WorldWideScience

Sample records for chipma-based imaging mass

  1. Mass Preserving Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Sporring, J.; Lo, P.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  2. Digital Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Casimir; Renz, Uwe; Bamberger, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Methods to visualize the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84 ± 35) μm with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm2. Extended laser spots of ~5 mm2 on structured specimens allows parallel imaging of selected masses. The digital imaging mass spectrometer proves high hit-multiplicity, straightforward image reconstruction, and potential for high-speed readout at 4 kHz or more. This device demonstrates a simple way of true image acquisition like a digital photographic camera. The technology may enable a fast analysis of biomolecular samples in near future.

  3. Digital Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bamberger, Casimir; Bamberger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Methods to visualize the two-dimensional distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by MALDI directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84\\pm35) \\mu m with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm2. Extended laser spots of ~5 mm2 on structured specimens allowed parallel imaging of s...

  4. Imaging of fetal chest masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Richard A. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Prenatal imaging with high-resolution US and rapid acquisition MRI plays a key role in the accurate diagnosis of congenital chest masses. Imaging has enhanced our understanding of the natural history of fetal lung masses, allowing for accurate prediction of outcome, parental counseling, and planning of pregnancy and newborn management. This paper will focus on congenital bronchopulmonary malformations, which account for the vast majority of primary lung masses in the fetus. In addition, anomalies that mimic masses and less common causes of lung masses will be discussed. (orig.)

  5. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Nørgaard, Asger W

    2012-01-01

    Easy ambient sonic spray ionization (EASI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were used for imaging of a number of samples, including sections of rat brain and imprints of plant material on porous Teflon. A novel approach termed Displaced Dual-mode Imaging was utilized for the direct c...

  6. MR imaging of adrenal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal intensity (SI) ratios and T2 values of 23 adrenal masses were analyzed using 1. 5 tesla MR imaging system to evaluate these capabilities for tissue characterization. They included 11 nonhyperfunctioning adenomas, 4 hyperfunctioning adenomas, 1 nodular hyperplasia, 3 metastatic tumors, and 4 pheochromocytomas. SI ratios of adrenal/fat, adrenal/liver, and adrenal/muscle on both T1-weighted images (WI) and T2-WI were obtained in each adrenal mass. The T2 values of adrenal masses were calculated with two echo sequences. In results, SI ratios on both T1-WI and T2-WI were not useful in the differentiation of metastatic tumors from adenomas. The calculated T2 value was more relaible. All 14 masses with a T2 value less than 60 msec were adenomas, and 4 masses with a T2 value of 60 msec or more included one adenoma and 3 metastatic tumors. The T2 value of 1 nodular hyperplasia was 58 msec and the T2 values of all 4 pheochromocytomas were over 70 msec. There were no significant differences in SI ratios and T2 value between nonhyperfunctioning and hyperfunctioning adenomas. Therefore, the T2 value is more accurate than SI ratios for tissue characterization of adrenal masses at 1. 5 tesla. Although the T2 value correlated well with the size of mass, whether it depends on mass size or tissue character remains controversial. (author)

  7. Absorption Mode FTICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, D.F.; Kilgour, D.P.A.; Konijnenburg, M.; O'Connor, P.B.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields

  8. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  9. Correcting mass shifts: Lock mass-free recalibration procedure for mass spectrometry imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulkarni, P.; Kynast, P.; Kaftan, Filip; Vrkoslav, V.; Cvačka, Josef; Knaden, M.; Svatoš, Aleš; Böcker, S.

    Baltimore : -, 2014. 030. [ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics /62./. 15.06.2014-19.06.2014, Baltimore] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mass spectrometry imaging * mass shift * insects Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  10. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.; Smith, D.F.; Jungmann, JH; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyat

  11. Mass spectrometry imaging for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiangjiang; Ouyang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The development of mass spectrometry imaging technologies is of significant current research interest. Mass spectrometry potentially is capable of providing highly specific information about the distribution of chemical compounds on tissues at highly sensitive levels. The required in-situ analysis for the tissue imaging forced MS analysis being performed off the traditional conditions optimized in pharmaceutical applications with intense sample preparation. This critical review seeks to prese...

  12. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...... into a standard image registration framework with a composition of a global affine and several free-form B-Spline transformations with increasing grid resolution. The proposed mass preserving registration method is compared to registration using the sum of squared intensity differences as a similarity...... function on four groups of data: 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with small difference in lung volume; 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with large difference in lung volume; 16 pairs of expiratory and inspiratory CT scans; and 5 pairs of images extracted at end exhale...

  13. Emerging Technologies in Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jungmann, Julia H

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) as an analytical tool for bio-molecular and bio-medical research targets, accurate compound localization and identification. In terms of dedicated instrumentation, this translates into the demand for more detail in the image dimension (spatial resolution) and in the spectral dimension (mass resolution and accuracy), preferably combined in one instrument. At the same time, large area biological tissue samples require fast acquisition schemes, instrument automation and a robust data infrastructure. This review discusses the analytical capabilities of an "ideal" MSI instrument for bio-molecular and bio-medical molecular imaging. The analytical attributes of such an ideal system are contrasted with technological and methodological challenges in MSI. In particular, innovative instrumentation for high spatial resolution imaging in combination with high sample throughput is discussed. Detector technology that targets various shortcomings of conventional imaging detector systems is hig...

  14. Spatial neuroproteomics using imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrieder, Jörg; Malmberg, Per; Ewing, Andrew G

    2015-07-01

    The nervous system constitutes arguably the most complicated and least understood cellular network in the human body. This consequently manifests itself in the fact that the molecular bases of neurodegenerative diseases remain unknown. The limited understanding of neurobiological mechanisms relates directly to the lack of appropriate bioanalytical technologies that allow highly resolved, sensitive, specific and comprehensive molecular imaging in complex biological matrices. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an emerging technique for molecular imaging. The technique is characterized by its high chemical specificity allowing comprehensive, spatial protein and peptide profiling in situ. Imaging MS represents therefore a powerful approach for investigation of spatio-temporal protein and peptide regulations in CNS derived tissue and cells. This review aims to provide a concise overview of major developments and applications concerning imaging mass spectrometry based protein and peptide profiling in neurobiological and biomedical research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in Neuroscience and Neurology. PMID:25582083

  15. Enhanced imaging of developed fingerprints using mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M J; Ismail, M; Bleay, S; Bright, N; Levin Elad, M; Cohen, Y; Geller, B; Everson, D; Costa, C; Webb, R P; Watts, J F; de Puit, M

    2013-11-01

    Latent fingermarks are invisible to the naked eye and normally require the application of a chemical developer followed by an optical imaging step in order to visualize the ridge detail. If the finger deposition is poor, or the fingermark is aged, it can sometimes be difficult to produce an image of sufficient quality for identification. In this work, we show for the first time how mass spectrometry imaging (in this case time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, ToF-SIMS) can be used to enhance the quality of partially recovered fingermarks. We show three examples of how chemical imaging can be used to obtain enhanced images of fingermarks deposited on aluminium foil, glass and the handle of a hand grenade compared with conventional development techniques. PMID:23991428

  16. Imaging features of retrorectal masses in adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrorectal masses have several etiologies. They could be of congenital origin owing to the complexity of the embryogenesis in this area. This report concerns a semiological analysis based on a series of 46 cases with a review of literature. The different pathological features are described. The actual imaging technics have much improved diagnostic criterias, thus providing a better therapeutic choice. (19 figs)

  17. Integrated imaging of neonatal renal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirks, D.R.; Rosenberg, E.R.; Johnson, D.G.; King, L.R.

    1985-02-01

    Thirty-three neonatal renal masses were evaluated during a 2 year interval. The final diagnoses in these 33 patients were hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, renal vein thrombosis, obstructed upper pole duplication, polycystic kidney disease, nephroblastomatosis, and mesoblastic nephroma. We recommend an integrated imaging approach that utilizes sonography to clarify anatomy and renal scintigraphy or excretory urography to determine renal function.

  18. Focal renal masses: magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients with focal renal masses were evaluated on a .12-Tesla resistive magnetic resonance unit using partial saturation and spin echo pulse sequence. Fifteen patients had cystic lesions, nine patients had renal cell carcinoma, two had metastatic lesions, one had an angiomyolipoma, and three had focal bacterial infection. Renal cell carcinomas demonstrated areas of increased signal using a partial saturation sequence. Magnetic resonance imaging accurately detected perinephric extension and vascular invasion in all patients. Metastatic disease to the kidney was uniformly low in signal, in contrast to primary renal cell carcinoma; an angiomyolipoma demonstrated very high signal intensity. Two masses resulting from acute focal bacterial nephritis were uniformly low in signal. Magnetic resonance imaging appears to be an accurate way of detecting, identifying, and staging focal renal masses

  19. Compressed sensing in imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Andreas; Dülk, Patrick; Trede, Dennis; Alexandrov, Theodore; Maaß, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a technique of analytical chemistry for spatially resolved, label-free and multipurpose analysis of biological samples that is able to detect the spatial distribution of hundreds of molecules in one experiment. The hyperspectral IMS data is typically generated by a mass spectrometer analyzing the surface of the sample. In this paper, we propose a compressed sensing approach to IMS which potentially allows for faster data acquisition by collecting only a part of the pixels in the hyperspectral image and reconstructing the full image from this data. We present an integrative approach to perform both peak-picking spectra and denoising m/z-images simultaneously, whereas the state of the art data analysis methods solve these problems separately. We provide a proof of the robustness of the recovery of both the spectra and individual channels of the hyperspectral image and propose an algorithm to solve our optimization problem which is based on proximal mappings. The paper concludes with the numerical reconstruction results for an IMS dataset of a rat brain coronal section.

  20. Compressed sensing in imaging mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a technique of analytical chemistry for spatially resolved, label-free and multipurpose analysis of biological samples that is able to detect the spatial distribution of hundreds of molecules in one experiment. The hyperspectral IMS data is typically generated by a mass spectrometer analyzing the surface of the sample. In this paper, we propose a compressed sensing approach to IMS which potentially allows for faster data acquisition by collecting only a part of the pixels in the hyperspectral image and reconstructing the full image from this data. We present an integrative approach to perform both peak-picking spectra and denoising m/z-images simultaneously, whereas the state of the art data analysis methods solve these problems separately. We provide a proof of the robustness of the recovery of both the spectra and individual channels of the hyperspectral image and propose an algorithm to solve our optimization problem which is based on proximal mappings. The paper concludes with the numerical reconstruction results for an IMS dataset of a rat brain coronal section. (paper)

  1. Double focussing stigmatic image mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass spectrometer for the analysis of ions, which occur in matetial pulverisation by a radiation micro probe, contains one lens a 450 spherical condenser lens, from which the ion beam emerhes as a parallel beam, an intermediate shutter, a 900 magnetic field and an outlet shutter. The angle of entry and energy bandwidth can be set independently of each other. An optimum transmission is obtained with the least possible image errors. (DG)

  2. Correcting mass shifts: A lock mass-free recalibration procedure for mass spectrometry imaging data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulkarni, P.; Kaftan, F.; Kynast, P.; Svatoš, Aleš; Böcker, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 407, č. 25 (2015), s. 7603-7613. ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mass spectrometry imaging * recalibration * mass shift correction * data processing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  3. Imaging modalities for evaluating soft tissue masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In horses, ultrasonography and contrast radiography are useful imaging modalities for evaluating soft tissue masses adjacent to the joint capsule or tendon sheath. Both ultrasound and contrast radiography can differntiate synovial cysts, ganglia, and synovial fistulae. Well-circumscribed soft tissue swellings adjacent to a joint or tendon sheath should be evaluated first via survey radiography. When bone lesions have been ruled out, contrast radiography and ultrasonography are useful in evaluating the soft tissue. Diagnostic differentials for cystic masses located near a joint or tendon sheath include synovial cyst, ganglion, and intersynovial fistula. A synovial cyst can be differentiated from a ganglion by identifying a communication between the soft tissuemass and a synovial structure

  4. Advanced Mass Calibration and Visualization for FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Donald F.; Kharchenko, Andriy; Konijnenburg, Marco; Klinkert, Ivo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Ron M A Heeren

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance yields hundreds of unique peaks, many of which cannot be resolved by lower performance mass spectrometers. The high mass accuracy and high mass resolving power allow confident identification of small molecules and lipids directly from biological tissue sections. Here, calibration strategies for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging were investigated. Sub parts-per-million mass accuracy is demo...

  5. A quantitation method for mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeniger, Stormy L; Talaty, Nari; Luo, Yanping; Ready, Damien; Voorbach, Martin; Seifert, Terese; Cepa, Steve; Fagerland, Jane A; Bouska, Jennifer; Buck, Wayne; Johnson, Robert W; Spanton, Stephen

    2011-02-28

    A new quantitation method for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) has been developed. In this method, drug concentrations were determined by tissue homogenization of five 10 µm tissue sections adjacent to those analyzed by MSI. Drug levels in tissue extracts were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The integrated MSI response was correlated to the LC/MS/MS drug concentrations to determine the amount of drug detected per MSI ion count. The study reported here evaluates olanzapine in liver tissue. Tissue samples containing a range of concentrations were created from liver harvested from rats administered a single dose of olanzapine at 0, 1, 4, 8, 16, 30, or 100 mg/kg. The liver samples were then analyzed by MALDI-MSI and LC/MS/MS. The MALDI-MSI and LC/MS/MS correlation was determined for tissue concentrations of ~300 to 60,000 ng/g and yielded a linear relationship over two orders of magnitude (R(2) = 0.9792). From this correlation, a conversion factor of 6.3 ± 0.23 fg/ion count was used to quantitate MSI responses at the pixel level (100 µm). The details of the method, its importance in pharmaceutical analysis, and the considerations necessary when implementing it are presented. PMID:21259359

  6. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging: plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Baosheng; Zhang, Jialing; Chang, Cuilan; Li, Liping; Li, Min; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Tang, Fei; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2014-05-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been widely used in many research areas for the advantages of providing informative molecular distribution with high specificity. Among the recent progress, ambient MSI has attracted increasing interests owing to its characteristics of ambient, in situ, and nonpretreatment analysis. Here, we are presenting the ambient MSI for traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and authentication of work of art and documents using plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PALDI-MS). Compared with current ambient MSI methods, an excellent average resolution of 60 μm × 60 μm pixel size was achieved using this system. The feasibility of PALDI-based MSI was confirmed by seal imaging, and its authentication applications were demonstrated by imaging of printed Chinese characters. Imaging of the Radix Scutellariae slice showed that the two active components, baicalein and wogonin, mainly were distributed in the epidermis of the root, which proposed an approach for distinguishing TCMs' origins and the distribution of active components of TCMs and exploring the environmental effects of plant growth. PALDI-MS imaging provides a strong complement for the MSI strategy with the enhanced spatial resolution, which is promising in many research fields, such as artwork identification, TCMs' and botanic research, pharmaceutical applications, etc. PMID:24670045

  7. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Donald F; Leach, Franklin E; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for elemental formula assignment based on exact mass measurement. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissu...

  8. Advanced Mass Calibration and Visualization for FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Donald F; Konijnenburg, Marco; Klinkert, Ivo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance yields hundreds of unique peaks, many of which cannot be resolved by lower performance mass spectrometers. The high mass accuracy and high mass resolving power allow confident identification of small molecules and lipids directly from biological tissue sections. Here, calibration strategies for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging were investigated. Sub parts-per-million mass accuracy is demonstrated over an entire tissue section. Ion abundance fluctuations are corrected for by addition of total and relative ion abundances for a root-mean-square error of 0.158 ppm on 16,764 peaks. A new approach for visualization of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging data at high resolution is presented. The Mosaic Data-cube provides a flexible means to visualize the entire mass range at a mass spectral bin width of 0.001 Dalton. The high resolution Mosaic Data-cube resolves spectral features ...

  9. Pelvic masses in pregnant patients: MR and US imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen pregnant patients with pelvic masses detected with ultrasound (US) were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T. Two patients were in their first trimester, eight in the second, and six in the last. On MR images, 34 masses were seen, including 19 uterine leiomyomas. With US, 20 masses were detected. All masses not seen with US were leiomyomas. Only 20 masses (in 11 patients) were removed for histologic study. In nine cases, MR imaging and US provided similar information on the origin, extent, and type of mass. In seven patients, MR imaging contributed additional information. MR imaging depicted more leiomyomas than US in three patients. In another case, MR images showed that a mass depicted with US was actually a loop of bowel. MR images allowed differentiation between a solid soft tissue mass and a hemorrhagic fluid-containing mass, correctly depicted the presence of an abdominal pregnancy, and allowed evaluation of the parametrium for spread of cervical carcinoma

  10. Image reconstruction techniques applied to nuclear mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Irving O.; Isacker, P. Van; Velazquez, V.; Barea, J.; Mendoza-Temis, J.; Vieyra, J. C. López; Hirsch, J. G.; Frank, A.

    2010-02-01

    A new procedure is presented that combines well-known nuclear models with image reconstruction techniques. A color-coded image is built by taking the differences between measured masses and the predictions given by the different theoretical models. This image is viewed as part of a larger array in the (N,Z) plane, where unknown nuclear masses are hidden, covered by a “mask.” We apply a suitably adapted deconvolution algorithm, used in astronomical observations, to “open the window” and see the rest of the pattern. We show that it is possible to improve significantly mass predictions in regions not too far from measured nuclear masses.

  11. Image reconstruction techniques applied to nuclear mass models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new procedure is presented that combines well-known nuclear models with image reconstruction techniques. A color-coded image is built by taking the differences between measured masses and the predictions given by the different theoretical models. This image is viewed as part of a larger array in the (N,Z) plane, where unknown nuclear masses are hidden, covered by a 'mask'.' We apply a suitably adapted deconvolution algorithm, used in astronomical observations, to 'open the window' and see the rest of the pattern. We show that it is possible to improve significantly mass predictions in regions not too far from measured nuclear masses.

  12. MR characterization of adrenal masses by T1-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiation of benign from malignant adrenal masses was investigated using a T1-weighted (echo time, 20 msec; repetition time, 250 msec) spin-echo sequence at 0.5 T. Of 35 adrenal masses studied, all those with adrenal mass/liver intensity ratios ≤0.71 were metastases, and all with ratios ≥0.78 were adenomas. Using adrenal mass/fat intensity ratios, eight of nine masses with ratios ≤0.35 were metastases, and all with ratios ≥0.42 were benign. Of the masses, 31% were indeterminate using adrenal/liver and 29% using adrenal/fat intensity ratios. Similar overlap has been reported for T2-weighted imaging techniques. These data suggest that T1-weighted imaging has a specificity similar to that reported for T2-weighted imaging in characterizing adrenal masses, but allows shorter scan times and provides better anatomic resolution

  13. Mass microscopy : imaging biomolecules on surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxembourg, Stefan Libertus

    2005-01-01

    Now, that mass spectrometry (MS) has been established as the analytical tool for the analysis of proteins a new challenge awaits: the development of spatial resolved mass spectrometry directly on biological tissue and cells at single cell level or beyond. The desire to study the complexity of biol

  14. Mass spectrometry imaging and profiling of single cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lanni, Eric J.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging and profiling of individual cells and subcellular structures provide unique analytical capabilities for biological and biomedical research, including determination of the biochemical heterogeneity of cellular populations and intracellular localization of pharmaceuticals. Two mass spectrometry technologies—secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS)—are most often used in micro-bioanalytical inves...

  15. Low-Mass Planar Photonic Imaging Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a revolutionary electro-optical (EO) imaging sensor concept that provides a low-mass, low-volume alternative to the traditional bulky optical telescope...

  16. Imaging Heat and Mass Transfer Processes Visualization and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Pradipta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Imaging Heat and Mass Transfer Processes: Visualization and Analysis applies Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques to complex heat and mass transfer processes. Several applications are considered where thermal and concentration fields play a central role. These include vortex shedding and suppression from stationary and oscillating bluff bodies such as cylinders, convection around crystals growing from solution, and buoyant jets. Many of these processes are unsteady and three dimensional. The interpretation and analysis of images recorded are discussed in the text.

  17. Evaluation of pelvic masses using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the main magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with adnexal masses. We reviewed the images of 33 patients submitted to magnetic resonance scans of the pelvis due to suspicion of adnexal masses. Images were obtained using the following magnetic resonance imaging sequences: T1 TSE axial, T2 TSE coronal, sagittal and axial, and T 1 SPIR axial pre- and post-gadolinium injection. Among the 33 patients studied, 17 had benign ovarian masses, five had uterine tube diseases, two had sub serous myomas, one had an ectopic pregnancy, one had an embryonic cyst and one had a urachal cyst. One of the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging is multiplanar analysis that allows evaluation of the extension of the expansive adnexal lesions. The excellent contrast between structures as well as the different characteristics of the lesions in each sequence allow diagnostic precision, particularly in patients with mature cystic teratomas, endometriomas and hemorrhagic cysts. (author)

  18. Imaging Teachers: In Fact and in the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Xae Alicia; Rios, Diana I.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of mass media on public images of teachers and students is considered in a dialogue between two educational and mass media researchers. Stereotypes in films, such as teacher-savior and student-failure, and abundant reports about Latino dropout rates and low academic achievement impact teachers and the public, who accept negative images…

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Benign Cardiac Masses: A Pictorial Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis for a cardiac mass includes primary and metastatic neoplasms. While primary cardiac tumors are rare, metastatic disease to the heart is a common finding in cancer patients. Several "tumor-like" processes can mimic a true cardiac neoplasm with accurate diagnosis critical at guiding appropriate management. We present a pictorial essay of the most common benign cardiac masses and "mass-like" lesions with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging features.

  20. Ultrasound image discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses

    OpenAIRE

    Aramendía Vidaurreta, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses through ultrasound images. This task represents one of the most challenging problems in gynecological practice. Benign adnexal masses should be treated by minimally invasive surgery whereas patients with questionable adnexal masses should be referred for primary surgery. An accurate diagnosis is crucial in order to establish the optimal management for these patients. Therefore, it is essential ...

  1. Reconstructing building mass models from UAV images

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2015-07-26

    We present an automatic reconstruction pipeline for large scale urban scenes from aerial images captured by a camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle. Using state-of-the-art Structure from Motion and Multi-View Stereo algorithms, we first generate a dense point cloud from the aerial images. Based on the statistical analysis of the footprint grid of the buildings, the point cloud is classified into different categories (i.e., buildings, ground, trees, and others). Roof structures are extracted for each individual building using Markov random field optimization. Then, a contour refinement algorithm based on pivot point detection is utilized to refine the contour of patches. Finally, polygonal mesh models are extracted from the refined contours. Experiments on various scenes as well as comparisons with state-of-the-art reconstruction methods demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  2. Deblurring molecular images using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, R. Mitchell; Galhena, Asiri S.; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional imaging techniques for studying the spatial distribution of biological molecules such as proteins, metabolites, and lipids, require the a priori selection of a handful of target molecules. Imaging mass spectrometry provides a means to analyze thousands of molecules at a time within a tissue sample, adding spatial detail to proteomic, metabolomic, and lipidomic studies. Compared to traditional microscopic images, mass spectrometric images have reduced spatial resolution and require a destructive acquisition process. In order to increase spatial detail, we propose a constrained acquisition path and signal degradation model enabling the use of a general image deblurring algorithm. Our analysis shows the potential of this approach and supports prior observations that the effect of the sprayer focuses on a central region much smaller than the extent of the spray. PMID:19963935

  3. Congenital frontonasal masses: developmental anatomy, malformations, and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The newborn, infant, or young child who presents with a midline frontonasal mass often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. The most pressing issue is whether the mass extends intracranially. The development of the frontonasal region or anterior neuropore is complex. Aberrant embryogenesis leads to three main types of anomalies: nasal dermal sinus, anterior cephalocele, and nasal glioma. Understanding the developmental anatomy of the anterior neuropore and postnatal maturation will serve the radiologist well when it comes to imaging frontonasal masses. Pitfalls particularly common to CT imaging interpretation include the evolving ossification of the frontal, nasal and ethmoid bones in the first year of life, morphology and size of the foramen cecum, and the natural intumescence of the anterior nasal septum. Determination of the presence of a connection between the frontonasal mass and the anterior cranial fossae is crucial in the imaging assessment and clinical management. In the case of the nasal dermal sinus, failure to appreciate the intracranial components of the malformation can lead to fatal meningitis. MR imaging is the modality of choice for assessing the pediatric frontonasal region. Its advantages include multiplanar imaging, distinguishing the interface among cartilage, bone, brain and fluid, diffusion imaging to detect epidermoid tumors, and the capacity to evaluate the brain for associated cerebral anomalies. (orig.)

  4. Congenital frontonasal masses: developmental anatomy, malformations, and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newborn, infant, or young child who presents with a midline frontonasal mass often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. The most pressing issue is whether the mass extends intracranially. The development of the frontonasal region or anterior neuropore is complex. Aberrant embryogenesis leads to three main types of anomalies: nasal dermal sinus, anterior cephalocele, and nasal glioma. Understanding the developmental anatomy of the anterior neuropore and postnatal maturation will serve the radiologist well when it comes to imaging frontonasal masses. Pitfalls particularly common to CT imaging interpretation include the evolving ossification of the frontal, nasal and ethmoid bones in the first year of life, morphology and size of the foramen cecum, and the natural intumescence of the anterior nasal septum. Determination of the presence of a connection between the frontonasal mass and the anterior cranial fossae is crucial in the imaging assessment and clinical management. In the case of the nasal dermal sinus, failure to appreciate the intracranial components of the malformation can lead to fatal meningitis. MR imaging is the modality of choice for assessing the pediatric frontonasal region. Its advantages include multiplanar imaging, distinguishing the interface among cartilage, bone, brain and fluid, diffusion imaging to detect epidermoid tumors, and the capacity to evaluate the brain for associated cerebral anomalies. (orig.)

  5. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  6. Silver Coating for High-Mass-Accuracy Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Fingerprints on Nanostructured Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Taryn M; Gustafsson, Ove J R; McPhee, Gordon; Kobus, Hilton; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-11-17

    Nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry (NIMS) using porous silicon (pSi) is a key technique for molecular imaging of exogenous and endogenous low molecular weight compounds from fingerprints. However, high-mass-accuracy NIMS can be difficult to achieve as time-of-flight (ToF) mass analyzers, which dominate the field, cannot sufficiently compensate for shifts in measured m/z values. Here, we show internal recalibration using a thin layer of silver (Ag) sputter-coated onto functionalized pSi substrates. NIMS peaks for several previously reported fingerprint components were selected and mass accuracy was compared to theoretical values. Mass accuracy was improved by more than an order of magnitude in several cases. This straightforward method should form part of the standard guidelines for NIMS studies for spatial characterization of small molecules. PMID:26460234

  7. How to display science since images have no mass

    CERN Document Server

    Chevrier, Joel; Marchi, Florence; Jones, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Education, science, in fact the whole society, extensively use images. Between us and the world are the visual displays. Screens, small and large, individual or not, are everywhere. Images are increasingly the 2D substrate of our virtual interaction with reality. However images will never support a complete representation of the reality. Three-dimensional representations will not change that. Images are primarily a spatial representation of our world dedicated to our sight. Key aspects such as energy and the associated forces are not spatially materialized. In classical physics, interaction description is based on Newton equations with trajectory and force as the dual central concepts. Images can in real time show all aspects of trajectories but not the associated dynamical aspects described by forces and energies. Contrary to the real world, the world of images opposes no constrain, nor resistance to our actions. Only the physical quantities, that do not contain mass in their dimension can be satisfactory re...

  8. Vaginal Masses: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features with Pathologic Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of vaginal lesions has increased with the expanding use of cross-sectional imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - with its high-contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities - is often useful for characterizing vaginal masses. Vaginal masses can be classified as congenital, inflammatory, cystic (benign), and neoplastic (benign or malignant) in etiology. Recognition of the typical MR imaging features of such lesions is important because it often determines the treatment approach and may obviate surgery. Finally, vaginal MR imaging can be used to evaluate post-treatment changes related to previous surgery and radiation therapy. In this article, we will review pertinent vaginal anatomy, vaginal and pelvic MRI technique, and the MRI features of a variety of vaginal lesions with pathological correlation

  9. Challenges and recent advances in mass spectrometric imaging of neurotransmitters

    OpenAIRE

    Gemperline, Erin; Chen, Bingming; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules, from small molecules to large proteins, by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in the study of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides of different classes toward investigation of neurobiological functions and diseases. These studies have provided significant insight in neurobiology over the years and curre...

  10. Mass spectrometric imaging of ginsenosides localization in Panax ginseng root

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Shu; Ikeda, Ryuzo; Yokota, Naohiko; OSAKA, Issey; Sakamoto, Manabu; Kato, Mitsuro; Sahashi, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    We succeeded in performing mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) of the localization of ginsenosides (Rb_1, Rb_2 or R_c, and Rf) in cross-sections of the Panax ginseng root at a resolution of 100 μm using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of alkali metal-adducted ginsenoside ions revealed structural information of the corresponding saccharides and agricones. MALDI-MSI confirmed that localization of ginsenosides in the cortex ...

  11. The Ion Mass Imager on the Planet-B spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, O.; Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Olsen, S.; Borg, H.; Barabash, S.; Hirahara, M.; Mukai, T.; Hayakawa, H.

    1998-03-01

    The Ion Mass Imager (IMI) is a light-weight ion mass composition instrument for the Japanese Planet-B mission to be launched to Mars in 1998. The objective of the Planet-B mission is to study the Martian environment with emphasis on the upper atmosphere interaction with the solar wind. IMI measures positive ions with energies between 10 eV/q and 35 keV/q and with a mass resolution high enough to resolve the most important ion species (H+, He++, He+, O++, O+, O2 +). The instrument has a 360° field-of-view aperture and uses the spacecraft spin to cover almost the full unit sphere to obtain three-dimensional distribution functions every 4 s (half a spacecraft spin period). Particles are energy-filtered by a spherical electrostatic analyzer, and then mass-analysed by the magnetic separation method. The ions hit a microchannel plate assembly with a position sensitive anode divided into 32 mass channels. Together with 16 angular sectors, this system "images" the direction of motion and mass of ions. A pre-acceleration voltage of 0-4000 V is used to select the mass range, e.g., modes optimized for light ions (up to O+) and heavy ions (O+ to charged dust grains). A loss-less data compression algorithm is used in the in-flight processing software to optimize the amount of data that can be returned from Mars.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the saccular otolithic mass.

    OpenAIRE

    Sbarbati, A; Leclercq, F; Antonakis, K; Osculati, F.

    1992-01-01

    The frog's inner ear was studied in vivo by high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla. The vestibule, the internal acoustic meatus, and the auditory tube have been identified. The large otolithic mass contained in the vestibule showed a virtual absence of magnetic resonance signal probably due to its composition of closely packed otoconia.

  13. Contrast Agent Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals Tumor Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Alessandra; Zheng, Jinzi; Ginsberg, Howard J; Jaffray, David A; Ifa, Demian R; Zarrine-Afsar, Arash

    2015-08-01

    Mapping intratumoral heterogeneity such as vasculature and margins is important during intraoperative applications. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has demonstrated potential for intraoperative tumor imaging using validated MS profiles. The clinical translation of DESI-MS into a universal label-free imaging technique thus requires access to MS profiles characteristic to tumors and healthy tissues. Here, we developed contrast agent mass spectrometry imaging (CA-MSI) that utilizes a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent targeted to disease sites, as a label, to reveal tumor heterogeneity in the absence of known MS profiles. Human breast cancer tumors grown in mice were subjected to CA-MSI using Gadoteridol revealing tumor margins and vasculature from the localization of [Gadoteridol+K](+) and [Gadoteridol+Na](+) adducts, respectively. The localization of the [Gadoteridol+K](+) adduct as revealed through DESI-MS complements the in vivo MRI results. DESI-MS imaging is therefore possible for tumors for which no characteristic MS profiles are established. Further DESI-MS imaging of the flux of the contrast agent through mouse kidneys was performed indicating secretion of the intact label. PMID:26138213

  14. Use of Mass spectrometry for imaging metabolites in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Jin; Perdian, David C.; Song, Zhihong; Yeung, Edward S.; Nikolau, Basil

    2012-03-27

    We discuss and illustrate recent advances that have been made to image the distribution of metabolites among cells and tissues of plants using different mass spectrometry technologies. These technologies include matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, desorption electrospray ionization, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. These are relatively new technological applications of mass spectrometry and they are providing highly spatially resolved data concerning the cellular distribution of metabolites. We discuss the advantages and limitations of each of these mass spectrometric methods, and provide a description of the technical barriers that are currently limiting the technology to the level of single-cell resolution. However, we anticipate that advances in the next few years will increase the resolving power of the technology to provide unprecedented data on the distribution of metabolites at the subcellular level, which will increase our ability to decipher new knowledge concerning the spatial organization of metabolic processes in plants.

  15. Use of mass spectrometry for imaging metabolites in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Jin; Perdian, David; Song, Zhihong; Yeung, Edward; Nikolau, Basil

    2012-03-27

    We discuss and illustrate recent advances that have been made to image the distribution of metabolites among cells and tissues of plants using different mass spectrometry technologies. These technologies include matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, desorption electrospray ionization, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. These are relatively new technological applications of mass spectrometry and they are providing highly spatially resolved data concerning the cellular distribution of metabolites. We discuss the advantages and limitations of each of these mass spectrometric methods, and provide a description of the technical barriers that are currently limiting the technology to the level of single-cell resolution. However, we anticipate that advances in the next few years will increase the resolving power of the technology to provide unprecedented data on the distribution of metabolites at the subcellular level, which will increase our ability to decipher new knowledge concerning the spatial organization of metabolic processes in plants.

  16. High mass accuracy and high mass resolving power FT-ICR secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological tissue imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, D.F.; Kiss, A.; Leach, F.E.; Robinson, E.W.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performe

  17. Imaging Findings of Palpable Benign Masses in the Axilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The most common pathologic conditions in the axilla are the diseases related to lymph nodes, of which the most serious condition is a malignant lesion such as the metastatic lymphadenopathy or lymphoma. However, various benign conditions in the axilla have been reported and some of them show characteristic imaging findings which allow presumptive diagnosis to be made without invasive procedures. We review various conditions of benign axillary mass and illustrate typical findings in this essay. Sonography can evaluate the axillary area easily and immediately performed sonography-guided core needle biopsy is also useful when the axillary mass does not have typical benign features

  18. Preparation of Single Cells for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E S; Fortson, S L; Kulp, K S; Checchi, K D; Wu, L; Felton, J S; Wu, K J

    2007-10-24

    Characterizing chemical changes within single cells is important for determining fundamental mechanisms of biological processes that will lead to new biological insights and improved disease understanding. Imaging biological systems with mass spectrometry (MS) has gained popularity in recent years as a method for creating precise chemical maps of biological samples. In order to obtain high-quality mass spectral images that provide relevant molecular information about individual cells, samples must be prepared so that salts and other cell-culture components are removed from the cell surface and the cell contents are rendered accessible to the desorption beam. We have designed a cellular preparation protocol for imaging MS that preserves the cellular contents for investigation and removes the majority of the interfering species from the extracellular matrix. Using this method, we obtain excellent imaging results and reproducibility in three diverse cell types: MCF7 human breast cancer cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. This preparation technique allows routine imaging MS analysis of cultured cells, allowing for any number of experiments aimed at furthering scientific understanding of molecular processes within individual cells.

  19. Imaging the Beta-cell mass: why and how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saudek, Frantisek; Brogren, Carl-Henrik; Manohar, Srirang

    2008-01-01

    of the fate of beta-cells under disease and therapy conditions. This could pave the way for a new era of intervention by islet replacement and regeneration regimens. Monitoring the beta-cell mass requires a reliable method for noninvasive in vivo imaging. Such a method is not available at present due......-cells. This effect was demonstrated in many previous investigations, and has been further substantiated more recently. Thus, at present, IC2 seems to be the only useful marker for noninvasive functional imaging of native beta-cells. Experiments with a radioisotope-chelated IC2 structure on pancreas ex vivo showed...

  20. MR imaging of adrenal masses smaller than 5 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The T2 relaxation times of 28 adrenal masses smaller than 5 cm obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging system were analyzed to evaluate the ability of this parameter to characterize the tissue masses. The adrenal masses included 13 nonhyperfunctioning adenomas, five hyperfunctioning adenomas, five metastatic tumors, two pheochromocytomas, one nodular hyperplasia, one ganglioneuroma, and one cyst. The mean T2 value of nonhyperfunctioning adenomas was almost the same as that of hyperfunctioning adenomas. A significant difference was found in T2 (p2 of over 70 msec. The T2 values of nodular hyperplasia and adrenal cyst were 58 msec and 123 msec, respectively. Although the T2 values of metastatic tumors tended to be longer than those of nonhyperfunctioning adenomas, differentiation between them with a T2 of 60 msec was not necessarily possible, especially in smaller masses. The T2 values of two metastatic tumors of less than 2 cm indicated 50 msec levels. There seemed to be a correlation between mass size and T2 in metastatic tumors. In adenomas, however, no significant correlation was demonstrated. We conclude that the characterization of small adrenal masses by T2 at 1.5 Tesla is unsatisfactory in differentiating metastatic tumors from nonhyperfunctioning adenomas. (author)

  1. Limitations of MR imaging characterization of adrenal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of MR images at 1.5T to characterize 24 adrenal masses was evaluated by means of several variables recommended in the literature: (1) signal intensity ratios (adrenal-liver and adrenal-fat) at both short repetition time (TR)/short echo time (TE) (500-800/20-25) and long TR/long TE (2,000-2,500/80), (2) T2 relaxation times of adrenal masses, and (3) ratios of adrenal T2 to liver and fat T2. In the authors' series, signal intensity ratios were not reliable for characterization of adrenal masses. Adrenal T2 values were more useful: all 13 adrenal masses with T2 less than 60 msec were adenomas. However, greater than 60 msec was less specific, including four metastases, two pheochromocytomas, two adenomas, two adrenal hemorrhages, and one adrenocortical carcinoma. Ratios of T2 values were less accurate than T2 values of the adrenal gland alone. The authors conclude that T2 values of adrenal glands are more accurate than signal intensity ratios for characterization of adrenal masses at 1.5T, although masses with T2 greater than 60 msec may require biopsy

  2. Characterization of adrenal masses: can image replace biopsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the diagnostic value of new imaging techniques in characterization of adrenal masses and evaluates the role of adrenal biopsy. For differentiation of benign and malignant adrenal lesions, sensitivities and specificities of 85-100% can be reached by unenhanced computed tomography (CT) methods, chemical shift techniques in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), delayed enhanced CT techniques, and by evaluation of wash-out curves in contrast-enhanced CT. The diagnostic value of all CT techniques depends on threshold values. The value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is under discussion and should be reevaluated by using delayed enhance series. Biochemical and scintigraphic methods (NP 59 iodine iodomethyl-norcholesterol and MIBG meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigrams) are valuable for the diagnosis of functional adrenal masses; however, they do not allow differentiation of benign and malignant tumors. According to excellent results of new imaging techniques in characterization of adrenal masses, the indications for fine-needle aspiration biopsy have already regressed, as have complications associated with this invasive technique. (orig.)

  3. Computer-aided diagnostic system for mass survey chest images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programming language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary

  4. DETECTION OF MASSES IN MAMMOGRAM IMAGES USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Patankar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the advances in edge detection techniques, which is used for the mammogram images for cancer diagnosis. It compares the evaluation of edge detection with the proposed method ant colony optimization. The study shows that the edge detection technique is applied on the mammogram images because it will clearly identify the masses in mammogram images. This will help to identify the type of cancer at the early stage. ACO edge detector is best in detecting the edges when compared to the other edge detectors. The quality of various edge detectors is calculated based on the parameters such as Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and Mean square error (MSE.

  5. Determining the mass of Didymos' secondary by visual imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Björn; Küppers, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A critical requirement for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is the ability to determine the mass of Didymos' secondary with an accuracy of about 10 %. On one hand, this is necessary in order to plan the delivery of the lander MASCOT-2 with sufficient precision, on the other hand, it is needed to estimate the momentum transfer by the impact of the DART spacecraft and hence to verify the concept of asteroid deflection. The conventional approach to estimate the mass of a solar system body through its gravitational effect by tracking the spacecraft trajectory is not viable for Didymos' secondary. With a diameter of only 163 m, its mass is too small to yield a significant impact on the spacecraft trajectory at reasonable fly-by distances. Instead, the idea to determine the mass of the secondary by measuring the "wobble" of the primary around the common centre of gravity has been put forward. The mass of the primary is about 100 times the mass of the secondary, thus the expected wobble radius is about one percent of the distance of 1180 m between the two, that is about 10 m. Such a wobble may be possible to measure either by means of using the optical communication device OPTEL-D as an altimeter or by direct observation with the visual imaging system VIS. Here, we investigate the latter approach. The idea is to identify landmarks in VIS images and to simultaneously solve for the positions of the landmarks and the spacecraft in the body fixed frame of the primary. The temporary evolution of the spacecraft position comprises three components: the drift of the spacecraft due to gravitational disturbance and solar radiation pressure (and errors in the knowledge of the initial state), the apparent motion of the spacecraft around the primary (in the body fixed frame) due to its rotation, an apparent oscillation of the spacecraft position due to the wobble of the primary with a known period. While the wobble component is quite small (about 10ṁ), its period is known and it is

  6. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  7. Multigrid MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (mMALDI MSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Annett; Hölzer, Stefan; Knop, Katrin; Schubert, Ulrich S; von Eggeling, Ferdinand

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is an important technique for the spatially resolved molecular analysis of tissue sections. The selection of matrices influences the resulting mass spectra to a high degree. For extensive and simultaneous analysis, the application of different matrices to one tissue sample is desirable. To date, only a single matrix could be applied to a tissue section per experiment. However, repetitive removal of the matrix makes this approach time-consuming and damaging to tissue samples. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed a multigrid MALDI MSI technique (mMALDI MSI) that relies on automated inkjet printing to place differing matrices onto predefined dot grids. We used a cooled printhead to prevent cavitation of low viscosity solvents in the printhead nozzle. Improved spatial resolution of the dot grids was achieved by using a triple-pulse procedure that reduced droplet volume. The matrices can either be applied directly to the thaw-mounted tissue sample or by precoating the slide followed by mounting of the tissue sample. During the MALDI imaging process, we were able to precisely target different matrix point grids with the laser to simultaneously produce distinct mass spectra. Unlike the standard method, the prespotting approach optimizes the spectra quality, avoids analyte delocalization, and enables subsequent hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the pre-spotted multigrid MALDI MSI workflow. PMID:27039200

  8. Automatic analysis of double coronal mass ejections from coronagraph images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Matthew; Chang, Lin-Ching; Pulkkinen, Antti; Romano, Michelangelo

    2015-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can have major impacts on man-made technology and humans, both in space and on Earth. These impacts have created a high interest in the study of CMEs in an effort to detect and track events and forecast the CME arrival time to provide time for proper mitigation. A robust automatic real-time CME processing pipeline is greatly desired to avoid laborious and subjective manual processing. Automatic methods have been proposed to segment CMEs from coronagraph images and estimate CME parameters such as their heliocentric location and velocity. However, existing methods suffered from several shortcomings such as the use of hard thresholding and an inability to handle two or more CMEs occurring within the same coronagraph image. Double-CME analysis is a necessity for forecasting the many CME events that occur within short time frames. Robust forecasts for all CME events are required to fully understand space weather impacts. This paper presents a new method to segment CME masses and pattern recognition approaches to differentiate two CMEs in a single coronagraph image. The proposed method is validated on a data set of 30 halo CMEs, with results showing comparable ability in transient arrival time prediction accuracy and the new ability to automatically predict the arrival time of a double-CME event. The proposed method is the first automatic method to successfully calculate CME parameters from double-CME events, making this automatic method applicable to a wider range of CME events.

  9. Topological mass of magnetic Skyrmions probed by ultrafast dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, we investigate the GHz dynamics of skyrmionic spin structures by means of pump-probe dynamic imaging to determine the equation of motion that governs the behavior of these technologically relevant spin structures. To achieve this goal, we first designed and optimized a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy CoB/Pt multilayer material for low magnetic pinning, as required for ultrafast pump-probe imaging experiments. Second, we developed an integrated sample design for X-ray holography capable of tracking relative magnetic positional changes down to 3 nm spatial resolution. These advances enabled us to image the trajectory of a single magnetic Skyrmion. We find that the motion is comprised of two gyrotropic modes, one clockwise and one counterclockwise. The existence of two modes shows that Skyrmions are massive quasiparticles. From their derived frequencies we find an inertial mass for the Skyrmion which is a factor of five larger than expected based on existing models for inertia in magnetism. Our results demonstrate that the mass of Skyrmions is based on a novel mechanism emerging from their confined nature, which is a direct consequence of their topology.

  10. Trapped Ion Chain Thermometry and Mass Analysis Through Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, V; Kokish, M G; Odom, B C

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the temperature measurement of individual laser cooled ions in a linear Coulomb crystal by relating their imaged spatial extent along the linear Paul trap axis to the normal modes of vibration of coupled oscillators in a harmonic potential. We also use the thermal spatial spread of `bright' ions in the case of a two-species mixed chain to measure the secular resonance frequency of vibration of the center-of-mass mode of the entire chain and infer the molecular composition of the co-trapped `dark' ions. These techniques create new possibilities for better understanding of sympathetic cooling in mixed-ion chains and under conditions of non-uniform heat load, improving few-ion mass spectrometry, and making in-situ temperature measurements of individual trapped ions without requiring a scan over the Doppler cooling parameters.

  11. Mass media image of selected instruments of economic develepment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruliš Ladislav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, two instruments of economic development – investment incentives and cluster initiatives – were compared according to the frequency of their occurrence in selected mass media sources in the Czech Republic in the periods 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. Secondly, the mass media image of these two instruments of economic development was evaluated with respect to the frames deductively constructed from literature review. The findings pointed out a higher occurrence of the mass media articles/news dealing with investment incentives. These articles/news were, additionally, more controversial and covered a wider spectrum of frames. Politicians were a relatively more frequent type of actors who created the media message from the articles/news. On the contrary, the mass media articles/news concerning cluster initiatives typically created the frame of positive effects of clusters. The messages were told either by economic experts or by public authority representatives who were closely connected with cluster initiatives. Spatial origin of these messages was rather limited. The definitional vagueness, intangible and uncontroversial nature of cluster initiatives restrained their media appeal.

  12. Analysis of Intrafractional Mass Variabilities Using Deformable Image Registration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to compare the geometric characteristics of the lung tumor, such as tumor centroid, HU change relative to breath phase, depending on tumor location and adhesion using 4DCT and deformable image registration program (MIMVista). The Y axis change was most significant and the mean Y axis centroid fluctuation was 7.32±6.88 in lower lung tumor. The mean HU variation in lower lung mass has changed more than other locations, and its mean HU variation was 7.7±4.97 and non-adhered mass was more changed. Correlation for the mass volume between 3DCT and MIP was very high and its coefficient was 0.998. The effect of tumor location, adhesion and diaphragm excursion to geometric uncertainties was analyzed by linear regression model, it was influenced to mass deformation and geometrical variation so much except diaphragm excursion. But intra-fractional and inter-patient's uncertainties were great, so it couldn't find any exact deformation trend.

  13. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry. PMID:20562738

  14. A novel ion imager for secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new area detector for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) ion microscope, and its performance. The operational principle is based on detecting the change in potential of a floating photodiode caused by the ion-induced secondary-electron emission and the incoming ion itself. The experiments demonstrated that 101-105 aluminum ions per pixel can be detected with good linear response. Moreover, relative ion sensitivities from hydrogen to lead were constant within a factor of 2. The performance of this area detector provides the potential for detection of kiloelectronvolt ion images with current ion microscopy

  15. Nuclear mass prediction as an image reconstruction problem: can observed pattern determine mass values?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical prediction of nuclear masses is analyzed as a pattern recognition problem on the N-Z plane. A global pattern is observed by plotting the differences between measured masses and Liquid Drop Model (LDM) predictions. After unfolding the data by removing the smooth LDM mass contributions, the remaining microscopic effects have proved difficult to model, although they display a striking pattern. These deviations carry information related to shell closures, nuc]ear deformation and the residual nuclear interactions. In the present work the more than 2000 known nuclear masses are studied as an array in the N-Z plane viewed through a mask, behind which the approximately 7000 unknown unstable nuclei that can exist between the proton and neutron drip lines are hidden. We show here that employing a Fourier transform deconvolution method these by masses can be predicted with similar accuracy than standard methods. We believe that a more general approach needs to be implemented, however, to optimize the procedures predictive power. Thus, while we see the need to study and implement alternative image reconstruction and extrapolation methods, the general ideas are already contained in this paper. (Author)

  16. Rock mass seismic imaging around the ONKALO tunnel, Olkiluoto 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosma, C.; Cozma, M.; Balu, L.; Enescu, N. (Vibrometric Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    2008-11-15

    Posiva Oy prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in bedrock focusing in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the application filed in 1999, the Decision-in-Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001. Vibrometric Oy has performed a tunnel seismic survey in ONKALO access tunnel on a 100 m line in December 2007. Tunnel length (chainage) was 1720 - 1820 m (vertical depth 170 - 180 m). Measurement applied 120 source positions at 1 m spacing, and on the both ends at 4 m spacing. Electromechanical Vibsist-20 tool was used as the source. Hammer produced 15.36 s sweeps. Signal was recorded with 2-component geophone assemblies, installed in 400 mm long, 45 mm drillholes in the tunnel wall. Sweeps were recorded with Summit II seismograph and decoded to seismic traces. Also percussion drill rig, which is used in drilling the blasting holes in tunnel excavation, was tested from a 100-m distance as a seismic source. Signal is equally good as from actual seismic source, and may be applied later on for production. Obtained seismic results were processed with tomographic reconstruction of the first arrivals to P and S wave refraction tomograms, and to tomograms of Young's modulus and Shear Modulus. The obtained values correspond the typical levels known from Olkiluoto. There are indications of lower velocity near tunnel wall, but resolution is not adequate for further interpretation. Some variation of velocity is detected in the rock mass. Seismic data was also processed with normal reflection profile interpretation and migrated. As a result there was obtained reflection images to a 100-m distance from the tunnel. Several reflecting events were observed in the rock mass. Features making an angle of 30 deg or more with tunnel axis can be imaged from distances of tens of metres. Vertical fractures perpendicular to tunnel can be imaged only near the tunnel. Gently dipping features can be imaged below and above. Images are 2D

  17. Imaging mass spectrometry of a coral microbe interaction with fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Wilna J; Yang, Jane Y; Zhao, Xiling; Liu, Wei-Ting; Aparicio, Marystella; Atencio, Librada; Ballesteros, Javier; Sánchez, Joel; Gavilán, Ronnie G; Gutiérrez, Marcelino; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2013-07-01

    Fungal infections are increasing worldwide, including in the aquatic environment. Microbiota that coexist with marine life can provide protection against fungal infections by secretion of metabolites with antifungal properties. Our laboratory has developed mass spectrometric methodologies with the goal of improving our functional understanding of microbial metabolites and guiding the discovery process of anti-infective agents from natural sources. GA40, a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain isolated from an octocoral in Panama, displayed antifungal activity against various terrestrial and marine fungal strains. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), the molecular species produced by this microbe were visualized in a side-by-side interaction with two representative fungal strains, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. The visualization was performed directly on the agar without the need for extraction. By evaluating the spatial distributions, relative intensities and m/z values of GA40 secreted metabolites in the fungal interactions and singly grown control colonies, we obtained insight into the antifungal activity of secreted metabolites. Annotation of GA40 metabolites observed in MALDI-IMS was facilitated by MS/MS networking analysis, a mass spectrometric technique that clusters metabolites with similar MS/MS fragmentation patterns. This analysis established that the predominant GA40 metabolites belong to the iturin family. In a fungal inhibition assay of A. fumigatus, the GA40 iturin metabolites were found to be responsible for the antifungal properties of this Bacillus strain. PMID:23881443

  18. Significant advancement of mass spectrometry imaging for food chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Zaima, Nobuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Food contains various compounds that have an impact on our daily lives. Many technologies have been established to analyze these molecules of interest in foods. However, the analysis of the spatial distribution of these compounds in foods using conventional technology, such as high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is difficult. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is considered an ideal complementary approach. MALDI-MSI is a two-dimensional MALDI-MS technology that can detect compounds in a tissue section without extraction, purification, separation, or labeling. MALDI-MSI can be used to visualize the spatial distribution of chemical compounds or biomolecules in foods. Although the methodology of MALDI-MSI in food science is not yet fully established, the versatility of MALDI-MSI is expected to open a new frontier in food science. Herein, we describe the principles and applications of MALDI-MSI in food science and related fields. PMID:27211639

  19. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2015-11-13

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based on the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease

  20. Improved mass resolution and mass accuracy in TOF-SIMS spectra and images using argon gas cluster ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoon, Sohee; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2016-06-01

    The popularity of argon gas cluster ion beams (Ar-GCIB) as primary ion beams in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has increased because the molecular ions of large organic- and biomolecules can be detected with less damage to the sample surfaces. However, Ar-GCIB is limited by poor mass resolution as well as poor mass accuracy. The inferior quality of the mass resolution in a TOF-SIMS spectrum obtained by using Ar-GCIB compared to the one obtained by a bismuth liquid metal cluster ion beam and others makes it difficult to identify unknown peaks because of the mass interference from the neighboring peaks. However, in this study, the authors demonstrate improved mass resolution in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the delayed extraction of secondary ions, a method typically used in TOF mass spectrometry to increase mass resolution. As for poor mass accuracy, although mass calibration using internal peaks with low mass such as hydrogen and carbon is a common approach in TOF-SIMS, it is unsuited to the present study because of the disappearance of the low-mass peaks in the delayed extraction mode. To resolve this issue, external mass calibration, another regularly used method in TOF-MS, was adapted to enhance mass accuracy in the spectrum and image generated by TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB in the delayed extraction mode. By producing spectra analyses of a peptide mixture and bovine serum albumin protein digested with trypsin, along with image analyses of rat brain samples, the authors demonstrate for the first time the enhancement of mass resolution and mass accuracy for the purpose of analyzing large biomolecules in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the use of delayed extraction and external mass calibration. PMID:26861497

  1. Single hair cocaine consumption monitoring by mass spectrometric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Tiffany; Grivet, Chantal; Kraemer, Thomas; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2011-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) was used to image the distribution of cocaine and its metabolites in intact single hair samples from chronic users down to a concentration of 5 ng/mg. Acquisitions were performed in rastering mode, at a speed of 1 mm/s and in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode on a MALDI triple quadrupole linear ion trap fitted with a high repetition rate laser (1 kHz). Compared to traditional methods based on LC-MS/MS or GC-MS(/MS) which require to segment the hair to obtain spatial resolution, MALDI-MSI, with a straightforward sample preparation beforehand, allowed obtaining a spatial resolution of 1 mm and thus the chronological information about cocaine consumption contained in a single intact hair over several months could be monitored. The analysis time of an intact single hair sample of 6 cm is approximately of 6 min. Cocaine and its metabolites benzoylecgonine, ethylcocaine, and norcocaine were investigated in nine sets of hair samples for forensic purposes. The analyses were accomplished by spraying α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), 4-chloro-α-cyano-cinnamic acid (Cl-CCA), or (E)-2-cyano-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)acrylic acid (NpCCA) as MALDI matrices. We also propose a rapid strategy for sensitive confirmatory analyses with both MS/MS and MS(3) experiments performed directly on intact hair samples. Since only part of the hair strand is analyzed, additional analyses are possible at any time on the remaining hair from the strand. PMID:21510611

  2. Detection systems for mass spectrometry imaging: a perspective on novel developments with a focus on active pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, JH; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental developments for imaging and individual particle detection for biomolecular mass spectrometry (imaging) and fundamental atomic and molecular physics studies are reviewed. Ion-counting detectors, array detection systems and highmass detectors for mass spectrometry (imaging) are treated.

  3. Forecasting coronal mass ejections at 1 AU using Heliospheric Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moestl, C.; Amla, K.; Temmer, M.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M.; Davies, J.; Lugaz, N.; Rollett, T.; Veronig, A.; Liu, Y.; Farrugia, C. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Galvin, A. B.; Zhang, T.

    2012-12-01

    We study the feasibility of using a Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument, such as STEREO/HI, for space weather forecasting of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) at 1 AU. We compare the predictions for speed and arrival time for ~15 ICME events, each observed remotely by one STEREO spacecraft, to the speed and arrival time observed at in situ observatories. We use three different models with varying ICME geometry, from point-like (Fixed-Phi) to a circle with a given width (Self-Similar-Expansion) to a very wide circle (Harmonic Mean). The models are fitted to density tracks on HI Jmaps with the SolarSoft SATPLOT tool. All these techniques assume constant ICME speed and direction. Partly, the configuration mimics the situation of a single HI observatory parked at the L4 or L5 point in the Sun-Earth system. We discuss problems associated with this study, such as CME-CME interactions leading to complicated Jmaps. For assessing the accuracy of these predictions we look at in situ data by Wind/ACE, STEREO-A/B, and Venus Express and MESSENGER. We also look at the ratio of prediction lead time to its accuracy, and see if there is a preferred value for the ICME width.

  4. Highly multiplexed imaging of tumor tissues with subcellular resolution by mass cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Charlotte; Wang, Hao A O; Schapiro, Denis; Zivanovic, Nevena; Jacobs, Andrea; Hattendorf, Bodo; Schüffler, Peter J; Grolimund, Daniel; Buhmann, Joachim M; Brandt, Simone; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Wild, Peter J; Günther, Detlef; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    Mass cytometry enables high-dimensional, single-cell analysis of cell type and state. In mass cytometry, rare earth metals are used as reporters on antibodies. Analysis of metal abundances using the mass cytometer allows determination of marker expression in individual cells. Mass cytometry has previously been applied only to cell suspensions. To gain spatial information, we have coupled immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical methods with high-resolution laser ablation to CyTOF mass cytometry. This approach enables the simultaneous imaging of 32 proteins and protein modifications at subcellular resolution; with the availability of additional isotopes, measurement of over 100 markers will be possible. We applied imaging mass cytometry to human breast cancer samples, allowing delineation of cell subpopulations and cell-cell interactions and highlighting tumor heterogeneity. Imaging mass cytometry complements existing imaging approaches. It will enable basic studies of tissue heterogeneity and function and support the transition of medicine toward individualized molecularly targeted diagnosis and therapies. PMID:24584193

  5. SOCIO-POLITICAL IMAGE OF THE UKRAINIAN REGIONAL MASS MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    HAVRYLYUK VIKTORIYA

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the characterization of the state, the key features and trends of modern domestic regional mass media. There are determined and specified informational, social, ideological, political and economic objectives of current regional mass media also revealed specific features of regional mass communication.

  6. Imaging of Proteins in Tissue Sections Using Mass Spectrometry as a Discovery Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RichardM.Caprioli

    2004-01-01

    The Mass Spectrometry Group of Richard M. Caprioli at Vanderbilt University is evaluating MacromizerTM for their MALDI-imaging application. The expectation is to see more high mass proteins due to the increased high mass sensitivity of MacromizerTM.

  7. Imaging of Proteins in Tissue Sections Using Mass Spectrometry as a Discovery Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard M. Caprioli

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Mass Spectrometry Group of Richard M. Caprioli at Vanderbilt University is evaluating MacromizerTM for their MALDI-imaging application. The expectation is to see more high mass proteins due to the increased high mass sensitivity of MacromizerTM.

  8. Microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging with a Timepix detector.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, A.; Jungmann, JH; Smith, D F; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In-vacuum active pixel detectors enable high sensitivity, highly parallel time- and space-resolved detection of ions from complex surfaces. For the first time, a Timepix detector assembly was combined with a secondary ion mass spectrometer for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging. Time resolved images from various benchmark samples demonstrate the imaging capabilities of the detector system. The main advantages of the active pixel detector are the higher signal-to-no...

  9. STRUCTURE TENSOR IMAGE FILTERING USING RIEMANNIAN L1 AND L∞ CENTER-OF-MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Angulo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Structure tensor images are obtained by a Gaussian smoothing of the dyadic product of gradient image. These images give at each pixel a n×n symmetric positive definite matrix SPD(n, representing the local orientation and the edge information. Processing such images requires appropriate algorithms working on the Riemannian manifold on the SPD(n matrices. This contribution deals with structure tensor image filtering based on Lp geometric averaging. In particular, L1 center-of-mass (Riemannian median or Fermat-Weber point and L∞ center-of-mass (Riemannian circumcenter can be obtained for structure tensors using recently proposed algorithms. Our contribution in this paper is to study the interest of L1 and L∞ Riemannian estimators for structure tensor image processing. In particular, we compare both for two image analysis tasks: (i structure tensor image denoising; (ii anomaly detection in structure tensor images.

  10. Imaging of plant materials using indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging is a method for imaging distributions of metabolites in plant materials, in particular leaves and petals. The challenge in direct imaging of such plant materials with DESI-MS is particularly the protective layer of...... interest from parts of their matrix while preserving the spatial information in the two dimensions. The imprint can then easily be imaged by DESI-MS. The method delivers simple and robust mass spectrometry imaging of plant material with very high success ratios....

  11. Quantifying Stellar Mass Loss with High Angular Resolution Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ridgway, Stephen; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Elias, Nicholas; Howell, Steve; Hutter, Don; Karovska, Margarita; Ragland, Sam; Wishnow, Ed; Zhao, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Mass is constantly being recycled in the universe. One of the most powerful recycling paths is via stellar mass-loss. All stars exhibit mass loss with rates ranging from ~10(-14) to 10(-4) M(sun) yr-1, depending on spectral type, luminosity class, rotation rate, companion proximity, and evolutionary stage. The first generation of stars consisted mostly of hydrogen and helium. These shed material - via massive winds, planetary nebulae and supernova explosions - seeding the interstellar medium with heavier elements. Subsequent generations of stars incorporated this material, changing how stars burn and providing material for planet formation. An understanding of mass loss is critical for modeling individual stars as well as answering larger astrophysical questions. Understanding mass loss is essential for following the evolution of single stars, binaries, star clusters, and galaxies. Mass loss is one of our weakest areas in the modeling of fundamental stellar processes. In large part this is owing to lack of co...

  12. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  13. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture is a chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and ... visible in the middle of the chest. The x-ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, ...

  14. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and the heart ... ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, indicated with the arrow (seen on the left ...

  15. Foodomics imaging by mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Núria; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Baiges, Isabel; Nadal, Pedro; Arola, Lluís

    2016-07-01

    This work explores the use of advanced imaging MS (IMS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in food science and nutrition to evaluate food sensory characteristics, nutritional value and health benefits. Determining the chemical content and applying imaging tools to food metabolomics offer detailed information about food quality, safety, processing, storage and authenticity assessment. IMS and MRI are powerful analytical systems with an excellent capability for mapping the distribution of many molecules, and recent advances in these platforms are reviewed and discussed, showing the great potential of these techniques for small molecule-based food metabolomics research. PMID:26799681

  16. Mass effect of injected dose in small rodent imaging by SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, M.-P. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States) and Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: kunghf@sunmac.spect.upenn.edu

    2005-10-01

    This paper discusses the effect of mass (chemical quantity) of injected dose on positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Commonly, PET or SPECT imaging study uses a 'no-carrier added' dose, which contains a small amount of radioactive imaging agent (in picogram to microgram). For small animal (rodent) imaging studies, specifically targeting binding sites or biological processes, the mass (chemical quantity) in the dose may significantly modify the binding, pharmacokinetics and, ultimately, the imaging outcome. Due to differences in size and other physiological factors between humans and rodents, there is a dramatic divergence of mass effect between small animal and human imaging study. In small animal imaging studies, the mass, or effective dose (ED{sub 50}), a dose required for 50% of receptor or binding site occupancy, is usually not directly related to binding potential (B {sub max}/K {sub d}) (measured by in vitro binding assay). It is likely that dynamic interplays between specific and nonspecific binding in blood circulation, transient lung retention, kidney excretion, liver-gallbladder flow, soft tissue retention as well as metabolism could each play a significant role in determining the concentration of the tracer in the target regions. When using small animal imaging for studying drug occupancy (either by a pretreatment, coinjection or chasing dose), the mass effects on imaging outcome are important factors for consideration.

  17. Mass effect of injected dose in small rodent imaging by SPECT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the effect of mass (chemical quantity) of injected dose on positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Commonly, PET or SPECT imaging study uses a 'no-carrier added' dose, which contains a small amount of radioactive imaging agent (in picogram to microgram). For small animal (rodent) imaging studies, specifically targeting binding sites or biological processes, the mass (chemical quantity) in the dose may significantly modify the binding, pharmacokinetics and, ultimately, the imaging outcome. Due to differences in size and other physiological factors between humans and rodents, there is a dramatic divergence of mass effect between small animal and human imaging study. In small animal imaging studies, the mass, or effective dose (ED50), a dose required for 50% of receptor or binding site occupancy, is usually not directly related to binding potential (B max/K d) (measured by in vitro binding assay). It is likely that dynamic interplays between specific and nonspecific binding in blood circulation, transient lung retention, kidney excretion, liver-gallbladder flow, soft tissue retention as well as metabolism could each play a significant role in determining the concentration of the tracer in the target regions. When using small animal imaging for studying drug occupancy (either by a pretreatment, coinjection or chasing dose), the mass effects on imaging outcome are important factors for consideration

  18. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Maria F. Laus; Telma M. Braga Costa; Sebastião S. Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in a Brazilian sample of adolescents. Methods: A total of 275 adolescents (139 boys and 136 girls) between the ages of 14 and 18 years completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Contour Drawing Scale and current physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Weight and height were also measured for subsequent calculation of body mass inde...

  19. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals a Decrease of Cardiolipin in the Kidney of NASH Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Takahiro; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Hui, Shu-Ping; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can be complicated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, changes in the distribution of biomolecules in the kidney were studied in NASH model mice with the use of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). The mass spectra and ion images of IMS showed that the signals of cardiolipin (CL) species were decreased in the kidney cortex of the NASH mice. The decrease of CL might therefore suggest the kidney involvement of NASH. PMID:27063723

  20. Evaluation of pelvic masses using magnetic resonance imaging; Avaliacao por ressonancia magnetica das massas pelvicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Faintuch, Salomano; Goldman, Susan Menasce; Louveira, Maria Helena; Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: luisronan@hotmail.com

    2003-03-01

    To demonstrate the main magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with adnexal masses. We reviewed the images of 33 patients submitted to magnetic resonance scans of the pelvis due to suspicion of adnexal masses. Images were obtained using the following magnetic resonance imaging sequences: T1 TSE axial, T2 TSE coronal, sagittal and axial, and T 1 SPIR axial pre- and post-gadolinium injection. Among the 33 patients studied, 17 had benign ovarian masses, five had uterine tube diseases, two had sub serous myomas, one had an ectopic pregnancy, one had an embryonic cyst and one had a urachal cyst. One of the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging is multiplanar analysis that allows evaluation of the extension of the expansive adnexal lesions. The excellent contrast between structures as well as the different characteristics of the lesions in each sequence allow diagnostic precision, particularly in patients with mature cystic teratomas, endometriomas and hemorrhagic cysts. (author)

  1. HST NICMOS Imaging of the Planetary-mass Companion to the Young Brown Dwarf 2MASS J1207334-393254

    CERN Document Server

    Song, I; Zuckerman, B; Farihi, J; Becklin, E E; Bessell, M S; Lowrance, P J; MacIntosh, B A; Song, Inseok

    2006-01-01

    Multi-band (0.9 to 1.6 um) images of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA) brown dwarf, 2MASS J1207334-393254 (also known as 2M1207), and its candidate planetary mass companion (2M1207b) were obtained on 2004 Aug 28 and 2005 Apr 26 with HST/NICMOS. The images from these two epochs unequivocally confirm the two objects as a common proper motion pair (16.0 sigma confidence). A new measurement of the proper motion of 2M1207 implies a distance to the system of 59+-7 pc and a projected separation of 46+-5 AU. The NICMOS and previously published VLT photometry of 2M1207b, extending overall from 0.9 to 3.8 um, are fully consistent with an object of a few Jupiter masses at the canonical age of a TWA member (~8 Myr) based on evolutionary models of young giant planets. These observations provide information on the physical nature of 2M1207b and unambiguously establish that the first direct image of a planetary mass companion in orbit around a self-luminous body, other than our Sun, has been secured.

  2. The Image of Public Relations in Mass Comm Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Carolyn

    1982-01-01

    Compared public relations sections in 12 introductory mass communication texts and found a confusion about the relationship of advertising and public relations, a lack of historical background, and an antipublic relations stance. Journal available from Communication Research Associates, 7100 Baltimore Blvd., Suite 500, College Park, MD 20740; sc…

  3. Identification of Hypoxia-Regulated Proteins Using MALDI-Mass Spectrometry Imaging Combined with Quantitative Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djidja, Marie-Claude; Chang, Joan; Hadjiprocopis, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    quantitative proteomics combined with MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Here we present a comprehensive hypoxic proteome study and are the first to investigate changes in situ using tumor samples. In vitro quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of the hypoxic proteome was performed on breast cancer...

  4. Whole Bodies Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Cuticular Lipids on Drosophila melanogaster Flies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaftan, Filip; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Cvačka, Josef; Kynast, P.; Knaden, M.; Svatoš, Aleš

    Poznaň: Scientific Publishers OWN, 2012. s. 131-131. ISBN 978-83-7712-064-4. [Joint Conference of Polish Mass Spectrometry Society and German Mass Spectrometry Society. 04.03.2012-07.03.2012, Poznaň] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Drosophila melanogaster * MALDI imaging * lipids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  5. Direct imaging of plant metabolites in leaves and petals by Desorption Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Janfelt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Publication date: Available online 24 April 2013 Source:International Journal of Mass Spectrometry Author(s): Bin Li , Steen Honoré Hansen , Christian Janfelt Two different approaches to direct imaging of plant material with desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry are presented...

  6. Mass spectrometry imaging of surface lipids on intact Drosophila melanogaster flies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaftan, Filip; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Kynast, P.; Kulkarni, P.; Böcker, S.; Cvačka, Josef; Knaden, M.; Svatoš, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2014), s. 223-232. ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : MALDI * laser desorption * mass spectrometric imaging * fruit flies * neutral lipids * sex pheromones * mass shift correction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2014

  7. Fuzzy Logic Classification of Imaging Laser Desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry Data

    OpenAIRE

    McJunkin, Timothy R.; Scott, Jill R.

    2006-01-01

    A fuzzy logic based classification engine has been developed for classifying mass spectra obtained with an imaging internal source Fourier transform mass spectrometer (I^2LD-FTMS). Traditionally, an operator uses the relative abundance of ions with specific mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios to categorize spectra. An operator does this by comparing the spectrum of m/z versus abundance of an unknown sample against a library of spectra from known samples. Automated positioning and acquisition allow I^...

  8. How to Determine the Centre of Mass of Bodies from Image Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marco Adriano; Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Rodrigues, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Image modelling is a recent technique in physics education that includes digital tools for image treatment and analysis, such as digital stroboscopic photography (DSP) and video analysis software. It is commonly used to analyse the motion of objects. In this work we show how to determine the position of the centre of mass (CM) of objects with…

  9. Visualizing metabolite distribution and enzymatic conversion in plant tissues by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Baden, Camilla Knudsen; Hansen, Natascha Kristine Krahl;

    2013-01-01

    demonstrate that Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI) of tissue imprints on porous Teflon can be used to accurately image the distribution of even labile plant metabolites such as hydroxynitrile glucosides, which normally undergo enzymatic hydrolysis by specific ß...

  10. NEW IMAGE OF PSYCHIATRY, MASS MEDIA IMPACT AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-01-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental healt and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and proffesional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should bui...

  11. IMAGING MASS SPECTROMETRY OF A CORAL MICROBE INTERACTION WITH FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Moree, Wilna J; Yang, Jane Y.; Zhao, Xiling; Liu, Wei-Ting; Aparicio, Marystella; Atencio, Librada; Ballesteros, Javier; SÁNCHEZ, JOEL; Gavilán, Ronnie G.; Gutiérrez, Marcelino; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal infections are increasing worldwide, including in the aquatic environment. Microbiota that coexist with marine life can provide protection against fungal infections by secretion of metabolites with antifungal properties. Our laboratory has developed mass spectrometric methodologies with the goal of improving our functional understanding of microbial metabolites and guiding the discovery process of anti-infective agents from natural sources. GA40, a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain iso...

  12. Imaging of lipid species by MALDI mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Robert C.; Hankin, Joseph A.; Barkley, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in MALDI have enabled direct detection of lipids as intact molecular species present within cellular membranes. Abundant lipid-related ions are produced from the direct analysis of thin tissue slices when sequential spectra are acquired across a tissue surface that has been coated with a MALDI matrix. The lipid-derived ions can often be distinguished from other biomolecules because of the significant mass defect that these ions present due to the large number of covalently...

  13. Evaluation of methods for MR imaging of human right ventricular heart volumes and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the utility of two different imaging directions in the evaluation of human right ventricular (RV) heart volumes and mass with MR imaging; to compare breath-hold vs. non-breath-hold imaging in volume analysis; and to compare turbo inversion recovery imaging (TIR) with gradient echo imaging in RV mass measurement. Material and Methods: We examined 12 healthy volunteers (age 27-59 years). Breath-hold gradient echo MR imaging was performed in two imaging planes: 1) perpendicular to the RV inflow tract (RVIT view), and 2) in the transaxial view (TA view). The imaging was repeated in the TA view while the subjects were breathing freely. To analyze RV mass using TIR images, the RV was again imaged at end-diastole using the two views. The RV end-diastolic cavity (RVEDV) and muscle volume as well as end-systolic cavity volume (RVESV) were determined with the method of discs. All measurements were done blindly twice to assess repeatability of image analysis. To assess reproducibility of the measurements, 6 of the subjects were imaged twice at an interval of 5-9 weeks. Results: RVEDV averaged 133.2 ml, RVESV 61.5 ml and the RVmass 46.2 g in the RVIT view and 119.9 ml, 56.9 ml and 38.3 g in the TA view, respectively. The volumes obtained with breath-holding were slightly but not significantly smaller than the volumes obtained during normal breathing. There were no marked differences in the RV muscle mass obtained with gradient echo imaging compared to TIR imaging in either views. Repeatability of volume analysis was better in TA than RVIT view: the mean differences were 0.7±4.0 ml and 5.4±14.0 ml in end-diastole and 1.6±3.1 ml and 1.5±13.9 ml in end-systole, respectively. Repeatability of mass analysis was good in both TIR and cine images in the RVIT view but slightly better in TIR images: 0.5±2.4 g compared to 0.8±2.9 g in cine images. Reproducibility of imaging was good, mean differences for RVEDV and RVESV were 1.0±4.8 ml and 0.8±2.8 ml

  14. Evaluation of methods for MR imaging of human right ventricular heart volumes and mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhiainen, T.; Jaervinen, V.M.; Hekali, P.E. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of two different imaging directions in the evaluation of human right ventricular (RV) heart volumes and mass with MR imaging; to compare breath-hold vs. non-breath-hold imaging in volume analysis; and to compare turbo inversion recovery imaging (TIR) with gradient echo imaging in RV mass measurement. Material and Methods: We examined 12 healthy volunteers (age 27-59 years). Breath-hold gradient echo MR imaging was performed in two imaging planes: 1) perpendicular to the RV inflow tract (RVIT view), and 2) in the transaxial view (TA view). The imaging was repeated in the TA view while the subjects were breathing freely. To analyze RV mass using TIR images, the RV was again imaged at end-diastole using the two views. The RV end-diastolic cavity (RVEDV) and muscle volume as well as end-systolic cavity volume (RVESV) were determined with the method of discs. All measurements were done blindly twice to assess repeatability of image analysis. To assess reproducibility of the measurements, 6 of the subjects were imaged twice at an interval of 5-9 weeks. Results: RVEDV averaged 133.2 ml, RVESV 61.5 ml and the RVmass 46.2 g in the RVIT view and 119.9 ml, 56.9 ml and 38.3 g in the TA view, respectively. The volumes obtained with breath-holding were slightly but not significantly smaller than the volumes obtained during normal breathing. There were no marked differences in the RV muscle mass obtained with gradient echo imaging compared to TIR imaging in either views. Repeatability of volume analysis was better in TA than RVIT view: the mean differences were 0.7{+-}4.0 ml and 5.4{+-}14.0 ml in end-diastole and 1.6{+-}3.1 ml and 1.5{+-}13.9 ml in end-systole, respectively. Repeatability of mass analysis was good in both TIR and cine images in the RVIT view but slightly better in TIR images: 0.5{+-}2.4 g compared to 0.8{+-}2.9 g in cine images. Reproducibility of imaging was good, mean differences for RVEDV and RVESV were 1.0{+-}4.8 ml and 0

  15. Imaging mass spectrometry of cuticular lipids of Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaftan, Filip; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Cvačka, Josef; Svatoš, A.

    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, 2011 - (Nesměrák, K.), s. 37-38 ISBN 978-80-7444-010-6. [International Students Conference "Modern Analytical Chemistry" /7./. Prague (CZ), 29.09.2011-30.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cuticular lipids * Drosophila melanogaster * lithium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate matrix * MALDI imaging Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Uncertainties and biases of source masses derived from fits of integrated fluxes or image intensities

    CERN Document Server

    Men'shchikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Fitting spectral distributions of total fluxes or image intensities are two standard methods for estimating the masses of starless cores and protostellar envelopes. The major source and basis of our knowledge of the origin and evolution of self-gravitating cores and protostars, such mass estimates are uncertain. In this model-based study, a grid of radiative transfer models of starless cores and protostellar envelopes was computed and their total fluxes and image intensities were fitted to derive the model masses. To investigate intrinsic effects related to the physical objects, all observational complications were explicitly ignored. Known true values of the numerical models allow us to assess the qualities of the methods and fitting models, as well as the effects of nonuniform temperatures, far-infrared opacity slope, selected subsets of wavelengths, background subtraction, and angular resolutions. The method of fitting image intensities gives more accurate masses for more resolved objects than the method o...

  17. Imaging of Lipids and Metabolites Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela; Laskin, Julia

    2015-01-17

    In recent years, mass spectroscopy imaging (MSI) has emerged as a foundational technique in metabolomics and drug screening providing deeper understanding of complex mechanistic pathways within biochemical systems and biological organisms. We have been invited to contribute a chapter to a new Springer series volume, entitled “Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Small Molecules”. The volume is planned for the highly successful lab protocol series Methods in Molecular Biology, published by Humana Press, USA. The volume is aimed to equip readers with step-by-step mass spectrometric imaging protocols and bring rapidly maturing methods of MS imaging to life science researchers. The chapter will provide a detailed protocol of ambient MSI by use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization.

  18. Small renal mass cryosurgery: Imaging and vascular changes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosette, de la, J.J.M.C.H.; Spaan, J.A.E.; Wijkstra, H.; M.P. Laguna Pes; Lagerveld, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    The combined use of a fluorescent casting technique, cryomicrotome imaging, and 3-D computer analysis as a new static method for visualizing and reconstructing the vascular anatomy in a porcine renal model was studied. The arterial blood supply in 3-D at a resolution of up to 50μm of the whole could be visualized. This method could be used to visualize the process following parenchymal cryoablation injury and establish a microvascular diameter threshold of 180μm for acute vascular damage. How...

  19. Limited-sequence magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver Hospital and Helath Services Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: schang@vanhosp.bc.ca; Cooperberg, P.L.; Wong, A.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Llewellyn, P.A. [Lion' s Gate Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bilbey, J.H. [Royal Inland Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kamloops, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of limited-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the elucidation of ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic masses. This study focused only on pelvic masses in which the origin of the mass (uterine v. extrauterine) could not be determined by ultrasonography (US). The origin of a pelvic mass has clinical implications. A mass arising from the uterus is most likely to be a leiomyoma, which is a benign lesion, whereas an extrauterine mass will have a higher likelihood of malignancy and usually requires surgery. Eighty-one female patients whose pelvic mass was of indeterminate origin on US also underwent limited-sequence MRI of the pelvis. Most of the MRI examinations were performed on the same day as the US. Limited-sequence MRI sequences included a quick gradient-echoT{sub 1}-weighted localizer and a fast spin-echoT{sub 2}-weighted sequence. Final diagnoses were established by surgical pathology or by clinical and imaging follow-up. Limited-sequence MRI was helpful in 79 of the 81 cases (98%). Fifty-two of the 81 masses (64%) were leiomyomas. One was a leiomyosarcoma. The extrauterine masses (26/81 [32%]) were identified as 14 ovarian malignancies, 4 endometriomas, 3 dermoids, an ovarian fibroma, an infarcted fibrothecoma, an infarcted hemorrhagic cyst, a sigmoid diverticular abscess and a gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the ileum. In the other 2 cases (2/81 [2%]), the origin of the pelvic mass remained indeterminate. Both of these indeterminate masses showed low signal onT{sub 2}-weighted images and were interpreted as probable leiomyomas. They were not surgically removed but were followed clinically and had a stable course. Limited-sequence MRI is a quick and efficient way to further evaluate ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic masses. Limited-sequence MRI of the pelvis can suffice, in these cases, without requiring a full MRI examination. (author)

  20. Comparative evaluation of multidetector CT and MR imaging in the differentiation of adnexal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to compare the accuracy of multidetector CT (MDCT) on a 16-row CT scanner and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the characterization of ovarian masses. Preoperative CT examination of the abdomen and MR imaging of the pelvis was performed in 67 women, with clinically or sonographically detected adnexal masses. The CT examinations were performed on a 16-row CT scanner, and the protocol included scanning of the abdomen during the portal phase, using a detector collimation of 16 x 0.75 mm and a pitch of 1.2. We used a 1.5-T magnet unit to perform T1, T2 and fat-suppressed T1-weighted sequences, before and after intravenous administration of gadolinium chelate compounds. The accuracy of multidetector CT and MR imaging in the differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian masses was evaluated, using histopathologic results as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MDCT in the characterization of ovarian masses were 90.5%, 93.7% and 92.9%, respectively, and that of MR imaging 95.2%, 98.4% and 97.6%, respectively. Although MRI performed slightly better, this did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, both MDCT on a 16-row CT scanner and MR imaging demonstrated satisfactory results in the characterization of ovarian masses. (orig.)

  1. Mass Detection in Mammographic Images Using Wavelet Processing and Adaptive Threshold Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhe, P S; Thool, V R

    2016-04-01

    Detection of mass in mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is a significant assignment in the reduction of the mortality rate. However, in some cases, screening of mass is difficult task for radiologist, due to variation in contrast, fuzzy edges and noisy mammograms. Masses and micro-calcifications are the distinctive signs for diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper presents, a method for mass enhancement using piecewise linear operator in combination with wavelet processing from mammographic images. The method includes, artifact suppression and pectoral muscle removal based on morphological operations. Finally, mass segmentation for detection using adaptive threshold technique is carried out to separate the mass from background. The proposed method has been tested on 130 (45 + 85) images with 90.9 and 91 % True Positive Fraction (TPF) at 2.35 and 2.1 average False Positive Per Image(FP/I) from two different databases, namely Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). The obtained results show that, the proposed technique gives improved diagnosis in the early breast cancer detection. PMID:26811073

  2. Comparison between spiral CT and MR imaging in evaluation of focal hepatic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this study was to compare spiral CT and MR imaging in the detection and characterization of focal hepatic masses. Seventy-nine patients with 155 focal hepatic masses confirmed pathologically, or radiologically and clinically [hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) (n=52), hemangioma (n=36), cysts (n=35), metastasis (n=27), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n=5), underwent two- or three-phase spiral CT, and T1-, T2-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. The detection and characterization of focal hepatic masses by these modalities were evaluated and compared. The detection rates of spiral CT and MR imaging, respectively, were as follows: HCC, 81%(42/52) and 94%(49/52); hemangioma, 75%(27/36) and 100%(36/36); cysts, 80%(28/35) and 100%(35/35); metastasis, 67%(18/27) and 100%(27/27); and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 100%(5/5) and 100%(5/5). MR imaging was superior to spiral CT in mass detection of HCC, hemangioma, cysts, and metastasis (p < .05). The characterization rates of spiral CT and MR imaging, respectively, were as follows: HCC, 52%(27/52) and 71%(37/52); hemangioma, 67%(24/36) and 100%(36/36); cysts, 63%(22/35) and 100%(35/35); metastasis, 37%(10/27) and 100%(27/27); and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 40%(2/5) and 80%(4/5). In the mass characterization of HCC, hemangioma, cysts, and metastasis, MR imaging was superior to spiral CT(p < .05). In the detection and characterization of focal hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma, hemangioma, hepatic cyst and metastasis, MR imaging is superior to spiral CT

  3. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Biological Tissue: An Approach for Multicenter Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompp, Andreas; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Heeren, Ronald M.; Laprevote, Olivier; Prideaux, Brendan; Seyer, Alexandre; Spengler, Bernhard; Stoeckli, Markus; Smith, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging has become a popular tool for probing the chemical complexity of biological surfaces. This led to the development of a wide range of instrumentation and preparation protocols. It is thus desirable to evaluate and compare the data output from different methodologies and mass spectrometers. Here, we present an approach for the comparison of mass spectrometry imaging data from different laboratories (often referred to as multicenter studies). This is exemplified by the analysis of mouse brain sections in five laboratories in Europe and the USA. The instrumentation includes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF), MALDI-QTOF, MALDIFourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR), atmospheric-pressure (AP)-MALDI-Orbitrap, and cluster TOF-secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Experimental parameters such as measurement speed, imaging bin width, and mass spectrometric parameters are discussed. All datasets were converted to the standard data format imzML and displayed in a common open-source software with identical parameters for visualization, which facilitates direct comparison of MS images. The imzML conversion also allowed exchange of fully functional MS imaging datasets between the different laboratories. The experiments ranged from overview measurements of the full mouse brain to detailed analysis of smaller features (depending on spatial resolution settings), but common histological features such as the corpus callosum were visible in all measurements. High spatial resolution measurements of AP-MALDI-Orbitrap and TOF-SIMS showed comparable structures in the low-micrometer range. We discuss general considerations for planning and performing multicenter studies in mass spectrometry imaging. This includes details on the selection, distribution, and preparation of tissue samples as well as on data handling. Such multicenter studies in combination with ongoing activities for reporting guidelines, a common

  4. Differential diagnosis of adrenal masses using out-of-phase flash imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report was to suggest the ability to differentiate adrenal masses by out-of-phase FLASH imaging. The images were obtained with breath-holding at TR/TE 100/12 ms, flip angle 20deg. The material included adrenal adenoma (n = 16), nodular hyperplasia (n = 1) pheochromocytoma (n=5), and adrenal metastatic tumors (n=7). The signal intensity ratios of the adrenal mass/the diaphragmatic crus, back muscle, and renal cortex were obtained. The mean values of the ratios of adenomas or nodular hyperplasia were significantly different from pheochromocytomas or metastases. Although the number of adrenal masses was fairly small, the ratios of adrenal mass/diaphragmatic crus could distinguish them with no overlapping case. All 17 masses with the ratio of 1.16 or less were adenomas or nodular hyperplasia, whereas all 12 masses with a ratio greater than 1.23 were pheochromocytomas or metastases. This result suggests the ability of out-of-phase FLASH imaging to differentiate adrenal masses. (orig.)

  5. An Automated Platform for High-Resolution Tissue Imaging Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Heath, Brandi S.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Laskin, Julia

    2012-10-02

    An automated platform has been developed for acquisition and visualization of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI). The new system enables robust operation of the nano-DESI imaging source over many hours. This is achieved by controlling the distance between the sample and the probe by mounting the sample holder onto an automated XYZ stage and defining the tilt of the sample plane. This approach is useful for imaging of relatively flat samples such as thin tissue sections. Custom software called MSI QuickView was developed for visualization of large data sets generated in imaging experiments. MSI QuickView enables fast visualization of the imaging data during data acquisition and detailed processing after the entire image is acquired. The performance of the system is demonstrated by imaging rat brain tissue sections. High resolution mass analysis combined with MS/MS experiments enabled identification of lipids and metabolites in the tissue section. In addition, high dynamic range and sensitivity of the technique allowed us to generate ion images of low-abundance isobaric lipids. High-spatial resolution image acquired over a small region of the tissue section revealed the spatial distribution of an abundant brain metabolite, creatine, in the white and gray matter that is consistent with the literature data obtained using magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  6. A ranklet-based image representation for mass classification in digital mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regions of interest (ROIs) found on breast radiographic images are classified as either tumoral mass or normal tissue by means of a support vector machine classifier. Classification features are the coefficients resulting from the specific image representation used to encode each ROI. Pixel and wavelet image representations have already been discussed in one of our previous works. To investigate the possibility of improving classification performances, a novel nonparametric, orientation-selective, and multiresolution image representation is developed and evaluated, namely a ranklet image representation. A dataset consisting of 1000 ROIs representing biopsy-proven tumoral masses (either benign or malignant) and 5000 ROIs representing normal breast tissue is used. ROIs are extracted from the digital database for screening mammography collected by the University of South Florida. Classification performances are evaluated using the area Az under the receiver operating characteristic curve. By achieving Az values of 0.978±0.003 and 90% sensitivity with a false positive fraction value of 4.5%, experiments demonstrate classification results higher than those reached by the previous image representations. In particular, the improvement on the Az value over that achieved by the wavelet image representation is statistically relevant with the two-tailed p value <0.0001. Besides, owing to the tolerance that the ranklet image representation reveals to variations in the ROIs' gray-level intensity histogram, this approach discloses to be robust also when tested on radiographic images having gray-level intensity histogram remarkably different from that used for training

  7. Top-Down Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Intact Proteins by LAESI FT-ICR MS

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, András; Reschke, Brent R; Powell, Matthew J; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization is a recent development in mass spectrometry imaging. It has been shown that lipids and small metabolites can be imaged in various samples such as plant material, tissue sections or bacterial colonies without anysample pre-treatment. Further, laser ablation electrospray ionization has been shown to produce multiply charged protein ions from liquids or solid surfaces. This presents a means to address one of the biggest challenges in mass spectrometry imaging; the identification of proteins directly from biological tissue surfaces. Such identification is hindered by the lack of multiply charged proteins in common MALDI ion sources and the difficulty of performing tandem MS on such large, singly charged ions. We present here top-down identification of intact proteins from tissue with a LAESI ion source combined with a hybrid ion-trap FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The performance of the system was first tested with a standard protein with ECD and IRMPD fragmentation to prove the...

  8. Rock mass structure analysis based on seismic velocity and attenuation images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Seismic traveltime, amplitude and pulse-width can be used to reconstruct seismic velocity and attenuation coefficient images for a rock mass. This study discusses the appearance differences of velocity and attenuation coefficient in the ore vein and rock mass in the images. The location of the rock vein and the characteristic of the rock mass are discussed according to the difference responses of velocity and attenuation from the ore vein and mixed rock vein, fracture and rock body. The effect and limitation of the seismic tomography method for investigating ore body and rock mass is suggested on the basis of a field test result. The special observation method in this study gives a good reference for obtaining full position and directional observation in seismic tomography.

  9. Early detection of tumor masses by in vivo hematoporphyrin-mediated fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autiero, Maddalena; Celentano, Luigi; Cozzolino, Rosanna; Laccetti, Paolo; Marotta, Marcello; Mettivier, Giovanni; Cristina Montesi, Maria; Quarto, Maria; Riccio, Patrizia; Roberti, Giuseppe; Russo, Paolo

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the capability of fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) for the early detection of surface tumors in mice. We used a hematoporphyrin (HP) compound (HP dichlorohydrate) as a red fluorescent marker and a low noise, high sensitivity, digital CCD camera for fluorescence imaging. In this preliminary study, highly malignant anaplastic human thyroid carcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in one mouse and their growth was monitored daily for 5 days by FRI. The selective HP uptake by the tumor tissues was successfully observed: we observed the fluorescence of tumor only 3 days after cancer cells injection, i.e. when the tumor mass was neither visible (to the naked eye) or palpable. These measurements indicate that FRI is a suitable technique to detect minute subcutaneous tumor masses. This FRI system will be coupled to a radionuclide imaging system based on a CdTe detector for in vivo multimodal imaging in mice.

  10. Early detection of tumor masses by in vivo hematoporphyrin-mediated fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the capability of fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) for the early detection of surface tumors in mice. We used a hematoporphyrin (HP) compound (HP dichlorohydrate) as a red fluorescent marker and a low noise, high sensitivity, digital CCD camera for fluorescence imaging. In this preliminary study, highly malignant anaplastic human thyroid carcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in one mouse and their growth was monitored daily for 5 days by FRI. The selective HP uptake by the tumor tissues was successfully observed: we observed the fluorescence of tumor only 3 days after cancer cells injection, i.e. when the tumor mass was neither visible (to the naked eye) or palpable. These measurements indicate that FRI is a suitable technique to detect minute subcutaneous tumor masses. This FRI system will be coupled to a radionuclide imaging system based on a CdTe detector for in vivo multimodal imaging in mice

  11. The image of modern Russian innovations in the Danish mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabichenko A. V.

    2011-01-01

    This article sets out to identify the attitude of the Danish mass media to modern Russian innovations. The research is timely because of the Russian interest in the experience of Denmark — one of the "innovation leaders" of the EU. The author analyses a number of publications on Russia in the Danish mass media. The positive image of Russian innovations in Danish periodicals is analysed against the background of historical stereotypes. The article also describes the Danish national innovation ...

  12. Early detection of breast cancer mass lesions by mammogram segmentation images based on texture features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is at present one of the available method for early detection of masses or abnormalities which is related to breast cancer.The calcifications. The challenge lies in early and accurate detection to overcome the development of breast cancer that affects more and more women throughout the world. Breast cancer is diagnosed at advanced stages with the help of the digital mammogram images. Masses appear in a mammogram as fine, granular clusters, which are often difficult to identify in a raw mammogram. The incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in recent years. This paper proposes a computer aided diagnostic system for the extraction of features like mass lesions in mammograms for early detection of breast cancer. The proposed technique is based on a four-step procedure: (a) the preprocessing of the image is done, (b) regions of interest (ROI) specification, (c) supervised segmentation method includes two to stages performed using the minimum distance (M D) criterion, and (d) feature extraction based on Gray level Co-occurrence matrices GLC M for the identification of mass lesions. The method suggested for the detection of mass lesions from mammogram image segmentation and analysis was tested over several images taken from A L-llwiya Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq.The proposed technique shows better results.

  13. Contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for characterizing complex adnexal masses. Seventy-seven women (22-87 years old) with complex adnexal masses (30 benign and 47 malignant) underwent MR imaging including DWI before surgery. Conventional morphological MR imaging criteria were recorded in addition to b1,000 signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of cystic and solid components. Positive likelihood ratios (PLR) were calculated for predicting benignity and malignancy. The most significant criteria for predicting benignity were low b1,000 signal intensity within the solid component (PLR = 10.9), low T2 signal intensity within the solid component (PLR = 5.7), absence of solid portion (PLR = 3.1), absence of ascites or peritoneal implants (PLR = 2.3) and absence of papillary projections (PLR = 2.3). ADC measurements did not contribute to differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. All masses that displayed simultaneously low signal intensity within the solid component on T2-weighted and on b1,000 diffusion-weighted images were benign. Alternatively, the presence of a solid component with intermediate T2 signal and high b1,000 signal intensity was associated with a PLR of 4.5 for a malignant adnexal tumour. DWI signal intensity is an accurate tool for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses. (orig.)

  14. Ultrafast High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Finger Pore Imaging in Latent Finger Prints

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Elsner; Bernd Abel

    2014-01-01

    Latent finger prints (LFPs) are deposits of sweat components in ridge and groove patterns, left after human fingers contact with a surface. Being important targets in biometry and forensic investigations they contain more information than topological patterns. With laser desorption mass spectrometry imaging (LD-MSI) we record ‘three-dimensional' finger prints with additional chemical information as the third dimension. Here we show the potential of fast finger pore imaging (FPI) in latent fin...

  15. Controlled-Resonant Surface Tapping-Mode Scanning Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the advancement of a controlled-resonance surface tapping-mode single capillary liquid junction extraction/ESI emitter for mass spectrometry imaging. The basic instrumental setup and the general operation of the system were discussed and optimized performance metrics were presented. The ability to spot sample, lane scan and chemically image in an automated and controlled fashion were demonstrated. Rapid, automated spot sampling was demonstrated for a variety of compound types including the cationic dye basic blue 7, the oligosaccharide cellopentaose, and the protein equine heart cytochrome c. The system was used for lane scanning and chemical imaging of the cationic dye crystal violet in inked lines on glass and for lipid distributions in mouse brain thin tissue sections. Imaging of the lipids in mouse brain tissue under optimized conditions provided a spatial resolution of approximately 35 m based on the ability to distinguish between features observed both in the optical and mass spectral chemical images. The sampling spatial resolution of this system was comparable to the best resolution that has been reported for other types of atmospheric pressure liquid extraction-based surface sampling/ionization techniques used for mass spectrometry imaging.

  16. MRI as an adjunct to echocardiography for the diagnostic imaging of cardiac masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of the diagnostic evaluation for cardiac masses; eight of them had been preliminary studied by 2D-echocardiography (US). MRI did not add to the US diagnostic information in patients affected by intracavitary masses. It represented the definitive diagnostic modality in two patients with intramural pathology: one with ventricular rhabdomyoma, the second with an echinococcyal cyst located within the left atrial wall. The complementary role of MRI to US in cardiac masses is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Characterisation of a micro-plasma for ambient mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowfield, Andrew; Bunch, Josephine; Salter, Tara L; Steven, Rory T; Gilmore, Ian S; Barrett, Dave A; Alexander, Morgan R; McKay, Kirsty; Bradley, James W

    2014-11-01

    Results are presented on the characterisation and optimisation of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure micro-plasma ion source used for ambient mass spectrometry imaging. The geometry of the experiment is optimised to produce the most intense and stable ion signals. Signal stabilities (relative standard deviation) of 2.3-6.5% are achieved for total ion current measurements from chromatograms. Parameters are utilised to achieve MS imaging by raster scanning of PTFE/glass samples with a spatial resolution of 147 ± 31 μm. A systematic study of resolution as a function of acquisition parameters was also undertaken to underpin future technique development. Mass spectra are obtained from PTFE/glass sample edges in negative ion mode and used to construct images to calculate the spatial resolution. Images are constructed using the intensity variation of the dominant ion observed in the PTFE spectrum. Mass spectra originating from the polymer are dominated by three series of ions in a m/z spectral window from 200-500 Da. These ions are each separated by 50 Da and have the chemical formula [C2F + [CF2]n](-), [CF + [CF2]n + O](-) and [CF + [CF2]n + O3](-). The mechanism for the generation of these ions appears to be a polymer chain scission followed by ionisation by atmospheric ion adduction. Positive and negative ion mode mass spectra of personal care products, amino acids and pharmaceuticals, dominated by the proton abstracted/protonated molecular ion, highlight the potential areas of application for such a device. Further to this end a mass spectral image of cardamom seeds, constructed using the variation in intensity of possible fragments of the 1,8-cineole molecule, is included to reveal the potential application to the imaging of foods and other biological materials. PMID:25142127

  18. Quantitative Mass Density Image Reconstructed from the Complex X-Ray Refractive Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaide, Taihei; Iida, Atsuo; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Takada, Kazuhiro; Noma, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a new analytical X-ray computed tomography technique for visualizing and quantifying the mass density of materials comprised of low atomic number elements with unknown atomic ratios. The mass density was obtained from the experimentally observed ratio of the imaginary and real parts of the complex X-ray refractive index. An empirical linear relationship between the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of the materials and X-ray energy was found for X-ray energies between 8 keV and 30 keV. The mass density image of two polymer fibers was quantified using the proposed technique using a scanning-type X-ray microbeam computed tomography system equipped with a wedge absorber. The reconstructed mass density agrees well with the calculated one. PMID:26114770

  19. MR imaging of adrenal masses: Further experience with distinguishing benign from malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors used MR imaging to evaluate adrenal masses in 44 patients, including 33 with nonhyperfunctioning adenomas, seven with metastases, three with cortical carcinomas, and one with tuberculoma. While most adenomas (30 of 33) demonstrated typical features of adenomas, atypical appearances were seen in the remaining three. In all three, areas of hyperintensity were seen on T1- and/or T2-weighted images. Areas of hemorrhage or fat necrosis were seen in all three pathologically. While MR imaging can identify nonhyperfunctioning adenomas with high accuracy, in up to 9% the appearance may overlap the appearance of malignant tumors

  20. Combined X-ray CT and mass spectrometry for biomedical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging technologies play a key role in many branches of science, especially in biology and medicine. They provide an invaluable insight into both internal structure and processes within a broad range of samples. There are many techniques that allow one to obtain images of an object. Different techniques are based on the analysis of a particular sample property by means of a dedicated imaging system, and as such, each imaging modality provides the researcher with different information. The use of multimodal imaging (imaging with several different techniques) can provide additional and complementary information that is not possible when employing a single imaging technique alone. In this study, we present for the first time a multi-modal imaging technique where X-ray computerized tomography (CT) is combined with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). While X-ray CT provides 3-dimensional information regarding the internal structure of the sample based on X-ray absorption coefficients, MSI of thin sections acquired from the same sample allows the spatial distribution of many elements/molecules, each distinguished by its unique mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), to be determined within a single measurement and with a spatial resolution as low as 1 μm or even less. The aim of the work is to demonstrate how molecular information from MSI can be spatially correlated with 3D structural information acquired from X-ray CT. In these experiments, frozen samples are imaged in an X-ray CT setup using Medipix based detectors equipped with a CO2 cooled sample holder. Single projections are pre-processed before tomographic reconstruction using a signal-to-thickness calibration. In the second step, the object is sliced into thin sections (circa 20 μm) that are then imaged using both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and secondary ion (SIMS) mass spectrometry, where the spatial distribution of specific molecules within the sample is determined. The

  1. Imaging diagnosis of accessory and cavitated uterine mass, a rare mullerian anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchint Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass (ACUM is a rare form of developmental Mullerian anomaly seen in young females, which presents as chronic recurrent pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. It is an accessory cavity lying within an otherwise normal uterus. It is lined by functional endometrium and surrounded by myometrium-like smooth muscle cells; hence, it bears striking macroscopic and microscopic resemblance to the uterus. Hysterosalpingography (HSG, Ultrasonography (USG, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI form the mainstay of diagnostic imaging. The entity is often under diagnosed; therefore, a high index of suspicion combined with HSG and MRI imaging can help in making an accurate diagnosis.

  2. New Ionization and Detection Technologies for Mass Spectrometry Imaging. From Small Molecules to Intact Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in biomedical research to visualize changes in the location of various biomolecules in tissue sections as a result of complex diseases. Mass spectrometry imaging is one of the techniques that enable the mapping of molecules on a 2D surface. However, the techniq

  3. Thorium determination in thorotrast patient organs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and imaging plate autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used for the determination of Th in liver and spleen collected from autopsy subjects in Thorotrast patients to obtain useful information for dosimetry. The applicability of an imaging plate autoradiography technique for the determination of thorium distributions in organs to obtain information related to microdosimetry has also been evaluated

  4. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  5. Mass spectrometry imaging of surface lipids on intact Drosophila melanogaster flies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaftan, Filip; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Kynast, P.; Kulkarni, P.; Böcker, S.; Cvačka, Josef; Knaden, M.; Svatoš, Aleš

    Frankfurt/Main: -, 2014. s. 120. [DGMS 2014. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Massenspektrometrie /47./. 02.03.2014-05.03.2014, Frankfurt/Main] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mass spectrometry imaging * lipids * insect Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  6. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Chlorhexidine and Bacteria in a Model Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Hamerly

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to generate two-dimensional images of a wound that contains information about the distribution of bacteria overlaid with the distribution of drugs and metabolites could enhance our understanding of wound healing processes. Advances in technology are leading to a rapid expansion in mass spectrometry-based imaging. When combined with the ability of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization to ionize a wide range of molecules, imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful biomedical research tool. However, this technique has yet to be used to investigate bacterial colonization of wounds or the distribution of antimicrobial agents on tissue. To address this, distribution and persistence of the antimicrobial agent chlorhexidine on a model human tissue was investigated. The ability to detect and localize Staphylococcus aureus on the same tissue model was also addressed. Sub-millimeter resolution ion images from these experiments show the promise of using mass spectrometry imaging to investigate the growth and treatment of bacteria on skin. This methodology will be of value in the development of wound dressings with improved antimicrobial properties and a more careful analysis of the concentration of antimicrobial agents required to prevent biofilm formation and persistence.

  7. High-mass-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of metabolites from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Alice; Buck, Achim; Balluff, Benjamin; Sun, Na; Gorzolka, Karin; Feuchtinger, Annette; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Kuppen, Peter J K; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Weirich, Gregor; Erlmeier, Franziska; Langer, Rupert; Aubele, Michaela; Zitzelsberger, Horst; McDonnell, Liam; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are the gold standard for histological examination, and they provide valuable molecular information in tissue-based research. Metabolite assessment from archived tissue samples has not been extensively conducted because of a lack of appropriate protocols and concerns about changes in metabolite content or chemical state due to tissue processing. We present a protocol for the in situ analysis of metabolite content from FFPE samples using a high-mass-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-FT-ICR-MSI) platform. The method involves FFPE tissue sections that undergo deparaffinization and matrix coating by 9-aminoacridine before MALDI-MSI. Using this platform, we previously detected ∼1,500 m/z species in the mass range m/z 50-1,000 in FFPE samples; the overlap compared with fresh frozen samples is 72% of m/z species, indicating that metabolites are largely conserved in FFPE tissue samples. This protocol can be reproducibly performed on FFPE tissues, including small samples such as tissue microarrays and biopsies. The procedure can be completed in a day, depending on the size of the sample measured and raster size used. Advantages of this approach include easy sample handling, reproducibility, high throughput and the ability to demonstrate molecular spatial distributions in situ. The data acquired with this protocol can be used in research and clinical practice. PMID:27414759

  8. Metabolomic imaging of prostate cancer with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spur, Eva-Margarete [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Decelle, Emily A.; Cheng, Leo L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Metabolomic imaging of prostate cancer (PCa) aims to improve in vivo imaging capability so that PCa tumors can be localized noninvasively to guide biopsy and evaluated for aggressiveness prior to prostatectomy, as well as to assess and monitor PCa growth in patients with asymptomatic PCa newly diagnosed by biopsy. Metabolomics studies global variations of metabolites with which malignancy conditions can be evaluated by profiling the entire measurable metabolome, instead of focusing only on certain metabolites or isolated metabolic pathways. At present, PCa metabolomics is mainly studied by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and mass spectrometry (MS). With MRS imaging, the anatomic image, obtained from magnetic resonance imaging, is mapped with values of disease condition-specific metabolomic profiles calculated from MRS of each location. For example, imaging of removed whole prostates has demonstrated the ability of metabolomic profiles to differentiate cancerous foci from histologically benign regions. Additionally, MS metabolomic imaging of prostate biopsies has uncovered metabolomic expression patterns that could discriminate between PCa and benign tissue. Metabolomic imaging offers the potential to identify cancer lesions to guide prostate biopsy and evaluate PCa aggressiveness noninvasively in vivo, or ex vivo to increase the power of pathology analysis. Potentially, this imaging ability could be applied not only to PCa, but also to different tissues and organs to evaluate other human malignancies and metabolic diseases. (orig.)

  9. Homogeneous Matrix Deposition on Dried Agar for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Microbial Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-11-01

    Matrix deposition on agar-based microbial colonies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is often complicated by the complex media on which microbes are grown. This Application Note demonstrates how consecutive short spray pulses of a matrix solution can form an evenly closed matrix layer on dried agar. Compared with sieving dry matrix onto wet agar, this method supports analyte cocrystallization, which results in significantly more signals, higher signal-to-noise ratios, and improved ionization efficiency. The even matrix layer improves spot-to-spot precision of measured m/z values when using TOF mass spectrometers. With this technique, we established reproducible imaging mass spectrometry of myxobacterial cultures on nutrient-rich cultivation media, which was not possible with the sieving technique.

  10. The image of modern Russian innovations in the Danish mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to identify the attitude of the Danish mass media to modern Russian innovations. The research is timely because of the Russian interest in the experience of Denmark — one of the "innovation leaders" of the EU. The author analyses a number of publications on Russia in the Danish mass media. The positive image of Russian innovations in Danish periodicals is analysed against the background of historical stereotypes. The article also describes the Danish national innovation system. The image of Russian innovations in the Danish mass media is positive; however, the articles dedicated to Russian innovations constitute a small part of reports on developments in Russia. The article also contributes to social surveys carried out in Denmark through introducing new data. The research results can be used by politicians, scholars and social activists interested in the relations with Denmark.

  11. Targeted Multiplex Imaging Mass Spectrometry with Single Chain Fragment Variable (scfv) Recombinant Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Gwendoline; Mernaugh, Ray L.; Yan, Heping; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Yang, Junhai; Parl, Fritz F.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2012-10-01

    Recombinant scfv antibodies specific for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 P450 enzymes were combined with targeted imaging mass spectrometry to simultaneously detect the P450 enzymes present in archived, paraffin-embedded, human breast cancer tissue sections. By using CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 specific scfv, each coupled to a unique reporter molecule (i.e., a mass tag) it was possible to simultaneously detect multiple antigens within a single tissue sample with high sensitivity and specificity using mass spectrometry. The capability of imaging multiple antigens at the same time is a significant advance that overcomes technical barriers encountered when using present day approaches to develop assays that can simultaneously detect more than a single antigen in the same tissue sample.

  12. Polychromatic sparse image reconstruction and mass attenuation spectrum estimation via B-spline basis function expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Renliang, E-mail: Venliang@iastate.edu, E-mail: ald@iastate.edu; Dogandžić, Aleksandar, E-mail: Venliang@iastate.edu, E-mail: ald@iastate.edu [Iowa State University, Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, 1915 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    We develop a sparse image reconstruction method for polychromatic computed tomography (CT) measurements under the blind scenario where the material of the inspected object and the incident energy spectrum are unknown. To obtain a parsimonious measurement model parameterization, we first rewrite the measurement equation using our mass-attenuation parameterization, which has the Laplace integral form. The unknown mass-attenuation spectrum is expanded into basis functions using a B-spline basis of order one. We develop a block coordinate-descent algorithm for constrained minimization of a penalized negative log-likelihood function, where constraints and penalty terms ensure nonnegativity of the spline coefficients and sparsity of the density map image in the wavelet domain. This algorithm alternates between a Nesterov’s proximal-gradient step for estimating the density map image and an active-set step for estimating the incident spectrum parameters. Numerical simulations demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme.

  13. How to determine the centre of mass of bodies from image modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano Dias, Marco; Simeão Carvalho, Paulo; Rodrigues, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Image modelling is a recent technique in physics education that includes digital tools for image treatment and analysis, such as digital stroboscopic photography (DSP) and video analysis software. It is commonly used to analyse the motion of objects. In this work we show how to determine the position of the centre of mass (CM) of objects with either isotropic or anisotropic mass density, by video analyses as a video based experimental activity (VBEA). Strobe imaging is also presented in an educational view, helping students to visualize the complex motion of a rigid body with heterogeneous structure. As an example, we present a hammer tossed with translation and rotation. The technique shown here is valid for almost any kind of objects and it is very useful to work with the concept of CM.

  14. Polychromatic sparse image reconstruction and mass attenuation spectrum estimation via B-spline basis function expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a sparse image reconstruction method for polychromatic computed tomography (CT) measurements under the blind scenario where the material of the inspected object and the incident energy spectrum are unknown. To obtain a parsimonious measurement model parameterization, we first rewrite the measurement equation using our mass-attenuation parameterization, which has the Laplace integral form. The unknown mass-attenuation spectrum is expanded into basis functions using a B-spline basis of order one. We develop a block coordinate-descent algorithm for constrained minimization of a penalized negative log-likelihood function, where constraints and penalty terms ensure nonnegativity of the spline coefficients and sparsity of the density map image in the wavelet domain. This algorithm alternates between a Nesterov’s proximal-gradient step for estimating the density map image and an active-set step for estimating the incident spectrum parameters. Numerical simulations demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme

  15. Investigation of psychophysical measure for evaluation of similar images for mammographic masses: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated a psychophysical similarity measure for selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms, which may assist radiologists in the distinction between benign and malignant masses. Sixty pairs of masses were selected from 1445 mass images prepared for this study, which were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography by the University of South Florida. Five radiologists provided subjective similarity ratings for these 60 pairs of masses based on the overall impression for diagnosis. Radiologists' subjective ratings were marked on a continuous rating scale and quantified between 0 and 1, which correspond to pairs not similar at all and pairs almost identical, respectively. By use of the subjective ratings as 'gold standard', similarity measures based on the Euclidean distance between pairs in feature space and the psychophysical measure were determined. For determination of the psychophysical similarity measure, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to learn the relationship between radiologists' average subjective similarity ratings and computer-extracted image features. To evaluate the usefulness of the similarity measures, the agreement with the radiologists' subjective similarity ratings was assessed in terms of correlation coefficients between the average subjective ratings and the similarity measures. A commonly used similarity measure based on the Euclidean distance was moderately correlated (r=0.644) with the radiologists' average subjective ratings, whereas the psychophysical measure by use of the ANN was highly correlated (r=0.798). The preliminary result indicates that a psychophysical similarity measure would be useful in the selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms

  16. Atmospheric-pressure molecular imaging of biological tissues and biofilms by LAESI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Peter; Vertes, Akos

    2010-01-01

    Ambient ionization methods in mass spectrometry allow analytical investigations to be performed directly on a tissue or biofilm under native-like experimental conditions. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) is one such development and is particularly well-suited for the investigation of water-containing specimens. LAESI utilizes a mid-infrared laser beam (2.94 μm wavelength) to excite the water molecules of the sample. When the ablation fluence threshold is exceeded, the sample material is expelled in the form of particulate matter and these projectiles travel to tens of millimeters above the sample surface. In LAESI, this ablation plume is intercepted by highly charged droplets to capture a fraction of the ejected sample material and convert its chemical constituents into gas-phase ions. A mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric-pressure ion source interface is employed to analyze and record the composition of the released ions originating from the probed area (pixel) of the sample. A systematic interrogation over an array of pixels opens a way for molecular imaging in the microprobe analysis mode. A unique aspect of LAESI mass spectrometric imaging is depth profiling that, in combination with lateral imaging, enables three-dimensional (3D) molecular imaging. With current lateral and depth resolutions of ~100 μm and ~40 μm, respectively, LAESI mass spectrometric imaging helps to explore the molecular structure of biological tissues. Herein, we review the major elements of a LAESI system and provide guidelines for a successful imaging experiment. PMID:20834223

  17. Masses of the tongue and floor of the mouth: findings on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of MR imaging for the demonstration of masses in the tongue and floor of the mouth. Nine patients were prospectively examined with MR imaging after physical examination. Imaging protocol included T2 and contrast-enhanced and non-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences, and the findings were compared with surgical and histopathological results. Histopathological examination revealed four squamous cell carcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, two tongue abscesses, and one chronic inflammatory change. The other case was diagnosed as hemangioma depending on clinical and imaging findings alone. In cases with squamous cell carcinoma, staging was done on the basis of MR imaging findings, and was found to be T4 in two cases, T3 in one case, and T2 in another. The primary role of MR imaging of the tongue and oropharynx is not to make a tissue diagnosis. Multiple deep biopsies are mandatory for the differentiation of other inflammatory and neoplastic lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging produces coronal and sagittal image planes to assess the volume and spread of the lesion and helps the surgeon determine the direction in which the biopsy should be performed. (orig.)

  18. Dynamic MR imaging of adrenal masses at 0.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical efficacy of dynamic MR imaging at 0.5 to diagnose adrenal masses. The series consisted of 19 patients with 20 lesions, including five pheochromocytomas, four adrenocortical adenomas, eight metastatic tumors and three neurinomas of juxtaadrenal regions. We used a superconducting magnet of Toshiba (MRT-50A). Sequential gradient-echo images (TR/TE=100/14 ms, flip angle 60deg) were obtained every two minutes after an intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. Relative mass-to-fat signal intensity ratios (IM/IF) were calculated on all images. In some cases of pheochromocytomas, the IM/IF values showed signigicant increase immediately after the administration, with faint washout of the contrast material. Some cases of adrenocortical adenomas also showed maximum IM/IF values just after the administration, but the washout was fast. However, other cases of pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical adenomas showed neither strong contrast uptake nor rapid washout. In the cases of neurinomas, highest IM/IF values were noted at five to nine minutes. On the other hand, metastatic tumors showed no definite patterns of time related change of IM/IF values, therefore it was difficult to differentiate metastases from other tumors. In some particular cases, dynamic MR images at 0.5 T may help to specify adrenocortical adenoma, pheochromocytoma, or neurinoma. However, this method does not contribute to differentiate adrenal masses, since metastasis cannot be ruled out in all cases. (author)

  19. Fluorescence Imaging for Visualization of the Ion Cloud in a Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Francis O.; Sciuto, Stephen V.; Jockusch, Rebecca A.

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize populations of gaseous ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Presented images include the first fluorescence image of molecular ions collected under conditions typically used in mass spectrometry experiments. Under these "normal" mass spectrometry conditions, the radial ( r) and axial ( z) full-width at half maxima (FWHM) of the detected ion cloud are 615 and 214 μm, respectively, corresponding to ~6 % of r 0 and ~3 % of z 0 for the QIT used. The effects on the shape and size of the ion cloud caused by varying the pressure of helium bath gas, the number of trapped ions, and the Mathieu parameter q z are visualized and discussed. When a "tickle voltage" is applied to the exit end-cap electrode, as is done in collisionally activated dissociation, a significant elongation in the axial, but not the radial, dimension of the ion cloud is apparent. Finally, using spectroscopically distinguishable fluorophores of two different m/ z values, images are presented that illustrate stratification of the ion cloud; ions of lower m/ z (higher q z ) are located in the center of the trapping region, effectively excluding higher m/ z (lower q z ) ions, which form a surrounding layer. Fluorescence images such as those presented here provide a useful reference for better understanding the collective behavior of ions in radio frequency (rf) trapping devices and how phenomena such as collisions and space-charge affect ion distribution.

  20. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael; Sibeck, David G.; Porter, F. Scott; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, Thomas; Omidi, N.; Robertson, Ina; Sembay, S.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    All of the solar wind energy that powers magnetospheric processes passes through the magnetosheath and magnetopause. Global images of the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers will resolve longstanding controversy surrounding fundamental phenomena that occur at the magnetopause and provide information needed to improve operational space weather models. Recent developments showing that soft X-rays (0.15-1 keV) result from high charge state solar wind ions undergoing charge exchange recombination through collisions with exospheric neutral atoms has led to the realization that soft X-ray imaging can provide global maps of the high-density shocked solar wind within the magnetosheath and cusps, regions lying between the lower density solar wind and magnetosphere. We discuss an instrument concept called the Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM), an X-ray imager suitable for simultaneously imaging the dayside magnetosheath, the magnetopause boundary layers, and the cusps.

  1. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Sibeck, David G.; Porter, F. Scott; Burch, J.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, Thomas; Kuntz, Kip; Omidi, N.; Read, A.; Robertson, Ina; Sembay, S.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    All of the solar wind energy that powers magnetospheric processes passes through the magnetosheath and magnetopause. Global images of the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers will resolve longstanding controversies surrounding fundamental phenomena that occur at the magnetopause and provide information needed to improve operational space weather models. Recent developments showing that soft X-rays (0.15-1 keV) result from high charge state solar wind ions undergoing charge exchange recombination through collisions with exospheric neutral atoms has led to the realization that soft X-ray imaging can provide global maps of the high-density shocked solar wind within the magnetosheath and cusps, regions lying between the lower density solar wind and magnetosphere. We discuss an instrument concept called the Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM), an X-ray imager suitable for simultaneously imaging the dayside magnetosheath, the magnetopause boundary layers, and the cusps.

  2. High-resolution atmospheric pressure infrared laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römpp, Andreas; Schäfer, Karl Christian; Guenther, Sabine; Wang, Zheng; Köstler, Martin; Leisner, Arne; Paschke, Carmen; Schramm, Thorsten; Spengler, Bernhard

    2013-09-01

    An atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging ion source has been developed that combines high spatial resolution and high mass resolution for the in situ analysis of biological tissue. The system is based on an infrared laser system working at 2.94 to 3.10 μm wavelength, employing a Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical parametrical oscillator. A Raman-shifted Nd:YAG laser system was also tested as an alternative irradiation source. A dedicated optical setup was used to focus the laser beam, coaxially with the ion optical axis and normal to the sample surface, to a spot size of 30 μm in diameter. No additional matrix was needed for laser desorption/ionization. A cooling stage was developed to reduce evaporation of physiological cell water. Ions were formed under atmospheric pressure and transferred by an extended heated capillary into the atmospheric pressure inlet of an orbital trapping mass spectrometer. Various phospholipid compounds were detected, identified, and imaged at a pixel resolution of up to 25 μm from mouse brain tissue sections. Mass accuracies of better than 2 ppm and a mass resolution of 30,000 at m/z = 400 were achieved for these measurements. PMID:23877173

  3. Multi-matrix, dual polarity, tandem mass spectrometry imaging strategy applied to a germinated maize seed: toward mass spectrometry imaging of an untargeted metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Adam D; Hansen, Rebecca L; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-11-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides high spatial resolution information that is unprecedented in traditional metabolomics analyses; however, the molecular coverage is often limited to a handful of compounds and is insufficient to understand overall metabolomic changes of a biological system. Here, we propose an MSI methodology to increase the diversity of chemical compounds that can be imaged and identified, in order to eventually perform untargeted metabolomic analysis using MSI. In this approach, we use the desorption/ionization bias of various matrixes for different metabolite classes along with dual polarities and a tandem MSI strategy. The use of multiple matrixes and dual polarities allows us to visualize various classes of compounds, while data-dependent MS/MS spectra acquired in the same MSI scans allow us to identify the compounds directly on the tissue. In a proof of concept application to a germinated corn seed, a total of 166 unique ions were determined to have high-quality MS/MS spectra, without counting structural isomers, of which 52 were identified as unique compounds. According to an estimation based on precursor MSI datasets, we expect over five hundred metabolites could be potentially identified and visualized once all experimental conditions are optimized and an MS/MS library is available. Lastly, metabolites involved in the glycolysis pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were imaged to demonstrate the potential of this technology to better understand metabolic biology. PMID:26339687

  4. The Need for Speed in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has emerged as a powerful analytical tool enabling the direct molecular mapping of many types of tissue. Specifically, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization (MALDI) represents one of the most broadly applicable IMS technologies. In recent years, advances in solid state laser technology, mass spectrometry instrumentation, computer technology, and experimental methodology have produced IMS systems capable of unprecedented data acquisition speeds (>50 pixels/second). In applications of this technology, throughput is an important consideration when designing an IMS experiment. As IMS becomes more widely adopted, continual improvements in experimental setups will be important to address biologically and clinically relevant time scales.

  5. SOI pixel circuits with synchronized TMC for time-of-flight stigmatic imaging mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Kaori; Fujita, Youichi; Arai, Yasuo; Hazama, Hisanao

    2015-01-01

    We propose SOI pixel circuits with a synchronized time memory cell (TMC) for time-of-flight stigmatic imaging mass spectrometry. The circuits simultaneously detect the position and the fine/coarse flight time of an ion for the MALDI-ToF mass spectrometer. We discuss the circuit design and present the simulation results of a prototype detector comprised of a 32 x 32 pixel array in which each pixel pitch is 40 um and the time resolution is a minimum of 1 ns. The results of transient analysis demonstrate the fully correct synchronous operation at a 100-MHz clock frequency and simultaneous 32-word SRAM writing.

  6. Internal Carotid Artery Ectasia: The Value of Imaging Studies Prior to Biopsy of a Retropharyngeal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of retropharyngeal tissue mass often raises the suspicion of malignancy, especially in elderly patients. This prompts urgent biopsy to investigate tissue histology. We discuss a case where this is contraindicated as the retropharyngeal mass was illustrated by CT scanning and confirmed with MRI to be a tortuous coursing internal carotid artery. An awareness of this unusual anatomical variation and a careful interpretation of imaging studies both at the stage of differential diagnosis and pre-operative screening are essential to avoid damage to important structures, causing unnecessary complications.

  7. Role of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in discrimination between the intracranial cystic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farid Yousef

    2014-09-01

    Results and conclusions: Patients in this study were categorized into three main groups; first group is brain abscesses (36 cases, 91.6% of them showed restricted diffusion, second group is malignant cystic or necrotic brain tumors, 28 cases of high grade necrotic glioma, 60.7% of them are free diffusion, and third group is benign cystic masses, arachnoid and epidermiod cysts (11 cases; all arachnoid cysts are free diffusion. From these results diffusion-weighted imaging is playing an important role in discrimination of cystic intracranial masses.

  8. Combination of imaging mass spectrometry and electron microscopy for quasi nondestructive surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Time-of-flight mass spectrometer was complemented with scanning electron microscope. •Complementary SEM and TOF MS enabled topographical and elemental mapping. •Elemental imaging was in quasi nondestructive regime at ion fluence 1012 cm−2 •Combined imaging shed light on Solar Wind Mg and Ca abundance in NASA Genesis samples. -- Abstract: We report on a combination of imaging mass spectrometry (MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) developed in a custom designed time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument with laser post-ionization of sputtered atoms. Elemental (by MS) and topographical (by SEM) mapping of surfaces of heavily contaminated Si collectors from the NASA Genesis sample return mission enabled obtaining much more accurate and detailed depth distribution of the Solar Wind Mg and Ca implanted in these collectors. This is because the cleanest areas were identified by the SEM/MS mapping, and high resolution sputter depth profiling at these locations revealed near-surface (0–15 nm) depth distribution of Mg and Ca, that were used for more accurate fluence calculations of these Solar Wind species. MS imaging was virtually nondestructive at primary ion fluence 1012 cm-2, causing no effect on accuracy and precision of quantitative depth profiling that followed the imaging. We also demonstrate importance of such an approach by directly comparing high resolution depth profiles measured on clean areas versus arbitrarily selected areas

  9. Imaging MALDI mass spectrometry of sphingolipids using an oscillating capillary nebulizer matrix application system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Liu, Ying; Allegood, Jeremy; Wang, Elaine; Cachón-González, Begoña; Cox, Timothy M; Merrill, Alfred H; Sullards, M Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Matrix deposition is a critical step in tissue imaging by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). It greatly affects the quality of MALDI imaging, especially for the analytes (such as lipids) that may easily dissolve in the solvent used for the matrix application. This chapter describes the use of an oscillating capillary nebulizer (OCN) to spray small droplets of matrix aerosol onto the sample surface for improved matrix homogeneity, reduced crystal size, and controlled solvent effects. This protocol allows visualization of many different lipid species and, of particular interest, sphingolipids in tissue slices of Tay-Sachs/Sandhoff disease by imaging MALDI-MS. The structures of these lipids were identified by analysis of tissue extracts using electrospray ionization in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS(3)). These results illustrate the usefulness of tissue imaging MALDI-MS with matrix deposition by OCN for the molecular analysis in normal physiology and pathology. In addition, the observation of numerous lipid subclasses with distinct localizations in the brain slices demonstrates that imaging MALDI-MS could be effectively used for "lipidomic" studies. PMID:20680588

  10. The low-mass Initial Mass Function in the Orion Nebula cluster based on HST/NICMOS III imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; Robberto, M; Bergeron, L E; Reid, N

    2011-01-01

    We present deep HST/NICMOS Camera 3 F110W and F160W imaging of a 26'x33', corresponding to 3.1pcx3.8pc, non-contiguous field towards the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). The main aim is to determine the ratio of low--mass stars to brown dwarfs for the cluster as a function of radius out to a radial distance of 1.5pc. The sensitivity of the data outside the nebulous central region is F160W=21.0 mag, significantly deeper than previous studies of the region over a comparable area. We create an extinction limited sample and determine the ratio of low-mass stars (0.08-1Msun) to brown dwarfs (0.02-0.08Msun and 0.03-0.08Msun) for the cluster as a whole and for several annuli. The ratio found for the cluster within a radius of 1.5pc is R(02)=N(0.08-1Msun)/N(0.02-0.08Msun)=1.7+-0.2, and R(03)=N(0.08-1Msun)/N(0.03-0.08Msun)=2.4+-0.2, after correcting for field stars. The ratio for the central 0.3pcx0.3pc region down to 0.03Msun was previously found to be R(03)=3.3+0.8-0.7, suggesting the low-mass content of the cluster is m...

  11. Advancements in Imaging Technology for Detection and Diagnosis of Palpable Breast Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Barbara M; Hong, Andrea S; Letter, Haley; Odell, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide and the most common cause of cancer death in women. The most common presentation of breast cancer is the presence of a palpable mass, whether noted by the patient during breast self-examination or noted during clinical breast examination. There are a variety of imaging modalities now available for the evaluation of a palpable abnormality. A thorough understanding of the indications, risks, and benefits can help the clinician guide the patient through an appropriate, comprehensive imaging work up. PMID:27101239

  12. Automatic extraction of myocardial mass and volumes using parametric images from dynamic non-gated PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Hansson, Nils Henrik Stubkjær; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen;

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) is used to quantify molecular processes in vivo. However, measurements of left-ventricular (LV) mass and volumes require electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated PET data. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of measuring LV geometry using non...... generated from non-gated dynamic data. Using software-based structure recognition the LV wall was automatically segmented from K1 images to derive mLV and wall thickness (WT). End-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic (EDV) volumes were calculated using blood pool images and used to obtain stroke volume (SV) and...

  13. SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging enables accurate evaluation of radiotracers for β-cell mass assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eter, Wael A; Parween, Saba; Joosten, Lieke; Frielink, Cathelijne; Eriksson, Maria; Brom, Maarten; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gotthardt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has become a promising experimental approach to monitor changes in β-cell mass (BCM) during diabetes progression. SPECT imaging of pancreatic islets is most commonly cross-validated by stereological analysis of histological pancreatic sections after insulin staining. Typically, stereological methods do not accurately determine the total β-cell volume, which is inconvenient when correlating total pancreatic tracer uptake with BCM. Alternative methods are therefore warranted to cross-validate β-cell imaging using radiotracers. In this study, we introduce multimodal SPECT - optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging as an accurate approach to cross-validate radionuclide-based imaging of β-cells. Uptake of a promising radiotracer for β-cell imaging by SPECT, (111)In-exendin-3, was measured by ex vivo-SPECT and cross evaluated by 3D quantitative OPT imaging as well as with histology within healthy and alloxan-treated Brown Norway rat pancreata. SPECT signal was in excellent linear correlation with OPT data as compared to histology. While histological determination of islet spatial distribution was challenging, SPECT and OPT revealed similar distribution patterns of (111)In-exendin-3 and insulin positive β-cell volumes between different pancreatic lobes, both visually and quantitatively. We propose ex vivo SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging as a highly accurate strategy for validating the performance of β-cell radiotracers. PMID:27080529

  14. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry: statistical data analysis and current computational challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrov Theodore

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry, also called MALDI-imaging, is a label-free bioanalytical technique used for spatially-resolved chemical analysis of a sample. Usually, MALDI-imaging is exploited for analysis of a specially prepared tissue section thaw mounted onto glass slide. A tremendous development of the MALDI-imaging technique has been observed during the last decade. Currently, it is one of the most promising innovative measurement techniques in biochemistry and a powerful and versatile tool for spatially-resolved chemical analysis of diverse sample types ranging from biological and plant tissues to bio and polymer thin films. In this paper, we outline computational methods for analyzing MALDI-imaging data with the emphasis on multivariate statistical methods, discuss their pros and cons, and give recommendations on their application. The methods of unsupervised data mining as well as supervised classification methods for biomarker discovery are elucidated. We also present a high-throughput computational pipeline for interpretation of MALDI-imaging data using spatial segmentation. Finally, we discuss current challenges associated with the statistical analysis of MALDI-imaging data.

  15. Mass Spectrometry Imaging and GC-MS Profiling of the Mammalian Peripheral Sensory-Motor Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Ulanov, Alexander; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2015-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has evolved to become an effective discovery tool in science and clinical diagnostics. Here, chemical imaging approaches are applied to well-defined regions of the mammalian peripheral sensory-motor system, including the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and adjacent nerves. By combining several MSI approaches, analyte coverage is increased and 195 distinct molecular features are observed. Principal component analysis suggests three chemically different regions within the sensory-motor system, with the DRG and adjacent nerve regions being the most distinct. Investigation of these regions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry corroborate these findings and reveal important metabolic markers related to the observed differences. The heterogeneity of the structurally, physiologically, and functionally connected regions demonstrates the intricate chemical and spatial regulation of their chemical composition.

  16. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for the Simultaneous Location of Resveratrol, Pterostilbene and Viniferins on Grapevine Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the in-situ response to a stress, grapevine leaves have been subjected to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI experiments. The Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI approach using different matrices has been evaluated. Among all the tested matrices, the 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB was found to be the most efficient matrix allowing a broader range of detected stilbene phytoalexins. Resveratrol, but also more toxic compounds against fungi such as pterostilbene and viniferins, were identified and mapped. Their spatial distributions on grapevine leaves irradiated by UV show their specific colocation around the veins. Moreover, MALDI MSI reveals that resveratrol (and piceids and viniferins are not specifically located on the same area when leaves are infected by Plasmopara viticola. Results obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging demonstrate that this technique would be essential to improve the level of knowledge concerning the role of the stilbene phytoalexins involved in a stress event.

  17. Mass MOVEMENTS' Detection in Hirise Images of the North Pole of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanara, L.; Gwinner, K.; Hauber, E.; Oberst, J.

    2016-06-01

    We are investigating change detection techniques to automatically detect mass movements at the steep north polar scarps of Mars, in order to improve our understanding of these dynamic processes. Here we focus on movements of blocks specifically. The precise detection of such small changes requires an accurate co-registration of the images, which is achieved by ortho-rectifying them using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) Digital Terrain Models (DTMs). Moreover, we deal with the challenge of deriving the true shape of the moved blocks. In a next step, these results are combined with findings based on HiRISE DTMs from different points in time in order to estimate the volume of mass movements.

  18. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging for the simultaneous location of resveratrol, pterostilbene and viniferins on grapevine leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Loïc; Carré, Vincent; Poutaraud, Anne; Merdinoglu, Didier; Chaimbault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the in-situ response to a stress, grapevine leaves have been subjected to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) experiments. The Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI) approach using different matrices has been evaluated. Among all the tested matrices, the 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was found to be the most efficient matrix allowing a broader range of detected stilbene phytoalexins. Resveratrol, but also more toxic compounds against fungi such as pterostilbene and viniferins, were identified and mapped. Their spatial distributions on grapevine leaves irradiated by UV show their specific colocation around the veins. Moreover, MALDI MSI reveals that resveratrol (and piceids) and viniferins are not specifically located on the same area when leaves are infected by Plasmopara viticola. Results obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging demonstrate that this technique would be essential to improve the level of knowledge concerning the role of the stilbene phytoalexins involved in a stress event. PMID:25050857

  19. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the body image satisfaction - dissa tisfaction among adolescent age group , to correlate the components of body image with body mass index and the influence of parents , peers and mass media on body image .

  20. SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging enables accurate evaluation of radiotracers for β-cell mass assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Wael A. Eter; Saba Parween; Lieke Joosten; Cathelijne Frielink; Maria Eriksson; Maarten Brom; Ulf Ahlgren; Martin Gotthardt

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has become a promising experimental approach to monitor changes in β-cell mass (BCM) during diabetes progression. SPECT imaging of pancreatic islets is most commonly cross-validated by stereological analysis of histological pancreatic sections after insulin staining. Typically, stereological methods do not accurately determine the total β-cell volume, which is inconvenient when correlating total pancreatic tracer uptake with BCM. Alternative ...

  1. SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging enables accurate evaluation of radiotracers for beta-cell mass assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Wael A. Eter; Parween, Saba; Joosten, Lieke; Frielink, Cathelijne; Eriksson, Maria; Brom, Maarten; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gotthardt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has become a promising experimental approach to monitor changes in beta-cell mass (BCM) during diabetes progression. SPECT imaging of pancreatic islets is most commonly cross-validated by stereological analysis of histological pancreatic sections after insulin staining. Typically, stereological methods do not accurately determine the total beta-cell volume, which is inconvenient when correlating total pancreatic tracer uptake with BCM. Altern...

  2. Visualizing Dermal Permeation of Sodium Channel Modulators by Mass Spectrometric Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Eberlin, Livia S; Mulcahy, John V.; Tzabazis, Alexander; Zhang, Jialing; Liu, Huwei; Logan, Matthew M.; Roberts, Heather J.; Lee, Gordon K.; Yeomans, David C.; Du Bois, Justin; Zare, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Determining permeability of a given compound through human skin is a principal challenge owing to the highly complex nature of dermal tissue. We describe the application of an ambient mass spectrometry imaging method for visualizing skin penetration of sodium channel modulators, including novel synthetic analogs of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, topically applied ex vivo to human skin. Our simple and label-free approach enables successful mapping of the transverse and lateral diffusion of smal...

  3. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging with Picosecond Infrared Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization (PIR-LAESI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Talbot, Francis; Tata, Alessandra; Ermini, Leonardo; Franjic, Kresimir; Ventura, Manuela; Zheng, Jinzi; Ginsberg, Howard; Post, Martin; Ifa, Demian R; Jaffray, David; Miller, R J Dwayne; Zarrine-Afsar, Arash

    2015-12-15

    A picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) is capable of cutting through biological tissues in the absence of significant thermal damage. As such, PIRL is a standalone surgical scalpel with the added bonus of minimal postoperative scar tissue formation. In this work, a tandem of PIRL ablation with electrospray ionization (PIR-LAESI) mass spectrometry is demonstrated and characterized for tissue molecular imaging, with a limit of detection in the range of 100 nM for reserpine or better than 5 nM for verapamil in aqueous solution. We characterized PIRL crater size using agar films containing Rhodamine. PIR-LAESI offers a 20-30 μm vertical resolution (∼3 μm removal per pulse) and a lateral resolution of ∼100 μm. We were able to detect 25 fmol of Rhodamine in agar ablation experiments. PIR-LAESI was used to map the distribution of endogenous methoxykaempferol glucoronide in zebra plant (Aphelandra squarrosa) leaves producing a localization map that is corroborated by the literature. PIR-LAESI was further used to image the distribution inside mouse kidneys of gadoteridol, an exogenous magnetic resonance contrast agent intravenously injected. Parallel mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) were performed to corroborate PIR-LAESI images of the exogenous agent. We further show that PIR-LAESI is capable of desorption ionization of proteins as well as phospholipids. This comparative study illustrates that PIR-LAESI is an ion source for ambient mass spectrometry applications. As such, a future PIRL scalpel combined with secondary ionization such as ESI and mass spectrometry has the potential to provide molecular feedback to guide PIRL surgery. PMID:26561279

  4. Sublimation as a Method of Matrix Application for Mass Spectrometric Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hankin, Joseph A.; Barkley, Robert M.; Murphy, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Common organic MALDI matrices, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid were found to undergo sublimation without decomposition under conditions of reduced pressure and elevated temperature. This solid to vapor phase transition was exploited to apply MALDI matrix onto tissue samples over a broad surface in a solvent-free application for mass spectrometric imaging. Sublimation of matrix produced an even layer of small crystals acr...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of flow and mass transfer in electrohydrodynamic liquid bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Adam D. Wexler; Drusova, Sandra; Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Reiter, Gert; Fuchsjäger, Michael; Reiter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Here we report on the feasibility and use of magnetic resonance imaging based methods to the study of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) liquid bridges. High speed tomographic recordings through the longitudinal axis of water bridges were used to characterize the mass transfer dynamics, mixing, and flow structure. By filling one beaker with heavy water and the other with light water it was possible to track the spread of the proton signal throughout the total liquid volume. The mixing kinetics are dif...

  6. Image-plane Analysis of n-point-mass Lens Critical Curves and Caustics

    CERN Document Server

    Danek, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. ...

  7. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Tissues, Cells, and Microbial Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Lara J.; Anderton, Christopher R.

    2016-03-18

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques are increasingly being utilized within many biological fields, including medicine, pathology, microbial ecology, and more. Of the MSI methods available, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) offers the highest lateral resolution of any technique. Moreover, SIMS versatility in the number of different operating modes and types of mass spectrometers available has made it an increasing popular method for bio-related measurements. Here, we discuss SIMS ability to image tissues, single cells, and microbes with a particular emphasis on the types chemical and spatial information that can be ascertained by the different types of SIMS instruments and methods. The recently developed Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) SIMS located at PNNL is capable of generating molecular maps of tissues with an unprecedented mass resolving power and mass accuracy, with respect to SIMS measurements. ToF-SIMS can generate chemical maps, where detection of small molecules and fragments can be acquired with an order of magnitude better lateral resolution than the FTICR-SIMS. Furthermore, many of commercially available ToF-SIMS instruments are capable of depth profiling measurements, offering the ability to attain three-dimensional information of one’s sample. The NanoSIMS instrument offers the highest lateral resolution of any MSI method available. In practice, NanoSIMS regularly achieves sub-100 nm resolution of atomic and diatomic secondary ions within biological samples. The strengths of the different SIMS methods are more and more being leveraged in both multimodal-imaging endeavors that use complementary MSI techniques as well with optical, fluorescence, and force microscopy methods.

  8. Mapping drug distribution in brain tissue using liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, John G; Tucker, James W; Spreadborough, Michael J; Iverson, Suzanne L; Clench, Malcolm R; Webborn, Peter J H; Goodwin, Richard J A

    2015-10-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) is a surface sampling technique that incorporates liquid extraction from the surface of tissue sections with nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry. Traditional tissue analysis techniques usually require homogenization of the sample prior to analysis via high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), but an intrinsic weakness of this is a loss of all spatial information and the inability of the technique to distinguish between actual tissue penetration and response caused by residual blood contamination. LESA-MS, in contrast, has the ability to spatially resolve drug distributions and has historically been used to profile discrete spots on the surface of tissue sections. Here, we use the technique as a mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) tool, extracting points at 1 mm spatial resolution across tissue sections to build an image of xenobiotic and endogenous compound distribution to assess drug blood-brain barrier penetration into brain tissue. A selection of penetrant and "nonpenetrant" drugs were dosed to rats via oral and intravenous administration. Whole brains were snap-frozen at necropsy and were subsequently sectioned prior to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and LESA-MSI. MALDI-MSI, as expected, was shown to effectively map the distribution of brain penetrative compounds but lacked sufficient sensitivity when compounds were marginally penetrative. LESA-MSI was used to effectively map the distribution of these poorly penetrative compounds, highlighting its value as a complementary technique to MALDI-MSI. The technique also showed benefits when compared to traditional homogenization, particularly for drugs that were considered nonpenetrant by homogenization but were shown to have a measurable penetration using LESA-MSI. PMID:26350423

  9. Uncommon primary pelvic retroperitoneal masses in adults: a pattern-based imaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhogue, Alampady K; Fasih, Najla; Macdonald, David B; Sheikh, Adnan M; Menias, Christine O; Prasad, Srinivasa R

    2012-01-01

    There is a broad spectrum of primary pelvic retroperitoneal masses in adults that demonstrate characteristic epidemiologic and histopathologic features and natural histories. These masses may be classified into five distinct subgroups using a pattern-based approach that takes anatomic distribution and certain imaging characteristics into account, allowing greater accuracy in their detection and characterization and helping to optimize patient management. The five groups are cystic (serous and mucinous epithelial neoplasms, pelvic lymphangioma, tailgut cyst, ancient schwannoma), vascular or hypervascular (solitary fibrous tumor, paraganglioma, pelvic arteriovenous malformation, Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome, extraintestinal GIST [gastrointestinal stromal tumor]), fat-containing (lipoma, liposarcoma, myelolipoma, presacral teratoma), calcified (calcified lymphocele, calcified rejected transplant kidney, rare sarcomas), and myxoid (schwannoma, plexiform neurofibroma, myxoma).Cross-sectional imaging modalities help differentiate the more common gynecologic neoplasms from more unusual masses. In particular, the tissue-specific multiplanar capability of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging permits better tumor localization and internal characterization, thereby serving as a road map for surgery. PMID:22582360

  10. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging of plant tissues: towards a plant metabolite atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Wang, Qing; Friedt, Wolfgang; Spengler, Bernhard; Gottwald, Sven; Römpp, Andreas

    2015-11-21

    Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging provides spatial and molecular information for a wide range of compounds. This tool can be used to investigate metabolic changes in plant physiology and environmental interactions. A major challenge in our study was to prepare tissue sections that were compatible with high spatial resolution analysis and therefore dedicated sample preparation protocols were established and optimized for the physicochemical properties of all major plant organs. We combined high spatial resolution (5 μm), in order to detect cellular features, and high mass accuracy (germination of oilseed rape. The detailed localization of more than 90 compounds allowed assignment to metabolic processes and indicated possible functions in plant tissues. The 'untargeted' nature of MS imaging allows the detection of marker compounds for the physiological status, as demonstrated for plant-pathogen interactions. Our images show excellent correlation with optical/histological examination. In contrast to previous MS imaging studies of plants, we present a complete workflow that covers multiple species, such as oilseed rape, wheat seed and rice. In addition, different major plant organs and a wide variety of compound classes were analyzed. Thus, our method could be used to develop a plant metabolite atlas as a reference to investigate systemic and local effects of pathogen infection or environmental stress. PMID:26462298

  11. Mass imaging and identification of biomolecules with MALDI-QIT-TOF-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimma, Shuichi; Sugiura, Yuki; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Matsumoto, Mineo; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2008-02-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is becoming a popular visualization technique in the medical and biological sciences. For its continued development, the ability to both visualize and identify molecules directly on the tissue surface using tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) is essential. We established an imaging system based on a matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight type instrument (AXIMA-QIT, Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan), which was compatible with both imaging and highly sensitive MSn. In this paper, we present the operating conditions of the AXIMA-QIT as an imaging instrument and introduce the data converter we developed that is available free of charge. The converted data can be applied to Biomap, the commonly used visualization software. For the feasibility experiments, we demonstrated the visualization of phospholipids, glycolipid, and tryptic-digested proteins in the mouse cerebellum. The visualized lipids were successfully identified by MSn directly on the tissue surface, with a strong ability to isolate precursor ions. In the analysis of tryptic-digested proteins, we compared the product ion spectra between AXIMA-QIT and a tandem TOF-type instrument. The results confirmed that AXIMA-QIT can provide a high quality of product ion spectra even on the tissue surface. PMID:18166020

  12. Masses and pain in the groin: a review of imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inguinofemoral region is a crossroads of numerous vascular, nervous and muscular structures. As even the most astute clinician can have difficulty in correctly diagnosing the cause of complaints or a mass in the groin and thigh region, radiological investigation is frequently warranted. For the radiologist involved, knowledge of the anatomy and specific pathology of the groin is essential. This paper deals with the imaging characteristics of the various diseases in the inguinofemoral triangle. Furthermore, this article provides an overview of the role of the various imaging modalities in the evaluation of disease in the groin and upper thigh. A sound working knowledge of groin anatomy and pathology is mandatory. The various imaging modalities used should be considered complementary. (orig.)

  13. Displaced dual-mode imaging with desorption electrospray ionization for simultaneous mass spectrometry imaging in both polarities and with several scan modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Wellner, Niels; Hansen, Harald S;

    2013-01-01

    Displaced dual-mode imaging (DDI) is introduced as a method for simultaneous imaging in positive and negative-ion mode on the same sample with desorption electrospray ionization imaging, as well as a method for simultaneous imaging in full-scan and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) mode. DDI is...... utilized to obtain complementary mass spectrometric of the sample. Imaging with both polarities is exemplified on an imprint of a Hypericum perforatum leaf containing secondary metabolites which ionize in both polarites and a mouse kidney containing phospholipids which ionize in positive or negative mode...... performed by using a smaller row distance in the y-direction than the desired image resolution and recording for example every second row in positive-ion mode and the other half of the rows in negative-ion mode, thus resulting in two separate images. This causes some degree of oversampling, which is thus...

  14. Detection systems for mass spectrometry imaging: a perspective on novel developments with a focus on active pixel detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-15

    Instrumental developments for imaging and individual particle detection for biomolecular mass spectrometry (imaging) and fundamental atomic and molecular physics studies are reviewed. Ion-counting detectors, array detection systems and high mass detectors for mass spectrometry (imaging) are treated. State-of-the-art detection systems for multi-dimensional ion, electron and photon detection are highlighted. Their application and performance in three different imaging modes--integrated, selected and spectral image detection--are described. Electro-optical and microchannel-plate-based systems are contrasted. The analytical capabilities of solid-state pixel detectors--both charge coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips--are introduced. The Medipix/Timepix detector family is described as an example of a CMOS hybrid active pixel sensor. Alternative imaging methods for particle detection and their potential for future applications are investigated. PMID:23239313

  15. Accuracy of dynamic MR imaging versus CT for evaluation of adrenal masses in patients with malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT examinations, precontrast MR images, and fast contrast-enchanced dynamic MR studies have been evaluated retrospectively in 44 patients with known malignant disease of different origins and unilateral (n = 36) or bilateral (n = 8) adrenal masses. Size, shape, attenuation, and signal intensity on T2-weighted images and pattern of Gd- DTPA enhancement were analyzed in all patients. Dynamic studies were performed with repeated imaging up to 16 minutes after Gd-DTPA administration. Masses with moderate enhancement and complete washout after 10 minutes were considered adenomas. Diagnosis was verified by means of surgery, biopsy or follow up. CT had an overall accuracy of 0.62; precontrast MR imaging, 0.76, dynamic MR imaging, 0.85. The simultaneous use of precontrast MR imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced studies led to an accurate diagnosis of 92% and thus should be considered in all cases of suspected or unclear adrenal masses in patients with known malignant disease

  16. Mass balance of Mars' residual south polar cap from CTX images and other data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. C.; Calvin, W.; Cantor, B.; Haberle, R.; James, P. B.; Lee, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    Erosion of pits in the residual south polar cap (RSPC) of Mars concurrent with deposition and fluctuating cap boundaries raises questions about the mass balance and long term stability of the cap. Determining a mass balance by measurement of a net gain or loss of atmospheric CO2 by direct pressure measurements (Haberle, R.M. et al. [2014]. Secular climate change on Mars: An update using one Mars year of MSL pressure data. American Geophysical Union (Fall). Abstract 3947), although perhaps the most direct method, has so far given ambiguous results. Estimating volume changes from imaging data faces challenges, and has previously been attempted only in isolated areas of the cap. In this study we use 6 m/pixel Context Imager (CTX) data from Mars year 31 to map all the morphologic units of the RSPC, expand the measurement record of pit erosion rates, and use high resolution images to place limits on vertical changes in the surface of the residual cap. We find the mass balance in Mars years 9-31 to be -6 to +4 km3/♂y, or roughly -0.039% to +0.026% of the mean atmospheric CO2 mass/♂y. The indeterminate sign results chiefly from uncertainty in the amounts of deposition or erosion on the upper surfaces of deposits (as opposed to scarp retreat). Erosion and net deposition in this period appear to be controlled by summertime planetary scale dust events, the largest occurring in MY 9, another, smaller one in MY 28. The rates of erosion and the deposition observed since MY 9 appear to be consistent with the types of deposits and erosional behavior found in most of the residual cap. However, small areas (100 ♂y) of depositional and/or erosional conditions different from those occurring in the period since MY 9, although these environmental differences could be subtle.

  17. Characterization of mammographic masses based on level set segmentation with new image features and patient information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for characterization of mammographic masses as malignant or benign has the potential to assist radiologists in reducing the biopsy rate without increasing false negatives. The purpose of this study was to develop an automated method for mammographic mass segmentation and explore new image based features in combination with patient information in order to improve the performance of mass characterization. The authors' previous CAD system, which used the active contour segmentation, and morphological, textural, and spiculation features, has achieved promising results in mass characterization. The new CAD system is based on the level set method and includes two new types of image features related to the presence of microcalcifications with the mass and abruptness of the mass margin, and patient age. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with stepwise feature selection was used to merge the extracted features into a classification score. The classification accuracy was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The authors' primary data set consisted of 427 biopsy-proven masses (200 malignant and 227 benign) in 909 regions of interest (ROIs) (451 malignant and 458 benign) from multiple mammographic views. Leave-one-case-out resampling was used for training and testing. The new CAD system based on the level set segmentation and the new mammographic feature space achieved a view-based Az value of 0.83±0.01. The improvement compared to the previous CAD system was statistically significant (p=0.02). When patient age was included in the new CAD system, view-based and case-based Az values were 0.85±0.01 and 0.87±0.02, respectively. The study also demonstrated the consistency of the newly developed CAD system by evaluating the statistics of the weights of the LDA classifiers in leave-one-case-out classification. Finally, an independent test on the publicly available digital database for screening

  18. On the use of [18F]DOPA as an imaging biomarker for transplanted islet mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islet transplantation is being developed as a potential cure for patients with type 1 diabetes. There is a need for non-invasive imaging techniques for the quantification of transplanted islets, as current transplantation sites are associated with a substantial loss of islet viability. The dopaminergic metabolic pathway is present in the islets; therefore, we propose Fluorine-18 labeled L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ([18F]DOPA) as a biomarker for transplanted islet mass. The expression of enzymes involved in the dopaminergic metabolic pathway was investigated in both native and transplanted human islets. The specific uptake of [18F]DOPA in islets and immortalized beta cells was studied in vitro by selective blocking of dopa decarboxylase (DDC). Initial in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of viable subcutaneous human islets was performed using [18F]DOPA. DDC and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 are co-localized with insulin in the native human pancreas, and the expression is retained after transplantation. Islet uptake of the [18F]DOPA could be modulated by inhibiting DDC, indicating that the uptake followed the normal dopaminergic metabolic pathway. In vivo imaging revealed [18F]DOPA uptake at the site of the functional islet graft. Based on the in vitro and in vivo results presented in this study, we propose to further validate [18F]DOPA-PET as a sensitive imaging modality for imaging extrahepatically transplanted islets. (author)

  19. The DiskMass Survey. X. Radio synthesis imaging of spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Martinsson, Thomas P K; Bershady, Matthew A; Westfall, Kyle B; Andersen, David R; Swaters, Rob A

    2016-01-01

    We present results from 21 cm radio synthesis imaging of 28 spiral galaxies from the DiskMass Survey obtained with the VLA, WSRT, and GMRT facilities. We detail the observations and data reduction procedures and present a brief analysis of the radio data. We construct 21 cm continuum images, global HI emission-line profiles, column-density maps, velocity fields, and position-velocity diagrams. From these we determine star formation rates (SFRs), HI line widths, total HI masses, rotation curves, and azimuthally-averaged radial HI column-density profiles. All galaxies have an HI disk that extends beyond the readily observable stellar disk, with an average ratio and scatter of R_{HI}/R_{25}=1.35+/-0.22, and a majority of the galaxies appear to have a warped HI disk. A tight correlation exists between total HI mass and HI diameter, with the largest disks having a slightly lower average column density. Galaxies with relatively large HI disks tend to exhibit an enhanced stellar velocity dispersion at larger radii, ...

  20. Percutaneous image-guided biopsy for non-mass-forming isolated splenomegaly and suspected malignant lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Tokue

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, safety, and role of splenic biopsy in the management of patients with non-mass-forming isolated splenomegaly and suspected malignant lymphoma.Between 2001 and 2013, 137 biopsies were performed under computed tomography (CT fluoroscopic guidance in 39 patients. All patients had splenomegaly based on the CT findings and a suspected diagnosis of malignant lymphoma based on their clinical symptoms. The spleen was the only accessible site to perform a biopsy, and no mass lesions could be identified in the spleen.The overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of image-guided biopsy for malignant lymphoma were 88%, 100% and 92%, respectively. Major complications occurred in 3 patients. In 1 patient, transcatheter arterial embolization was performed due to hemorrhage, and two patients needed blood transfusion because of hematoma development, without the need for further treatment.Image-guided splenic core-needle biopsy is a safe and accurate technique with a high diagnostic accuracy in most patients who with non-mass-forming isolated splenomegaly and suspected underlying malignant lymphoma.

  1. Imaging of Endogenous Metabolites of Plant Leaves by Mass Spectrometry Based on Laser Activated Electron Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lulu; Tang, Xuemei; Zhang, Wenyang; Jiang, Ruowei; Chen, Disong; Zhang, Juan; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-04-01

    A new mass spectrometric imaging approach based on laser activated electron tunneling (LAET) was described and applied to analysis of endogenous metabolites of plant leaves. LAET is an electron-directed soft ionization technique. Compressed thin films of semiconductor nanoparticles of bismuth cobalt zinc oxide were placed on the sample plate for proof-of-principle demonstration because they can not only absorb ultraviolet laser but also have high electron mobility. Upon laser irradiation, electrons are excited from valence bands to conduction bands. With appropriate kinetic energies, photoexcited electrons can tunnel away from the barrier and eventually be captured by charge deficient atoms present in neutral molecules. Resultant unpaired electron subsequently initiates specific chemical bond cleavage and generates ions that can be detected in negative ion mode of the mass spectrometer. LAET avoids the co-crystallization process of routinely used organic matrix materials with analyzes in MALDI (matrix assisted-laser desorption ionization) analysis. Thus uneven distribution of crystals with different sizes and shapes as well as background peaks in the low mass range resulting from matrix molecules is eliminated. Advantages of LAET imaging technique include not only improved spatial resolution but also photoelectron capture dissociation which produces predictable fragment ions.

  2. Polarization of Directly Imaged Young Giant Planets as a Probe of Mass, Rotation, and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott; Sengupta, Sujan

    2012-01-01

    Young, hot gas giant planets at large separations from their primaries have been directly imaged around several nearby stars. More such planets will likely be detected by ongoing and new imaging surveys with instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Efforts continue to model the spectra of these planets in order to constrain their masses, effective temperatures, composition, and cloud structure. One potential tool for analyzing these objects, which has received relatively less attention, is polarization. Linear polarization of gas giant exoplanets can arise from the combined influences of light scattering by atmospheric dust and a rotationally distorted shape. The oblateness of gas giant planet increases of course with rotation rate and for fixed rotation also rises with decreasing gravity. Thus young, lower mass gas giant planets with youthful inflated radii could easily have oblateness greater than that of Saturn s 10%. We find that polarizations of over 1% may easily be produced in the near-infrared in such cases. This magnitude of polarization may be measurable by GPI and other instruments. Thus if detected, polarization of a young Jupiter places constraints on the combination of its gravity, rotation rate, and degree of cloudiness. We will present results of our multiple scattering analysis coupled with a self-consistent dusty atmospheric models to demonstrate the range of polarizations that might be expected from resolved exoplanets and the range of parameter space that such observations may inform.

  3. Standard Reticle Slide To Objectively Evaluate Spatial Resolution and Instrument Performance in Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Faizan; Prentice, Boone M; Norris, Jeremy L; Laibinis, Paul E; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-07-19

    Spatial resolution is a key parameter in imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Aside from being a primary determinant in overall image quality, spatial resolution has important consequences on the acquisition time of the IMS experiment and the resulting file size. Hardware and software modifications during instrumentation development can dramatically affect the spatial resolution achievable using a given imaging mass spectrometer. As such, an accurate and objective method to determine the working spatial resolution is needed to guide instrument development and ensure quality IMS results. We have used lithographic and self-assembly techniques to fabricate a pattern of crystal violet as a standard reticle slide for assessing spatial resolution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS experiments. The reticle is used to evaluate spatial resolution under user-defined instrumental conditions. Edgespread analysis measures the beam diameter for a Gaussian profile and line scans measure an "effective" spatial resolution that is a convolution of beam optics and sampling frequency. The patterned crystal violet reticle was also used to diagnose issues with IMS instrumentation such as intermittent losses of pixel data. PMID:27299987

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of hepatic masses, especially using short T1 inversion recovery sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-four patients with hepatic masses were examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT). Thirty-eight patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 15 had hemangioma (HA), 8 had metastatic tumors, 8 had liver cysts, one had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 2 had regenerated nodules of liver cirrhosis, one had focal nodular hyperplasia, and one had fatty cysts. Magnetic resonance imaging was the most sensitive for the detection of HA. It was inferior to CT in detecting HCC 3 cm or more, although the two imagings were of similar sensitivity in detecting HCC less than 3 cm. Hepatic masses could be classified based on signal intensity of MRI, thus allowing the qualitative diagnosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma and HA had significantly different T1 and T2 relaxation times (p < 0.001), suggesting the postential use of MRI in the differential diagnosis. Short T1 inversion revovery sequences afforded higher contrast between the liver and tumors than conventional pulse sequences. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. MASS ESTIMATES OF RAPIDLY MOVING PROMINENCE MATERIAL FROM HIGH-CADENCE EUV IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, David R.; Baker, Deborah [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia, E-mail: d.r.williams@ucl.ac.uk [LESIA-Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 92195 Meudon (France)

    2013-02-20

    We present a new method for determining the column density of erupting filament material using state-of-the-art multi-wavelength imaging data. Much of the prior work on filament/prominence structure can be divided between studies that use a polychromatic approach with targeted campaign observations and those that use synoptic observations, frequently in only one or two wavelengths. The superior time resolution, sensitivity, and near-synchronicity of data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Advanced Imaging Assembly allow us to combine these two techniques using photoionization continuum opacity to determine the spatial distribution of hydrogen in filament material. We apply the combined techniques to SDO/AIA observations of a filament that erupted during the spectacular coronal mass ejection on 2011 June 7. The resulting 'polychromatic opacity imaging' method offers a powerful way to track partially ionized gas as it erupts through the solar atmosphere on a regular basis, without the need for coordinated observations, thereby readily offering regular, realistic mass-distribution estimates for models of these erupting structures.

  6. MASS ESTIMATES OF RAPIDLY MOVING PROMINENCE MATERIAL FROM HIGH-CADENCE EUV IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new method for determining the column density of erupting filament material using state-of-the-art multi-wavelength imaging data. Much of the prior work on filament/prominence structure can be divided between studies that use a polychromatic approach with targeted campaign observations and those that use synoptic observations, frequently in only one or two wavelengths. The superior time resolution, sensitivity, and near-synchronicity of data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Advanced Imaging Assembly allow us to combine these two techniques using photoionization continuum opacity to determine the spatial distribution of hydrogen in filament material. We apply the combined techniques to SDO/AIA observations of a filament that erupted during the spectacular coronal mass ejection on 2011 June 7. The resulting 'polychromatic opacity imaging' method offers a powerful way to track partially ionized gas as it erupts through the solar atmosphere on a regular basis, without the need for coordinated observations, thereby readily offering regular, realistic mass-distribution estimates for models of these erupting structures.

  7. High-Contrast Imaging for Intermediate-Mass Giants with Long-Term Radial Velocity Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Tsuguru; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Uyama, Taichi; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Abe, Lyu; Ando, Hiroyasu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph C; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S; Hełminiak, Krzysztof G; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ida, Shigeru; Ishii, Miki; Itoh, Yoichi; Iye, Masanori; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Janson, Markus; Kambe, Eiji; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi; McElwain, Michael W; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Takeda, Yoichi; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-01-01

    A radial velocity (RV) survey for intermediate-mass giants has been operated for over a decade at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO). The OAO survey has revealed that some giants show long-term linear RV accelerations (RV trends), indicating the presence of outer companions. Direct imaging observations can help clarify what objects generate these RV trends. We present the results of high-contrast imaging observations or six intermediate-mass giants with long-term RV trends using the Subaru Telescope and HiCIAO camera. We detected co-moving companions to $\\gamma$ Hya B ($0.61^{+0.12}_{-0.14} M_\\odot$), HD 5608 B ($0.10 \\pm 0.01 M_\\odot$), and HD 109272 B ($0.28 \\pm 0.06 M_\\odot$). For the remaining targets($\\iota$ Dra, 18 Del, and HD 14067) we exclude companions more massive than 30-60 $M_\\mathrm{Jup}$ at projected separations of 1arcsec-7arcsec. We examine whether these directly imaged companions or unidentified long-period companions can account for the RV trends observed around the six giants. We find ...

  8. Possibility to digitized imaging of gastric mass examination by means of high resolution x-ray television system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we discussed about possibility of digitized imaging of X-ray gastric mass examination by means of high resolution X-TV system. The results may be summarized as follows: 1. Dose per a image in this system is one-tenth indirect radiography by image intensifier. 2. Maximum resolving power on final image is 1.5 LP/mm. 3. Dynamic range of new system is seven-tenth of conventional system's. 4. Operating to take the image data is easy and fast. These results indicate the possibility of application on gastric mass examination. Though this system have several problems to be solved, it is possible to make use of our system that be able to applicate various image processing and to make imaging data base for expert system. (author)

  9. Direct Gravitational Imaging of Intermediate Mass Black Holes in Extragalactic Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Kaiki Taro; Silk, Joseph; Madau, Piero

    2013-01-01

    A galaxy halo may contain a large number of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses in the range of 10^{2-6} solar mass. We propose to directly detect these IMBHs by observing multiply imaged QSO-galaxy or galaxy-galaxy strong lens systems in the submillimeter bands with high angular resolution. The silhouette of an IMBH in the lensing galaxy halo would appear as either a monopole-like or a dipole-like variation at the scale of the Einstein radius against the Einstein ring of the dust-emitting region surrounding the QSO. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate a Milky Way-sized dark matter halo with black holes, and show that the surface mass density and number density of IMBHs have power-law dependences on the distance from the center of the host halo if smoothed on a scale of ~ 1 kpc. Most of the black holes orbiting close to the center are freely roaming as they have lost their dark matter hosts during infall due to tidal stripping. Next generation submillimeter telescopes wit...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of flow and mass transfer in electrohydrodynamic liquid bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Wexler, Adam D; Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Reiter, Gert; Fuchsjäger, Michael; Reiter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Here we report on the feasibility and use of magnetic resonance imaging based methods to the study of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) liquid bridges. High speed tomographic recordings through the longitudinal axis of water bridges were used to characterize the mass transfer dynamics, mixing, and flow structure. By filling one beaker with heavy water and the other with light water it was possible to track the spread of the proton signal throughout the total liquid volume. The mixing kinetics are different depending on where the light nuclei are located and proceeds faster when the anolyte is light water. Distinct flow and mixing regions are identified in the fluid volumes and it is shown that the EHD flow at the electrodes can be counteracted by the density difference between water isotopes. MR phase contrast imaging reveals that within the bridge section two separate counter propagating flows pass one above the other in the bridge.

  11. Visualisation in imaging mass spectrometry using the minimum noise fraction transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS provides a means to measure the spatial distribution of biochemical features on the surface of a sectioned tissue sample. IMS datasets are typically huge and visualisation and subsequent analysis can be challenging. Principal component analysis (PCA is one popular data reduction technique that has been used and we propose another; the minimum noise fraction (MNF transform which is popular in remote sensing. Findings The MNF transform is able to extract spatially coherent information from IMS data. The MNF transform is implemented through an R-package which is available together with example data from http://staff.scm.uws.edu.au/∼glenn/∖#Software. Conclusions In our example, the MNF transform was able to find additional images of interest. The extracted information forms a useful basis for subsequent analyses.

  12. Shotgun Approach for Quantitative Imaging of Phospholipids Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Laskin, Julia

    2014-02-04

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been extensively used for determining spatial distributions of molecules in biological samples, and there is increasing interest in using MSI for quantification. Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, or nano-DESI, is an ambient MSI technique where a solvent is used for localized extraction of molecules followed by nanoelectrospray ionization. Doping the nano-DESI solvent with carefully selected standards enables online quantification during MSI experiments. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate this quantification approach can be extended to provide shotgun-like quantification of phospholipids in thin brain tissue sections. Specifically, two phosphatidylcholine (PC) standards were added to the nano-DESI solvent for simultaneous imaging and quantification of 22 PC species observed in nano-DESI MSI. Furthermore, by combining the quantitative data obtained in the individual pixels, we demonstrate quantification of these PC species in seven different regions of a rat brain tissue section.

  13. Noninvasive in vivo quantitation of left ventricular mass in humans with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) was measured by MR imaging in 15 normal male volunteers (age range, 19-45 years) using spin-echo method. LVM was determined from short-axis and axial slices using Simpson's rule. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement for determination of LVM was high (0.97 and 0.96, respectively). Relationship between MR, LVM and total body weight was in agreement with a large body of autopsy data from the literature (LVM = 55 + 0.6 body weight, r = .84). LVM correlated well with body surface area (BSA); LVM = 105 + 87 BSA, r = .86. From the data, 95% confidence limits were determined to represent normal limits. Thus, cardiac-gated MR imaging can accurately determine LVM in humans

  14. Visualizing fungal metabolites during mycoparasitic interaction by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzlechner, Matthias; Reitschmidt, Sonja; Gruber, Sabine; Zeilinger, Susanne; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina

    2016-06-01

    Studying microbial interactions by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) directly from growing media is a difficult task if high sensitivity is demanded. We present a quick and robust sample preparation strategy for growing fungi (Trichoderma atroviride, Rhizoctonia solani) on glass slides to establish a miniaturized confrontation assay. By this we were able to visualize metabolite distributions by MALDI MSI after matrix deposition with a home-built sublimation device and thorough recrystallization. We present for the first time MALDI MSI data for secondary metabolite release during active mycoparasitism. PMID:26959280

  15. Improved MALDI-TOF Microbial Mass Spectrometry Imaging by Application of a Dispersed Solid Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeiner, Stefan; Schafferer, Lukas; Haas, Hubertus; Müller, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The key step in high quality microbial matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (microbial MALDI MSI) is the fabrication of a homogeneous matrix coating showing a fine-grained morphology. This application note addresses a novel method to apply solid MALDI matrices onto microbial cultures grown on thin agar media. A suspension of a mixture of 2,5-DHB and α-CHCA is sprayed onto the agar sample surface to form highly homogeneous matrix coatings. As a result, the signal intensities of metabolites secreted by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus were found to be clearly enhanced.

  16. Cosmetic Analysis Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Catharino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new “omic” platform—Cosmetomics—that proves to be extremely simple and effective in terms of sample preparation and readiness for data acquisition/interpretation is presented. This novel approach employing Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI for cosmetic analysis has proven to readily identify and quantify compounds of interest. It also allows full control of all the production phases, as well as of the final product, by integration of both analytical and statistical data. This work has focused on products of daily use, namely nail polish, lipsticks and eyeliners of multiple brands sold in the worldwide market.

  17. Visualizing fungal metabolites during mycoparasitic interaction by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzlechner, Matthias; Reitschmidt, Sonja; Gruber, Sabine; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Studying microbial interactions by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) directly from growing media is a difficult task if high sensitivity is demanded. We present a quick and robust sample preparation strategy for growing fungi (Trichoderma atroviride, Rhizoctonia solani) on glass slides to establish a miniaturized confrontation assay. By this we were able to visualize metabolite distributions by MALDI MSI after matrix deposition with a home‐built sublimation device and thorough recrystallization. We present for the first time MALDI MSI data for secondary metabolite release during active mycoparasitism. PMID:26959280

  18. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis Colony Biofilms via Mass Spectrometry and Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Tong; Li, Bin; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Yiran; Zhao, Huimin; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2016-06-01

    Colony biofilms of Bacillus subtilis are a widely used model for studying cellular differentiation. Here, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to examine cellular and molecular heterogeneity in B. subtilis colony biofilms. From B. subtilis cells cultivated on a biofilm-promoting medium, we detected two cannibalistic factors not found in previous MALDI MSI studies of the same strain under different culturing conditions. Given the importance of cannibalism in matrix formation of B. subtilis biofilms, we employed a transcriptional reporter to monitor matrix-producing cell subpopulations using fluorescence imaging. These two complementary imaging approaches were used to characterize three B. subtilis strains, the wild type isolate NCIB3610, and two mutants, Δspo0A and ΔabrB, with defective and enhanced biofilm phenotypes, respectively. Upon deletion of key transcriptional factors, correlated changes were observed in biofilm morphology, signaling, cannibalistic factor distribution, and matrix-related gene expression, providing new insights on cannibalism in biofilm development. This work underscores the advantages of using multimodal imaging to compare spatial patterns of selected molecules with the associated protein expression patterns, obtaining information on cellular heterogeneity and function not obtainable when using a single method to characterize biofilm formation. PMID:27136705

  19. Ultrafast High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Finger Pore Imaging in Latent Finger Prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Christian; Abel, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Latent finger prints (LFPs) are deposits of sweat components in ridge and groove patterns, left after human fingers contact with a surface. Being important targets in biometry and forensic investigations they contain more information than topological patterns. With laser desorption mass spectrometry imaging (LD-MSI) we record `three-dimensional' finger prints with additional chemical information as the third dimension. Here we show the potential of fast finger pore imaging (FPI) in latent finger prints employing LD-MSI without a classical matrix in a high- spatial resolution mode. Thin films of gold rapidly sputtered on top of the sample are used for desorption. FPI employing an optical image for rapid spatial orientation and guiding of the desorption laser enables the rapid analysis of individual finger pores, and the chemical composition of their excretions. With this approach we rapidly detect metabolites, drugs, and characteristic excretions from the inside of the human organism by a minimally-invasive strategy, and distinguish them from chemicals in contact with fingers without any labeling. The fast finger pore imaging, analysis, and screening approach opens the door for a vast number of novel applications in such different fields as forensics, doping and medication control, therapy, as well as rapid profiling of individuals.

  20. AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND TRACKING OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. MULTISCALE FILTERING OF CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Jason P.; Morgan, Huw; Habbal, Shadia R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gallagher, Peter T., E-mail: jbyrne@ifa.hawaii.edu [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2012-06-20

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and future coronagraph missions also makes manual cataloging of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloging packages such as CACTus, SEEDS, and ARTEMIS. Here, we present the development of a new CORIMP (coronal image processing) CME detection and tracking technique that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogs. It works by first employing the dynamic CME separation technique outlined in a companion paper, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane of sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. The algorithms described in this article are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI data sets, and a catalog of results will soon be available to the public.

  1. DetectTLC: Automated Reaction Mixture Screening Utilizing Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Image Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddi, Chanchala D.; Bennett, Rachel V.; Paine, Martin R. L.; Banks, Mitchel D.; Weber, Arthur L.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    Full characterization of complex reaction mixtures is necessary to understand mechanisms, optimize yields, and elucidate secondary reaction pathways. Molecular-level information for species in such mixtures can be readily obtained by coupling mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with thin layer chromatography (TLC) separations. User-guided investigation of imaging data for mixture components with known m/z values is generally straightforward; however, spot detection for unknowns is highly tedious, and limits the applicability of MSI in conjunction with TLC. To accelerate imaging data mining, we developed DetectTLC, an approach that automatically identifies m/z values exhibiting TLC spot-like regions in MS molecular images. Furthermore, DetectTLC can also spatially match m/z values for spots acquired during alternating high and low collision-energy scans, pairing product ions with precursors to enhance structural identification. As an example, DetectTLC is applied to the identification and structural confirmation of unknown, yet significant, products of abiotic pyrazinone and aminopyrazine nucleoside analog synthesis. PMID:26508443

  2. DetectTLC: Automated Reaction Mixture Screening Utilizing Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Image Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddi, Chanchala D.; Bennett, Rachel V.; Paine, Martin R. L.; Banks, Mitchel D.; Weber, Arthur L.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Wang, May D.

    2016-02-01

    Full characterization of complex reaction mixtures is necessary to understand mechanisms, optimize yields, and elucidate secondary reaction pathways. Molecular-level information for species in such mixtures can be readily obtained by coupling mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with thin layer chromatography (TLC) separations. User-guided investigation of imaging data for mixture components with known m/z values is generally straightforward; however, spot detection for unknowns is highly tedious, and limits the applicability of MSI in conjunction with TLC. To accelerate imaging data mining, we developed DetectTLC, an approach that automatically identifies m/z values exhibiting TLC spot-like regions in MS molecular images. Furthermore, DetectTLC can also spatially match m/z values for spots acquired during alternating high and low collision-energy scans, pairing product ions with precursors to enhance structural identification. As an example, DetectTLC is applied to the identification and structural confirmation of unknown, yet significant, products of abiotic pyrazinone and aminopyrazine nucleoside analog synthesis.

  3. Dynamical Masses of Young M Dwarfs. I. Masses and Orbital Parameters of GJ 3305 AB, the Wide Binary Companion to the Imaged Exoplanet Host 51 Eri

    CERN Document Server

    Montet, Benjamin T; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Deck, Katherine M; Wang, Ji; Horch, Elliott P; Liu, Michael C; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Kraus, Adam L; Charbonneau, David

    2015-01-01

    We combine new high resolution imaging and spectroscopy from Keck/NIRC2, Discovery Channel Telescope/DSSI, and Keck/HIRES with published astrometry and radial velocities to measure individual masses and orbital elements of the GJ 3305 AB system, a young (~20 Myr) M+M binary (unresolved spectral type M0) member of the beta Pictoris moving group comoving with the imaged exoplanet host 51 Eri. We measure a total system mass of 1.10 \\pm 0.04 M_sun, a period of 29.16 \\pm 0.65$ yr, a semimajor axis of 9.80 \\pm 0.15 AU, and an eccentricity of 0.19 \\pm 0.02. The primary component has a dynamical mass of 0.65 \\pm 0.05 M_sun and the secondary has a mass of 0.44 \\pm 0.05 M_sun. The recently updated BHAC15 models are consistent with the masses of both stars to within 1.5 sigma. Given the observed masses the models predict an age of the GJ 3305 AB system of 28 +15/-6 Myr. Based on the the observed system architecture and our dynamical mass measurement, it is unlikely that the orbit of 51 Eri b has been significantly alter...

  4. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  5. Nonlinear simultaneous reconstruction of inhomogeneous compressibility and mass density distributions in unidirectional pulse-echo ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Markus C; Salehi, Leili; Schmitz, Georg

    2013-09-01

    In diagnostic ultrasound imaging, the image reconstruction quality is crucial for reliable diagnosis. Applying reconstruction algorithms based on the acoustic wave equation, the obtained image quality depends significantly on the physical material parameters accounted for in the equation. In this contribution, we extend a proposed iterative nonlinear one-parameter compressibility reconstruction algorithm by the additional reconstruction of the object's inhomogeneous mass density distribution. The improved iterative algorithm is able to reconstruct inhomogeneous maps of the object's compressibility and mass density simultaneously using only one conventional linear transducer array at a fixed location for wave transmission and detection. The derived approach is based on an acoustic wave equation including spatial compressibility and mass density variations, and utilizes the Kaczmarz method for iterative material parameter reconstruction. We validate our algorithm numerically for an unidirectional pulse-echo breast imaging application, and thus generate simulated measurements acquired from a numerical breast phantom with realistic compressibility and mass density values. Applying these measurements, we demonstrate with two reconstruction experiments the necessity to calculate the mass density in case of tissues with significant mass density inhomogeneities. When reconstructing spatial mass density variations, artefacts in the breast's compressibility image are reduced resulting in improved spatial resolution. Furthermore, the compressibility relative error magnitude within a diagnostically significant region of interest (ROI) decreases from 3.04% to 2.62%. Moreover, a second image showing the breast's inhomogeneous mass density distribution is given to provide additional diagnostic information. In the compressibility image, a spatial resolution moderately higher than the classical half-wavelength limit is observed. PMID:23948675

  6. Photodissociation dynamics of ethanethiol in clusters: complementary information from velocity map imaging, mass spectrometry and calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svrčková, Pavla; Pysanenko, Andriy; Lengyel, Jozef; Rubovič, Peter; Kočišek, Jaroslav; Poterya, Viktoriya; Slavíček, Petr; Fárník, Michal

    2015-10-21

    We investigate the solvent effects on photodissociation dynamics of the S-H bond in ethanethiol CH3CH2SH (EtSH). The H fragment images are recorded by velocity map imaging (VMI) at 243 nm in various expansion regimes ranging from isolated molecules to clusters of different sizes and compositions. The VMI experiment is accompanied by electron ionization mass spectrometry using a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOFMS). The experimental data are interpreted using ab initio calculations. The direct S-H bond fission results in a peak of fast fragments at Ekin(H) ≈ 1.25 eV with a partly resolved structure corresponding to vibrational levels of the CH3CH2S cofragment. Clusters of different nature ranging from dimers to large (EtSH)N, N ≥ 10, clusters and to ethanethiol clusters embedded in larger argon "snowballs" are investigated. In the clusters a sharp peak of near-zero kinetic energy fragments occurs due to the caging. The dynamics of the fragment caging is pictured theoretically, using multi-reference ab initio theory for the ethanethiol dimer. The larger cluster character is revealed by the simultaneous analysis of the VMI and RTOFMS experiments; none of these tools alone can provide the complete picture. PMID:25743944

  7. An accessible, scalable ecosystem for enabling and sharing diverse mass spectrometry imaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Curt R; Ruebel, Oliver; Bowen, Benjamin P

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is used in an increasing number of biological applications. Typical MSI datasets contain unique, high-resolution mass spectra from tens of thousands of spatial locations, resulting in raw data sizes of tens of gigabytes per sample. In this paper, we review technical progress that is enabling new biological applications and that is driving an increase in the complexity and size of MSI data. Handling such data often requires specialized computational infrastructure, software, and expertise. OpenMSI, our recently described platform, makes it easy to explore and share MSI datasets via the web - even when larger than 50 GB. Here we describe the integration of OpenMSI with IPython notebooks for transparent, sharable, and replicable MSI research. An advantage of this approach is that users do not have to share raw data along with analyses; instead, data is retrieved via OpenMSI's web API. The IPython notebook interface provides a low-barrier entry point for data manipulation that is accessible for scientists without extensive computational training. Via these notebooks, analyses can be easily shared without requiring any data movement. We provide example notebooks for several common MSI analysis types including data normalization, plotting, clustering, and classification, and image registration. PMID:26365033

  8. Direct profiling of myelinated and demyelinated regions in mouse brain by imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Ruben; Dumont, Debora; van Brussel, Leen; van de Plas, Babs; Daniels, Ruth; Noben, Jean-Paul; Verhaert, Peter; van der Gucht, Estel; Robben, Johan; Clerens, Stefan; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2007-02-01

    One of the newly developed imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies utilizes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry to map proteins in thin tissue sections. In this study, we evaluated the power of MALDI IMS as we developed it in our (Bruker) MALDI TOF (Reflex IV) and TOF-TOF (Ultraflex II) systems to study myelin patterns in the mouse central nervous system under normal and pathological conditions. MALDI IMS was applied to assess myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform-specific profiles in different regions throughout the mouse brain. The distribution of ions of m/z 14,144 and 18,447 displayed a striking resemblance with white matter histology and were identified as MBP isoform 8 and 5, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the MBP-8 peak intensity upon MALDI IMS analysis of focal ethidium bromide-induced demyelinated brain areas. Our MS images were validated by immunohistochemistry using MBP antibodies. This study underscores the potential of MALDI IMS to study the contribution of MBP to demyelinating diseases.

  9. Probing the mass assembly of massive nearby galaxies with deep imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2013-01-01

    According to a popular scenario supported by numerical models, the mass assembly and growth of massive galaxies, in particular the Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), is, below a redshift of 1, mainly due to the accretion of multiple gas--poor satellites. In order to get observational evidence of the role played by minor dry mergers, we are obtaining extremely deep optical images of a complete volume limited sample of nearby ETGs. These observations, done with the CFHT as part of the \\AD, NGVS and MATLAS projects, reach a stunning 28.5)29 mag.arcsec-2 surface brightness limit in the g' band. They allow us to detect the relics of past collisions such as faint stellar tidal tails as well as the very extended stellar halos which keep the memory of the last episodes of galactic accretion. Images and preliminary results from this on-going survey are presented, in particular a possible correlation between the fine structure index (which parametrizes the amount of tidal perturbation) of the ETGs, their stellar mass, effecti...

  10. Fluorinated colloidal gold immunolabels for imaging select proteins in parallel with lipids using high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Robert L.; Frisz, Jessica F.; Hanafin, William P.; Carpenter, Kevin J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K; Kraft, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    The local abundance of specific lipid species near a membrane protein is hypothesized to influence the protein’s activity. The ability to simultaneously image the distributions of specific protein and lipid species in the cell membrane would facilitate testing these hypotheses. Recent advances in imaging the distribution of cell membrane lipids with mass spectrometry have created the desire for membrane protein probes that can be simultaneously imaged with isotope labeled lipids. Such probes ...

  11. Diagnostic imaging in the study of popliteal masses in dialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of amyloidosis, secondary to the massive deposition of β2-microglobulin, has been identified which is peculiar to long-term (≤5 years) hemodialysis. Popliteal masses have recently been described as a possible manifestation of this type of amyloidosis. We report the results of a clinical-radiologic study of the popliteal region in 28 patients (14 males, 14 females; age 52.9±12.6 years) undergoing chronic hemodialysis for 60-212 months (mean 127±40). We aime at determining the role of diagnostic imaging (conventional radiography, ultrasonography, Computer Thomography) in this pathologic condition. Clinics detected popliteal masses in 4 patients (bilateral in 1). US allowed 2 more cases to be detected and demonstrated the cistic nature of the lesion. Ultimately, popliteal masses could be demonstrated in 6 (bilateral in 5) of 28 patients (incidence 21.4%). In the 3 patients who were investigated by CT, cysts were seen to communicate with the joint cavity (Baker's cysts). In 1 case, immunocytochemical analysis showed diffuse β2-microglobulin positive amyloid deposition within the synovial wall of the surgically removed cyst. All the 6 patiens experienced some of the mayor features of dialysis-related amyloidosis: carpal tunnel syndrome (6 cases), destructive arthropathy (5 cases), carpal and shoulder bone radiolucencies (5 and 4 cases, respectively). These findings, while documenting the high prevalence of popliteal cysts among long-term hemodialysis patients and the strong correlation with dialysis-related amyloidosis, stress the importance of diagnostic imaging in the detection and follow-up of such lesions

  12. Differential diagnosis of adrenal masses by chemical shift and dynamic gadolinium enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical shift MRI is widely used for identifying adenomas, but it is not a perfect method. We determined whether combined dynamic MRI methods can lead to improved diagnostic accuracy. Fifty-seven adrenal masses were examined by chemical shift and dynamic MR imaging using 2 MR systems. The masses included 38 adenomas and 19 non-adenomas. In chemical shift MRI studies, the signal intensity index (SI) was calculated, and the lesions classified into 5 types in the dynamic MRI studies. Of the 38 adenomas studied, 37 had an SI greater than 0. In the dynamic MRI, 34 of 38 adenomas showed a benign pattern (type 1). If the SI for the adenomas in the chemical shift MRI was considered to be greater than 0, the positive predictive value was 0.9, and the negative predictive value was 0.94 and κ=0.79. If type 1 was considered to indicate adenomas in the dynamic MRI, the corresponding values were 0.94, 0.81 and κ=0.77 respectively. The results obtained when the 2 methods were combined were 1, 0.95 and κ=0.96 respectively. The chemical shift MRI was found to be useful for identifying adenomas in most cases. If the adrenal mass had a low SI (0< SI<5), dynamic MRI was also found to be helpful for making a differential diagnosis. (author)

  13. Role of new magnetic resonance imaging modalities in diagnosis of orbital masses: A clinicopathologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy Nader

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in the diagnosis of different orbital masses and their advantages over conventional MRI. Materials and Methods: The study included 20 patients presenting with proptosis. Every patient was subjected to thorough clinical examination, conventional MRI "T1 weighted, T2 weighted, and postcontrast T1 weighted if needed," diffusion-weighted MRI, and proton MRS. Orbitotomy was performed, the orbital mass was excised, and histopathological examination was performed. Results: Diffusion-weighted MRI could differentiate between benign lesions and malignant tumors in 70% of cases; however, overlap occurred in 30% of cases with benign tumors showing restricted diffusion whereas proton MRS could differentiate between benign and malignant tumors in 90% of cases. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI and proton MRS can potentially increase the accuracy of diagnosis of orbital masses through in vivo tissue characterization. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy seems to be the more accurate modality.

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis of mammographic masses using scalable image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Menglin; Zhang, Shaoting; Li, Hongsheng; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2015-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis of masses in mammograms is important to the prevention of breast cancer. Many approaches tackle this problem through content-based image retrieval techniques. However, most of them fall short of scalability in the retrieval stage, and their diagnostic accuracy is, therefore, restricted. To overcome this drawback, we propose a scalable method for retrieval and diagnosis of mammographic masses. Specifically, for a query mammographic region of interest (ROI), scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features are extracted and searched in a vocabulary tree, which stores all the quantized features of previously diagnosed mammographic ROIs. In addition, to fully exert the discriminative power of SIFT features, contextual information in the vocabulary tree is employed to refine the weights of tree nodes. The retrieved ROIs are then used to determine whether the query ROI contains a mass. The presented method has excellent scalability due to the low spatial-temporal cost of vocabulary tree. Extensive experiments are conducted on a large dataset of 11 553 ROIs extracted from the digital database for screening mammography, which demonstrate the accuracy and scalability of our approach. PMID:25361497

  15. Imaging Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Laskin, Julia

    2013-01-15

    Imaging mass spectrometry offers simultaneous detection of drugs, drug metabolites and endogenous substances in a single experiment. This is important when evaluating effects of a drug on a complex organ system such as the brain, where there is a need to understand how regional drug distribution impacts function. Nicotine is an addictive drug and its action in the brain is of high interest. Here we use nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, nano-DESI, imaging to discover the localization of nicotine in rat brain tissue after in vivo administration of nicotine. Nano-DESI is a new ambient technique that enables spatially-resolved analysis of tissue samples without special sample pretreatment. We demonstrate high sensitivity of nano-DESI imaging that enables detection of only 0.7 fmole nicotine per pixel in the complex brain matrix. Furthermore, by adding deuterated nicotine to the solvent, we examined how matrix effects, ion suppression, and normalization affect the observed nicotine distribution. Finally, we provide preliminary results suggesting that nicotine localizes to the hippocampal substructure called dentate gyrus.

  16. Lipid imaging in the zebra finch brain with secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Kensey R.; Monroe, Eric B.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Clayton, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Lipids have diverse functions in the nervous system, but the study of their anatomical distributions in the intact brain is rather difficult using conventional methodologies. Here we demonstrate the application of high resolution time-of-flight (ToF) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to image various lipid components and cholesterol across an entire brain section prepared from an adult zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), with a spatial resolution of 2.3 [mu]m, resulting in the formation of 11.5 megapixel chemical images. The zebra finch is a songbird in which specific neural and developmental functions have been ascribed to discrete "song control nuclei" of the forebrain. We have observed a relative increase of palmitic acid C16:0 and oleic acid C18:1 in song control nuclei versus the surrounding tissue, while phosphate (PO3-), representative of phospholipids, was lower in these regions. Cholesterol was present at a high level only in the white matter of the optic tectum. More diffuse distributions were observed for stearic, arachidonic, linolenic, and palmitoleic acids. The presented results illustrate that SIMS imaging is a useful approach for assessing changes in lipid content during song circuit development and song learning.

  17. Interactions between Coronal Mass Ejections Viewed in Coordinated Imaging and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Moestl, Christian; Martinez-Oliveros, Juan C.; Bale, Stewart D.; Lin, Robert P.; Harrison, Richard A.; Temmer, Manuela; Webb, David F.; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    The successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 2010 July 30 - August 1 present us the first opportunity to study CME-CME interactions with unprecedented heliospheric imaging and in situ observations from multiple vantage points. We describe two cases of CME interactions: merging of two CMEs launched close in time and overtaking of a preceding CME by a shock wave. The first two CMEs on August 1 interact close to the Sun and form a merged front, which then overtakes the July 30 CME near 1 AU, as revealed by wide-angle imaging observations. Connections between imaging observations and in situ signatures at 1 AU suggest that the merged front is a shock wave, followed by two ejecta observed at Wind which seem to have already merged. In situ measurements show that the CME from July 30 is being overtaken by the shock at 1 AU and is significantly compressed, accelerated and heated. The interaction between the preceding ejecta and shock also results in variations in the shock strength and structure on a global scale, as shown by widely separated in situ measurements from Wind and STEREO B. These results indicate important implications of CME-CME interactions for shock propagation, particle acceleration and space weather forecasting.

  18. Geometric Triangulation of Imaging Observations to Track Coronal Mass Ejections Continuously Out to 1 AU

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ying; Luhmann, Janet G; Vourlidas, Angelos; Bale, Stuart D; Lin, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    We describe a geometric triangulation technique, based on time-elongation maps constructed from imaging observations, to track coronal mass ejections (CMEs) continuously in the heliosphere and predict their impact on the Earth. Taking advantage of stereoscopic imaging observations from STEREO, this technique can determine the propagation direction and radial distance of CMEs from their birth in the corona all the way to 1 AU. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by its application to the 2008 December 12 CME, which manifests as a magnetic cloud (MC) from in situ measurements at the Earth. The predicted arrival time and radial velocity at the Earth are well confirmed by the in situ observations around the MC. Our method reveals non-radial motions and velocity changes of the CME over large distances in the heliosphere. It also associates the flux-rope structure measured in situ with the dark cavity of the CME in imaging observations. Implementation of the technique, which is expected to be a routine possi...

  19. Interactions between Coronal Mass Ejections Viewed in Coordinated Imaging and In Situ Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ying D; Mostl, Christian; Martinez-Oliveros, Juan C; Bale, Stuart D; Lin, Robert P; Harrison, Richard A; Temmer, Manuela; Webb, David F; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2012-01-01

    The successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 2010 July 30 - August 1 present us the first opportunity to study CME-CME interactions with unprecedented heliospheric imaging and in situ observations from multiple vantage points. We describe two cases of CME interactions: merging of two CMEs launched close in time and overtaking of a preceding CME by a shock wave. The first two CMEs on August 1 interact close to the Sun and form a merged front, which then overtakes the July 30 CME near 1 AU, as revealed by wide-angle imaging observations. Connections between imaging observations and in situ signatures at 1 AU suggest that the merged front is a shock wave, followed by two ejecta observed at Wind which seem to have already merged. In situ measurements show that the CME from July 30 is being overtaken by the shock at 1 AU and is significantly compressed, accelerated and heated. The interaction between the preceding ejecta and shock also results in variations in the shock strength and structure on a global scal...

  20. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS VIEWED IN COORDINATED IMAGING AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Moestl, Christian; Martinez-Oliveros, Juan C.; Bale, Stuart D.; Lin, Robert P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Harrison, Richard A. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Temmer, Manuela [Institute of Physics, University of Graz (Austria); Webb, David F. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Odstrcil, Dusan, E-mail: liuxying@ssl.berkeley.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    The successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 2010 July 30 to August 1 present us the first opportunity to study CME-CME interactions with unprecedented heliospheric imaging and in situ observations from multiple vantage points. We describe two cases of CME interactions: merging of two CMEs launched close in time and overtaking of a preceding CME by a shock wave. The first two CMEs on August 1 interact close to the Sun and form a merged front, which then overtakes the July 30 CME near 1 AU, as revealed by wide-angle imaging observations. Connections between imaging observations and in situ signatures at 1 AU suggest that the merged front is a shock wave, followed by two ejecta observed at Wind which seem to have already merged. In situ measurements show that the CME from July 30 is being overtaken by the shock at 1 AU and is significantly compressed, accelerated, and heated. The interaction between the preceding ejecta and shock also results in variations in the shock strength and structure on a global scale, as shown by widely separated in situ measurements from Wind and STEREO B. These results indicate important implications of CME-CME interactions for shock propagation, particle acceleration, and space weather forecasting.

  1. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.;

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  2. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Hyun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 μm) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 μm was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial

  3. Nonresonant, femtosecond laser vaporization and electrospray post-ionization mass spectrometry as a tool for biological tissue imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J; Levis, Robert J

    2016-07-15

    An ambient mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) source is demonstrated with both high spatial and mass resolution that enables measurement of the compositional heterogeneity within a biological tissue sample. The source is based on nonresonant, femtosecond laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass analyzer. No matrix deposition and minimal sample preparation is necessary for the source. The laser, translation stage, and mass spectrometer are synchronized and controlled using a customized user interface. Single or multiple laser shots may be applied to each pixel. A scanning rate of 2.0s per pixel is achieved. Measurement of a patterned ink film indicates the potential of LEMS for ambient imaging with a lateral resolution of ∼60μm. Metabolites including sugar, anthocyanins and other small metabolites were successfully mapped from plant samples without oversampling using a spot size of 60×70μm(2). Molecular identification of the detected analytes from the tissue was enabled by accurate mass measurement in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis, non-negative matrix factorization and principle component analysis, were applied to the imaging data to extract regions with distinct and/or correlated spectral profiles. PMID:26931651

  4. Exquisite Nova Light Curves from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    CERN Document Server

    Hounsell, R; Hick, P P; Buffington, A; Jackson, B V; Clover, J M; Shafter, A W; Darnley, M J; Mawson, N R; Steele, I A; Evans, A; Eyres, S P S; O'Brien, T J

    2010-01-01

    We present light curves of three classical novae (KT Eridani, V598 Puppis, V1280 Scorpii) and one recurrent nova (RS Ophiuchi) derived from data obtained by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) on board the Coriolis satellite. SMEI provides near complete sky-map coverage with precision visible-light photometry at 102-minute cadence. The light curves derived from these sky maps offer unprecedented temporal resolution around, and especially before, maximum light, a phase of the nova eruption normally not covered by ground-based observations. They allow us to explore fundamental parameters of individual objects including the epoch of the initial explosion, the reality and duration of any pre-maximum halt (found in all three fast novae in our sample), the presence of secondary maxima, speed of decline of the initial light curve, plus precise timing of the onset of dust formation (in V1280 Sco) leading to estimation of the bolometric luminosity, white dwarf mass and object distance. For KT Eri, Liverpool Telescop...

  5. MALDI mass spectrometric imaging meets "omics": recent advances in the fruitful marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecelius, A C; Schubert, U S; von Eggeling, F

    2015-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI MSI) is a method that allows the investigation of the molecular content of surfaces, in particular, tissues, within its morphological context. The applications of MALDI MSI in the field of large-scale mass spectrometric studies, which are typically denoted by the suffix "omics", are steadily increasing. This is because, on the one hand, technical advances regarding sample collection and preparation, matrix application, instrumentation, and data processing have enhanced the molecular specificity and sensitivity of MALDI MSI; on the other hand, the focus of the "omics" community has moved from establishing an inventory of certain compound classes to exploring their spatial distribution to gain novel insights. Thus, the aim of this mini-review is twofold, to display the state-of-the-art in terms of technical aspects in MALDI MSI and to highlight selected applications in the last two years, which either have significantly advanced a certain "omics" field or have introduced a new one through pioneering efforts. PMID:26161715

  6. Mass spectrometry based imaging techniques for spatially resolved analysis of molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eMatros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants are composed of a multitude of tissues with specific functions, reflected by distinct profiles for transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Comprehensive analysis of metabolites and proteins has advanced tremendously within recent years, and this progress has been driven by the rapid development of sophisticated mass spectrometrical techniques. In most of the current omics-studies, analysis is performed on whole organ or whole plant extracts, rendering to the loss of spatial information. Mass spectrometry based imaging (MSI techniques have opened a new avenue to obtain information on the spatial distribution of metabolites and of proteins. Pioneered in the field of medicine, the approaches are now applied to study the spatial profiles of molecules in plant systems. A range of different plant organs and tissues have been successfully analyzed by MSI, and patterns of various classes of metabolites from primary and secondary metabolism could be obtained. It can be envisaged that MSI approaches will substantially contribute to build spatially resolved biochemical networks.

  7. Molecular assessment of surgical-resection margins of gastric cancer by mass-spectrometric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlin, Livia S; Tibshirani, Robert J; Zhang, Jialing; Longacre, Teri A; Berry, Gerald J; Bingham, David B; Norton, Jeffrey A; Zare, Richard N; Poultsides, George A

    2014-02-18

    Surgical resection is the main curative option for gastrointestinal cancers. The extent of cancer resection is commonly assessed during surgery by pathologic evaluation of (frozen sections of) the tissue at the resected specimen margin(s) to verify whether cancer is present. We compare this method to an alternative procedure, desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric imaging (DESI-MSI), for 62 banked human cancerous and normal gastric-tissue samples. In DESI-MSI, microdroplets strike the tissue sample, the resulting splash enters a mass spectrometer, and a statistical analysis, here, the Lasso method (which stands for least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and which is a multiclass logistic regression with L1 penalty), is applied to classify tissues based on the molecular information obtained directly from DESI-MSI. The methodology developed with 28 frozen training samples of clear histopathologic diagnosis showed an overall accuracy value of 98% for the 12,480 pixels evaluated in cross-validation (CV), and 97% when a completely independent set of samples was tested. By applying an additional spatial smoothing technique, the accuracy for both CV and the independent set of samples was 99% compared with histological diagnoses. To test our method for clinical use, we applied it to a total of 21 tissue-margin samples prospectively obtained from nine gastric-cancer patients. The results obtained suggest that DESI-MSI/Lasso may be valuable for routine intraoperative assessment of the specimen margins during gastric-cancer surgery. PMID:24550265

  8. Langartech: A Custom-Made MALDI Matrix Sprayer for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloro, Ibon; Bueno, Amaia; Calvo, Javier; Urreta, Harkaitz; Elortza, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful tool for investigating the distribution of proteins and other molecules within biological systems through the in situ analysis of tissue sections, enabling molecular histology. MALDI IMS can determine the distribution of hundreds of unknown compounds in a single measurement while maintaining spatial and molecular integrity. The matrix spraying stage is a key factor in making this technique more sensitive and robust. In this article, we describe a custom-made matrix sprayer (Langartech), which is both inexpensive (estimated cost of about €3000, or $3500) and reliable compared with the alternatives present in the market today, with prices greater than €20,000 ($25,000). Several comparisons were made between our Langartech sprayer and one of the high-end matrix sprayers commercially available: ImagePrep (Bruker Daltonics). Focusing on lateral resolution and observed peak intensities, overall results show that our sprayer behaves in a very competitive fashion, especially when taking into account the huge difference in sophistication level and price. PMID:26391011

  9. Quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging analysis of complex adnexal masses: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Laboratoire de recherche en imagerie - UMR 970 INSERM - Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France); Balvay, Daniel [Laboratoire de recherche en imagerie - UMR 970 INSERM - Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France); Aubert, Emilie; Bazot, Marc [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Darai, Emile; Rouzier, Roman [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Gynaecology-Obstetrics, Paris (France); Cuenod, Charles A. [Laboratoire de recherche en imagerie - UMR 970 INSERM - Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the ability of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign adnexal tumours. Fifty-six women with 38 malignant and 18 benign tumours underwent MR imaging before surgery for complex adnexal masses. Microvascular parameters were extracted from high temporal resolution DCE-MRI series, using a pharmacokinetic model in the solid tissue of adnexal tumours. These parameters were tissue blood flow (F{sub T}), blood volume fraction (Vb), permeability-surface area product (PS), interstitial volume fraction (Ve), lag time (Dt) and area under the enhancing curve (rAUC). Area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) was calculated as a descriptive tool to assess the overall discrimination of parameters. Malignant tumours displayed higher F{sub T}, Vb, rAUC and lower Ve than benign tumours (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0006, P = 0.04 and P = 0.0002, respectively). F{sub T} was the most relevant factor for discriminating malignant from benign tumours (AUROC = 0.86). Primary ovarian invasive tumours displayed higher F{sub T} and shorter Dt than borderline tumours. Malignant adnexal tumours with associated peritoneal carcinomatosis at surgery displayed a shorter Dt than those without peritoneal carcinomatosis at surgery (P = 0.01). Quantitative DCE-MRI is a feasible and accurate technique to differentiate malignant from benign adnexal tumours and could potentially help oncologists with management decisions. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging analysis of complex adnexal masses: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the ability of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign adnexal tumours. Fifty-six women with 38 malignant and 18 benign tumours underwent MR imaging before surgery for complex adnexal masses. Microvascular parameters were extracted from high temporal resolution DCE-MRI series, using a pharmacokinetic model in the solid tissue of adnexal tumours. These parameters were tissue blood flow (FT), blood volume fraction (Vb), permeability-surface area product (PS), interstitial volume fraction (Ve), lag time (Dt) and area under the enhancing curve (rAUC). Area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) was calculated as a descriptive tool to assess the overall discrimination of parameters. Malignant tumours displayed higher FT, Vb, rAUC and lower Ve than benign tumours (P T was the most relevant factor for discriminating malignant from benign tumours (AUROC = 0.86). Primary ovarian invasive tumours displayed higher FT and shorter Dt than borderline tumours. Malignant adnexal tumours with associated peritoneal carcinomatosis at surgery displayed a shorter Dt than those without peritoneal carcinomatosis at surgery (P = 0.01). Quantitative DCE-MRI is a feasible and accurate technique to differentiate malignant from benign adnexal tumours and could potentially help oncologists with management decisions. (orig.)

  11. Nucleolin-aptamer therapy in retinoblastoma: molecular changes and mass spectrometry-based imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Nithya; Srimany, Amitava; Kanwar, Jagat R; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Akilandeswari, Balachandran; Rishi, Pukhraj; Khetan, Vikas; Vasudevan, Madavan; Pradeep, Thalappil; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is an intraocular childhood tumor which, if left untreated, leads to blindness and mortality. Nucleolin (NCL) protein which is differentially expressed on the tumor cell surface, binds ligands and regulates carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. We found that NCL is over expressed in RB tumor tissues and cell lines compared to normal retina. We studied the effect of nucleolin-aptamer (NCL-APT) to reduce proliferation in RB tumor cells. Aptamer treatment on the RB cell lines (Y79 and WERI-Rb1) led to significant inhibition of cell proliferation. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified NCL-APT administered subcutaneously (s.c.) near tumor or intraperitoneally (i.p.) in Y79 xenografted nude mice resulted in 26 and 65% of tumor growth inhibition, respectively. Downregulation of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, tumor miRNA-18a, altered serum cytokines, and serum miRNA-18a levels were observed upon NCL-APT treatment. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS)-based imaging of cell lines and tumor tissues revealed changes in phosphatidylcholines levels upon treatment. Thus, our study provides proof of concept illustrating NCL-APT-based targeted therapeutic strategy and use of DESI MS-based lipid imaging in monitoring therapeutic responses in RB. PMID:27574784

  12. Absolute Quantitative MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry: A Case of Rifampicin in Liver Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbley, Chad W; Reyzer, Michelle L; Allen, Jamie L; Marriner, Gwendolyn A; Via, Laura E; Barry, Clifton E; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-02-16

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) elucidates molecular distributions in thin tissue sections. Absolute pixel-to-pixel quantitation has remained a challenge, primarily lacking validation of the appropriate analytical methods. In the present work, isotopically labeled internal standards are applied to tissue sections to maximize quantitative reproducibility and yield accurate quantitative results. We have developed a tissue model for rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, and have tested different methods of applying an isotopically labeled internal standard for MALDI IMS analysis. The application of the standard and subsequently the matrix onto tissue sections resulted in quantitation that was not statistically significantly different from results obtained using HPLC-MS/MS of tissue extracts. Quantitative IMS experiments were performed on liver tissue from an animal dosed in vivo. Each microspot in the quantitative images measures the local concentration of RIF in the thin tissue section. Lower concentrations were detected from the blood vessels and around the portal tracts. The quantitative values obtained from these measurements were comparable (>90% similarity) to HPLC-MS/MS results obtained from extracts of the same tissue. PMID:26814665

  13. Measuring Shapes of Galaxy Images II: Structure of 2MASS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, N A; Rahman, Nurur; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a sample of 112 galaxies of various Hubble types imaged in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the Near-Infra Red (NIR; 1-2 $\\mu$m) $J$, $H$, and $K_s$ bands. We use a set of non-parametric shape measures constructed from the Minkowski Functionals (MFs) for galaxy shape analysis. Using ellipticity ($E$) and orientation angle ($\\Phi$), as functions of area within the isophotal contour, as shape diagnostic we have noted that the NIR elliptical galaxies with $E > 2.0$ show a trend of being centrally round and increasingly flattened towards the edge, a trend similar to images in optical wavelengths. The highly flattened elliptical galaxies show strong change in ellipticity between the center and the edge. The lenticular galaxies show morphological properties resembling either ellipticals or spirals, specially barred type. Our analysis shows that $\\sim 70%$ of spiral galaxies appear to have bar-like features while the rest are likely to be non-barred. Our results also indicate that $\\sim 47%$ o...

  14. Microlensed image centroid motions by an exotic lens object with negative convergence or negative mass

    CERN Document Server

    Kitamura, Takao; Nakajima, Koki; Hagiwara, Chisaki; Asada, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational lens models with negative convergence (surface mass density projected onto the lens plane) inspired by modified gravity theories, exotic matter and energy have been recently examined to discuss possible demagnification of images and gravitational lensing shear, in such a way that a static and spherically symmetric modified spacetime metric depends on the inverse distance to the power of positive $n$ ($n=1$ for Schwarzschild metric, $n=2$ for Ellis wormhole) in the weak-field approximation [Kitamura, Nakajima and Asada, PRD 87, 027501 (2013), Izumi et al. to be published in PRD (2013)]. Some of the exotic lens models cause the attractive force on light rays like a convex lens, whereas the others are repulsive on light rays like a concave lens. The present paper considers microlensed image centroid motions by the exotic lens models. Numerical calculations show that, for large $n$ cases in the convex-type models, the centroid shift from the source position might move on a multiply-connected curve l...

  15. Dynamical Masses of Young M Dwarfs: Masses and Orbital Parameters of GJ 3305 AB, the Wide Binary Companion to the Imaged Exoplanet Host 51 Eri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Deck, Katherine M.; Wang, Ji; Horch, Elliott P.; Liu, Michael C.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Kraus, Adam L.; Charbonneau, David

    2015-11-01

    We combine new high resolution imaging and spectroscopy from Keck/NIRC2, Discovery Channel Telescope/DSSI, and Keck/HIRES with published astrometry and radial velocities to measure individual masses and orbital elements of the GJ 3305 AB system, a young (∼20 Myr) M+M binary (unresolved spectral type M0) member of the β Pictoris moving group comoving with the imaged exoplanet host 51 Eri. We measure a total system mass of 1.11 ± 0.04 {M}ȯ , a period of 29.03 ± 0.50 year, a semimajor axis of 9.78 ± 0.14 AU, and an eccentricity of 0.19 ± 0.02. The primary component has a dynamical mass of 0.67 ± 0.05 {M}ȯ and the secondary has a mass of 0.44 ± 0.05 {M}ȯ . The recently updated BHAC15 models are consistent with the masses of both stars to within 1.5σ . Given the observed masses the models predict an age of the GJ 3305 AB system of 37 ± 9 Myr. Based on the observed system architecture and our dynamical mass measurement, it is unlikely that the orbit of 51 Eri b has been significantly altered by the Kozai–Lidov mechanism. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  16. Dynamical Masses of Young M Dwarfs: Masses and Orbital Parameters of GJ 3305 AB, the Wide Binary Companion to the Imaged Exoplanet Host 51 Eri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Deck, Katherine M.; Wang, Ji; Horch, Elliott P.; Liu, Michael C.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Kraus, Adam L.; Charbonneau, David

    2015-11-01

    We combine new high resolution imaging and spectroscopy from Keck/NIRC2, Discovery Channel Telescope/DSSI, and Keck/HIRES with published astrometry and radial velocities to measure individual masses and orbital elements of the GJ 3305 AB system, a young (˜20 Myr) M+M binary (unresolved spectral type M0) member of the β Pictoris moving group comoving with the imaged exoplanet host 51 Eri. We measure a total system mass of 1.11 ± 0.04 {M}⊙ , a period of 29.03 ± 0.50 year, a semimajor axis of 9.78 ± 0.14 AU, and an eccentricity of 0.19 ± 0.02. The primary component has a dynamical mass of 0.67 ± 0.05 {M}⊙ and the secondary has a mass of 0.44 ± 0.05 {M}⊙ . The recently updated BHAC15 models are consistent with the masses of both stars to within 1.5σ . Given the observed masses the models predict an age of the GJ 3305 AB system of 37 ± 9 Myr. Based on the observed system architecture and our dynamical mass measurement, it is unlikely that the orbit of 51 Eri b has been significantly altered by the Kozai-Lidov mechanism. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS―Application of Spatial Proteomics for Ovarian Cancer Classification and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan O. R. Gustafsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS allows acquisition of mass data for metabolites, lipids, peptides and proteins directly from tissue sections. IMS is typically performed either as a multiple spot profiling experiment to generate tissue specific mass profiles, or a high resolution imaging experiment where relative spatial abundance for potentially hundreds of analytes across virtually any tissue section can be measured. Crucially, imaging can be achieved without prior knowledge of tissue composition and without the use of antibodies. In effect MALDI-IMS allows generation of molecular data which complement and expand upon the information provided by histology including immuno-histochemistry, making its application valuable to both cancer biomarker research and diagnostics. The current state of MALDI-IMS, key biological applications to ovarian cancer research and practical considerations for analysis of peptides and proteins on ovarian tissue are presented in this review.

  18. OpenMSI: A High-Performance Web-Based Platform for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Greiner, Annette; Cholia, Shreyas; Louie, Katherine; Bethel, E. Wes; Northen, Trent R.; Bowen, Benjamin P.

    2013-10-02

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables researchers to directly probe endogenous molecules directly within the architecture of the biological matrix. Unfortunately, efficient access, management, and analysis of the data generated by MSI approaches remain major challenges to this rapidly developing field. Despite the availability of numerous dedicated file formats and software packages, it is a widely held viewpoint that the biggest challenge is simply opening, sharing, and analyzing a file without loss of information. Here we present OpenMSI, a software framework and platform that addresses these challenges via an advanced, high-performance, extensible file format and Web API for remote data access (http://openmsi.nersc.gov). The OpenMSI file format supports storage of raw MSI data, metadata, and derived analyses in a single, self-describing format based on HDF5 and is supported by a large range of analysis software (e.g., Matlab and R) and programming languages (e.g., C++, Fortran, and Python). Careful optimization of the storage layout of MSI data sets using chunking, compression, and data replication accelerates common, selective data access operations while minimizing data storage requirements and are critical enablers of rapid data I/O. The OpenMSI file format has shown to provide >2000-fold improvement for image access operations, enabling spectrum and image retrieval in less than 0.3 s across the Internet even for 50 GB MSI data sets. To make remote high-performance compute resources accessible for analysis and to facilitate data sharing and collaboration, we describe an easy-to-use yet powerful Web API, enabling fast and convenient access to MSI data, metadata, and derived analysis results stored remotely to facilitate high-performance data analysis and enable implementation of Web based data sharing, visualization, and analysis.

  19. OpenMSI: a high-performance web-based platform for mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rübel, Oliver; Greiner, Annette; Cholia, Shreyas; Louie, Katherine; Bethel, E Wes; Northen, Trent R; Bowen, Benjamin P

    2013-11-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables researchers to directly probe endogenous molecules directly within the architecture of the biological matrix. Unfortunately, efficient access, management, and analysis of the data generated by MSI approaches remain major challenges to this rapidly developing field. Despite the availability of numerous dedicated file formats and software packages, it is a widely held viewpoint that the biggest challenge is simply opening, sharing, and analyzing a file without loss of information. Here we present OpenMSI, a software framework and platform that addresses these challenges via an advanced, high-performance, extensible file format and Web API for remote data access (http://openmsi.nersc.gov). The OpenMSI file format supports storage of raw MSI data, metadata, and derived analyses in a single, self-describing format based on HDF5 and is supported by a large range of analysis software (e.g., Matlab and R) and programming languages (e.g., C++, Fortran, and Python). Careful optimization of the storage layout of MSI data sets using chunking, compression, and data replication accelerates common, selective data access operations while minimizing data storage requirements and are critical enablers of rapid data I/O. The OpenMSI file format has shown to provide >2000-fold improvement for image access operations, enabling spectrum and image retrieval in less than 0.3 s across the Internet even for 50 GB MSI data sets. To make remote high-performance compute resources accessible for analysis and to facilitate data sharing and collaboration, we describe an easy-to-use yet powerful Web API, enabling fast and convenient access to MSI data, metadata, and derived analysis results stored remotely to facilitate high-performance data analysis and enable implementation of Web based data sharing, visualization, and analysis. PMID:24087878

  20. Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI Mass Spectrometric Imaging of the Distribution of Rohitukine in the Seedling of Dysoxylum binectariferum Hook. F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Mohana Kumara

    Full Text Available Ambient ionization mass spectrometric imaging of all parts of the seedling of Dysoxylum binectariferum Hook. f (Meliaceae was performed to reconstruct the molecular distribution of rohitukine (Rh and related compounds. The species accumulates Rh, a prominent chromone alkaloid, in its seeds, fruits, and stem bark. Rh possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and immuno-modulatory properties. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI MSI and electrospray ionization (ESI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis detected Rh as well as its glycosylated, acetylated, oxidized, and methoxylated analogues. Rh was predominantly distributed in the main roots, collar region of the stem, and young leaves. In the stem and roots, Rh was primarily restricted to the cortex region. The identities of the metabolites were assigned based on both the fragmentation patterns and exact mass analyses. We discuss these results, with specific reference to the possible pathways of Rh biosynthesis and translocation during seedling development in D. binectariferum.

  1. The TRENDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey. VI. Discovery of a Mass, Age, and Metallicity Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    OpenAIRE

    Crepp, Justin R.; Gonzales, Erica J.; Bechter, Eric B.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher; Piskorz, Danielle; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The mass and age of substellar objects are degenerate parameters leaving the evolutionary state of brown dwarfs ambiguous without additional information. Theoretical models are normally used to help distinguish between old, massive brown dwarfs and young, low mass brown dwarfs but these models have yet to be properly calibrated. We have carried out an infrared high-contrast imaging program with the goal of detecting substellar objects as companions to nearby stars to help break degeneracies i...

  2. Glutamine/Glutamate Metabolism Studied with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging for the Characterization of Adrenal Nodules and Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Suzan M.; Nunes, Thiago F.; Melo, Homero J. F.; Claudio Dalavia; Denis Szejnfeld; Claudio Kater; Cassio Andreoni; Jacob Szejnfeld; Ajzen, Sergio A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess glutamine/glutamate (Glx) and lactate (Lac) metabolism using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRS) in order to differentiate between adrenal gland nodules and masses (adenomas, pheochromocytomas, carcinomas, and metastases). Materials and Methods. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. A total of 130 patients (47 men) with 132 adrenal nodules/masses were prospectively assessed (54 ± 14.8 years). A multivoxel system was use...

  3. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon

    2008-05-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  4. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  5. Quantifying element incorporation in multispecies biofilms using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renslow, Ryan S; Lindemann, Stephen R; Cole, Jessica K; Zhu, Zihua; Anderton, Christopher R

    2016-06-01

    Elucidating nutrient exchange in microbial communities is an important step in understanding the relationships between microbial systems and global biogeochemical cycles, but these communities are complex and the interspecies interactions that occur within them are not well understood. Phototrophic consortia are useful and relevant experimental systems to investigate such interactions as they are not only prevalent in the environment, but some are cultivable in vitro and amenable to controlled scientific experimentation. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is a powerful, high spatial resolution tool capable of visualizing the metabolic activities of single cells within a biofilm, but quantitative analysis of the resulting data has typically been a manual process, resulting in a task that is both laborious and susceptible to human error. Here, the authors describe the creation and application of a semiautomated image-processing pipeline that can analyze NanoSIMS-generated data, applied to phototrophic biofilms as an example. The tool employs an image analysis process, which includes both elemental and morphological segmentation, producing a final segmented image that allows for discrimination between autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass, the detection of individual cyanobacterial filaments and heterotrophic cells, the quantification of isotopic incorporation of individual heterotrophic cells, and calculation of relevant population statistics. The authors demonstrate the functionality of the tool by using it to analyze the uptake of (15)N provided as either nitrate or ammonium through the unicyanobacterial consortium UCC-O and imaged via NanoSIMS. The authors found that the degree of (15)N incorporation by individual cells was highly variable when labeled with (15)NH4 (+), but much more even when biofilms were labeled with (15)NO3 (-). In the (15)NH4 (+)-amended biofilms, the heterotrophic distribution of (15)N incorporation was highly skewed, with

  6. Quantifying element incorporation in multispecies biofilms using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renslow, Ryan S.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Cole, Jessica K.; Zhu, Zihua; Anderton, Christopher R.

    2016-02-12

    EElucidating nutrient exchange in microbial communities is an important step in understanding the relationships between microbial systems and global biogeochemical cycles, but these communities are complex and the interspecies interactions that occur within them are not well understood. Phototrophic consortia are useful and relevant experimental systems to investigate such interactions as they are not only prevalent in the environment, but some are cultivable in vivo and amenable to controlled scientific experimentation. High spatial resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is a powerful tool capable of visualizing the metabolic activities of single cells within a biofilm, but quantitative analysis of the resulting data has typically been a manual process, resulting in a task that is both laborious and susceptible to human error. Here, we describe the creation and application of a semi-automated image-processing pipeline that can analyze NanoSIMS-generated data of phototrophic biofilms. The tool employs an image analysis process, which includes both elemental and morphological segmentation, producing a final segmented image that allows for discrimination between autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass, the detection of individual cyanobacterial filaments and heterotrophic cells, the quantification of isotopic incorporation of individual heterotrophic cells, and calculation of relevant population statistics. We demonstrate the functionality of the tool by using it to analyze the uptake of 15N provided as either nitrate or ammonium through the unicyanobacterial consortium UCC-O and imaged via NanoSIMS. We found that the degree of 15N incorporation by individual cells was highly variable when labeled with 15NH4 +, but much more even when biofilms were labeled with 15NO3-. In the 15NH4 +-amended biofilms, the heterotrophic distribution of 15N incorporation was highly skewed, with a large population showing moderate 15N incorporation and a small number of

  7. 'Plug and Play' assembly of a low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry imaging (LTP-MSI) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Torres, Mauricio; López-Hernández, José Fabricio; Jiménez-Sandoval, Pedro; Winkler, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is of high and growing interest in life science research, but the investment for necessary equipment is often prohibitive for small research groups. Therefore, we developed a basic MSI system from low cost 'Plug and Play' components, which are connected to the Universal Serial Bus (USB) of a standard computer. Our open source software OpenMZxy (http://www.bioprocess.org/openmzxy) enables automatic and manual sampling, as well as the recording of position data. For ionization we used a low-temperature plasma probe (LTP), coupled to a quadrupole mass analyzer. The current set-up has a practical resolution of 1mm, and a sampling area of 100×100mm, resulting in up to 10,000 sampling points. Our prototype is easy and economical to adopt for different types of mass analyzers. We prove the usability of the LTP-MSI system for macroscopic samples by imaging the distribution of metabolites in the longitudinal cross-cut of a chili (Capsicum annuum, 'Jalapeño pepper') fruit. The localization of capsaicin in the placenta could be confirmed. But additionally, yet unknown low molecular weight compounds were detected in defined areas, which underline the potential of LTP-MSI for the imaging of volatile and semi-volatile metabolites and for the discovery of new natural products. Biological significance Knowledge about the spatial distribution of metabolites, proteins, or lipids in a given tissue often leads to novel findings in medicine and biology. Therefore, mass spectrometry based imaging (MSI) is becoming increasingly popular in life science research. However, the investment for necessary equipment is often prohibitive for small research groups. We built a prototype with an ambient ionization source, which is easy and economical to adopt for different types of mass analyzers. Therefore, we hope that our system contributes to a broader use of mass spectrometry imaging for answering biological questions. PMID:24642210

  8. Pitfalls in Diagnostic Imaging of Cystic Pancreatic Masses: A Case of True Cystic Lesion Mimicking a Mucinous Cystadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maurea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Imaging characterization is a frequent topic in diagnostic evaluation of patients with pancreatic cystic lesions. Case report We present a patient with a true pancreatic cyst with internal septation in an adult female. The presence of the internal septum should be considered in the differential diagnosis, in fact in our case CT and MR imaging findings were incorrectly suggestive of mucinous cystadenoma. Conclusion True pancreatic cyst may show septate architecture and thus for imaging characterization this feature should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic masses.

  9. Mass spectrometric imaging of in vivo protein and lipid adsorption on biodegradable vascular replacement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Sophie M; Eilenberg, Magdalena; Svirkova, Anastasiya; Grasl, Christian; Liska, Robert; Bergmeister, Helga; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases present amongst the highest mortality risks in Western civilization and are frequently caused by arteriosclerotic vessel failure. Coronary artery and peripheral vessel reconstruction necessitates the use of small diameter systems that are mechanically stress-resistant and biocompatible. Expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) is amongst the materials used most frequently for non-degradable and bio-degradable vessel reconstruction procedures, with thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) representing a promising substitute. The present study describes and compares the biological adsorption and diffusion occurring with both materials following implantation in rat models. Gel electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography, combined with mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging, were utilized to identify the adsorbed lipids and proteins. The results were compared with the analytes present in native aorta tissue. It was revealed that both polymers were severely affected by biological adsorption after 10 min in vivo. Proteins associated with cell growth and migration were identified, especially on the luminal graft surface, while lipids were found to be located on both the luminal and abluminal surfaces. Lipid adsorption and cholesterol diffusion were found to be correlated with the polymer modifications identified on degradable thermoplastic urethane graft samples, with the latter revealing extensive cholesterol adsorption. The present study demonstrates an interaction between biological matter and both graft materials, and provides insights into polymer changes, in particular, those observed with thermoplastic urethanes already after 10 min in vivo exposure. ePTFE demonstrated minor polymer modifications, whereas several different polymer signals were observed for TPU, all were co-localized with biological signals. PMID:26198453

  10. Mass spectrometric imaging of metabolites in kidney tissues from rats treated with furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Mi Suk; Choi, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Sunhee; Lee, Yu-Jung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    In the kidney, metabolic processes are different among the cortex (COR), outer medulla (OM), and inner medulla (IM). Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), we examined the change of metabolites in the COR, OM, and IM of the rat kidney after furosemide treatment compared with vehicle-treated controls. Osmotic minipumps were implanted in male Sprague-Dawley rats to deliver 12 mg·day(-1)·rat(-1) of furosemide. Vehicle-treated (n = 14) and furosemide-treated (furosemide rats, n = 15) rats in metabolic cages received a fixed amount of rat chow (15 g·220 g body wt(-1)·day(-1) for each rat) with free access to water intake for 6 days. At day 6, higher urine output (32 ± 4 vs. 9 ± 1 ml/day) and lower urine osmolality (546 ± 44 vs. 1,677 ± 104 mosmol/kgH2O) were observed in furosemide rats. Extracts of COR, OM, and IM were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, where multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several metabolites, including acetylcarnitine, betaine, carnitine, choline, and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), were significantly changed. The changes of metabolites were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF and IMS. Their spatial distribution and relative quantitation in the kidneys were analyzed by IMS. Carnitine compounds were increased in COR and IM, whereas carnitine and acetylcarnitine were decreased in OM. Choline compounds were increased in COR and OM but decreased in IM from furosemide rats. Betaine and GPC were decreased in OM and IM. Taken together, MALDI-TOF/TOF and IMS successfully provide the spatial distribution and relative quantitation of metabolites in the kidney. PMID:26962105

  11. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry for in situ proteomic analysis of preneoplastic lesions in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M Grüner

    Full Text Available The identification of new biomarkers for preneoplastic pancreatic lesions (PanINs, IPMNs and early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is crucial due to the diseases high mortality rate upon late detection. To address this task we used the novel technique of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS on genetically engineered mouse models (GEM of pancreatic cancer. Various GEM were analyzed with MALDI IMS to investigate the peptide/protein-expression pattern of precursor lesions in comparison to normal pancreas and PDAC with cellular resolution. Statistical analysis revealed several discriminative m/z-species between normal and diseased tissue. Intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN could be distinguished from normal pancreatic tissue and PDAC by 26 significant m/z-species. Among these m/z-species, we identified Albumin and Thymosin-beta 4 by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, which were further validated by immunohistochemistry, western blot, quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA in both murine and human tissue. Thymosin-beta 4 was found significantly increased in sera of mice with PanIN lesions. Upregulated PanIN expression of Albumin was accompanied by increased expression of liver-restricted genes suggesting a hepatic transdifferentiation program of preneoplastic cells. In conclusion we show that GEM of endogenous PDAC are a suitable model system for MALDI-IMS and subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis, allowing in situ analysis of small precursor lesions and identification of differentially expressed peptides and proteins.

  12. Influence of thresholding in mass and entropy dimension of 3-D soil images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Tarquis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of modern non-destructive tomography techniques, there have been many attempts to analyze 3-D pore space features mainly concentrating on soil structure. This analysis opens a challenging opportunity to develop techniques for quantifying and describe pore space properties, one of them being fractal analysis.

    Undisturbed soil samples were collected from four horizons of Brazilian soil and 3-D images at 45 μm resolution. Four different threshold criteria were used to transform computed tomography (CT grey-scale imagery into binary imagery (pore/solid to estimate their mass fractal dimension (Dm and entropy dimension (D1. Each threshold criteria had a direct influence on the porosity obtained, varying from 8 to 24% in one of the samples, and on the fractal dimensions. Linear scaling was observed over all the cube sizes, however depending on the range of cube sizes used in the analysis, Dm could vary from 3.00 to 2.20, realizing that the threshold influenced mainly the scaling in the smallest cubes (length of size from 1 to 16 voxels.

    Dm and D1 showed a logarithmic relation with the apparent porosity in the image, however, the increase of both values respect to porosity defined a characteristic feature for each horizon that can be related to soil texture and depth.

  13. Analysis of breast imaging reporting and data system category 4 complex cystic masses of the breast: Do all the complex cystic breast masses merit a biopsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether sonographic findings can predict malignancy in complex echoic breast masses using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and to demonstrate the need for biopsy recommendations for all complex breast masses. 135 pathologically proven complex echoic masses detected on sonography were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings according to the BI-RADS lexicon which include shape, margin, orientation, lesion boundary, posterior acoustic features, and vascularity. The sonographic findings were correlated with the pathology and mammographic findings. Differentiation between the sonographic appearance of benign and malignant complex cystic lesions was evaluated using the chi-square test or the Mann-Whitney U test. 59.3% (80/135) were benign lesions and 40.7% (55/135) were malignant lesions. Malignant lesions were correlated with irregular (p < 0.001), nonparallel (p = 0.023), noncircumscribed (p < 0.001), echogenic halo (p < 0.001), increased vascularity (p = 0.001) and large size (p = 0.002) compared to benign lesions. However, 12.7% (7/55) of benign looking complex cystic masses were proved to be malignant. All seven lesions had malignant microcalcifications or abnormality on mammography. Using the sonographic BI-RADS lexicon can be useful for differentiating between malignant and benign complex cystic breast masses. Notably, 12.7% of the complex cystic lesions showing a benign appearance on sonography were pathologically proven malignant. Therefore, radiologist should recommend biopsy for complex cystic lesions.

  14. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Orbit and Component Masses of the Intermediate Age, Late-Type Binary NO UMa

    CERN Document Server

    Schlieder, Joshua E; Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael F; Leisenring, Jarron; Bailey, Vanessa; Defrere, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Strassmeier, Klaus G; Weber, Michael; Biller, Beth A; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird M; Crepp, Justin R; Eisner, Josh A; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Henning, Thomas; Morzinski, Katie M; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. Our H, K$_s$, and L'-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.09". The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ~7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0$\\pm$0.5 primary and K6.5$\\pm$0.5 secondary are 0.83$\\pm$0.02 M$_{\\odot}$ and 0.64$\\pm$0.02 M$_{\\odot}$, respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87$\\pm$0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ~500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa bi...

  15. Detection of follicular transport of lidocaine and metabolism in adipose tissue in pig ear skin by DESI mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Janina; Mortensen, Rasmus; Hansen, Steen H;

    2014-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is demonstrated as a detection technique for penetration experiments of drugs in skin. Lidocaine ointment was used as the model compound in ex vivo experiments with whole pig ears as the skin model. Follicular transport of...

  16. Development of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for plant metabolite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis presents efforts to improve the methodology of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) as a method for analysis of metabolites from plant tissue samples. The first chapter consists of a general introduction to the technique of MALDI-MSI, and the sixth and final chapter provides a brief summary and an outlook on future work.

  17. Osveshhenie sovremennyh rossijskih innovacij v SMI Danii [The image of modern Russian innovations in the Danish mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko Arkady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to identify the attitude of the Danish mass media to modern Russian innovations. The research is timely because of the Russian interest in the experience of Denmark — one of the "innovation leaders" of the EU. The author analyses a number of publications on Russia in the Danish mass media. The positive image of Russian innovations in Danish periodicals is analysed against the background of historical stereotypes. The article also describes the Danish national innovation system. The image of Russian innovations in the Danish mass media is positive; however, the articles dedicated to Russian innovations constitute a small part of reports on developments in Russia. The article also contributes to social surveys carried out in Denmark through introducing new data. The research results can be used by politicians, scholars and social activists interested in the relations with Denmark.

  18. HIGH RESOLUTION Hα IMAGES OF THE BINARY LOW-MASS PROPLYD LV 1 WITH THE MAGELLAN AO SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We utilize the new Magellan adaptive optics system (MagAO) to image the binary proplyd LV 1 in the Orion Trapezium at Hα. This is among the first AO results in visible wavelengths. The Hα image clearly shows the ionization fronts, the interproplyd shell, and the cometary tails. Our astrometric measurements find no significant relative motion between components over ∼18 yr, implying that LV 1 is a low-mass system. We also analyze Large Binocular Telescope AO observations, and find a point source which may be the embedded protostar's photosphere in the continuum. Converting the H magnitudes to mass, we show that the LV 1 binary may consist of one very-low-mass star with a likely brown dwarf secondary, or even plausibly a double brown dwarf. Finally, the magnetopause of the minor proplyd is estimated to have a radius of 110 AU, consistent with the location of the bow shock seen in Hα

  19. Imaging of benign and malignant soft tissue masses of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foot is a relatively uncommon site of neoplastic and non-neoplastic soft tissue tumors. Although it contains a relatively small amount of somatic soft tissue elements, the foot is considerably rich in tendons, fasciae, retinaculae, and synovium. Corresponding to this distribution of soft tissue elements, some soft tissue lesions, such as giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, fibromatosis, and synovial sarcoma, are commonly seen in this location. Vascular tumors represent common soft tissue masses of the foot as well. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice in the assessment of soft tissue tumors. The presence of a suspected lesion can be confirmed and tumor margins can be defined accurately. In general, MRI does not provide histologic specificity, but considering some MR features may often help in correctly distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. In addition, characteristic features of the most common benign tumors (i.e., fibromatosis, cavernous hemangioma) and reactive processes of the foot (ganglion cyst, Morton's neuroma) often suggest a specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Metabolic Profiling Directly from the Petri Dish Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-11-05

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin.

  1. Metabolic profiling directly from the Petri dish using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Jeramie; Roach, Patrick; Heath, Brandi; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2013-11-01

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin. PMID:24047514

  2. Imaging of benign and malignant soft tissue masses of the foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldt, Simone; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Rechl, Hans [Department of Orthopedics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    The foot is a relatively uncommon site of neoplastic and non-neoplastic soft tissue tumors. Although it contains a relatively small amount of somatic soft tissue elements, the foot is considerably rich in tendons, fasciae, retinaculae, and synovium. Corresponding to this distribution of soft tissue elements, some soft tissue lesions, such as giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, fibromatosis, and synovial sarcoma, are commonly seen in this location. Vascular tumors represent common soft tissue masses of the foot as well. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice in the assessment of soft tissue tumors. The presence of a suspected lesion can be confirmed and tumor margins can be defined accurately. In general, MRI does not provide histologic specificity, but considering some MR features may often help in correctly distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. In addition, characteristic features of the most common benign tumors (i.e., fibromatosis, cavernous hemangioma) and reactive processes of the foot (ganglion cyst, Morton's neuroma) often suggest a specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Application of imaging mass spectrometry for the molecular diagnosis of human breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinxin; He, Jiuming; Li, Tiegang; Lu, Zhaohui; Sun, Jian; Meng, Yunxiao; Abliz, Zeper; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a key step in breast surgery, especially to determine whether DCIS is associated with tumor cell micro-invasion. However, there is currently no reliable method to obtain molecular information for breast tumor analysis during surgery. Here, we present a novel air flow-assisted ionization (AFAI) mass spectrometry imaging method that can be used in ambient environments to differentiate breast cancer by analyzing lipids. In this study, we demonstrate that various subtypes and histological grades of IDC and DCIS can be discriminated using AFAI-MSI: phospholipids were more abundant in IDC than in DCIS, whereas fatty acids were more abundant in DCIS than in IDC. The classification of specimens in the subtype and grade validation sets showed 100% and 78.6% agreement with the histopathological diagnosis, respectively. Our work shows the rapid classification of breast cancer utilizing AFAI-MSI. This work suggests that this method could be developed to provide surgeons with nearly real-time information to guide surgical resections. PMID:26868906

  4. Outburst of Comet 17P/Holmes Observed With The Solar Mass Ejection Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jing

    2010-01-01

    We present time-resolved photometric observations of Jupiter family comet 17P/Holmes during its dramatic outburst of 2007. The observations, from the orbiting Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI), provide the most complete measure of the whole-coma brightness, free from the effects of instrumental saturation and with a time-resolution well-matched to the rapid brightening of the comet. The lightcurve is divided into two distinct parts. A rapid rise between the first SMEI observation on UT 2007 October 24 06h 37m (mid-integration) and UT 2007 October 25, is followed by a slow decline until the last SMEI observation on UT 2008 April 6 22h 16m (mid-integration). We find that the rate of change of the brightness is reasonably well-described by a Gaussian function having a central time of UT 2007 October 24.54+/-0.01 and a full-width-at-half-maximum 0.44+/-0.02 days. The maximum rate of brightening occurs some 1.2 days after the onset of activity. At the peak the scattering cross-section grows at 1070+/-40 km^2/s whi...

  5. Automated MALDI Matrix Coating System for Multiple Tissue Samples for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounfield, William P.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  6. Estimates of the Planet Yield from Ground-Based High-Contrast Imaging Observations as a Function of Stellar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R

    2011-01-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar-neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into account the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of nearby stars, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys and express the resulting yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date. Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of planets from RV surveys, our simulations indicate that extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to separations accessible to high-contrast instruments provides excellent agreement bet...

  7. Value of fast gradient echo MR imaging and contrast-enhanced dynamic studies for the differentiation of adrenal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast gradient echo MR imaging during suspended respiration with various repetition times (TRs), echo times (TEs), and flip angles was performed in 45 patients with 52 adrenal masses. Dynamic perfusion studies after Gd-DTPA administration were achieved by repeated imaging at short intervals. With T2 weighting (TR, 60 msec; TE, 30 msec; flip angle 150), malignant tumors and pheochromocytomas showed a significantly higher relative signal intensity than did adenomas; overlap of signal intensity led to equivocal findings in nine cases. After administration of Gd-DTPA, adenomas showed only mild enhancement and quick washout; malignant tumors as well as pheochromocytomas present strong enhancement, and washout was slower. Five additional cases that were equivocal in precontrast scans could be correctly classified in this way. Thus, besides reduction of acquisition times, fast dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging provides further possibilities of adrenal mass classification

  8. Toward Direct Imaging of Low-mass Gas-Giant Planets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieder, J. E.; Beichman, C. A.; Meyer, M. R.; Greene, T.

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have identified new members of the nearby, young M dwarf sample and compiled an up to date list of these stars. Here we summarize our efforts to identify young M dwarfs, describe the current sample, and detail its demographics in the context of direct planet imaging. We also describe our investigations of the unprecedented sensitivity of the JWST when imaging nearby, young M dwarfs. The JWST is the only near term facility capable of routinely pushing direct imaging capabilities around M dwarfs to sub-Jovian masses and will provide key insight into questions regarding low-mass gas-giant properties, frequency, formation, and architectures.

  9. Toward Direct Imaging of Low-Mass Gas-Giants with the $\\textit{James Webb Space Telescope}$

    CERN Document Server

    Schlieder, Joshua E; Meyer, Michael R; Greene, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for observations with the $\\textit{James Webb Space Telescope}$ ($\\textit{JWST}$), we have identified new members of the nearby, young M dwarf sample and compiled an up to date list of these stars. Here we summarize our efforts to identify young M dwarfs, describe the current sample, and detail its demographics in the context of direct planet imaging. We also describe our investigations of the unprecedented sensitivity of the $\\textit{JWST}$ when imaging nearby, young M dwarfs. The $\\textit{JWST}$ is the only near term facility capable of routinely pushing direct imaging capabilities around M dwarfs to sub-Jovian masses and will provide key insight into questions regarding low-mass gas-giant properties, frequency, formation, and architectures.

  10. Assessment of cystic renal masses in children: Comparison of multislice computed tomography and ultrasound imaging using the Bosniak classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Yun, E-mail: ppengyun@yahoo.co [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China); Jia Liqun [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China); Sun Ning [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (China); Li Jianying [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China); Fu Libing [Department of Pediatric Pathology, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (China); Zeng Jinjin [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China); Chen Feng [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Ma Daqing [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (China)

    2010-09-15

    To retrospectively compare contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and ultrasound (US) imaging for the assessment of cystic renal masses in children using the Bosniak classification system. Twenty-two consecutive patients (age 1 month to 5.2 years, mean 2.4 years) with 24 cystic renal masses (7 benign, 17 malignant) pathologically confirmed after surgical resection underwent both MSCT and US imaging, and were retrospectively analyzed using the Bosniak classification. A senior and a junior radiologist retrospectively and independently reviewed imaging findings. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of MSCT and US were assessed using diagnostic statistics. The statistical significance of differences was determined by the McNemar test. Both radiologists accurately predicted lesions of categories I and IV with the Bosniak classification using MSCT and US. All masses classified as Bosniak classes I and II were proven to be benign, and all malignant lesions were correctly characterized in all cases both on ultrasound images and on the contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) images. Two benign multilocular cystic nephromas and one multicystic dysplastic kidney were classified into category III or even IV based on the classification scheme because of their multilocular nature and thick septation. The diagnostic accuracy of CECT was slightly better than ultrasound (CECT vs. US: senior reader, 92% vs. 88%; junior reader, 88% vs. 83%). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two sets (p > 0.05). The two radiologists had perfect inter-observer agreement on the two modalities. Both MSCT and US provide highly accurate diagnosis for the malignant renal cystic masses in children using the Bosniak classification system, but assessment of benign masses still needs improvement. We would recommend US is the best screening modality in Bosniak I and II, In Bosniak III and IV, MSCT are first the choice.

  11. Submicron mass spectrometry imaging of single cells by combined use of mega electron volt time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning transmission ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand biochemical processes inside an individual cell, it is important to measure the molecular composition at the submicron level. One of the promising mass spectrometry imaging techniques that may be used to accomplish this is Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), using MeV energy heavy ions for excitation. MeV ions have the ability to desorb large intact molecules with a yield that is several orders of magnitude higher than conventional SIMS using keV ions. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the MeV TOF-SIMS system, we propose an independent TOF trigger using a STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) detector that is placed just behind the thin transmission target. This arrangement is suitable for biological samples in which the STIM detector simultaneously measures the mass distribution in scanned samples. The capability of the MeV TOF-SIMS setup was demonstrated by imaging the chemical composition of CaCo-2 cells

  12. Submicron mass spectrometry imaging of single cells by combined use of mega electron volt time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning transmission ion microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siketić, Zdravko; Bogdanović Radović, Ivančica; Jakšić, Milko; Popović Hadžija, Marijana; Hadžija, Mirko [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-08-31

    In order to better understand biochemical processes inside an individual cell, it is important to measure the molecular composition at the submicron level. One of the promising mass spectrometry imaging techniques that may be used to accomplish this is Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), using MeV energy heavy ions for excitation. MeV ions have the ability to desorb large intact molecules with a yield that is several orders of magnitude higher than conventional SIMS using keV ions. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the MeV TOF-SIMS system, we propose an independent TOF trigger using a STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) detector that is placed just behind the thin transmission target. This arrangement is suitable for biological samples in which the STIM detector simultaneously measures the mass distribution in scanned samples. The capability of the MeV TOF-SIMS setup was demonstrated by imaging the chemical composition of CaCo-2 cells.

  13. Masses of Astrometrically-Discovered and Imaged Binaries: G 78-28AB and GJ 231.1BC

    CERN Document Server

    Pravdo, S H; Wiktorowicz, S J; Kulkarni, S; Lloyd, J P; Martinache, F; Tuthill, P G; Ireland, M J; Pravdo, Steven H.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kulkarni, Shri; Lloyd, James P.; Martinache, Frantz; Tuthill, Peter G.; Ireland, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The Stellar Planet Survey (STEPS) is an ongoing astrometric search for giant planets and brown dwarfs around a sample of ~30 M-dwarfs. We have discovered several low-mass companions by measuring the motion of our target stars relative to their reference frames. The highest mass discovery thus far is G 78-28B, a companion to the M-dwarf G 78-28A. The orbital period is 4.18 +/- 0.03 y, the system mass is 0.565 +/- 0.055 Msolar, and the semi-major axis is 2.19 +/- 0.10 AU. Imaging observations with the Keck laser guide star adaptive optics (LGSAO) and the Palomar AO instruments resolved the system and also yielded JHK-band delta magnitudes. We use the orbital solution, light ratios, and mass-luminosity relationships to derive component masses of MA = 0.370 +/- 0.034 Msolar and MB = 0.195 +/- 0.021 Msolar. G 78-28B is of type M4 V based upon its colors and mass. We also discovered GJ 231.1C, a companion to GJ 231.1B, with STEPS and imaged the companion with LGSAO and Palomar AO, but the orbital period is longer t...

  14. Associations between Chinese/Asian versus Western mass media influences and body image disturbances of young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Jiang, Chengcheng; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated associations of experiences with mass media imported from Western nations such as the United States versus mass media from China and other Asian countries with eating and body image disturbances of young Chinese women. Participating women (N=456) completed self-report measures of disordered eating, specific sources of appearance dissatisfaction (fatness, facial features, stature), and Western versus Chinese/Asian mass media influences. The sample was significantly more likely to report perceived pressure from, comparisons with, and preferences for physical appearance depictions in Chinese/Asian mass media than Western media. Chinese/Asian media influences also combined for more unique variance in prediction models for all disturbances except stature concerns. While experiences with Western media were related to disturbances as well, the overall impact of Chinese/Asian media influences was more prominent. PMID:27110965

  15. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Molecular Distributions in Cultured Neurons and Their Processes: Comparative Analysis of Sample Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin R.; Li, Zhen; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2012-11-01

    Neurons often exhibit a complex chemical distribution and topography; therefore, sample preparation protocols that preserve structures ranging from relatively large cell somata to small neurites and growth cones are important factors in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging studies. Here, SIMS was used to investigate the subcellular localization of lipids and lipophilic species in neurons from Aplysia californica. Using individual neurons cultured on silicon wafers, we compared and optimized several SIMS sampling approaches. After an initial step to remove the high salt culturing media, formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde, and glycerol, and various combinations thereof, were tested for their ability to achieve cell stabilization during and after the removal of extracellular media. These treatments improved the preservation of cellular morphology as visualized with SIMS imaging. For analytes >250 Da, coating the cell surface with a 3.2 nm-thick gold layer increased the ion intensity; multiple analytes previously not observed or observed at low abundance were detected, including intact cholesterol and vitamin E molecular ions. However, once a sample was coated, many of the lower molecular mass (stabilization with glycerol and 4 % paraformaldehyde. The sample preparation methods described here enhance SIMS imaging of processes of individual cultured neurons over a broad mass range with enhanced image contrast.

  16. Pulmonary Artery Stiffness Is Independently Associated with Right Ventricular Mass and Function: A Cardiac MR Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Timothy J W; Gandhi, Ajay; de Marvao, Antonio; Buzaco, Rui; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Quinlan, Marina; Durighel, Giuliana; Diamond, Tamara; Monje Garcia, Laura; de Cesare, Alain; Cook, Stuart A; O'Regan, Declan P

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the relationship between pulmonary artery (PA) stiffness and both right ventricular (RV) mass and function with cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the local research ethics committee, and all participants gave written informed consent. Cardiac MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T in 156 healthy volunteers (63% women; age range, 19-61 years; mean age, 36.1 years). High-temporal-resolution phase-contrast imaging was performed in the main and right PAs. Pulmonary pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined by the interval between arterial systolic upslopes. RV function was assessed with feature tracking to derive peak systolic strain and strain rate, as well as peak early-diastolic strain rate. RV volumes, ejection fraction (RVEF), and mass were measured from the cine images. The association of pulmonary PWV with RV function and mass was quantified with univariate linear regression. Interstudy repeatability was assessed with intraclass correlation. Results The repeatability coefficient for pulmonary PWV was 0.96. Increases in pulmonary PWV and RVEF were associated with increases in age (r = 0.32, P Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26909648

  17. A solar type II radio burst from coronal mass ejection-coronal ray interaction: Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nançay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  18. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Orbit and Component Masses of the Intermediate-age, Late-type Binary NO UMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Leisenring, Jarron; Bailey, Vanessa; Defrère, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Weber, Michael; Biller, Beth A.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird M.; Crepp, Justin R.; Eisner, Josh A.; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Henning, Thomas; Morzinski, Katie M.; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2016-02-01

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBT Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt exoplanet imaging survey. Our H-, Ks-, and L‧-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.″09. The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ∼7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0 ± 0.5 primary and K6.5 ± 0.5 secondary are 0.83 ± 0.02 M⊙ and 0.64 ± 0.02 M⊙, respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87 ± 0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ∼500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group, and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa binary components to those predicted by five sets of stellar evolution models at the age of the Ursa Major group. We find excellent agreement between our measured masses and model predictions with little systematic scatter between the models. NO UMa joins the short list of nearby, bright, late-type binaries having known ages and fully characterized orbits. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.

  19. Anterior mediastinal masses in the Framingham Heart Study: Prevalence and CT image characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Araki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of anterior mediastinal masses is 0.9% in the Framingham Heart Study. Those masses may increase in size when observed over 5–7 years. Investigation of clinical significance in incidentally found anterior mediastinal masses with a longer period of follow-up would be necessary.

  20. Air trapping on computed tomography images of healthy individuals: effects of respiration and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the relationships of changes in the lung area during respiration and of individual body mass index (BMI) to air trapping on expiratory computed tomography (CT) in young non-smoking adults of either gender. Methods: The volunteers were 10 women and 10 men (mean age 25.7 years) who were healthy lifelong non-smokers. We obtained both end-inspiratory and end-expiratory CT images at three levels: the upper, middle and lower lung. The ratio of cross-sectional lung area upon expiration to cross-sectional lung area upon inspiration (lung area ratio) was determined for each lung at each of the three levels. In cases showing air trapping, we calculated the percentage of area of air in relation to the total lung area in each section. BMI was calculated for each participant. Results: Air trapping was present in dependent areas of the lungs of 6 women and 5 men. The mean percentage of area of air trapped was statistically greater for men (9.8 ± 9.2%) than for women (4.9 ± 5.2%). The mean lung area ratio was 0.52 ± 0 14 among volunteers with air trapping (66 sections) and 0.69 ± 0.12 among those without air trapping (54 sections) (p < 0.001). At each lung level, the mean lung area ratio was greater in individuals with air trapping than in those without. Mean BMI was also greater in these people (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Change in the respiratory lung area and BMI contribute to development of air trapping

  1. Intrahepatic and hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma: Qualitative and quantitative evaluation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattach, Hassan El, E-mail: hassangreenmed@gmail.com [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Dohan, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.dohan@lrb.aphp.fr [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 Avenue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); UMR INSERM 965-Paris 7 “Angiogenèse et recherche translationnelle”, 2 rue Amboise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Guerrache, Youcef, E-mail: docyoucef05@yahoo.fr [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Dautry, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.dautry@lrb.aphp.fr [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 Avenue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • DW-MR imaging helps depicts all intrahepatic or hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas. • DW-MRI provides best conspicuity of intrahepatic or hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas than the other MRI sequences (P < 0.001). • The use of normalized ADC using the liver as reference organ results in the most restricted distribution of ADC values of intrahepatic or hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas (variation coefficient = 16.6%). - Abstract: Objective: To qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the presentation of intrahepatic and hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Materials and methods: Twenty-eight patients with histopathologically proven mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma (hilar, n = 17; intrahepatic, n = 11) underwent hepatic DW-MRI at 1.5-T using free-breathing acquisition and three b-values (0,400,800 s/mm{sup 2}). Cholangiocarcinomas were evaluated qualitatively using visual analysis of DW-MR images and quantitatively with conventional ADC and normalized ADC measurements using liver and spleen as reference organs. Results: All cholangiocarcinomas (28/28; 100%) were visible on DW-MR images. DW-MRI yielded best conspicuity of cholangiocarcinomas than the other MRI sequences (P < 0.001). Seven cholangiocarcinomas (7/11; 64%) showed hypointense central area on DW-MR images. Conventional ADC value of cholangiocarcinomas (1.042 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s ± 0.221 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; range: 0.616 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s to 2.050 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly lower than that of apparently normal hepatic parenchyma (1.362 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s ± 0.187 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.0001), although substantial overlap was found. No significant differences in ADC and normalized ADC values were found between intrahepatic and hilar cholangiocarcinomas. The use of normalized ADC using the liver as reference organ resulted in the most restricted

  2. Intrahepatic and hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma: Qualitative and quantitative evaluation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • DW-MR imaging helps depicts all intrahepatic or hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas. • DW-MRI provides best conspicuity of intrahepatic or hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas than the other MRI sequences (P < 0.001). • The use of normalized ADC using the liver as reference organ results in the most restricted distribution of ADC values of intrahepatic or hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas (variation coefficient = 16.6%). - Abstract: Objective: To qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the presentation of intrahepatic and hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Materials and methods: Twenty-eight patients with histopathologically proven mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma (hilar, n = 17; intrahepatic, n = 11) underwent hepatic DW-MRI at 1.5-T using free-breathing acquisition and three b-values (0,400,800 s/mm2). Cholangiocarcinomas were evaluated qualitatively using visual analysis of DW-MR images and quantitatively with conventional ADC and normalized ADC measurements using liver and spleen as reference organs. Results: All cholangiocarcinomas (28/28; 100%) were visible on DW-MR images. DW-MRI yielded best conspicuity of cholangiocarcinomas than the other MRI sequences (P < 0.001). Seven cholangiocarcinomas (7/11; 64%) showed hypointense central area on DW-MR images. Conventional ADC value of cholangiocarcinomas (1.042 × 10−3 mm2/s ± 0.221 × 10−3 mm2/s; range: 0.616 × 10−3 mm2/s to 2.050 × 10−3 mm2/s) was significantly lower than that of apparently normal hepatic parenchyma (1.362 × 10−3 mm2/s ± 0.187 × 10−3 mm2/s) (P < 0.0001), although substantial overlap was found. No significant differences in ADC and normalized ADC values were found between intrahepatic and hilar cholangiocarcinomas. The use of normalized ADC using the liver as reference organ resulted in the most restricted distribution of ADC values of cholangiocarcinomas (variation coefficient = 16

  3. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chughtai, K; Jiang, L.; Greenwood, T.R.; Glunde, K.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The lipid compositions of different breast tumor microenvironments are largely unknown due to limitations in lipid imaging techniques. Imaging lipid distributions would enhance our understanding of processes occurring inside growing tumors, such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis

  4. Visibility of microcalcification clusters and masses in breast tomosynthesis image volumes and digital mammography: A 4AFC human observer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the visibility of simulated lesions in digital breast tomosynthesis (BT) image volumes compared with 2D digital mammography (DM). Methods: Simulated lesions (masses and microcalcifications) were added to images of the same women acquired on a DM system (Mammomat Novation, Siemens) and a BT prototype. The same beam quality was used for the DM and BT acquisitions. The total absorbed dose resulting from a 25-projection BT acquisition and reconstruction (BT25) was approximately twice that of a single DM view. By excluding every other projection image from the reconstruction (BT13), approximately the same dose as in DM was effected. Simulated microcalcifications were digitally added with varying contrast to the DM and BT images. Simulated masses with 8 mm diameter were also added to BT images. A series of 4-alternative forced choice (4AFC) human observer experiments were conducted. Four medical physicists participated in all experiments, each consisting of 60 trials per experimental condition. The observers interpreted the BT image volumes in cine-mode at a fixed image sequence speed. The required threshold contrast (St) to achieve a detectability index (d') of 2.5 (i.e., 92.5% correct decisions) was determined. Results: The St for mass detection in DM was approximately a factor of 2 higher than required in BT indicating that the detection of masses was improved under BT conditions compared to DM. St for microcalcification detection was higher for BT than for DM at both BT dose levels (BT25 and BT13), with a statistically significant difference in St between DM and BT13. These results indicate a dose-dependent decrease in detection performance in BT for detection of microcalcifications. Conclusions: In agreement with previous investigations, masses of size 8 mm can be detected with less contrast in BT than in DM indicating improved detection performance for BT. However, for the investigated microcalcifications, the results of this study indicate

  5. Focal Pancreatitis Mimicking Pancreatic Mass: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)/Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) Findings Including Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momtahen, A.J.; Balci, N.C.; Alkaade, S.; Akduman, E.I.; Burton, F.R. (Depts. of Radiology and Gastroenterology, St. Louis Univ. Hospitals, St. Louis, MI (US))

    2008-06-15

    Background: Focal pancreatitis (FP) is a confined inflammation that mimics a pancreatic mass. Its imaging diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary procedures. Purpose: To describe the spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) findings of focal pancreatitis mimicking pancreatic masses. Material and Methods: Findings of MRI/MRCP including DWI with a b value of 0 and 600 s/mm2 in 14 patients with pancreatic masses on MRI were retrospectively reviewed and compared to normal pancreas in 14 patients as a control group. Results: FP revealed hypointense signal intensity (SI) (3/14), hypo- to isointense SI (7/14), or isointense SI (4/14) on T1-weighted images, and hypointense SI (1/14), isointense SI (5/14), iso- to hyperintense SI (7/14), or hyperintense SI (1/14) on T2-weighted images compared to remaining pancreas (RP). MRCP images revealed dilatation of the common bile duct (CBD) and main pancreatic duct (MPD) (5/14), dilatation of the MPD only (3/14), dilatation of the CBD only (3/14), and normal MPD and CBD (3/14). Both FP and RP revealed three types of time-signal intensity curves: 1) rapid rise to a peak, with a rapid decline (FP=2, RP=4), 2) slow rise to a peak, followed by a slow decline (FP=5, RP=4), and 3) slower rise to a peak, with a slow decline or plateau (FP=7, RP=6). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for FP and RP were 2.09+-0.18 and 2.03+-0.2x10-3 mm2/s, respectively. ADC values of FP and RP revealed no significant difference. Conclusion: The spectrum of imaging findings of focal pancreatitis on MRI/MRCP including DWI was described. Findings of FP were not distinctive as compared to the remaining pancreas

  6. Optical Projection Tomography Technique for Image Texture and Mass Transport Studies in Hydrogels Based on Gellan Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ana M; Koivisto, Janne T; Parraga, Jenny E; Silva-Correia, Joana; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Reis, Rui L; Kellomäki, Minna; Hyttinen, Jari; Figueiras, Edite

    2016-05-24

    The microstructure and permeability are crucial factors for the development of hydrogels for tissue engineering, since they influence cell nutrition, penetration, and proliferation. The currently available imaging methods able to characterize hydrogels have many limitations. They often require sample drying and other destructive processing, which can change hydrogel structure, or they have limited imaging penetration depth. In this work, we show for the first time an alternative nondestructive method, based on optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging, to characterize hydrated hydrogels without the need of sample processing. As proof of concept, we used gellan gum (GG) hydrogels obtained by several cross-linking methods. Transmission mode OPT was used to analyze image microtextures, and emission mode OPT to study mass transport. Differences in hydrogel structure related to different types of cross-linking and between modified and native GG were found through the acquired Haralick's image texture features followed by multiple discriminant analysis (MDA). In mass transport studies, the mobility of FITC-dextran (MW 20, 150, 2000 kDa) was analyzed through the macroscopic hydrogel. The FITC-dextran velocities were found to be inversely proportional to the size of the dextran as expected. Furthermore, the threshold size in which the transport is affected by the hydrogel mesh was found to be 150 kDa (Stokes' radii between 69 and 95 Å). On the other hand, the mass transport study allowed us to define an index of homogeneity to assess the cross-linking distribution, structure inside the hydrogel, and repeatability of hydrogel production. As a conclusion, we showed that the set of OPT imaging based material characterization methods presented here are useful for screening many characteristics of hydrogel compositions in relatively short time in an inexpensive manner, providing tools for improving the process of designing hydrogels for tissue engineering and drugs

  7. Probing amyloid-β pathology in transgenic Alzheimer's disease (tgArcSwe) mice using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlred, Louise; Michno, Wojciech; Kaya, Ibrahim; Sjövall, Peter; Syvänen, Stina; Hanrieder, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The pathological mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still not understood. The disease pathology is characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into extracellular plaques, however the factors that promote neurotoxic Aβ aggregation remain elusive. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique to comprehensively elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of lipids, peptides and proteins in biological tissues. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS)-based imaging was used to study Aβ deposition in transgenic mouse brain tissue and to elucidate the plaque-associated chemical microenvironment. The imaging experiments were performed in brain sections of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice carrying the Arctic and Swedish mutation of amyloid-beta precursor protein (tgArcSwe). Multivariate image analysis was used to interrogate the IMS data for identifying pathologically relevant, anatomical features based on their chemical identity. This include cortical and hippocampal Aβ deposits, whose amyloid peptide content was further verified using immunohistochemistry and laser microdissection followed by MALDI MS analysis. Subsequent statistical analysis on spectral data of regions of interest revealed brain region-specific differences in Aβ peptide aggregation. Moreover, other plaque-associated protein species were identified including macrophage migration inhibitory factor suggesting neuroinflammatory processes and glial cell reactivity to be involved in AD pathology. The presented data further highlight the potential of IMS as a powerful approach in neuropathology. Hanrieder et al. described an imaging mass spectrometry based study on comprehensive spatial profiling of C-terminally truncated Aβ species within individual plaques in tgArcSwe mice. Here, brain region-dependent differences in Aβ truncation and other plaque-associated proteins, such as

  8. DISCOVERY OF A PROBABLE 4-5 JUPITER-MASS EXOPLANET TO HD 95086 BY DIRECT IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct imaging has only begun to inventory the population of gas giant planets on wide orbits around young stars in the solar neighborhood. Following this approach, we carried out a deep imaging survey in the near-infrared using VLT/NaCo to search for substellar companions. Here we report the discovery of a probable companion orbiting the young (10-17 Myr), dusty, early-type (A8) star HD 95086 at 56 AU in L' (3.8 μm) images. This discovery is based on observations with more than a year time lapse. Our first epoch clearly revealed the source at ≅ 10σ, while our second epoch lacks good observing conditions, yielding a ≅ 3σ detection. Various tests were thus made to rule out possible artifacts. This recovery is consistent with the signal at the first epoch but requires cleaner confirmation. Nevertheless, our astrometric precision suggests that the companion is comoving with the star with a 3σ confidence level. The planetary nature of the source is reinforced by a non-detection in the Ks-band (2.18 μm) images according to its possible extremely red Ks-L' color. Conversely, background contamination is rejected with good confidence level. The luminosity yields a predicted mass of about 4-5 MJup (at 10-17 Myr) using ''hot-start'' evolutionary models, making HD 95086 b the exoplanet with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star

  9. Differentiation of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma from hepatocellular carcinoma on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Rihyeon; Shin, Cheong-Il; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Joo, Ijin; Kim, Seong Ho; Hwang, Inpyeong [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Sun; Choi, Byung Ihn [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine the different imaging features of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma (IMCC) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study was institutional review board approved and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with histologically confirmed IMCCs (n = 46) or HCCs (n = 58) were included. Imaging features of IMCCs and HCCs on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI including T2- and T1-weighted, diffusion weighted images, dynamic study and hepatobiliary phase (HBP) images were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify relevant differentiating features between IMCCs and HCCs. Multivariate analysis revealed heterogeneous T2 signal intensity and a hypointense rim on the HBP as suggestive findings of IMCCs and the wash-in and ''portal wash-out'' enhancement pattern as well as focal T1 high signal intensity foci as indicative of HCCs (all, p < 0.05). When we combined any three of the above four imaging features, we were able to diagnose IMCCs with 94 % (43/46) sensitivity and 86 % (50/58) specificity. Combined interpretation of enhancement characteristics including HBP images, morphologic features, and strict application of the ''portal wash-out'' pattern helped more accurate discrimination of IMCCs from HCCs. (orig.)

  10. Determination of agrochemical compounds in soya plants by imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Alexander K; Clench, Malcolm R; Crosland, Susan; Sharples, Kate R

    2005-01-01

    Detection and imaging of the herbicide mesotrione (2-(4-mesyl-2-nitrobenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione) and the fungicide azoxystrobin (methyl (E)-2-{2-[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yloxy]phenyl}-3-methoxyacrylate), on the surface of the soya leaf, and the detection and imaging of azoxystrobin inside the stem of the soya plant, have been achieved using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In leaf analysis experiments, the two pesticides were deposited onto the surface of individual soya leaves on growing plants. The soya leaves were removed and prepared for direct and indirect (following blotting onto matrix-coated cellulose membranes) imaging analysis at different periods after initial pesticide application. In stem analysis experiments, azoxystrobin was added to the nutrient solution of a soya plant growing in a hydroponics system. The plant was left for 48 h, and then horizontal and vertical stem sections were prepared for direct imaging analysis. The images obtained demonstrate the applicability of MALDI imaging to the detection and imaging of small organic compounds in plant tissue and further extend the analytical repertoire of the versatile MALDI technique. PMID:16106343

  11. HIghMass -- High HI Mass, HI-rich Galaxies at z~0: Sample Definition, Optical and Halpha Imaging, and Star Formation Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Shan; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael G; Adams, Elizabeth A; Brinchmann, Jarle; Chengalur, Jayaram N; Hunt, Leslie K; Masters, Karen L; Matsushita, Satoki; Saintonge, Amelie; Spekkens, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    We present first results of the study of a set of exceptional HI sources identified in the 40% ALFALFA extragalactic HI survey catalog alpha.40 as being both HI massive (M_HI > 10^10 Msun) and having high gas fractions for their stellar masses: the HIghMass galaxy sample. We analyze UV- and optical-broadband and Halpha images to understand the nature of their relatively underluminous disks in optical and to test whether their high gas fractions can be tracked to higher dark matter halo spin parameters or late gas accretion. Estimates of their star formation rates (SFRs) based on SED-fitting agree within uncertainties with the Halpha luminosity inferred SFRs. The HII region luminosity functions have standard slopes at the luminous end. The global SFRs demonstrate that the HIghMass galaxies exhibit active ongoing star formation (SF) with moderate SF efficiency, but relative to normal spirals, a lower integrated SFR in the past. Because the SF activity in these systems is spread throughout their extended disks, ...

  12. A Search for Early Optical Emission at Gamma-Ray Burst Locations by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    CERN Document Server

    Buffington, A; Jackson, B V; Hick, P P; Smith, A C; Buffington, Andrew; Band, David L.; Jackson, Bernard V.; Smith, Aaron C.

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) views nearly every point on the sky once every 102 minutes and can detect point sources as faint as R~10th magnitude. Therefore, SMEI can detect or provide upper limits for the optical afterglow from gamma-ray bursts in the tens of minutes after the burst when different shocked regions may emit optically. Here we provide upper limits for 58 bursts between 2003 February and 2005 April.

  13. Synovial fluid protein adsorption on polymer-based artificial hip joint material investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie M. Fröhlich; Victoria Dorrer; Vasiliki-Maria Archodoulaki; Günter Allmaier; Martina Marchetti-Deschmann

    2014-01-01

    UHMW-PE (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene), most frequently used material in acetabular cup replacement, is affected by the interaction with its surrounding synovial fluid. It is assumed that protein layer formation is of high importance for lubrication, however alters polymer characteristics. This study investigates in vitro protein adsorption on gamma-irradiated and Vitamin E doped UHMW-PE using synovia as modeling system. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry imaging showed adso...

  14. Detergent enhancement of on-tissue protein analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mainini, Veronica; Angel, Peggi M; Magni, Fulvio; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is a molecular technology that allows simultaneous investigation of the content and spatial distribution of molecules within tissue. In this work, we examine different classes of detergents, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the nonionic detergents Triton X-100, Tween 20 and Tween 80, and the zwitterionic 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) for use in MALDI IMS of analytes...

  15. Characterizing the Star Formation of the Low-Mass SHIELD Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Cannon, John M.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Haynes, Martha P.; Simones, Jacob E.; Salzer, John J.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Elson, Ed C.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Ott, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ~10% of the HI ALFALFA survey based on their low HI mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star-formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color-magni...

  16. Sonographic findings of axillary masses: what can be imaged in this space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Eun; Sohn, Yu-Mee; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2013-07-01

    The diagnosis of axillary masses can be challenging because various tumors can develop in parts of the axilla other than lymph nodes, even though we frequently encounter axillary masses in daily practice. These lesions include soft tissue masses associated with nontumorous conditions (accessory breast tissue and chronic granulomatous inflammation) and benign and malignant tumorous conditions (lipomas, epidermal inclusion cysts, lymphangiomas, fibroadenomas, schwannomas, malignant neuroendocrine tumors, and lymph node-associated diseases). In this pictorial essay, we display commonly encountered sonographic findings of various axillary lesions to assist in the differential diagnosis of axillary masses. PMID:23804349

  17. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Molecular Distributions in Cultured Neurons and Their Processes: Comparative Analysis of Sample Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin R.; Li, Zhen; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2012-11-01

    Neurons often exhibit a complex chemical distribution and topography; therefore, sample preparation protocols that preserve structures ranging from relatively large cell somata to small neurites and growth cones are important factors in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging studies. Here, SIMS was used to investigate the subcellular localization of lipids and lipophilic species in neurons from Aplysia californica. Using individual neurons cultured on silicon wafers, we compared and optimized several SIMS sampling approaches. After an initial step to remove the high salt culturing media, formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde, and glycerol, and various combinations thereof, were tested for their ability to achieve cell stabilization during and after the removal of extracellular media. These treatments improved the preservation of cellular morphology as visualized with SIMS imaging. For analytes >250 Da, coating the cell surface with a 3.2 nm-thick gold layer increased the ion intensity; multiple analytes previously not observed or observed at low abundance were detected, including intact cholesterol and vitamin E molecular ions. However, once a sample was coated, many of the lower molecular mass (cultured neurons over a broad mass range with enhanced image contrast.

  18. Classification of mass and normal breast tissue: A convolution neural network classifier with spatial domain and texture images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the classification of regions of interest (ROI's) on mammograms as either mass or normal tissue using a convolution neural network (CNN). A CNN is a back-propagation neural network with two-dimensional (2-D) weight kernels that operate on images. A generalized, fast and stable implementation of the CNN was developed. The input images to the CNN were obtained form the ROI's using two techniques. The first technique employed averaging and subsampling. The second technique employed texture feature extraction methods applied to small subregions inside the ROI. Features computed over different subregions were arranged as texture images, which were subsequently used as CNN inputs. The effects of CNN architecture and texture feature parameters on classification accuracy were studied. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology was used to evaluate the classification accuracy. A data set consisting of 168 ROI's containing biopsy-proven masses and 504 ROI's containing normal breast tissue was extracted from 168 mammograms by radiologists experienced in mammography. This data set was used for training and testing the CNN. With the best combination of CNN architecture and texture feature parameters, the area under the test ROC curve reached 0.87, which corresponded to a true-positive fraction of 90% at a false positive fraction of 31%. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using a CNN for classification of masses and normal tissue on mammograms

  19. Final LDRD report : development of sample preparation methods for ChIPMA-based imaging mass spectrometry of tissue samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this short-term LDRD project was to acquire the tools needed to use our chemical imaging precision mass analyzer (ChIPMA) instrument to analyze tissue samples. This effort was an outgrowth of discussions with oncologists on the need to find the cellular origin of signals in mass spectra of serum samples, which provide biomarkers for ovarian cancer. The ultimate goal would be to collect chemical images of biopsy samples allowing the chemical images of diseased and nondiseased sections of a sample to be compared. The equipment needed to prepare tissue samples have been acquired and built. This equipment includes an cyro-ultramicrotome for preparing thin sections of samples and a coating unit. The coating unit uses an electrospray system to deposit small droplets of a UV-photo absorbing compound on the surface of the tissue samples. Both units are operational. The tissue sample must be coated with the organic compound to enable matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and matrix enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) measurements with the ChIPMA instrument Initial plans to test the sample preparation using human tissue samples required development of administrative procedures beyond the scope of this LDRD. Hence, it was decided to make two types of measurements: (1) Testing the spatial resolution of ME-SIMS by preparing a substrate coated with a mixture of an organic matrix and a bio standard and etching a defined pattern in the coating using a liquid metal ion beam, and (2) preparing and imaging C. elegans worms. Difficulties arose in sectioning the C. elegans for analysis and funds and time to overcome these difficulties were not available in this project. The facilities are now available for preparing biological samples for analysis with the ChIPMA instrument. Some further investment of time and resources in sample preparation should make this a useful tool for chemical imaging applications.

  20. Investigation by imaging mass spectrometry of biomarker candidates for aging in the hair cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiko Luca Waki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human hair is one of the essential components that define appearance and is a useful source of samples for non-invasive biomonitoring. We describe a novel application of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS of hair biomolecules for advanced molecular characterization and a better understanding of hair aging. As a cosmetic and biomedical application, molecules whose levels in hair altered with aging were comprehensively investigated. METHODS: Human hair was collected from 15 young (20±5 years old and 15 older (50±5 years old volunteers. Matrix-free laser desorption/ionization IMS was used to visualize molecular distribution in the hair sections. Hair-specific ions displaying a significant difference in the intensities between the 2 age groups were extracted as candidate markers for aging. Tissue localization of the molecules and alterations in their levels in the cortex and medulla in the young and old groups were determined. RESULTS: Among the 31 molecules detected specifically in hair sections, 2--one at m/z 153.00, tentatively assigned to be dihydrouracil, and the other at m/z 207.04, identified to be 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DHMA--exhibited a higher signal intensity in the young group than in the old, and 1 molecule at m/z 164.00, presumed to be O-phosphoethanolamine, displayed a higher intensity in the old group. Among the 3, putative O-phosphoethanolamine showed a cortex-specific distribution. The 3 molecules in cortex presented the same pattern of alteration in signal intensity with aging, whereas those in medulla did not exhibit significant alteration. CONCLUSION: Three molecules whose levels in hair altered with age were extracted. While they are all possible markers for aging, putative dihydrouracil and DHMA, are also suspected to play a role in maintaining hair properties and could be targets for cosmetic supplementation. Mapping of ion localization in hair by IMS is a powerful method to extract biomolecules in specified

  1. Imaging chemical differentiation around the low-mass protostar L483-mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, J. K.

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a millimeter wavelength aperture-synthesis study of the spatial variations of the chemistry in the envelope around the deeply embedded low-mass protostar L483-mm on ˜1000 AU (5 arcsec) scales. Lines of 8 molecular species including CN, C18O, CS, C34S, HCN, H13CN, HCO+ and N2H+ have been observed using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array. Continuum emission at 2.7-3.4 mm is well-fit by an envelope model based on previously reported submillimeter continuum images down to the sensitivity of the interferometer without introducing a disk/compact source, in contrast to what is seen for other protostellar objects. A velocity gradient in dense material close to the central protostar is traced by HCN, CS and N2H+, and is perpendicular to the large-scale CO outflow, with a pattern consistent with rotation around a ˜1 M⊙ central object. Velocity gradients in the propagation direction of the outflow suggest a clear interaction between the outflowing material and ``quiescent'' core. Significant differences are observed between the emission morphologies of various molecular species. The C18O interferometer observations are fit with a ``drop'' abundance profile where CO is frozen-out in a region of the envelope with temperatures lower than 40 K and densities higher than 1.5 × 105 cm-3, which is also required to reproduce previously reported single-dish observations. The N2H+ emission strongly resembles that of NH3 and is found to be absent toward the central continuum source. This is a direct consequence of the high CO abundances in the inner region as illustrated by a chemical model for the L483 envelope. The observed CN emission forms a spatial borderline between the outflowing and quiescent material probed by, respectively, HCO+ and N2H+, and also shows intermediate velocities compared to these two species. A scenario is suggested in which CN is enhanced in the walls of an outflow cavity due to the impact of UV irradiation either from

  2. Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Abdomino-Pelvic Masses: Role of Multimodality Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayanadh Ojili; Sree Harsha Tirumani; Chintapalli, Kedar N.; Gowthaman Gunabushanam

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in radiology have greatly increased the ability to make highly accurate diagnosis. Biopsy of many commonly seen lesions is no longer performed as the radiological findings are pathognomonic. This gives rise to the concept of ′virtual biopsy′, a term coined on the lines of other imaging techniques such as virtual colonoscopy. Virtual biopsy is not a new imaging technique but a new concept which refers to the use of existing imaging modalities to evaluate the morphological featu...

  3. Intraventricular mass lesions at magnetic resonance imaging: iconographic essay - part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Felipe Damasio de; Reis, Fabiano; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Giocondo, E-mail: fdamasiocastro@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    The present essay is illustrated with magnetic resonance images obtained at the authors’ institution over the past 15 years and discusses the main imaging findings of intraventricular tumor-like lesions (colloid cyst, oligodendroglioma, astroblastoma, lipoma, cavernoma) and of inflammatory/infectious lesions (neurocysticercosis and an atypical presentation of neurohistoplasmosis). Such lesions represent a subgroup of intracranial lesions with unique characteristics and some imaging patterns that may facilitate the differential diagnosis. (author)

  4. Intraventricular mass lesions at magnetic resonance imaging: iconographic essay - part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present essay is illustrated with magnetic resonance images obtained at the authors’ institution over the past 15 years and discusses the main imaging findings of intraventricular tumor-like lesions (colloid cyst, oligodendroglioma, astroblastoma, lipoma, cavernoma) and of inflammatory/infectious lesions (neurocysticercosis and an atypical presentation of neurohistoplasmosis). Such lesions represent a subgroup of intracranial lesions with unique characteristics and some imaging patterns that may facilitate the differential diagnosis. (author)

  5. HIghMass-high H I mass, H I-rich galaxies at z ∼ 0 sample definition, optical and Hα imaging, and star formation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shan; Matsushita, Satoki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael G.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Chengalur, Jayaram N. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Pune 411007 (India); Hunt, Leslie K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo East Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Masters, Karen L. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth POI 3FX (United Kingdom); Saintonge, Amelie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Spekkens, Kristine, E-mail: shan@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2014-09-20

    We present first results of the study of a set of exceptional H I sources identified in the 40% ALFALFA extragalactic H I survey catalog α.40 as both being H I massive (M{sub HI}>10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) and having high gas fractions for their stellar masses: the HIghMass galaxy sample. We analyze UV- and optical-broadband and Hα images to understand the nature of their relatively underluminous disks in optical and to test whether their high gas fractions can be tracked to higher dark matter halo spin parameters or late gas accretion. Estimates of their star formation rates (SFRs) based on spectral energy distribution fitting agree within uncertainties with the Hα luminosity inferred current massive SFRs. The H II region luminosity functions, parameterized as dN/dlog L∝L {sup α}, have standard slopes at the luminous end (α ∼ –1). The global SFRs demonstrate that the HIghMass galaxies exhibit active ongoing star formation (SF) with moderate SF efficiency but, relative to normal spirals, a lower integrated SFR in the past. Because the SF activity in these systems is spread throughout their extended disks, they have overall lower SFR surface densities and lower surface brightness in the optical bands. Relative to normal disk galaxies, the majority of HIghMass galaxies have higher Hα equivalent widths and are bluer in their outer disks, implying an inside-out disk growth scenario. Downbending double exponential disks are more frequent than upbending disks among the gas-rich galaxies, suggesting that SF thresholds exist in the downbending disks, probably as a result of concentrated gas distribution.

  6. HIghMass-high H I mass, H I-rich galaxies at z ∼ 0 sample definition, optical and Hα imaging, and star formation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present first results of the study of a set of exceptional H I sources identified in the 40% ALFALFA extragalactic H I survey catalog α.40 as both being H I massive (MHI>1010 M⊙) and having high gas fractions for their stellar masses: the HIghMass galaxy sample. We analyze UV- and optical-broadband and Hα images to understand the nature of their relatively underluminous disks in optical and to test whether their high gas fractions can be tracked to higher dark matter halo spin parameters or late gas accretion. Estimates of their star formation rates (SFRs) based on spectral energy distribution fitting agree within uncertainties with the Hα luminosity inferred current massive SFRs. The H II region luminosity functions, parameterized as dN/dlog L∝L α, have standard slopes at the luminous end (α ∼ –1). The global SFRs demonstrate that the HIghMass galaxies exhibit active ongoing star formation (SF) with moderate SF efficiency but, relative to normal spirals, a lower integrated SFR in the past. Because the SF activity in these systems is spread throughout their extended disks, they have overall lower SFR surface densities and lower surface brightness in the optical bands. Relative to normal disk galaxies, the majority of HIghMass galaxies have higher Hα equivalent widths and are bluer in their outer disks, implying an inside-out disk growth scenario. Downbending double exponential disks are more frequent than upbending disks among the gas-rich galaxies, suggesting that SF thresholds exist in the downbending disks, probably as a result of concentrated gas distribution.

  7. Congenital diaphragmatic eventration as a cause of anterior mediastinal mass in the children: imaging modalities and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital eventration of the diaphragm, as a cause of mediastinal mass, is an unusual condition and it may be unilateral or bilateral. Although this entity is frequently asymptomatic and firstly detected on the chest radiography, it may be difficult to distinguish a partial eventration from the other diaphragmatic lesions or mediastinal pathologies on the chest radiographs. US may present valuable information about diaphragm integrity with eventration content or the other diaphragmatic pathologies. Although the other imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy, computed tomography, and MR imaging may be performed as adjunct techniques in cases of the diagnosis still in doubt, they are frequently unnecessary after US. Our goal is to present imaging features and management of this entity together with a literature review

  8. Congenital diaphragmatic eventration as a cause of anterior mediastinal mass in the children: imaging modalities and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, Suat E-mail: erensuat@hotmail.com; Ceviz, Naci; Alper, Fatih

    2004-07-01

    Congenital eventration of the diaphragm, as a cause of mediastinal mass, is an unusual condition and it may be unilateral or bilateral. Although this entity is frequently asymptomatic and firstly detected on the chest radiography, it may be difficult to distinguish a partial eventration from the other diaphragmatic lesions or mediastinal pathologies on the chest radiographs. US may present valuable information about diaphragm integrity with eventration content or the other diaphragmatic pathologies. Although the other imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy, computed tomography, and MR imaging may be performed as adjunct techniques in cases of the diagnosis still in doubt, they are frequently unnecessary after US. Our goal is to present imaging features and management of this entity together with a literature review.

  9. Microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging with a Timepix detector.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.; Jungmann, JH; Smith, D.F.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In-vacuum active pixel detectors enable high sensitivity, highly parallel time- and space-resolved detection of ions from complex surfaces. For the first time, a Timepix detector assembly was combined with a secondary ion mass spectrometer for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) i

  10. Development and application of a channelized Hotelling observer for DBT optimization on structured background test images with mass simulating targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dimitar; Michielsen, Koen; Cockmartin, Lesley; Zhang, Gouzhi; Young, Kenneth; Marshall, Nicholas; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D mammography technique that promises better visualization of low contrast lesions than conventional 2D mammography. A wide range of parameters influence the diagnostic information in DBT images and a systematic means of DBT system optimization is needed. The gold standard for image quality assessment is to perform a human observer experiment with experienced readers. Using human observers for optimization is time consuming and not feasible for the large parameter space of DBT. Our goal was to develop a model observer (MO) that can predict human reading performance for standard detection tasks of target objects within a structured phantom and subsequently apply it in a first comparative study. The phantom consists of an acrylic semi-cylindrical container with acrylic spheres of different sizes and the remaining space filled with water. Three types of lesions were included: 3D printed spiculated and non-spiculated mass lesions along with calcification groups. The images of the two mass lesion types were reconstructed with 3 different reconstruction methods (FBP, FBP with SRSAR, MLTRpr) and read by human readers. A Channelized Hotelling model observer was created for the non-spiculated lesion detection task using five Laguerre-Gauss channels, tuned for better performance. For the non-spiculated mass lesions a linear relation between the MO and human observer results was found, with correlation coefficients of 0.956 for standard FBP, 0.998 for FBP with SRSAR and 0.940 for MLTRpr. Both the MO and human observer percentage correct results for the spiculated masses were close to 100%, and showed no difference from each other for every reconstruction algorithm.

  11. Arterial spin labeling MR imaging for characterisation of renal masses in patients with impaired renal function: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, Ivan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Rafatzand, Khashayar; Robson, Philip; Alsop, David C. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wagner, Andrew A. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Surgery, Division of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Atkins, Michael B. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Hematology/Oncology, Boston, MA (United States); Rofsky, Neil M. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Departments of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of vascularity of renal masses in patients with impaired renal function. Between May 2007 and November 2008, 11/67 consecutive patients referred for MRI evaluation of a renal mass underwent unenhanced ASL-MRI due to moderate-to-severe chronic or acute renal failure. Mean blood flow in vascularised and non-vascularised lesions and the relation between blood flow and final diagnosis of malignancy were correlated with a 2-sided homogeneous variance t-test and the Fisher Exact Test, respectively. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Seventeen renal lesions were evaluated in 11 patients (8 male; mean age = 70 years) (range 57-86). The median eGFR was 24 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} (range 7-39). The average blood flow of 11 renal masses interpreted as ASL-positive (134 +/- 85.7 mL/100 g/min) was higher than that of 6 renal masses interpreted as ASL-negative (20.5 +/- 8.1 mL/100 g/min)(p = 0.015). ASL-positivity correlated with malignancy (n = 3) or epithelial atypia (n = 1) at histopathology or progression at follow up (n = 7). ASL detection of vascularity in renal masses in patients with impaired renal function is feasible and seems to indicate neoplasia although the technique requires further evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative Mass Density Image Reconstructed from the Complex X-Ray Refractive Index

    OpenAIRE

    Mukaide, Taihei; Iida, Atsuo; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Takada, Kazuhiro; Noma, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a new analytical X-ray computed tomography technique for visualizing and quantifying the mass density of materials comprised of low atomic number elements with unknown atomic ratios. The mass density was obtained from the experimentally observed ratio of the imaginary and real parts of the complex X-ray refractive index. An empirical linear relationship between the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of the materials and X-ray energy was found for X-ray energies between 8 keV an...

  13. Comparison of Computed Tomography Histogram Analysis and Chemical-Shift Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Adrenal Mass Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently used modalities for adrenal mass characterization. However, it is not yet clear which modality can be regarded as most sensitive in terms of adrenal mass characterization. Purpose: To prospectively compare CT histogram analysis and chemical-shift MRI in the characterization of adrenal masses. Material and Methods: Between May 2007 and November 2008, 93 patients (45 males, 48 females; mean age 56.7 years, range 22-85 years) with 109 adrenal masses prospectively underwent both unenhanced CT and chemical-shift MRI examinations. These masses consisted of 67 adenomas and 42 metastases. Histogram analysis was applied with a circular region of interest (ROI) that recorded mean attenuation, total number of pixels, number of negative pixels, and the percentage of negative pixels on unenhanced CT images for each adrenal mass. In the CT histogram analysis, a 10% negative pixel threshold for unenhanced CT was calculated. In chemical-shift MRI, signal intensity drop between in-phase and opposed-phase images was quantitatively calculated so that adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratios and adrenal signal intensity indexes were determined for each of the adrenal masses. A mass was regarded as an adenoma if it contained more than 10% negative pixels by CT histogram analysis, showed an adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio of less than 0.71, and had an adrenal signal intensity index of more than 16.5% by chemical-shift MRI. The results were compared to reveal which method was most sensitive in the diagnosis of adrenal masses and whether or not a correlation exists between these two modalities. Final diagnoses were based on imaging follow-up of minimum 6 months, biopsy, surgery, and adrenal washout study. Results: On unenhanced CT examinations, all of the 67 adenomas and 21 out of 42 metastases exhibited negative pixels. None of the metastases showed more than 10

  14. Comparison of Computed Tomography Histogram Analysis and Chemical-Shift Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Adrenal Mass Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halefoglu, A.M.; Yasar, A.; Bas, N.; Ozel, A.; Erturk, S.M.; Basak, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Sisli, Istanbul (Turkey))

    2009-11-15

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently used modalities for adrenal mass characterization. However, it is not yet clear which modality can be regarded as most sensitive in terms of adrenal mass characterization. Purpose: To prospectively compare CT histogram analysis and chemical-shift MRI in the characterization of adrenal masses. Material and Methods: Between May 2007 and November 2008, 93 patients (45 males, 48 females; mean age 56.7 years, range 22-85 years) with 109 adrenal masses prospectively underwent both unenhanced CT and chemical-shift MRI examinations. These masses consisted of 67 adenomas and 42 metastases. Histogram analysis was applied with a circular region of interest (ROI) that recorded mean attenuation, total number of pixels, number of negative pixels, and the percentage of negative pixels on unenhanced CT images for each adrenal mass. In the CT histogram analysis, a 10% negative pixel threshold for unenhanced CT was calculated. In chemical-shift MRI, signal intensity drop between in-phase and opposed-phase images was quantitatively calculated so that adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratios and adrenal signal intensity indexes were determined for each of the adrenal masses. A mass was regarded as an adenoma if it contained more than 10% negative pixels by CT histogram analysis, showed an adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio of less than 0.71, and had an adrenal signal intensity index of more than 16.5% by chemical-shift MRI. The results were compared to reveal which method was most sensitive in the diagnosis of adrenal masses and whether or not a correlation exists between these two modalities. Final diagnoses were based on imaging follow-up of minimum 6 months, biopsy, surgery, and adrenal washout study. Results: On unenhanced CT examinations, all of the 67 adenomas and 21 out of 42 metastases exhibited negative pixels. None of the metastases showed more than 10

  15. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of primary solid and cystic renal masses using the Bosniak classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our purpose was to determine whether quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) could be used in discrimination of benign and malignant primary solid and cystic renal tumors. Materials and methods: A total of 105 consecutive patients with renal masses and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this prospective study. Dynamic contrast enhanced routin renal images and DWI (with b factors of 0, 500 and 1000 s/mm2) was performed at 1.5 T unit. Renal masses were divided into two groups as cystic or solid and all cystic lesions were prospectively assigned to a Bosniak classification number. The median apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values along with b 500 and 1000 signal intensities of normal kidneys, solid components of mixed renal masses and total of cystic lesions were calculated. Results: The mean ADC value of normal renal parenchyma in control group was 2.18 ± 0.13 × 10−3 mm2/s. Solid renal tumors had significant lower ADC values (median: 1.16 ± 0.27 × 10−3 mm2/s), in contrast to cystic tumors (median: 2.73 ± 0.44 × 10−3 mm2/s). The mean ADC value of the Bosniak Category I cysts was significantly higher (3.09 ± 0.14 × 10−3 mm2/s) than normal renal parenchyma (p −3 mm2/s) was significantly higher than that of papillary cell carcinoma (0.90 ± 0.16 × 10−3 mm2/s) and clear cell carcinoma (1.23 ± 0.13 × 10−3 mm2/s). Conclusion: Accurate assessment of renal masses is important for establishing whether tumors require surgical intervention or not. While MRI is a useful modality as an investigative tool for diagnosing, characterizing and staging renal masses, DWI contributes additional value by promising differentiation benign from malignant renal tumors, even histologically subtyping of renal cell cancer.

  16. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    .02 Da. With a mass resolving power of 140 000 and a bin width of 5 ppm in the image processing, the two compounds were well resolved in full-scan mode, and appeared with different distributions in the tissue sections. The identities of the compounds and their distributions were validated in a subsequent...... saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues....

  17. OGLE-2012-BLG-0563Lb: a Saturn-mass Planet around an M Dwarf with the Mass Constrained by Subaru AO imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fukui, A; Sumi, T; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Han, C; Suzuki, D; Beaulieu, J -P; Batista, V; Udalski, A; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y; Hundertmark, M; Abe, F; Freeman, M; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Koshimoto, N; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Philpott, L C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, T; Sullivan, D J; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Choi, J -Y; Christie, G W; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Drummond, J; Gaudi, B S; Hwang, K -H; Kavka, A; Lee, C U; McCormick, J; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shin, I-G; Tan, T -G; Yee, J C; Szymański, M K; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Poleski, R; Kozłowski, S; Pietrukowicz, P; Ulaczyk, K; Bramich, Ł Wyrzykowski D M; Browne, P; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a microlensing exoplanet OGLE-2012-BLG-0563Lb with the planet-star mass ratio ~1 x 10^{-3}. Intensive photometric observations of a high-magnification microlensing event allow us to detect a clear signal of the planet. Although no parallax signal is detected in the light curve, we instead succeed at detecting the flux from the host star in high-resolution JHK'-band images obtained by the Subaru/AO188 and IRCS instruments, allowing us to constrain the absolute physical parameters of the planetary system. With the help of a spectroscopic information of the source star obtained during the high-magnification state by Bensby et al. (2013), we find that the lens system is located at 1.3^{+0.6}_{-0.8} kpc from us, and consists of an M dwarf (0.34^{+0.12}_{-0.20} M_sun) orbited by a Saturn-mass planet (0.39^{+0.14}_{-0.23} M_Jup) at the projected separation of 0.74^{+0.26}_{-0.42} AU (close model) or 4.3^{+1.5}_{-2.5} AU (wide model). The probability of contamination in the host star's flux...

  18. Probabilistic Segmentation of Mass Spectrometry (MS) Images Helps Select Important Ions and Characterize Confidence in the Resulting Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Kyle D; Harry, April; Eberlin, Livia S; Ferreira, Christina R; van de Ven, Stephanie M; Mallick, Parag; Stolowitz, Mark; Vitek, Olga

    2016-05-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging is a powerful tool for investigating the spatial distribution of chemical compounds in a biological sample such as tissue. Two common goals of these experiments are unsupervised segmentation of images into newly discovered homogeneous segments and supervised classification of images into predefined classes. In both cases, the important secondary goals are to characterize the uncertainty associated with the segmentation and with the classification and to characterize the spectral features that define each segment or class. Recent analysis methods have focused on the spatial structure of the data to improve results. However, they either do not address these secondary goals or do this with separate post hoc procedures.We introduce spatial shrunken centroids, a statistical model-based framework for both supervised classification and unsupervised segmentation. It takes as input sets of previously detected, aligned, quantified, and normalized spectral features and expresses both spatial and multivariate nature of the data using probabilistic modeling. It selects informative subsets of spectral features that define each unsupervised segment or supervised class and quantifies and visualizes the uncertainty in spatial segmentations and in tissue classification. In the unsupervised setting, it also guides the choice of an appropriate number of segments. We demonstrate the usefulness of this framework in a supervised human renal cell carcinoma experimental dataset and several unsupervised experimental datasets, including a pig fetus cross-section, three rodent brains, and a controlled image with known ground truth. This framework is available for use within the open-source R package Cardinal as part of a full pipeline for the processing, visualization, and statistical analysis of mass spectrometry imaging experiments. PMID:26796117

  19. The TRENDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey. VI. Discovery of a Mass, Age, and Metallicity Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R; Bechter, Eric B; Montet, Benjamin T; Johnson, John Asher; Piskorz, Danielle; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The mass and age of substellar objects are degenerate parameters leaving the evolutionary state of brown dwarfs ambiguous without additional information. Theoretical models are normally used to help distinguish between old, massive brown dwarfs and young, low mass brown dwarfs but these models have yet to be properly calibrated. We have carried out an infrared high-contrast imaging program with the goal of detecting substellar objects as companions to nearby stars to help break degeneracies in inferred physical properties such as mass, age, and composition. Rather than using imaging observations alone, our targets are pre-selected based on the existence of dynamical accelerations informed from years of stellar radial velocity (RV) measurements. In this paper, we present the discovery of a rare benchmark brown dwarf orbiting the nearby ($d=18.69\\pm0.19$ pc), solar-type (G9V) star HD 4747 ([Fe/H]=$-0.22\\pm0.04$) with a projected separation of only $\\rho=11.3\\pm0.2$ AU ($\\theta \\approx$ 0.6''). Precise Doppler m...

  20. A New Method to Diagnose Cancer Based on Image Analysis of Mass Chromatograms of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhentsov А.А.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigation was to develop a technique to diagnose early cancer based on the image analysis of mass chromatograms of volatile organic compounds in urine, and assess its efficacy. Materials and Methods. The patients were grouped by nosological types: lung cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric carcinoma, colon cancer. A control group consisted of healthy individuals. Metabolic profiles of volatile organic compounds of urine were obtained using head space solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography — mass spectrometry method. Results. In accordance with the processed data of mass chromatograms of volatile organic compounds of urine for each patient and their comparison with images of control individuals, we made reference metabolic profiles of oncological diseases. The proposed technique for cancer detection is easy, non-invasive, low labor intensive and affordable. According to the assessment of the results obtained, the method sensitivity is 100%, specificity — 90.62%, type I error probability — 0%, type II error probability — 9.38%. Conclusion. The findings could be used for the further understanding of etiology and pathology of various forms of oncological diseases.

  1. HIGH RESOLUTION H{alpha} IMAGES OF THE BINARY LOW-MASS PROPLYD LV 1 WITH THE MAGELLAN AO SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.-L.; Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Follette, K.; Morzinski, K.; Kopon, D.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R., E-mail: yalinwu@email.arizona.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2013-09-01

    We utilize the new Magellan adaptive optics system (MagAO) to image the binary proplyd LV 1 in the Orion Trapezium at H{alpha}. This is among the first AO results in visible wavelengths. The H{alpha} image clearly shows the ionization fronts, the interproplyd shell, and the cometary tails. Our astrometric measurements find no significant relative motion between components over {approx}18 yr, implying that LV 1 is a low-mass system. We also analyze Large Binocular Telescope AO observations, and find a point source which may be the embedded protostar's photosphere in the continuum. Converting the H magnitudes to mass, we show that the LV 1 binary may consist of one very-low-mass star with a likely brown dwarf secondary, or even plausibly a double brown dwarf. Finally, the magnetopause of the minor proplyd is estimated to have a radius of 110 AU, consistent with the location of the bow shock seen in H{alpha}.

  2. Advances in Mass Data Analysis of Images and Signals in Medicine, Biotechnology, Chemistry and Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Perner, Petra; Salvetti, Ovidio

    2008-01-01

    The automatic analysis of signals and images together with the characterization and elaboration of their representation features is still a challenging activity in many relevant scientific and hi-tech fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and chemistry. Multidimensional and multisource signal processing can generate a number of information patterns which can be useful to increase the knowledge of several domains for solving complex problems. Furthermore, advanced signal and image manipulati...

  3. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). VI. Comparing the Mass and Light in MACSJ0416.1-2403 using Frontier Field imaging and GLASS spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoag, Austin; Treu, Tommaso; Bradač, Maruša; Schmidt, Kasper B; Wang, Xin; Brammer, Gabriel B; Broussard, Adam; Amorin, Ricardo; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Schrabback, Tim; Trenti, Michele; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    We present a strong and weak gravitational lens model of the galaxy cluster MACSJ0416.1-2403, constrained using spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) and Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. We search for emission lines in known multiply imaged sources in the GLASS spectra, obtaining secure spectroscopic redshifts of 31 multiple images belonging to 16 distinct source galaxies. The GLASS spectra provide the first spectroscopic measurements for 6 of the source galaxies. The weak lensing signal is acquired from 884 galaxies in the F606W HFF image. By combining the weak lensing constraints with 15 multiple image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and 9 multiple image systems with photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster on an adaptive grid. The resulting total mass density map is compared with a stellar mass density map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields imaging data to study the relative distribution of stellar and total m...

  4. Characterizing the Star Formation of the Low-Mass SHIELD Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew E; Skillman, Evan D; Haynes, Martha P; Simones, Jacob E; Salzer, John J; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Elson, Ed C; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Ott, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ~10% of the HI ALFALFA survey based on their low HI mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star-formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color-magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star-formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star-formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply...

  5. Design and evaluation of a new automated method for the segmentation and characterization of masses on ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Nees, Alexis; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Zhou, Chuan; Shi, Jiazheng

    2008-03-01

    Segmentation of masses is the first step in most computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for characterization of breast masses as malignant or benign. In this study, we designed an automated method for segmentation of masses on ultrasound (US) images. The method automatically estimated an initial contour based on a manually-identified point approximately at the mass center. A two-stage active contour (AC) method iteratively refined the initial contour and performed self-examination and correction on the segmentation result. To evaluate our method, we compared it with manual segmentation by an experienced radiologists (R1) on a data set of 226 US images containing biopsy-proven masses from 121 patients (44 malignant and 77 benign). Four performance measures were used to evaluate the segmentation accuracy; two measures were related to the overlap between the computer and radiologist segmentation, and two were related to the area difference between the two segmentation results. To compare the difference between the segmentation results by the computer and R1 to inter-observer variation, a second radiologist (R2) also manually segmented all masses. The two overlap measures between the segmentation results by the computer and R1 were 0.87+ 0.16 and 0.73+ 0.17 respectively, indicating a high agreement. However, the segmentation results between two radiologists were more consistent. To evaluate the effect of the segmentation method on classification accuracy, three feature spaces were formed by extracting texture, width-to-height, and posterior shadowing features using the computer segmentation, R1's manual segmentation, and R2's manual segmentation. A linear discriminant analysis classifier using stepwise feature selection was tested and trained by a leave-one-case-out method to characterize the masses as malignant or benign. For case-based classification, the area A z under the test receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.90+/-0.03, 0.87+/-0.03 and 0

  6. Medical image of the week: right neck mass with thoracic extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi TA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old female with a history of chronic pancreatitis s/p total pancreatectomy and auto-islet cell transplantation developed a progressively enlarging right neck mass of 4 weeks duration. Coccidioides IgM antibodies were negative and IgG antibodies were positive by immunoassay (EIA, with titers 1:4 by complement fixation (CF. Fine needle aspiration with subsequent excisional biopsy of the right neck mass was performed and showed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia without fungal elements. Bronchoscopy with right upper lobe endobronchial biopsy and 4R lymph node endobronchial ultrasound-fine needle aspiration revealed granulomatous inflammation and Coccidioides spherules on Gomori's methenamine silver stain. Fungal cultures from the right neck mass fine needle aspiration, endobronchial biopsy, and 4R lymph node grew Coccidioides after three weeks of culture.

  7. Improving performance of content-based image retrieval schemes in searching for similar breast mass regions: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to assess three methods commonly used in content-based image retrieval (CBIR) schemes and investigate the approaches to improve scheme performance. A reference database involving 3000 regions of interest (ROIs) was established. Among them, 400 ROIs were randomly selected to form a testing dataset. Three methods, namely mutual information, Pearson's correlation and a multi-feature-based k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm, were applied to search for the 15 'the most similar' reference ROIs to each testing ROI. The clinical relevance and visual similarity of searching results were evaluated using the areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AZ) and average mean square difference (MSD) of the mass boundary spiculation level ratings between testing and selected ROIs, respectively. The results showed that the AZ values were 0.893 ± 0.009, 0.606 ± 0.021 and 0.699 ± 0.026 for the use of KNN, mutual information and Pearson's correlation, respectively. The AZ values increased to 0.724 ± 0.017 and 0.787 ± 0.016 for mutual information and Pearson's correlation when using ROIs with the size adaptively adjusted based on actual mass size. The corresponding MSD values were 2.107 ± 0.718, 2.301 ± 0.733 and 2.298 ± 0.743. The study demonstrates that due to the diversity of medical images, CBIR schemes using multiple image features and mass size-based ROIs can achieve significantly improved performance.

  8. Synovial fluid protein adsorption on polymer-based artificial hip joint material investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie M. Fröhlich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available UHMW-PE (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, most frequently used material in acetabular cup replacement, is affected by the interaction with its surrounding synovial fluid. It is assumed that protein layer formation is of high importance for lubrication, however alters polymer characteristics. This study investigates in vitro protein adsorption on gamma-irradiated and Vitamin E doped UHMW-PE using synovia as modeling system. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry imaging showed adsorption of high abundance proteins in a mass range between 2 and 200 kDa. Protein layer formation was observed on planar UHMW-PE material, whereas morphologically modified UHMW-PE regions were highly affected by protein aggregation.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of athlete's heart: myocardial mass, left ventricular function, and cross-sectional area of the coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate left ventricular myocardial mass and function as well as ostial coronary artery cross-sectional area in endurance athletes, an athlete group of 12 highly trained rowers and a control group of 12 sedentary healthy subjects underwent MR examination. An ECG-gated breath-hold cine gradient-echo sequence was used to calculate myocardial mass, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, and cardiac output, all related to body surface area, as well as ejection fraction. A 3D fat-saturated ECG- and respiratory-triggered navigator echo sequence was used to evaluate coronary arteries: left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCx), and right coronary artery (RCA). Cross-sectional area was calculated and divided for body surface area. Myocardial mass was found significantly larger in athlete group than in control group (p = 0.0078), the same being for end-diastolic volume (p = 0.0078), stroke volume (p = 0.0055), LM (p = 0.0066) and LAD (p = 0.0129). No significant difference was found for all the remaining parameters. Significant correlation with myocardial mass was found for LM (p < 0.001) and LAD (p = 0.0340), not for LCx and RCA. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool in evaluating the myocardial hypertrophy and function of athlete's heart. Magnetic resonance angiography is a valuable noninvasive method to visualize the correlated cross-sectional area increase of the left coronary artery system. (orig.)

  10. Capillary-induced Homogenization of Matrix in Paper: A Powerful Approach for the Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Maico; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present a novel approach for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using mass spectrometry imaging. This strategy uses a filter paper previously “eluted” with a MALDI matrix solution as a support for analyte application. Samples are submitted to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and quantification through characteristic fingerprints is ultimately performed. Results for the content of rosuvastatin from a known formulation are comparable to those obtained with a validated HPLC method. PMID:27439589

  11. Capillary-induced Homogenization of Matrix in Paper: A Powerful Approach for the Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Maico; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Herein we present a novel approach for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using mass spectrometry imaging. This strategy uses a filter paper previously “eluted” with a MALDI matrix solution as a support for analyte application. Samples are submitted to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and quantification through characteristic fingerprints is ultimately performed. Results for the content of rosuvastatin from a known formulation are comparable to those obtained with a validated HPLC method.

  12. Os cuboideum secundarium: A rare accessory ossicle with the potential to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accessory ossicles are common incidental findings on radiographs of the ankle and foot. While typically asymptomatic and of no clinical significance, they are sometimes associated with local pain or even mistaken for pathological conditions such as fractures. Given the potential for misinterpretation, it is important to understand their typical locations and appearances. This case highlights an exceptionally rare accessory ossicle called the os cuboideum secundarium, located adjacent to the cuboid and calcaneus. Interestingly, this case demonstrates the potential for this rare ossicle to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, despite the significant improvements in the understanding of musculoskeletal pathology afforded by advancements in cross-sectional imaging techniques, this case is a reminder of certain pitfalls that remain. Lastly, it highlights the importance of radiographs as an initial diagnostic study in evaluating foot pain. (orig.)

  13. Rapid and simultaneous in situ assessment of aflatoxins and stilbenes using silica plate imprinting mass spectrometry imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo N de Oliveira

    Full Text Available A fast and direct combination of techniques for simultaneous mycotoxin and phytoalexin identification in peanut skin and kernel is described. Silica Plate Imprinting Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (SPILDI-MSI is a powerful technique that exhibits great advantages, such as solvent-free and matrix-free characteristics, as well as no sample preparation or separation steps. It also permits accurate identification of mycotoxins and phytoalexins with unique fingerprint profiles in just a few seconds. Results are expressed as chemical images of the 4 identified types of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and a stilbenoid (resveratrol. Also, SPILDI-MSI allows the comparison between the spatial distribution of aflatoxins and resveratrol found in kernel and skin. This novel application has proven to be useful for instantaneous qualitative assessment of aflatoxins and stilbenoids both in the peanut skin and kernel and offers precise tracking of fungal contamination in nuts and other foodstuffs.

  14. Os cuboideum secundarium: A rare accessory ossicle with the potential to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Gregory [University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Stacy, G.S. [University of Chicago, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Accessory ossicles are common incidental findings on radiographs of the ankle and foot. While typically asymptomatic and of no clinical significance, they are sometimes associated with local pain or even mistaken for pathological conditions such as fractures. Given the potential for misinterpretation, it is important to understand their typical locations and appearances. This case highlights an exceptionally rare accessory ossicle called the os cuboideum secundarium, located adjacent to the cuboid and calcaneus. Interestingly, this case demonstrates the potential for this rare ossicle to mimic a mass on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, despite the significant improvements in the understanding of musculoskeletal pathology afforded by advancements in cross-sectional imaging techniques, this case is a reminder of certain pitfalls that remain. Lastly, it highlights the importance of radiographs as an initial diagnostic study in evaluating foot pain. (orig.)

  15. Estimates of the Planet Yield from Ground-based High-contrast Imaging Observations as a Function of Stellar Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher

    2011-06-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into consideration the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of stars in the solar neighborhood, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys, both biased and unbiased, and express the resulting planet yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date (i.e., HR 8799, β Pic). Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of gas-giant planets from radial velocity (RV) surveys, our simulations indicate that naive extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to semimajor axes accessible to high-contrast instruments provides an excellent agreement between simulations and observations using present-day contrast levels. In addition to being intrinsically young and sufficiently bright to serve as their own beacon for adaptive optics correction, A-stars have a high planet occurrence rate and propensity to form massive planets in wide orbits, making them ideal targets. The same effects responsible for creating a multitude of detectable planets around massive stars conspire to reduce the number orbiting low-mass stars. However, in the case of a young stellar cluster, where targets are approximately the same age and situated at roughly the same distance, MK-stars can easily dominate the number of detections because of an observational bias related to small number statistics. The degree to which low-mass stars produce the most planet detections in this special case depends upon whether multiple

  16. Time-of-flight mass spectrometer using an imaging detector and a rotating electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for minor isotope analysis that uses a rotating electric field and an imaging detector is described. The rotating electric field is generated by six cylindrically arranged plane electrodes with multi-phase sinusoidal wave voltage. When ion packets that are discriminated by time-of-flight enter the rotating electric field, they are circularly deflected, rendering a spiral image on the fluorescent screen of the detector. This spiral image represents m/z values of ions as the position and abundance of ions as brightness. For minor isotopes analyses, the micro channel plate detector under gate control operation is used to eliminate the influence of high intensity of major isotopes. (author)

  17. Distribution of terfenadine and its metabolites in locusts studied by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line Rørbæk; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Janfelt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    imaging studies on insects, a method for cryosectioning of whole locusts was developed, and the distributions of a number of endogenous compounds are reported, including betaine and a number of amino acids and phospholipids. Terfenadine was detected in the stomach region and the intestine walls, whereas...... three different metabolites—terfenadine acid (fexofenadine), terfenadine glucoside, and terfenadine phosphate—were detected in significantly smaller amounts and only in the unexcreted feces in the lower part of the intestine. The use of MS/MS imaging was necessary in order to detect the metabolites...

  18. Determinants of Left Ventricular Mass and Hypertrophy in Hemodialysis Patients Assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajan K.; Oliver, Scott; Patrick B. Mark; Powell, Joanna R.; McQuarrie, Emily P.; Traynor, James P.; Dargie, Henry J; Jardine, Alan G

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for premature cardiovascular death in hemodialysis (HD) patients and one of the three forms of uremic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a volume-independent technique to assess cardiac structure. We used CMR to assess the determinants of left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVH in HD patients.

  19. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  20. Focal masses in a non-cirrhotic liver: The additional benefit of CEUS over baseline imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiorean, L., E-mail: lilichiorean@yahoo.com [Sino-German Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University (China); Med. Klinik 2, Caritas Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany); Département d’imagerie médicale, Clinique des Cévennes, 07100 Annonay (France); Cantisani, V., E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Oncologiche, Anatomo-patologiche, Policlinico Umberto I, Univ. Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Jenssen, C., E-mail: C.Jenssen@khmol.de [Innere Medizin, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland, Prötzeler Chaussee 5, 15433 Strausberg (Germany); Sidhu, P.S., E-mail: paulsidhu@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, England (United Kingdom); Baum, U., E-mail: Ulrich.Baum@ckbm.de [Department of Radiology, Caritas Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany); Dietrich, C.F., E-mail: christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de [Sino-German Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University (China); Med. Klinik 2, Caritas Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in detection of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in characterization of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in final diagnosis of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in liver metastases screening. • Roles of cross-sectional imaging techniques for focal liver lesions assessment. • Advantages of contrast-enhanced ultrasound over other imaging procedures. - Abstract: Incidentally detected focal liver lesions are commonly encountered in clinical practice presenting a challenge in the daily department work flow. Guidelines for the management of incidental focal liver lesions have been published but comments, illustrations and recommendations regarding practical issues are crucial. The unique features of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-invasive assessment of focal liver lesion enhancement throughout the vascular phases in real-time has allowed an impressive improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound. We highlight the additional benefit of contrast-enhanced ultrasound over conventional B-mode ultrasound imaging in detection, characterization, differential and final diagnosis of focal liver lesions, as well as for liver metastases screening. The current roles of cross-sectional imaging are explained in detail, with indications and limitations for each procedure. The advantages of CEUS, such as non-ionizing radiation exposure, cost benefits, non-iodinate contrast agents, and repeatability are also described ultimately improving patient management.

  1. Exposure to slim images in mass media: television commercials as reminders of restriction in restrained eaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Anschutz; T. van Strien; R.C. Engels

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to slim images and diet-related products in commercials on actual food intake in relation to dietary restraint. Design: An experimental design was used, in which food intake was measured in 124 female students who watched

  2. Focal masses in a non-cirrhotic liver: The additional benefit of CEUS over baseline imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in detection of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in characterization of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in final diagnosis of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in liver metastases screening. • Roles of cross-sectional imaging techniques for focal liver lesions assessment. • Advantages of contrast-enhanced ultrasound over other imaging procedures. - Abstract: Incidentally detected focal liver lesions are commonly encountered in clinical practice presenting a challenge in the daily department work flow. Guidelines for the management of incidental focal liver lesions have been published but comments, illustrations and recommendations regarding practical issues are crucial. The unique features of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-invasive assessment of focal liver lesion enhancement throughout the vascular phases in real-time has allowed an impressive improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound. We highlight the additional benefit of contrast-enhanced ultrasound over conventional B-mode ultrasound imaging in detection, characterization, differential and final diagnosis of focal liver lesions, as well as for liver metastases screening. The current roles of cross-sectional imaging are explained in detail, with indications and limitations for each procedure. The advantages of CEUS, such as non-ionizing radiation exposure, cost benefits, non-iodinate contrast agents, and repeatability are also described ultimately improving patient management

  3. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  4. Experimental differentiation of intraocular masses using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging--a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Falke

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The case reports presented here were compiled to demonstrate the potential for improved diagnosis and monitoring of disease progress of intraocular lesions using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM at 7.1 Tesla. METHODS: High-resolution ex vivo ocular magnetic resonance (MR images were acquired on an ultrahigh-field MR system (7.1 Tesla, ClinScan, Bruker BioScan, Germany using a 2-channel coil with 4 coil elements and T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE sequences of human eyes enucleated because of different intraocular lesions. Imaging parameters were: 40×40 mm field of view, 512×512 matrix, and 700 µm slice thickness. The results were correlated with in vivo ultrasound and histology of the enucleated eyes. RESULTS: Imaging was performed in enucleated eyes with choroidal melanoma, malignant melanoma of iris and ciliary body with scleral perforation, ciliary body melanoma, intraocular metastasis of esophageal cancer, subretinal bleeding in the presence of perforated corneal ulcer, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, and premature retinopathy with phthisis and ossification of bulbar structures. MR imaging allowed differentiation between solid and cystic tumor components. In case of hemorrhage, fluid-fluid levels were identified. Melanin and calcifications caused significant hypointensity. Microstructural features of eye lesions identified by MRM were confirmed by histology. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the potential of MRM for the visualization and differential diagnosis of intraocular lesions. At present, the narrow bore of the magnet still limits the use of this technology in humans in vivo. Further advances in ultrahigh-field MR imaging will permit visualization of tumor extent and evaluation of nonclassified intraocular structures in the near future.

  5. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  6. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbania, Thomas H. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kammen, Bamidele F.; Nancarrow, Paul A. [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Morrell, Rose Ellen [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Nephrology, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  7. Islet-selectivity of G-protein coupled receptor ligands evaluated for PET imaging of pancreatic β-cell mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We screened G-protein coupled receptors for imaging pancreatic. → Database mining and immunohistochemistry identified GPCRs enriched in β-cells. → In vitro and in vivo assays were used to determine exocrine vs endocrine specificity. → GPCR candidates for imaging of β-cell mass are Prokineticin-1R, mGluR5, and GLP-1R. -- Abstract: A critical unmet need exists for methods to quantitatively measure endogenous pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM) for the clinical evaluation of therapies to prevent or reverse loss of BCM and diabetes progression. Our objective was to identify G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed with a high degree of specificity to islet β-cells for receptor-targeted imaging of BCM. GPCRs enriched in pancreatic islets relative to pancreas acinar and hepatic tissue were identified using a database screen. Islet-specific expression was confirmed by human pancreas immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro selectivity assessment was determined from the binding and uptake of radiolabeled ligands to the rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cell line and isolated rat islets relative to the exocrine pancreas cell-type, PANC-1. Tail-vein injections of radioligands into rats were used to determine favorable image criteria of in vivo biodistribution to the pancreas relative to other internal organs (i.e., liver, spleen, stomach, and lungs). Database and IHC screening identified four candidate receptors for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation for PET imaging of BCM: prokineticin-1 receptor (PK-1R), metabotropic glutamate receptor type-5 (mGluR5), neuropeptide Y-2 receptor (NPY-2R), and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R). In vitro specificity ratios gave the following receptor rank order: PK-1R > GLP-1R > NPY-2R > mGluR5. The biodistribution rank order of selectivity to the pancreas was found to be PK-1R > VMAT2 ∼ GLP-1R > mGluR5. Favorable islet selectivity and biodistribution characteristics suggest several GPCRs as potential

  8. Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lipids and Metabolites in Tissues by Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Thomas, Mathew; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K.; yang, Pengxiang; Prieto, Mari; Laskin, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of tissue sections is a new frontier in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Here we report on fast 3D imaging of lipids and metabolites associated with mouse uterine decidual cells and embryo at the implantation site on day 6 of pregnancy. 2D imaging of 16-20 serial tissue sections deposited on the same glass slide was performed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) – an ambient ionization technique that enables sensitive localized analysis of analytes on surfaces without special sample pre-treatment. In this proof-of-principle study, nano-DESI was coupled to a high-resolution Q-Exactive instrument operated at high repetition rate of >5 Hz with moderate mass resolution of 35,000 (m/Δm at m/z 200), which enabled acquisition of the entire 3D image with a spatial resolution of ~150 μm in less than 4.5 hours. The results demonstrate localization of acetylcholine in the primary decidual zone (PDZ) of the implantation site throughout the depth of the tissue examined, indicating an important role of this signaling molecule in decidualization. Choline and phosphocholine – metabolites associated with cell growth – are enhanced in the PDZ and abundant in other cellular regions of the implantation site. Very different 3D distributions were obtained for fatty acids (FA), oleic acid and linoleic acid (FA 18:1 and FA 18:2), differing only by one double bond. Localization of FA 18:2 in the PDZ indicates its important role in decidualization while FA 18:1 is distributed more evenly throughout the tissue. In contrast, several lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) observed in this study show donut-like distributions with localization around the PDZ. Complementary distributions with minimal overlap were observed for LPC 18:0 and FA 18:2 while the 3D image of the potential precursor phosphatidylcholine (PC 36:2) showed a significant overlap with both LPC 18:0 and FA 18:2.

  9. The systematics of strong lens modeling quantified: the effects of constraint selection and redshift information on magnification, mass, and multiple image predictability

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Traci L

    2016-01-01

    Until now, systematic errors in strong gravitational lens modeling have been acknowledged but never been fully quantified. Here, we launch an investigation into the systematics induced by constraint selection. We model the simulated cluster Ares 362 times using random selections of image systems with and without spectroscopic redshifts and quantify the systematics using several diagnostics: image predictability, accuracy of model-predicted redshifts, enclosed mass, and magnification. We find that for models with $>15$ image systems, the image plane rms does not decrease significantly when more systems are added; however the rms values quoted in the literature may be misleading as to the ability of a model to predict new multiple images. The mass is well constrained near the Einstein radius in all cases, and systematic error drops to $10$ image systems. Magnification errors are smallest along the straight portions of the critical curve, and the value of the magnification is systematically lower near curved por...

  10. Image Quality and Radiation Exposure in Coronary CT Angiography According to Tube Voltage and Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the image quality and radiation dose of a coronary CT angiography (CCTA) according to tube voltage and body mass index (BMI). This study included 139 patients who underwent CCTA using a retrospective electrocardiography- gating technique. A total of 48 patients (BMI 25, group B) with 120 kVp, and 46 patients (BMI < 25, group C) with 120 kVp. Attenuation and image noise of the aorta and coronary arteries was measured. Moreover, the image quality of 9 coronary segments was graded on a scale of 1-5, where grade 4 or 5 was considered to be diagnostic. Image quality parameters and radiation dose were compared using a t-test or Chi-squared test. Results: Vessel attenuation in group A was significantly higher than in groups B or C (group A, 592 ± 85 HU; group B, 437 ± 46 HU; group C, 469 ± 62 HU, p<0.001). Image noise was similar in group A and group B (23 ± 5 HU versus 22 ± 6 HU, p=0.427), but significantly higher in group A compared to group C (23 ± 5 HU versus 17 ± 4 HU, p<0.001). A significant difference was observed in the signal-to-noise ratio between the three groups (group A, 24 ± 6; group B, 19 ± 3; group C, 27 ± 5: p<0.05). Moreover, the contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher in group A than group B (group A 18 ± 5 versus group B 14 ± 3, p < 0.001) but not significantly different between group A and group C (group C 20 ± 4, p=0.127). The percentage of coronary segments with diagnostic image quality was 97.9% in group A, 96.0% in group B, and 99.0% in group C. The mean image quality score was 4.5 ± 0.5 in group A, 4.1 ± 0.4 in group B, and 4.2 ± 0,4 in group C (p<0.001). The effective radiation doses were 8.5 ± 0.8 mSv in group A, 14.3 ± 1.3 mSv in group B, and 14.9 ± 1.3 mSv in group C. A 42% reduction in mean effective radiation dose in group A was observed compared with groups B and C. In patients with BMI less than 25 and a low-dose CCTA with 100 kVp leads to a significant reduction in radiation exposure without

  11. Atmospheric-pressure Molecular Imaging of Biological Tissues and Biofilms by LAESI Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Nemes, Peter; Vertes, Akos

    2010-01-01

    Ambient ionization methods in mass spectrometry allow analytical investigations to be performed directly on a tissue or biofilm under native-like experimental conditions. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) is one such development and is particularly well-suited for the investigation of water-containing specimens. LAESI utilizes a mid-infrared laser beam (2.94 μm wavelength) to excite the water molecules of the sample. When the ablation fluence threshold is exceeded, the sample mat...

  12. Percutaneous Image-Guided Biopsy for Non-Mass-Forming Isolated Splenomegaly and Suspected Malignant Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Tokue; Satoshi Hirasawa; Hideo Morita; Yoshinori Koyma; Masaya Miyazaki; Kei Shibuya; Azusa Tokue; Sachiko Nakano; Yoshito Tsushima

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, safety, and role of splenic biopsy in the management of patients with non-mass-forming isolated splenomegaly and suspected malignant lymphoma. Methods Between 2001 and 2013, 137 biopsies were performed under computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance in 39 patients. All patients had splenomegaly based on the CT findings and a suspected diagnosis of malignant lymphoma based on their clinical symptoms. The spleen was the only ac...

  13. A recent accretion burst in the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA imaging of its related chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Jes K; Sakai, Nami; Bergin, Edwin A; Brinch, Christian; Harsono, Daniel; Lindberg, Johan E; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Bisschop, Suzanne E; Persson, Magnus V

    2013-01-01

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates through-out their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C17O, H13CO+, CH3OH, C34S and C2H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.5" (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H13CO+ is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.5" (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO+ is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 years increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity....

  14. Inflation-Fixation Method for Lipidomic Mapping of Lung Biopsies by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Claire L; Jones, Jace W; Farese, Ann M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Kane, Maureen A

    2016-05-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of deaths worldwide and major contributors of morbidity and global disease burden. To appropriately investigate lung disease, the respiratory airways must be fixed in their physiological orientation and should be inflated prior to investigations. We present an inflation-fixation method that enables lipidomic investigations of whole lung samples and resected biopsy specimens by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Formalin-inflation enables sample preparation to parallel standard clinical and surgical procedures, in addition to greatly reducing the complexity of analysis, by decreasing the number of analytes in the MALDI plume and reducing adduct formation in the resulting mass spectra. The reduced complexity increased sensitivity and enabled high-resolution imaging acquisitions without any loss in analyte detection at 10 and 20 μm scans. We present a detailed study of over 100 lipid ions detected in positive and negative ion modes covering the conducting and respiratory airways and parts of the peripheral nervous tissue running through the lungs. By defining the resolution required for clear definition of the alveolar space and thus the respiratory airways we have provided a guideline for MSI investigations of respiratory diseases involving the airways, including the interstitium. This study has provided a detailed map of lipid species and their localization within larger mammalian lung samples, for the first time, thus categorizing the lipidome for future MALDI-MSI studies of pulmonary diseases. PMID:27028398

  15. Electrospun Nanofiber Mats as "Smart Surfaces" for Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI MS)-Based Analysis and Imprint Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, R G; Ganayee, Mohd Azhardin; Pradeep, T

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS)-based molecular analysis and imprint imaging using electrospun nylon-6 nanofiber mats are demonstrated for various analytical contexts. Uniform mats of varying thicknesses composed of ∼200 nm diameter fibers were prepared using needleless electrospinning. Analytical applications requiring rapid understanding of the analytes in single drops, dyes, inks, and/or plant extracts incorporated directly into the nanofibers are discussed with illustrations. The possibility to imprint patterns made of printing inks, plant parts (such as petals, leaves, and slices of rhizomes), and fungal growth on fruits with their faithful reproductions on the nanofiber mats is illustrated with suitable examples. Metabolites were identified by tandem mass spectrometry data available in the literature and in databases. The results highlight the significance of electrospun nanofiber mats as smart surfaces to capture diverse classes of compounds for rapid detection or to imprint imaging under ambient conditions. Large surface area, appropriate chemical functionalities exposed, and easiness of desorption due to weaker interactions of the analyte species are the specific advantages of nanofibers for this application. PMID:27159150

  16. A RECENT ACCRETION BURST IN THE LOW-MASS PROTOSTAR IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA IMAGING OF ITS RELATED CHEMISTRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates throughout their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C17O, H13CO+, CH3OH, C34S and C2H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.''5 (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H13CO+ is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.''5 (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO+ is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 yr increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity. Such a burst in luminosity can also explain the centrally condensed CH3OH and extended warm carbon-chain chemistry observed in this source and furthermore be reflected in the relative faintness of its compact continuum emission compared to other protostars

  17. Glutamine/Glutamate Metabolism Studied with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging for the Characterization of Adrenal Nodules and Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Suzan M.; Nunes, Thiago F.; Melo, Homero J. F.; Dalavia, Claudio; Szejnfeld, Denis; Kater, Claudio; Andreoni, Cassio; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Ajzen, Sergio A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess glutamine/glutamate (Glx) and lactate (Lac) metabolism using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRS) in order to differentiate between adrenal gland nodules and masses (adenomas, pheochromocytomas, carcinomas, and metastases). Materials and Methods. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. A total of 130 patients (47 men) with 132 adrenal nodules/masses were prospectively assessed (54 ± 14.8 years). A multivoxel system was used with a two-dimensional point-resolved spectroscopy/chemical-shift imaging sequence. Spectroscopic data were interpreted by visual inspection and peak amplitudes of lipids (Lip), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), Lac, and Glx. Lac/Cr and Glx/Cr were calculated. Glx/Cr was assessed in relation to lesion size. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed in Glx/Cr results between adenomas and pheochromocytomas (P < 0.05), however, with a low positive predictive value (PPV). Glx levels were directly proportional to lesion size in carcinomas. A cutoff point of 1.44 was established for the differentiation between carcinomas larger versus smaller than 4 cm, with 75% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV, and 80% accuracy. Lac/Cr results showed no differences across lesions. A cutoff point of −6.5 for Lac/Cr was established for carcinoma diagnosis. Conclusion. Glx levels are directly proportional to lesion size in carcinomas. A cutoff point of −6.5 Lac/Cr differentiates carcinomas from noncarcinomas. PMID:24199200

  18. Event Detection Using Mobile Phone Mass GPS Data and Their Reliavility Verification by Dmsp/ols Night Light Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Akiyama; Satoshi, Ueyama; Ryosuke, Shibasaki; Adachi, Ryuichiro

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we developed a method to detect sudden population concentration on a certain day and area, that is, an "Event," all over Japan in 2012 using mass GPS data provided from mobile phone users. First, stay locations of all phone users were detected using existing methods. Second, areas and days where Events occurred were detected by aggregation of mass stay locations into 1-km-square grid polygons. Finally, the proposed method could detect Events with an especially large number of visitors in the year by removing the influences of Events that occurred continuously throughout the year. In addition, we demonstrated reasonable reliability of the proposed Event detection method by comparing the results of Event detection with light intensities obtained from the night light images from the DMSP/OLS night light images. Our method can detect not only positive events such as festivals but also negative events such as natural disasters and road accidents. These results are expected to support policy development of urban planning, disaster prevention, and transportation management.

  19. Atmospheric pressure imaging mass spectrometry of drugs with various ablating lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric pressure mass spectrometric detection efficiency of organic species (tofisopam and verapamil) was measured by means of the laser ablation of dried solution drops containing known amount of the analyte. Ablated molecules were ionized by an atmospheric pressure laser plasma cell and then introduced in the TOF mass-spectrometer. The spot was formed by dripping 2 μl of solution on the stainless steel substrate and consequent drying. Then it was scanned by an intense ablating beam of various lasers (CO2, Nd:YAG and femtosecond fiber laser) until the spot was completely eroded during the non-stop MS-analysis of ablated material. The sensitivity was defined as the ratio of the total ion current integral of the relevant mass peaks to the amount of molecules in the spot. All the tested lasers are suitable for the ablation and subsequent MS-detection of organic species in dried solution spots given enough power deposition is provided. The measured sensitivity values reach 0.1 ions/fg of tested analytes

  20. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden.Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI.Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV.Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  1. Imprint Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Monitoring Secondary Metabolites Production during Antagonistic Interaction of Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Alessandra; Perez, Consuelo; Campos, Michel L; Bayfield, Mark A; Eberlin, Marcos N; Ifa, Demian R

    2015-12-15

    Direct analysis of microbial cocultures grown on agar media by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is quite challenging. Due to the high gas pressure upon impact with the surface, the desorption mechanism does not allow direct imaging of soft or irregular surfaces. The divots in the agar, created by the high-pressure gas and spray, dramatically change the geometry of the system decreasing the intensity of the signal. In order to overcome this limitation, an imprinting step, in which the chemicals are initially transferred to flat hard surfaces, was coupled to DESI-MS and applied for the first time to fungal cocultures. Note that fungal cocultures are often disadvantageous in direct imaging mass spectrometry. Agar plates of fungi present a complex topography due to the simultaneous presence of dynamic mycelia and spores. One of the most devastating diseases of cocoa trees is caused by fungal phytopathogen Moniliophthora roreri. Strategies for pest management include the application of endophytic fungi, such as Trichoderma harzianum, that act as biocontrol agents by antagonizing M. roreri. However, the complex chemical communication underlying the basis for this phytopathogen-dependent biocontrol is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the metabolic exchange that takes place during the antagonistic interaction between M. roreri and T. harzianum. Using imprint-DESI-MS imaging we annotated the secondary metabolites released when T. harzianum and M. roreri were cultured in isolation and compared these to those produced after 3 weeks of coculture. We identified and localized four phytopathogen-dependent secondary metabolites, including T39 butenolide, harzianolide, and sorbicillinol. In order to verify the reliability of the imprint-DESI-MS imaging data and evaluate the capability of tape imprints to extract fungal metabolites while maintaining their localization, six representative plugs along the entire M. roreri/T. harzianum

  2. Molecular fragmentation by recombination with cold electrons studied with a mass sensitive imaging detector

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, M

    2010-01-01

    The recombination of a molecular cation with a low-energy electron, followed by fragmentation, is a fundamental reaction process in cold and dilute plasmas. For polyatomic ions, it can yield molecular fragments in ro-vibrationally excited states. The discrimination between decay channels with chemically different fragments and the measurement of their excitation energies pose an experimental challenge. This work discusses a new experimental scheme based on fast beam fragment imaging in a stor...

  3. 3D segmentation of masses in DCE-MRI images using FCM and adaptive MRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjie; Li, Lihua

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a sensitive imaging modality for the detection of breast cancer. Automated segmentation of breast lesions in DCE-MRI images is challenging due to inherent signal-to-noise ratios and high inter-patient variability. A novel 3D segmentation method based on FCM and MRF is proposed in this study. In this method, a MRI image is segmented by spatial FCM, firstly. And then MRF segmentation is conducted to refine the result. We combined with the 3D information of lesion in the MRF segmentation process by using segmentation result of contiguous slices to constraint the slice segmentation. At the same time, a membership matrix of FCM segmentation result is used for adaptive adjustment of Markov parameters in MRF segmentation process. The proposed method was applied for lesion segmentation on 145 breast DCE-MRI examinations (86 malignant and 59 benign cases). An evaluation of segmentation was taken using the traditional overlap rate method between the segmented region and hand-drawing ground truth. The average overlap rates for benign and malignant lesions are 0.764 and 0.755 respectively. Then we extracted five features based on the segmentation region, and used an artificial neural network (ANN) to classify between malignant and benign cases. The ANN had a classification performance measured by the area under the ROC curve of AUC=0.73. The positive and negative predictive values were 0.86 and 0.58, respectively. The results demonstrate the proposed method not only achieves a better segmentation performance in accuracy also has a reasonable classification performance.

  4. Is T2-weighted imaging reliable in the differential diagnosis of adrenal mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed T2-weighted images of 41 adrenal tumors. There were 25 adenomas and 16 non-adenomas. We compared the signal intensity of the adrenal tumors with that liver and classified the tumor/liver intensity ratio (TLR) into five categories; very low (), and very high (>>). The size of adenomas in diameter ranged between 8 mm and 50 mm. TLR of 92% of adenomas less than 20 mm (13 cases) were () or (>>). TLR of non-adenomas all (>) or (>>). (author)

  5. Body Image: Relationhsip to Attachment, Body Mass Index and Dietary Practices among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sira, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self-worth and mental health across the life span. It is related to self-esteem, sexuality, family relationships and identity. Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends, not only on inner-biological, but also a psychological and socio-cultural components, the purpose of this study was to examine variables that are related to and infl...

  6. Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Abdomino-Pelvic Masses: Role of Multimodality Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayanadh Ojili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in radiology have greatly increased the ability to make highly accurate diagnosis. Biopsy of many commonly seen lesions is no longer performed as the radiological findings are pathognomonic. This gives rise to the concept of ′virtual biopsy′, a term coined on the lines of other imaging techniques such as virtual colonoscopy. Virtual biopsy is not a new imaging technique but a new concept which refers to the use of existing imaging modalities to evaluate the morphological features of tumors and arriving at a non-invasive diagnosis with a high degree of confidence obviating the need for true biopsy. Elements of virtual biopsy have already been incorporated into some evidence-based guidelines, and it is expected that with further technological advancements, an increasing number of tumors may be diagnosed and managed accordingly. A wider acceptance of virtual biopsy could further reduce the need for invasive biopsies and its attendant costs and risks. In this review article, we use index cases to further emphasize this concept.

  7. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  8. High-Resolution Live-Cell Imaging and Analysis by Laser Desorption/Ionization Droplet Delivery Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kyoo; Jansson, Erik T; Nam, Hong Gil; Zare, Richard N

    2016-05-17

    We have developed a new ambient-ionization mass spectrometric technique named laser desorption/ionization droplet delivery mass spectrometry (LDIDD-MS). LDIDD-MS permits high-resolution, high-sensitivity imaging of tissue samples as well as measurements of both single-cell apoptosis and live-cell exocytosis. A pulsed (15 Hz) UV laser beam (266 nm) is focused on a surface covered with target analytes to trigger their desorption and ionization. A spray of liquid droplets is simultaneously directed onto the laser-focused surface region to capture the ionized analytes and deliver them to a mass spectrometer. The approach of rapid and effective capturing of molecules after laser desorption/ionization allows the limit of detection for the amino acid lysine to be as low as 2 amol under ambient ionization conditions. Two-dimensional maps of the desorbed/ionized species are recorded by moving the sample on an XY translational stage. The spatial resolution for imaging with LDIDD-MS was determined to be 2.4 μm for an ink-printed pattern and 3 μm for mouse brain tissue. We applied LDIDD-MS to single-cell analysis of apoptotic HEK cells. Differences were observed in the profiles of fatty acids and lipids between healthy HEK cells and those undergoing apoptosis. We observed upregulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) with a relatively shorter carbon chain length and downregulation of PC with a relatively longer carbon chain length. We also applied LDIDD-MS for a real-time direct measurements of live-cell exocytosis. The catecholamine dopamine and trace amines (phenethylamine and tyramine) were detected from live PC12 cells without damaging them. PMID:27110027

  9. The combined use of US and MR imaging for the diagnosis of masses in the parotid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of the combination of the two non-invasive modalities US and MR imaging to diagnose masses in the parotid region. The US and MR findings of 21 patients with parotid masses were analyzed retrospectively by two radiologists without any clinical or histopathological information. The specific points evaluated were location, shape, margin, internal architecture, and intensity level on both US and MR, posterior echo enhancement on US, and capsule-like lining of the tumor on MR. The findings concerning the shape and margin on US and MR were in fairly good agreement. Concerning the findings of the internal architecture, US could reveal the minute structures of the tumor while MR demonstrated differences in the signal intensities of histological tissue types of the various tumors. The posterior echo enhancement on US and the capsule-like lining on MR of the tumors were also useful for the diagnosis. Our results suggest that the combination of US and MR is useful for examining soft tissue masses in the parotid region to make a more accurate diagnosis, and not just differentiate malignant lesions from those which are benign

  10. Enantiomer-specific analysis of multi-component mixtures by correlated electron imaging-ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanood, Mohammad M Rafiee; Ram, N Bhargava; Lehmann, C Stefan; Powis, Ivan; Janssen, Maurice H M

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous, enantiomer-specific identification of chiral molecules in multi-component mixtures is extremely challenging. Many established techniques for single-component analysis fail to provide selectivity in multi-component mixtures and lack sensitivity for dilute samples. Here we show how enantiomers may be differentiated by mass-selected photoelectron circular dichroism using an electron-ion coincidence imaging spectrometer. As proof of concept, vapours containing ∼1% of two chiral monoterpene molecules, limonene and camphor, are irradiated by a circularly polarized femtosecond laser, resulting in multiphoton near-threshold ionization with little molecular fragmentation. Large chiral asymmetries (2-4%) are observed in the mass-tagged photoelectron angular distributions. These asymmetries switch sign according to the handedness (R- or S-) of the enantiomer in the mixture and scale with enantiomeric excess of a component. The results demonstrate that mass spectrometric identification of mixtures of chiral molecules and quantitative determination of enantiomeric excess can be achieved in a table-top instrument. PMID:26104140

  11. MALDI-Imaging Mass Spectrometry: a step forward in the anatomopathological characterization of stenotic aortic valve tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Iloro, Ibon; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Azkargorta, Mikel; Sastre-Oliva, Tamara; Escobes, Iraide; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis F; Sanchez, Pedro L; Urreta, Harkaitz; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Pinto, Angel; Padial, Luis R; Akerström, Finn; Elortza, Felix; Barderas, Maria G

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common form of valve disease. Once symptoms develop, there is an inexorable deterioration with a poor prognosis; currently there are no therapies capable of modifying disease progression, and aortic valve replacement is the only available treatment. Our goal is to study the progression of calcification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) and get new insights at molecular level that could help in the understanding of this disease. In this work, we analyzed consecutive slices from aortic valve tissue by MALDI-IMS, to establish the spatial distribution of proteins and peptides directly from the surface of the histological sections. The analysis showed different structures corresponding to regions observed in conventional histology, including large calcification areas and zones rich in collagen and elastic fibers. Peptide extraction from the tissue, followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis, provided the identification of collagen VI α-3 and NDRG2 proteins which correlated with the masses obtained by MALDI-IMS and were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. These results highlighted the molecular mechanism implied in AS using MALDI-IMS, a novel technique never used before in this pathology. In addition, we can define specific regions proving a complementary resolution of the molecular histology. PMID:27256770

  12. Searching for Scatterers: High-Contrast Imaging of Young Stars Hosting Wide-Separation Planetary-Mass Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Bryan, Marta L; Knutson, Heather A; Kraus, Adam L; Hinkley, Sasha; Mawet, Dimitri; Nielsen, Eric L; Blunt, Sarah C

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 AU). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is \\Delta K ~ 12.5 at 1". We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M$_{\\rm Jup}$ bodies in these systems down to 1...

  13. MpUL-multi: Software for Calculation of Amyloid Fibril Mass per Unit Length from TB-TEM Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadanza, Matthew G.; Jackson, Matthew P.; Radford, Sheena E.; Ranson, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Structure determination for amyloid fibrils presents many challenges due to the high variability exhibited by fibrils and heterogeneous morphologies present, even in single samples. Mass per unit length (MPL) estimates can be used to differentiate amyloid fibril morphologies and provide orthogonal evidence for helical symmetry parameters determined by other methods. In addition, MPL data can provide insight on the arrangement of subunits in a fibril, especially for more complex fibrils assembled with multiple parallel copies of the asymmetric unit or multiple twisted protofilaments. By detecting only scattered electrons, which serve as a relative measure of total scattering, and therefore protein mass, dark field imaging gives an approximation of the total mass of protein present in any given length of fibril. When compared with a standard of known MPL, such as Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), MPL of the fibrils in question can be determined. The program suite MpUL-multi was written for rapid semi-automated processing of TB-TEM dark field data acquired using this method. A graphical user interface allows for simple designation of fibrils and standards. A second program averages intensities from multiple TMV molecules for accurate standard determination, makes multiple measurements along a given fibril, and calculates the MPL. PMID:26867957

  14. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography—magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI.A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM.The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41  ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35  ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29  ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation.In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement. (paper)

  15. Nanostructure Imaging Mass Spectrometry: The Role of Fluorocarbons in Metabolite Analysis and the Road to Yoctomole Level Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczy, Michael E.; Northen, Trent R.; Trauger, Sunia A.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructure Imaging mass spectrometry (NIMS) has become an effective technology for generating ions in the gas phase, providing high sensitivity and imaging capabilities on small molecules, metabolites, drugs, and drug metabolites. Specifically, laser desorption from the nanostructure surfaces results in efficient energy transfer, low background chemical noise, and the nondestructive release of analyte ions into the gas phase. The modification of nanostructured surfaces with fluorous compounds, either covalent or non-covalent, has played an important role in gaining high efficiency/sensitivity by facilitating analyte desorption from the non-adhesive surfaces, and minimizing the amount of laser energy required. In addition, the hydrophobic fluorinated nanostructure surfaces have aided in concentrating deposited samples into fine micrometer sized spots, a feature that further facilitates efficient desorption/ionization. These fluorous nanostructured surfaces have opened up NIMS to very broad applications including enzyme activity assays and imaging, providing low background, efficient energy transfer, nondestructive analyte ion generation, super-hydrophobic surfaces, and ultra-high detection sensitivity. PMID:25361674

  16. Experimental Differentiation of Intraocular Masses Using Ultrahigh-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Falke, Karen; Krüger, Paul; Hosten, Norbert; Zimpfer, Annette; Guthoff, Rudolf; Langner, Sönke; Stachs, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The case reports presented here were compiled to demonstrate the potential for improved diagnosis and monitoring of disease progress of intraocular lesions using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) at 7.1 Tesla. Methods High-resolution ex vivo ocular magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired on an ultrahigh-field MR system (7.1 Tesla, ClinScan, Bruker BioScan, Germany) using a 2-channel coil with 4 coil elements and T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences of hum...

  17. Imaging chemical differentiation around the low-mass protostar L483-mm

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, J K

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a millimeter wavelength aperture-synthesis study of the spatial variations of the chemistry in the envelope around the deeply embedded low-mass protostar L483-mm on 1000 AU (5") scales. Lines of 8 molecular species including CN, C18O, CS, C34S, HCN, H13CN, HCO+ and N2H+ have been observed using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array. Continuum emission at 2.7-3.4 millimeter is well-fit by a pure envelope model down to the sensitivity of the interferometer without introducing a disk/compact source, in contrast to what is seen for other protostars. A velocity gradient in the densest material is traced by HCN, CS and N2H+, and is perpendicular to the large-scale CO outflow, with a pattern consistent with rotation around a 1 solar mass central object. Velocity gradients in the propagation direction of the outflow suggest a clear interaction between the outflowing material and "quiescent" core. The C18O observations are fit with a "drop" abundance profile where CO is frozen-out in ...

  18. The International Deep Planet Survey II: The frequency of directly imaged giant exoplanets with stellar mass

    CERN Document Server

    Galicher, Raphael; Macintosh, Bruce; Zuckerman, Ben; Barman, Travis; Konopacky, Quinn; Song, Inseok; Patience, Jenny; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Nielsen, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    Radial velocity and transit methods are effective for the study of short orbital period exoplanets but they hardly probe objects at large separations for which direct imaging can be used. We carried out the international deep planet survey of 292 young nearby stars to search for giant exoplanets and determine their frequency. We developed a pipeline for a uniform processing of all the data that we have recorded with NIRC2/Keck II, NIRI/Gemini North, NICI/Gemini South, and NACO/VLT for 14 years. The pipeline first applies cosmetic corrections and then reduces the speckle intensity to enhance the contrast in the images. The main result of the international deep planet survey is the discovery of the HR 8799 exoplanets. We also detected 59 visual multiple systems including 16 new binary stars and 2 new triple stellar systems, as well as 2,279 point-like sources. We used Monte Carlo simulations and the Bayesian theorem to determine that 1.05[+2.80-0.70]% of stars harbor at least one giant planet between 0.5 and 14...

  19. MR Imaging of papillary renal neoplasms: potential application for characterization of small renal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of MRI in demonstrating the precise nature of papillary renal tumors (P RCC) and its potential application to select patients for partial surgery. Ninety-seven tumors less than or equal to 3 cm in size [55 papillary renal cell carcinoma - 42 clear cell renal carcinoma (CC RCC)] were preoperatively evaluated by MRI. Imaging findings were assessed with a special focus on the aspect of the tumoral process. Correlations were performed with pathologic staging after surgery. At pathology, 92 tumors were established to be staged p T1 and 5 were p T3 (3 cases of CC RCC and 2 cases of P RCC). Ninety-four percent of papillary tumors exhibited low signal intensity with homogeneous pattern on T2-weighted images. All clear cell carcinoma were hyperintense and heterogeneous on T2-weighted sequence. Enhancement was lower and delayed in the papillary type in comparison with the clear cell type. MRI is accurate enough to predict the 'histologic' nature of papillary renal carcinoma. It is an additional argument to propose that the tumor can be removed by partial surgery. (orig.)

  20. MR Imaging of papillary renal neoplasms: potential application for characterization of small renal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Catherine; Sauer, Benoit [University Hospital of Strasbourg - CHU, Department of Radiology B - Chirurgie A, Strasbourg, Cedex (France); Lindner, Veronique [University Hospital of Strasbourg - CHU, Department of pathology, Chirurgie A, Strasbourg, Cedex (France); Lang, Herve; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier [University Hospital of Strasbourg - CHU, Department of Urology, Chirurgie A, Strasbourg, Cedex (France)

    2007-01-15

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of MRI in demonstrating the precise nature of papillary renal tumors (P RCC) and its potential application to select patients for partial surgery. Ninety-seven tumors less than or equal to 3 cm in size [55 papillary renal cell carcinoma - 42 clear cell renal carcinoma (CC RCC)] were preoperatively evaluated by MRI. Imaging findings were assessed with a special focus on the aspect of the tumoral process. Correlations were performed with pathologic staging after surgery. At pathology, 92 tumors were established to be staged p T1 and 5 were p T3 (3 cases of CC RCC and 2 cases of P RCC). Ninety-four percent of papillary tumors exhibited low signal intensity with homogeneous pattern on T2-weighted images. All clear cell carcinoma were hyperintense and heterogeneous on T2-weighted sequence. Enhancement was lower and delayed in the papillary type in comparison with the clear cell type. MRI is accurate enough to predict the 'histologic' nature of papillary renal carcinoma. It is an additional argument to propose that the tumor can be removed by partial surgery. (orig.)

  1. A new look at drugs targeting malignant melanoma--an application for mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Yutaka; Végvári, Akos; Welinder, Charlotte; Jönsson, Göran; Ingvar, Christian; Lundgren, Lotta; Olsson, Håkan; Breslin, Thomas; Wieslander, Elisabet; Laurell, Thomas; Rezeli, Melinda; Jansson, Bo; Nishimura, Toshihide; Fehniger, Thomas E; Baldetorp, Bo; Marko-Varga, György

    2014-09-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) patients are being treated with an increasing number of personalized medicine (PM) drugs, several of which are small molecule drugs developed to treat patients with specific disease genotypes and phenotypes. In particular, the clinical application of protein kinase inhibitors has been highly effective for certain subsets of MM patients. Vemurafenib, a protein kinase inhibitor targeting BRAF-mutated protein, has shown significant efficacy in slowing disease progression. In this paper, we provide an overview of this new generation of targeted drugs, and demonstrate the first data on localization of PM drugs within tumor compartments. In this study, we have introduced MALDI-MS imaging to provide new information on one of the drugs currently used in the PM treatment of MM, vemurafenib. In a proof-of-concept in vitro study, MALDI-MS imaging was used to identify vemurafenib applied to metastatic lymph nodes tumors of subjects attending the regional hospital network of Southern Sweden. The paper provides evidence of BRAF overexpression in tumors isolated from MM patients and localization of the specific drug targeting BRAF, vemurafenib, using MS fragment ion signatures. Our ability to determine drug uptake at the target sites of directed therapy provides important opportunity for increasing our understanding about the mode of action of drug activity within the disease environment. PMID:25044963

  2. Is T2-weighted MR imaging reliable in the differential diagnosis of adrenal mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have retrospectively reviewed T2-weighted images of 41 pathologically confirmed adrenal tumors (25 adenomas and 16 nonadenomas). They compare the signal intensity of the tumors with that of the liver and classified the tumor/liver intensity ratio (TLR) into five categories: very low (VL), low (L), isointense (I), high (H), and very high (VH). Adenoma size was 8-50 mm, whereas nonadenoma size was 30-140 mm. The TLR of 92% of adenomas less than 20 mm (13 cases) was L or I; when adenomas exceeded 20 mm (12 cases), 75% were H or VH. TLR of nonadenomas were all H or VL. The authors conclude that, with tumors >20 mm, they must carefully differentiate adenomas and nonadenomas

  3. Imaging the Ionized Disk of the High-Mass Protostar Orion-I

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, M J; Greenhill, L J; Chandler, C J

    2007-01-01

    We have imaged the enigmatic radio source-I (Orion-I) in the Orion-KL nebula with the VLA at 43 GHz with 34 mas angular resolution. The continuum emission is highly elongated and is consistent with that expected from a nearly edge-on disk. The high brightness and lack of strong molecular lines from Orion-I can be used to argue against emission from dust. Collisional ionization and H-minus free-free opacity, as in Mira variables, require a central star with >10^5 Lsun, which is greater than infrared observations allow. However, if significant local heating associated with accretion occurs, lower total luminosities are possible. Alternatively, photo-ionization from an early B-type star and p+/e- bremsstrahlung can explain our observations, and Orion-I may be an example of ionized accretion disk surrounding a forming massive star. Such accretion disks may not be able to form planets efficiently.

  4. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  5. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic imaging of live biofilms in a microchannel by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Xin; Marshall, Matthew J.; Xiong, Yijia; Ma, Xiang; Zhou, Yufan; Tucker, Abigail E.; Zhu, Zihua; Liu, Songqin; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum compatible microfluidic reactor, SALVI (System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface) was employed for in situ chemical imaging of live biofilms using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Depth profiling by sputtering materials in sequential layers resulted in live biofilm spatial chemical mapping. 2D images were reconstructed to report the first 3D images of hydrated biofilm elucidating spatial and chemical heterogeneity. 2D image principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted among biofilms at different locations in the microchannel. Our approach directly visualized spatial and chemical heterogeneity within the living biofilm by dynamic liquid ToF-SIMS.

  6. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young-Jin; Chapman, Kent D

    2016-02-01

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. It is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding to metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation. PMID:26613199

  7. A RECENT ACCRETION BURST IN THE LOW-MASS PROTOSTAR IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA IMAGING OF ITS RELATED CHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Brinch, Christian; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harsono, Daniel; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Persson, Magnus V., E-mail: jeskj@nbi.dk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-12-20

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates throughout their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C{sup 17}O, H{sup 13}CO{sup +}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sup 34}S and C{sub 2}H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.''5 (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H{sup 13}CO{sup +} is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.''5 (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO{sup +} is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 yr increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity. Such a burst in luminosity can also explain the centrally condensed CH{sub 3}OH and extended warm carbon-chain chemistry observed in this source and furthermore be reflected in the relative faintness of its compact continuum emission compared to other protostars.

  8. Saturn's inner satellites : orbits, masses and the chaotic motion of Atlas from new Cassini imaging observations

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, N J; Murray, C D; Evans, M W

    2014-01-01

    We present numerically-derived orbits and mass estimates for the inner Saturnian satellites, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus and Epimetheus from a fit to 2580 new Cassini ISS astrometric observations spanning February 2004 to August 2013. The observations are provided in a supplementary table. We estimate GM_ Atlas=0.384+/-0.001 x 10^(-3)km^3s^(-2), a value 13% smaller than the previously published estimate but with an order of magnitude reduction in the uncertainty. We also find GM_ Prometheus=10.677+/-0.006x10(-3)km^3s^(-2), GM_Pandora=9.133+/-0.009x10^(-3)km^3s^(-2), GM_Janus=126.51+/-0.03x10^(-3)km^3s^(-2) and GM_Epimetheus=35.110+/-0.009x10^(-3)km^3s^(-2), consistent with previously published values, but also with significant reductions in uncertainties. We show that Atlas is currently librating in both the 54:53 co-rotation-eccentricity resonance (CER) and the 54:53 inner Lindblad (ILR) resonance with Prometheus, making it the latest example of a coupled CER-ILR system, in common with the Saturnian sa...

  9. Modeling of the Calcium/Phosphorus Mass ratio for Breast Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, N.; Koukou, V.; Michail, C.; Sotiropoulou, P.; Kalyvas, N.; Kandarakis, I.; Nikiforidis, G.; Fountos, G.

    2015-09-01

    Breast microcalcifications are mainly composed of calcite (CaCO3), calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) and apatite (a calcium-phosphate mineral form). Any pathologic alteration (carcinogenesis) of the breast may produce apatite. In the present simulation study, an analytical model was implemented in order to distinguish malignant and non-malignant lesions. The Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) mass ratio and the standard deviation (SD) of the calcifications were calculated. The size of the calcifications ranged from 100 to 1000 μm, in 50 μm increments. The simulation was performed for hydroxyapatite, calcite and calcium oxalate calcifications. The optimum pair of energies for all calcifications was 22keV and 50keV. Hydroxyapatite and calcite calcifications were sufficiently characterized through their distinct confidence interval (99.7%, 3SD) values for calcifications sizes above 500 μm, while the corresponding sizes for hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate characterization were found above 250 μm. Initial computer simulation results indicate that the proposed method can be used in breast cancer diagnosis, reducing the need for invasive methods, such as biopsies.

  10. Mass Spectum Imaging of Organics Injected into Stardust Aerogel by Cometary Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, S. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Comets have largely escaped the hydrothermal processing that has affected the chemistry and mineralogy of even the most primitive meteorites. Consequently, they are expected to better preserve nebular and interstellar organic materials. Organic matter constitutes roughly 20-30% by weight of vol-atile and refractory cometary materials [1,2]. Yet organic matter identified in Stardust aerogel samples is only a minor component [3-5]. The dearth of intact organic matter, fine-grained and pre-solar materials led to suggestions that comet 81P/Wild-2 is com-posed largely of altered materials, and is more similar to meteorites than the primitive view of comets [6]. However, fine-grained materials are particularly susceptible to alteration and destruction during the hypervelocity impact. While hypervelocity capture can cause thermal pyrolysis of organic phases, some of the impacting organic component appears to have been explosively dispersed into surrounding aerogel [7]. We used a two-step laser mass spectrometer to map the distribution of organic matter within and sur-rounding a bulbous Stardust track to constrain the dispersion of organic matter during the impact.

  11. High Resolution 2-D Fluoresd3nce Imaging of the Mass Boundary Layer Thickness at Free Water Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuter, C.; Trofimova, D.; Kiefhaber, D.; Krah, N.; Jähne, B.

    2014-03-01

    A novel 2-D fluorescence imaging technique has been developed to visualize the thickness of the aqueous mass boundary layer at a free water surface. Fluorescence is stimulated by high-power LEDs and is observed from above with a low noise, high resolution and high-speed camera. The invasion of ammonia into water leads to an increase in pH (from a starting value of 4), which is visualized with the fluorescent dye pyranine. The flux of ammonia can be controlled by controlling its air side concentration. A higher flux leads to basic pH values (pH > 7) in a thicker layer at the water surface from which fluorescent light is emitted. This allows the investigation of processes affecting the transport of gases in different depths in the aqueous mass boundary layer. In this paper, the chemical system and optical components of the measurement method are presented and its applicability to a wind-wave tank experiment is demonstrated.

  12. Different localization patterns of anthocyanin species in the pericarp of black rice revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica contains high levels of anthocyanins in the pericarp and is considered an effective health-promoting food. Several studies have identified the molecular species of anthocyanins in black rice, but information about the localization of each anthocyanin species is limited because methodologies for investigating the localization such as determining specific antibodies to anthocyanin, have not yet been developed Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS is a suitable tool for investigating the localization of metabolites. In this study, we identified 7 species of anthocyanin monoglycosides and 2 species of anthocyanin diglycosides in crude extracts from black rice by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS analysis. We also analyzed black rice sections by MALDI-IMS and found 2 additional species of anthocyanin pentosides and revealed different localization patterns of anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties. Anthocyanin species composed of a pentose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-pentoside and petunidin-3-O-pentoside were localized in the entire pericarp, whereas anthocyanin species composed of a hexose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-hexoside and peonidin-3-O-hexoside were focally localized in the dorsal pericarp. These results indicate that anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties exhibit different localization patterns in the pericarp of black rice. This is the first detailed investigation into the localization of molecular species of anthocyanins by MALDI-IMS.

  13. Large-Scale Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigation of Consequences of Cortical Spreading Depression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Abdelmoula, Walid M.; van Heiningen, Sandra H.; van Zeijl, Rene J.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Ferrari, Michel D.; Tolner, Else A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Transgenic mice carrying the R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene, which in patients causes familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), exhibit increased propensity to CSD. Herein, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was applied for the first time to an animal cohort of transgenic and wild type mice to study the biomolecular changes following CSD in the brain. Ninety-six coronal brain sections from 32 mice were analyzed by MALDI-MSI. All MSI datasets were registered to the Allen Brain Atlas reference atlas of the mouse brain so that the molecular signatures of distinct brain regions could be compared. A number of metabolites and peptides showed substantial changes in the brain associated with CSD. Among those, different mass spectral features showed significant ( t-test, P mice. Our findings reveal CSD- and genotype-specific molecular changes in the brain of FHM1 transgenic mice that may further our understanding about the role of CSD in migraine pathophysiology. The results also demonstrate the utility of aligning MSI datasets to a common reference atlas for large-scale MSI investigations.

  14. A First-Look Atmospheric Modeling Study of the Young Directly-Imaged Planet-Mass Companion, ROXs 42Bb

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Daemgen, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We present and analyze $J$$K_{s}$$L^\\prime$ photometry and our previously published $H$-band photometry and $K$-band spectroscopy for ROXs 42Bb, an object Currie et al. (2014) first reported as a young directly imaged planet-mass companion. ROXs 42Bb exhibits IR colors redder than field L dwarfs but consistent with other planet-mass companions. From the H$_{2}$O-2 spectral index, we estimate a spectral type of L0 $\\pm$ 1; weak detections/non-detections of the $CO$ bandheads, $Na I$, and $Ca I$ support evidence for a young, low surface gravity object primarily derived from the $H_{2}$(K) index. ROXs 42Bb's photometry/K-band spectrum are inconsistent with limiting cases of dust-free atmospheres ($COND$) and marginally inconsistent with the AMES/DUSTY models and the BT-SETTL models. However, ROXS 42Bb data are simultaneously fit by atmosphere models incorporating several micron-sized dust grains entrained in thick clouds, although further modifications are needed to better reproduce the $K$-band spectral shape. ...

  15. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Revealed the Accumulation Characteristics of the 2-Nitroimidazole-Based Agent "Pimonidazole" in Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Yukiko; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Feng, Fei; Zhao, Songji; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a key factor promoting tumor progression and angiogenesis and resistance of cancer to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. 2-Nitroimidazole-based agents have been widely used in pathological and nuclear medicine examinations to detect hypoxic regions in tumors; in particular, pimonidazole is used for histochemical staining of hypoxic regions. It is considered to accumulate in hypoxic cells via covalent binding with macromolecules or by forming reductive metabolites after reduction of its nitro group. However, the detailed mechanism of its accumulation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the accumulation mechanism of pimonidazole in hypoxic tumor tissues in a mouse model by mass spectrometric analyses including imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Pimonidazole and its reductive metabolites were observed in the tumor tissues. However, their locations in the tumor sections were not similar to the positively stained areas in pimonidazole-immunohistochemistry, an area considered hypoxic. The glutathione conjugate of reduced pimonidazole, a low-molecular-weight metabolite of pimonidazole, was found in tumor tissues by LC-MS analysis, and our IMS study determined that the intratumor localization of the glutathione conjugate was consistent with the area positively immunostained for pimonidazole. We also found complementary localization of the glutathione conjugate and reduced glutathione (GSH), implying that formation of the glutathione conjugate occurred in the tumor tissue. These results suggest that in hypoxic tumor cells, pimonidazole is reduced at its nitro group, followed by conjugation with GSH. PMID:27580239

  16. The expression profile of phosphatidylinositol in high spatial resolution imaging mass spectrometry as a potential biomarker for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Goto

    Full Text Available High-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (HR-MALDI-IMS is an emerging application for the comprehensive and detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of ionized molecules in situ on tissue slides. HR-MALDI-IMS in negative mode in a mass range of m/z 500-1000 was performed on optimal cutting temperature (OCT compound-embedded human prostate tissue samples obtained from patients with prostate cancer at the time of radical prostatectomy. HR-MALDI-IMS analysis of the 14 samples in the discovery set identified 26 molecules as highly expressed in the prostate. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS showed that these molecules included 14 phosphatidylinositols (PIs, 3 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs and 3 phosphatidic acids (PAs. Among the PIs, the expression of PI(18:0/18:1, PI(18:0/20:3 and PI(18:0/20:2 were significantly higher in cancer tissue than in benign epithelium. A biomarker algorithm for prostate cancer was formulated by analyzing the expression profiles of PIs in cancer tissue and benign epithelium of the discovery set using orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm for prostate cancer diagnosis in the 24 validation set samples were 87.5 and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, HR-MALDI-IMS identified several PIs as being more highly expressed in prostate cancer than benign prostate epithelium. These differences in PI expression profiles may serve as a novel diagnostic tool for prostate cancer.

  17. RECONSTRUCTING CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS WITH COORDINATED IMAGING AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS: GLOBAL STRUCTURE, KINEMATICS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SPACE WEATHER FORECASTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reconstruct the global structure and kinematics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using coordinated imaging and in situ observations from multiple vantage points. A forward modeling technique, which assumes a rope-like morphology for CMEs, is used to determine the global structure (including orientation and propagation direction) from coronagraph observations. We reconstruct the corresponding structure from in situ measurements at 1 AU with the Grad-Shafranov method, which gives the flux-rope orientation, cross section, and a rough knowledge of the propagation direction. CME kinematics (propagation direction and radial distance) during the transit from the Sun to 1 AU are studied with a geometric triangulation technique, which provides an unambiguous association between solar observations and in situ signatures; a track fitting approach is invoked when data are available from only one spacecraft. We show how the results obtained from imaging and in situ data can be compared by applying these methods to the 2007 November 14-16 and 2008 December 12 CMEs. This merged imaging and in situ study shows important consequences and implications for CME research as well as space weather forecasting: (1) CME propagation directions can be determined to a relatively good precision as shown by the consistency between different methods; (2) the geometric triangulation technique shows a promising capability to link solar observations with corresponding in situ signatures at 1 AU and to predict CME arrival at the Earth; (3) the flux rope within CMEs, which has the most hazardous southward magnetic field, cannot be imaged at large distances due to expansion; (4) the flux-rope orientation derived from in situ measurements at 1 AU may have a large deviation from that determined by coronagraph image modeling; and (5) we find, for the first time, that CMEs undergo a westward migration with respect to the Sun-Earth line at their acceleration phase, which we suggest is a universal

  18. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Gaul, David A.; Wang, May D.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. PMID:27159635

  19. Mass spectrometry detection and imaging of inorganic and organic explosive device signatures using desorption electro-flow focusing ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Sisco, Edward

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of desorption electro-flow focusing ionization (DEFFI) with in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) for the mass spectrometric (MS) detection and imaging of explosive device components, including both inorganic and organic explosives and energetic materials. We utilize in-source CID to enhance ion collisions with atmospheric gas, thereby reducing adducts and minimizing organic contaminants. Optimization of the MS signal response as a function of in-source CID potential demonstrated contrasting trends for the detection of inorganic and organic explosive device components. DEFFI-MS and in-source CID enabled isotopic and molecular speciation of inorganic components, providing further physicochemical information. The developed system facilitated the direct detection and chemical mapping of trace analytes collected with Nomex swabs and spatially resolved distributions within artificial fingerprints from forensic lift tape. The results presented here provide the forensic and security sectors a powerful tool for the detection, chemical imaging, and inorganic speciation of explosives device signatures. PMID:24968206

  20. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R L Paine

    Full Text Available High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy.

  1. Top-down proteomics with mass spectrometry imaging: a pilot study towards discovery of biomarkers for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ye

    Full Text Available In the developing mammalian brain, inhibition of NMDA receptor can induce widespread neuroapoptosis, inhibit neurogenesis and cause impairment of learning and memory. Although some mechanistic insights into adverse neurological actions of these NMDA receptor antagonists exist, our understanding of the full spectrum of developmental events affected by early exposure to these chemical agents in the brain is still limited. Here we attempt to gain insights into the impact of pharmacologically induced excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in infancy on the brain proteome using mass spectrometric imaging (MSI. Our goal was to study changes in protein expression in postnatal day 10 (P10 rat brains following neonatal exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK801. Analysis of rat brains exposed to vehicle or MK801 and comparison of their MALDI MS images revealed differential relative abundances of several proteins. We then identified these markers such as ubiquitin, purkinje cell protein 4 (PEP-19, cytochrome c oxidase subunits and calmodulin, by a combination of reversed-phase (RP HPLC fractionation and top-down tandem MS platform. More in-depth large scale study along with validation experiments will be carried out in the future. Overall, our findings indicate that a brief neonatal exposure to a compound that alters excitatory/inhibitory balance in the brain has a long term effect on protein expression patterns during subsequent development, highlighting the utility of MALDI-MSI as a discovery tool for potential biomarkers.

  2. Value of diffusion-weighted imaging in distinguishing pancreatic carcinoma from mass-forming chronic pancreatitis: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Xiangke; Sushant Kumar Das; Anup Bhetuwal; Xiao Yingquan; Sun Feng; Zeng Lichuan; Wang Wenxuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Several previous studies have shown that diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide additional information for focal pancreatic lesions by demonstrating more restricted diffusion in solid malignant tumors than in chronic pancreatitis,which can be indicated by a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).However,these studies have a modest sample size and convey inconclusive results.The aim of this study was to determine,in a meta-analysis,the diagnostic performance of quantitative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in distinguishing pancreatic carcinoma from mass-forming chronic pancreatitis.Methods We determined the sensitivities and specificities across studies.A summary receiver operator characteristic (sROC) curve was constructed to calculate the area under the curve (AUC).Results The pooled sensitivity of DWI was 0.86 (95% CI:0.80-0.91) and the pooled specificity was 0.82 (95% CI:0.72-0.89).The AUC of the sROC was 0.91 (95% CI:0.88-0.93).Conclusions DWI may be a potentially technically feasible tool for differentiating pancreatic carcinoma from massforming chronic pancreatitis.However,large-scale randomized control trials are necessary to assess its clinical value.

  3. Intrasplenic masses of ''preserved'' functioning splenic tissue in sickle cell disease: correlation of imaging findings (CT, ultrasound, MRI, and nuclear scintigraphy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. We studied six patients with sickle cell disease (SSD), five homozygous for sickle cell anemia and one with sickle beta-thalassemia, in whom rounded intrasplenic masses proved to be preserved functioning splenic tissue. Materials and methods. Available images including computed tomography, ultrasonography, bone scans (Tc-99m MDP), liver spleen scans (Tc-99m sulfur colloid), and MRI were evaluated. Results. The masses were low density on CT (in an otherwise calcified spleen), hypoechoic relative to the echogenic spleen on US, and had the imaging characteristics of normal spleen on MRI. They failed to accumulate Tc-99m MDP but did demonstrate uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Conclusion. In a patient with SSD and intrasplenic masses, proper correlation of multiple imaging modalities will establish the diagnosis of functioning splenic tissue and avoid mistaken diagnosis of splenic abscess or infarction. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Intrasplenic masses of ``preserved`` functioning splenic tissue in sickle cell disease: correlation of imaging findings (CT, ultrasound, MRI, and nuclear scintigraphy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, T.L. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Haller, J.O. [Department of Radiology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Ruzal-Shapiro, C. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Hurlet-Jenson, A. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, New York (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Purpose. We studied six patients with sickle cell disease (SSD), five homozygous for sickle cell anemia and one with sickle beta-thalassemia, in whom rounded intrasplenic masses proved to be preserved functioning splenic tissue. Materials and methods. Available images including computed tomography, ultrasonography, bone scans (Tc-99m MDP), liver spleen scans (Tc-99m sulfur colloid), and MRI were evaluated. Results. The masses were low density on CT (in an otherwise calcified spleen), hypoechoic relative to the echogenic spleen on US, and had the imaging characteristics of normal spleen on MRI. They failed to accumulate Tc-99m MDP but did demonstrate uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Conclusion. In a patient with SSD and intrasplenic masses, proper correlation of multiple imaging modalities will establish the diagnosis of functioning splenic tissue and avoid mistaken diagnosis of splenic abscess or infarction. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Understanding adolescent girls’ vulnerability to the impact of the mass media on body image and restrained eating behaviour: the role of media type, body perfect internalisation and materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Beth Teresa

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong body of psychological research implicating the mass media in the aetiology of adolescent girls’ negative body image and eating behaviours. The present thesis aims to extend this research by examining potential factors – namely, media type, body perfect internalisation and materialism – that make girls more vulnerable to the negative impact of the mass media. An initial meta-analysis (Chapter 3) collated the findings of existing research examining the impact of ‘body perf...

  6. Development and application of out-of-focus imaging in order to characterize heat and mass exchanges in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present the capacity of the out-of-focus imaging in order to measure droplets size in presence of heat and mass exchanges. It is supported with optical simulations first based on geometrical optics, and then with the Lorenz-Mie theory. Finally, this technique is applied in presence of heat and mass transfers in the TOSQAN experiment. (authors)

  7. In Situ Probing of Cholesterol in Astrocytes at the Single Cell Level using Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometric Imaging with Colloidal Silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdian, D.C.; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S.; Yeung, Edward S.; and Lee, Young Jin

    2010-03-18

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level.

  8. Sex and Age Differences in Body-Image, Self-Esteem, and Body Mass Index in Adolescents and Adults After Single-Ventricle Palliation

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Nancy A.; EVANGELISTA, LORRAINE S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 fema...

  9. Macroscopic and microscopic spatially-resolved analysis of food contaminants and constituents using laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nielen, Michel W. F.; Teris A. van Beek

    2014-01-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) does not require very flat surfaces, high-precision sample preparation, or the addition of matrix. Because of these features, LAESI-MSI may be the method of choice for spatially-resolved food analysis. In this work, LAESI time-of-flight MSI was investigated for macroscopic and microscopic imaging of pesticides, mycotoxins, and plant metabolites on rose leaves, orange and lemon fruit, ergot bodies, cherry tomatoes, ...

  10. Galaxy-scale gravitational lens candidates from the Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging survey and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly spectroscopic survey

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, James H H; More, Anupreeta; Oguri, Masamune; Chiueh, Tzihong; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J; Price, Paul; Tait, Philip J; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Utsumi, Yousuke; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    We present a list of galaxy-scale lens candidates including a highly probable interacting galaxy-scale lens in the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) imaging survey. We combine HSC imaging with the blended-spectra catalog from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to identify lens candidates, and use lens mass modeling to confirm the candidates. We find 46 matches between the HSC S14A_0b imaging data release and the GAMA catalog. Ten of them are probable lens systems according to their morphology and redshifts. There is one system with an interacting galaxy pair, HSC J084928+000949, that has a valid mass model. We predict the total mass enclosed by the Einstein radius of $\\sim0.72$" ($\\sim1.65$kpc) for this new expected lens system to be $\\sim10^{10.59}M_{\\odot}$. Using the photometry in the {\\it grizy} bands of the HSC survey and stellar population synthesis modeling with a Salpeter stellar initial mass function, we estimate the stellar mass within the Einstein radius to be $\\sim10^{10.46}\\,M_{\\odot}$. We thus fin...

  11. A New Software for Reconstituting Mass Spectra Imaging Data%质谱成像数据图像重构软件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊行创; 方向; 欧阳证; 江游; 黄泽健; 邓玉林; 张玉奎

    2011-01-01

    Reconstituting mass spectra data into virtual image is necessary for imaging mass spectrometry.There is a lack of special wizard style interface software to realize this processing.A software named imgGenerate is developed to guide users to edit parameters according to mass spectra raw data, and step by step to reconstitute them into Analyze 7.5 image format, which can be read by image analysis softwares, such as BioMap and IMSview.ImgGenerate is successfully used to reconstitute mass spectral raw data of rat brain section and writing analyzing into images, this indicates the wizard style interface software is specially useful for reconstituting mass spectra imaging data.%在质谱成像分析中,将质谱原始数据重构成图像数据是重要的处理过程,当前缺乏专用的向导式软件来完成此功能,为此,开发出一种名为imgGenerate的软件系统.imgGenerate能够一步步引导用户依据质谱原始数据特点设定m/z范围、精度以及数据类型等参数,重构为科学图像Analyze 7.5格式数据.重构后的数据文件可再通过BioMap或IMSview软件进行图像显示处理.应用imgGenerate成功地将大鼠小脑切片和字迹质谱成像分析的原始质谱数据重构成图像数据.应用测试表明,imgGenerate具有向导式、功能全面、专用化、实用等特点.

  12. Central sensibility of human cases with different body mass during oral glucose tolerance test using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the limitation of technique, there are few researches on regulating function of central hypothalamus by metabolism, especially the researches on real-time function.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of hypothalamus to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in different body-weighted subjects by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) so as to investigate the relationship between the sensitivity of hypothalamus in glycoregulation and disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism.DESIGN: Paired design.SETTING: Department of Radiology and Beijing Geriatrics Institute, Beijing Hospital, National Public Health Bureau.PARTICIPANTS: A total of twenty healthy volunteers were selected from Beijing Geriatrics Institute,National Public Health Bureau, including 10 subjects with obesity (5 males and 5 females; body mass >28.0 kg/m2) and 10 subjects with normal body mass (5 males and 5 females; body mass from 18.5 to 23.9 kg/m2). All subjects gave written informed consent before participating in the study.METHODS: fMRI study was performed on GE 1.5 T Signa Twinspeed Infinity with Excite. Each volunteer was ingested of glucose during the fMRI scan. T2* images were acquired using a single-shot gradient echo (EPI) technique. The parameters of EPI included: TR 3 000 ms, TE 40 ms, Flip angle 90 ° , field of view (FOV) 24 cm × 24 cm, thickness 5 mm, gap 0 mm, matrix 64 × 64, number of excitation 1. All 10 subjects with normal body mass underwent a repeat fMRI scan after consuming an equivalent amount of water without glucose on a separate day. The procedure for the fMRI scan with water intake was the same as for glucose ingestion. fMRI data were processed with Intensity Averaging Method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The central response of hypothalamus and feedback orientation during OGTT in different body-weighted subjects.RESULTS: An acute transient decrease of fMRI intensity in posterior inferior and anterior inferior of hypothalamus was observed in all

  13. Imaging with Mass Spectrometry: A SIMS and VUV-Photoionization Study of Ion-Sputtered Atoms and Clusters from GaAs and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Lynelle; Zhou, Jia; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-12-05

    A new mass spectrometry surface imaging method is presented in which ion-sputtered neutrals are postionized by wavelength-tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light from a synchrotron source. Mass spectra and signal counts of the photoionized neutrals from GaAs (100) and Au are compared to those of the secondary ions. While clusters larger than dimers are more efficiently detected as secondary ions, certain species, such as As2, Au and Au2, are more efficiently detected through the neutral channel. Continuously tuning the photon wavelength allows photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves to be obtained for sputtered Asm (m=1,2) and Aun (n=1-4). From the observed ionization thresholds, sputtered neutral As and Au show no clear evidence of electronic excitation, while neutral clusters have photoionization onsets shifted to lower energies by ~;;0.3 eV. These shifts are attributed to unresolved vibrational and rotational excitations. High-spatial resolution chemical imaging with synchrotron VUV postionization is demonstrated at two different photon energies using a copper TEM grid embedded in indium. The resulting images are used to illustrate the use of tunable VUV light for verifying mass peak assignments by exploiting the unique wavelength-dependent PIE of each sputtered neutral species. This capability is valuable for identifying compounds when imaging chemically complex systems with mass spectrometry-based techniques.

  14. Measurement of Surface Displacement and Deformation of Mass Movements Using Least Squares Matching of Repeat High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misganu Debella-Gilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Displacement and deformation are fundamental measures of Earth surface mass movements such as glacier flow, rockglacier creep and rockslides. Ground-based methods of monitoring such mass movements can be costly, time consuming and limited in spatial and temporal coverage. Remote sensing techniques, here matching of repeat optical images, are increasingly used to obtain displacement and deformation fields. Strain rates are usually computed in a post-processing step based on the gradients of the measured velocity field. This study explores the potential of automatically and directly computing velocity, rotation and strain rates on Earth surface mass movements simultaneously from the matching positions and the parameters of the geometric transformation models using the least squares matching (LSM approach. The procedures are exemplified using bi-temporal high resolution satellite and aerial images of glacier flow, rockglacier creep and land sliding. The results show that LSM matches the images and computes longitudinal strain rates, transverse strain rates and shear strain rates reliably with mean absolute deviations in the order of 10−4 (one level of significance below the measured values as evaluated on stable grounds. The LSM also improves the accuracy of displacement estimation of the pixel-precision normalized cross-correlation by over 90% under ideal (simulated circumstances and by about 25% for real multi-temporal images of mass movements.

  15. Imaging spectroscopy to assess the composition of ice surface materials and their impact on glacier mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegeli, Kathrin; Huss, Matthias; Damm, Alexander; de Jong, Rogier; Schaepman, Michael; Hoelzle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The ice-albedo feedback plays a crucial role in various glaciological processes, but especially influences ice melt. Glacier surface albedo is one of the most important variables in the energy balance of snow and ice, but depends in a complicated way on many factors, such as cryoconite concentration, impurities due to mineral dust, soot or organic matter, grain size or ice surface morphology. Our understanding on how these various factors influence glacier albedo is still limited hindering a spatially and temporally explicit parameterization of energy balance models and requiring strongly simplified assumptions on actual albedo values. Over the last two decades, several studies have focused on glacier surface albedo using automatic in-situ weather stations in combination with radiation measurement setups or satellite images. Due to limitations of both approaches in matching either the spatial or the temporal length scale of glacier albedo, still fairly little is known about the state, changes and impact of glacier surface albedo in the Swiss Alps, although there are obvious changes in surface characteristics on most alpine glaciers over the last years. With use of the APEX (Airborne Prism EXperiment) image spectrometer, measurements of reflected radiation were acquired in high spatial and spectral resolution on Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland, to explicitly analyse the ice surface. In-situ radiometric measurements were acquired with an ASD field spectrometer in parallel to APEX overflights. These data are intended to be used for validation purposes as well as input data for the linear spectral unmixing analysis of the APEX data. Seasonal glacier mass balance is monitored since five years using the direct glaciological method. This contribution presents a first evaluation of the data collected in summer 2013. The obtained in-situ and airborne reflectance measurements were used in combination with a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) approach to assess the

  16. Elucidation of hydrogen cross leak mechanism in PEFC by magnetic resonance imaging and in-line direct gas mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen (H2) permeability of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) is of great importance since cross-leak H2 has an effect on degradation of membranes and/or catalyst layers in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). In this study, H2 cross-leak measurement by direct gas mass spectroscopy (DGMS) and water content measurement using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique were carried out to investigate H2 cross-leak mechanism in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM). High H2 permeability was detected at elevated temperature, higher humidity and large H2 partial pressure in the anode. H2 permeability through the membrane was strongly affected by the volume fraction of the hydrophilic ion-cluster domain as MRI revealed the membrane was hydrated at higher humidity. Increase of cell temperature possibly accelerates H2 diffusion through the ion-cluster domain and the hydrophobic domain. Observed H2 permeability depending on H2 partial pressure in the anode shows H2 cross-leak process was closely related to both dissolution and diffusion of hydrogen in the membrane. Based on the experimental results, a comprehensive H2 cross-leak mechanism in PEFC was proposed. (author)

  17. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals Elevated Glomerular ATP/AMP in Diabetes/obesity and Identifies Sphingomyelin as a Possible Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Miyamoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is suppressed in diabetes and may be due to a high ATP/AMP ratio, however the quantitation of nucleotides in vivo has been extremely difficult. Via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI to localize renal nucleotides we found that the diabetic kidney had a significant increase in glomerular ATP/AMP ratio. Untargeted MALDI-MSI analysis revealed that a specific sphingomyelin species (SM(d18:1/16:0 accumulated in the glomeruli of diabetic and high-fat diet-fed mice compared with wild-type controls. In vitro studies in mesangial cells revealed that exogenous addition of SM(d18:1/16:0 significantly elevated ATP via increased glucose consumption and lactate production with a consequent reduction of AMPK and PGC1α. Furthermore, inhibition of sphingomyelin synthases reversed these effects. Our findings suggest that AMPK is reduced in the diabetic kidney due to an increase in the ATP/AMP ratio and that SM(d18:1/16:0 could be responsible for the enhanced ATP production via activation of the glycolytic pathway.

  18. Imaging by Elemental and Molecular Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Uptake of an Arsenolipid in the Brain of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Ann-Christin; Schulz, Jacqueline; Soltwisch, Jens; Meyer, Sören; Kettling, Hans; Sperling, Michael; Jeibmann, Astrid; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Francesconi, Kevin A; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Karst, Uwe

    2016-05-17

    Arsenic-containing lipids (arsenolipids) are natural products of marine organisms such as fish, invertebrates, and algae, many of which are important seafoods. A major group of arsenolipids, namely, the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC), have recently been shown to be cytotoxic to human liver and bladder cells, a result that has stimulated interest in the chemistry and toxicology of these compounds. In this study, elemental laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and molecular matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-)MS were used to image and quantify the uptake of an AsHC in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Using these two complementary methods, both an enrichment of arsenic and the presence of the AsHC in the brain were revealed, indicating that the intact arsenolipid had crossed the blood-brain barrier. Simultaneous acquisition of quantitative elemental concentrations and molecular distributions could allow new insight into organ-specific enrichment and possible transportation processes of arsenic-containing bioactive compounds in living organisms. PMID:27098356

  19. High-b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer and Mass-Forming Chronic Pancreatitis: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, M.; Matsuzaki, K.; Kubo, H.; Nishitani, H. (Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Radiologic Technology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan))

    2008-05-15

    Background: Mass-forming chronic pancreatitis may mimic a pancreatic cancer on dynamic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and preoperative differential diagnosis is often difficult. Recently, the usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer has been reported in several studies. Purpose: To determine whether high-b-value DWI can distinguish pancreatic cancer from benign mass-forming chronic pancreatitis. Material and Methods: Twenty pancreatic cancers and four cases of mass-forming chronic pancreatitis were evaluated by high-b-value DWI (b=800 s/mm2). The signal intensity on DWI was visually evaluated, and the isotropic apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured. Results: All twenty pancreatic cancers showed high signal intensity (18 showed very high, two showed slightly high) on DWI. None of the mass-forming chronic pancreatitis cases showed very high intensity (three showed iso to low, one showed slightly high) on DWI. The ADCs in the pancreatic cancer and mass-forming chronic pancreatitis were 1.38+-0.32x10-3 mm2/s and 1.0 0.18x10-3 mm2/s, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: On high-b-value DWI, most pancreatic cancers showed very high signal intensity, and may hence be distinguished from benign mass-forming chronic pancreatitis based on our preliminary results

  20. High-b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer and Mass-Forming Chronic Pancreatitis: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Mass-forming chronic pancreatitis may mimic a pancreatic cancer on dynamic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and preoperative differential diagnosis is often difficult. Recently, the usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer has been reported in several studies. Purpose: To determine whether high-b-value DWI can distinguish pancreatic cancer from benign mass-forming chronic pancreatitis. Material and Methods: Twenty pancreatic cancers and four cases of mass-forming chronic pancreatitis were evaluated by high-b-value DWI (b=800 s/mm2). The signal intensity on DWI was visually evaluated, and the isotropic apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured. Results: All twenty pancreatic cancers showed high signal intensity (18 showed very high, two showed slightly high) on DWI. None of the mass-forming chronic pancreatitis cases showed very high intensity (three showed iso to low, one showed slightly high) on DWI. The ADCs in the pancreatic cancer and mass-forming chronic pancreatitis were 1.38±0.32x10-3 mm2/s and 1.0 0.18x10-3 mm2/s, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: On high-b-value DWI, most pancreatic cancers showed very high signal intensity, and may hence be distinguished from benign mass-forming chronic pancreatitis based on our preliminary results

  1. Improved workflow for quantification of left ventricular volumes and mass using free-breathing motion corrected cine imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Russell; Olivieri, Laura; O’Brien, Kendall; Kellman, Peter; Xue, Hui; Hansen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional cine imaging for cardiac functional assessment requires breath-holding, which can be problematic in some situations. Free-breathing techniques have relied on multiple averages or real-time imaging, producing images that can be spatially and/or temporally blurred. To overcome this, methods have been developed to acquire real-time images over multiple cardiac cycles, which are subsequently motion corrected and reformatted to yield a single image series displaying one card...

  2. Predictive values of Bi-Rads categories 3, 4 and 5 in non-palpable breast masses evaluated by mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of BI-RADSTM categories 3, 4 and 5 in non-palpable breast masses assessed by mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Materials And Methods: Twenty-nine patients with BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5 non-palpable breast masses identified by mammograms were submitted to complementary ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging studies, besides excisional biopsy. In total, 30 biopsies were performed. The lesions as well as their respective BI-RADS classification into 3, 4 and 5 were correlated with the histopathological results. The predictive values calculation was made by means of specific mathematical equations. Results: Negative predictive values for category 3 were: mammography, 69.23%; ultrasound, 70.58%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 100%. Positive predictive values for category 4 were: mammography, 63.63%; ultrasound, 50%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 30.76%. For category 5, positive predictive values were: mammography and ultrasound, 100%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 92.85%. Conclusion: For category 3, the negative predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging was high, and for categories 4 and 5, the positive predictive values of the three modalities were moderate. (author)

  3. Age- and gender-specific differences in left and right ventricular cardiac function and mass determined by cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined possible age- and gender-specific differences in the function and mass of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles in 36 healthy volunteers using cine gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were divided into four groups (nine men and nine women in each): men aged under 45 years (32 ± 7), women aged under 45 (27 ± 6), men aged over 45 (59 ± 8), and women aged over 45 (57 ± 9). Functional analysis of cardiac volume and mass and of LV wall motion was performed by manual segmentation of the endocardial and epicardial borders of the end-diastolic and end-systolic frame; both absolute and normalized (per square meter body surface area) values were evaluated. With age there was a significant decrease in both absolute and normalized LV and RV chamber volumes (EDV, ESV), while LV and RV masses remained unchanged. Gender-specific differences were found in cardiac mass and volume (for men and women, respectively: LV mass, 155 ± 18 and 110 ± 16 g; LV EDV, 118 ± 27 and 96 ± 21 ml; LV ESV, 40 ± 13 and 29 ± 9 ml; RV mass, 52 ± 10 and 39 ± 5 g; RV EDV, 131 ± 28 and 100 ± 23 ml; RV ESV, 53 ± 17 and 33 ± 15 ml). Normalization to body surface area eliminated differences in LV volumes but not those in LV mass, RV mass, or RV function. Functional parameters such as cardiac output and LV ejection fraction showed nonsignificant or only slight differences and were thus largely independent of age and gender. Intra- and interobserver variability ranged between 1.4 % and 5.9 % for all parameters. Cine magnetic resonance imaging thus shows age- and gender-specific differences in cardiac function, and therefore the evaluation of cardiac function in patients should consider age- and gender-matched normative values. (orig.)

  4. MALDI-mass spectrometric imaging revealing hypoxia-driven lipids and proteins in a breast tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jiang; Chughtai, Kamila; Purvine, Samuel O.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Raman, Venu; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.; Glunde, Kristine

    2015-06-16

    Hypoxic areas are a common feature of rapidly growing malignant tumors and their metastases, and are typically spatially heterogeneous. Hypoxia has a strong impact on tumor cell biology and contributes to tumor progression in multiple ways. To date, only a few molecular key players in tumor hypoxia, such as for example hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), have been discovered. The distribution of biomolecules is frequently heterogeneous in the tumor volume, and may be driven by hypoxia and HIF-1α. Understanding the spatially heterogeneous hypoxic response of tumors is critical. Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) provides a unique way of imaging biomolecular distributions in tissue sections with high spectral and spatial resolution. In this paper, breast tumor xenografts grown from MDA-MB-231-HRE-tdTomato cells, with a red fluorescent tdTomato protein construct under the control of a hypoxia response element (HRE)-containing promoter driven by HIF-1α, were used to detect the spatial distribution of hypoxic regions. We elucidated the 3D spatial relationship between hypoxic regions and the localization of small molecules, metabolites, lipids, and proteins by using principal component analysis – linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) on 3D rendered MSI volume data from MDA-MB-231-HRE-tdTomato breast tumor xenografts. In this study we identified hypoxia-regulated proteins active in several distinct pathways such as glucose metabolism, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, protein folding, translation/ribosome, splicesome, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, hemoglobin chaperone, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, aurora B signaling/apoptotic execution phase, the RAS signaling pathway, the FAS signaling pathway/caspase cascade in apoptosis and telomere stress induced senescence. In parallel we also identified co-localization of hypoxic regions and various lipid species such as PC(16:0/18:1), PC(16:0/18:2), PC(18:0/18:1), PC

  5. A Sociological Study or the Effect of Western Values and Mass Media on Body Image (The Case of 15-and-above Years Old Women in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad Abbaszadeh

    2014-04-01

    Body image is a complicated phenomenon including physiological, psychological and sociological indexes. Recently, new studies are conducted about body image. From a psychological perspective, it is defined, as "an image of the body one has in mind and the way that the body is seen". In fact, Body image is a mentality means that everyone is concerned with his /her appearance. Much of this mindset, positive or negative, roots in values of the society in which it is promoted. In every society, there are certain patterns and characteristics associated with cultural ideals of beauty and the ways that female body should look and appear. One specific example of this, which is accepted in most societies, is being slim. However, appearance and its ideals have a broad meaning and cannot be considered only from a physiological perspective. Instead, it can be studied from a sociological perspective, as it is the society which dictates the appropriate appearance for people. To the extent that a person tries to have an acceptable appearance, he or she is accepted by the community. The society and culture in which a person is born and grows, teaches them how to define and interpret many of the changes that occur in the body. It is through our perceptions of our body that we come to understand how to establish relations with others, and may also affect the responses that we receive from others. Considering the fact that mass media and Western values are among the most important influential sources by which body image is defined, this study examines the relationship between Western values and mass media with body image Materials and Methods The statistical population of this study includes all 15-and-above years old women in Tabriz. Sample size was chosen through Cochran Formula, according to which 316 women were selected by means of cluster sampling method. This study is done through survey method and we used questionnaire for collecting the data. Also, we analyzed the data by

  6. The value of 15-minute delayed contrast-enhanced CT to differentiate hyperattenuating adrenal masses compared with chemical shift MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of 15-min delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (15-DECT) compared with that of chemical shift magnetic resonance (CSMR) imaging in differentiating hyperattenuating adrenal masses and to perform subgroup analysis in underlying malignancy and non-malignancy. This study included 478 adrenal masses in 453 patients examined with 15-DECT and 235 masses in 217 patients examined with CSMR. Relative percentage washout (RPW) and absolute percentage washout (APW) on 15-DECT, and signal intensity index (SII) and adrenal-to-spleen ratio (ASR) on CSMR were measured. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 15-DECT and CSMR were analysed for characterisation of adrenal adenoma. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients with and without underlying malignancy. Attenuation and size of the masses on unenhanced CT correlated with the risk of non-adenoma. RPW calculated from 15-DECT showed the highest diagnostic performance for characterising hyperattenuating adrenal masses regardless of underlying malignancy, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 91.7 %, 74.8 % and 88.1 %, respectively in all patients. The risk of non-adenoma increased approximately threefold as mass size increased 1 cm or as its attenuation value increased by 10 Hounsfield units. 15-DECT was more accurate than CSMR in characterising hyperattenuating adrenal masses regardless of underlying malignancy. (orig.)

  7. The value of 15-minute delayed contrast-enhanced CT to differentiate hyperattenuating adrenal masses compared with chemical shift MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Cho, Kyoung-Sik [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa Jung; Kim, Sun-Ok [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Cancer Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of 15-min delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (15-DECT) compared with that of chemical shift magnetic resonance (CSMR) imaging in differentiating hyperattenuating adrenal masses and to perform subgroup analysis in underlying malignancy and non-malignancy. This study included 478 adrenal masses in 453 patients examined with 15-DECT and 235 masses in 217 patients examined with CSMR. Relative percentage washout (RPW) and absolute percentage washout (APW) on 15-DECT, and signal intensity index (SII) and adrenal-to-spleen ratio (ASR) on CSMR were measured. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 15-DECT and CSMR were analysed for characterisation of adrenal adenoma. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients with and without underlying malignancy. Attenuation and size of the masses on unenhanced CT correlated with the risk of non-adenoma. RPW calculated from 15-DECT showed the highest diagnostic performance for characterising hyperattenuating adrenal masses regardless of underlying malignancy, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 91.7 %, 74.8 % and 88.1 %, respectively in all patients. The risk of non-adenoma increased approximately threefold as mass size increased 1 cm or as its attenuation value increased by 10 Hounsfield units. 15-DECT was more accurate than CSMR in characterising hyperattenuating adrenal masses regardless of underlying malignancy. (orig.)

  8. Composition and localization of lipids in Penaeus merguiensis ovaries during the ovarian maturation cycle as revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyachat Chansela

    Full Text Available Ovary maturation, oocyte differentiation, and embryonic development in shrimp are highly dependent on nutritional lipids taken up by female broodstocks. These lipids are important as energy sources as well as for cell signaling. In this study, we report on the compositions of major lipids, i.e. phosphatidylcholines (PCs, triacylglycerols (TAGs, and fatty acids (FAs, in the ovaries of the banana shrimp, Penaeus merguiensis, during ovarian maturation. Thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that the total PC and TAG signal intensities increased during ovarian maturation. Further, by using gas chromatography, we found that (1 FAs 14:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, and 22:6 proportionally increased as ovarian development progressed to more mature stages; (2 FAs 16:0, 18:0, 20:4, and 20:5 proportionally decreased; and (3 FAs 15:0, 17:0, and 20:2 remained unchanged. By using imaging mass spectrometry, we found that PC 16:0/16:1 and TAG 18:1/18:2/22:6 were detected in oocytes stages 1 and 2. PCs 16:1/20:4, 16:0/22:6, 18:3/22:6, 18:1/22:6, 20:5/22:6, and 22:6/22:6 and TAGs 16:0/16:1/18:3, 16:0/18:1/18:3, 16:0/18:1/18:1, and 16:0/18:2/22:6 were present in all stages of oocytes. In contrast, the PC- and TAG-associated FAs 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6 showed high signal intensities in stage 3 and 4 oocytes. These FAs may act as nutrition sources as well as signaling molecules for developing embryos and the hatching process. Knowledge of lipid compositions and localization could be helpful for formulating the diet for female broodstocks to promote fecundity and larval production.

  9. Assessment of interannual variations in the surface mass balance of 18 Svalbard glaciers from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Terra albedo product

    OpenAIRE

    W. Greuell; Kohler, J.; F. Obleitner; Glowacki, P.; Melvold, K.; Bernsen, E.; J. Oerlemans

    2007-01-01

    We estimate annual anomalies of the surface mass balance of glaciers on Svalbard for the period 2000–2005 (six years), by calculating the so-called ‘‘satellite-derived mass balance’’ (Bsat) from time series of satellite-derived surface albedos. The method needs no other input variables. Surface albedos are extracted from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Terra albedo product. We validate the MODIS albedos by comparing them with in situ measurements on Kongsvegen, and w...

  10. Integrating imaging FTIR and secondary ion mass spectrometry for the analysis of embedded paint cross-sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeren, Ron M.A.; Boon, Jaap J.; Noble, Petria; Wadum, Jørgen

    Novel chemical imaging techniques provide new insight in the organic chemistry of embedded paint cross-sections. FTIR imaging microscopy delivers a two-dimensional image of the functional group distribution, revealing chemical aspects of the binding medium in each individual paint layer. Secondar...... identity of various lead soaps and lead hydroxychloride in these inclusions....

  11. HIghMass - High HI Mass, HI-rich Galaxies at z~0: High-Resolution VLA Imaging of UGC 9037 and UGC 12506

    CERN Document Server

    Hallenbeck, Gregory; Spekkens, Kristine; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Brinchmann, Jarle; Chengalur, Jayaram; Hunt, Leslie K; Masters, Karen L; Saintonge, Amélie

    2014-01-01

    We present resolved HI observations of two galaxies, UGC 9037 and UGC 12506, members of a rare subset of galaxies detected by the ALFALFA extragalactic HI survey characterized by high HI mass and high gas fraction for their stellar masses. Both of these galaxies have M$_*>10^{10}$ M$_\\odot$ and M$_\\text{HI}>$ M$_*$, as well as typical star formation rates for their stellar masses. How can such galaxies have avoided consuming their massive gas reservoirs? From gas kinematics, stability, star formation, and dark matter distributions of the two galaxies, we infer two radically different histories. UGC 9037 has high central HI surface density ($>10$ M$_\\odot$ pc$^{-2}$). Its gas at most radii appears to be marginally unstable with non-circular flows across the disk. These properties are consistent with UGC 9037 having recently acquired its gas and that it will soon undergo major star formation. UGC 12506 has low surface densities of HI, and its gas is stable over most of the disk. We predict its gas to be HI-domi...

  12. ChiMS: Open-source instrument control software platform on LabVIEW for imaging/depth profiling mass spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Hanley, Luke

    2015-06-01

    ChiMS is an open-source data acquisition and control software program written within LabVIEW for high speed imaging and depth profiling mass spectrometers. ChiMS can also transfer large datasets from a digitizer to computer memory at high repetition rate, save data to hard disk at high throughput, and perform high speed data processing. The data acquisition mode generally simulates a digital oscilloscope, but with peripheral devices integrated for control as well as advanced data sorting and processing capabilities. Customized user-designed experiments can be easily written based on several included templates. ChiMS is additionally well suited to non-laser based mass spectrometers imaging and various other experiments in laser physics, physical chemistry, and surface science.

  13. MSI.R scripts reveal volatile and semi-volatile features in low-temperature plasma mass spectrometry imaging (LTP-MSI) of chilli (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Becerra, Roberto; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Winkler, Robert

    2015-07-01

    In cartography, the combination of colour and contour lines is used to express a three-dimensional landscape on a two-dimensional map. We transferred this concept to the analysis of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data and developed a collection of R scripts for the efficient evaluation of .imzML archives in a four-step strategy: (1) calculation of the density distribution of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) signals in the .imzML file and assembling of a pseudo-master spectrum with peak list, (2) automated generation of mass images for a defined scan range and subsequent visual inspection, (3) visualisation of individual ion distributions and export of relevant .mzML spectra and (4) creation of overlay graphics of ion images and photographies. The use of a Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) colour model in MSI graphics takes into account the human perception for colours and supports the correct evaluation of signal intensities. Further, readers with colour blindness are supported. Contour maps promote the visual recognition of patterns in MSI data, which is particularly useful for noisy data sets. We demonstrate the scalability of MSI.R scripts by running them on different systems: on a personal computer, on Amazon Web Services (AWS) instances and on an institutional cluster. By implementing a parallel computing strategy, the execution speed for .imzML data scanning with image generation could be improved by more than an order of magnitude. Applying our MSI.R scripts ( http://www.bioprocess.org/MSI.R ) to low-temperature plasma (LTP)-MSI data shows the localisation of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in the cross-cut of a chilli (Capsicum annuum) fruit. The subsequent identification of compounds by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS, LC-MS) proves that LTP-MSI enables the direct measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) distributions from biological tissues. PMID:26007697

  14. Spatially resolved in vivo plant metabolomics by laser ablation-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques: LDI-MSI and LAESI

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Benjamin; Svatoš, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    This short review aims to summarize the current developments and applications of mass spectrometry-based methods for in situ profiling and imaging of plants with minimal or no sample pre-treatment or manipulation. Infrared-laser ablation electrospray ionization and UV-laser desorption/ionization methods are reviewed. The underlying mechanisms of the ionization techniques–namely, laser ablation of biological samples and electrospray ionization–as well as variations of the LAESI ion source for ...

  15. Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Its Application in Biomedical Fields%质谱成像及其在生物医学领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭帅; 李智立

    2011-01-01

    质谱成像(mass spectrometry imaging,MSI)是一种研究生物组织或细胞中分子组成及分布的新型分析技术,可在无标记的情况下同时检测并记录样本表面多种分子的空间分布信息.MSI包括4个基本步骤:样本准备、离子化、分子的质量分析及图像重构.目前,该技术已被广泛应用于研究组织中元素、代谢物、蛋白质和药物及其代谢物等的分布.本文介绍了MSI的原理、离子化技术和技术流程,并综述了MSI在生物医学领域中的应用情况.%Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an innovative molecular analytical technique that combines th< chemical and spatial analyses of surface. It also simultaneously allows spatial localization of multiple differen compounds; such as elements; metabolites; proteins and drug and its metabolites; without label steps. Process of MSI involves sample preparation; molecular ionization; mass analysis and image reconstruction This review described the mechanism; ionization techniques; workflows and application areas of MSI.

  16. Saturn's inner satellites: Orbits, masses, and the chaotic motion of atlas from new Cassini imaging observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, N. J.; Murray, C. D. [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Renner, S. [Université Lille 1, Laboratoire d' Astronomie de Lille (LAL), 1 impasse de l' Observatoire, F-59000 Lille (France); Evans, M. W. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present numerically derived orbits and mass estimates for the inner Saturnian satellites, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus from a fit to 2580 new Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem astrometric observations spanning 2004 February to 2013 August. The observations are provided as machine-readable and Virtual Observatory tables. We estimate GM{sub Atlas} = (0.384 ± 0.001) × 10{sup −3} km{sup 3} s{sup −2}, a value 13% smaller than the previously published estimate but with an order of magnitude reduction in the uncertainty. We also find GM{sub Prometheus} = (10.677 ± 0.006) × 10{sup −3} km{sup 3} s{sup −2}, GM{sub Pandora} = (9.133 ± 0.009) × 10{sup −3} km{sup 3} s{sup −2}, GM{sub Janus} = (126.51 ± 0.03) × 10{sup −3} km{sup 3} s{sup −2}, and GM{sub Epimetheus} = (35.110 ± 0.009) × 10{sup −3} km{sup 3} s{sup −2}, consistent with previously published values, but also with significant reductions in uncertainties. We show that Atlas is currently librating in both the 54:53 co-rotation-eccentricity resonance (CER) and the 54:53 inner Lindblad (ILR) resonance with Prometheus, making it the latest example of a coupled CER-ILR system, in common with the Saturnian satellites Anthe, Aegaeon, and Methone, and possibly Neptune's ring arcs. We further demonstrate that Atlas's orbit is chaotic, with a Lyapunov time of ∼10 years, and show that its chaotic behavior is a direct consequence of the coupled resonant interaction with Prometheus, rather than being an indirect effect of the known chaotic interaction between Prometheus and Pandora. We provide an updated analysis of the second-order resonant perturbations involving Prometheus, Pandora, and Epimetheus based on the new observations, showing that these resonant arguments are librating only when Epimetheus is the innermost of the co-orbital pair, Janus and Epimetheus. We also find evidence that the known chaotic changes in the orbits of Prometheus and Pandora are not

  17. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drug Related Crystal-Like Structures in Formalin-Fixed Frozen and Paraffin-Embedded Rabbit Kidney Tissue Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinen, Anne L.; van Oevelen, Cateau; Eijkel, Gert B.; Van Heerden, Marjolein; Cuyckens, Filip; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2016-01-01

    A multimodal mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) based approach was used to characterize the molecular content of crystal-like structures in a frozen and paraffin embedded piece of a formalin-fixed rabbit kidney. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging were combined to analyze the frozen and paraffin embedded sample without further preparation steps to remove the paraffin. The investigated rabbit kidney was part of a study on a drug compound in development, in which severe renal toxicity was observed in dosed rabbits. Histological examination of the kidney showed tubular degeneration with precipitation of crystal-like structures in the cortex, which were assumed to cause the renal toxicity. The MS imaging approach was used to find out whether the crystal-like structures were composed of the drug compound, metabolites, or an endogenous compound as a reaction to the drug administration. The generated MALDI-MSI data were analyzed using principal component analysis. In combination with the MS/MS results, this way of data processing demonstrates that the crystal structures were mainly composed of metabolites and relatively little parent drug.

  18. Achieving consistent image quality and overall radiation dose reduction for coronary CT angiography with body mass index-dependent tube voltage and tube current selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To develop a quantitative body mass index (BMI)-dependent tube voltage and tube current selection method for obtaining consistent image quality and overall dose reduction in computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). Methods and materials: The images of 190 consecutive patients (group A) who underwent CTCA with fixed protocols (100 kV/193 mAs for 100 patients with a BMI of <27 and 120 kV/175 mAs for 90 patients with a BMI of >27) were retrospectively analysed and reconstructed with an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm at 50% blending. Image noise was measured and the relationship to BMI was studied to establish BMI-dependent tube current for obtaining CTCA images with user-specified image noise. One hundred additional cardiac patients (group B) were examined using prospective triggering with the BMI-dependent tube voltage/current. CTCA image-quality score, image noise, and effective dose from groups B and C (subgroup of A of 100 patients examined with prospective triggering only) were obtained and compared. Results: There was a linear relationship between image noise and BMI in group A. Using a BMI-dependent tube current in group B, an average CTCA image noise of 27.7 HU (target 28 HU) and 31.7 HU (target 33 HU) was obtained for the subgroups of patients with BMIs of >27 and of <27, respectively, and was independent of patient BMI. There was no difference between image-quality scores between groups B and C (4.52 versus 4.60, p > 0.05). The average effective dose for group B (2.56 mSv) was 42% lower than group C (4.38 mSv; p < 0.01). Conclusion: BMI-dependent tube voltage/current selection in CTCA provides an individualized protocol that generates consistent image quality and helps to reduce overall patient radiation dose. - Highlights: • BMI-dependent kVp and mA selection method may be established in CCTA. • BMI-dependent kVp and mA enables consistent CCTA image quality. • Overall dose reduction of 40% can

  19. The research in the interaction of the mass media social image and the peculiarities of personal media behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Zhizhina M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The results of the study of the correlation of an individual’s personal ideas about mass media with the organization of social behavior in media environment are represented in this article. The types of an individual’s relation to mass media as well as the types of media consumers in accordance with their dominating motivational orientation: emotionally-centered, communication-centered, information-centered, sense-centered – are revealed in the study. The research of mass media as an object o...

  20. Prospective evaluation of fluoro-2-deoxyglucose imaging for post-chemotherapy residual masses in patients with germ cell tumours: diagnostic performance and clinical impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To establish the predictive value of [18F]-FDG coincidence detection emission tomography (CDET) for detecting viable cancer in residual post-chemotherapy masses in germ cell tumour (GCT) patients and to determine its influence on subsequent patient management. Patients and methods: 30 CDET examinations were performed in 15 patients with a Seminoma and in 12 patients with a non seminomatous GCT (NSGCT) and post-chemotherapy residual masses > 1 cm with negative tumour markers serum levels. Results were correlated with either the histology of the resected lesion or the clinical follow-up (median follow-up = 27). Before FDG imaging, the referring physician was asked what was the scheduled therapeutic modality for the patient. This was later compared to the management actually applied in the light of the FDG imaging information. Results: In seminoma patients, 10 FDG CDET were true negative (TN), 3 false negative (EN) and 5 true positive (TP) and in NSGCT patients, 7 were TN, one FN, 3 TP and one false positive, thus leading to an overall accuracy of 83%. FDG imaging induced changes in the management of 52% of patients (15/29), and 87% (13/15) of these changes were appropriate, considering the subsequent clinical course of disease. Conclusion: [18F]-FDG imaging may help to limit indications for resection of residual masses in patients with seminoma and to suspect treatment failure, thus allowing faster initiation of salvage treatment in both seminoma and NSGCT patients. However, patients with a negative CDET examination should still be carefully followed-up, since FN results cannot be ruled out, especially in poor prognosis patients. (author)

  1. Myocardial mass and functional parameters of left ventricle (LV) measured with gated SPECT: comparison between stress and rest imaging in patients with no perfusion defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LV mass (LVM) and other functional parameters were thought to be prognostic factors in patients with heart disease and can be measured by gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in LVM and functional parameters measured by gated myocardial perfusion SPECT between stress and rest images. The relationship between LVM and functional parameters was also evaluated. LVM, EDV (end diastolic volume), ESV (end systolic volume) and EF (ejection fraction) of LV were measured with AutoQuant program (Vertex puls, ADAC) in patients showing no perfusion defect in LV wall. There were 101 subjects (male/female, 50/51) with mean age of 55 (32∼76) year-old and 77 subject underwent exercise stress, 24 adenosine stress. There were no significant differences in LVM, EDV, ESV, EF, whereas excellent correlations between stress and rest images (LV mass r=0.936, EDV r=0.942, excellent correlations between stress ad rest images (LV mass r=0.936, EDV r=0.942, ESV r=0.918, EF r=0.801), LVM was positive correlated with EDV and ESV but negatively correlated with EF (Kendall's correlation test, r=0.683 p<0.01, r=0.648 p<0.01 r=-0.391 0<0.01, respectively). LVM, EDV, ESV and EF measured by AutoQuant program are not different between stress and rest images in patients with no perfusion defect. LVM was positively correlated with EDV and ESV and negatively correlated with EF

  2. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of ovarian masses with suspicious features: Strengths and challen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mansour

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: DWI supported by conventional MRI data can confirm or exclude malignancy in suspicious ovarian masses. The combined analysis of quantitative and qualitative criteria and knowledge of the sequence pitfalls are required.

  3. Imaging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by means of sputtered neutrals mass spectrometry using a diode-pumped solid-state laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Tetsuo; Saikawa, Jiro; Ishigaki, Naoya; Tojo, Koji; Ido, Yutaka; Hayashi, Shun-ichi; Ishiuchi, Shun-ichi; Misawa, Kentaro; Fujii, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Laser post-ionization of sputtered molecules by pulsed Ga focused ion-beam (Ga-FIB) bombardment was examined for the detection and imaging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on particles. As model samples, pyrene and pelyrene adsorbed on TiO2, blended regents of pyrene and n-heneicosan were used. The TiO2 particle size was selected to be several micro-meters. Laser light and Ga-FIB were synchronized with each other. The repetition rate synchronized with Ga-FIB was 1 kHz for pyrene analysis and 2 kHz for perylene, respectively. The laser wavelength was set to 266 nm. The wavelength was a generated fourth harmonic of a Nd:YAG DPSS (diode-pumped solid-state) micro-chip laser (UV microchip laser). By using a UV microchip laser, laser-SNMS (laser post-ionized sputtered neutral mass spectrometry) analysis and imaging were performed. The imaging of pyrene (m/z = 202, C16H10) and perylene (m/z = 252, C20H12) has been successful. Both the scanning ion microscopy image of TiO2 and the PAHs image in laser-SNMS analysis were well-fitted with each other. PMID:23474717

  4. Combined Atomic Force Microscope-Based Topographical Imaging and Nanometer Scale Resolved Proximal Probe Thermal Desorption/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL; Bradshaw, James A [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Nanometer scale proximal probe thermal desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD/ESI-MS) was demonstrated for molecular surface sampling of caffeine from a thin film using a 30 nm diameter nano-thermal analysis (nano-TA) probe tip in an atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled via a vapor transfer line and ESI interface to a MS detection platform. Using a probe temperature of 350 C and a spot sampling time of 30 s, conical desorption craters 250 nm in diameter and 100 nm deep were created as shown through subsequent topographical imaging of the surface within the same system. Automated sampling of a 5 x 2 array of spots, with 2 m spacing between spots, and real time selective detection of the desorbed caffeine using tandem mass spectrometry was also demonstrated. Estimated from the crater volume (~2x106 nm3), only about 10 amol (2 fg) of caffeine was liberated from each thermal desorption crater in the thin film. These results illustrate a relatively simple experimental setup and means to acquire in automated fashion sub-micrometer scale spatial sampling resolution and mass spectral detection of materials amenable to TD. The ability to achieve MS-based chemical imaging with 250 nm scale spatial resolution with this system is anticipated.

  5. HIGH-CONTRAST 3.8 μm IMAGING OF THE BROWN DWARF/PLANET-MASS COMPANION TO GJ 758

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present L'-band (3.8 μm) MMT/Clio high-contrast imaging data for the nearby star GJ 758, which was recently reported by Thalmann et al. to have one-possibly two-faint comoving companions (GJ 758B and 'C', respectively). GJ 758B is detected in two distinct data sets. Additionally, we report a possible detection of the object identified by Thalmann et al. as 'GJ 758C' in our more sensitive data set, though it is likely a residual speckle. However, if it is the same object as that reported by Thalmann et al. it cannot be a companion in a bound orbit. GJ 758B has an H - L' color redder than nearly all known L-T8 dwarfs. Based on comparisons with the COND evolutionary models, GJ 758B has T e ∼ 560 K+150K-90K and a mass ranging from ∼10-20 MJ if it is ∼1 Gyr old to ∼ 25-40 MJ if it is 8.7 Gyr old. GJ 758B is likely in a highly eccentric orbit, e ∼ 0.73+0.12-0.21, with a semimajor axis. Though GJ 758B is sometimes discussed within the context of exoplanet direct imaging, its mass is likely greater than the deuterium-burning limit and its formation may resemble that of binary stars rather than that of Jovian-mass planets.

  6. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Keziah; Gurmeet; Jugesh

    2015-01-01

    Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to eva...

  7. Glacier mass change evaluation in Lambert-Amery Area from 2002 to 2012 using ASTER stereo images and ICESat GLAS laser altimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, one of the major issues is to transform different remote sensing observations into a global reference for sustainable global-scale glacier change monitoring. In order to put glacier changes into a broader temporal context, it is desirable to extend the glacier observation time as far back as possible. In this paper, we present a case study of registering ASTER satellite stereo images to ICESat GLAS laser altimetry data, by matching terrain features identified from the ICESat measurements to those corresponding in the ASTER images. Features like ridges and nunatak can be extracted from ICESat data, and these features can also be measured in ASTER stereo images. A rigid body transformation (3 translations, 3 rotations) is applied for an optimal fit of these two sets of feature points. After transforming the ASTER photogrammetry measurements into the ICESat reference frame, we compute elevation change rates at each ICESat point by using a linear interpolation to obtain an estimate of surface elevation from ASTER. The surface firn/ice density model is used in converting the elevation changes to mass changes. Our study indicates that Lambert Glacier is close to being in mass balance between 2002 and 2012

  8. The value of the apparent diffusion coefficient in MR diffusion weighted imaging for the differential diagnosis of sinonasal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient in the evaluation of sinonasal masses. Methods: Sixty-seven sinonasal solid masses over 1 cm in diameter confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed, all patients underwent preoperative routine MRI with DWI, the ADC values were measured in ROI within the solid mass. The patients were divided into benign and malignant groups by the histopathology, according to pathological findings, the patients were further divided into the hematolymphoid tumors, the malignancy of epithelium and mesenchymal tissue, the benign tumors of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue, and vasogenic masses. ANOVA test and t test were used to compare the ADC values of different groups. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was constructed using various cut points of ADC for different parameters to confirm the diagnostic threshold value and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy. Results: All lesions were solitary. There were 22 malignant tumors, of which 6 lesions were hematolymphoid tumors and 16 lesions malignancy from epithelium and mesenchymal tissue. There were 45 benign tumors, of which 22 lesions were benign tumors from epithelium and mesenchymal tissue and 23 lesions vasogenic masses. The mean ADC value of malignant and benign masses was (0.88 ± 0.26) × 10-3 mm2/s and (1.54 ± 0.41) × 10-3 mm2/s respectively. There was statistically significant differences between them (t=6.897, P <0.01). The mean ADC value was(0.63 ± 0.10) × 10-3 mm2/s in hematolymphoid tumors,(0.97 ±0.24) × 10-3 mm2/s in malignancy from epithelium and mesenchymal tissue, (1.38 ± 0.23) × 10-3 mm2/s in benign tumors from epithelium and mesenchymal tissue,(1.68 ± 0.49) × 10-3 mm2/s in vasogenic masses respectively. There was statistically significant difference among all 4 groups(F=22.788, P<0.01), and the differences between any 2 groups were still statistically significant (P <0.05). The area under the ROC calculated

  9. Using computer-extracted image features for modeling of error-making patterns in detection of mammographic masses among radiology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Mammography is the most widely accepted and utilized screening modality for early breast cancer detection. Providing high quality mammography education to radiology trainees is essential, since excellent interpretation skills are needed to ensure the highest benefit of screening mammography for patients. The authors have previously proposed a computer-aided education system based on trainee models. Those models relate human-assessed image characteristics to trainee error. In this study, the authors propose to build trainee models that utilize features automatically extracted from images using computer vision algorithms to predict likelihood of missing each mass by the trainee. This computer vision-based approach to trainee modeling will allow for automatically searching large databases of mammograms in order to identify challenging cases for each trainee. Methods: The authors’ algorithm for predicting the likelihood of missing a mass consists of three steps. First, a mammogram is segmented into air, pectoral muscle, fatty tissue, dense tissue, and mass using automated segmentation algorithms. Second, 43 features are extracted using computer vision algorithms for each abnormality identified by experts. Third, error-making models (classifiers) are applied to predict the likelihood of trainees missing the abnormality based on the extracted features. The models are developed individually for each trainee using his/her previous reading data. The authors evaluated the predictive performance of the proposed algorithm using data from a reader study in which 10 subjects (7 residents and 3 novices) and 3 experts read 100 mammographic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology was applied for the evaluation. Results: The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the error-making models for the task of predicting which masses will be detected and which will be missed was 0.607 (95% CI,0.564-0.650). This value was statistically significantly different

  10. Using computer-extracted image features for modeling of error-making patterns in detection of mammographic masses among radiology residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing, E-mail: jing.zhang2@duke.edu; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C. [Department of Radiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Department of Radiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Mazurowski, Maciej A. [Department of Radiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Mammography is the most widely accepted and utilized screening modality for early breast cancer detection. Providing high quality mammography education to radiology trainees is essential, since excellent interpretation skills are needed to ensure the highest benefit of screening mammography for patients. The authors have previously proposed a computer-aided education system based on trainee models. Those models relate human-assessed image characteristics to trainee error. In this study, the authors propose to build trainee models that utilize features automatically extracted from images using computer vision algorithms to predict likelihood of missing each mass by the trainee. This computer vision-based approach to trainee modeling will allow for automatically searching large databases of mammograms in order to identify challenging cases for each trainee. Methods: The authors’ algorithm for predicting the likelihood of missing a mass consists of three steps. First, a mammogram is segmented into air, pectoral muscle, fatty tissue, dense tissue, and mass using automated segmentation algorithms. Second, 43 features are extracted using computer vision algorithms for each abnormality identified by experts. Third, error-making models (classifiers) are applied to predict the likelihood of trainees missing the abnormality based on the extracted features. The models are developed individually for each trainee using his/her previous reading data. The authors evaluated the predictive performance of the proposed algorithm using data from a reader study in which 10 subjects (7 residents and 3 novices) and 3 experts read 100 mammographic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology was applied for the evaluation. Results: The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the error-making models for the task of predicting which masses will be detected and which will be missed was 0.607 (95% CI,0.564-0.650). This value was statistically significantly different

  11. Macroscopic and microscopic spatially-resolved analysis of food contaminants and constituents using laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielen, Michel W F; van Beek, Teris A

    2014-11-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) does not require very flat surfaces, high-precision sample preparation, or the addition of matrix. Because of these features, LAESI-MSI may be the method of choice for spatially-resolved food analysis. In this work, LAESI time-of-flight MSI was investigated for macroscopic and microscopic imaging of pesticides, mycotoxins, and plant metabolites on rose leaves, orange and lemon fruit, ergot bodies, cherry tomatoes, and maize kernels. Accurate mass ion-map data were acquired at sampling locations with an x-y center-to-center distance of 0.2-1.0 mm and were superimposed onto co-registered optical images. The spatially-resolved ion maps of pesticides on rose leaves suggest co-application of registered and banned pesticides. Ion maps of the fungicide imazalil reveal that this compound is only localized on the peel of citrus fruit. However, according to three-dimensional LAESI-MSI the penetration depth of imazalil into the peel has significant local variation. Ion maps of different plant alkaloids on ergot bodies from rye reveal co-localization in accordance with expectations. The feasibility of using untargeted MSI for food analysis was revealed by ion maps of plant metabolites in cherry tomatoes and maize-kernel slices. For tomatoes, traveling-wave ion mobility (TWIM) was used to discriminate between different lycoperoside glycoalkaloid isomers; for maize quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) was successfully used to elucidate the structure of a localized unknown. It is envisaged that LAESI-MSI will contribute to future research in food science, agriforensics, and plant metabolomics. PMID:24961635

  12. Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allansdotter-Johnsson Ase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV and ejection fraction (EF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Methods Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male. Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA. Results Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006 and ESV (p Conclusion LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use.

  13. The mass of planet GJ676A b from ground-based astrometry: A planetary system with two mature gas giants suitable for direct imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Sahlmann, J; Ségransan, D; Astudillo-Defru, N; Bonfils, X; Delfosse, X; Forveille, T; Hagelberg, J; Curto, G Lo; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Udry, S; Zimmerman, N T

    2016-01-01

    GJ676A is an M0 dwarf hosting both gas-giant and super-Earth-type planets discovered with radial-velocity measurements. Using FORS2/VLT, we obtained position measurements of the star in the plane of the sky that tightly constrain its astrometric reflex motion caused by the super-Jupiter planet `b` in a 1052-day orbit. This allows us to determine the mass of this planet to $M_\\mathrm{b} = 6.7^{+1.8}_{-1.5}\\,M_\\mathrm{J}$, which is $\\sim$40 \\% higher than the minimum mass inferred from the radial-velocity orbit. Using new HARPS radial-velocity measurements, we improve upon the orbital parameters of the inner low-mass planets `d` and `e` and we determine the orbital period of the outer giant planet `c` to $P_\\mathrm{c}=7340$ days under the assumption of a circular orbit. The preliminary minimum mass of planet `c` is $M_\\mathrm{c} \\sin i = 6.8\\,M_\\mathrm{J}$ with an upper limit of $\\sim$$39\\,M_\\mathrm{J}$ that we set using NACO/VLT high-contrast imaging. We also determine precise parallaxes and relative proper mo...

  14. Positron emission tomography imaging of adrenal masses: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and the 11β-hydroxylase tracer 11C-metomidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    11C-metomidate (MTO), a marker of 11β-hydroxylase, has been suggested as a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for adrenocortical imaging. Up to now, experience with this very new tracer is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate this novel tracer, (2) to point out possible advantages in comparison with18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and (3) to investigate in vivo the expression of 11β-hydroxylase in patients with primary aldosteronism. Sixteen patients with adrenal masses were investigated using both MTO and FDG PET imaging. All patients except one were operated on. Five patients had non-functioning adrenal masses, while 11 had functioning tumours(Cushing's syndrome, n=4; Conn's syndrome, n=5; phaeochromocytoma, n=2). Thirteen patients had benign disease, whereas in three cases the adrenal mass was malignant (adrenocortical cancer, n=1; malignant phaeochromocytoma, n=1; adrenal metastasis of renal cancer, n=1). MTO imaging clearly distinguished cortical from non-cortical adrenal masses (median standardised uptake values of 18.6 and 1.9, respectively, p<0.01). MTO uptake was slightly lower in patients with Cushing's syndrome than in those with Conn's syndrome, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The expression of 11β-hydroxylase was not suppressed in the contralateral gland of patients with Conn's syndrome, whereas in Cushing's syndrome this was clearly the case. The single patient with adrenocortical carcinoma had MTO uptake in the lower range. MTO could not definitely distinguish between benign and malignant disease. FDG PET, however, identified clearly all three study patients with malignant adrenal lesions. We conclude: (1) MTO is an excellent imaging tool to distinguish adrenocortical and non-cortical lesions; (2) the in vivo expression of 11β-hydroxylase is lower in Cushing's syndrome than in Conn's syndrome, and there is no suppression of the contralateral gland in primary aldosteronism; (3) for the purpose of

  15. Positron emission tomography imaging of adrenal masses: {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose and the 11{beta}-hydroxylase tracer {sup 11}C-metomidate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettinig, Georg; Becherer, Alexander; Pirich, Christian; Dudczak, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutic Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Wadsak, Wolfgang; Kletter, Kurt [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Vierhapper, Heinrich [Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Niederle, Bruno [Department of Surgery, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    {sup 11}C-metomidate (MTO), a marker of 11{beta}-hydroxylase, has been suggested as a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for adrenocortical imaging. Up to now, experience with this very new tracer is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate this novel tracer, (2) to point out possible advantages in comparison with{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and (3) to investigate in vivo the expression of 11{beta}-hydroxylase in patients with primary aldosteronism. Sixteen patients with adrenal masses were investigated using both MTO and FDG PET imaging. All patients except one were operated on. Five patients had non-functioning adrenal masses, while 11 had functioning tumours(Cushing's syndrome, n=4; Conn's syndrome, n=5; phaeochromocytoma, n=2). Thirteen patients had benign disease, whereas in three cases the adrenal mass was malignant (adrenocortical cancer, n=1; malignant phaeochromocytoma, n=1; adrenal metastasis of renal cancer, n=1). MTO imaging clearly distinguished cortical from non-cortical adrenal masses (median standardised uptake values of 18.6 and 1.9, respectively, p<0.01). MTO uptake was slightly lower in patients with Cushing's syndrome than in those with Conn's syndrome, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The expression of 11{beta}-hydroxylase was not suppressed in the contralateral gland of patients with Conn's syndrome, whereas in Cushing's syndrome this was clearly the case. The single patient with adrenocortical carcinoma had MTO uptake in the lower range. MTO could not definitely distinguish between benign and malignant disease. FDG PET, however, identified clearly all three study patients with malignant adrenal lesions. We conclude: (1) MTO is an excellent imaging tool to distinguish adrenocortical and non-cortical lesions; (2) the in vivo expression of 11{beta}-hydroxylase is lower in Cushing's syndrome than in Conn's syndrome, and there is no suppression of the

  16. Spatially-resolved in vivo plant metabolomics by laser ablation-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI techniques: LDI-MSI and LAESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš eSvatoš

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This short review aims to summarize the current developments and applications of mass spectrometry-based methods for in situ profiling and imaging of plants with minimal or no sample pre-treatment or manipulation. Infrared-laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI and UV-laser desorption/ionization (LDI methods are reviewed. The underlying mechanisms of the ionization techniques - namely, laser ablation of biological samples and electrospray ionization - as well as variations of the LAESI ion source for specific targets of interest are described.

  17. Imaging of Copper, Zinc and other Elements in Thin Section of Human Brain Samples (Hippocampus) by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, J. S.; Zoriy, M. V.; Pickhardt, C.; Palomero-Gallagher, N.; Zilles, K.

    2005-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 20-microm thin sections of human brain tissue. The sample surface was scanned (raster area approximately 80 mm(2)) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 213 nm, diameter of laser crater 50 microm, and laser power density 3 x 10(9) W cm(-2)) in a cooled laser ablation chamber developed for these measurements. The laser ablation system was coupled to a double-focusing sec...

  18. Quantitative Comparison of Methods for Predicting the Arrival of Coronal Mass Ejections at Earth based on multi-view imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Colaninno, R. C.; Vourlidas, A.; Wu, C.-C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of six methods for predicting the CME time of arrival (ToA) and velocity at Earth using a sample of nine Earth-impacting CMEs between May 2010 and June 2011. The CMEs were tracked continuously from the Sun to near Earth in multi-viewpoint imaging data from STEREO SECCHI and SOHO LASCO. We use the Graduate Cylindrical Shell (GCS) model to estimate the three-dimensional direction and height of the CMEs in every image out to $\\sim$200 R$_\\odot$. We fit the derived ...

  19. Thermal imaging of the FU Ori type object 2MASS J06593158-0405277 = V960 Mon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricatt, W. P.; Kerr, T. H.; Carroll, T.; Moore, E.; Milne, P.

    2015-10-01

    A FU Ori-type outburst of 2MASS J06593158-0405277 (V960 Mon) was discovered by Maehara, Kojima and Fujii (ATel #6770). Further observational studies (ATel #6797, #6838, #6862, #6901, #7025, #7578) and archival data research (Jurdana- & #138;epi & #263; & Munari, 2016, NewA, 43, 87) confirmed the FU Ori nature of this object.

  20. Mass-ablation-rate measurements in direct-drive cryogenic implosions using x-ray self-emission images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A K; Michel, D T; Hu, S X; Craxton, R S; Epstein, R; Goncharov, V N; Igumenshchev, I V; Sangster, T C; Froula, D H

    2014-11-01

    A technique to measure the mass ablation rate in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions using a pinhole x-ray framing camera is presented. In target designs consisting of two layers of different materials, two x-ray self-emission peaks from the coronal plasma were measured once the laser burned through the higher-Z outer layer. The location of the inner peak is related to the position of the ablation front and the location of the outer peak corresponds to the position of the interface of the two layers in the plasma. The emergence of the second peak was used to measure the burnthrough time of the outer layer, giving the average mass ablation rate of the material and instantaneous mass remaining. By varying the thickness of the outer layer, the mass ablation rate can be obtained as a function of time. Simulations were used to validate the methods and verify that the measurement techniques are not sensitive to perturbation growth at the ablation surface. PMID:25430192

  1. Adaptive Optics imaging of VHS 1256-1257: A Low Mass Companion to a Brown Dwarf Binary System

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Jordan M; Kratter, Kaitlin M; Dupuy, Trent J; Close, Laird M; Eisner, Josh A; Fortney, Jonathan J; Hinz, Philip M; Males, Jared R; Morley, Caroline V; Morzinski, Katie M; Ward-Duong, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Gauza et al. (2015) reported the discovery of a companion to the late M-dwarf, VHS J125601.92-125723.9 (VHS 1256-1257). The companion's absolute photometry suggests its mass and atmosphere are similar to the HR 8799 planets. However, as a wide companion to a late-type star, it is more accessible to spectroscopic characterization. We discovered that the primary of this system is an equal-magnitude binary. For an age $\\sim300$ Myr the A and B components each have a mass of $64.6^{+0.8}_{-2.0}~M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, and the b component has a mass of $11.2^{+9.7}_{-1.8}$, making VHS 1256-1257 only the third brown dwarf triple system. There exists some tension between the spectrophotometric distance of $17.2\\pm2.6$ pc and the parallax distance of $12.7\\pm1.0$ pc. At 12.7 pc VHS1256-1257 A and B would be the faintest known M7.5 objects, and are even faint outliers among M8 types. If the larger spectrophotmetric distance is more accurate than the parallax, then the mass of each component increases. In particul...

  2. Confirmation and 3D profiling of anabolic steroid esters in injection sites using imaging desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijke, de E.; Hooijerink, H.; Sterk, S.S.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) was applied for the confirmation and 3D profiling of anabolic steroid esters in an injection site of bovine muscle. The spatial resolution of the DESI-MSn was demonstrated by scanning hormone este

  3. Exposure to slim images in mass media: Television commercials as reminders of restriction in restrained eaters [reprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    This reprinted article originally appeared in Health Psychology, 2008 (Jul), Vol 27(4), 401-408. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-09239-001). Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to slim images and diet-related products

  4. Set-up errors in patients undergoing image guided radiation treatment. Relationship to body mass index and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Bertelsen, Anders; Hansen, Christian Rønn;

    2008-01-01

    Limit protocol and compared to pre-treatment CT images. The average 3D deviation from three initial cone beam scans was compared to deviations at the 10th and 20th treatment session and correlated by linear regression analysis to height, weight, and BMI, and in H&N to weight loss as expressed...

  5. A phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique for mass measurements of short-lived nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, Sergey; Blaum, Klaus; Doerr, Andreas; Eronen, Tommi; Goncharov, Mikhail; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Ramirez, Enrique Minaya; Simon, Vanessa [Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Block, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Chenmarev, Stanislav; Filjanin, Pavel; Nesterenko, Dmitriy; Novikov, Yuri [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Droese, Christian; Schweikhard, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A novel approach to mass measurements on the sub-ppb level even for short-lived nuclides with half-lives well below one second is presented. It is based on the projection of the radial ion motion in a Penning trap onto a position sensitive detector. Compared to the presently employed time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance technique, the novel approach is 25-times faster and provides a 40-fold gain in resolving power. With the new technique low-lying isomeric states with excitation energy on the 10-keV level can be separated from the ground state. Moreover, the new technique possesses a substantially higher sensitivity since just two ions are sufficient to determine the ion cyclotron frequency. A measurement of the mass difference of singly charged ions of {sup 132}Xe and {sup 131}Xe with an uncertainty of 25 eV has demonstrated the great potential of the new approach.

  6. Image-Guided Fine Needle Cytology with Aspiration Versus Non-Aspiration in Retroperitoneal Masses: Is Aspiration Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Rajiv Kumar; Mitra, Shaila; Jain, Rishav Kumar; Vahikar, Shilpa; Bundela, Archana; Misra, Purak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although using fine needle cytology with aspiration (FNC-A) for establishing diagnoses in the retroperitoneal region has shown promise, there is scant literature supporting a role of non-aspiration cytology (FNC-NA) for this region. We assessed the accuracy and reliability of FNC-A and FNC-NA as tools for preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses and compared the results of both techniques with each other and with histopathology. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with retroperi...

  7. Lipidomic and Spatio-Temporal Imaging of Fat by Mass Spectrometry in Mice Duodenum during Lipid Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Seyer; Michela Cantiello; Justine Bertrand-Michel; Véronique Roques; Michel Nauze; Valérie Bézirard; Xavier Collet; David Touboul; Alain Brunelle; Christine Coméra

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL). Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion af...

  8. Mass Media: The Image, Role, and Social Conditions of Women: A collection and analysis of research materials

    OpenAIRE

    CEULEMANS, Mieke; FAUCONNIER, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The question of culture undoubtedly remains one of the most debatedissues in the scientific exploration of the relationshipbetween mass media and society.controversy between critical media sociologists ,who emphasize the value-producing function of massmedia, and empirics, who are foremost interestedin demonstrating how social reality is reflected inmass media, seems to have subsided in recentyears, resulting in a compromise integrating bothapproaches. Much of the empirical research of thepas...

  9. Developmental patterning and segregation of alkaloids in areca nut (seed of Areca catechu) revealed by magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimany, Amitava; George, Christy; Naik, Hemanta R; Pinto, Danica Glenda; Chandrakumar, N; Pradeep, T

    2016-05-01

    Areca nut (seed of Areca catechu) is consumed by people from different parts of Asia, including India. The four major alkaloids present in areca nut are arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline and guvacine. Upon cutting, the nut reveals two kinds of regions; white and brown. In our present study, we have monitored the formation of these two regions within the nut during maturation, using the non-invasive techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and volume localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) imaging have been used to study the associated change in the alkaloid contents of these two regions during the growth of the nut. Our study reveals that white and brown regions start forming within the nut when the liquid within starts solidifying. At the final stage of maturity, arecoline, arecaidine and guvacoline get segregated in the brown region whereas guvacine gets to the white region of the nut. The transport of molecules with maturity and corresponding pattern formation are expected to be associated with a multitude of physiochemical changes. PMID:26896852

  10. Images IV: Strong evolution of the oxygen abundance in gaseous phases of intermediate mass galaxies since z=0.8

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, M; Flores, H; Puech, M; Liang, Y C; Fuentes-Carrera, I; Nesvadba, N; Lehnert, M; Yang, Y; Amram, P; Balkowski, C; Césarsky, C J; Dannerbauer, H; Delgado, R; Guiderdoni, B; Kembhavi, A; Neichel, B; Östlin, G; Pozzetti, L; Ravikumar, C D; Rawat, A; Alighieri, S di Serego; Vergani, D; Vernet, J; Wozniak, H

    2008-01-01

    Intermediate mass galaxies (logM(Msun)>10) at z~0.6 are the likeliest progenitors of the present-day numerous population of spirals. There is growing evidence that they have evolved rapidly since the last 6 to 8 Gyr ago, and likely have formed a significant fraction of their stellar mass, often showing perturbed morphologies and kinematics. We have gathered a representative sample of 88 such galaxies and have provided robust estimates of their gas phase metallicity. For doing so, we have used moderate spectral resolution spectroscopy at VLT/FORS2 with unprecedented high S/N allowing to remove biases coming from interstellar absorption lines and extinction to establish robust values of R23=([OII]3727 + [OIII]4959,5007)/Hbeta. We definitively confirm that the predominant population of z~0.6 starbursts and luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) are on average, two times less metal rich than the local galaxies at a given stellar mass. We do find that the metal abundance of the gaseous phase of galaxies is evolving linearly...

  11. Effect of body mass index on shifts in ultrasound-based image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy for abdominal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: We investigated whether corrective shifts determined by daily ultrasound-based image-guidance correlate with body mass index (BMI) of patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) for abdominal malignancies. The utility of daily image-guidance, particularly for patients with BMI > 25.0, is examined. Materials and methods: Total 3162 ultrasound-directed shifts were performed in 86 patients. Direction and magnitude of shifts were correlated with pretreatment BMI. Bivariate statistical analysis and analysis of set-up correction data were performed using systematic and random error calculations. Results: Total 2040 daily alignments were performed. Average 3D vector of set-up correction for all patients was 12.1 mm/fraction. Directional and absolute shifts and 3D vector length were significantly different between BMI cohorts. 3D displacement averaged 4.9 mm/fraction and 6.8mm/fraction for BMI ≤ 25.0 and BMI > 25.0, respectively. Systematic error in all axes and 3D vector was significantly greater for BMI > 25.0. Differences in random error were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Set-up corrections derived from daily ultrasound-based IG-IMRT of abdominal tumors correlated with BMI. Daily image-guidance may improve precision of IMRT delivery with benefits assessed for the entire population, particularly patients with increased habitus. Requisite PTV margins suggested in the absence of daily image-guidance are significantly greater in patients with BMI > 25.0.

  12. Predicting the image noise level of prospective ECG-triggered coronary computed tomography angiography: quantitative measurement of thoracic component versus body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Park, Chul Hwan; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of using quantitatively measured thoracic components, as compared to body mass index (BMI), for predicting the image noise of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). One hundred subjects (M:F = 64:36; mean age, 55 ± 8.8 years) who underwent prospective electrocardiography-gated CCTA and low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) were analyzed retrospectively. The image noise of the CCTA was determined by the standard deviation of the attenuation value in a region of interest on the aortic root level. On the low-dose chest CT, the areas of the thoracic components were measured at the aortic root level. An auto-segmentation technique with the following threshold levels was used: quantitatively measured area of total thorax [QMAtotal: -910 to 1000 Hounsfield units (HU)], lung (QMAlung: -910 to -200 HU), fat (QMAfat: -200 to 0 HU), muscle (QMAmuscle: 0-300 HU), soft tissue (fat + muscle, QMAsoft tissue: -200 to 300 HU), bone (QMAbone: 300-1000 HU) and solid tissue (fat + muscle + bone, QMAsolid tissue: -200 to 1000 HU). The relationship between image noise and variable biometric parameters including QMA was analyzed, and the linear correlation coefficients were used as indicators of the strength of association. Among the variable biometric parameters, including BMI, QMAsolid tissue showed the highest correlation coefficient with image noise in all subjects (r = 0.804), males (r = 0.716), females (r = 0.889), the overweight (r = 0.556), and the non-overweight subgroups (r = 0.783). QMAsolid tissue can be used as a potential surrogate predictor of the image noise level in low tube voltage CCTA. PMID:26507324

  13. Morphologic and functional evaluation of adrenal masses in patients with normal adrenal function using MR imaging and Np-59 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging has shown promise in distinguishing metastasis from adenomas. Adrenal scintigraphy has also shown high specificity for adenoma detection. To determine if combined morphologic and functional data are superior to either data set alone, the authors evaluated 20 adenomas and 15 metastases using spin-echo MR imaging at 0.35T and Np-59 scintigraphy. Qualitative visual and quantitative analysis of MR data was done by means of intensity measurements and ratios of lesion to liver, kidney, fat, and muscle. Scintigraphic scan data were assigned to concordant, discordant, and indeterminate categories on the basis of visual assessment. The authors' preliminary data suggest that combined morphologic and functional data should result in more optimal tissue characterization, particularly in bilateral lesions

  14. Depositional style of mass-flow lobes in Ulleung Basin (East Sea, Korea) interpreted from MR1 sonar image, chirp profiles, and piston cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Jung, W.; Bahk, J.; Gardner, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    A detailed analysis of MR1 sonar and chirp (2-7 kHz) seismic data with 5 (2.9-9.4 m long) piston cores and 17 AMS 14C ages reveals spatial and temporal variations in depositional style of mass-flow lobes in the Ulleung Basin. On MR1 sonar image, eight mass-flow lobes are identified in the western basin plain (>2100 m). They are covered by ca. 2-m thick Holocene pelagic sediments, and show the northward flow direction. Lobes 1-4 have large dimensions (>27 km long and 15-25 km wide) and occupy in the lower stratigraphic position. On the other hand, lobes 5-8, deposited in the more proximal area, have small dimensions (8.8-31.5 km long and 1.2-12 km wide) and occur in the upper stratigraphic position. Lobes 1-4 deposited retrogressively. Lobes 1 and 2 are characterized by relatively strong back-scattering intensity with smooth surfaces on MR1 image, and show flat, sharp bottom echo and several distinct to diffuse internal reflectors in chirp profiles. Sediments near their edges consist of fine-grained turbidites (laminated sand/mud and homogeneous mud) with minor massive clay-rich sand. However, they change to mud-matrix disorganized gravel and massive sand with the overlying fine-grained turbidites toward the proximal part. Lobes 1 and 2 deposited between ca. 20 and 18 cal. ka B.P. Lobes 3 and 4, overlying lobe 2, show weak to medium back-scattering intensity on MR1 image with slightly irregular to hummocky surfaces corresponding to small-scale (morphology. They generally show weak to medium back-scattering intensity with relatively strong back-scattering intensity along the margins on MR1 image. They exhibit convex-up upper surfaces with distinct lateral margins in chirp profiles as their bottom echoes are seafloor-tangent hyperbolic to small (<100 m wide and <5 m high) hummocky. Near the edges of lobe 6 and 7, sediments comprise coarse-grained debrites and turbidites (sand matrix disorganized gravel, massive sand and normally graded sand) with the overlying thin

  15. Different Localization Patterns of Anthocyanin Species in the Pericarp of Black Rice Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Yoshimura; Nobuhiro Zaima; Tatsuya Moriyama; Yukio Kawamura

    2012-01-01

    Black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica) contains high levels of anthocyanins in the pericarp and is considered an effective health-promoting food. Several studies have identified the molecular species of anthocyanins in black rice, but information about the localization of each anthocyanin species is limited because methodologies for investigating the localization such as determining specific antibodies to anthocyanin, have not yet been developed Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imag...

  16. Age-related changes in the lateral lipid distribution in a human lens described by mass spectrometry imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pól, Jaroslav; Faltýsková, Helena; Krásný, Lukáš; Volný, Michael; Vláčil, O.; Hajdúch, M.; Lemr, Karel; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2015), s. 297-303. ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13038; GA MŠk LO1509 Grant ostatní: OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24023 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : lens * eye * imaging Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  17. The Viewer and the Viewed. Circulating Images of the Police, Between Professionals, the Mass Media and the Public

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Michaël

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, we all experience literary, televised, or motion picture encounters with the police. It is impossible to mention, or analyse, the police as an entity without being assailed by innumerable images, emotions, and media-informed stereotypes. How can we, as sociologists of the police, include this powerful imagery in our analyses ? How can we study this media double, whose influence is so hard to quantify but so easy to observe in the everyday relations of officers with their own...

  18. FDG PET/CT detects benign neurofibromas presenting as nodal masses: Imaging hallmarks of a diagnostic “red herring”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-modality positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) depicts the enhancement pattern and metabolic intensity of lesions. Benign lesions with multiplicity, like neurofibromas often mimic similar appearing malignant neoplasms. We, report, a similar case where FDG PET/CT shows imaging hallmarks for diagnosing benign neurofibromas, in a patient with clinical presentation of lymphoma

  19. Discovery of a probable 4-5 Jupiter-mass exoplanet to HD 95086 by direct-imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rameau, J; Lagrange, A -M; Boccaletti, A; Quanz, S P; Bonnefoy, M; Girard, J H; Delorme, P; Desidera, S; Klahr, H; Mordasini, C; Dumas, C; Bonavita, M; Meshkat, T; Bailey, V; Kenworthy, M

    2013-01-01

    Direct imaging has just started the inventory of the population of gas giant planets on wide-orbits around young stars in the solar neighborhood. Following this approach, we carried out a deep imaging survey in the near-infrared using VLT/NaCo to search for substellar companions. We report here the discovery in L' (3.8 microns) images of a probable companion orbiting at 56 AU the young (10-17 Myr), dusty, and early-type (A8) star HD 95086. This discovery is based on observations with more than a year-time-lapse. Our first epoch clearly revealed the source at 10 sigma while our second epoch lacked good observing conditions hence yielding a 3 sigma detection. Various tests were thus made to rule out possible artifacts. This recovery is consistent with the signal at the first epoch but requires cleaner confirmation. Nevertheless, our astrometric precision suggests the companion to be comoving with the star, with a 3 sigma confidence level. The planetary nature of the source is reinforced by a non-detection in Ks...

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of unenhanced MR mammography (DWI combined with T2-weighted TSE imaging, ueMRM) for the differentiation of mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity for malignant and benign mass lesions of a diagnostic approach combining DWI with T2-weighted images (unenhanced MR mammography, ueMRM) and compare the results with contrast-enhanced MR mammography (ceMRM). Consecutive patients undergoing histopathological verification of mass lesions after MR mammography without prior breast interventions (contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, T2-weighted and DWI sequences) were eligible for this retrospective investigation. Two blinded observers first rated ueMRM and then ceMRM according to the BIRADS scale. Lesion size, ADC values and T2-weighted TSE descriptors were assessed. This study examined 81 lesions (27 benign, 54 malignant). Sensitivity of ueMRM was 93% (observer 1) and 86% (observer 2), respectively. Sensitivity of ceMRM was 96.5% (observer 1) and 98.3% (observer 2). Specificity was 85.2% (ueMRM) and 92.6% (ceMRM) for both observers. The differences between both methods and observers were not significant (P ≥ 0.09). Lesion size measurements did not differ significantly among all sequences analyzed. Tumor visibility was worse using ueMRM for both benign (P < 0.001) and malignant lesions (P = 0.004). Sensitivity and specificity of ueMRM in mass lesions equal that of ceMRM. However, a reduced lesion visibility in ueMRM may lead to more false-negative findings. (orig.)