在雌性和雄性干扰条件下,花鼠分散埋藏行为均无明显变化.

  15. Divergence with gene flow within the recent chipmunk radiation (Tamias)

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, J.; Demboski, J R; Bell, K C; Hird, S.; Sarver, B; Reid, N; Good, J M

    2014-01-01

    Increasing data have supported the importance of divergence with gene flow (DGF) in the generation of biological diversity. In such cases, lineage divergence occurs on a shorter timescale than does the completion of reproductive isolation. Although it is critical to explore the mechanisms driving divergence and preventing homogenization by hybridization, it is equally important to document cases of DGF in nature. Here we synthesize data that have accumulated over the last dozen or so years on...

  16. Immunohistochemical and Morphological Changes in Chipmunk Carotid Body during Hibernaiton

    OpenAIRE

    FUKUHARA, Kohko; YOSHIZAKI, Katsuaki; Wu, Yi; Senoo, Haruki; OHTOMO, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian hibernators experience drastic changes in vital signs such asbody temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate during hibernation because of periodicarousals during which vital signs return to non-hibernating levels. The carotid body, anarterial chemoreceptor organ regulating respiration, contains several neuroactive substances.However, little is known about changes of neuroactive substances in the carotidbody during hibernation. Immunohistochemical study using antibodies against n...

  17. Alvin and the Chipmunks Ⅲ%鼠来宝3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘桐

    2011-01-01

    20世纪福克斯发行的《鼠来宝》系列是根据同名电视动画片改编的。主角是三只可爱但又性格迥异的会唱歌、会跳舞的花栗鼠。迄今为止该片前两集已经在全球取得了近8亿美元的票房佳绩!该系列的第三部《鼠来宝3》,即将上映,敬请期待!

  18. Introduced Siberian Chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) Contribute More to Lyme Borreliosis Risk than Native Reservoir Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Maud Marsot; Jean-Louis Chapuis; Patrick Gasqui; Anne Dozières; Sébastien Masséglia; Benoit Pisanu; Elisabeth Ferquel; Gwenaël Vourc'h

    2013-01-01

    The variation of the composition in species of host communities can modify the risk of disease transmission. In particular, the introduction of a new host species can increase health threats by adding a new reservoir and/or by amplifying the circulation of either exotic or native pathogens. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-host vector-borne disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted by the bite of hard ticks, especially Ixodes ricinus in ...

  19. Alvin and the Chipmunks%艾尔文与花栗鼠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖戈

    2008-01-01

    《加菲猫》是当今在高水准的电脑动画大片,观众对那只脾气坏又好吃懒作的“加菲猫”肯定还记忆犹新,现在这部以“鼠”为主角的大片又登场了。一个生活在洛杉矶、雄心勃勃却又怀才不遇的词曲作家大卫·塞维尔(杰森·李饰)正面临作品被冷落、爱情遇危机的窘境。就在他几乎放弃了所有的希望之时,却突然在自家的厨房听到了轻快的节奏。循着声音,他找到了艾尔文、西奥多和西蒙——三只在厨房偷吃、却绝对拥有着与众不同的才能的花栗鼠。三只鼠明星二话不说就霸占了大卫的房子,为了说服大卫收留它们,三只花栗鼠也展露天分——它们不仅会说话,还很会唱歌。

  20. 花鼠肥满度的研究%Study on the Fatness of Chipmunk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庭林; 刘志鹏; 韩金巧; 郝学红; 邹波; 常文英; 杨新根; 李卫伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过研究花鼠的肥满度,为花鼠的监测和防治工作提供理论依据.方法:以M3颊齿的生长及磨损作为年龄划分的标准,划分出花鼠种群各年各月的年龄组成进行肥满度的研究.结果:花鼠的肥满度从亚成年组以后,随年龄的增长而增大.在年龄Ⅱ组和Ⅳ组中,肥满度均值在性别间的差异是十分显著的,而在年龄Ⅰ组和Ⅲ组中则差异不显著.结论:不同性别的花鼠肥满度随季节变化不同,在繁殖季节因产仔雌鼠肥满度低于雄鼠.

  1. 花鼠谷-丙转氨酶的研究%Studyu on Gpt for Chipmunk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金建丽; 栾新苗; 杨春文

    2002-01-01

    用分光光度法对花鼠的肝脏和肾脏两种组织中谷-丙转氨酶的活性进行测定,肝脏中谷-丙转氨酶的活性平均为39个活力单位,肾脏中谷-丙转氨酶的活性平均为9.5个活力单位,肝脏比肾脏中谷-丙转氨酶的活性平均高出约30个活力单位.

  2. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)1

    OpenAIRE

    Stenger, Brianna L.S.; Clark, Mark E.; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W.; Dyer, Neil W.; Schultz, Jessie L.; McEvoy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans, livestock, and other vertebrates. Much of the knowledge on Cryptosporidium diversity is derived from 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) phylogenies. Eukaryote genomes generally have multiple 18S rDNA copies that evolve in concert, which is necessary for the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships. However, 18S rDNA copies in some genomes evolve by a birth-and-death process that can result in sequen...

  3. The effects of climate and habitat change on the distribution and genetic diversity of chipmunks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    OpenAIRE

    Rubidge, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Historical changes in climate have affected the diversity and distribution of species across the globe. Recent and rapid human-induced climate change is expected to have extreme consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. Documented species' responses to recent climate change include adaptation, distributional shifts and extinctions. There is an urgent need for scientists to improve understanding of how climate change will affect not only species distribution and abundance but also...

  4. Validation and use of hair cortisol as a measure of chronic stress in eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Gunn, Kelsey; McCurdy-Adams, H.; Edwards, D. B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

    2014-01-01

    Stress levels of individuals are documented using glucocorticoid concentrations (including cortisol) in blood, saliva, urine or faeces, which provide information about stress hormones during a short period of time (minutes to days). In mammals, use of hair cortisol analysis allows for the assessment of prolonged stress over weeks and months and provides information on chronic stress levels without bias associated with handling. Here, we validate hair cortisol analysis in wild rodents using ex...

  5. 花鼠的越冬生境选择特征%Wintering Habitat Selection of Siberian Chipmunk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧; 戎可

    2013-01-01

    2011年10月至2012年6月,在黑龙江凉水国家级自然保护区应用跟踪观察法、样方法、标志重捕法等研究方法,通过计算花鼠个体活动半径确定花鼠的活动范围,进而对花鼠的越冬生境选择特征进行研究.结果显示,花鼠个体具有一定的活动范围,平均最大活动半径为44.94±4.29 m,个体间家域明显重叠.通过主成分分析法确定红松盖度、倒木盖度、灌层盖度、距林缘距离及干扰强度5个因子为影响花鼠越冬生境选择的主要因子,分别命名为食物因子、地表遮蔽因子、上层遮蔽因子、综合因子和干扰因子,各因子对花鼠越冬生境选择均有显著影响(P<0.05).其中,花鼠偏好红松盖度较高(0.4~0.5)、倒木盖度较高(0.3)、灌层盖度较高(0.7 ~1.0)、距林缘距离较大(>10 m)及干扰强度较高(采集)的生境.

  6. Phylogeny Estimation of the Radiation of Western North American Chipmunks (Tamias) in the Face of Introgression Using Reproductive Protein Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R.; Sullivan, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression...

  7. 阔叶红松林中花鼠的集中贮藏洞穴特征%Larder Hoarding Behavior and Burrow Characteristic of Siberian Chipmunk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂佳旭; 刘蓓蓓; 杨慧; 梁振玲; 戎可

    2015-01-01

    贮藏食物是许多动物应对食物缺乏期的一种重要行为.花鼠是杂食性动物,以取食植物种子或果实为主.2013年4月~2014年10月,在黑龙江凉水国家级自然保护区,采用野外直接观察法、挖掘测量法对花鼠的集中洞穴特征进行了研究.结果显示:花鼠的贮藏方式主要为集中贮藏,洞穴一般有一个出口,平均洞长为(328.38±24.52)cm,平均洞深为(102.88±5.21)cm,71.43%的洞穴有1个较大的贮藏室,其余28.57%的洞穴有2~3个贮藏室.贮藏的食物种类与野外观察花鼠取食种类有所区别,花鼠不贮藏动物性食物.不同季节中,花鼠集中贮藏的松子重量有所差异(F =4.039,P<0.05).在松塔结实大年(2014)与松塔结实小年(2013)中,花鼠集中贮藏松子的重量有显著性差异(F=9.272,P<0.05),松子的平均贮藏量为(496.07±140.72)g.本研究有助于理解食物贮藏在啮齿类动物生活史中的作用,为进一步揭示啮齿动物的贮食习性提供了依据.

  8. 花鼠饲养场建场标准的研究%A preliminary study on common technical standard of Siberian chipmunk (Eutamias sibiricus) farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟石; 邹琦; 李明富

    2005-01-01

    花鼠(Eutamias sibiricus)俗称五道眉、花栗鼠,是啮齿目松鼠科花鼠属的动物。在国内主要分布在黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、内蒙古、河北、北京、山西、河南、甘肃、四川和新疆等地,在国外分布于欧洲北部、俄罗斯西伯利亚、蒙古和日本等地。

  9. Spying on small wildlife sounds using affordable collar-mounted miniature microphones: an innovative method to record individual daylong vocalisations in chipmunks

    OpenAIRE

    Couchoux, Charline; Aubert, Maxime; Garant, Dany; Réale, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances can greatly benefit the scientific community by making new areas of research accessible. The study of animal vocal communication, in particular, can gain new insights and knowledge from technological improvements in recording equipment. Our comprehension of the acoustic signals emitted by animals would be greatly improved if we could continuously track the daily natural emissions of individuals in the wild, especially in the context of integrating individual variation i...

  10. Population Dynamics of Siberian Chipmunk in the Broad-Leaved and Korean Pine Mixed Forest%阔叶红松林下花鼠的种群动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓓蓓; 王广鑫; 许林; 聂佳旭; 戎可

    2015-01-01

    2011年10月~2014年10月,为了了解花鼠种群与食物资源的关系,我们在凉水国家级自然保护区,采用样方法与标志重捕法对花鼠种群动态进行了研究,结果如下:2011年及2014年红松结实量呈爆发式增长,同期花鼠种群数量出现2个较高峰值;花鼠在2012年平均胎仔数达到最低值(1.04±0.13)只,同年越冬期生存率最低,达到(0.11±0.04);花鼠在2013年繁殖期后雌雄性比达到最高值1.17.数据分析表明,在研究期间,红松结实年际间波动明显.花鼠种群的波动基本与食物资源波动同步,在食物匮乏的年份繁殖力减弱,在食物充足的年份繁殖力提高.

  11. 花鼠外部形态及部分内脏器官的测量和分析%Measurement and Analysis of Exterior Morphologies and Viscera of Siberian Chipmunk(Eutamias sibiricus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克勤; 陈玉梅; 刘毅; 张振华; 张长明; 冯军

    2008-01-01

    对捕捉的花鼠进行了外部形态和内脏器官的测量和分析,结果表明:外部形态和内脏器官的变异系数较大,各器官之间存在着显著的相关关系;不同年龄组间外部形态和内脏器官的大小存在着显著差异,同年龄组不同性别间差异不显著.

  12. Feasibility analysis of passive integrated transponders in population ecology studies of Siberian chipmunk%被动式电子标签用于花鼠种群动态研究的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧; 马建章; 戎可

    2013-01-01

    在野生动物研究过程中经常需要对动物个体进行标记.传统的标记方法存在着标记物易脱落、可能影响被标记动物的生理和行为、难于进行个体识别等缺点.被动式电子标签(passive integrated transponder,PIT)是基于射频识别技术的电子标签,可用于体内标记,具有不易脱落消失且能够进行个体识别的优点.在凉水国家级自然保护区以PIT标签为标记物,采用标志重捕技术开展花鼠(Eutamias sibiricus)的种群动态研究,同时对应用PIT标签的可靠性进行了研究.2011年秋季至2012年春季共标记花鼠个体140只,其中86只被重捕至少1次.2011年秋季标记的72只个体中有38只在2012年春季被重捕.重捕的花鼠个体注射口愈合完好,体重无明显降低.结果表明PIT标签是一种安全可靠、识别迅速、数据准确、不易丢失、可循环使用的体内标记电子标签,适用于基于个体识别的小型哺乳动物生态学研究.

  13. The effect of traffic volume on translocated small mammal movement

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Rachelle; Derrane, Sarah; Bender, Darren; Fahrig, Lenore

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were capable of crossing roads with varying levels of traffic volume. We live-trapped small mammals in 24 “home” patches. We uniquely marked and translocated 197 white-footed mice and 115 eastern chipmunks to nearby forest patches. Recaptured animals were recorded as successful returns. Forty five (22.8%) of the mice and 22 (19.1%) of the chipmunks returned to their home patches within six ...

  14. Temporal Change in Fur Color in Museum Specimens of Mammals: Reddish-Brown Species Get Redder with Storage Time

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Andrew K.; Natalie Woodall; Jake P. Moskowitz; Nikole Castleberry; Freeman, Byron J.

    2013-01-01

    Museum collections have great value for zoological research, but despite careful preservation, over time specimens can show subtle changes in color. We examined the effect of storage time on fur color of two reddish-brown species, golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) and eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus). Using image analysis, we obtained color data (hue, saturation, and density) on 91 golden mice and 49 chipmunks from Georgia, USA. Analyses that considered body size, gender, and collection yea...

  15. Hibernation-associated gene regulation of plasma proteins with a collagen-like domain in mammalian hibernators.

    OpenAIRE

    Takamatsu, N; Ohba, K; Kondo, J; Kondo, N; Shiba, T

    1993-01-01

    In mammals, hibernation is expressed by only a limited number of species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying hibernation are not well understood. Recently, we have found plasma proteins which disappear from blood specifically during hibernation in a mammalian hibernator, the chipmunk. Here, we report the cDNA cloning of these chipmunk hibernation-related proteins, HP-20, -25, and -27, and analyses of their expression. All three proteins contain a collagen-like domain near the N terminus ...

  16. Transcriptome-based exon capture enables highly cost-effective comparative genomic data collection at moderate evolutionary scales

    OpenAIRE

    Bi Ke; Vanderpool Dan; Singhal Sonal; Linderoth Tyler; Moritz Craig; Good Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To date, exon capture has largely been restricted to species with fully sequenced genomes, which has precluded its application to lineages that lack high quality genomic resources. We developed a novel strategy for designing array-based exon capture in chipmunks (Tamias) based on de novo transcriptome assemblies. We evaluated the performance of our approach across specimens from four chipmunk species. Results We selectively targeted 11,975 exons (~4 Mb) on custom capture a...

  17. 埋藏点深度、间距及大小对花鼠发现向日葵种子的影响%Effects of soil depth, cache spacing and cache size of sunflower (Helianthus annuus)seeds on seed discovery by Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus senescens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪茂; 张知彬

    2006-01-01

    2005年5~6月,在北京东灵山地区,通过在实验围栏内设置不同深度、间距和大小的埋藏点,研究了花鼠对向日葵种子的发现率.结果表明,花鼠发现埋藏种子的比例随埋藏深度的增加而减少, 埋藏深度>5 cm后,发现比例较低,且不再有明显变化;花鼠发现埋藏种子的比例随埋藏点间距的减小而增加,埋藏点间距<0.5 m后,发现比例较高, 且不再有明显变化;花鼠发现埋藏种子的比例随着埋藏点增大而增加,埋藏点种子>5 g后,发现比例较高,且不再有明显变化.

  18. Temporal Change in Fur Color in Museum Specimens of Mammals: Reddish-Brown Species Get Redder with Storage Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Museum collections have great value for zoological research, but despite careful preservation, over time specimens can show subtle changes in color. We examined the effect of storage time on fur color of two reddish-brown species, golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli and eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus. Using image analysis, we obtained color data (hue, saturation, and density on 91 golden mice and 49 chipmunks from Georgia, USA. Analyses that considered body size, gender, and collection year showed significant effects of year on fur color of golden mice (hue and saturation and of agouti color of chipmunks. Older specimens tended to be redder in color than newer specimens, consistent with a prior study of red bats (Lasiurus borealis. Hair samples showed reddening of fine body hairs, but not in thicker guard hairs. There was no temporal change in black or white stripe color in chipmunks, indicating that this temporal effect would be limited to species with reddish-brown fur. This effect may be caused by breakdown of eumelanin pigments (which make dark colors over time, leaving a greater proportion of pheomelanin pigments (which make red colors. These results show that storage time needs to be considered in research projects where fur color is of importance.

  19. Making Connections. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park is important because of its diversity of life on the surface and underground. Some of the plants in the park include trees such as oaks, hickories, tulip poplars, sycamores, and many types of bushes. The animal population is also very diverse and includes bats, squirrels, deer, raccoons, opossums, chipmunks,…

  20. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Forest Trees, Ornamentals, and Turf. Revised Copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses the control of vertebrate pests of urban and suburban ornamentals and turf. Specific pests described are blackbirds, chipmunks, moles, rabbits, and European starlings. Identification, habits, economic importance, and control methods ranging from poisoning…

  1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Small Mammal Hosts of Ixodes Ticks, Western United States

    OpenAIRE

    Janet E. Foley; Nieto, Nathan C.; Adjemian, Jennifer; Dabritz, Haydee; Brown, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. Odds ratios were >1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks.

  2. The Bear Facts: Implications of Whitebark Pine Loss for Yellowstone Grizzlies

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    Whitebark pine is a foundation species, and barometer of the health of high elevation forests ecosystems in the West. It provides food and cover for numerous wildlife species, including the Clark’s nutcracker, crossbill, grosbeak, red squirrel and chipmunk. Whitebark pine is particularly important in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), where it provides an essential food source for the imperiled Yellowstone grizzly bear. We will review the current scientific knowledge about the relations...

  3. [Enderleinellus tamiasis Fahrenholz, 1916 (Anoplura: Enderleinellidae), an introduced species, and a new sucking louse for the French fauna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucournu, J-C; Pisanu, B; Chapuis, J-L

    2008-06-01

    A new sucking louse is recorded for the French Anopluran fauna, Enderleinellus tomiasis found on the introduced Sciurid Tamias sibiricus. This observation highlights the maintenance of parasites when introduced with their hosts and when their hosts settle into a novel environments. It suggests a common origin for two out of four populations of Siberian chipmunks examined. The authors describe the morphological criteria that allow the distinction between the two species of Enderleinellus and each infecting a sciurid host found in our country.

  4. Vaccination with the variable tick protein of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii protects mice from infection by tick-bite

    OpenAIRE

    Krajacich, Benjamin J; Lopez, Job E.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tick-borne relapsing fevers of humans are caused by spirochetes that must adapt to both warm-blooded vertebrates and cold-blooded ticks. In western North America, most human cases of relapsing fever are caused by Borrelia hermsii, which cycles in nature between its tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi and small mammals such as tree squirrels and chipmunks. These spirochetes alter their outer surface by switching off one of the bloodstream-associated variable major proteins (Vmps) they p...

  5. Identification of endemic foci of Lyme disease: isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from feral rodents and ticks (Dermacentor variabilis).

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W

    1985-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, was isolated from the blood, kidneys, spleens, eyes, or livers of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) (n = 19 of 22) and from the blood, kidneys, or spleens of eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) (n = 2 of 2) captured at three foci for Lyme disease in eastern Connecticut. These bacteria were cultured most frequently from spleens (n = 19) and kidneys (n = 15). B. burgdorferi persisted in one mouse for at least 60 days. One spiroc...

  6. Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R; Haddad, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    Species in a Colorado subalpine ecosystem show subtle interdependences. Red-naped sapsuckers play two distinct keystone roles. They excavate nest cavities in fungus-infected aspens that are required as nest sites by two species of swallows, and they drill sap wells into willows that provide abundant nourishment for themselves, hummingbirds, orange-crowned warblers, chipmunks, and an array of other sap robbers. The swallows thus depend on, and the sap robbers benefit from, a keystone species c...

  7. Seasonal oscillation of liver-derived hibernation protein complex in the central nervous system of non-hibernating mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Seldin, Marcus M.; Byerly, Mardi S.; Petersen, Pia S.; Swanson, Roy; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Martin H. Groschup; Wong, G. William

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian hibernation elicits profound changes in whole-body physiology. The liver-derived hibernation protein (HP) complex, consisting of HP-20, HP-25 and HP-27, was shown to oscillate circannually, and this oscillation in the central nervous system (CNS) was suggested to play a role in hibernation. The HP complex has been found in hibernating chipmunks but not in related non-hibernating tree squirrels, leading to the suggestion that hibernation-specific genes may underlie the origin of hibe...

  8. Forest disturbance, mosquito vector ecology and La Crosse virus dynamics in southwestern Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Maria-Richetta Camille

    2014-01-01

    The influence of forest canopy disturbance (FCD) on La Crosse virus (LACV), leading cause of US pediatric arboviral encephalitis, is critical to understand in landscapes where forests are periodically harvested. Southwestern Virginia is part of an emerging focus of this interior forest bunyavirus. I investigated how the temperate forest mosquito community, LACV vectors, and the LACV amplifying vertebrate host (chipmunks) were impacted by logging. This research was conducted across an exper...

  9. The response of a Fermilab-designed ion chamber in pulsed photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note reports measurements of the response of a Fermilab-designed area monitor ionization chamber used in Chipmunk and Scarecrow detectors to pulsed photon fields of various intensities and durations. The measurements were made to better define the operating limits of the instruments and to understand the possible effects of recombination and space charge on the dose measured by the instruments in pulsed fields. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  10. Survey for Ixodes spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in southeastern Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois.

    OpenAIRE

    Callister, S M; Nelson, J A; Schell, R F; Jobe, D A; Bautz, R; Agger, W A; Coggins, J

    1991-01-01

    Forested areas adjacent to Milwaukee, Wis., and Chicago, Ill., were investigated for rodents and ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus or Peromyscus maniculatus), meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were captured; and specimens from these animals were cultured for B. burgdorferi to define whether the midwestern Lyme disease area currently encompasses these large metropol...

  11. The application of the European strategy on invasive alien species: an example with introduced squirrels

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Bertolino; Piero Genovesi

    2005-01-01

    Abstract We assessed the cases of squirrel species already introduced into Italy inside the framework proposed by the European strategy on invasive alien species. We collected information on 9 introductions that originated 8 populations: 3 of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), 2 of Finlayson's squirrels (Callosciurus finlaysonii), and 3 of Siberian chip-munks (Eutamias sibiricus). Food opportunism...

  12. Natural infection of small mammal species in Minnesota with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Walls, J. J.; Greig, B; Neitzel, D F; Dumler, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    The natural reservoirs for the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) are suspected to be the small mammals that host immature stages of Ixodes scapularis ticks. To determine if such small mammals are naturally infected, we collected blood and serum samples from small mammal species in rural and suburban areas of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn. Samples were collected from white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), southern red-backed voles (Clethrion...

  13. Radiation Detector Characterization at APO While Stacking pbars in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Main Injector provided beam for pbar stacking for the first time in 1999 over the period 12/20 to 12/21. The purpose of this memo is to record some observations on the response of various radiation detectors as a function of beam on the pbar targel. The detectors include a Scarecrow in the APO Vault, a Chipmunk just upstream of the APO vault, and a Chipmunk in the water cage adjacent to the Pulsed Magnet pump skid in the water systems cage. In addition, there are air monitors, one sampling in the PreVault enclosure and one sampling at the exhaust stack at the upstream end of lhe PreTarget enclosure. All data was collected by the ACNET system Lumberjack data logger. Beam intensity data was summed over consecutive 10 minute periods and normalized to an hourly intensity. The Chipmunk, Scarecrow, and Air Monitor data are based 10 minute averages taken over periods which coincide with normalized beam intensity.

  14. Radiatio Detector Characterization at APO While Stacking pbars in 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveling, A.F.; /Fermilab

    2000-02-09

    The Main Injector provided beam for pbar stacking for the first time in 1999 over the period 12/20 to 12/21. The purpose of this memo is to record some observations on the response of various radiation detectors as a function of beam on the pbar targel. The detectors include a Scarecrow in the APO Vault, a Chipmunk just upstream of the APO vault, and a Chipmunk in the water cage adjacent to the Pulsed Magnet pump skid in the water systems cage. In addition, there are air monitors, one sampling in the PreVault enclosure and one sampling at the exhaust stack at the upstream end of lhe PreTarget enclosure. All data was collected by the ACNET system Lumberjack data logger. Beam intensity data was summed over consecutive 10 minute periods and normalized to an hourly intensity. The Chipmunk, Scarecrow, and Air Monitor data are based 10 minute averages taken over periods which coincide with normalized beam intensity.

  15. Inter-annual and inter-individual variations in survival exhibit strong seasonality in a hibernating rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cœur, Christie; Chantepie, Stéphane; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Robert, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Most research on the demography of wild animal populations has focused on characterizing the variation in the mortality of organisms as a function of intrinsic and environmental characteristics. However, such variation in mortality is difficult to relate to functional life history components (e.g. reproduction, dispersal, hibernation) due to the difficulty in monitoring biological processes at a sufficiently fine timescale. In this study, we used a 10-year individual-based data set with an infra-annual timescale to investigate both intra- and inter-annual survival patterns according to intrinsic and environmental covariates in an introduced population of a small hibernating rodent, the Siberian chipmunk. We compared three distinct periods related to particular life history events: spring reproduction, summer reproduction and hibernation. Our results revealed strong interactions between intrinsic and temporal effects. First, survival of male chipmunks strongly decreases during the reproduction periods, while survival is high and equal between sexes during hibernation. Second, the season of birth affects the survival of juveniles during their first hibernation, which does not have long-lasting consequences at the adult stage. Third, at an inter-annual scale, we found that high food resource availability before hibernation and low chipmunk densities specifically favour subsequent winter survival. Overall, our results confirm that the well-known patterns of yearly and inter-individual variation of mortality observed in animals are themselves strongly variable within a given year, suggesting that they are associated with various functional components of the animals' life history. PMID:26969470

  16. Radiation dosimetry of small mammals inhabiting a liquid radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation doses received by small mammals inhabiting a dry radioactive leaching pond on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site were determined by surgically implanting lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips. The TLD packets were implanted in 3 species: white-footed deer mouse, least chipmunk, and Ord's kangaroo rat, with 65% recovery. All species from the radioactive leaching pond received significantly greater doses than control species. The deer mice received a mean dose equivalent rate of 160 mrem/day which was significantly greater than the mean dose equivalent rates received by least chipmunks (17 mrem/day) and Ord's kangaroo rats (6 mrem/day). The mean dose received by deer mice was 8% of the maximum air exposure recorded near the ground surface of the leaching pond. The maximum dose rate received by an individual deer mouse was nearly 50% of the maximum exposure rates in the study plot. Interspecific dose differences appeared to be related to habitat preference. Deer mice were most frequently captured on the gravelly and sparsely vegetated dry pond bed which had site exposure rates of 200 to 2000 mR/day. Conversely, chipmunks and kangaroo rats were usually captured on the pond banks which were adjacent to areas with sandy soil and denser vegetation. Site exposure rates on the pond banks ranged from 20 to 30 mR/day. Doses received by individuals of each species had high variation caused by the variable air exposure rates and the mobility of the small mammals. Intraspecific differences in activity, behavior, and home range may have also influenced the dose variability in individual rodents. The advantage of implanted TLD over externally attached TLD and possible radiation effects on small mammal populations are discussed

  17. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis: Its regulation and potential role in spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-08-01

    Adult neurogenesis, defined here as progenitor cell division generating functionally integrated neurons in the adult brain, occurs within the hippocampus of numerous mammalian species including humans. The present review details various endogenous (e.g., neurotransmitters) and environmental (e.g., physical exercise) factors that have been shown to influence hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In addition, the potential involvement of adult-generated neurons in naturally-occurring spatial learning behavior is discussed by summarizing the literature focusing on traditional animal models (e.g., rats and mice), non-traditional animal models (e.g., tree shrews), as well as natural populations (e.g., chickadees and Siberian chipmunk). PMID:27174001

  18. Using accelerometers to remotely and automatically characterize behavior in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Talisin T; Springthorpe, Dwight; Walsh, Rachel E; Berg-Kirkpatrick, Taylor

    2016-06-01

    Activity budgets in wild animals are challenging to measure via direct observation because data collection is time consuming and observer effects are potentially confounding. Although tri-axial accelerometers are increasingly employed for this purpose, their application in small-bodied animals has been limited by weight restrictions. Additionally, accelerometers engender novel complications, as a system is needed to reliably map acceleration to behaviors. In this study, we describe newly developed, tiny acceleration-logging devices (1.5-2.5 g) and use them to characterize behavior in two chipmunk species. We collected paired accelerometer readings and behavioral observations from captive individuals. We then employed techniques from machine learning to develop an automatic system for coding accelerometer readings into behavioral categories. Finally, we deployed and recovered accelerometers from free-living, wild chipmunks. This is the first time to our knowledge that accelerometers have been used to generate behavioral data for small-bodied (<100 g), free-living mammals. PMID:26994177

  19. Implications of raccoon latrines in the epizootiology of baylisascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, L K; Swihart, R K; Kazacos, K R

    1999-07-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) frequently establish defecation sites, termed latrines, on large logs, stumps, rocks, and other horizontally oriented structures/surfaces. These latrines are important foci of infective eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis, a nematode parasite of raccoons which is pathogenic to numerous species of mammals and birds. To examine the role of raccoon latrines in this animal-parasite interaction, we documented animal visitations to raccoon latrines in two large forested tracts and two woodlots in Indiana (USA) during 1994 and 1995. Species richness of vertebrate visitors did not differ between sites or years, but species composition differed by site and year. Fourteen mammal and 15 bird species were documented visiting raccoon latrines. Small granivorous mammals, including white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and tree squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, S. niger, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) were the most common visitors to latrine sites. White-footed mice, chipmunks, white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis), and opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were photographed foraging on undigested seeds in raccoon feces. Active foraging at latrines also was shown experimentally; seeds embedded in raccoon feces were removed at a greater rate at latrine sites than at nonlatrines. We conclude that raccoon latrines are visited routinely by a variety of vertebrates, especially small granivorous rodents and birds which forage for seeds in raccoon feces, and that raccoon latrines are probable sites of transmission of B. procyonis to susceptible mammals and birds. PMID:10479081

  20. Serologic evidence for Borrelia hermsii infection in rodents on federally owned recreational areas in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Curtis L; Payne, Jessica R; Schwan, Tom G

    2013-06-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is endemic in mountainous regions of the western United States. In California, the principal agent is the spirochete Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros hermsi. Humans are at risk of TBRF when infected ticks leave an abandoned rodent nest in quest of a blood meal. Rodents are the primary vertebrate hosts for B. hermsii. Sciurid rodents were collected from 23 sites in California between August, 2006, and September, 2008, and tested for serum antibodies to B. hermsii by immunoblot using a whole-cell sonicate and a specific antigen, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ). Antibodies were detected in 20% of rodents; seroprevalence was highest (36%) in chipmunks (Tamias spp). Seroprevalence in chipmunks was highest in the Sierra Nevada (41%) and Mono (43%) ecoregions and between 1900 and 2300 meters elevation (43%). The serological studies described here are effective in implicating the primary vertebrate hosts involved in the maintenance of the ticks and spirochetes in regions endemic for TBRF. PMID:23488454

  1. Climate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in lyme-disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Ostfeld

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk of human exposure to vector-borne zoonotic pathogens is a function of the abundance and infection prevalence of vectors. We assessed the determinants of Lyme-disease risk (density and Borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks over 13 y on several field plots within eastern deciduous forests in the epicenter of US Lyme disease (Dutchess County, New York. We used a model comparison approach to simultaneously test the importance of ambient growing-season temperature, precipitation, two indices of deer (Odocoileus virginianus abundance, and densities of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus, eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus, and acorns (Quercus spp., in both simple and multiple regression models, in predicting entomological risk. Indices of deer abundance had no predictive power, and precipitation in the current year and temperature in the prior year had only weak effects on entomological risk. The strongest predictors of a current year's risk were the prior year's abundance of mice and chipmunks and abundance of acorns 2 y previously. In no case did inclusion of deer or climate variables improve the predictive power of models based on rodents, acorns, or both. We conclude that interannual variation in entomological risk of exposure to Lyme disease is correlated positively with prior abundance of key hosts for the immature stages of the tick vector and with critical food resources for those hosts.

  2. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  3. Ecological considerations for Project Wagon Wheel and hydraulic fracturing activities. Phase II(a). Annual summary report for 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation studies were conducted to obtain data on production and biomass of shrubs and mat-forming woody plants. Tables are presented to show data for various species of plants. Aquatic studies were conducted to obtain data on benthic fauna and physical water conditions. Tables are presented to show classification of organisms per square foot of river bottom, ice thickness at water sampling locations, and stream velocities along the base of each study bluff. Mammalian studies were conducted to obtain population data on deer, mice, least chipmunk, northern grasshopper, mouse, ground squirrels, and prairie dogs. Observations were also made on antelope, moose, and mule deer. Hydraulic fracturing activities included studies on physical perturbations, vegetation documentation, and small mammal documentation

  4. Radiation doses to rodents inhabiting a radioactive waste receiving area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted of the gamma ray doses to four species of native rodents inhabiting a low level radioactive liquid waste disposal area. Absorbed doses of radiation were measured with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters that were implanted subcutaneously. The absorbed radiation doses and 137Cs body burdens were significantly higher for western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) than for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), pinon mice (P. truei) and the least chipmunk (Eutamias minimus), reflecting differences in mobility and habitat preferences of the respective species. The average dose received by harvest mice was 26 mrad/day, which was 26% of the highest gamma dose detected at the ground surface in the study plot, although the maximum dose received by individual mice was as high as 45% of the maximum dose rates in the plot. (author)

  5. Quality factor measurements at NTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose equivalent rate in the radiation field outside of the polydoor at the Neutron Therapy Facility has been measured, using a Chipmunk, assuming a quality factor (QF) of 5, to be 25 mrem/hr. This kind of dose rate if true introduced occupancy restrictions and NTF is operating under an exemption. Based on the previous CR-39 studies of the neutron field around NTF,and the amount of shielding around the NTF, it was difficult to believe that a significant neutron field exists in this area, and contributes to the measured dose rate. If the field was mostly due to gamma rays the QF setting on the Chipmunk could be reliably set to a value of one. One method of obtaining a qualitative understanding of the relative abundance of neutron and gamma contribution to the absorbed doses, is to measure the quality factor for the field. This was determined using a recombination chamber. The recombination chamber is a gas filled ion chamber that can measure the average quality factor of a radiation field of unknown composition and energy spectrum. To use the recombination chamber in an unknown field, one needs to measured a calibration curve using radiation fields of known quality factor. The individual neutron and gamma components of the radiation field were also determined in these studies by use of an Andersson-Braun counter to measure the dose equivalent rate due to neutrons, and a Cutup ion chamber to measure the gamma dose rate. The neutron dose equivalent rate in this area of NTF has been estimated by Vylet and is consistent with the present measurements

  6. Quality factor measurements at NTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaziri, K.; Krueger, F.; Kroc, T.; Lauten, G.; Lennox, A.; Leveling, T.

    1993-12-17

    The dose equivalent rate in the radiation field outside of the polydoor at the Neutron Therapy Facility has been measured, using a Chipmunk, assuming a quality factor (QF) of 5, to be 25 mrem/hr. This kind of dose rate if true introduced occupancy restrictions and NTF is operating under an exemption. Based on the previous CR-39 studies of the neutron field around NTF,and the amount of shielding around the NTF, it was difficult to believe that a significant neutron field exists in this area, and contributes to the measured dose rate. If the field was mostly due to gamma rays the QF setting on the Chipmunk could be reliably set to a value of one. One method of obtaining a qualitative understanding of the relative abundance of neutron and gamma contribution to the absorbed doses, is to measure the quality factor for the field. This was determined using a recombination chamber. The recombination chamber is a gas filled ion chamber that can measure the average quality factor of a radiation field of unknown composition and energy spectrum. To use the recombination chamber in an unknown field, one needs to measured a calibration curve using radiation fields of known quality factor. The individual neutron and gamma components of the radiation field were also determined in these studies by use of an Andersson-Braun counter to measure the dose equivalent rate due to neutrons, and a Cutup ion chamber to measure the gamma dose rate. The neutron dose equivalent rate in this area of NTF has been estimated by Vylet and is consistent with the present measurements.

  7. Cloning, characterization and prokaryotic expression of lactate dehydrogenase C cDNA in Tamias sibiricus%花鼠乳酸脱氢酶C基因cDNA的克隆、分析及原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昊; 韩崇选; 张冬辉; 周智敏

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH-C) on chipmunks,Tamias sibiricus,immune infertility control,the cDNA of chipmunks LDH-C was cloned from the chipmunks testis by RT-PCR,and its sequence was analyzed.The LDH-C gene was constructed into the prokaryotic expression vector,and this vector was transformed into E.coli BL21 (DE3) and was induced by IPTG.The SDS-PAGE and western-blot were conducted to identify the expression products.The results showed that the cDNA was 999 bp and encoded for a polypeptide of 332 amino acids,which contained complete open reading frame.The amount of negatively charged residues and positively charged residues were both 36 and the predicted molecular mass was around 37 kD.The theoretical isoelectric point (pI) was 7.04,and there was no signal peptide or transmembrane region.The LDH-C protein was predicted as non-secreted and hydrophobicity protein.Alpha helix,random coil and extended strand were the main components of the secondary structure of LDH-C.A 37 kD target protein with His-Tag was obtained from prokaryotic expression induced by IPTG.%为研究花鼠乳酸脱氢酶C(lactate dehydrogenase C,LDH-C)对花鼠免疫不育控制的影响,以花鼠睾丸cDNA为模板,通过RT-PCR技术得到花鼠LDH-C基因cDNA编码区,并进行序列分析,构建花鼠LDH-C的原核表达载体,导入到大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中诱导表达,并采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳和免疫印迹法对表达产物进行鉴定.结果显示:扩增出的cDNA片段为999 bp,编码332个氨基酸,含有完整的开放阅读框;负电荷残基与正电荷残基均为36个;预测蛋白质分子量为37kD,理论等电点为7.04,无信号肽和跨膜区,推测其是一种非分泌、疏水性蛋白.α螺旋、无规则卷曲以及延伸链是sLDH-C蛋白二级结构的主要成分.重组菌在IPTG诱导下获得了约37 kD带有His-Tag的目的蛋白.

  8. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti, rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A. Sweitzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, “Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests” [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]. Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus] ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii], gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km2 grid cells of forest habitat.

  9. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti), rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Rick A; Furnas, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, "Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests" [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]). Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus]) ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii]), gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km(2) grid cells of forest habitat. PMID:26937448

  10. HOCOMOCO: A comprehensive collection of human transcription factor binding sites models

    KAUST Repository

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.

    2012-11-21

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site (TFBS) models are crucial for computational reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. In existing repositories, a TF often has several models (also called binding profiles or motifs), obtained from different experimental data. Having a single TFBS model for a TF is more pragmatic for practical applications. We show that integration of TFBS data from various types of experiments into a single model typically results in the improved model quality probably due to partial correction of source specific technique bias. We present the Homo sapiens comprehensive model collection (HOCOMOCO, http://autosome.ru/HOCOMOCO/, http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/ hocomoco/) containing carefully hand-curated TFBS models constructed by integration of binding sequences obtained by both low- and high-throughput methods. To construct position weight matrices to represent these TFBS models, we used ChIPMunk software in four computational modes, including newly developed periodic positional prior mode associated with DNA helix pitch. We selected only one TFBS model per TF, unless there was a clear experimental evidence for two rather distinct TFBS models. We assigned a quality rating to each model. HOCOMOCO contains 426 systematically curated TFBS models for 401 human TFs, where 172 models are based on more than one data source. The Author(s) 2012.

  11. Host, habitat and climate preferences of Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae) and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Wong, Johnny; Foley, Janet

    2016-10-01

    The Holarctic tick Ixodes angustus is a competent vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, and possibly Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, as well. From 2005 to 2013, we collected host-feeding I. angustus individuals from live-trapped small mammals and by flagging vegetation from 12 study sites in northern and central California, and tested for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, A. phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. DNA by real-time PCR. Among 261 I. angustus collected (259 from hosts and two by flagging), the most common hosts were tree squirrels (20 % of ticks) and chipmunks (37 %). The PCR-prevalence for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi in ticks was 2 % and zero, respectively. The minimum infection prevalence on pooled DNA samples was 10 % for Rickettsia spp. DNA sequencing of the ompA gene identified this rickettsia as Candidatus Rickettsia angustus, a putative endosymbiont. A zero-inflated negative binomial mixed effects model was used to evaluate geographical and climatological predictors of I. angustus burden. When host species within study site and season within year were included in the model as nested random effects, all significant variables revealed that I. angustus burden increased as temperature decreased. Together with published data, these findings suggest that I. angustus is a host generalist, has a broad geographic distribution, is more abundant in areas with lower temperature within it's range, and is rarely infected with the pathogens A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi.

  12. Secondary dispersal of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa ) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B.; Borchert, Mark I.; Gworek, Jennifer R.

    2006-07-01

    Large-seeded pines ( Pinus spp.) are known to be dispersed by seed-caching corvids (i.e. jays and nutcrackers) and rodents (e.g. chipmunks and mice), with a concomitant decrease in seed dispersability by wind. We tested the idea that seeds of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), which are winged but larger than the seeds of other members of Pseudotsuga, are dispersed by a combination of wind and seed-caching rodents. We compared characteristics of seeds from P. macrocarpa in southern California (mean seed mass 132.6 mg) to seeds of a population of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) in northern California (24.8 mg). We also tested whether rodents would cache seeds of P. macrocarpa. Seeds of P. macrocarpa had greater wing loadings (1.37 mg/mm 2) and descent velocities (2.47 m/s) than those of P. menziesii (0.52 mg/mm 2 and 1.28 m/s, respectively). These data indicate that the wind dispersability of P. macrocarpa is likely to be less than that of P. menziesii, but this loss of wind dispersability is partially compensated for by secondary dispersal of seeds by rodents, which readily gathered and cached the larger seeds of P. macrocarpa up to 34 m from source trees. Large seed size confers several advantages to P. macrocarpa, most importantly attracting seed-caching animals that effectively bury seeds.

  13. West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Root, J

    2013-04-01

    Exposures to West Nile virus (WNV) have been documented in a variety of wild mammals in both the New and Old Worlds. This review tabulates at least 100 mammal species with evidence of WNV exposure. Many of these exposures were detected in free-ranging mammals, while several were noted in captive individuals. In addition to exposures, this review discusses experimental infections in terms of the potential for reservoir competence of select wild mammal species. Overall, few experimental infections have been conducted on wild mammals. As such, the role of most wild mammals as potential amplifying hosts for WNV is, to date, uncertain. In most instances, experimental infections of wild mammals with WNV have resulted in no or low-level viremia. Some recent studies have indicated that certain species of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop viremia sufficient for infecting some mosquito species. Certain mammalian species, such as tree squirrels, mesopredators, and deer have been suggested as useful species for WNV surveillance. In this review article, the information pertaining to wild mammal associations with WNV is synthesized. PMID:23212739

  14. Hantavirus testing in small mammal populations of northcentral New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Foxx, T. [and others

    1995-07-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993 and 1994, the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, primarily for ecological risk assessment (ecorisk) studies. At the request of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the School of Medicine at the University of New Mexico, EST also collected blood samples from captured animals for use in determining seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region due to the recent outbreak of this virus in the four-comers region of the Southwest. The deer mouse was the most commonly captured species during the tripping sessions. Other species sampled included harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), least chipmunk (Eutamias minimus), long-tailed vole (Microtus longicaudus), Mexican woodrat (Neotoma mexicana), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). The team collected blood samples from tripped animals following CDC`s suggested guidelines. Results of the 1993 and 1994 hantavirus testing identified a total overall seroprevalence of approximately 5.5% and 4.2%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence rates were found in deer mice seri (3--6%), but results on several species were inconclusive; further studies will be necessary, to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  15. Occurrence and abundance of ants, reptiles, and mammals: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)- associated wildlife are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation and by impacts associated with anthropogenic disturbances, including energy development. Understanding how species of concern as well as other wildlife including insects, reptiles, and mammals respond to type and spatial scale of disturbance is critical to managing future land uses and identifying sites that are important for conservation. We developed statistical models to describe species occurrence or abundance, based on area searches in 7.29-ha survey blocks, across the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) area for six shrub steppe-associated species: harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex spp.), thatch ant (Formica spp.), short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma hernandesi), white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii), cottontail (Sylvilagus spp.) and least chipmunk (Tamius minimus). We modeled patterns in occupancy or abundance relative to multi-scale measures of vegetation type and pattern, abiotic site characteristics, and anthropogenic disturbance factors. Sagebrush habitat was a strong predictor of occurrence for shorthorned lizards and white-tailed jackrabbits, but weak for the other four species. Vegetation and abiotic characteristics were strong determinants of species occurrence, although the scale of response was not consistent among species. All species, with the exception of the short-horned lizard, responded to anthropogenic disturbance, although responses again varied as a function of scale and direction (negative and positive influences). Our results improve our understanding of how environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species distributions across the WBEA area and facilitate a multi-species approach to management of this sagebrush ecosystem.

  16. Multiple independent transmission cycles of a tick-borne pathogen within a local host community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, Maude; Abrial, David; Gasqui, Patrick; Bord, Severine; Marsot, Maud; Masseglia, Sébastien; Pion, Angélique; Poux, Valérie; Zilliox, Laurence; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Bailly, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Many pathogens are maintained by multiple host species and involve multiple strains with potentially different phenotypic characteristics. Disentangling transmission patterns in such systems is often challenging, yet investigating how different host species contribute to transmission is crucial to properly assess and manage disease risk. We aim to reveal transmission cycles of bacteria within the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex, which include Lyme disease agents. We characterized Borrelia genotypes found in 488 infected Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected in the Sénart Forest located near Paris (France). These genotypes were compared to those observed in three sympatric species of small mammals and network analyses reveal four independent transmission cycles. Statistical modelling shows that two cycles involving chipmunks, an introduced species, and non-sampled host species such as birds, are responsible for the majority of tick infections. In contrast, the cycle involving native bank voles only accounts for a small proportion of infected ticks. Genotypes associated with the two primary transmission cycles were isolated from Lyme disease patients, confirming the epidemiological threat posed by these strains. Our work demonstrates that combining high-throughput sequence typing with networks tools and statistical modeling is a promising approach for characterizing transmission cycles of multi-host pathogens in complex ecological settings. PMID:27498685

  17. RECORD CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    RECORD CLUB

    2010-01-01

    NEW SUMMER SELECTION At the end of June we added another 20 or so DVDs and a few CDs to the Club shelves. Among the DVDs you will find a number aimed at the younger generation including Alvin and the Chipmunks 2 and The Princess and the Frog. Moving up a register, we added Avatar (but only the 2D version is available), Lucky Luke, and Invictus, the story of how South Africa won the World Cup, the rugby version. And if you’re into biographies, we have the story of the mysterious Carlos (the Venezuelan revolutionary who founded a worldwide terrorist organization) in three parts and a Life of Serge Gainsbourg. We only bought a few CDs this month but they include the re-release of the Rolling Stones Exile on Main Street with many new tracks, and the AC/DC soundtrack of the Ironman 2 film. The full list can be consulted at : http://cern.ch/crc Select “Discs of the Month” from the menu on the left of the screen and then “June 2010”.   We remind you t...

  18. A Fast Cluster Motif Finding Algorithm for ChIP-Seq Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yipu; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    New high-throughput technique ChIP-seq, coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation experiment with high-throughput sequencing technologies, has extended the identification of binding locations of a transcription factor to the genome-wide regions. However, the most existing motif discovery algorithms are time-consuming and limited to identify binding motifs in ChIP-seq data which normally has the significant characteristics of large scale data. In order to improve the efficiency, we propose a fast cluster motif finding algorithm, named as FCmotif, to identify the (l,  d) motifs in large scale ChIP-seq data set. It is inspired by the emerging substrings mining strategy to find the enriched substrings and then searching the neighborhood instances to construct PWM and cluster motifs in different length. FCmotif is not following the OOPS model constraint and can find long motifs. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm has been proved by experiments on the ChIP-seq data sets from mouse ES cells. The whole detection of the real binding motifs and processing of the full size data of several megabytes finished in a few minutes. The experimental results show that FCmotif has advantageous to deal with the (l,  d) motif finding in the ChIP-seq data; meanwhile it also demonstrates better performance than other current widely-used algorithms such as MEME, Weeder, ChIPMunk, and DREME. PMID:26236718

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 568: Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro Nevada Environmental Services, NV (United States); Burmeister, Mark [Navarro Nevada Environmental Services, NV (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this CAP is to provide the plan for implementation of the recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for CAU 568. Site characterization activities were performed in 2014, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the CAU 568 CADD. The CAAs were recommended in the CADD. The scope of work required to implement the recommended CAAs of closure in place and clean closure at 11 of the 14 CASs includes the following: The installation of physical barriers over the nine safety experiment ground zeroes to cover contamination at CASs 03-23-20 (Otero), 03-23-23 (San Juan and Pascal-C), 03-23-31 (Pascal-B, Luna, Colfax), 03-23-32 (Pascal-A), 03-23-33 (Valencia), and 03-23-34 (Chipmunk); the characterization and removal of three soil and debris piles at CAS 03-08-04, and one HCA soil pile at CAS 03-23-30; the removal of three steel well head covers (PSM) from CASs 03-23-20 (Otero), 03-23-31 (Luna), and 03-23-33 (Valencia); the removal of soil and lead PSM from two locations at CAS 03-26-04; Implementation of FFACO use restrictions at nine safety experiment ground zeroes at CASs 03-23-20, 03-23-23, 03-23-31, 03-23-32, 03-23-33, and 03-23-34; the steel well head cover at CAS 03-23-23; the areas meeting HCA conditions at CASs 03-23-19 and 03-23-31; and the Boomer crater area at CAS 03-45-01. The FFACO use restriction boundaries will be presented in the CAU 568 closure report.

  20. Radiocobalt cycling in a small mammal food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt-60 seeping from a nearby radioactive liquid waste trench on the Oak Ridge reservation into a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem provided a source of environmental contamination where its dispersion through a small mammal food web could be studied. Maximum radiocobalt concentrations in the soil were found in the upper 5 cm of 15 cm cores. Transient mammals such as the opossum and the raccoon had small amounts of 60Co in their tissues (0.5 and 1.0 pCi/gm, respectively), while the permanent mammal residents including the short-tailed shrew (80 pCi/g), white-footed mouse (50 pCi/g), golden mouse (50 pCi/g) and the eastern chipmunk (20 pCi/g) had from 27 to more than 100 times that of the transient mammals. The persistent occurrence of 60Co in the small mammals tissues indicated its importance in the food web. Of the potential mammalian food items present in the area, only earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) contained high levels of 60Co activity (greater than 56 nCi/gm dry wt.). Earthworms collected from the seepage channel eliminated 70 percent of their body burden (gut contents) of 60Co during the first 24-hour period, but retained the remaining 30 percent (tissue accumulation) for more than 11 weeks. Tissue retention by earthworms and the utilization of numerous burrows by mammals along the seepage channel during the summer months suggested that earthworms constituted a major link in the small mammal food chain. (U.S.)

  1. Genomics and museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Allan Wilson and colleagues isolated DNA sequences from museum specimens of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys panamintinus) and compared these sequences with those from freshly collected animals (Thomas et al. 1990). The museum specimens had been collected up to 78 years earlier, so the two samples provided a direct temporal comparison of patterns of genetic variation. This was not the first time DNA sequences had been isolated from preserved material, but it was the first time it had been carried out with a population sample. Population geneticists often try to make inferences about the influence of historical processes such as selection, drift, mutation and migration on patterns of genetic variation in the present. The work of Wilson and colleagues was important in part because it suggested a way in which population geneticists could actually study genetic change in natural populations through time, much the same way that experimentalists can do with artificial populations in the laboratory. Indeed, the work of Thomas et al. (1990) spawned dozens of studies in which museum specimens were used to compare historical and present-day genetic diversity (reviewed in Wandeler et al. 2007). All of these studies, however, were limited by the same fundamental problem: old DNA is degraded into short fragments. As a consequence, these studies mostly involved PCR amplification of short templates, usually short stretches of mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites. In this issue, Bi et al. (2013) report a breakthrough that should open the door to studies of genomic variation in museum specimens. They used target enrichment (exon capture) and next-generation (Illumina) sequencing to compare patterns of genetic variation in historic and present-day population samples of alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) (Fig. 1). The historic samples came from specimens collected in 1915, so the temporal span of this comparison is nearly 100 years.

  2. Effects of Recent Climate Change on Facultative and Spontaneous Torpor in Apline Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, C. L.; Hood, W. R.; Stevens, M.; Gary, G.

    2007-12-01

    Mean annual air temperatures have increased in North America by 1.0°C during the past 100 years, and are predicted to increase by 4-8 °C further within the next 70 years. Hibernating mammals may be particularly sensitive to climate change since body temperatures during torpor are strongly influence by ambient temperature. We conducted 3-7 year studies on the relationship between ambient (air/soil) temperature and the torpor patterns of free-ranging facultative and spontaneous hibernators. The facultative hibernation of eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) in New York State and the spontaneous hibernation by golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) in the mountains of California were continuously monitored using temperature sensitive radiocollars during winters of 2000-01 through 2006-07. Mean air/soil temperatures during the winter 2001-02 were much greater than those observed during the same periods of 2000-1 and 2002-3 winters at both sites, and the winter of 2001-2 was one of the warmest measured in both New York State and California since 1895. Consequently T. striatus during the winter 2001-2 had: a) fewer individuals using torpor, b) reduced the time spent in torpor by 96%, and, c) increased energy expenditure by 100% when compared to the torpor patterns of the same population during the colder winters of 2000-1/2002-3. Likewise, S. lateralis during the winter of 2001-2 had: a) delayed the entrance into hibernation by a mean of 12.2 days, b) increased mean body temperatures by an average of 5.4 C during torpor, and, c) increased metabolic rate during torpor by 75% when compared to the torpor patterns of the same population during the winters of 2000-1/2002-3.

  3. Exposure pathways and biological receptors: baseline data for the canyon uranium mine, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Darrah, Abigail J.; Drost, Charles A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Méndez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Nowak, Erika M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Van Riper, Charles; Wolff, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    are the locally endemic Tusayan flameflower Phemeranthus validulus, the long-legged bat Myotis volans, and the Arizona bat Myotis occultus. The most common vertebrate species identified at the mine site included the Mexican spadefoot toad Spea multiplicata, plateau fence lizard Sceloporus tristichus, violetgreen swallow Tachycineta thalassina, pygmy nuthatch Sitta pygmaea, purple martin Progne subis, western bluebird Sialia mexicana, deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus, valley pocket gopher Thomomys bottae, cliff chipmunk Tamias dorsalis, black-tailed jackrabbit Lepus californicus, mule deer Odocoileus hemionus, and elk Cervus canadensis. A limited number of the most common species were collected for contaminant analysis to establish baseline contaminant and radiological concentrations prior to ore extraction. These empirical baseline data will help validate contaminant exposure pathways and potential threats from contaminant exposures to ecological receptors. Resource managers will also be able to use these data to determine the extent to which local species are exposed to chemical and radiation contamination once the mine is operational and producing ore. More broadly, these data could inform resource management decisions on mitigating chemical and radiation exposure of biota at high-grade uranium breccia pipes throughout the Grand Canyon watershed.

  4. 围栏条件下花鼠找寻种子的途径和方式%Study on Finding Seeds by Eutamias sibiricus in Semi-natural Enclosures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛可坤; 焦广强; 于飞; 易现峰

    2011-01-01

    Seed recovery processes were investigated with Eutamias sibiricus in the semi-natural enclosures in Dongfanghong Forest Dailing District of Heilongjiang Province in August 2009 and 2010. In the beginning of experiments ,we constructed 16 semi-natural enclosures with one nest in each enclosure which is 10 m × 10 m ×2. 5 m in size and one E. sibiricus was released in it. All the enclosures with natural vegetation were covered by net to protect the animal from predator. In the first 3 days, we laid 30 seeds of Pinus koraiensis in the center of enclosure every day to check the discovery rate for each animal. Then, we choose 8 very active one as target animal to test the seed recovery process. In the formal experiment, we laid 30 tagged seeds evenly in the half enclosure area against the nest side in the first day; buried 30 tagged seeds 2 cm depth evenly in the same region in the second day; buried 60 marked seeds alternately with 1,2 and 3 seeds in each cache in the third day to see whether cache size influences seed recovery rate. In the fourth day, we buried 30 tags only unevenly to test whether animal can locate seeds by vision; fifth day,we buried 30 untagged seeds to see whether the animal can find seed by smell. We used three seed species (P. koraiensis,Corylus heterophylla and C. mandshurica) in this study. Our results showed no difference in seed discovery rates regardless ground surface releasing and burial. However,seed recovery rates varied significantly with seed species and cache sizes. The recovery rates of "false seeds" were 3. 75% ( P. koraiensis ), 1. 67% ( C. heterophylla ) and 42. 92% ( C. mandshurica ) ,indicating the significance of vision. The recovery rates between handling caches and chipmunk' s own caches were not significantly different. These results showed that E. sibiricus rely on offaction and vision to recover seeds under the semi-natural enclosures and offaction might play an important role in finding seeds.%2009年8月和2010