WorldWideScience

Sample records for chipma-based imaging mass

  1. Digital Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bamberger, Casimir; Bamberger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Methods to visualize the two-dimensional distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by MALDI directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84\\pm35) \\mu m with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm2. Extended laser spots of ~5 mm2 on structured specimens allowed parallel imaging of s...

  2. Mass Preserving Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Sporring, J.; Lo, P.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...... scores: lung boundary alignment, major fissure lignment, landmark alignment and transform singularity scores. The registration algorithm achieved an average landmark alignment score of 2.20 } 2.05 mm and the median of 1.29 mm. In 19 out of 20 image pairs, the method produced invertible deformations....... Overall, the masspreserving image registration method was ranked 20th out of 34 participants...

  3. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Nørgaard, Asger W

    2012-01-01

    Easy ambient sonic spray ionization (EASI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were used for imaging of a number of samples, including sections of rat brain and imprints of plant material on porous Teflon. A novel approach termed Displaced Dual-mode Imaging was utilized for the direct...

  4. Absorption Mode FTICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, D.F.; Kilgour, D.P.A.; Konijnenburg, M.; O'Connor, P.B.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields

  5. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  6. Imaging mass spectrometry of polymeric materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique that makes images of molecular distributions at surfaces based on mass spectral information. At a range (typically a raster) of positions, mass spectra are measured from the surface giving a characteristic fingerprint for the material that is present at

  7. Absorption mode FTICR mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F; Kilgour, David P A; Konijnenburg, Marco; O'Connor, Peter B; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-03

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here, we present the first use of absorption mode for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image, and then, these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode "Datacubes" for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast.

  8. Cluster SIMS Microscope Mode Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, András; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source is combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The mass spectral and imaging performance of the system is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. We show that the high secondary ion yield (with respect to traditional monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion ...

  9. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    inhale phases of 4D-CT images. Registration errors, measured as the average distance between vessel tree centerlines in the matched images, are significantly lower for the proposed mass preserving image registration method in the second, third and fourth group, while there is no statistically significant......This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...... into a standard image registration framework with a composition of a global affine and several free-form B-Spline transformations with increasing grid resolution. The proposed mass preserving registration method is compared to registration using the sum of squared intensity differences as a similarity function...

  10. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin;

    2012-01-01

    on four groups of data: 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with small difference in lung volume; 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with large difference in lung volume; 16 pairs of expiratory and inspiratory CT scans; and 5 pairs of images extracted at end exhale and end...... inhale phases of 4D-CT images. Registration errors, measured as the average distance between vessel tree centerlines in the matched images, are significantly lower for the proposed mass preserving image registration method in the second, third and fourth group, while there is no statistically significant......This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...

  11. A mass spectrometry primer for mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), a rapidly growing subfield of chemical imaging, employs mass spectrometry (MS) technologies to create single- and multi-dimensional localization maps for a variety of atoms and molecules. Complimentary to other imaging approaches, MSI provides high chemical specificity and broad analyte coverage. This powerful analytical toolset is capable of measuring the distribution of many classes of inorganics, metabolites, proteins, and pharmaceuticals in chemically and structurally complex biological specimens in vivo, in vitro, and in situ. The MSI approaches highlighted in this Methods in Molecular Biology volume provide flexibility of detection, characterization, and identification of multiple known and unknown analytes. The goal of this chapter is to introduce investigators who may be unfamiliar with MS to the basic principles of the mass spectrometric approaches as used in MSI. In addition to guidelines for choosing the most suitable MSI method for specific investigations, cross-references are provided to the chapters in this volume that describe the appropriate experimental protocols.

  12. Atmospheric pressure femtosecond laser imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Yves; Gunaratne, Tissa C.; Dantus, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    We present a novel imaging mass spectrometry technique that uses femtosecond laser pulses to directly ionize the sample. The method offers significant advantages over current techniques by eliminating the need of a laser-absorbing sample matrix, being suitable for atmospheric pressure sampling, and by providing 10μm resolution, as demonstrated here with a chemical image of vegetable cell walls.

  13. Mass-like extramedullary hematopoiesis: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzel, Andrew W. [Synergy Radiology Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Kransdorf, Mark J.; Peterson, Jeffrey J.; Garner, Hillary W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Murphey, Mark D. [American Institute for Radiologic Pathology, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    To report the imaging appearances of mass-like extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), to identify those features that are sufficiently characteristic to allow a confident diagnosis, and to recognize the clinical conditions associated with EMH and the relative incidence of mass-like disease. We retrospectively identified 44 patients with EMH; 12 of which (27%) had focal mass-like lesions and formed the study group. The study group consisted of 6 male and 6 female subjects with a mean age of 58 years (range 13-80 years). All 12 patients underwent CT imaging and 3 of the 12 patients had undergone additional MR imaging. The imaging characteristics of the extramedullary hematopoiesis lesions in the study group were analyzed and recorded. The patient's clinical presentation, including any condition associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis, was also recorded. Ten of the 12 (83%) patients had one or more masses located along the axial skeleton. Of the 10 patients with axial masses, 9 (90%) had multiple masses and 7 (70%) demonstrated internal fat. Eight patients (80%) had paraspinal masses and 4 patients (40%) had presacral masses. Seven patients (70%) had splenomegaly. Eleven of the 12 patients had a clinical history available for review. A predisposing condition for extramedullary hematopoiesis was present in 10 patients and included various anemias (5 cases; 45%), myelofibrosis/myelodysplastic syndrome (4 cases; 36%), and marrow proliferative disorder (1 case; 9%). One patient had no known predisposing condition. Mass-like extramedullary hematopoiesis most commonly presents as multiple, fat-containing lesions localized to the axial skeleton. When these imaging features are identified, extramedullary hematopoiesis should be strongly considered, particularly when occurring in the setting of a predisposing medical condition. (orig.)

  14. Mass spectrometry imaging: applications to food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Shu; Uematsu, Kohei; Kaneko, Daisaku; Katano, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of biological samples by means of what is called MS imaging (MSI) is now being used to analyze analyte distribution because it facilitates determination of the existence (what is it?) and localization (where is it?) of biomolecules. Reconstruction of mass image by target signal is given after two-dimensional MS measurements on a sample section. From only one section, we can understand the existence and localization of many molecules without the need of an antibody or fluorescent reagent. In this review, we introduce the analysis of localization of functional constituents and nutrients in herbal medicine products via MSI. The ginsenosides were mainly distributed in the periderm and the tip region of the root of Panax ginseng. The capsaicin was found to be more dominantly localized in the placenta than the pericarp and seed in Capsicum fruits. We expect MSI will be a useful technique for optical quality assurance.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Cardiac Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggion-Santos, Maria Fernanda, E-mail: ferbraggion@yahoo.com.br [Divisão de Cardiologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Hospital Universitário - Universidade de Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel [Centro de Ciências das Imagens e Física Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Hospital Universitário - Universidade de Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Teixeira, Sara Reis [Centro de Ciências das Imagens e Física Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Volpe, Gustavo Jardim [Divisão de Cardiologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Divisão de Cardiologia - Universidade Johns Hopkins, Baltimore (United States); Trad, Henrique Simão [Centro de Ciências das Imagens e Física Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Schmidt, André [Divisão de Cardiologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Cardiac tumors are extremely rare; however, when there is clinical suspicion, proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to plan the most appropriate treatment. In this context, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) plays an important role, allowing a comprehensive characterization of such lesions. To review cases referred to a CMRI Department for investigation of cardiac and paracardiac masses. To describe the positive case series with a brief review of the literature for each type of lesion and the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation. Between August 2008 and December 2011, all cases referred for CMRI with suspicion of tumor involving the heart were reviewed. Cases with positive histopathological diagnosis, clinical evolution or therapeutic response compatible with the clinical suspicion and imaging findings were selected. Among the 13 cases included in our study, eight (62%) had histopathological confirmation. We describe five benign tumors (myxomas, rhabdomyoma and fibromas), five malignancies (sarcoma, lymphoma, Richter syndrome involving the heart and metastatic disease) and three non-neoplastic lesions (pericardial cyst, intracardiac thrombus and infectious vegetation). CMRI plays an important role in the evaluation of cardiac masses of non-neoplastic and neoplastic origin, contributing to a more accurate diagnosis in a noninvasive manner and assisting in treatment planning, allowing safe clinical follow-up with good reproducibility.

  16. Imaging thermal plasma mass and velocity analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and principle of operation of the imaging ion mass and velocity analyzer on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP), which measures low-energy (1-90 eV/e) ion mass composition (1-40 AMU/e) and velocity distributions using a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA), a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, and a pair of toroidal electrostatic deflectors (TED). The HEA and TOF gate measure the energy-per-charge and azimuth of each detected ion and the ion transit time inside the analyzer, respectively, providing the 2-D velocity distribution of each major ionospheric ion species and resolving the minor ion species under favorable conditions. The TED are in front of the TOF gate and optionally sample ions at different elevation angles up to ±60°, for measurement of 3-D velocity distribution. We present examples of observation data to illustrate the measurement capability of the analyzer, and show the occurrence of enhanced densities of heavy "minor" O++, N+, and molecular ions and intermittent, high-velocity (a few km/s) upward and downward flowing H+ ions in localized regions of the quiet time topside high-latitude ionosphere.

  17. Imaging mass spectrometry at cellular length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altelaar, A F Maarten; Luxembourg, Stefan L; McDonnell, Liam A; Piersma, Sander R; Heeren, Ron M A

    2007-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) allows the direct investigation of both the identity and the spatial distribution of the molecular content directly in tissue sections, single cells and many other biological surfaces. In this protocol, we present the steps required to retrieve the molecular information from tissue sections using matrix-enhanced (ME) and metal-assisted (MetA) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS. These techniques require specific sample preparation steps directed at optimal signal intensity with minimal redistribution or modification of the sample analytes. After careful sample preparation, different IMS methods offer a unique discovery tool in, for example, the investigation of (i) drug transport and uptake, (ii) biological processing steps and (iii) biomarker distributions. To extract the relevant information from the huge datasets produced by IMS, new bioinformatics approaches have been developed. The duration of the protocol is highly dependent on sample size and technique used, but on average takes approximately 5 h.

  18. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Donald F; Leach, Franklin E; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for elemental formula assignment based on exact mass measurement. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissu...

  19. Advanced Mass Calibration and Visualization for FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Donald F; Konijnenburg, Marco; Klinkert, Ivo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance yields hundreds of unique peaks, many of which cannot be resolved by lower performance mass spectrometers. The high mass accuracy and high mass resolving power allow confident identification of small molecules and lipids directly from biological tissue sections. Here, calibration strategies for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging were investigated. Sub parts-per-million mass accuracy is demonstrated over an entire tissue section. Ion abundance fluctuations are corrected for by addition of total and relative ion abundances for a root-mean-square error of 0.158 ppm on 16,764 peaks. A new approach for visualization of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging data at high resolution is presented. The Mosaic Data-cube provides a flexible means to visualize the entire mass range at a mass spectral bin width of 0.001 Dalton. The high resolution Mosaic Data-cube resolves spectral features ...

  20. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Dictyostelium discoideum Aggregation Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debord, J. Daniel; Smith, Donald F.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Heeren, Ronald M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Gomer, Richard H.; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A.

    2014-06-09

    High resolution imaging mass spectrometry could become a valuable tool for cell and developmental biology, but both, high spatial and mass spectral resolution are needed to enable this. In this report, we employed Bi3 bombardment time-of-flight (Bi3 ToF-SIMS) and C60 bombardment Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60 FTICR-SIMS) to image Dictyostelium discoideum aggregation streams. Nearly 300 lipid species were identified from the aggregation streams. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging (FTICR-SIMS) enabled the generation of multiple molecular ion maps at the nominal mass level and provided good coverage for fatty acyls, prenol lipids, and sterol lipids. The comparison of Bi3 ToF-SIMS and C60 FTICR-SIMS suggested that while the first provides fast, high spatial resolution molecular ion images, the chemical complexity of biological samples warrants the use of high resolution analyzers for accurate ion identification.

  1. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Donald F.; Kiss, Andras; Leach, Franklin E.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2013-07-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for exact mass elemental formula assignment. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissue was measured with 150 μm spatial resolution (75 μm primary ion spot size) with mass resolving power (m/Δm50%) of 67,500 (at m/z 750) and root-mean-square measurement accuracy less than two parts-per-million for intact phospholipids, small molecules and fragments. For the first time, ultra-high mass resolving power SIMS has been demonstrated, with m/Δm50% > 3,000,000. Higher spatial resolution capabilities of the platform were tested at a spatial resolution of 20 μm. The results represent order of magnitude improvements in mass resolving power and mass measurement accuracy for SIMS imaging and the promise of the platform for ultra-high mass resolving power and high spatial resolution imaging.

  2. Low-Mass Planar Photonic Imaging Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a revolutionary electro-optical (EO) imaging sensor concept that provides a low-mass, low-volume alternative to the traditional bulky optical telescope...

  3. Active Pixel Detectors For Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, JH

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis, an in-vacuum, high-voltage electron and ion imaging camera was developed. The system is particularly suitable for the detection of macromolecular ions of either polarity. The new camera is successfully tested on benchmark systems as wells as biologically relevant mac

  4. Determination of left ventricular mass through SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate-Morales, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martínez-Rodríguez, F.; Arévila-Ceballos, N.

    1998-08-01

    An edge detection algorithm has been applied to estimate left ventricular (LV) mass from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) thallium-201 images. The algorithm was validated using SPECT images of a phantom. The algorithm was applied to 20 patient studies from the Hospital de Cardiologia, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Left ventricular masses derived from the stress and redistribution studies were highly correlated (r=0.96). The average LV masses obtained were 162±37 g and 169±34 g in the redistribution and stress studies, respectively.

  5. Reconstructing building mass models from UAV images

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2015-07-26

    We present an automatic reconstruction pipeline for large scale urban scenes from aerial images captured by a camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle. Using state-of-the-art Structure from Motion and Multi-View Stereo algorithms, we first generate a dense point cloud from the aerial images. Based on the statistical analysis of the footprint grid of the buildings, the point cloud is classified into different categories (i.e., buildings, ground, trees, and others). Roof structures are extracted for each individual building using Markov random field optimization. Then, a contour refinement algorithm based on pivot point detection is utilized to refine the contour of patches. Finally, polygonal mesh models are extracted from the refined contours. Experiments on various scenes as well as comparisons with state-of-the-art reconstruction methods demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  6. Direct Protocol for Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging on Agar Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angolini, Célio Fernando F; Vendramini, Pedro Henrique; Araújo, Francisca D S; Araújo, Welington L; Augusti, Rodinei; Eberlin, Marcos N; de Oliveira, Luciana Gonzaga

    2015-07-07

    Herein we describe a new protocol that allows direct mass spectrometry imaging (IMS) of agar cultures. A simple sample dehydration leads to a thin solid agar, which enables the direct use of spray-based ambient mass spectrometry techniques. To demonstrate its applicability, metal scavengers siderophores were imaged directly from agar culture of S. wadayamensis, and well resolved and intense images were obtained using both desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (EASI) with well-defined selective spatial distributions for the free and the metal-bound molecules, providing clues for their roles in cellular metabolism.

  7. CT imaging of mass-like renal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Y. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Mass-like renal lesions in children occur in a diverse spectrum of conditions including benign and malignant neoplasm, infection, infarction, lymphatic malformation, and traumatic injury. Although mass-like renal lesions can sometimes be suspected on plain radiographs and evaluated with US in children, subsequent CT is usually performed for the confirmation of diagnosis and further characterization. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the CT imaging findings of both common and uncommon mass-like renal lesions in pediatric patients. Understanding the characteristic CT appearance of mass-like renal lesions in children enables an accurate diagnosis and optimizes patient management. (orig.)

  8. Congenital frontonasal masses: developmental anatomy, malformations, and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The newborn, infant, or young child who presents with a midline frontonasal mass often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. The most pressing issue is whether the mass extends intracranially. The development of the frontonasal region or anterior neuropore is complex. Aberrant embryogenesis leads to three main types of anomalies: nasal dermal sinus, anterior cephalocele, and nasal glioma. Understanding the developmental anatomy of the anterior neuropore and postnatal maturation will serve the radiologist well when it comes to imaging frontonasal masses. Pitfalls particularly common to CT imaging interpretation include the evolving ossification of the frontal, nasal and ethmoid bones in the first year of life, morphology and size of the foramen cecum, and the natural intumescence of the anterior nasal septum. Determination of the presence of a connection between the frontonasal mass and the anterior cranial fossae is crucial in the imaging assessment and clinical management. In the case of the nasal dermal sinus, failure to appreciate the intracranial components of the malformation can lead to fatal meningitis. MR imaging is the modality of choice for assessing the pediatric frontonasal region. Its advantages include multiplanar imaging, distinguishing the interface among cartilage, bone, brain and fluid, diffusion imaging to detect epidermoid tumors, and the capacity to evaluate the brain for associated cerebral anomalies. (orig.)

  9. Image resolution influence on determination of resin injection rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Hakami, Eva

    2006-01-01

    In the context of nuclear waste repositories, an important approach to understanding brittle rock mass behavior to integrate new and powerful observational and numerical methods with multi-functional 3-D imaging and visualization techniques. Since 1994, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) have identified the need for a better understanding of radionuclide transport and retention processes in fractured rock. As a cooperation project between Sweden and China, we sampled a number of rock specimens for analyze rock fracture network by optical image technique. The samples are resin injected, in which way; opened fractures can be seen clearly by means of UV (Ultraviolet) light illumination. In the study period, we used different optical focuses to obtain the images from the same samples; we found that Image resolution influences on porosity determination of resin injected rock mass. This paper presents and discusses the six issues based on our research results: (1) Fracture porosity increases as camera focus distance decreases; (2) Porosity increases as illumination increases in resin injected fracture images; (3) To roughly estimate the porosity, the low resolution image can be used; (4) To collect more details of fracture information, the high resolution image is needed; (5) The resolution of image should be determined based on the aim of fracture analysis; (6) To acquire high resolution image, constructing a special illumination (standard) box maybe helpful to avoid light reflection and diffusion.

  10. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  11. Tissue MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) of Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beine, Birte; Diehl, Hanna C; Meyer, Helmut E; Henkel, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is a technique to visualize molecular features of tissues based on mass detection. This chapter focuses on MALDI MSI of peptides and provides detailed operational instructions for sample preparation of cryoconserved and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Besides sample preparation we provide protocols for the MALDI measurement, tissue staining, and data analysis. On-tissue digestion and matrix application are described for two different commercially available and commonly used spraying devices: the SunCollect (SunChrom) and the ImagePrep (Bruker Daltonik GmbH).

  12. Resolving brain regions using nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Do Yup; Platt, Virginia; Bowen, Ben; Louie, Katherine; Canaria, Christie; McMurray, Cynthia T.; Northen, Trent

    2012-01-01

    Specific cell types are critically implicated in a variety of neuropathologies that exhibit region-specific susceptibility. Neuronal and glial function is impaired in a host of neurodegenerative diseases. Previous reports suggest that mass spectrometry imaging has the potential to resolve cell-specific enrichment in brain regions; however, individual ions cannot resolve glial and neuronal cells within the complex structure of brain tissue. Here, we utilized a matrix-free surface mass spectrom...

  13. Atomic force microscope controlled topographical imaging and proximal probe thermal desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kjoller, Kevin; Hurst, Gregory B; Pelletier, Dale A; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-01-21

    This paper reports on the development of a hybrid atmospheric pressure atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry imaging system utilizing nanothermal analysis probes for thermal desorption surface sampling with subsequent atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and mass analysis. The basic instrumental setup and the general operation of the system were discussed, and optimized performance metrics were presented. The ability to correlate topographic images of a surface with atomic force microscopy and a mass spectral chemical image of the same surface, utilizing the same probe without moving the sample from the system, was demonstrated. Co-registered mass spectral chemical images and atomic force microscopy topographical images were obtained from inked patterns on paper as well as from a living bacterial colony on an agar gel. Spatial resolution of the topography images based on pixel size (0.2 μm × 0.8 μm) was better than the resolution of the mass spectral images (2.5 μm × 2.0 μm), which were limited by current mass spectral data acquisition rate and system detection levels.

  14. Mass Spectrometry Imaging for the Classification of Tumor Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascini, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can detect and identify many different molecules without the need for labeling. In addition, it can provide their spatial distributions as ‘molecular maps’. These features make MSI well suited for studying the molecular makeup of tumor tissue. Currently, there is an i

  15. Imaging the Beta-cell mass: why and how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saudek, Frantisek; Brogren, Carl-Henrik; Manohar, Srirang

    2008-01-01

    of the native beta-cell mass is still limited to autopsy studies. Endeavors to find a biological structure specific for beta-cells led to the discovery of potential candidates that have been tested for noninvasive imaging. Among them are the ligand to the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT-2), which......Diabetes is a disorder characterized by beta-cell loss or exhaustion and insulin deficiency. At present, knowledge is lacking on the underlying causes and for the therapeutic recovery of the beta-cell mass. A better understanding of diabetes pathogenesis could be obtained through exact monitoring...... of the fate of beta-cells under disease and therapy conditions. This could pave the way for a new era of intervention by islet replacement and regeneration regimens. Monitoring the beta-cell mass requires a reliable method for noninvasive in vivo imaging. Such a method is not available at present due...

  16. Exoplanet mass determination using precision imaging astrometry and coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendek, Eduardo; Belikov, Ruslan; Finan, Emily R.; Guyon, Olivier; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Ammons, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Performing simultaneous high-contrast imaging and astrometry observations of a star increases the detection efficiency and characterization accuracy of single- and multiple- planetary systems around nearby stars. Combining the data generated with both techniques allows solving the Semi-Major Axis, period, and planetary mass in the system faster and more precisely than using imaging or astrometry data separately. In addition, it allows the planetary mass to be measured independently from its brightness, resolving the mass/albedo degeneracy when only direct imaging observations are available. Independent albedo determination allows calibrated planet photometry to be obtained, enabling better atmosphere characterization. To perform both direct imaging and astrometry observations, the telescope requires two instruments: a high-performance coronagraph to perform direct imaging, and a wide field camera astrometry accuracy able to deliver sub-micro arc second astrometry accuracy if earth-like planetary science is pursued. Such accuracy is only possible after calibrating relative distortions between astrometry observations, which at the sub-micro arc second regime dominates the error budget. We propose to utilize a diffractive pupil, in which an array of dots on the primary mirror generates polychromatic diffraction spikes in the focal plane, to calibrate the dynamic distortions of the optical system. In this talk, we present the results of the NASA TDEM effort to demonstrate the diffractive pupil concept on wide-field images while simultaneously performing high-contrast imaging. We also discuss the opportunity that this mission architecture could offer to future probe missions and flagships such as HabEX and LUVOIR.

  17. Mass spectrometry imaging for visualizing organic analytes in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handberg, Eric; Chingin, Konstantin; Wang, Nannan; Dai, Ximo; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    The demand for rapid chemical imaging of food products steadily increases. Mass spectrometry (MS) is featured by excellent molecular specificity of analysis and is, therefore, a very attractive method for chemical profiling. MS for food imaging has increased significantly over the past decade, aided by the emergence of various ambient ionization techniques that allow direct and rapid analysis in ambient environment. In this article, the current status of food imaging with MSI is reviewed. The described approaches include matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), but emphasize desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), electrospray-assisted laser desorption/ionization (ELDI), probe electrospray ionization (PESI), surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (SDAPCI), and laser ablation flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (LA-FAPA). The methods are compared with regard to spatial resolution; analysis speed and time; limit of detection; and technical aspects. The performance of each method is illustrated with the description of a related application. Specific requirements in food imaging are discussed.

  18. Preparation of Single Cells for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E S; Fortson, S L; Kulp, K S; Checchi, K D; Wu, L; Felton, J S; Wu, K J

    2007-10-24

    Characterizing chemical changes within single cells is important for determining fundamental mechanisms of biological processes that will lead to new biological insights and improved disease understanding. Imaging biological systems with mass spectrometry (MS) has gained popularity in recent years as a method for creating precise chemical maps of biological samples. In order to obtain high-quality mass spectral images that provide relevant molecular information about individual cells, samples must be prepared so that salts and other cell-culture components are removed from the cell surface and the cell contents are rendered accessible to the desorption beam. We have designed a cellular preparation protocol for imaging MS that preserves the cellular contents for investigation and removes the majority of the interfering species from the extracellular matrix. Using this method, we obtain excellent imaging results and reproducibility in three diverse cell types: MCF7 human breast cancer cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. This preparation technique allows routine imaging MS analysis of cultured cells, allowing for any number of experiments aimed at furthering scientific understanding of molecular processes within individual cells.

  19. Current cardiac imaging techniques for detection of left ventricular mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celebi Aksuyek S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of left ventricular (LV mass has both prognostic and therapeutic value independent of traditional risk factors. Unfortunately, LV mass evaluation has been underestimated in clinical practice. Assessment of LV mass can be performed by a number of imaging modalities. Despite inherent limitations, conventional echocardiography has fundamentally been established as most widely used diagnostic tool. 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE is now feasible, fast and accurate for LV mass evaluation. 3DE is also superior to conventional echocardiography in terms of LV mass assessment, especially in patients with abnormal LV geometry. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT are currently performed for LV mass assessment and also do not depend on cardiac geometry and display 3-dimensional data, as well. Therefore, CMR is being increasingly employed and is at the present standard of reference in the clinical setting. Although each method demonstrates advantages over another, there are also disadvantages to receive attention. Diagnostic accuracy of methods will also be increased with the introduction of more advanced systems. It is also likely that in the coming years new and more accurate diagnostic tests will become available. In particular, CMR and CCT have been intersecting hot topic between cardiology and radiology clinics. Thus, good communication and collaboration between two specialties is required for selection of an appropriate test.

  20. Determining the mass of Didymos' secondary by visual imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Björn; Küppers, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A critical requirement for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is the ability to determine the mass of Didymos' secondary with an accuracy of about 10 %. On one hand, this is necessary in order to plan the delivery of the lander MASCOT-2 with sufficient precision, on the other hand, it is needed to estimate the momentum transfer by the impact of the DART spacecraft and hence to verify the concept of asteroid deflection. The conventional approach to estimate the mass of a solar system body through its gravitational effect by tracking the spacecraft trajectory is not viable for Didymos' secondary. With a diameter of only 163 m, its mass is too small to yield a significant impact on the spacecraft trajectory at reasonable fly-by distances. Instead, the idea to determine the mass of the secondary by measuring the "wobble" of the primary around the common centre of gravity has been put forward. The mass of the primary is about 100 times the mass of the secondary, thus the expected wobble radius is about one percent of the distance of 1180 m between the two, that is about 10 m. Such a wobble may be possible to measure either by means of using the optical communication device OPTEL-D as an altimeter or by direct observation with the visual imaging system VIS. Here, we investigate the latter approach. The idea is to identify landmarks in VIS images and to simultaneously solve for the positions of the landmarks and the spacecraft in the body fixed frame of the primary. The temporary evolution of the spacecraft position comprises three components: the drift of the spacecraft due to gravitational disturbance and solar radiation pressure (and errors in the knowledge of the initial state), the apparent motion of the spacecraft around the primary (in the body fixed frame) due to its rotation, an apparent oscillation of the spacecraft position due to the wobble of the primary with a known period. While the wobble component is quite small (about 10ṁ), its period is known and it is

  1. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  2. Mass media image of selected instruments of economic develepment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruliš Ladislav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, two instruments of economic development – investment incentives and cluster initiatives – were compared according to the frequency of their occurrence in selected mass media sources in the Czech Republic in the periods 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. Secondly, the mass media image of these two instruments of economic development was evaluated with respect to the frames deductively constructed from literature review. The findings pointed out a higher occurrence of the mass media articles/news dealing with investment incentives. These articles/news were, additionally, more controversial and covered a wider spectrum of frames. Politicians were a relatively more frequent type of actors who created the media message from the articles/news. On the contrary, the mass media articles/news concerning cluster initiatives typically created the frame of positive effects of clusters. The messages were told either by economic experts or by public authority representatives who were closely connected with cluster initiatives. Spatial origin of these messages was rather limited. The definitional vagueness, intangible and uncontroversial nature of cluster initiatives restrained their media appeal.

  3. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  4. Image slicer manufacturing: from space application to mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Christophe; Cagnat, Jean-François; Laurent, Florence; Prieto, Eric; Ancourt, Gérard

    2004-09-01

    This presentation aims to show technical and industrial inputs to be taking into account for Image Slicer systems design and development for different types of projects from space application to mass production for multi-IFU instruments. Cybernétix has a strong experience of precision optics assembled thanks to molecular adhesion and have already manufactured 6 prototypes of image slicer subsystem (prototypes of NIRSPEC-IFU, IFS for JWST, MUSE ...) in collaboration with the Laboratoire d"Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) and the Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon (CRAL). After a brief presentation of the principle of manufacturing and assembly, we will focus on the different performances achieved in our prototypes of slicer mirrors, pupil and slit mirrors lines: an accuracy on centre of curvature position better than 15 arsec has been obtained for a stack of 30 slices. The contribution of the slice stacking to this error is lower than 4 arcsec. In spite of very thin surfaces (~ 0.9 x 40 mm for instance), a special process allows to guarantee a surface roughness about 5 nm and very few digs on the slice borders. The WFE of the mini-mirror can also be measured at a stage of the manufacturing. Different environmental tests have shown the withstanding of these assemblies to cryogenic temperature (30 K). Then, we will describe the different solutions (spherical, flat, cylindrical surfaces) and characteristics of an image slicer that can influence difficulties of manufacturing and metrology, cost, schedule and risks with regard to fabrication. Finally, the study of a mass production plan for MUSE (CRAL) composed of 24 Image Slicers of 38 slices, that"s to say 912 slices, will be exposed as an example of what can be do for multi-module instruments.

  5. A similarity study between the query mass and retrieved masses using decision tree content-based image retrieval (DTCBIR) CADx system for characterization of ultrasound breast mass images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Chong; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Helvie, Mark; Paramagul, Chintana; Nees, Alexis V.

    2012-03-01

    We are developing a Decision Tree Content-Based Image Retrieval (DTCBIR) CADx scheme to assist radiologists in characterization of breast masses on ultrasound (US) images. Three DTCBIR configurations, including decision tree with boosting (DTb), decision tree with full leaf features (DTL), and decision tree with selected leaf features (DTLs) were compared. For DTb, the features of a query mass were combined first into a merged feature score and then masses with similar scores were retrieved. For DTL and DTLs, similar masses were retrieved based on the Euclidean distance between the feature vector of the query and those of the selected references. For each DTCBIR configuration, we investigated the use of the full feature set and the subset of features selected by the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and simplex optimization method, resulting in six retrieval methods. Among the six methods, we selected five, DTb-lda, DTL-lda, DTb-full, DTL-full and DTLs-full, for the observer study. For a query mass, three most similar masses were retrieved with each method and were presented to the radiologists in random order. Three MQSA radiologists rated the similarity between the query mass and the computer-retrieved masses using a ninepoint similarity scale (1=very dissimilar, 9=very similar). For DTb-lda, DTL-lda, DTb-full, DTL-full and DTLs-full, the average Az values were 0.90+/-0.03, 0.85+/-0.04, 0.87+/-0.04, 0.79+/-0.05 and 0.71+/-0.06, respectively, and the average similarity ratings were 5.00, 5.41, 4.96, 5.33 and 5.13, respectively. Although the DTb measures had the best classification performance among the DTCBIRs studied, and DTLs had the worst performance, DTLs-full obtained higher similarity ratings than the DTb measures.

  6. Determining the mass of Didymos' secondary by visual imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Bjoern; Kueppers, Michael

    2016-10-01

    A critical requirement for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is the ability to determine the mass of Didymos' secondary with an accuracy of about 10 %. The conventional approach to estimate the mass of a solar system body through its gravitational effect by tracking the spacecraft trajectory is only marginally viable for Didymos' secondary. Instead, the idea to measure the "wobble" of the primary around the common centre of gravity has been put forward. This wobble with an expected radius of about 10 m can possible be measured either by means of optical or radar ranging devices or by direct observation with the Visual Imaging System (VIS). Here, we investigate the latter approach.We approach the problem of estimating the wobble in two steps: In the first step, the spacecraft trajectory relative to the primary asteroid is reconstructed from the locations of landmarks in images. This relative trajectory comprises the wobble. In the second step, the magnitude of the wobble is extracted from the reconstructed trajectory.In this preliminary investigation, we do not deal with the problem of landmark identification and determination of their location in images. We just randomly generate landmark positions in the body fixed frame employing a shape model based on radar observations and simulate observations as inertial viewing directions from the spacecraft (with some error). Then we solve simultaneously for the landmark positions in the body fixed frame, the orientation of the asteroid at each image acquisition time, and the spacecraft trajectory relative to the asteroid. This reconstruction is done without any a priori knowledge or modelling of spacecraft trajectory or asteroid rotation. In order to extract the wobble from the reconstructed trajectory in the second step, we only assume that we know the period and the direction of the wobble from the orbit of the secondary.We conduct Monte Carlo simulations for various scenarios and assess the accuracy of the determination

  7. Mass movement slope streaks imaged by the Mars Orbiter Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Veverka, Joseph; Malin, Michael; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-10-01

    Narrow, fan-shaped dark streaks on steep Martian slopes were originally observed in Viking Orbiter images, but a definitive explanation was not possible because of resolution limitations. Pictures acquired by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft show innumerable examples of dark slope streaks distributed widely, but not uniformly, across the brighter equatorial regions, as well as individual details of these features that were not visible in Viking Orbiter data. Dark slope streaks (as well as much rarer bright slope streaks) represent one of the most widespread and easily recognized styles of mass movement currently affecting the Martian surface. New dark streaks have formed since Viking and even during the MGS mission, confirming earlier suppositions that higher contrast dark streaks are younger, and fade (brighten) with time. The darkest slope streaks represent ~10% contrast with surrounding slope materials. No small outcrops supplying dark material (or bright material, for bright streaks) have been found at streak apexes. Digitate downslope ends indicate slope streak formation involves a ground-hugging flow subject to deflection by minor topographic obstacles. The model we favor explains most dark slope streaks as scars from dust avalanches following oversteepening of air fall deposits. This process is analogous to terrestrial avalanches of oversteepened dry, loose snow which produce shallow avalanche scars with similar morphologies. Low angles of internal friction typically 10-30¡ for terrestrial loess and clay materials suggest that mass movement of (low-cohesion) Martian dusty air fall is possible on a wide range of gradients. Martian gravity, presumed low density of the air fall deposits, and thin (unresolved by MOC) failed layer depths imply extremely low cohesive strength at time of failure, consistent with expectations for an air fall deposit of dust particles. As speed increases during a dust avalanche, a

  8. Significant advancement of mass spectrometry imaging for food chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Zaima, Nobuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Food contains various compounds that have an impact on our daily lives. Many technologies have been established to analyze these molecules of interest in foods. However, the analysis of the spatial distribution of these compounds in foods using conventional technology, such as high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is difficult. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is considered an ideal complementary approach. MALDI-MSI is a two-dimensional MALDI-MS technology that can detect compounds in a tissue section without extraction, purification, separation, or labeling. MALDI-MSI can be used to visualize the spatial distribution of chemical compounds or biomolecules in foods. Although the methodology of MALDI-MSI in food science is not yet fully established, the versatility of MALDI-MSI is expected to open a new frontier in food science. Herein, we describe the principles and applications of MALDI-MSI in food science and related fields.

  9. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2015-11-13

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based on the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease

  10. Detection systems for mass spectrometry imaging: a perspective on novel developments with a focus on active pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, JH; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental developments for imaging and individual particle detection for biomolecular mass spectrometry (imaging) and fundamental atomic and molecular physics studies are reviewed. Ion-counting detectors, array detection systems and highmass detectors for mass spectrometry (imaging) are treated.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of mass transport and structure inside a phototrophic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Baheerathan; Holmes, William M; Sloan, William T; Phoenix, Vernon R

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to utilize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to image structural heterogeneity and mass transport inside a biofilm which was too thick for photon based imaging. MRI was used to map water diffusion and image the transport of the paramagnetically tagged macromolecule, Gd-DTPA, inside a 2.5 mm thick cyanobacterial biofilm. The structural heterogeneity of the biofilm was imaged at resolutions down to 22 × 22 μm, enabling the impact of biofilm architecture on the mass transport of both water and Gd-DTPA to be investigated. Higher density areas of the biofilm correlated with areas exhibiting lower relative water diffusion coefficients and slower transport of Gd-DTPA, highlighting the impact of biofilm structure on mass transport phenomena. This approach has potential for shedding light on heterogeneous mass transport of a range of molecular mass molecules in biofilms.

  12. Imaging of Proteins in Tissue Sections Using Mass Spectrometry as a Discovery Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard M. Caprioli

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Mass Spectrometry Group of Richard M. Caprioli at Vanderbilt University is evaluating MacromizerTM for their MALDI-imaging application. The expectation is to see more high mass proteins due to the increased high mass sensitivity of MacromizerTM.

  13. Imaging of Proteins in Tissue Sections Using Mass Spectrometry as a Discovery Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RichardM.Caprioli

    2004-01-01

    The Mass Spectrometry Group of Richard M. Caprioli at Vanderbilt University is evaluating MacromizerTM for their MALDI-imaging application. The expectation is to see more high mass proteins due to the increased high mass sensitivity of MacromizerTM.

  14. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  15. Quantifying Stellar Mass Loss with High Angular Resolution Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ridgway, Stephen; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Elias, Nicholas; Howell, Steve; Hutter, Don; Karovska, Margarita; Ragland, Sam; Wishnow, Ed; Zhao, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Mass is constantly being recycled in the universe. One of the most powerful recycling paths is via stellar mass-loss. All stars exhibit mass loss with rates ranging from ~10(-14) to 10(-4) M(sun) yr-1, depending on spectral type, luminosity class, rotation rate, companion proximity, and evolutionary stage. The first generation of stars consisted mostly of hydrogen and helium. These shed material - via massive winds, planetary nebulae and supernova explosions - seeding the interstellar medium with heavier elements. Subsequent generations of stars incorporated this material, changing how stars burn and providing material for planet formation. An understanding of mass loss is critical for modeling individual stars as well as answering larger astrophysical questions. Understanding mass loss is essential for following the evolution of single stars, binaries, star clusters, and galaxies. Mass loss is one of our weakest areas in the modeling of fundamental stellar processes. In large part this is owing to lack of co...

  16. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order...

  17. Congenital cystic neck masses: embryology and imaging appearances, with clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddikeri, Santhosh; Vattoth, Surjith; Gaddikeri, Ramya S; Stuart, Royal; Harrison, Keith; Young, Daniel; Bhargava, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cystic masses of the neck are uncommon and can present in any age group. Diagnosis of these lesions can be sometimes challenging. Many of these have characteristic locations and imaging findings. The most common of all congenital cystic neck masses is the thyroglossal duct cyst. The other congenital cystic neck masses are branchial cleft cyst, cystic hygroma (lymphangioma), cervical thymic and bronchogenic cysts, and the floor of the mouth lesions including dermoid and epidermoid cysts. In this review, we illustrate the common congenital cystic neck masses including embryology, clinical findings, imaging features, and histopathological findings.

  18. Modeling the Images of Relativistic Jets Lensed by Galaxies with Different Mass Surface Density Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Larchenkova, T. I.; Lutovinov, A. A.; Lyskova, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    The images of relativistic jets from extragalactic sources produced by gravitational lensing by galaxies with different mass surface density distributions are modeled. In particular, the following models of the gravitational lens mass distribution are considered: a singular isothermal ellipsoid, an isothermal ellipsoid with a core, two- and three-component models with a galactic disk, halo, and bulge. The modeled images are compared both between themselves and with available observations. Dif...

  19. Evaluation of pelvic masses using magnetic resonance imaging; Avaliacao por ressonancia magnetica das massas pelvicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Faintuch, Salomano; Goldman, Susan Menasce; Louveira, Maria Helena; Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: luisronan@hotmail.com

    2003-03-01

    To demonstrate the main magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with adnexal masses. We reviewed the images of 33 patients submitted to magnetic resonance scans of the pelvis due to suspicion of adnexal masses. Images were obtained using the following magnetic resonance imaging sequences: T1 TSE axial, T2 TSE coronal, sagittal and axial, and T 1 SPIR axial pre- and post-gadolinium injection. Among the 33 patients studied, 17 had benign ovarian masses, five had uterine tube diseases, two had sub serous myomas, one had an ectopic pregnancy, one had an embryonic cyst and one had a urachal cyst. One of the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging is multiplanar analysis that allows evaluation of the extension of the expansive adnexal lesions. The excellent contrast between structures as well as the different characteristics of the lesions in each sequence allow diagnostic precision, particularly in patients with mature cystic teratomas, endometriomas and hemorrhagic cysts. (author)

  20. The imaging spectrum of peri-articular inflammatory masses following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Christopher S.J.; Ostlere, Simon [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Harvie, Paul; Gibbons, Christopher L.M.H.; Whitwell, Duncan [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oxford (United Kingdom); Athanasou, Nicholas A. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Pathology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Resurfacing metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty is increasing in popularity, especially in younger patients. To date, studies indicate that the procedure is associated with a good outcome in the medium-term. Formation of a peri-articuar mass is a rarely reported complication. In this study we analyse the imaging findings in patients with resurfacing implants presenting to our institution with peri-articular masses identified on cross sectional imaging. All patients with documented peri-articular masses following resurfacing arthroplasty were included. The available imaging related to the masses was reviewed and the findings documented along with the patient's demographics. There were 10 patients (13 joints). All patients were female. Patients presented with periprosthetic anterior or posterolateral solid and cystic masses. The anterior masses involved psoas muscle and were predominately solid. The posterolateral masses were predominately cystic. In the three cases with bilateral arthroplasties, masses were detected in both hips. Histology in six cases showed features compatible with a type IV hypersensitivity reaction. The preponderance of females, the bilateral nature of the masses and the histological features suggest that peri-articular masses following resurfacing arthroplasty is due to the metal hypersensitivity. (orig.)

  1. Mass spectrometry imaging of biological tissue : an approach for multicenter studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römpp, Andreas; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Heeren, Ron M A; Laprévote, Olivier; Prideaux, Brendan; Seyer, Alexandre; Spengler, Bernhard; Stoeckli, Markus; Smith, Donald F

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging has become a popular tool for probing the chemical complexity of biological surfaces. This led to the development of a wide range of instrumentation and preparation protocols. It is thus desirable to evaluate and compare the data output from different methodologies and mass

  2. Imaging of Adrenal Masses with Emphasis on Adrenocortical Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Sundin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the more widespread and frequent use of cross-sectional techniques, mainly computed tomography (CT, an increasing number of adrenal tumors are detected as incidental findings (“incidentalomas”. These incidentaloma patients are much more frequent than those undergoing imaging because of symptoms related to adrenal disease. CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are in most patients sufficient for characterization and follow-up of the incidentaloma. In a minor portion of patients, biochemical screening reveals a functional tumor and further diagnostic work-up and therapy need to be performed according to the type of hormonal overproduction. In oncological patients, especially when the morphological imaging criteria indicate an adrenal metastasis, biopsy of the lesion should be considered after pheochromocytoma is ruled out biochemically. In the minority of patients in whom CT and MRI fail to characterize the tumor and when time is of essence, functional imaging mainly by positron emission tomography (PET is available using various tracers. The most used PET tracer, [18F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18FDG, is able to differentiate benign from malignant adrenal tumors in many patients. 11C-metomidate (11C-MTO is a more specialized PET tracer that binds to the 11-beta-hydroxylase enzyme in the adrenal cortex and thus makes it possible to differ adrenal tumors (benign adrenocortical adenoma and adrenocortical cancer from those of non-adrenocortical origin.

  3. How to Determine the Centre of Mass of Bodies from Image Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marco Adriano; Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Rodrigues, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Image modelling is a recent technique in physics education that includes digital tools for image treatment and analysis, such as digital stroboscopic photography (DSP) and video analysis software. It is commonly used to analyse the motion of objects. In this work we show how to determine the position of the centre of mass (CM) of objects with…

  4. Local binary pattern texture-based classification of solid masses in ultrasound breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality among women. Ultrasound examination can be used to assess breast masses, complementarily to mammography. Ultrasound images reveal tissue information in its echoic patterns. Therefore, pattern recognition techniques can facilitate classification of lesions and thereby reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Our hypothesis was that image texture features on the boundary of a lesion and its vicinity can be used to classify masses. We have used intensity-independent and rotation-invariant texture features, known as Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The classifier selected was K-nearest neighbors. Our breast ultrasound image database consisted of 100 patient images (50 benign and 50 malignant cases). The determination of whether the mass was benign or malignant was done through biopsy and pathology assessment. The training set consisted of sixty images, randomly chosen from the database of 100 patients. The testing set consisted of forty images to be classified. The results with a multi-fold cross validation of 100 iterations produced a robust evaluation. The highest performance was observed for feature LBP with 24 symmetrically distributed neighbors over a circle of radius 3 (LBP24,3) with an accuracy rate of 81.0%. We also investigated an approach with a score of malignancy assigned to the images in the test set. This approach provided an ROC curve with Az of 0.803. The analysis of texture features over the boundary of solid masses showed promise for malignancy classification in ultrasound breast images.

  5. Soft-tissue masses in the shoulder girdle: an imaging perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Hills Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Bearcroft, Philip W.P. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Hills Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    We discuss the radiological assessment of soft-tissue masses presenting in the shoulder girdle and emphasise the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging modalities available. The appearances of the common benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours are presented together with conditions that present with specific imaging features around the shoulder region. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Characterizing Lung Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Nagihan; Arslan, Arzu; Donmez, Muhammed; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Imaging plays a critical role not only in the detection, but also in the characterization of lung masses as benign or malignant. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. Patients and Methods Ninety-four masses were included in this prospective study. Five dynamic series of T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FFE) images were obtained, followed by a T1-weighted FFE sequence in the late phase (5th minutes). Contrast enhancement patterns in the early (25th second) and late (5th minute) phase images were evaluated. For the quantitative evaluation, signal intensity (SI)-time curves were obtained and the maximum relative enhancement, wash-in rate, and time-to-peak enhancement of masses in both groups were calculated. Results The early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 78.2% of the benign masses, while heterogeneous in 74.4% of the malignant tumors. On the late phase images, 70.8% of the benign masses showed homogeneous enhancement, while most of the malignant masses showed heterogeneous enhancement (82.4%). During the first pass, the maximum relative enhancement and wash-in rate values of malignant masses were significantly higher than those of the benign masses (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The cutoff value at 15% yielded a sensitivity of 85.4%, specificity of 61.2%, and positive predictive value of 68.7% for the maximum relative enhancement. Conclusion Contrast enhancement patterns and SI-time curve analysis of MRI are helpful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. PMID:27703654

  7. Uncertainties and biases of source masses derived from fits of integrated fluxes or image intensities

    CERN Document Server

    Men'shchikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Fitting spectral distributions of total fluxes or image intensities are two standard methods for estimating the masses of starless cores and protostellar envelopes. The major source and basis of our knowledge of the origin and evolution of self-gravitating cores and protostars, such mass estimates are uncertain. In this model-based study, a grid of radiative transfer models of starless cores and protostellar envelopes was computed and their total fluxes and image intensities were fitted to derive the model masses. To investigate intrinsic effects related to the physical objects, all observational complications were explicitly ignored. Known true values of the numerical models allow us to assess the qualities of the methods and fitting models, as well as the effects of nonuniform temperatures, far-infrared opacity slope, selected subsets of wavelengths, background subtraction, and angular resolutions. The method of fitting image intensities gives more accurate masses for more resolved objects than the method o...

  8. Co-registered Topographical, Band Excitation Nanomechanical, and Mass Spectral Imaging Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Tai, Tamin; Bocharova, Vera; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Belianinov, Alex; Kertesz, Vilmos; Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-04-28

    The advancement of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform demonstrating the co-registered topographical, band excitation nanomechanical, and mass spectral imaging of a surface using a single instrument is reported. The mass spectrometry-based chemical imaging component of the system utilized nanothermal analysis probes for pyrolytic surface sampling followed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the gas-phase species produced with subsequent mass analysis. The basic instrumental setup and operation are discussed, and the multimodal imaging capability and utility are demonstrated using a phase-separated polystyrene/poly(2-vinylpyridine) polymer blend thin film. The topography and band excitation images showed that the valley and plateau regions of the thin film surface were comprised primarily of one of the two polymers in the blend with the mass spectral chemical image used to definitively identify the polymers at the different locations. Data point pixel size for the topography (390 nm × 390 nm), band excitation (781 nm × 781 nm), and mass spectrometry (690 nm × 500 nm) images was comparable and submicrometer in all three cases, but the data voxel size for each of the three images was dramatically different. The topography image was uniquely a surface measurement, whereas the band excitation image included information from an estimated 20 nm deep into the sample and the mass spectral image from 110 to 140 nm in depth. Because of this dramatic sampling depth variance, some differences in the band excitation and mass spectrometry chemical images were observed and were interpreted to indicate the presence of a buried interface in the sample. The spatial resolution of the chemical image was estimated to be between 1.5 and 2.6 μm, based on the ability to distinguish surface features in that image that were also observed in the other images.

  9. Textural Approach for Mass Abnormality Segmentation in Mammographic Images

    OpenAIRE

    Djaroudib, Khamsa; Ahmed, Abdelmalik Taleb; Zidani, Abdelmadjid

    2014-01-01

    Mass abnormality segmentation is a vital step for the medical diagnostic process and is attracting more and more the interest of many research groups. Currently, most of the works achieved in this area have used the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) as texture features with a region-based approach. These features come in previous phase for segmentation stage or are using as inputs to classification stage. The work discussed in this paper attempts to experiment the GLCM method under a con...

  10. Limited-sequence magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver Hospital and Helath Services Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: schang@vanhosp.bc.ca; Cooperberg, P.L.; Wong, A.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Llewellyn, P.A. [Lion' s Gate Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bilbey, J.H. [Royal Inland Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kamloops, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of limited-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the elucidation of ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic masses. This study focused only on pelvic masses in which the origin of the mass (uterine v. extrauterine) could not be determined by ultrasonography (US). The origin of a pelvic mass has clinical implications. A mass arising from the uterus is most likely to be a leiomyoma, which is a benign lesion, whereas an extrauterine mass will have a higher likelihood of malignancy and usually requires surgery. Eighty-one female patients whose pelvic mass was of indeterminate origin on US also underwent limited-sequence MRI of the pelvis. Most of the MRI examinations were performed on the same day as the US. Limited-sequence MRI sequences included a quick gradient-echoT{sub 1}-weighted localizer and a fast spin-echoT{sub 2}-weighted sequence. Final diagnoses were established by surgical pathology or by clinical and imaging follow-up. Limited-sequence MRI was helpful in 79 of the 81 cases (98%). Fifty-two of the 81 masses (64%) were leiomyomas. One was a leiomyosarcoma. The extrauterine masses (26/81 [32%]) were identified as 14 ovarian malignancies, 4 endometriomas, 3 dermoids, an ovarian fibroma, an infarcted fibrothecoma, an infarcted hemorrhagic cyst, a sigmoid diverticular abscess and a gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the ileum. In the other 2 cases (2/81 [2%]), the origin of the pelvic mass remained indeterminate. Both of these indeterminate masses showed low signal onT{sub 2}-weighted images and were interpreted as probable leiomyomas. They were not surgically removed but were followed clinically and had a stable course. Limited-sequence MRI is a quick and efficient way to further evaluate ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic masses. Limited-sequence MRI of the pelvis can suffice, in these cases, without requiring a full MRI examination. (author)

  11. Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zewu; Ju, Li; Eon, François; Gras, Slawomir; Zhao, Chunnong; Jacob, John; Blair, David G.

    2004-03-01

    Rayleigh scattering in test masses can introduce noise and reduce the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In this paper, we present laser Rayleigh scattering imaging as a technique to investigate sapphire test masses. The system provides three-dimensional Rayleigh scattering mapping of entire test masses and quantitative evaluation of the Rayleigh scattering coefficient. Rayleigh scattering mapping of two sapphire samples reveals point defects as well as inhomogeneous structures in the samples. We present results showing significant non-uniform scattering within two 4.5 kg sapphire test masses manufactured by the heat exchanger method.

  12. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Biological Tissue: An Approach for Multicenter Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompp, Andreas; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Heeren, Ronald M.; Laprevote, Olivier; Prideaux, Brendan; Seyer, Alexandre; Spengler, Bernhard; Stoeckli, Markus; Smith, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging has become a popular tool for probing the chemical complexity of biological surfaces. This led to the development of a wide range of instrumentation and preparation protocols. It is thus desirable to evaluate and compare the data output from different methodologies and mass spectrometers. Here, we present an approach for the comparison of mass spectrometry imaging data from different laboratories (often referred to as multicenter studies). This is exemplified by the analysis of mouse brain sections in five laboratories in Europe and the USA. The instrumentation includes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF), MALDI-QTOF, MALDIFourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR), atmospheric-pressure (AP)-MALDI-Orbitrap, and cluster TOF-secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Experimental parameters such as measurement speed, imaging bin width, and mass spectrometric parameters are discussed. All datasets were converted to the standard data format imzML and displayed in a common open-source software with identical parameters for visualization, which facilitates direct comparison of MS images. The imzML conversion also allowed exchange of fully functional MS imaging datasets between the different laboratories. The experiments ranged from overview measurements of the full mouse brain to detailed analysis of smaller features (depending on spatial resolution settings), but common histological features such as the corpus callosum were visible in all measurements. High spatial resolution measurements of AP-MALDI-Orbitrap and TOF-SIMS showed comparable structures in the low-micrometer range. We discuss general considerations for planning and performing multicenter studies in mass spectrometry imaging. This includes details on the selection, distribution, and preparation of tissue samples as well as on data handling. Such multicenter studies in combination with ongoing activities for reporting guidelines, a common

  13. Diagnostic imaging of benign and malignant neck masses in children—a pictorial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harave, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Cross sectional imaging can be helpful for problem solving with CT being particularly useful for assessing the patient in more acute scenarios, for example when there is airway compromise. Nuclear medicine scintigraphy has a role in specific circumstances and can aid in staging in the presence of malignancy. If required, additional acquisition by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) can be considered. This pictorial review describe the diagnostic imaging of (I) congenital and Developmental Pathologies, including thyroglossal duct cyst, branchial cleft cyst, cystic hygroma, dermoid cyst, thymic cyst and ectopic thymus; (II) neoplastic lesions, including hemangiomas and vascular malformations, pilomatrixoma, neurofibroma, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, papillary thyroid cancer, lymphoma & leukemia; (III) neck masses of Infective causes, including lymphadenitis, retropharyngeal and peritonsilar abscess, salivary gland inflammation; and (IV) other miscellaneous lesions, including ranula, sternocleidomastoid fibromatosis coli, and goiter. Neck masses are common in the pediatric population with a broad and varied differential; malignant etiologies are less frequently encountered when compared with adults but an awareness of its potential is important when reviewing imaging. PMID:27942480

  14. MALDI FTICR IMS of Intact Proteins: Using Mass Accuracy to Link Protein Images with Proteomics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rizzo, David G.; Moore, Jessica L.; Rose, Kristie L.; Hammer, Neal D.; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a highly sensitive and selective tool used to visualize biomolecules in tissue. However, identification of detected proteins remains a difficult task. Indirect identification strategies have been limited by insufficient mass accuracy to confidently link ion images to proteomics data. Here, we demonstrate the capabilities of MALDI FTICR MS for imaging intact proteins. MALDI FTICR IMS provides an unprecedented combination of mass resolving power (~75,000 at m/z 5000) and accuracy (calprotectin, in kidney tissue from mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. S100A8 - M37O/C42O3 ( m/z 10228.00, -2.6ppm) was found to co-localize with bacterial microcolonies at the center of infectious foci. The ability of MALDI FTICR IMS to distinguish S100A8 modifications is critical to understanding calprotectin's roll in nutritional immunity.

  15. Top-Down Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Intact Proteins by LAESI FT-ICR MS

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, András; Reschke, Brent R; Powell, Matthew J; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization is a recent development in mass spectrometry imaging. It has been shown that lipids and small metabolites can be imaged in various samples such as plant material, tissue sections or bacterial colonies without anysample pre-treatment. Further, laser ablation electrospray ionization has been shown to produce multiply charged protein ions from liquids or solid surfaces. This presents a means to address one of the biggest challenges in mass spectrometry imaging; the identification of proteins directly from biological tissue surfaces. Such identification is hindered by the lack of multiply charged proteins in common MALDI ion sources and the difficulty of performing tandem MS on such large, singly charged ions. We present here top-down identification of intact proteins from tissue with a LAESI ion source combined with a hybrid ion-trap FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The performance of the system was first tested with a standard protein with ECD and IRMPD fragmentation to prove the...

  16. Rock mass structure analysis based on seismic velocity and attenuation images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Seismic traveltime, amplitude and pulse-width can be used to reconstruct seismic velocity and attenuation coefficient images for a rock mass. This study discusses the appearance differences of velocity and attenuation coefficient in the ore vein and rock mass in the images. The location of the rock vein and the characteristic of the rock mass are discussed according to the difference responses of velocity and attenuation from the ore vein and mixed rock vein, fracture and rock body. The effect and limitation of the seismic tomography method for investigating ore body and rock mass is suggested on the basis of a field test result. The special observation method in this study gives a good reference for obtaining full position and directional observation in seismic tomography.

  17. Direct imaging of elemental distributions in tissue sections by laser ablation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Nilsson, Anna; Bonta, Maximilian; Gan, Jinrui; Marklund, Niklas; Clausen, Fredrik; Källback, Patrik; Loden, Henrik; Limbeck, Andreas; Andrén, Per E

    2016-07-15

    We present a strategy for imaging of elements in biological tissues using laser ablation (LA) mass spectrometry (MS), which was compared to laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) MS. Both methods were adopted for quantitative imaging of elements in mouse kidney, as well as traumatic brain injury model tissue sections. MS imaging (MSI) employing LA provides quantitative data by comparing signal abundances of sodium from tissues to those obtained by imaging quantitation calibration standards of the target element applied to adjacent control tissue sections. LA-ICP MSI provided quantitative data for several essential elements in both brain and kidney tissue sections using a dried-droplet approach. Both methods were used to image a rat model of traumatic brain injury, revealing accumulations of sodium and calcium in the impact area and its peripheral regions. LA MSI is shown to be a viable option for quantitative imaging of specific elements in biological tissue sections.

  18. Application of imaging mass spectrometry approaches to facilitate metal-based anticancer drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald F S; Theiner, Sarah; Meibom, Anders; Koellensperger, Gunda; Keppler, Bernhard K; Dyson, Paul J

    2017-02-03

    Mass spectrometry imaging is being increasingly used in metal-based anticancer drug development to study elemental and/or molecular drug distributions in different biological systems. The main analytical tools employed are SIMS (especially nanoSIMS), LA-ICP-MSI and MALDI-MSI as well as a combination of complementary imaging techniques. Main challenges are appropriate sample preparation methods, reliable and validated quantification strategies and a trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution. So far, research has mostly focused on the development of analytical methods for imaging with the long term goal to study drug uptake into tumor tissue and toxicity affected organs and to identify cellular targets of metal-based drugs. In this review we cover the technological features of the mass spectrometry imaging methods used and give an overview of the applications in metal-based anticancer drug research as well as some future perspectives.

  19. Contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Pariss, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Rene Descartes, LRI-EA4062, Paris (France); Darai, Emile [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Pariss, Department of Gynecology-Obstetrics, Paris (France); Cuenod, Charles A.; Fournier, Laure [Universite Rene Descartes, LRI-EA4062, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Toussaint, Irwin; Marsault, Claude; Bazot, Marc [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Pariss, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for characterizing complex adnexal masses. Seventy-seven women (22-87 years old) with complex adnexal masses (30 benign and 47 malignant) underwent MR imaging including DWI before surgery. Conventional morphological MR imaging criteria were recorded in addition to b{sub 1,000} signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of cystic and solid components. Positive likelihood ratios (PLR) were calculated for predicting benignity and malignancy. The most significant criteria for predicting benignity were low b{sub 1,000} signal intensity within the solid component (PLR = 10.9), low T2 signal intensity within the solid component (PLR = 5.7), absence of solid portion (PLR = 3.1), absence of ascites or peritoneal implants (PLR = 2.3) and absence of papillary projections (PLR = 2.3). ADC measurements did not contribute to differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. All masses that displayed simultaneously low signal intensity within the solid component on T2-weighted and on b{sub 1,000} diffusion-weighted images were benign. Alternatively, the presence of a solid component with intermediate T2 signal and high b{sub 1,000} signal intensity was associated with a PLR of 4.5 for a malignant adnexal tumour. DWI signal intensity is an accurate tool for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses. (orig.)

  20. Multimodal Molecular Mass Spectrometry Imaging : Development and Applications in Plant Biology and Forensic Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of new analytical platforms for molecular mass spectrometry imaging and their applications in plant biology and forensic toxicology. So far, in drug metabolism or forensic toxicology, liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection is the technique of choice for analyzing drugs and metabolites in complex biological samples. LC-MS remains however challenging, because the development of appropriate sample preparation requires complex and time-consu...

  1. Controlled-resonant surface tapping-mode scanning probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-03-18

    This paper reports on the advancement of a controlled-resonant surface tapping-mode single capillary liquid junction extraction/ESI emitter for mass spectrometry imaging. The basic instrumental setup and the general operation of the system were discussed, and optimized performance metrics were presented. The ability to spot sample, lane scan, and chemically image in an automated and controlled fashion were demonstrated. Rapid, automated spot sampling was demonstrated for a variety of compound types, including the cationic dye basic blue 7, the oligosaccharide cellopentaose, and the protein equine heart cytochrome c. The system was used for lane scanning and chemical imaging of the cationic dye crystal violet in inked lines on glass and for lipid distributions in mouse brain thin tissue sections. Imaging of the lipids in mouse brain tissue under optimized conditions provided a spatial resolution of approximately 35 μm based on the ability to distinguish between features observed both in the optical and mass spectral chemical images. The sampling spatial resolution of this system was comparable to the best resolution that has been reported for other types of atmospheric pressure liquid extraction-based surface sampling/ionization techniques used for mass spectrometry imaging.

  2. Automated Abnormal Mass Detection in the Mammogram Images Using Chebyshev Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Talebpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality among women after lung cancer. Early diagnosis of this disease has a major role in its treatment. Thus the use of computer systems as a detection tool could be viewed as essential to helping with this disease. In this study a new system for automated mass detection in mammography images is presented as being more accurate and valid. After optimization of the image and extracting a better picture of the breast tissue from the image and applying log-polar transformation, Chebyshev moments can be calculated in all areas of breast tissue. Then after extracting effective features in the diagnosis of mammography images, abnormal masses, which are important for the physician and specialists, can be determined with applying the appropriate threshold. To check the system performance, images in the MIAS (Mammographic Image Analysis Society mammogram database have been used and the results allowed us to draw a FROC (Free Response Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. When compared the FROC curve with similar systems experts, the high ability of our system was confirmed. In this system, images of different thresholds, specifically 445, 450, 455 are processed and then put through a sensitivity analysis. The process garnered good results 100, 92 and 84%, respectively and a false positive rate per image 2.56, 0.86, 0.26, respectively have been calculated. Comparing other automatic mass detection systems, the proposed method has a few advantages over prior systems: Our process allows us to determine the amount of false positives and/or sensitivity parameters within the system. This can be determined by the importance of the detection work being done. The proposed system achieves 100% sensitivity and 2.56 false positive for every image.

  3. Imaging diagnosis of accessory and cavitated uterine mass, a rare mullerian anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchint Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass (ACUM is a rare form of developmental Mullerian anomaly seen in young females, which presents as chronic recurrent pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. It is an accessory cavity lying within an otherwise normal uterus. It is lined by functional endometrium and surrounded by myometrium-like smooth muscle cells; hence, it bears striking macroscopic and microscopic resemblance to the uterus. Hysterosalpingography (HSG, Ultrasonography (USG, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI form the mainstay of diagnostic imaging. The entity is often under diagnosed; therefore, a high index of suspicion combined with HSG and MRI imaging can help in making an accurate diagnosis.

  4. Quantitative MALDI tandem mass spectrometric imaging of cocaine from brain tissue with a deuterated internal standard.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirman, D.A.; Reich, R.F.; Kiss, A.; Heeren, R.M.A.; Yost, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is an analytical technique used to determine the distribution of individual analytes within a given sample. A wide array of analytes and samples can be investigated by MSI, including drug distribution in rats, lipid analysis from brain tissue, protein differentiation

  5. Biomolecular Imaging Mass Spectrometry : mapping molecular distributions in cells and tissue sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altelaar, A.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) allows the investigation of both identity and localization of the molecular content directly from tissue sections, single cells and many other surfaces. To further develop the application of IMS, different approaches to IMS will be described in this thesis and the spe

  6. A critical evaluation of the current state-of-the-art in quantitative imaging mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.R.; Bruinen, A.L.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has evolved into a valuable tool across many fields of chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, arguably its greatest disadvantage is the difficulty in acquiring quantitative data regarding the surface concentration of the analyte(s) of interest. These difficulties

  7. Air flow-assisted ionization imaging mass spectrometry method for easy whole-body molecular imaging under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhigang; He, Jiuming; Chen, Yi; He, Jingjing; Gong, Tao; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Ruiping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Lianfeng; Lv, Haining; Ma, Shuanggang; Fu, Zhaodi; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Shishan; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body molecular imaging is able to directly map spatial distribution of molecules and monitor its biotransformation in intact biological tissue sections. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), a label-free molecular imaging method, can be used to image multiple molecules in a single measurement with high specificity. Herein, a novel easy-to-implement, whole-body IMS method was developed with air flow-assisted ionization in a desorption electrospray ionization mode. The developed IMS method can effectively image molecules in a large whole-body section in open air without sample pretreatment, such as chemical labeling, section division, or matrix deposition. Moreover, the signal levels were improved, and the spatial assignment errors were eliminated; thus, high-quality whole-body images were obtained. With this novel IMS method, in situ mapping analysis of molecules was performed in adult rat sections with picomolar sensitivity under ambient conditions, and the dynamic information of molecule distribution and its biotransformation was provided to uncover molecular events at the whole-animal level. A global view of the differential distribution of an anticancer agent and its metabolites was simultaneously acquired in whole-body rat and model mouse bearing neuroglioma along the administration time. The obtained drug distribution provided rich information for identifying the targeted organs and predicting possible tumor spectrum, pharmacological activity, and potential toxicity of drug candidates.

  8. On-tissue protein identification and imaging by MALDI-ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Jonathan; MacAleese, Luke; Franck, Julien; Claude, Emmanuelle; Snel, Marten; Kaletas, Basak Kükrer; Wiel, Ingrid M V D; Wisztorski, Maxence; Fournier, Isabelle; Heeren, Ron M A

    2010-03-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has become a powerful tool for the detection and localization of drugs, proteins, and lipids on-tissue. Nevertheless, this approach can only perform identification of low mass molecules as lipids, pharmaceuticals, and peptides. In this article, a combination of approaches for the detection and imaging of proteins and their identification directly on-tissue is described after tryptic digestion. Enzymatic digestion protocols for different kinds of tissues--formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) and frozen tissues--are combined with MALDI-ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). This combination enables localization and identification of proteins via their related digested peptides. In a number of cases, ion mobility separates isobaric ions that cannot be identified by conventional MALDI time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The amount of detected peaks per measurement increases (versus conventional MALDI-TOF), which enables mass and time selected ion images and the identification of separated ions. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of direct proteins identification by ion-mobility-TOF IMS from tissue. The tissue digestion combined with MALDI-IM-TOF-IMS approach allows a proteomics "bottom-up" strategy with different kinds of tissue samples, especially FFPE tissues conserved for a long time in hospital sample banks. The combination of IM with IMS marks the development of IMS approaches as real proteomic tools, which brings new perspectives to biological studies.

  9. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Liao, Yin-Yin

    2008-11-01

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.65 ± 0.05 and 0.98 ± 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 ± 0.03, 0.67 ± 0.11 and 0.89 ± 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p < 0.005) although the clinical results from tumors of different cases have a larger variance that may be caused by the complexity of real breast tissues. In particular, unlike the B-mode image, the Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  10. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, P-H; Chang, C-C [Division of Mechanics, Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Section 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C-K; Liao, Y-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mechang@gate.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: ckyeh@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-11-07

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 {+-} 0.01, 0.65 {+-} 0.05 and 0.98 {+-} 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 {+-} 0.03, 0.67 {+-} 0.11 and 0.89 {+-} 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p < 0.005) although the clinical results from tumors of different cases have a larger variance that may be caused by the complexity of real breast tissues. In particular, unlike the B-mode image, the Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  11. Metabolomic imaging of prostate cancer with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spur, Eva-Margarete [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Decelle, Emily A.; Cheng, Leo L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Metabolomic imaging of prostate cancer (PCa) aims to improve in vivo imaging capability so that PCa tumors can be localized noninvasively to guide biopsy and evaluated for aggressiveness prior to prostatectomy, as well as to assess and monitor PCa growth in patients with asymptomatic PCa newly diagnosed by biopsy. Metabolomics studies global variations of metabolites with which malignancy conditions can be evaluated by profiling the entire measurable metabolome, instead of focusing only on certain metabolites or isolated metabolic pathways. At present, PCa metabolomics is mainly studied by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and mass spectrometry (MS). With MRS imaging, the anatomic image, obtained from magnetic resonance imaging, is mapped with values of disease condition-specific metabolomic profiles calculated from MRS of each location. For example, imaging of removed whole prostates has demonstrated the ability of metabolomic profiles to differentiate cancerous foci from histologically benign regions. Additionally, MS metabolomic imaging of prostate biopsies has uncovered metabolomic expression patterns that could discriminate between PCa and benign tissue. Metabolomic imaging offers the potential to identify cancer lesions to guide prostate biopsy and evaluate PCa aggressiveness noninvasively in vivo, or ex vivo to increase the power of pathology analysis. Potentially, this imaging ability could be applied not only to PCa, but also to different tissues and organs to evaluate other human malignancies and metabolic diseases. (orig.)

  12. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging of plant tissues: towards a plant metabolite atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Wang, Qing; Friedt, Wolfgang; Spengler, Bernhard; Gottwald, Sven; Römpp, Andreas

    2015-11-21

    Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging provides spatial and molecular information for a wide range of compounds. This tool can be used to investigate metabolic changes in plant physiology and environmental interactions. A major challenge in our study was to prepare tissue sections that were compatible with high spatial resolution analysis and therefore dedicated sample preparation protocols were established and optimized for the physicochemical properties of all major plant organs. We combined high spatial resolution (5 μm), in order to detect cellular features, and high mass accuracy (root mean square error), for molecular specificity. Mass spectrometry imaging experiments were performed in positive and negative ion mode. Changes in metabolite patterns during plant development were investigated for germination of oilseed rape. The detailed localization of more than 90 compounds allowed assignment to metabolic processes and indicated possible functions in plant tissues. The 'untargeted' nature of MS imaging allows the detection of marker compounds for the physiological status, as demonstrated for plant-pathogen interactions. Our images show excellent correlation with optical/histological examination. In contrast to previous MS imaging studies of plants, we present a complete workflow that covers multiple species, such as oilseed rape, wheat seed and rice. In addition, different major plant organs and a wide variety of compound classes were analyzed. Thus, our method could be used to develop a plant metabolite atlas as a reference to investigate systemic and local effects of pathogen infection or environmental stress.

  13. Homogeneous matrix deposition on dried agar for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry of microbial cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2015-11-01

    Matrix deposition on agar-based microbial colonies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is often complicated by the complex media on which microbes are grown. This Application Note demonstrates how consecutive short spray pulses of a matrix solution can form an evenly closed matrix layer on dried agar. Compared with sieving dry matrix onto wet agar, this method supports analyte cocrystallization, which results in significantly more signals, higher signal-to-noise ratios, and improved ionization efficiency. The even matrix layer improves spot-to-spot precision of measured m/z values when using TOF mass spectrometers. With this technique, we established reproducible imaging mass spectrometry of myxobacterial cultures on nutrient-rich cultivation media, which was not possible with the sieving technique. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Homogeneous Matrix Deposition on Dried Agar for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Microbial Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-11-01

    Matrix deposition on agar-based microbial colonies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is often complicated by the complex media on which microbes are grown. This Application Note demonstrates how consecutive short spray pulses of a matrix solution can form an evenly closed matrix layer on dried agar. Compared with sieving dry matrix onto wet agar, this method supports analyte cocrystallization, which results in significantly more signals, higher signal-to-noise ratios, and improved ionization efficiency. The even matrix layer improves spot-to-spot precision of measured m/z values when using TOF mass spectrometers. With this technique, we established reproducible imaging mass spectrometry of myxobacterial cultures on nutrient-rich cultivation media, which was not possible with the sieving technique.

  15. Thymic Epidermoid Cyst: Clinical and Imaging Manifestations of This Rare Anterior Mediastinal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad M. Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epidermoid cysts are an extremely rare entity. These arise from epidermal cells that migrate to the thymus. The radiologic diagnosis of this rare lesion is challenging. We describe a case of an otherwise healthy 35-year-old woman who presented with an acute onset of chest pain and shortness of breath. She was found to have an anterior mediastinal mass. The imaging findings were, however, not characteristic for any single diagnostic entity. Since the imaging was inconclusive, surgical resection was performed for definitive diagnosis. The mass was found to be a thymic epidermoid cyst. This case underlines the significance for radiologists to be aware that epidermoid cysts can occur in the thymus and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a heterogeneous anterior mediastinal mass.

  16. Modeling the Images of Relativistic Jets Lensed by Galaxies with Different Mass Surface Density Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Larchenkova, T I; Lyskova, N S

    2011-01-01

    The images of relativistic jets from extragalactic sources produced by gravitational lensing by galaxies with different mass surface density distributions are modeled. In particular, the following models of the gravitational lens mass distribution are considered: a singular isothermal ellipsoid, an isothermal ellipsoid with a core, two- and three-component models with a galactic disk, halo, and bulge. The modeled images are compared both between themselves and with available observations. Different sets of parameters are shown to exist for the gravitationally lensed system B0218+357 in multicomponent models. These sets allow the observed geometry of the system and the intensity ratio of the compact core images to be obtained, but they lead to a significant variety in the Hubble constant determined from the modeling results.

  17. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging: A cutting-edge tool for fundamental and clinical histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuespée, Rémi; Casadonte, Rita; Kriegsmann, Mark; Pottier, Charles; Picard de Muller, Gaël; Delvenne, Philippe; Kriegsmann, Jörg; De Pauw, Edwin

    2016-07-01

    Histopathological diagnoses have been done in the last century based on hematoxylin and eosin staining. These methods were complemented by histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular techniques. Mass spectrometry (MS) methods allow the thorough examination of various biocompounds in extracts and tissue sections. Today, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), and especially matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging links classical histology and molecular analyses. Direct mapping is a major advantage of the combination of molecular profiling and imaging. MSI can be considered as a cutting edge approach for molecular detection of proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, lipids, and small molecules in tissues. This review covers the detection of various biomolecules in histopathological sections by MSI. Proteomic methods will be introduced into clinical histopathology within the next few years.

  18. Ultrasound Image Discrimination between Benign and Malignant Adnexal Masses Based on a Neural Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendía-Vidaurreta, Verónica; Cabeza, Rafael; Villanueva, Arantxa; Navallas, Javier; Alcázar, Juan Luis

    2016-03-01

    The discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses in ultrasound images represents one of the most challenging problems in gynecologic practice. In the study described here, a new method for automatic discrimination of adnexal masses based on a neural networks approach was tested. The proposed method first calculates seven different types of characteristics (local binary pattern, fractal dimension, entropy, invariant moments, gray level co-occurrence matrix, law texture energy and Gabor wavelet) from ultrasound images of the ovary, from which several features are extracted and collected together with the clinical patient age. The proposed technique was validated using 106 benign and 39 malignant images obtained from 145 patients, corresponding to its probability of appearance in general population. On evaluation of the classifier, an accuracy of 98.78%, sensitivity of 98.50%, specificity of 98.90% and area under the curve of 0.997 were calculated.

  19. High-mass-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of metabolites from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Alice; Buck, Achim; Balluff, Benjamin; Sun, Na; Gorzolka, Karin; Feuchtinger, Annette; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Kuppen, Peter J K; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Weirich, Gregor; Erlmeier, Franziska; Langer, Rupert; Aubele, Michaela; Zitzelsberger, Horst; McDonnell, Liam; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are the gold standard for histological examination, and they provide valuable molecular information in tissue-based research. Metabolite assessment from archived tissue samples has not been extensively conducted because of a lack of appropriate protocols and concerns about changes in metabolite content or chemical state due to tissue processing. We present a protocol for the in situ analysis of metabolite content from FFPE samples using a high-mass-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-FT-ICR-MSI) platform. The method involves FFPE tissue sections that undergo deparaffinization and matrix coating by 9-aminoacridine before MALDI-MSI. Using this platform, we previously detected ∼1,500 m/z species in the mass range m/z 50-1,000 in FFPE samples; the overlap compared with fresh frozen samples is 72% of m/z species, indicating that metabolites are largely conserved in FFPE tissue samples. This protocol can be reproducibly performed on FFPE tissues, including small samples such as tissue microarrays and biopsies. The procedure can be completed in a day, depending on the size of the sample measured and raster size used. Advantages of this approach include easy sample handling, reproducibility, high throughput and the ability to demonstrate molecular spatial distributions in situ. The data acquired with this protocol can be used in research and clinical practice.

  20. INVESTIGATING MASS IMAGING LEAD FREE MATERIALS USING ENCLOSED PRINT HEAD TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CliveAshmore; RickGoldsmith

    2003-01-01

    Within the Surface Mount Assembly (S.M.A.) process, solder paste is primarily used as a mechanical and electrical connection. Solder paste is generally deposited using a mass imaging process, such as squeegees, however this paper will utilise the enclosed print head technology. The process associated with mass imaging is a critical and demanding stage in the soldering phase of S.M.A. It has been documented many times that this process contributes more than 60% of all S.M.A faults; This being the case it illustrates the requirement to have a full comprehension of the mass imaging process. With legal and commercial pressure put on to remove lead from within the electronics sector, the solder paste alloy is obviously under review. Much work is being carried out on the metallurgical properties of these lead free solder pastes such as joint strength and compatibility within the manufacturing process. However, this paper will focus on investigating the process window for mass imaging of lead-free materials. The major influences within the mass imaging process have been documented in numerous studies using lead rich materials. However, the material used to replace the Pb component changes the solder paste properties and therefore the characteristics of the print medium. Therefore to conduct this study a two level three factor Design of Experiments with center points will be utilised .The factors investigated in this paper will be print speed, paste pressure and separation speed. Three material suppliers will be used to ensure the results givea broad representation of the significant effects on the process window. Comparison to a lead rich material will also be carried out to allow an evaluation to be concluded. Each pate will be tested for paste release transfer efficiency using the optimum setting concluded from the characterization stage.

  1. Software tools of the Computis European project to process mass spectrometry images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbe, Marie-France; Both, Jean-Pierre; Prideaux, Brendan; Klinkert, Ivo; Picaud, Vincent; Schramm, Thorsten; Hester, Atfons; Guevara, Victor; Stoeckli, Markus; Roempp, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M A; Spengler, Bernhard; Gala, Olivier; Haan, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Among the needs usually expressed by teams using mass spectrometry imaging, one that often arises is that for user-friendly software able to manage huge data volumes quickly and to provide efficient assistance for the interpretation of data. To answer this need, the Computis European project developed several complementary software tools to process mass spectrometry imaging data. Data Cube Explorer provides a simple spatial and spectral exploration for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) and time of flight-secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) data. SpectViewer offers visualisation functions, assistance to the interpretation of data, classification functionalities, peak list extraction to interrogate biological database and image overlay, and it can process data issued from MALDI-ToF, ToF-SIMS and desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) equipment. EasyReg2D is able to register two images, in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format, issued from different technologies. The collaboration between the teams was hampered by the multiplicity of equipment and data formats, so the project also developed a common data format (imzML) to facilitate the exchange of experimental data and their interpretation by the different software tools. The BioMap platform for visualisation and exploration of MALDI-ToF and DESI images was adapted to parse imzML files, enabling its access to all project partners and, more globally, to a larger community of users. Considering the huge advantages brought by the imzML standard format, a specific editor (vBrowser) for imzML files and converters from proprietary formats to imzML were developed to enable the use of the imzML format by a broad scientific community. This initiative paves the way toward the development of a large panel of software tools able to process mass spectrometry imaging datasets in the future.

  2. Automatic registration of imaging mass spectrometry data to the Allen Brain Atlas transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoula, Walid M.; Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Tolner, Else; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Lelieveldt, B. P. F.; McDonnell, Liam; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2014-03-01

    Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is an emerging molecular imaging technology that provides spatially resolved information on biomolecular structures; each image pixel effectively represents a molecular mass spectrum. By combining the histological images and IMS-images, neuroanatomical structures can be distinguished based on their biomolecular features as opposed to morphological features. The combination of IMS data with spatially resolved gene expression maps of the mouse brain, as provided by the Allen Mouse Brain atlas, would enable comparative studies of spatial metabolic and gene expression patterns in life-sciences research and biomarker discovery. As such, it would be highly desirable to spatially register IMS slices to the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA). In this paper, we propose a multi-step automatic registration pipeline to register ABA histology to IMS- images. Key novelty of the method is the selection of the best reference section from the ABA, based on pre-processed histology sections. First, we extracted a hippocampus-specific geometrical feature from the given experimental histological section to initially localize it among the ABA sections. Then, feature-based linear registration is applied to the initially localized section and its two neighbors in the ABA to select the most similar reference section. A non-rigid registration yields a one-to-one mapping of the experimental IMS slice to the ABA. The pipeline was applied on 6 coronal sections from two mouse brains, showing high anatomical correspondence, demonstrating the feasibility of complementing biomolecule distributions from individual mice with the genome-wide ABA transcriptome.

  3. Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drosophila Brain Using Matrix Sublimation versus Modification with Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhu T N; Mohammadi, Amir Saeid; Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Ewing, Andrew G

    2016-02-02

    Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) is used to image brain lipids in the fruit fly, Drosophila, a common invertebrate model organism in biological and neurological studies. Three different sample preparation methods, including sublimation with two common organic matrixes for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and surface-assisted laser desorption ionization (SALDI) using gold nanoparticles, are examined for sample profiling and imaging the fly brain. Recrystallization with trifluoroacetic acid following matrix deposition in MALDI is shown to increase the incorporation of biomolecules with one matrix, resulting in more efficient ionization, but not for the other matrix. The key finding here is that the mass fragments observed for the fly brain slices with different surface modifications are significantly different. Thus, these approaches can be combined to provide complementary analysis of chemical composition, particularly for the small metabolites, diacylglycerides, phosphatidylcholines, and triacylglycerides, in the fly brain. Furthermore, imaging appears to be beneficial using modification with gold nanoparticles in place of matrix in this application showing its potential for cellular and subcellular imaging. The imaging protocol developed here with both MALDI and SALDI provides the best and most diverse lipid chemical images of the fly brain to date with LDI.

  4. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Liao, Yin-Yin

    2008-11-07

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 +/- 0.01, 0.65 +/- 0.05 and 0.98 +/- 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 +/- 0.03, 0.67 +/- 0.11 and 0.89 +/- 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  5. Mass spectrometry–based metabolomics, analysis of metabolite-protein interactions, and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Yup; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Northen, Trent R.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of biology has been greatly improved through recent developments in mass spectrometry, which is providing detailed information on protein and metabolite composition as well as protein-metabolite interactions. The high sensitivity and resolution of mass spectrometry achieved with liquid or gas chromatography allows for detection and quantification of hundreds to thousands of molecules in a single measurement. Where homogenization-based sample preparation and extraction methods result in a loss of spatial information, mass spectrometry imaging technologies provide the in situ distribution profiles of metabolites and proteins within tissues. Mass spectrometry–based analysis of metabolite abundance, protein-metabolite interactions, and spatial distribution of compounds facilitates the high-throughput screening of biochemical reactions, the reconstruction of metabolic networks, biomarker discovery, determination of tissue compositions, and functional annotation of both proteins and metabolites. PMID:20701590

  6. Laser Microdissection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled for Multimodal Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient laser ablation surface sampling, accomplished using a laser capture microdissection system, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for high spatial resolution multimodal imaging. A commercial laser capture microdissection system was placed in close proximity to a modified ion source of a mass spectrometer designed to allow for sampling of laser ablated material via a transfer tube directly into the ionization region. Rhodamine 6G dye of red sharpie ink in a laser etched pattern as well as cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section were identified and imaged from full scan mass spectra. A minimal spot diameter of 8 m was achieved using the 10X microscope cutting objective with a lateral oversampling pixel resolution of about 3.7 m. Distinguishing between features approximately 13 m apart in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section was demonstrated in a multimodal fashion including co-registered optical and mass spectral chemical images.

  7. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael; Sibeck, David G.; Porter, F. Scott; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, Thomas; Omidi, N.; Robertson, Ina; Sembay, S.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    All of the solar wind energy that powers magnetospheric processes passes through the magnetosheath and magnetopause. Global images of the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers will resolve longstanding controversy surrounding fundamental phenomena that occur at the magnetopause and provide information needed to improve operational space weather models. Recent developments showing that soft X-rays (0.15-1 keV) result from high charge state solar wind ions undergoing charge exchange recombination through collisions with exospheric neutral atoms has led to the realization that soft X-ray imaging can provide global maps of the high-density shocked solar wind within the magnetosheath and cusps, regions lying between the lower density solar wind and magnetosphere. We discuss an instrument concept called the Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM), an X-ray imager suitable for simultaneously imaging the dayside magnetosheath, the magnetopause boundary layers, and the cusps.

  8. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Sibeck, David G.; Porter, F. Scott; Burch, J.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, Thomas; Kuntz, Kip; Omidi, N.; Read, A.; Robertson, Ina; Sembay, S.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    All of the solar wind energy that powers magnetospheric processes passes through the magnetosheath and magnetopause. Global images of the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers will resolve longstanding controversies surrounding fundamental phenomena that occur at the magnetopause and provide information needed to improve operational space weather models. Recent developments showing that soft X-rays (0.15-1 keV) result from high charge state solar wind ions undergoing charge exchange recombination through collisions with exospheric neutral atoms has led to the realization that soft X-ray imaging can provide global maps of the high-density shocked solar wind within the magnetosheath and cusps, regions lying between the lower density solar wind and magnetosphere. We discuss an instrument concept called the Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM), an X-ray imager suitable for simultaneously imaging the dayside magnetosheath, the magnetopause boundary layers, and the cusps.

  9. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  10. Sublimation as a method of matrix application for mass spectrometric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Joseph A; Barkley, Robert M; Murphy, Robert C

    2007-09-01

    Common organic matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) matrices, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, were found to undergo sublimation without decomposition under conditions of reduced pressure and elevated temperature. This solid to vapor-phase transition was exploited to apply MALDI matrix onto tissue samples over a broad surface in a solvent-free application for mass spectrometric imaging. Sublimation of matrix produced an even layer of small crystals across the sample plate. The deposition was readily controlled with time, temperature, and pressure settings and was highly reproducible from one sample to the next. Mass spectrometric images acquired from phospholipid standards robotically spotted onto a MALDI plate yielded a more intense, even signal with fewer sodium adducts when matrix was applied by sublimation relative to samples where matrix was deposited by an electrospray technique. MALDI matrix could be readily applied to tissue sections on glass slides and stainless steel MALDI plate inserts as long as good thermal contact was made with the condenser of the sublimation device. Sections of mouse brain were coated with matrix applied by sublimation and were imaged using a Q-q-TOF mass spectrometer to yield mass spectral images of very high quality. Image quality is likely enhanced by several features of this technique including the microcrystalline morphology of the deposited matrix, increased purity of deposited matrix, and evenness of deposition. This inexpensive method was reproducible and eliminated the potential for spreading of analytes arising from solvent deposition during matrix application.

  11. MALDI-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry imaging for lipidomic analysis in kidney under cisplatin chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Lázaro, Alberto; Humanes, Blanca; Aboulmagd, Sarah; Tejedor, Alberto; Linscheid, Michael W; Gómez-Gómez, M Milagros

    2017-03-01

    Imaging techniques for mapping molecular distributions in tissue sections can reveal valuable information on biomolecules involved in relevant biochemical processes. A method has been developed for comprehensive, reproducible and sensitive lipid imaging by matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry in kidney sections, showing the benefits of exact mass determination. Matrix deposition parameters for positive and negative lipid ion imaging using different matrices such as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) or α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) have been optimized for the broadest detection and identification of renal lipids. The combination of 9-AA and DHB was found as the most suitable for negative and positive ion mode lipid imaging, respectively. Lipid mapping and related identification strategies and limitations have also been discussed. Production of 100-µm resolution images was proved to be enough for discerning lipid distribution in kidney substructures. Imaging reproducibility was assessed on parallel kidney slices with time. This method has been applied to the lipidomics analysis on kidney sections from rats treated with the antitumor drug cisplatin and compared to healthy control rats. Up to 66 different renal lipids out of 450 extracted ion images (mainly phospholipid species, in addition to sulfatides and cholesterol sulfate) have been found and identified showing a modified distribution pattern due to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. These lipid species reflect either topographic, signaling or structural processes in damaged kidney and could potentially be used for nephrotoxicity assessment or as therapeutic targets. This is, to our knowledge, the first imaging lipidomics study for nephrotoxicity assessment of cisplatin chemotherapy.

  12. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue-specific metabolites, including free flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides and saponins, were successfully detected and visualized in images, showing their distributions at the cellular level. The analytical power of the technique was tested in the imaging of two isobaric licorice saponins with a mass difference of only 0.02 Da. With a mass resolving power of 140 000 and a bin width of 5 ppm in the image processing, the two compounds were well resolved in full-scan mode, and appeared with different distributions in the tissue sections. The identities of the compounds and their distributions were validated in a subsequent MS/MS imaging experiment, thereby confirming their identities and excluding possible analyte interference. The use of high spatial resolution, high mass resolution and tandem mass spectrometry in imaging experiments provides significant information about the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues.

  13. Image-based mass-spring model of mitral valve closure for surgical planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Peter E.; Perrin, Douglas P.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Howe, Robert D.

    2008-03-01

    Surgical repair of the mitral valve is preferred in most cases over valve replacement, but replacement is often performed instead due to the technical difficulty of repair. A surgical planning system based on patient-specific medical images that allows surgeons to simulate and compare potential repair strategies could greatly improve surgical outcomes. In such a surgical simulator, the mathematical model of mechanics used to close the valve must be able to compute the closed state quickly and to handle the complex boundary conditions imposed by the chords that tether the valve leaflets. We have developed a system for generating a triangulated mesh of the valve surface from volumetric image data of the opened valve. We then compute the closed position of the mesh using a mass-spring model of dynamics. The triangulated mesh is produced by fitting an isosurface to the volumetric image data, and boundary conditions, including the valve annulus and chord endpoints, are identified in the image data using a graphical user interface. In the mass-spring model, triangle sides are treated as linear springs, and sides shared by two triangles are treated as bending springs. Chords are treated as nonlinear springs, and self-collisions are detected and resolved. Equations of motion are solved using implicit numerical integration. Accuracy was assessed by comparison of model results with an image of the same valve taken in the closed state. The model exhibited rapid valve closure and was able to reproduce important features of the closed valve.

  14. Role of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in discrimination between the intracranial cystic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farid Yousef

    2014-09-01

    Results and conclusions: Patients in this study were categorized into three main groups; first group is brain abscesses (36 cases, 91.6% of them showed restricted diffusion, second group is malignant cystic or necrotic brain tumors, 28 cases of high grade necrotic glioma, 60.7% of them are free diffusion, and third group is benign cystic masses, arachnoid and epidermiod cysts (11 cases; all arachnoid cysts are free diffusion. From these results diffusion-weighted imaging is playing an important role in discrimination of cystic intracranial masses.

  15. SOI pixel circuits with synchronized TMC for time-of-flight stigmatic imaging mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Kaori; Fujita, Youichi; Arai, Yasuo; Hazama, Hisanao

    2015-01-01

    We propose SOI pixel circuits with a synchronized time memory cell (TMC) for time-of-flight stigmatic imaging mass spectrometry. The circuits simultaneously detect the position and the fine/coarse flight time of an ion for the MALDI-ToF mass spectrometer. We discuss the circuit design and present the simulation results of a prototype detector comprised of a 32 x 32 pixel array in which each pixel pitch is 40 um and the time resolution is a minimum of 1 ns. The results of transient analysis demonstrate the fully correct synchronous operation at a 100-MHz clock frequency and simultaneous 32-word SRAM writing.

  16. Internal Carotid Artery Ectasia: The Value of Imaging Studies Prior to Biopsy of a Retropharyngeal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of retropharyngeal tissue mass often raises the suspicion of malignancy, especially in elderly patients. This prompts urgent biopsy to investigate tissue histology. We discuss a case where this is contraindicated as the retropharyngeal mass was illustrated by CT scanning and confirmed with MRI to be a tortuous coursing internal carotid artery. An awareness of this unusual anatomical variation and a careful interpretation of imaging studies both at the stage of differential diagnosis and pre-operative screening are essential to avoid damage to important structures, causing unnecessary complications.

  17. Imaging ion and molecular transport at subcellular resolution by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Morrison, George H.

    1995-05-01

    The transport of K+, Na+, and Ca2+ were imaged in individual cells with a Cameca IMS-3f ion microscope. Strict cryogenic frozen freeze-dry sample preparations were employed. Ion redistribution artifacts in conventional chemical preparations are discussed. Cryogenically prepared freeze-fractured freeze-dried cultured cells allowed the three-dimensional ion microscopic imaging of elements. As smaller structures in calcium images can be resolved with the 0.5 [mu]m spatial resolution, correlative techniques are needed to confirm their identity. The potentials of reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy are discussed for microfeature recognition in freeze-fractured freeze-dried cells. The feasibility of using frozen freeze-dried cells for imaging molecular transport at subcellular resolution was tested. Ion microscopy successfully imaged the transport of the isotopically tagged (13C, 15N) amino acid, -arginine. The labeled amino acid was imaged at mass 28 with a Cs+ primary ion beam as the 28(13C15N)- species. After a 4 h exposure of LLC-PK1 kidney cells to 4 mM labeled arginine, the amino acid was localized throughout the cell with a preferential incorporation into the nucleus and nucleolus. An example is also shown of the ion microscopic imaging of sodium borocaptate, an experimental therapeutic drug for brain tumors, in cryogenically prepared frozen freeze-dried Swiss 3T3 cells.

  18. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry: statistical data analysis and current computational challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrov Theodore

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry, also called MALDI-imaging, is a label-free bioanalytical technique used for spatially-resolved chemical analysis of a sample. Usually, MALDI-imaging is exploited for analysis of a specially prepared tissue section thaw mounted onto glass slide. A tremendous development of the MALDI-imaging technique has been observed during the last decade. Currently, it is one of the most promising innovative measurement techniques in biochemistry and a powerful and versatile tool for spatially-resolved chemical analysis of diverse sample types ranging from biological and plant tissues to bio and polymer thin films. In this paper, we outline computational methods for analyzing MALDI-imaging data with the emphasis on multivariate statistical methods, discuss their pros and cons, and give recommendations on their application. The methods of unsupervised data mining as well as supervised classification methods for biomarker discovery are elucidated. We also present a high-throughput computational pipeline for interpretation of MALDI-imaging data using spatial segmentation. Finally, we discuss current challenges associated with the statistical analysis of MALDI-imaging data.

  19. High mass and spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging of Nicolas Poussin painting cross section by cluster TOF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noun, M; Van Elslande, E; Touboul, D; Glanville, H; Bucklow, S; Walter, P; Brunelle, A

    2016-12-01

    The painting Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, which hangs in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK, is possibly one of the last figure painting executed by Nicolas Poussin at the very end of his life and is usually dated to the early 1660s. In this perspective special feature, Philippe Walter, Alain Brunelle and colleagues give new insights on the artist's working methods by a careful stateof-the-art imaging ToF-SIMS study of one sample taken on the edge of the painting. This approach allowed for the identification of the pigments used in the painting, their nature and components and those of the ground and preparatory layers, with the identification of the binder(s) and possible other additions of organic materials such as glue. This study paves the way to a wider use of ToF-SIMS for the analysis of ancient cultural heritage artefacts. Dr. Walter is the Director of the Molecular and Structural Archeology Laboratory (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France). Dr. Brunelle is Head of the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory at the Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France). Their long standing collaboration has led to several seminal publications on the analysis of ancient artefacts by mass spectrometry.

  20. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the body image satisfaction - dissa tisfaction among adolescent age group , to correlate the components of body image with body mass index and the influence of parents , peers and mass media on body image .

  1. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging with Picosecond Infrared Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization (PIR-LAESI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Talbot, Francis; Tata, Alessandra; Ermini, Leonardo; Franjic, Kresimir; Ventura, Manuela; Zheng, Jinzi; Ginsberg, Howard; Post, Martin; Ifa, Demian R; Jaffray, David; Miller, R J Dwayne; Zarrine-Afsar, Arash

    2015-12-15

    A picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) is capable of cutting through biological tissues in the absence of significant thermal damage. As such, PIRL is a standalone surgical scalpel with the added bonus of minimal postoperative scar tissue formation. In this work, a tandem of PIRL ablation with electrospray ionization (PIR-LAESI) mass spectrometry is demonstrated and characterized for tissue molecular imaging, with a limit of detection in the range of 100 nM for reserpine or better than 5 nM for verapamil in aqueous solution. We characterized PIRL crater size using agar films containing Rhodamine. PIR-LAESI offers a 20-30 μm vertical resolution (∼3 μm removal per pulse) and a lateral resolution of ∼100 μm. We were able to detect 25 fmol of Rhodamine in agar ablation experiments. PIR-LAESI was used to map the distribution of endogenous methoxykaempferol glucoronide in zebra plant (Aphelandra squarrosa) leaves producing a localization map that is corroborated by the literature. PIR-LAESI was further used to image the distribution inside mouse kidneys of gadoteridol, an exogenous magnetic resonance contrast agent intravenously injected. Parallel mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) were performed to corroborate PIR-LAESI images of the exogenous agent. We further show that PIR-LAESI is capable of desorption ionization of proteins as well as phospholipids. This comparative study illustrates that PIR-LAESI is an ion source for ambient mass spectrometry applications. As such, a future PIRL scalpel combined with secondary ionization such as ESI and mass spectrometry has the potential to provide molecular feedback to guide PIRL surgery.

  2. Temporal Subtraction of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Images for Improved Mass Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    number of low-dose cone-beam projection images", Medical Physics 30 (3), 365 (2003). 9 E.A. Sickles, W.N. Weber, H.B. Galvin, S.H. Ominsky, and R.A...temporal pairs of mammograms for interval change analysis--local affine transformation for improved localization", Medical Physics 28 (6), 1070 (2001...aided classification of malignant and benign breast masses", Medical Physics 28 (11), 2309 (2001). 25 K. Marias, C. Behrenbruch, S. Parbhoo, A

  3. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Tissues, Cells, and Microbial Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Lara J.; Anderton, Christopher R.

    2016-03-18

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques are increasingly being utilized within many biological fields, including medicine, pathology, microbial ecology, and more. Of the MSI methods available, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) offers the highest lateral resolution of any technique. Moreover, SIMS versatility in the number of different operating modes and types of mass spectrometers available has made it an increasing popular method for bio-related measurements. Here, we discuss SIMS ability to image tissues, single cells, and microbes with a particular emphasis on the types chemical and spatial information that can be ascertained by the different types of SIMS instruments and methods. The recently developed Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) SIMS located at PNNL is capable of generating molecular maps of tissues with an unprecedented mass resolving power and mass accuracy, with respect to SIMS measurements. ToF-SIMS can generate chemical maps, where detection of small molecules and fragments can be acquired with an order of magnitude better lateral resolution than the FTICR-SIMS. Furthermore, many of commercially available ToF-SIMS instruments are capable of depth profiling measurements, offering the ability to attain three-dimensional information of one’s sample. The NanoSIMS instrument offers the highest lateral resolution of any MSI method available. In practice, NanoSIMS regularly achieves sub-100 nm resolution of atomic and diatomic secondary ions within biological samples. The strengths of the different SIMS methods are more and more being leveraged in both multimodal-imaging endeavors that use complementary MSI techniques as well with optical, fluorescence, and force microscopy methods.

  4. Identification of Biomarkers of Necrosis in Xenografts Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Garate, Jone; Lage, Sergio; Terés, Silvia; Higuera, Mónica; Bestard-Escalas, Joan; López, Daniel H.; Guardiola-Serrano, Francisca; Escribá, Pablo V.; Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Fernández, José A.

    2016-02-01

    Xenografts are commonly used to test the effect of new drugs on human cancer. However, because of their heterogeneity, analysis of the results is often controversial. Part of the problem originates in the existence of tumor cells at different metabolic stages: from metastatic to necrotic cells, as it happens in real tumors. Imaging mass spectrometry is an excellent solution for the analysis of the results as it yields detailed information not only on the composition of the tissue but also on the distribution of the biomolecules within the tissue. Here, we use imaging mass spectrometry to determine the distribution of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and their plasmanyl- and plasmenylether derivatives (PC-P/O and PE-P/O) in xenografts of five different tumor cell lines: A-549, NCI-H1975, BX-PC3, HT29, and U-87 MG. The results demonstrate that the necrotic areas showed a higher abundance of Na+ adducts and of PC-P/O species, whereas a large abundance of PE-P/O species was found in all the xenografts. Thus, the PC/PC-ether and Na+/K+ ratios may highlight the necrotic areas while an increase on the number of PE-ether species may be pointing to the existence of viable tumor tissues. Furthermore, the existence of important changes in the concentration of Na+ and K+ adducts between different tissues has to be taken into account while interpreting the imaging mass spectrometry results.

  5. Imaging of Proteins in Tissue Samples Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Chou, Pi-Tai; Zare, Richard N

    2015-11-17

    Chemical maps of tissue samples provide important information on biological processes therein. Recently, advances in tissue imaging have been achieved using ambient ionization techniques, such as desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), but such techniques have been almost exclusively confined to the mapping of lipids and metabolites. We report here the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) that allows us to image proteins in tissue samples in a label-free manner at atmospheric pressure with only minimum sample preparation. Multiply charged proteins with masses up to 15 kDa were successfully detected by nanoDESI using an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. In an adult mice brain section, expression of proteins including ubiquitin, β-thymosin, myelin basic protein, and hemoglobin were spatially mapped and characterized. We also determined the location of methylation on myelin basic protein. This imaging modality was further implemented to MYC-induced lymphomas. We observed an array of truncated proteins in the region where normal thymus cells were infiltrated by tumor cells, in contrast to healthy tissue.

  6. Hybrid Imaging Labels: Providing the Link Between Mass Spectrometry-Based Molecular Pathology and Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Tessa; van der Wal, Steffen; van Malderen, Stijn J.M.; Müller, Larissa; Kuil, Joeri; van Unen, Vincent; Peters, Ruud J.B.; van Bemmel, Margaretha E.M.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Velders, Aldrik H.; Koning, Frits; Vanhaeke, Frank; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Development of theranostic concepts that include inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) imaging can be hindered by the lack of a direct comparison to more standardly used methods for in vitro and in vivo evaluation; e.g. fluorescence or nuclear medicine. In this study a bimodal (or rather, hybrid) tracer that contains both a fluorescent dye and a chelate was used to evaluate the existence of a direct link between mass spectrometry (MS) and in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging findings using fluorescence and radioisotopes. At the same time, the hybrid label was used to determine whether the use of a single isotope label would allow for MS-based diagnostics. Methods: A hybrid label that contained both a DTPA chelate (that was coordinated with either 165Ho or 111In) and a Cy5 fluorescent dye was coupled to the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) targeting peptide Ac-TZ14011 (hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011). This receptor targeting tracer was used to 1) validate the efficacy of (165Ho-based) mass-cytometry in determining the receptor affinity via comparison with fluorescence-based flow cytometry (Cy5), 2) evaluate the microscopic binding pattern of the tracer in tumor cells using both fluorescence confocal imaging (Cy5) and LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho), 3) compare in vivo biodistribution patterns obtained with ICP-MS (165Ho) and radiodetection (111In) after intravenous administration of hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011 in tumor-bearing mice. Finally, LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho) was linked to fluorescence-based analysis of excised tissue samples (Cy5). Results: Analysis with both mass-cytometry and flow cytometry revealed a similar receptor affinity, respectively 352 ± 141 nM and 245 ± 65 nM (p = 0.08), but with a much lower detection sensitivity for the first modality. In vitro LA-ICP-MS imaging (165Ho) enabled clear discrimination between CXCR4 positive and negative cells, but fluorescence microscopy was required to determine the

  7. MR imaging of benign soft-tissue masses of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauger, J; Palmer, J; Monill, J M; Franquet, T; Bagué, S; Rosón, N

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 75% of all biopsy-proved soft-tissue masses of the foot and ankle are benign tumors or nontumoral lesions representing a variety of histologic types. In some cases, it may be difficult if not impossible to identify the lesion; however, careful analysis of the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings and correlation of these findings with the patient's clinical history can usually suggest a more specific diagnosis, particularly in the most common benign tumors of the foot (e.g., fibromatosis, cavernous hemangioma) and in nonneoplastic soft-tissue lesions such as Morton neuroma, ganglion cyst, and plantar fasciitis. In addition, a specific diagnosis can almost always be made in patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) or giant cell tumor (GCT) of the tendon sheath. The MR imaging appearance of PVNS consists of multiple synovial lesions with low or intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2-weighted and gradient-echo images. GCTs of the tendon sheath usually have areas of low signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images due to the paramagnetic effect of hemosiderin. Awareness and understanding of the underlying pathologic findings in lesions of the foot and ankle aid in MR imaging interpretation.

  8. On the autonomous detection of coronal mass ejections in heliospheric imager data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, S. J.; Howard, T. A.; Hampson, M. M.; Thompson, R. N.; Burns, C. E.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the development of an Automatic Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Detection tool (AICMED) for the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI). CMEs observed with heliospheric imagers are much more difficult to detect than those observed by coronagraphs as they have a lower contrast compared with the background light, have a larger range of intensity variation and are easily confused with other transient activity. CMEs appear in SMEI images as very faint often-fragmented arcs amongst a much brighter and often variable background. AICMED operates along the same lines as Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus), using the Hough Transform on elongation-time J-maps to extract straight lines from the data set. We compare AICMED results with manually measured CMEs on almost three years of data from early in SMEI operations. AICMED identified 83 verifiable events. Of these 46 could be matched with manually identified events, the majority of the non-detections can be explained. The remaining 37 AICMED events were newly discovered CMEs. The proportion of false identification was high, at 71% of the autonomously detected events. We find that AICMED is very effective as a region of interest highlighter, and is a promising first step in autonomous heliospheric imager CME detection, but the SMEI data are too noisy for the tool to be completely automated.

  9. Interpolation of longitudinal shape and image data via optimal mass transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhu, Liang-Jia; Bouix, Sylvain; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal analysis of medical imaging data has become central to the study of many disorders. Unfortunately, various constraints (study design, patient availability, technological limitations) restrict the acquisition of data to only a few time points, limiting the study of continuous disease/treatment progression. Having the ability to produce a sensible time interpolation of the data can lead to improved analysis, such as intuitive visualizations of anatomical changes, or the creation of more samples to improve statistical analysis. In this work, we model interpolation of medical image data, in particular shape data, using the theory of optimal mass transport (OMT), which can construct a continuous transition from two time points while preserving "mass" (e.g., image intensity, shape volume) during the transition. The theory even allows a short extrapolation in time and may help predict short-term treatment impact or disease progression on anatomical structure. We apply the proposed method to the hippocampus-amygdala complex in schizophrenia, the heart in atrial fibrillation, and full head MR images in traumatic brain injury.

  10. Modeling of errors in Nakagami imaging: illustration on breast mass characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrue, Aymeric; Noble, J Alison

    2014-05-01

    Nakagami imaging is an attractive tissue characterization method, as the parameter estimated at each location is related to properties of the tissues. The application to clinical ultrasound images is problematic, as the estimation of the parameters is disturbed by the presence of complex structures. We propose to consider separately the different aspects potentially affecting the value of the Nakagami parameters and quantify their effects on the estimation. This framework is applied to the classification of breast masses. Quantitative parameters are computed on two groups of ultrasound images of benign and malignant tumors. A statistical analysis of the result indicated that the previously observed difference between average values of the Nakagami parameters is explained mostly by estimation errors. In the future, new methods for reliable computation of Nakagami parameters need to be developed, and factors of error should be considered in studies using Nakagami parameters.

  11. Disparate appearance of intrascrotal masses during Tc-99m-pertechnetate imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocobo, G.C.; Turner, J.W.; Spencer, R.P.

    1986-10-01

    Two cases are presented of males with pain and swelling in the left testicular area. In the first, the left side had less perfusion than the right. Static images revealed a large photopenic area in the left testicular sac, with a medial area of hyperactivity. At surgery, there was a left epididymitis (corresponding to the small area of hyperactivity on the image) and a large collection of fluid probably secondary to the inflammation. The distention likely produced a tamponade effect with reduced perfusion. In the second case, there was slightly greater perfusion to the left. There was a semilunar area of activity equal to that of the background, with a surrounding band of intensely increased uptake. The right side showed the same findings on a smaller scale. There was an abscess involving each testis. Intrascrotal masses may distort the expected findings on testicular-scrotal imaging.

  12. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzolka, Karin; Walch, Axel

    2014-11-01

    The molecular investigation of archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples provides the chance to obtain molecular patterns as indicatives for treatment and clinical end points. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging is capable of localizing molecules like proteins and peptides in tissue sections and became a favorite platform for the targeted and non-targeted approaches, especially in clinical investigations for biomarker research. In FFPE tissues the recovery of proteomic information is constrained by fixation-induced cross-links of proteins. The promising new insights obtained from FFPE in combination with the comprehensive patients' data caused much progress in the optimization of MS imaging protocols to investigate FFPE samples. This review presents the past and current research in MALDI MS imaging of FFPE tissues, demonstrating the improvement of analyses, their actual limitations, but also the promising future perspectives for histopathological and tissue-based research.

  13. MRI of soft-tissue masses; Clinical application of T sub 2 sup * -weighted gradient-field-echo images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Hajime; Murakami, Koji; Ichikawa, Tomoaki (Numazu City Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-10-01

    Twenty-four patients with soft-tissue masses underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to conventional T{sub 1}-weighted spin-echo images and T{sub 2}-weighted spin-echo (T{sub 2} SE) images, T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted gradient-field-echo (T{sub 2}{sup *}FE) images were obtained. T{sub 2}{sup *}FE images were similar to T{sub 2} SE images with respect to the internal architecture of the masses. T{sub 2}{sup *}FE images were superior to T{sub 2} SE images in delineating the masses and adjacent fat tissues. Shorter (about one-third or two-thirds) scanning time was required to obtain T{sub 2}{sup *}FE images than to obtain T{sub 2} SE images. It is concluded that T{sub 2}{sup *}FE images are advantageous to demonstrate soft-tissue masses especially for ones within fat tissue. (author).

  14. Displaced dual-mode imaging with desorption electrospray ionization for simultaneous mass spectrometry imaging in both polarities and with several scan modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Wellner, Niels; Hansen, Harald S

    2013-01-01

    Displaced dual-mode imaging (DDI) is introduced as a method for simultaneous imaging in positive and negative-ion mode on the same sample with desorption electrospray ionization imaging, as well as a method for simultaneous imaging in full-scan and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) mode. DDI...... is performed by using a smaller row distance in the y-direction than the desired image resolution and recording for example every second row in positive-ion mode and the other half of the rows in negative-ion mode, thus resulting in two separate images. This causes some degree of oversampling, which is thus...... utilized to obtain complementary mass spectrometric of the sample. Imaging with both polarities is exemplified on an imprint of a Hypericum perforatum leaf containing secondary metabolites which ionize in both polarites and a mouse kidney containing phospholipids which ionize in positive or negative mode...

  15. Mass balance of Mars' residual south polar cap from CTX images and other data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. C.; Calvin, W.; Cantor, B.; Haberle, R.; James, P. B.; Lee, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    Erosion of pits in the residual south polar cap (RSPC) of Mars concurrent with deposition and fluctuating cap boundaries raises questions about the mass balance and long term stability of the cap. Determining a mass balance by measurement of a net gain or loss of atmospheric CO2 by direct pressure measurements (Haberle, R.M. et al. [2014]. Secular climate change on Mars: An update using one Mars year of MSL pressure data. American Geophysical Union (Fall). Abstract 3947), although perhaps the most direct method, has so far given ambiguous results. Estimating volume changes from imaging data faces challenges, and has previously been attempted only in isolated areas of the cap. In this study we use 6 m/pixel Context Imager (CTX) data from Mars year 31 to map all the morphologic units of the RSPC, expand the measurement record of pit erosion rates, and use high resolution images to place limits on vertical changes in the surface of the residual cap. We find the mass balance in Mars years 9-31 to be -6 to +4 km3/♂y, or roughly -0.039% to +0.026% of the mean atmospheric CO2 mass/♂y. The indeterminate sign results chiefly from uncertainty in the amounts of deposition or erosion on the upper surfaces of deposits (as opposed to scarp retreat). Erosion and net deposition in this period appear to be controlled by summertime planetary scale dust events, the largest occurring in MY 9, another, smaller one in MY 28. The rates of erosion and the deposition observed since MY 9 appear to be consistent with the types of deposits and erosional behavior found in most of the residual cap. However, small areas (deposits may require extended periods (>100 ♂y) of depositional and/or erosional conditions different from those occurring in the period since MY 9, although these environmental differences could be subtle.

  16. Mapping of Neuropeptides in the Crustacean Stomatogastric Nervous System by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Hui, Limei; Kellersberger, Katherine; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) with great emphasis on comprehensive analysis and mapping distribution of its diverse neuropeptide complement. Previously, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been applied to this endeavor, yet with identification accuracy and throughput compromised. Therefore, molecular imaging methods are pursued to unequivocally determine the identity and location of the neuropeptides at a high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a novel, multi-faceted mass spectrometric strategy combining profiling and imaging techniques to characterize and map neuropeptides from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus STNS at the network level. In total, 55 neuropeptides from 10 families were identified from the major ganglia in the C. sapidus STNS for the first time, including the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), the paired commissural ganglia (CoG), the esophageal ganglion (OG), and the connecting nerve stomatogastric nerve ( stn) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and the MS/MS capability of this technique. In addition, the locations of multiple neuropeptides were documented at a spatial resolution of 25 μm in the STG and upstream nerve using MALDI-TOF/TOF and high-mass-resolution and high-mass-accuracy MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) instrument. Furthermore, distributions of neuropeptides in the whole C. sapidus STNS were examined by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Different isoforms from the same family were simultaneously and unambiguously mapped, facilitating the functional exploration of neuropeptides present in the crustacean STNS and exemplifying the revolutionary role of this novel platform in neuronal network studies.

  17. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  18. Multislice CT angiography in aortic stent grafting: Relationship between image noise and body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zhonghua [Discipline of Medical Imaging, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)]. E-mail: z.sun@curtin.edu.au

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between image noise and body mass index (BMI) in multislice CT angiography (MSCT) for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treated with endovascular stent grafts. Materials and methods: Seventeen patients who underwent MSCT following endovascular repair of AAA were included in the study. Image noise (standard deviation of the CT attenuation: S.D.) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) were plotted against BMI to demonstrate the correlation using a linear regression method. Image quality of 3D reconstructions was correlated to the SNR and BMI. Results: The r-value of linear regression between S.D. and BMI was 0.578 (p < 0.05), 0.835 and 0.802 (p < 0.001), respectively, at the level of renal artery, aortic aneurysm and common iliac artery. The r-value of linear regression between SNR and BMI was 0.332, 0.516 and 0.552 (p < 0.05), respectively, at above three levels. Image quality of 3D reconstructions was compromised in five patients and diagnosis was affected in two patients with BMI more than 30. Conclusion: A significant correlation was observed between image noise and BMI in MSCT angiography of endovascular repair of AAA. Our findings are valuable for optimisation of MSCT angiography scanning protocols and reduction of radiation dose in MSCT examinations.

  19. Computer-aided detection of mammographic masses based on content-based image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Renchao; Meng, Bo; Song, Enmin; Xu, Xiangyang; Jiang, Luan

    2007-03-01

    A method for computer-aided detection (CAD) of mammographic masses is proposed and a prototype CAD system is presented. The method is based on content-based image retrieval (CBIR). A mammogram database containing 2000 mammographic regions is built in our prototype CBIR-CAD system. Every region of interested (ROI) in the database has known pathology. Specifically, there are 583 ROIs depicting biopsy-proven masses, and the rest 1417 ROIs are normal. Whenever a suspicious ROI is detected in a mammogram by a radiologist, it can be submitted as a query to this CBIRCAD system. As the query results, a series of similar ROI images together with their known pathology knowledge will be retrieved from the database and displayed in the screen in descending order of their similarities to the query ROI to help the radiologist to make the diagnosis decision. Furthermore, our CBIR-CAD system will output a decision index (DI) to quantitatively indicate the probability that the query ROI contains a mass. The DI is calculated by the query matches. In the querying process, 24 features are extracted from each ROI to form a 24-dimensional vector. Euclidean distance in the 24-dimensional feature vector space is applied to measure the similarities between ROIs. The prototype CBIR-CAD system is evaluated based on the leave-one-out sampling scheme. The experiment results showed that the system can achieve a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area index A Z =0.84 for detection of mammographic masses, which is better than the best results achieved by the other known mass CAD systems.

  20. The DiskMass Survey. X. Radio synthesis imaging of spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Martinsson, Thomas P K; Bershady, Matthew A; Westfall, Kyle B; Andersen, David R; Swaters, Rob A

    2016-01-01

    We present results from 21 cm radio synthesis imaging of 28 spiral galaxies from the DiskMass Survey obtained with the VLA, WSRT, and GMRT facilities. We detail the observations and data reduction procedures and present a brief analysis of the radio data. We construct 21 cm continuum images, global HI emission-line profiles, column-density maps, velocity fields, and position-velocity diagrams. From these we determine star formation rates (SFRs), HI line widths, total HI masses, rotation curves, and azimuthally-averaged radial HI column-density profiles. All galaxies have an HI disk that extends beyond the readily observable stellar disk, with an average ratio and scatter of R_{HI}/R_{25}=1.35+/-0.22, and a majority of the galaxies appear to have a warped HI disk. A tight correlation exists between total HI mass and HI diameter, with the largest disks having a slightly lower average column density. Galaxies with relatively large HI disks tend to exhibit an enhanced stellar velocity dispersion at larger radii, ...

  1. Quantitative evaluation of small breast masses using a compartment model analysis on dynamic MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Osamu; Morishita, Shoji; Kido, Taeko; Kitajima, Mika; Okamura, Kenji; Fukuda, Seiji [Kumamoto Rosai Hospital, Yatsushiro (Japan); Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1998-07-01

    To differentiate between malignant and benign breast masses using a compartmental analysis, 55 patients with breast masses (fibroadenoma, n=22; invasive ductal carcinoma, n=29; noninvasive ductal carcinoma, n=8) underwent Gd-DTPA enhanced dynamic MR imaging. Dynamic MR images obtained using two-dimensional fat-saturated fast multiplanar corrupted gradient echo technique over 10 minutes following bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. The triexponential concentration curve of Gd-DTPA was fitted to a theoretical model based on compartmental analysis. Using this method, the transfer constant (or permeability surface product per unit volume of component k) and f{sub 3}/f{sub 1}=f were measured, where f{sub 1} represents tumor vessel volume and f{sub 3} represents extracellular volume. The k value was significantly greater (p<0.01) for malignant tumors, and the k value seen in cases of noninvasive ductal carcinoma was less than that for invasive ductal carcinoma. The f value was significantly smaller (p<0.01) for malignant tumors, whereas the f value for noninvasive ductal carcinoma was not significantly different from that for invasive ductal carcinoma. We believe that this type of compartmental analysis may be of value for the evaluation of breast masses. (author)

  2. Imaging and Rapid-Scanning Ion Mass Spectrometer (IRM) for the CASSIOPE e-POP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew; White, Andrew; Enno, Greg; Amerl, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The imaging and rapid-scanning ion mass spectrometer (IRM) is part of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) instrument suite on the Canadian CASSIOPE small satellite. Designed to measure the composition and detailed velocity distributions of ions in the ˜1-100 eV/q range on a non-spinning spacecraft, the IRM sensor consists of a planar entrance aperture, a pair of electrostatic deflectors, a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer, and a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector. The TOF gate measures the transit time of each detected ion inside the sensor. The hemispherical analyzer disperses incident ions by their energy-per-charge and azimuth in the aperture plane onto the detector. The two electrostatic deflectors may be optionally programmed to step through a sequence of deflector voltages, to deflect ions of different incident elevation out of the aperture plane and energy-per-charge into the sensor aperture for sampling. The position and time of arrival of each detected ion at the detector are measured, to produce an image of 2-dimensional (2D), mass-resolved ion velocity distribution up to 100 times per second, or to construct a composite 3D velocity distribution by combining successive images in a deflector voltage sequence. The measured distributions are then used to investigate ion composition, density, drift velocity and temperature in polar ion outflows and related acceleration and transport processes in the topside ionosphere.

  3. A Simple Method for Improving the Spatial Resolution in Infrared Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieta, Juha-Pekka; Vaikkinen, Anu; Auno, Samuli; Räikkönen, Heikki; Haapala, Markus; Scotti, Gianmario; Kopra, Jaakko; Piepponen, Petteri; Kauppila, Tiina J.

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry imaging of tissues, the size of structures that can be distinguished is determined by the spatial resolution of the imaging technique. Here, the spatial resolution of IR laser ablation is markedly improved by increasing the distance between the laser and the focusing lens. As the distance between the laser and the lens is increased from 1 to 18 m, the ablation spot size decreases from 440 to 44 μm. This way, only the collimated center of the divergent laser beam is directed on the focusing lens, which results in better focusing of the beam. Part of the laser energy is lost at longer distance, but this is compensated by focusing of the radiation to a smaller area on the sample surface. The long distance can also be achieved by a set of mirrors, between which the radiation travels before it is directed to the focusing lens and the sample. This method for improving the spatial resolution can be utilized in mass spectrometry imaging of tissues by techniques that utilize IR laser ablation, such as laser ablation electrospray ionization, laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization, and matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization.

  4. High-Contrast Imaging for Intermediate-Mass Giants with Long-Term Radial Velocity Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Tsuguru; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Uyama, Taichi; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Abe, Lyu; Ando, Hiroyasu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph C; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S; Hełminiak, Krzysztof G; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ida, Shigeru; Ishii, Miki; Itoh, Yoichi; Iye, Masanori; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Janson, Markus; Kambe, Eiji; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi; McElwain, Michael W; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Takeda, Yoichi; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-01-01

    A radial velocity (RV) survey for intermediate-mass giants has been operated for over a decade at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO). The OAO survey has revealed that some giants show long-term linear RV accelerations (RV trends), indicating the presence of outer companions. Direct imaging observations can help clarify what objects generate these RV trends. We present the results of high-contrast imaging observations or six intermediate-mass giants with long-term RV trends using the Subaru Telescope and HiCIAO camera. We detected co-moving companions to $\\gamma$ Hya B ($0.61^{+0.12}_{-0.14} M_\\odot$), HD 5608 B ($0.10 \\pm 0.01 M_\\odot$), and HD 109272 B ($0.28 \\pm 0.06 M_\\odot$). For the remaining targets($\\iota$ Dra, 18 Del, and HD 14067) we exclude companions more massive than 30-60 $M_\\mathrm{Jup}$ at projected separations of 1arcsec-7arcsec. We examine whether these directly imaged companions or unidentified long-period companions can account for the RV trends observed around the six giants. We find ...

  5. High-contrast Imaging of Intermediate-mass Giants with Long-term Radial Velocity Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Tsuguru; Sato, Bun'ei; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Uyama, Taichi; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Abe, Lyu; Ando, Hiroyasu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Hełminiak, Krzysztof G.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ida, Shigeru; Ishii, Miki; Itoh, Yoichi; Iye, Masanori; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Janson, Markus; Kambe, Eiji; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi; McElwain, Michael W.; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Takeda, Yoichi; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-07-01

    A radial velocity (RV) survey for intermediate-mass giants has been in operation for over a decade at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO). The OAO survey has revealed that some giants show long-term linear RV accelerations (RV trends), indicating the presence of outer companions. Direct-imaging observations can help clarify what objects generate these RV trends. We present the results of high-contrast imaging observations of six intermediate-mass giants with long-term RV trends using the Subaru Telescope and HiCIAO camera. We detected co-moving companions to γ Hya B ({0.61}-0.14+0.12{M}⊙ ), HD 5608 B (0.10+/- 0.01{M}⊙ ), and HD 109272 B (0.28+/- 0.06{M}⊙ ). For the remaining targets (ι Dra, 18 Del, and HD 14067), we exclude companions more massive than 30-60 M Jup at projected separations of 1″-7″. We examine whether these directly imaged companions or unidentified long-period companions can account for the RV trends observed around the six giants. We find that the Kozai mechanism can explain the high eccentricity of the inner planets ι Dra b, HD 5608 b, and HD 14067 b.

  6. Matrix-enhanced surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ME-SALDI-MS) for mass spectrometry imaging of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Victoria L; Liu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS), a parallel technique to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), utilizes inorganic particles or porous surfaces to aid in the desorption/ionization of low-molecular-weight (MW) analytes. As a matrix-free and "soft" LDI approach, SALDI offers the benefit of reduced background noise in the low MW range, allowing for easier detection of biologically significant small MW species. Despite the inherent advantages of SALDI-MS, it has not reached comparable sensitivity levels to MALDI-MS. In relation to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), intense efforts have been made in order to improve sensitivity and versatility of SALDI-MSI. We describe herein a detailed protocol that utilizes a hybrid LDI method, matrix-enhanced SALDI-MS (ME-SALDI MS), to detect and image low MW species in an imaging mode.

  7. Breast mass detection in tomosynthesis projection images using information-theoretic similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swatee; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to study Computer Aided Detection (CADe) of breast masses for digital tomosynthesis. It is believed that tomosynthesis will show improvement over conventional mammography in detection and characterization of breast masses by removing overlapping dense fibroglandular tissue. This study used the 60 human subject cases collected as part of on-going clinical trials at Duke University. Raw projections images were used to identify suspicious regions in the algorithm's high-sensitivity, low-specificity stage using a Difference of Gaussian (DoG) filter. The filtered images were thresholded to yield initial CADe hits that were then shifted and added to yield a 3D distribution of suspicious regions. These were further summed in the depth direction to yield a flattened probability map of suspicious hits for ease of scoring. To reduce false positives, we developed an algorithm based on information theory where similarity metrics were calculated using knowledge databases consisting of tomosynthesis regions of interest (ROIs) obtained from projection images. We evaluated 5 similarity metrics to test the false positive reduction performance of our algorithm, specifically joint entropy, mutual information, Jensen difference divergence, symmetric Kullback-Liebler divergence, and conditional entropy. The best performance was achieved using the joint entropy similarity metric, resulting in ROC A z of 0.87 +/- 0.01. As a whole, the CADe system can detect breast masses in this data set with 79% sensitivity and 6.8 false positives per scan. In comparison, the original radiologists performed with only 65% sensitivity when using mammography alone, and 91% sensitivity when using tomosynthesis alone.

  8. MALDI TOF imaging mass spectrometry in clinical pathology: a valuable tool for cancer diagnostics (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Jörg; Kriegsmann, Mark; Casadonte, Rita

    2015-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an evolving technique in cancer diagnostics and combines the advantages of mass spectrometry (proteomics), detection of numerous molecules, and spatial resolution in histological tissue sections and cytological preparations. This method allows the detection of proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates or glycoconjugates and small molecules.Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue can also be investigated by IMS, thus, this method seems to be an ideal tool for cancer diagnostics and biomarker discovery. It may add information to the identification of tumor margins and tumor heterogeneity. The technique allows tumor typing, especially identification of the tumor of origin in metastatic tissue, as well as grading and may provide prognostic information. IMS is a valuable method for the identification of biomarkers and can complement histology, immunohistology and molecular pathology in various fields of histopathological diagnostics, especially with regard to identification and grading of tumors.

  9. Identification of Hypoxia-Regulated Proteins Using MALDI-Mass Spectrometry Imaging Combined with Quantitative Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djidja, Marie-Claude; Chang, Joan; Hadjiprocopis, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    quantitative proteomics combined with MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Here we present a comprehensive hypoxic proteome study and are the first to investigate changes in situ using tumor samples. In vitro quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of the hypoxic proteome was performed on breast cancer...... cells using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). MS analyses were performed on laser-capture microdissected samples isolated from normoxic and hypoxic regions from tumors derived from the same cells used in vitro. MALDI-MSI was used in combination to investigate hypoxia......-regulated protein localization within tumor sections. Here we identified more than 100 proteins, both novel and previously reported, that were associated with hypoxia. Several proteins were localized in hypoxic regions, as identified by MALDI-MSI. Visualization and data extrapolation methods for the in vitro SILAC...

  10. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry: spatial molecular analysis to enable a new age of discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessel, Megan M; Norris, Jeremy L; Caprioli, Richard M

    2014-07-31

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) combines the sensitivity and selectivity of mass spectrometry with spatial analysis to provide a new dimension for histological analyses to provide unbiased visualization of the arrangement of biomolecules in tissue. As such, MALDI IMS has the capability to become a powerful new molecular technology for the biological and clinical sciences. In this review, we briefly describe several applications of MALDI IMS covering a range of molecular weights, from drugs to proteins. Current limitations and challenges are discussed along with recent developments to address these issues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 20years of Proteomics in memory of Viatliano Pallini. Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez.

  11. Quantitative, nondestructive assessment of beech scale (Hemiptera: Cryptococcidae) density using digital image analysis of wax masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teale, Stephen A; Letkowski, Steven; Matusick, George; Stehman, Stephen V; Castello, John D

    2009-08-01

    Beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, is a non-native invasive insect associated with beech bark disease. A quantitative method of measuring viable scale density at the levels of the individual tree and localized bark patches was developed. Bark patches (10 cm(2)) were removed at 0, 1, and 2 m above the ground and at the four cardinal directions from 13 trees in northern New York and 12 trees in northern Michigan. Digital photographs of each patch were made, and the wax mass area was measured from two random 1-cm(2) subsamples on each bark patch using image analysis software. Viable scale insects were counted after removing the wax under a dissecting microscope. Separate regression analyses at the whole tree level for the New York and Michigan sites each showed a strong positive relationship of wax mass area with the number of underlying viable scale insects. The relationships for the New York and Michigan data were not significantly different from each other, and when pooling data from the two sites, there was still a significant positive relationship between wax mass area and the number of scale insects. The relationships between viable scale insects and wax mass area were different at the 0-, 1-, and 2-m sampling heights but do not seem to affect the relationship. This method does not disrupt the insect or its interactions with the host tree.

  12. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Shin; Forbes, Thomas P; van Asten, Arian C; Gillen, Greg

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal intensity to the amount of drug deposited on the surface were generated from inkjet-printed arrays of cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin with a deposited-mass ranging nominally from 10 pg to 50 ng per spot. These curves were used to construct concentration maps that visualized the spatial distribution of the drugs on top of a fingerprint, as well as being able to quantify the amount of drugs in a given area within the map. For the drugs on the fingerprint on silicon, ToF-SIMS showed great success, as it was able to generate concentration maps of all three drugs. On the fingerprint on paper, only the concentration map of cocaine could be constructed using ToF-SIMS and DESI-MS, as the signals of methamphetamine and heroin were completely suppressed by matrix and substrate effects. Spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs using imaging mass spectrometry is possible, but the choice of substrates could significantly affect the results.

  13. Considerations for quantification of lipids in nerve tissue using MALDI mass spectrometric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Prieto Conaway, Maria C.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Yost, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    MALDI mass spectrometric imaging is a technique that provides the ability to identify and characterize endogenous and exogenous compounds spatially within tissue with relatively little sample preparation. While it is a proven methodology for qualitative analysis, little has been reported for its utility in quantitative measurements. In the current work, inherent challenges in MALDI quantification are addressed. Signal response is monitored over successive analyses of a single tissue section to minimize error due to variability in the laser, matrix application, and sample inhomogeneity. Methods for the application of an internal standard to tissue sections are evaluated and used to quantify endogenous lipids in nerve tissue. A precision of 5% or less standard error was achieved, illustrating that MALDI imaging offers a reliable means of in situ quantification for microgram-sized samples and requires minimal sample preparation. PMID:21953974

  14. Evaluation of C60 secondary ion mass spectrometry for the chemical analysis and imaging of fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Edward; Demoranville, Leonard T; Gillen, Greg

    2013-09-10

    The feasibility of using C60(+) cluster primary ion bombardment secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60(+) SIMS) for the analysis of the chemical composition of fingerprints is evaluated. It was found that C60(+) SIMS could be used to detect and image the spatial localization of a number of sebaceous and eccrine components in fingerprints. These analyses were also found to not be hindered by the use of common latent print powder development techniques. Finally, the ability to monitor the depth distribution of fingerprint constituents was found to be possible - a capability which has not been shown using other chemical imaging techniques. This paper illustrates a number of strengths and potential weaknesses of C60(+) SIMS as an additional or complimentary technique for the chemical analysis of fingerprints.

  15. Automatic extraction of myocardial mass and volumes using parametric images from dynamic non-gated PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Hansson, Nils Henrik Stubkjær; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen;

    2016-01-01

    -gated dynamic cardiac PET. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with aortic-valve stenosis and 10 healthy controls (HC) underwent a 27-min 11C-acetate PET/CT scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). HC were scanned twice to assess repeatability. Parametric images of uptake rate K1 and the blood pool were......LV and WT only and an overestimation for LVEF at lower values. Intra- and inter-observer correlations were >0.95 for all PET measurements. PET repeatability accuracy in HC was comparable to CMR. CONCLUSION: LV mass and volumes are accurately and automatically generated from dynamic 11C-acetate PET without...... ECG-gating. This method can be incorporated in a standard routine without any additional workload and can, in theory, be extended to other PET tracers....

  16. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry: bridging biology and chemistry in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Stephen; Groseclose, M Reid; Wagner, David

    2011-11-01

    Our understanding of drug tissue distribution impacts a number of areas in drug development, including: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, drug-drug interactions, transport and metabolism. Despite their extensive use, autoradiography and tissue homogenate LC-MS analysis have limitations in providing a comprehensive assessment of tissue distributions. In the case of autoradiography, it is the inability to distinguish between parent drug and drug metabolites. In LC-MS analysis of tissue homogenate, all tissue localization information is lost. The emerging technique of MALDI imaging mass spectrometry has the capability to distinguish between parent and metabolites while maintaining spatial distribution in tissues. In this article, we will review the MALDI imaging MS methodology as applied to drug development and provide examples highlighting the impact of this important technique in drug development.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of flow and mass transfer in electrohydrodynamic liquid bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Wexler, Adam D; Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Reiter, Gert; Fuchsjäger, Michael; Reiter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Here we report on the feasibility and use of magnetic resonance imaging based methods to the study of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) liquid bridges. High speed tomographic recordings through the longitudinal axis of water bridges were used to characterize the mass transfer dynamics, mixing, and flow structure. By filling one beaker with heavy water and the other with light water it was possible to track the spread of the proton signal throughout the total liquid volume. The mixing kinetics are different depending on where the light nuclei are located and proceeds faster when the anolyte is light water. Distinct flow and mixing regions are identified in the fluid volumes and it is shown that the EHD flow at the electrodes can be counteracted by the density difference between water isotopes. MR phase contrast imaging reveals that within the bridge section two separate counter propagating flows pass one above the other in the bridge.

  18. Cosmetic Analysis Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Catharino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new “omic” platform—Cosmetomics—that proves to be extremely simple and effective in terms of sample preparation and readiness for data acquisition/interpretation is presented. This novel approach employing Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI for cosmetic analysis has proven to readily identify and quantify compounds of interest. It also allows full control of all the production phases, as well as of the final product, by integration of both analytical and statistical data. This work has focused on products of daily use, namely nail polish, lipsticks and eyeliners of multiple brands sold in the worldwide market.

  19. Dynamical Masses of Young M Dwarfs. I. Masses and Orbital Parameters of GJ 3305 AB, the Wide Binary Companion to the Imaged Exoplanet Host 51 Eri

    CERN Document Server

    Montet, Benjamin T; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Deck, Katherine M; Wang, Ji; Horch, Elliott P; Liu, Michael C; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Kraus, Adam L; Charbonneau, David

    2015-01-01

    We combine new high resolution imaging and spectroscopy from Keck/NIRC2, Discovery Channel Telescope/DSSI, and Keck/HIRES with published astrometry and radial velocities to measure individual masses and orbital elements of the GJ 3305 AB system, a young (~20 Myr) M+M binary (unresolved spectral type M0) member of the beta Pictoris moving group comoving with the imaged exoplanet host 51 Eri. We measure a total system mass of 1.10 \\pm 0.04 M_sun, a period of 29.16 \\pm 0.65$ yr, a semimajor axis of 9.80 \\pm 0.15 AU, and an eccentricity of 0.19 \\pm 0.02. The primary component has a dynamical mass of 0.65 \\pm 0.05 M_sun and the secondary has a mass of 0.44 \\pm 0.05 M_sun. The recently updated BHAC15 models are consistent with the masses of both stars to within 1.5 sigma. Given the observed masses the models predict an age of the GJ 3305 AB system of 28 +15/-6 Myr. Based on the the observed system architecture and our dynamical mass measurement, it is unlikely that the orbit of 51 Eri b has been significantly alter...

  20. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  1. Identifying tissue-specific signal variation in MALDI mass spectrometric imaging by use of an internal standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirman, D.A.; Kiss, A.; Heeren, R.M.A.; Yost, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Generating analyte-specific distribution maps of compounds in a tissue sample by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) has become a useful tool in numerous areas across the biological sciences. Direct analysis of the tissue sample provides MS images of

  2. Direct profiling of myelinated and demyelinated regions in mouse brain by imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Ruben; Dumont, Debora; van Brussel, Leen; van de Plas, Babs; Daniels, Ruth; Noben, Jean-Paul; Verhaert, Peter; van der Gucht, Estel; Robben, Johan; Clerens, Stefan; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2007-02-01

    One of the newly developed imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies utilizes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry to map proteins in thin tissue sections. In this study, we evaluated the power of MALDI IMS as we developed it in our (Bruker) MALDI TOF (Reflex IV) and TOF-TOF (Ultraflex II) systems to study myelin patterns in the mouse central nervous system under normal and pathological conditions. MALDI IMS was applied to assess myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform-specific profiles in different regions throughout the mouse brain. The distribution of ions of m/z 14,144 and 18,447 displayed a striking resemblance with white matter histology and were identified as MBP isoform 8 and 5, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the MBP-8 peak intensity upon MALDI IMS analysis of focal ethidium bromide-induced demyelinated brain areas. Our MS images were validated by immunohistochemistry using MBP antibodies. This study underscores the potential of MALDI IMS to study the contribution of MBP to demyelinating diseases.

  3. Time-course mass spectrometry imaging for depicting drug incorporation into hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Tooru; Shima, Noriaki; Sasaki, Keiko; Matsuta, Shuntaro; Takei, Shiori; Katagi, Munehiro; Miki, Akihiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Sato, Takako; Suzuki, Koichi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the incorporation of drugs into hair, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging was performed on the longitudinal sections of single scalp hair shafts sampled from volunteers after a single oral administration of methoxyphenamine (MOP), a noncontrolled analogue of methamphetamine. Hair specimens were collected by plucking out with the roots intact, and these specimens were prepped by an optimized procedure based on freeze-sectioning to detect the drug inside the hair shaft and hair root. Time-course changes in the imaging results, with confirmatory quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for each 1-mm segment of single hair strands, revealed a substantial concentration of the drug first onto the hair bulbs after ingestion, while only a small portion appeared to be incorporated into the hair matrix, forming a 2-3 mm distinctive drug band with tailing. Comparable amount of the drug also appeared to be incorporated into the keratinized hair shaft in the upper dermis zone, forming another distinct drug band of about 2 mm, which both moved toward the distal side, following the strand's growth rate. These findings provide forensically crucial information: there are two major drug incorporation sites, at least for MOP, which cause overlap of the recordings and deteriorates its chronological resolution down to about 11 days or perhaps longer.

  4. An accessible, scalable ecosystem for enabling and sharing diverse mass spectrometry imaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Curt R; Ruebel, Oliver; Bowen, Benjamin P

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is used in an increasing number of biological applications. Typical MSI datasets contain unique, high-resolution mass spectra from tens of thousands of spatial locations, resulting in raw data sizes of tens of gigabytes per sample. In this paper, we review technical progress that is enabling new biological applications and that is driving an increase in the complexity and size of MSI data. Handling such data often requires specialized computational infrastructure, software, and expertise. OpenMSI, our recently described platform, makes it easy to explore and share MSI datasets via the web - even when larger than 50 GB. Here we describe the integration of OpenMSI with IPython notebooks for transparent, sharable, and replicable MSI research. An advantage of this approach is that users do not have to share raw data along with analyses; instead, data is retrieved via OpenMSI's web API. The IPython notebook interface provides a low-barrier entry point for data manipulation that is accessible for scientists without extensive computational training. Via these notebooks, analyses can be easily shared without requiring any data movement. We provide example notebooks for several common MSI analysis types including data normalization, plotting, clustering, and classification, and image registration.

  5. Cryo-sectioning of mice for whole-body imaging of drugs and metabolites with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging - a simplified approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okutan, Seda; Hansen, Harald S; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    bodyweight which is comparable to the normal prescribed human dose. The simultaneous imaging of endogenous and exogenous compounds facilitates registration of the drug images to certain organs in the body by colored-overlay of the two types of images. The method represents a relatively low-cost approach...... to simple, sensitive and highly selective whole-body imaging in drug distribution and metabolism studies.......A method is presented for whole-body imaging of drugs and metabolites in mice with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI). Unlike most previous approaches to whole-body imaging which are based on cryo-sectioning using a cryo-macrotome, the presented approach...

  6. On-Chip Peptide Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Protein Kinase Inhibitor Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Lai; Kim, Young-Pil; Son, Jin Gyeong; Son, Miyoung; Lee, Tae Geol

    2017-01-03

    Protein kinases are enzymes that are important targets for drug discovery because of their involvement in regulating the essential cellular processes. For this reason, the changes in protein kinase activity induced by each drug candidate (the inhibitor in this case) need to be accurately determined. Here, an on-chip secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging technique of the peptides was developed for determining protein kinase activity and inhibitor screening without a matrix. In our method, cysteine-tethered peptides adsorbed onto a gold surface produced changes in the relative peak intensities of the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated substrate peptides, which were quantitatively dependent on protein kinase activity. Using mass spectrometry imaging of multiple compartments on the gold surface in the presence of a peptide substrate, we screened 13,727 inhibitors, of which seven were initially found to have inhibitor efficiencies that surpassed 50%. Of these, we were able to identify a new breakpoint cluster region-abelson (BCR-ABL)(T315I) kinase inhibitor, henceforth referred to as KR135861. KR135861 showed no cytotoxicity and was subsequently confirmed to be superior to imatinib, a commercial drug marketed as Gleevec. Moreover, KR135861 exhibited a greater inhibitory effect on the BCR-ABL(T315I) tyrosine kinase, with an IC50 value as low as 1.3 μM. In in vitro experiments, KR135861 reduced the viability of both Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type BCR-ABL and BCR-ABL(T315I), in contrast to imatinib's inhibitory effects only on Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type BCR-ABL. Due to the surface sensitivity and selectivity of SIMS imaging, it is anticipated that our approach will make it easier to validate the small modifications of a substrate in relation to enzyme activity as well as for drug discovery. This mass spectrometry imaging analysis enables efficient screening for protein kinase inhibitors, thus permitting high-throughput drug screening with high accuracy

  7. Role of new magnetic resonance imaging modalities in diagnosis of orbital masses: A clinicopathologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy Nader

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in the diagnosis of different orbital masses and their advantages over conventional MRI. Materials and Methods: The study included 20 patients presenting with proptosis. Every patient was subjected to thorough clinical examination, conventional MRI "T1 weighted, T2 weighted, and postcontrast T1 weighted if needed," diffusion-weighted MRI, and proton MRS. Orbitotomy was performed, the orbital mass was excised, and histopathological examination was performed. Results: Diffusion-weighted MRI could differentiate between benign lesions and malignant tumors in 70% of cases; however, overlap occurred in 30% of cases with benign tumors showing restricted diffusion whereas proton MRS could differentiate between benign and malignant tumors in 90% of cases. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI and proton MRS can potentially increase the accuracy of diagnosis of orbital masses through in vivo tissue characterization. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy seems to be the more accurate modality.

  8. Stability of the directly imaged multiplanet system HR 8799: resonance and masses

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrycky, Daniel C

    2008-01-01

    A new era of directly imaged extrasolar planets has produced a three-planet system (Marois et al. 2008), where the masses of the planets have been estimated by untested cooling models. We point out that the nominal circular, face-on orbits of the planets lead to a dynamical instability in ~1e5 yr, a factor of at least 100 shorter than the estimated age of the star. Relaxing the face-on assumption, but still requiring circular orbits while fitting the observed positions, makes the problem even worse. Keeping the nominal orbits, but reducing the planetary masses, allows stability only for unreasonably small (0.04) and that its current velocity is smaller than the nominal circular orbit, which can be confirmed with several more years of observations. That the resonance has lasted until now, in spite of the perturbations of the outer planet, leads to a limit <~10 MJup on the masses of the outer two planets. This constraint rules out certain versions of the core accretion hypothesis, and favors hot-start coolin...

  9. Prognostic Metabolite Biomarkers for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Discovered by Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Sha; Balluff, Benjamin; Cleven, Arjen H. G.; Bovée, Judith V. M. G.; McDonnell, Liam A.

    2017-02-01

    Metabolites can be an important read-out of disease. The identification and validation of biomarkers in the cancer metabolome that can stratify high-risk patients is one of the main current research aspects. Mass spectrometry has become the technique of choice for metabolomics studies, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables their visualization in patient tissues. In this study, we used MSI to identify prognostic metabolite biomarkers in high grade sarcomas; 33 high grade sarcoma patients, comprising osteosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma were analyzed. Metabolite MSI data were obtained from sections of fresh frozen tissue specimens with matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization (MALDI) MSI in negative polarity using 9-aminoarcridine as matrix. Subsequent annotation of tumor regions by expert pathologists resulted in tumor-specific metabolite signatures, which were then tested for association with patient survival. Metabolite signals with significant clinical value were further validated and identified by high mass resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MSI. Three metabolite signals were found to correlate with overall survival ( m/z 180.9436 and 241.0118) and metastasis-free survival ( m/z 160.8417). FTICR-MSI identified m/z 241.0118 as inositol cyclic phosphate and m/z 160.8417 as carnitine.

  10. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, John G; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W; Clench, Malcolm R; Webborn, Peter J H; Goodwin, Richard J A

    2016-11-24

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported.

  11. Five Micron High Resolution MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging with Simple, Interchangeable, Multi-Resolution Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Adam D.; Dueñas, Maria Emilia; Lee, Young Jin

    2017-01-01

    High-spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is crucial for the mapping of chemical distributions at the cellular and subcellular level. In this work, we improved our previous laser optical system for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI, from 9 μm practical laser spot size to a practical laser spot size of 4 μm, thereby allowing for 5 μm resolution imaging without oversampling. This is accomplished through a combination of spatial filtering, beam expansion, and reduction of the final focal length. Most importantly, the new laser optics system allows for simple modification of the spot size solely through the interchanging of the beam expander component. Using 10×, 5×, and no beam expander, we could routinely change between 4, 7, and 45 μm laser spot size, in less than 5 min. We applied this multi-resolution MALDI-MSI system to a single maize root tissue section with three different spatial resolutions of 5, 10, and 50 μm and compared the differences in imaging quality and signal sensitivity. We also demonstrated the difference in depth of focus between the optical systems with 10× and 5× beam expanders.

  12. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, John G.; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Webborn, Peter J. H.; Goodwin, Richard J. A.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported.

  13. Geometric Triangulation of Imaging Observations to Track Coronal Mass Ejections Continuously Out to 1 AU

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ying; Luhmann, Janet G; Vourlidas, Angelos; Bale, Stuart D; Lin, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    We describe a geometric triangulation technique, based on time-elongation maps constructed from imaging observations, to track coronal mass ejections (CMEs) continuously in the heliosphere and predict their impact on the Earth. Taking advantage of stereoscopic imaging observations from STEREO, this technique can determine the propagation direction and radial distance of CMEs from their birth in the corona all the way to 1 AU. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by its application to the 2008 December 12 CME, which manifests as a magnetic cloud (MC) from in situ measurements at the Earth. The predicted arrival time and radial velocity at the Earth are well confirmed by the in situ observations around the MC. Our method reveals non-radial motions and velocity changes of the CME over large distances in the heliosphere. It also associates the flux-rope structure measured in situ with the dark cavity of the CME in imaging observations. Implementation of the technique, which is expected to be a routine possi...

  14. Nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry: the role of fluorocarbons in metabolite analysis and yoctomole level sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczy, Michael E; Northen, Trent R; Trauger, Sunia A; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry (NIMS) has become an effective technology for generating ions in the gas phase, providing high sensitivity and imaging capabilities for small molecules, metabolites, drugs, and drug metabolites. Specifically, laser desorption from the nanostructure surfaces results in efficient energy transfer, low background chemical noise, and the nondestructive release of analyte ions into the gas phase. The modification of nanostructured surfaces with fluorous compounds, either covalent or non-covalent, has played an important role in gaining high efficiency/sensitivity by facilitating analyte desorption from the nonadhesive surfaces, and minimizing the amount of laser energy required. In addition, the hydrophobic fluorinated nanostructure surfaces have aided in concentrating deposited samples into fine micrometer-sized spots, a feature that further facilitates efficient desorption/ionization. These fluorous nanostructured surfaces have opened up NIMS to very broad applications including enzyme activity assays and imaging, providing low background, efficient energy transfer, nondestructive analyte ion generation, super-hydrophobic surfaces, and ultra-high detection sensitivity.

  15. Interactions between Coronal Mass Ejections Viewed in Coordinated Imaging and In Situ Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ying D; Mostl, Christian; Martinez-Oliveros, Juan C; Bale, Stuart D; Lin, Robert P; Harrison, Richard A; Temmer, Manuela; Webb, David F; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2012-01-01

    The successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 2010 July 30 - August 1 present us the first opportunity to study CME-CME interactions with unprecedented heliospheric imaging and in situ observations from multiple vantage points. We describe two cases of CME interactions: merging of two CMEs launched close in time and overtaking of a preceding CME by a shock wave. The first two CMEs on August 1 interact close to the Sun and form a merged front, which then overtakes the July 30 CME near 1 AU, as revealed by wide-angle imaging observations. Connections between imaging observations and in situ signatures at 1 AU suggest that the merged front is a shock wave, followed by two ejecta observed at Wind which seem to have already merged. In situ measurements show that the CME from July 30 is being overtaken by the shock at 1 AU and is significantly compressed, accelerated and heated. The interaction between the preceding ejecta and shock also results in variations in the shock strength and structure on a global scal...

  16. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS VIEWED IN COORDINATED IMAGING AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Moestl, Christian; Martinez-Oliveros, Juan C.; Bale, Stuart D.; Lin, Robert P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Harrison, Richard A. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Temmer, Manuela [Institute of Physics, University of Graz (Austria); Webb, David F. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Odstrcil, Dusan, E-mail: liuxying@ssl.berkeley.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    The successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 2010 July 30 to August 1 present us the first opportunity to study CME-CME interactions with unprecedented heliospheric imaging and in situ observations from multiple vantage points. We describe two cases of CME interactions: merging of two CMEs launched close in time and overtaking of a preceding CME by a shock wave. The first two CMEs on August 1 interact close to the Sun and form a merged front, which then overtakes the July 30 CME near 1 AU, as revealed by wide-angle imaging observations. Connections between imaging observations and in situ signatures at 1 AU suggest that the merged front is a shock wave, followed by two ejecta observed at Wind which seem to have already merged. In situ measurements show that the CME from July 30 is being overtaken by the shock at 1 AU and is significantly compressed, accelerated, and heated. The interaction between the preceding ejecta and shock also results in variations in the shock strength and structure on a global scale, as shown by widely separated in situ measurements from Wind and STEREO B. These results indicate important implications of CME-CME interactions for shock propagation, particle acceleration, and space weather forecasting.

  17. Interactions between Coronal Mass Ejections Viewed in Coordinated Imaging and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Moestl, Christian; Martinez-Oliveros, Juan C.; Bale, Stewart D.; Lin, Robert P.; Harrison, Richard A.; Temmer, Manuela; Webb, David F.; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    The successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 2010 July 30 - August 1 present us the first opportunity to study CME-CME interactions with unprecedented heliospheric imaging and in situ observations from multiple vantage points. We describe two cases of CME interactions: merging of two CMEs launched close in time and overtaking of a preceding CME by a shock wave. The first two CMEs on August 1 interact close to the Sun and form a merged front, which then overtakes the July 30 CME near 1 AU, as revealed by wide-angle imaging observations. Connections between imaging observations and in situ signatures at 1 AU suggest that the merged front is a shock wave, followed by two ejecta observed at Wind which seem to have already merged. In situ measurements show that the CME from July 30 is being overtaken by the shock at 1 AU and is significantly compressed, accelerated and heated. The interaction between the preceding ejecta and shock also results in variations in the shock strength and structure on a global scale, as shown by widely separated in situ measurements from Wind and STEREO B. These results indicate important implications of CME-CME interactions for shock propagation, particle acceleration and space weather forecasting.

  18. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  19. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Hyun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 μm) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 μm was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial

  20. Mass spectrometric imaging of flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sebastian; Stengel, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. is known to be rich in flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. However, the distribution within specific plant organs (e.g. within leaves) is not known. By using HPLC-MS and MS/MS we have identified a number of previously known G. biloba flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids from leaves. Namely, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, laricitrin/mearnsetin and apigenin glycosides were identified. Furthermore, biflavonoids like ginkgetin/isoginkgetin were also detected. The application of MALDI mass spectrometric imaging, enabled the compilation of concentration profiles of flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in G. biloba L. leaves. Both, flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids show a distinct distribution in leaf thin sections of G. biloba L.

  1. Automated Detection of Coronal Mass Ejections in STEREO Heliospheric Imager data

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, V; Rodriguez, L; Mierla, M; Banerjee, D; Davies, J A

    2016-01-01

    We have performed, for the first time, the successful automated detection of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in data from the inner heliospheric imager (HI-1) cameras on the STEREO A spacecraft. Detection of CMEs is done in time-height maps based on the application of the Hough transform, using a modified version of the CACTus software package, conventionally applied to coronagraph data. In this paper we describe the method of detection. We present the result of the application of the technique to a few CMEs that are well detected in the HI-1 imagery, and compare these results with those based on manual cataloging methodologies. We discuss in detail the advantages and disadvantages of this method.

  2. Automated Detection of Coronal Mass Ejections in STEREO Heliospheric Imager Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, V.; Willems, S.; Rodriguez, L.; Mierla, M.; Banerjee, D.; Davies, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    We have performed, for the first time, the successful automated detection of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in data from the inner heliospheric imager (HI-1) cameras on the STEREO-A spacecraft. Detection of CMEs is done in time-height maps based on the application of the Hough transform, using a modified version of the CACTus software package, conventionally applied to coronagraph data. In this paper, we describe the method of detection. We present the results of the application of the technique to a few CMEs, which are well detected in the HI-1 imagery, and compare these results with those based on manual-cataloging methodologies. We discuss, in detail, the advantages and disadvantages of this method.

  3. An HST Imaging Survey of Low-Mass Stars in the Chamaeleon I Star Forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Robberto, M; Da Rio, N; Apai, D; Pascucci, I; Ricci, L; Goddi, C; Testi, L; Palla, F; Bacciotti, F

    2012-01-01

    We present new HST/WFPC2 observations of 20 fields centered around T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I star forming region. Images have been obtained in the F631N ([OI]6300A), F656N (Ha) and F673N ([SII]6716A+6731A) narrow-band filters, plus the Johnson V-band equivalent F547M filter. We detect 31 T Tauri stars falling within our fields. We discuss the optical morphology of 10 sources showing evidence of either binarity, circumstellar material, or mass loss. We supplement our photometry with a compilation of optical, infrared and sub-millimeter data from the literature, together with new sub-mm data for three objects, to build the Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) of 19 single sources. Using an SED model fitting tool, we self-consistently estimate a number of stellar and disk parameters, while mass accretion rates are directly derived from our Ha photometry. We find that bolometric luminosities derived from dereddened optical data tend to be underestimated in systems with high alpha(2-24} IR spectral index, s...

  4. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Red Fluorescent Protein in Breast Tumor Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Post, Harm; Winnard, Paul T.; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Raman, Venu; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Heeren, Ron M. A.; Glunde, Kristine

    2013-05-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) in combination with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a powerful technique for visualization and identification of a variety of different biomolecules directly from thin tissue sections. As commonly used tools for molecular reporting, fluorescent proteins are molecular reporter tools that have enabled the elucidation of a multitude of biological pathways and processes. To combine these two approaches, we have performed targeted MS analysis and MALDI-MSI visualization of a tandem dimer (td)Tomato red fluorescent protein, which was expressed exclusively in the hypoxic regions of a breast tumor xenograft model. For the first time, a fluorescent protein has been visualized by both optical microscopy and MALDI-MSI. Visualization of tdTomato by MALDI-MSI directly from breast tumor tissue sections will allow us to simultaneously detect and subsequently identify novel molecules present in hypoxic regions of the tumor. MS and MALDI-MSI of fluorescent proteins, as exemplified in our study, is useful for studies in which the advantages of MS and MSI will benefit from the combination with molecular approaches that use fluorescent proteins as reporters.

  5. Identification of hypoxia-regulated proteins using MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging combined with quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djidja, Marie-Claude; Chang, Joan; Hadjiprocopis, Andreas; Schmich, Fabian; Sinclair, John; Mršnik, Martina; Schoof, Erwin M; Barker, Holly E; Linding, Rune; Jørgensen, Claus; Erler, Janine T

    2014-05-02

    Hypoxia is present in most solid tumors and is clinically correlated with increased metastasis and poor patient survival. While studies have demonstrated the role of hypoxia and hypoxia-regulated proteins in cancer progression, no attempts have been made to identify hypoxia-regulated proteins using quantitative proteomics combined with MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Here we present a comprehensive hypoxic proteome study and are the first to investigate changes in situ using tumor samples. In vitro quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of the hypoxic proteome was performed on breast cancer cells using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). MS analyses were performed on laser-capture microdissected samples isolated from normoxic and hypoxic regions from tumors derived from the same cells used in vitro. MALDI-MSI was used in combination to investigate hypoxia-regulated protein localization within tumor sections. Here we identified more than 100 proteins, both novel and previously reported, that were associated with hypoxia. Several proteins were localized in hypoxic regions, as identified by MALDI-MSI. Visualization and data extrapolation methods for the in vitro SILAC data were also developed, and computational mapping of MALDI-MSI data to IHC results was applied for data validation. The results and limitations of the methodologies described are discussed.

  6. Reweighted mass center based object-oriented sparse subspace clustering for hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Han; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Liangpei; Li, Pingxiang

    2016-10-01

    Considering the inevitable obstacles faced by the pixel-based clustering methods, such as salt-and-pepper noise, high computational complexity, and the lack of spatial information, a reweighted mass center based object-oriented sparse subspace clustering (RMC-OOSSC) algorithm for hyperspectral images (HSIs) is proposed. First, the mean-shift segmentation method is utilized to oversegment the HSI to obtain meaningful objects. Second, a distance reweighted mass center learning model is presented to extract the representative and discriminative features for each object. Third, assuming that all the objects are sampled from a union of subspaces, it is natural to apply the SSC algorithm to the HSI. Faced with the high correlation among the hyperspectral objects, a weighting scheme is adopted to ensure that the highly correlated objects are preferred in the procedure of sparse representation, to reduce the representation errors. Two widely used hyperspectral datasets were utilized to test the performance of the proposed RMC-OOSSC algorithm, obtaining high clustering accuracies (overall accuracy) of 71.98% and 89.57%, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed method clearly improves the clustering performance with respect to the other state-of-the-art clustering methods, and it significantly reduces the computational time.

  7. Quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging analysis of complex adnexal masses: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Laboratoire de recherche en imagerie - UMR 970 INSERM - Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France); Balvay, Daniel [Laboratoire de recherche en imagerie - UMR 970 INSERM - Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France); Aubert, Emilie; Bazot, Marc [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Darai, Emile; Rouzier, Roman [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Gynaecology-Obstetrics, Paris (France); Cuenod, Charles A. [Laboratoire de recherche en imagerie - UMR 970 INSERM - Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the ability of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign adnexal tumours. Fifty-six women with 38 malignant and 18 benign tumours underwent MR imaging before surgery for complex adnexal masses. Microvascular parameters were extracted from high temporal resolution DCE-MRI series, using a pharmacokinetic model in the solid tissue of adnexal tumours. These parameters were tissue blood flow (F{sub T}), blood volume fraction (Vb), permeability-surface area product (PS), interstitial volume fraction (Ve), lag time (Dt) and area under the enhancing curve (rAUC). Area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) was calculated as a descriptive tool to assess the overall discrimination of parameters. Malignant tumours displayed higher F{sub T}, Vb, rAUC and lower Ve than benign tumours (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0006, P = 0.04 and P = 0.0002, respectively). F{sub T} was the most relevant factor for discriminating malignant from benign tumours (AUROC = 0.86). Primary ovarian invasive tumours displayed higher F{sub T} and shorter Dt than borderline tumours. Malignant adnexal tumours with associated peritoneal carcinomatosis at surgery displayed a shorter Dt than those without peritoneal carcinomatosis at surgery (P = 0.01). Quantitative DCE-MRI is a feasible and accurate technique to differentiate malignant from benign adnexal tumours and could potentially help oncologists with management decisions. (orig.)

  8. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Visualizing In Situ Metabolism of Endogenous Metabolites and Dietary Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujimura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial distribution of bioactive small molecules is indispensable for elucidating their biological or pharmaceutical roles. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI enables determination of the distribution of ionizable molecules present in tissue sections of whole-body or single heterogeneous organ samples by direct ionization and detection. This emerging technique is now widely used for in situ label-free molecular imaging of endogenous or exogenous small molecules. MSI allows the simultaneous visualization of many types of molecules including a parent molecule and its metabolites. Thus, MSI has received much attention as a potential tool for pathological analysis, understanding pharmaceutical mechanisms, and biomarker discovery. On the other hand, several issues regarding the technical limitations of MSI are as of yet still unresolved. In this review, we describe the capabilities of the latest matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-MSI technology for visualizing in situ metabolism of endogenous metabolites or dietary phytochemicals (food factors, and also discuss the technical problems and new challenges, including MALDI matrix selection and metabolite identification, that need to be addressed for effective and widespread application of MSI in the diverse fields of biological, biomedical, and nutraceutical (food functionality research.

  9. Decellularization of intact tissue enables MALDI imaging mass spectrometry analysis of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessel, Megan; Spraggins, Jeffrey M; Voziyan, Paul; Hudson, Billy G; Caprioli, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) is a powerful molecular mapping technology that offers unbiased visualization of the spatial arrangement of biomolecules in tissue. Although there has been a significant increase in the number of applications employing this technology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) has received little attention, likely because ECM proteins are mostly large, insoluble and heavily cross-linked. We have developed a new sample preparation approach to enable MALDI IMS analysis of ECM proteins in tissue. Prior to freezing and sectioning, intact tissues are decellularized by incubation in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Decellularization removes the highly abundant, soluble species that dominate a MALDI IMS spectrum while preserving the structural integrity of the ECM. In situ tryptic hydrolysis and imaging of tryptic peptides are then carried out to accommodate the large sizes of ECM proteins. This new approach allows the use of MALDI IMS for identification of spatially specific changes in ECM protein expression and modification in tissue.

  10. Visualizing metabolite distribution and enzymatic conversion in plant tissues by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Knudsen, Camilla; Hansen, Natascha Krahl; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Kannangara, Rubini; Bak, Søren; Takos, Adam; Rook, Fred; Hansen, Steen H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Janfelt, Christian; Bjarnholt, Nanna

    2013-06-01

    In comparison with the technology platforms developed to localize transcripts and proteins, imaging tools for visualization of metabolite distributions in plant tissues are less well developed and lack versatility. This hampers our understanding of plant metabolism and dynamics. In this study, we demonstrate that desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) of tissue imprints on porous Teflon may be used to accurately image the distribution of even labile plant metabolites such as hydroxynitrile glucosides, which normally undergo enzymatic hydrolysis by specific β-glucosidases upon cell disruption. This fast and simple sample preparation resulted in no substantial differences in the distribution and ratios of all hydroxynitrile glucosides between leaves from wild-type Lotus japonicus and a β-glucosidase mutant plant that lacks the ability to hydrolyze certain hydroxynitrile glucosides. In wild-type, the enzymatic conversion of hydroxynitrile glucosides and the concomitant release of glucose were easily visualized when a restricted area of the leaf tissue was damaged prior to sample preparation. The gene encoding the first enzyme in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis in L. japonicus leaves, CYP79D3, was found to be highly expressed during the early stages of leaf development, and the hydroxynitrile glucoside distribution in mature leaves reflected this early expression pattern. The utility of direct DESI-MSI of plant tissue was demonstrated using cryo-sections of cassava (Manihot esculenta) tubers. The hydroxynitrile glucoside levels were highest in the outer cell layers, as verified by LC-MS analyses. The unexpected discovery of a hydroxynitrile-derived di-glycoside shows the potential of DESI-MSI to discover and guide investigations into new metabolic routes.

  11. OpenMSI: a high-performance web-based platform for mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rübel, Oliver; Greiner, Annette; Cholia, Shreyas; Louie, Katherine; Bethel, E Wes; Northen, Trent R; Bowen, Benjamin P

    2013-11-05

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables researchers to directly probe endogenous molecules directly within the architecture of the biological matrix. Unfortunately, efficient access, management, and analysis of the data generated by MSI approaches remain major challenges to this rapidly developing field. Despite the availability of numerous dedicated file formats and software packages, it is a widely held viewpoint that the biggest challenge is simply opening, sharing, and analyzing a file without loss of information. Here we present OpenMSI, a software framework and platform that addresses these challenges via an advanced, high-performance, extensible file format and Web API for remote data access (http://openmsi.nersc.gov). The OpenMSI file format supports storage of raw MSI data, metadata, and derived analyses in a single, self-describing format based on HDF5 and is supported by a large range of analysis software (e.g., Matlab and R) and programming languages (e.g., C++, Fortran, and Python). Careful optimization of the storage layout of MSI data sets using chunking, compression, and data replication accelerates common, selective data access operations while minimizing data storage requirements and are critical enablers of rapid data I/O. The OpenMSI file format has shown to provide >2000-fold improvement for image access operations, enabling spectrum and image retrieval in less than 0.3 s across the Internet even for 50 GB MSI data sets. To make remote high-performance compute resources accessible for analysis and to facilitate data sharing and collaboration, we describe an easy-to-use yet powerful Web API, enabling fast and convenient access to MSI data, metadata, and derived analysis results stored remotely to facilitate high-performance data analysis and enable implementation of Web based data sharing, visualization, and analysis.

  12. OpenMSI: A High-Performance Web-Based Platform for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Greiner, Annette; Cholia, Shreyas; Louie, Katherine; Bethel, E. Wes; Northen, Trent R.; Bowen, Benjamin P.

    2013-10-02

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables researchers to directly probe endogenous molecules directly within the architecture of the biological matrix. Unfortunately, efficient access, management, and analysis of the data generated by MSI approaches remain major challenges to this rapidly developing field. Despite the availability of numerous dedicated file formats and software packages, it is a widely held viewpoint that the biggest challenge is simply opening, sharing, and analyzing a file without loss of information. Here we present OpenMSI, a software framework and platform that addresses these challenges via an advanced, high-performance, extensible file format and Web API for remote data access (http://openmsi.nersc.gov). The OpenMSI file format supports storage of raw MSI data, metadata, and derived analyses in a single, self-describing format based on HDF5 and is supported by a large range of analysis software (e.g., Matlab and R) and programming languages (e.g., C++, Fortran, and Python). Careful optimization of the storage layout of MSI data sets using chunking, compression, and data replication accelerates common, selective data access operations while minimizing data storage requirements and are critical enablers of rapid data I/O. The OpenMSI file format has shown to provide >2000-fold improvement for image access operations, enabling spectrum and image retrieval in less than 0.3 s across the Internet even for 50 GB MSI data sets. To make remote high-performance compute resources accessible for analysis and to facilitate data sharing and collaboration, we describe an easy-to-use yet powerful Web API, enabling fast and convenient access to MSI data, metadata, and derived analysis results stored remotely to facilitate high-performance data analysis and enable implementation of Web based data sharing, visualization, and analysis.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide reactions on cocaine in hair using imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Flinders, Bryn; Bosman, Ingrid J; Lusthof, Klaas J; Van Asten, Arian C; Tytgat, Jan; Heeren, Ron M A

    2014-09-01

    Today, forensic hair analysis is considered to be a standard method for identifying chronic drug users since information about drug use stored and located in hair can cover several months to even years. When interpreting these results, one should be aware of all kind of pitfalls. External factors such as bleaching might influence the analytical result. Although the effect of hydrogen peroxide on cocaine in a solution was described before, it was never investigated whether the described reaction products (ecgonine methylester, benzoylecgonine, hydroxynorcocaine and dihydroxycocaine) are indeed found on contaminated or user hair. Since it is of great importance in forensic hair analysis to know whether cocaine and/or reaction products are detectable in hair after bleaching, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) was used to study the effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment on incorporated cocaine in hairs. Cocaine oxidation products were identified in a solution based on MS/MS spectra and spatial distribution of these products in hair was explored using MALDI TOF-MS. All images were accomplished by spraying α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) as a MALDI-matrix. Images revealed a loss of detectability of cocaine and its reaction products in hairs already after a short bleaching period. Since all compounds of interest are found in the hydrogen peroxide and wash solution, these findings indicate that all evidence of cocaine use might be lost after a hair bleaching treatment. Therefore, forensic toxicologists should take into consideration whether hair samples were bleached before making any conclusions from hair analysis results.

  14. The International Deep Planet Survey. II. The frequency of directly imaged giant exoplanets with stellar mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicher, R.; Marois, C.; Macintosh, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Barman, T.; Konopacky, Q.; Song, I.; Patience, J.; Lafrenière, D.; Doyon, R.; Nielsen, E. L.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Radial velocity and transit methods are effective for the study of short orbital period exoplanets but they hardly probe objects at large separations for which direct imaging can be used. Aims: We carried out the international deep planet survey of 292 young nearby stars to search for giant exoplanets and determine their frequency. Methods: We developed a pipeline for a uniform processing of all the data that we have recorded with NIRC2/Keck II, NIRI/Gemini North, NICI/Gemini South, and NACO/VLT for 14 yr. The pipeline first applies cosmetic corrections and then reduces the speckle intensity to enhance the contrast in the images. Results: The main result of the international deep planet survey is the discovery of the HR 8799 exoplanets. We also detected 59 visual multiple systems including 16 new binary stars and 2 new triple stellar systems, as well as 2279 point-like sources. We used Monte Carlo simulations and the Bayesian theorem to determine that 1.05+2.80-0.70% of stars harbor at least one giant planet between 0.5 and 14 MJ and between 20 and 300 AU. This result is obtained assuming uniform distributions of planet masses and semi-major axes. If we consider power law distributions as measured for close-in planets instead, the derived frequency is 2.30+5.95-1.55%, recalling the strong impact of assumptions on Monte Carlo output distributions. We also find no evidence that the derived frequency depends on the mass of the hosting star, whereas it does for close-in planets. Conclusions: The international deep planet survey provides a database of confirmed background sources that may be useful for other exoplanet direct imaging surveys. It also puts new constraints on the number of stars with at least one giant planet reducing by a factor of two the frequencies derived by almost all previous works. Tables 11-15 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  15. Determination of subjective and objective similarity for pairs of masses on mammograms for selection of similar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li, Qiang; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Suzuki, Kenji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    Presentation of images with known pathology similar to that of a new unknown lesion would be helpful for radiologists in their diagnosis of breast cancer. In order to find images that are really similar and useful to radiologists, we determined the radiologists' subjective similarity ratings for pairs of masses, and investigated objective similarity measures that would agree well with the subjective ratings. Fifty sets of images, each of which included one image in the center and six other images to be compared with the center image, were selected; thus, 300 pairs of images were prepared. Ten breast radiologists provided the subjective similarity ratings for each image pair in terms of the overall impression for diagnosis. The objective similarity measures based on cross-correlation of the images, differences in feature values, and psychophysical measures by use of an artificial neural network were determined. The objective measures based on the cross-correlation were found to be not correlated with the subjective similarity ratings (r 0.40). When several image features were used, the differences-based objective measure was moderately correlated (r = 0.59) with the subjective ratings. The relatively high correlation coefficient (r = 0.74) was obtained for the psychophysical similarity measure. The similar images selected by use of the psychophysical measure can be useful to radiologists in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  16. Prediction of Pitting Corrosion Mass Loss for 304 Stainless Steel by Image Processing and BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LIANG Cheng-hao

    2005-01-01

    Image processing technique was employed to analyze pitting corrosion morphologies of 304 stainless steel exposed to FeCl3 environments. BP neural network models were developed for the prediction of pitting corrosion mass loss using the obtained data of the total and the average pit areas which were extracted from pitting binary image. The results showed that the predicted results obtained by the 2-5-1 type BP neural network model are in good agreement with the experimental data of pitting corrosion mass loss. The maximum relative error of prediction is 6.78%.

  17. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  18. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Hyun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 μm) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 μm was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial

  19. Direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging of cellulose and hemicellulose in Populus tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Kyle Ann; Peter, Gary F; Yost, Richard A

    2011-09-01

    Imaging applied toward lignocellulosic materials requires high molecular specificity to map specific compounds within intact tissue. Although secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with a single stage of MS have been used to image lignocellulosic biomass, the complexity of the plant tissue requires tandem MS, which limits the interpretation of simple MS. MALDI linear ion trap (LIT) tandem MS offers the high molecular specificity needed for lignocellulosic analyses. MALDI-LIT MS analyses of cellulose and xylan (hemicellulose) standards were performed to determine mass-to-charge ratios and fragmentation pathways for identification of these compounds in intact tissue. The MALDI-LIT-MS images of young Populus wood stem showed even distribution of both cellulose and hemicellulose ions; in contrast, the tandem MS images of cellulose and hemicellulose generated by plotting characteristic fragment ions resulted in drastically different images. This demonstrates that isobaric ions are present during MALDI-LIT-MS analyses of wood tissue and tandem MS is necessary to distinguish between isobaric species for selective imaging of carbohydrates in biomass.

  20. Variation in spectral and mass dimension on 3D soil image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M. E.; Tarquis, A. M.; Fabregat, J.; Andina, D.; Jimenez, J.; Crawford, J. W.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge on three dimensional soil pore architecture is important for understanding soil processes as it controls biological, chemical and physical processes on various scales. Recent advances in non-destructive imaging, such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), provide several ways to analyze pore space features mainly concentrating on the visualization of soil structure. Fractal formalism has revealed as useful tool in these cases where highly complex and heterogeneous medium are studied. One of these quantifications is mass dimension (Dm) and spectral dimension (d) applied for water and gas diffusion coefficient in soil. At the same time that these techniques give a unique opportunity to quantify and describe pore space, they presents steps in their procedures on which the results depend. In this work, intact soil samples were collected from four horizons of a Brazilian soil and 3D images, of 45.1 micro-m resolution (256x256x256 voxels), were obtained. Four different threshold criteria were used to transform CT grey-scale imagery in binary imagery (pore/solid), based on the frequency of CT units. Then the threshold effect on the estimation of Dm and d, as well as their ratio was studied. Each threshold criteria had a direct influence on Dm as it has been previously reported [1], through the increase on porosity obtained. Meanwhile Dm showed a clear logarithmic relation with the apparent porosity in the image obtained for each threshold, d showed an almost linear one. In any case the increase of each one of them respect to porosity was different for each horizon. The Dm/d ratio was practically constant through all the porosity achieved in this study when Dm was estimated using all the scale range available. On the other hand, when Dm was estimated based on smaller scales this ratio depended on the threshold criteria applied to the image. This fact has a direct implication in diffusion parameters for a pore network modeling based on both fractal dimensions. [1] A

  1. Quantifying element incorporation in multispecies biofilms using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renslow, Ryan S. [Biological Sciences Division, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354; Lindemann, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Division, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354; Cole, Jessica K. [Biological Sciences Division, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354; Zhu, Zihua [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354; Anderton, Christopher R. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354

    2016-02-12

    EElucidating nutrient exchange in microbial communities is an important step in understanding the relationships between microbial systems and global biogeochemical cycles, but these communities are complex and the interspecies interactions that occur within them are not well understood. Phototrophic consortia are useful and relevant experimental systems to investigate such interactions as they are not only prevalent in the environment, but some are cultivable in vivo and amenable to controlled scientific experimentation. High spatial resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is a powerful tool capable of visualizing the metabolic activities of single cells within a biofilm, but quantitative analysis of the resulting data has typically been a manual process, resulting in a task that is both laborious and susceptible to human error. Here, we describe the creation and application of a semi-automated image-processing pipeline that can analyze NanoSIMS-generated data of phototrophic biofilms. The tool employs an image analysis process, which includes both elemental and morphological segmentation, producing a final segmented image that allows for discrimination between autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass, the detection of individual cyanobacterial filaments and heterotrophic cells, the quantification of isotopic incorporation of individual heterotrophic cells, and calculation of relevant population statistics. We demonstrate the functionality of the tool by using it to analyze the uptake of 15N provided as either nitrate or ammonium through the unicyanobacterial consortium UCC-O and imaged via NanoSIMS. We found that the degree of 15N incorporation by individual cells was highly variable when labeled with 15NH4 +, but much more even when biofilms were labeled with 15NO3-. In the 15NH4 +-amended biofilms, the heterotrophic distribution of 15N incorporation was highly skewed, with a large population showing moderate 15N incorporation and a small number of

  2. Near Real-Time Photometric Data Processing for the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Jackson, B. V.

    2004-12-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) records a photometric white-light response of the interplanetary medium from Earth over most of the sky in near real time. In the first two years of operation the instrument has recorded the inner heliospheric response to several hundred CMEs, including the May 28, 2003 and the October 28, 2003 halo CMEs. In this preliminary work we present the techniques required to process the SMEI data from the time the raw CCD images become available to their final assembly in photometrically accurate maps of the sky brightness relative to a long-term time base. Processing of the SMEI data includes integration of new data into the SMEI data base; a conditioning program that removes from the raw CCD images an electronic offset ("pedestal") and a temperature-dependent dark current pattern; an "indexing" program that places these CCD images onto a high-resolution sidereal grid using known spacecraft pointing information. At this "indexing" stage further conditioning removes the bulk of the the effects of high-energy-particle hits ("cosmic rays"), space debris inside the field of view, and pixels with a sudden state change ("flipper pixels"). Once the high-resolution grid is produced, it is reformatted to a lower-resolution set of sidereal maps of sky brightness. From these sidereal maps we remove bright stars, background stars, and a zodiacal cloud model (their brightnesses are retained as additional data products). The final maps can be represented in any convenient sky coordinate system. Common formats are Sun-centered Hammer-Aitoff or "fisheye" maps. Time series at selected locations on these maps are extracted and processed further to remove aurorae, variable stars and other unwanted signals. These time series (with a long-term base removed) are used in 3D tomographic reconstructions. The data processing is distributed over multiple PCs running Linux, and, runs as much as possible automatically using recurring batch jobs ('cronjobs'). The

  3. The research in the interaction of the mass media social image and the peculiarities of personal media behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhina M. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the correlation of an individual’s personal ideas about mass media with the organization of social behavior in media environment are represented in this article. The types of an individual’s relation to mass media as well as the types of media consumers in accordance with their dominating motivational orientation: emotionally-centered, communication-centered, information-centered, sense-centered – are revealed in the study. The research of mass media as an object of social images can demonstrate new approaches to the study of psychological regularity of an individual’s media behavior.

  4. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry for in situ proteomic analysis of preneoplastic lesions in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M Grüner

    Full Text Available The identification of new biomarkers for preneoplastic pancreatic lesions (PanINs, IPMNs and early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is crucial due to the diseases high mortality rate upon late detection. To address this task we used the novel technique of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS on genetically engineered mouse models (GEM of pancreatic cancer. Various GEM were analyzed with MALDI IMS to investigate the peptide/protein-expression pattern of precursor lesions in comparison to normal pancreas and PDAC with cellular resolution. Statistical analysis revealed several discriminative m/z-species between normal and diseased tissue. Intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN could be distinguished from normal pancreatic tissue and PDAC by 26 significant m/z-species. Among these m/z-species, we identified Albumin and Thymosin-beta 4 by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, which were further validated by immunohistochemistry, western blot, quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA in both murine and human tissue. Thymosin-beta 4 was found significantly increased in sera of mice with PanIN lesions. Upregulated PanIN expression of Albumin was accompanied by increased expression of liver-restricted genes suggesting a hepatic transdifferentiation program of preneoplastic cells. In conclusion we show that GEM of endogenous PDAC are a suitable model system for MALDI-IMS and subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis, allowing in situ analysis of small precursor lesions and identification of differentially expressed peptides and proteins.

  5. Psychophysical similarity measure based on multi-dimensional scaling for retrieval of similar images of breast masses on mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kohei; Muramatsu, Chisako; Oiwa, Mikinao; Shiraiwa, Misaki; Endo, Tokiko; Doi, Kunio; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    For retrieving reference images which may be useful to radiologists in their diagnosis, it is necessary to determine a reliable similarity measure which would agree with radiologists' subjective impression. In this study, we propose a new similarity measure for retrieval of similar images, which may assist radiologists in the distinction between benign and malignant masses on mammograms, and investigated its usefulness. In our previous study, to take into account the subjective impression, the psychophysical similarity measure was determined by use of an artificial neural network (ANN), which was employed to learn the relationship between radiologists' subjective similarity ratings and image features. In this study, we propose a psychophysical similarity measure based on multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) in order to improve the accuracy in retrieval of similar images. Twenty-seven images of masses, 3 each from 9 different pathologic groups, were selected, and the subjective similarity ratings for all possible 351 pairs were determined by 8 expert physicians. MDS was applied using the average subjective ratings, and the relationship between each output axis and image features was modeled by the ANN. The MDS-based psychophysical measures were determined by the distance in the modeled space. With a leave-one-out test method, the conventional psychophysical similarity measure was moderately correlated with subjective similarity ratings (r=0.68), whereas the psychophysical measure based on MDS was highly correlated (r=0.81). The result indicates that a psychophysical similarity measure based on MDS would be useful in the retrieval of similar images.

  6. Incidental breast masses detected by computed tomography: are any imaging features predictive of malignancy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gareth.Porter@phnt.swest.nhs.uk; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Holgate, C. [Department of Histopathology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Aim: To review the outcome of further assessment of breast abnormalities detected incidentally by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to determine whether any MDCT imaging features were predictive of malignancy. Material and methods: The outcome of 34 patients referred to the Primrose Breast Care Unit with breast abnormalities detected incidentally using MDCT was prospectively recorded. Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded. CT imaging features and histological diagnoses were recorded and the correlation assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 34 referred patients a malignant diagnosis was noted in 11 (32%). There were 10 breast malignancies (seven invasive ductal carcinomas, one invasive lobular carcinoma, two metastatic lesions) and one axillary lymphoma. CT features suggestive of breast malignancy were spiculation [6/10 (60%) versus 0/24 (0%) p = 0.0002] and associated axillary lymphadenopathy [3/10 (33%) versus 0/20 (0%) p = 0.030]. Conversely, a well-defined mass was suggestive of benign disease [10/24 (42%) versus 0/10 (0%); p = 0.015]. Associated calcification, ill-definition, heterogeneity, size, and multiplicity of lesions were not useful discriminating CT features. There was a non-significant trend for lesions in involuted breasts to be more frequently malignant than in dense breasts [6/14 (43%) versus 4/20 (20%) p = 0.11]. Conclusion: In the present series there was a significant rate (32%) of malignancy in patients referred to the breast clinic with CT-detected incidental breast lesions. The CT features of spiculation or axillary lymphadenopathy are strongly suggestive of malignancy.

  7. Influence of thresholding in mass and entropy dimension of 3-D soil images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Tarquis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of modern non-destructive tomography techniques, there have been many attempts to analyze 3-D pore space features mainly concentrating on soil structure. This analysis opens a challenging opportunity to develop techniques for quantifying and describe pore space properties, one of them being fractal analysis.

    Undisturbed soil samples were collected from four horizons of Brazilian soil and 3-D images at 45 μm resolution. Four different threshold criteria were used to transform computed tomography (CT grey-scale imagery into binary imagery (pore/solid to estimate their mass fractal dimension (Dm and entropy dimension (D1. Each threshold criteria had a direct influence on the porosity obtained, varying from 8 to 24% in one of the samples, and on the fractal dimensions. Linear scaling was observed over all the cube sizes, however depending on the range of cube sizes used in the analysis, Dm could vary from 3.00 to 2.20, realizing that the threshold influenced mainly the scaling in the smallest cubes (length of size from 1 to 16 voxels.

    Dm and D1 showed a logarithmic relation with the apparent porosity in the image, however, the increase of both values respect to porosity defined a characteristic feature for each horizon that can be related to soil texture and depth.

  8. Development of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for plant metabolite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis presents efforts to improve the methodology of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) as a method for analysis of metabolites from plant tissue samples. The first chapter consists of a general introduction to the technique of MALDI-MSI, and the sixth and final chapter provides a brief summary and an outlook on future work.

  9. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  10. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Orbit and Component Masses of the Intermediate Age, Late-Type Binary NO UMa

    CERN Document Server

    Schlieder, Joshua E; Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael F; Leisenring, Jarron; Bailey, Vanessa; Defrere, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Strassmeier, Klaus G; Weber, Michael; Biller, Beth A; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird M; Crepp, Justin R; Eisner, Josh A; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Henning, Thomas; Morzinski, Katie M; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. Our H, K$_s$, and L'-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.09". The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ~7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0$\\pm$0.5 primary and K6.5$\\pm$0.5 secondary are 0.83$\\pm$0.02 M$_{\\odot}$ and 0.64$\\pm$0.02 M$_{\\odot}$, respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87$\\pm$0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ~500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa bi...

  11. A free-form lensing model of A370 revealing stellar mass dominated BCGs, in Hubble Frontier Fields images

    CERN Document Server

    Diego, Jose M; Broadhurst, Tom; Lam, Daniel; Vega-Ferrero, Jesus; Zheng, Wei; Lee, Slanger; Morishita, Takahiro; Bernstein, Gary; Lim, Jeremy; Silk, Joseph; Ford, Holland

    2016-01-01

    We derive a free-form mass distribution for the unrelaxed cluster A370 (z=0.375), using the latest Hubble Frontier Fields images and GLASS spectroscopy. Starting from a reliable set of 10 multiply lensed systems we produce a free-form lens model that identifies ~ 80 multiple-images. Good consistency is found between models using independent subsamples of these lensed systems, with detailed agreement for the well resolved arcs. The mass distribution has two very similar concentrations centred on the two prominent Brightest Cluster Galaxies (or BCGs), with mass profiles that are accurately constrained by a uniquely useful system of long radially lensed images centred on both BCGs. We show that the lensing mass profiles of these BCGs are mainly accounted for by their stellar mass profiles, with a modest contribution from dark matter within r<100 kpc of each BCG. This conclusion may favour a cooled cluster gas origin for BCGs, rather than via mergers of normal galaxies for which dark matter should dominate ove...

  12. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of metals in mouse spinal cord by laser ablation ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J Sabine; Kumtabtim, Usarat; Wu, Bei; Steinacker, Petra; Otto, Markus; Matusch, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been developed as a powerful MS imaging (MSI) tool for the direct investigation of element distributions in biological tissues. Here, this technique was adapted for the analysis of native mouse spinal cord cryosections of 3.1 mm × 1.7 mm by implementing a new conventional ablation system (NWR-213) and improving the spatial resolution from 120 μm to 65 μm in routine mode. Element images of the spinal cord are provided for the first time and the metalloarchitecture was established using a multimodal atlas approach. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of Rb was mapped for the first time in biological tissue. Metal concentrations were quantified using matrix-matched laboratory standards and normalization of the respective ion intensities to the average (13)C ion intensity of standards and samples as a surrogate of slice thickness. The "butterfly" shape of the central spinal grey matter was visualized in positive contrast by the distributions of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn and in negative contrast by C and P. Mg, Na, K, S and Rb showed a more homogenous distribution. The concentrations averaged throughout grey matter and white matter were 8 and 4 μg g(-1) of Fe, 3 and 2 μg g(-1) of Cu, 8 and 5 μg g(-1) of Zn, 0.4 and 0.2 μg g(-1) of Mn. The carbon concentration in white matter exceeded that of grey matter by a factor of 1.44. Zn and Cu at 9 and 4 μg g(-1), respectively, were particularly enriched in the laminae I and II, in line with the high synaptic and cellular density there. Surprisingly Zn but not Cu was enriched in the central channel. Rb occurred at 0.3 μg g(-1) with a distribution pattern congruent to that of K. The coefficients of variation were 6%, 5%, 8% and 10% for Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn, respectively, throughout three different animals measured on different days. These MSI analyses of healthy wild type spinal cords demonstrate the suitability of the established techniques for

  13. Osveshhenie sovremennyh rossijskih innovacij v SMI Danii [The image of modern Russian innovations in the Danish mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko Arkady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to identify the attitude of the Danish mass media to modern Russian innovations. The research is timely because of the Russian interest in the experience of Denmark — one of the "innovation leaders" of the EU. The author analyses a number of publications on Russia in the Danish mass media. The positive image of Russian innovations in Danish periodicals is analysed against the background of historical stereotypes. The article also describes the Danish national innovation system. The image of Russian innovations in the Danish mass media is positive; however, the articles dedicated to Russian innovations constitute a small part of reports on developments in Russia. The article also contributes to social surveys carried out in Denmark through introducing new data. The research results can be used by politicians, scholars and social activists interested in the relations with Denmark.

  14. Estimates of the Planet Yield from Ground-Based High-Contrast Imaging Observations as a Function of Stellar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R

    2011-01-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar-neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into account the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of nearby stars, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys and express the resulting yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date. Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of planets from RV surveys, our simulations indicate that extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to separations accessible to high-contrast instruments provides excellent agreement bet...

  15. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging of metals in experimental and clinical Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaru, Sorina Georgiana; Merle, Uta; Uerlings, Ricarda; Zimmermann, Astrid; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Willheim, Claudia; Eder, Elisabeth; Ferenci, Peter; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the liver does not properly release copper into bile, resulting in prominent copper accumulation in various tissues. Affected patients suffer from hepatic disorders and severe neurological defects. Experimental studies in mutant mice in which the copper-transporting ATPase gene (Atp7b) is disrupted revealed a drastic, time-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper that is accompanied by formation of regenerative nodes resembling cirrhosis. Therefore, these mice represent an excellent exploratory model for Wilson's disease. However, the precise time course in hepatic copper accumulation and its impact on other trace metals within the liver is yet poorly understood. We have recently established novel laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry protocols allowing quantitative metal imaging in human and murine liver tissue with high sensitivity, spatial resolution, specificity and quantification ability. By use of these techniques, we here aimed to comparatively analyse hepatic metal content in wild-type and Atp7b deficient mice during ageing. We demonstrate that the age-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper is strictly associated with a simultaneous increase in iron and zinc, while the intrahepatic concentration and distribution of other metals or metalloids is not affected. The same findings were obtained in well-defined human liver samples that were obtained from patients suffering from Wilson's disease. We conclude that in Wilson's disease the imbalances of hepatic copper during ageing are closely correlated with alterations in intrahepatic iron and zinc content.

  16. Automated MALDI matrix deposition method with inkjet printing for imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluya, Dodge L; Garrett, Timothy J; Yost, Richard A

    2007-09-01

    Careful matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is critical for producing reproducible analyte ion signals. Traditional methods for matrix deposition are often considered an art rather than a science, with significant sample-to-sample variability. Here we report an automated method for matrix deposition, employing a desktop inkjet printer (printer tray, designed to hold CDs and DVDs, was modified to hold microscope slides. Empty ink cartridges were filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in methanol/water (70:30) at concentrations up to 40 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections and standards of small drug molecules) were prepared using three deposition methods (electrospray, airbrush, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed that matrix crystals were formed evenly across the sample. There was minimal background signal after storing the matrix in the cartridges over a 6-month period. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from inkjet-printed tissue specimens were of better quality and more reproducible than from specimens prepared by the electrospray and airbrush methods.

  17. Automated MALDI Matrix Coating System for Multiple Tissue Samples for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounfield, William P.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  18. Imaging of benign and malignant soft tissue masses of the foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldt, Simone; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Rechl, Hans [Department of Orthopedics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    The foot is a relatively uncommon site of neoplastic and non-neoplastic soft tissue tumors. Although it contains a relatively small amount of somatic soft tissue elements, the foot is considerably rich in tendons, fasciae, retinaculae, and synovium. Corresponding to this distribution of soft tissue elements, some soft tissue lesions, such as giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, fibromatosis, and synovial sarcoma, are commonly seen in this location. Vascular tumors represent common soft tissue masses of the foot as well. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice in the assessment of soft tissue tumors. The presence of a suspected lesion can be confirmed and tumor margins can be defined accurately. In general, MRI does not provide histologic specificity, but considering some MR features may often help in correctly distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. In addition, characteristic features of the most common benign tumors (i.e., fibromatosis, cavernous hemangioma) and reactive processes of the foot (ganglion cyst, Morton's neuroma) often suggest a specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. A mimetic tissue model for the quantification of drug distributions by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, M Reid; Castellino, Stephen

    2013-11-05

    The full potential of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) as a tool in drug development will not be realized until reliable quantitative information can be integrated with the molecular distributions. Here we report a novel method for the quantification of drugs in tissue sections using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS. This method uses a mimetic tissue model consisting of a set of tissue homogenates spiked with a range of different drug concentrations that have been frozen into a polymer support mold. The goal of this model is to mimic a dosed tissue in its effects on analyte extraction and ion suppression. Parallel preparation and analysis of sections from the tissue model and the dosed tissues allow for the quantification of a drug's distribution. Here we detail the steps involved in constructing the model and provide proof of concept data to highlight the potential of this approach. Several figures of merit are evaluated including linearity of response, variability, and section-to-section reproducibility. Finally, the tissue model is used to quantify two different drugs, lapatinib and nevirapine, in dosed tissues from nonclinical species and the results are compared with those generated by LC-MS quantification.

  20. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Kidney Tissue Sections of Rat Subjected to Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Li, Wan; He, Qing; Xue, Jinjuan; Wang, Jiyun; Xiong, Caiqiao; Pu, Xiaoping; Nie, Zongxiu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a serious threat to the quality of human life and health with an increasing incidence worldwide. Renal fibrosis is closely related to CKD and regarded as the final common pathophysiological pathway in most cases of end-stage renal diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying renal fibrosis and developing novel therapeutic strategies are of great importance. Herein, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) based on 1, 5-diaminonaphthalene hydrochloride was applied to the rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) to investigate metabolic changes during renal fibrosis. Among identified endogenous compounds, twenty-one metabolites involved in metabolic networks such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP metabolism, fatty acids metabolism, antioxidants, and metal ions underwent relatively obvious changes after 1 and 3 weeks of UUO. Unique distribution of the metabolites was obtained, and metabolic changes of kidneys during renal fibrosis were investigated simultaneously for the first time. These findings once again highlighted the promising potential of the organic salt matrix for application in small molecule in situ MSI and in the field of biomedical research. PMID:28157191

  1. Chemiluminescence Imaging of Superoxide Anion Detects Beta-Cell Function and Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsart, Laura L; Stokes, Christian; Contag, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide anion is produced during normal cellular respiration and plays key roles in cellular physiology with its dysregulation being associated with a variety of diseases. Superoxide anion is a short-lived molecule and, therefore, its homeostatic regulation and role in biology and disease requires dynamic quantification with fine temporal resolution. Here we validated coelenterazine as a reporter of intracellular superoxide anion concentration and used it as a dynamic measure both in vitro and in vivo. Chemiluminescence was dependent upon superoxide anion levels, including those produced during cellular respiration, and concentrations varied both kinetically and temporally in response to physiologically relevant fluctuations in glucose levels. In vivo imaging with coelenterazine revealed that beta cells of the pancreas have increased levels of superoxide anion, which acted as a measure of beta-cell function and mass and could predict the susceptibility of mice to diabetes mellitus. Glucose response and regulation are key elements of cellular physiology and organismal biology, and superoxide anion appears to play a fundamental and dynamic role in both of these processes.

  2. High Spatial Resolution Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Human Optic Nerve Lipids and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David M. G.; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rose, Kristie L.; Schey, Kevin L.

    2015-06-01

    The human optic nerve carries signals from the retina to the visual cortex of the brain. Each optic nerve is comprised of approximately one million nerve fibers that are organized into bundles of 800-1200 fibers surrounded by connective tissue and supportive glial cells. Damage to the optic nerve contributes to a number of blinding diseases including: glaucoma, neuromyelitis optica, optic neuritis, and neurofibromatosis; however, the molecular mechanisms of optic nerve damage and death are incompletely understood. Herein we present high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) analysis of lipids and proteins to define the molecular anatomy of the human optic nerve. The localization of a number of lipids was observed in discrete anatomical regions corresponding to myelinated and unmyelinated nerve regions as well as to supporting connective tissue, glial cells, and blood vessels. A protein fragment from vimentin, a known intermediate filament marker for astrocytes, was observed surrounding nerved fiber bundles in the lamina cribrosa region. S100B was also found in supporting glial cell regions in the prelaminar region, and the hemoglobin alpha subunit was observed in blood vessel areas. The molecular anatomy of the optic nerve defined by MALDI IMS provides a firm foundation to study biochemical changes in blinding human diseases.

  3. Constant-Distance Mode Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Biological Samples with Complex Topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Son N.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Laskin, Julia

    2017-01-17

    A new approach for constant distance mode mass spectrometry imaging of biological samples using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI MSI) was developed by integrating a shear-force probe with nano-DESI probe. The technical concept and basic instrumental setup as well as general operation of the system are described. Mechanical dampening of resonant oscillations due to the presence of shear forces between the probe and the sample surface enables constant-distance imaging mode via a computer controlled closed feedback loop. The capability of simultaneous chemical and topographic imaging of complex biological samples is demonstrated using living Bacillus Subtilis ATCC 49760 colonies on agar plates. The constant-distance mode nano-DESI MSI enabled imaging of many metabolites including non-ribosomal peptides (surfactin, plipastatin and iturin) and iron-bound heme on the surface of living bacterial colonies ranging in diameter from 10 mm to 13 mm with height variations of up to 0.8 mm above the agar plate. Co-registration of ion images to topographic images provided higher-contrast images. Constant-mode nano-DESI MSI is ideally suited for imaging biological samples of complex topography in their native state.

  4. Associations between Chinese/Asian versus Western mass media influences and body image disturbances of young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Jiang, Chengcheng; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated associations of experiences with mass media imported from Western nations such as the United States versus mass media from China and other Asian countries with eating and body image disturbances of young Chinese women. Participating women (N=456) completed self-report measures of disordered eating, specific sources of appearance dissatisfaction (fatness, facial features, stature), and Western versus Chinese/Asian mass media influences. The sample was significantly more likely to report perceived pressure from, comparisons with, and preferences for physical appearance depictions in Chinese/Asian mass media than Western media. Chinese/Asian media influences also combined for more unique variance in prediction models for all disturbances except stature concerns. While experiences with Western media were related to disturbances as well, the overall impact of Chinese/Asian media influences was more prominent.

  5. Detection of Metastatic Breast and Thyroid Cancer in Lymph Nodes by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialing; Feider, Clara L.; Nagi, Chandandeep; Yu, Wendong; Carter, Stacey A.; Suliburk, James; Cao, Hop S. Tran; Eberlin, Livia S.

    2017-02-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry has been widely applied to image lipids and metabolites in primary cancer tissues with the purpose of detecting and understanding metabolic changes associated with cancer development and progression. Here, we report the use of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to image metastatic breast and thyroid cancer in human lymph node tissues. Our results show clear alterations in lipid and metabolite distributions detected in the mass spectra profiles from 42 samples of metastatic thyroid tumors, metastatic breast tumors, and normal lymph node tissues. 2D DESI-MS ion images of selected molecular species allowed discrimination and visualization of specific histologic features within tissue sections, including regions of metastatic cancer, adjacent normal lymph node, and fibrosis or adipose tissues, which strongly correlated with pathologic findings. In thyroid cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of ceramides and glycerophosphoinisitols were observed. In breast cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of various fatty acids and specific glycerophospholipids were seen. Trends in the alterations in fatty acyl chain composition of lipid species were also observed through detailed mass spectra evaluation and chemical identification of molecular species. The results obtained demonstrate DESI-MSI as a potential clinical tool for the detection of breast and thyroid cancer metastasis in lymph nodes, although further validation is needed.

  6. In situ mass spectrometry imaging and ex vivo characterization of renal crystalline deposits induced in multiple preclinical drug toxicology studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    Full Text Available Drug toxicity observed in animal studies during drug development accounts for the discontinuation of many drug candidates, with the kidney being a major site of tissue damage. Extensive investigations are often required to reveal the mechanisms underlying such toxicological events and in the case of crystalline deposits the chemical composition can be problematic to determine. In the present study, we have used mass spectrometry imaging combined with a set of advanced analytical techniques to characterize such crystalline deposits in situ. Two potential microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 inhibitors, with similar chemical structure, were administered to rats over a seven day period. This resulted in kidney damage with marked tubular degeneration/regeneration and crystal deposits within the tissue that was detected by histopathology. Results from direct tissue section analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging were combined with data obtained following manual crystal dissection analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the crystal deposits was successfully identified as a common metabolite, bisulphonamide, of the two drug candidates. In addition, an un-targeted analysis revealed molecular changes in the kidney that were specifically associated with the area of the tissue defined as pathologically damaged. In the presented study, we show the usefulness of combining mass spectrometry imaging with an array of powerful analytical tools to solve complex toxicological problems occurring during drug development.

  7. Direct Visualization of Neurotransmitters in Rat Brain Slices by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI - MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anna Maria A. P.; Vendramini, Pedro H.; Galaverna, Renan; Schwab, Nicolas V.; Alberici, Luciane C.; Augusti, Rodinei; Castilho, Roger F.; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2016-10-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of neurotransmitters has so far been mainly performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) where derivatization reagents, deuterated matrix and/or high resolution, or tandem MS have been applied to circumvent problems with interfering ion peaks from matrix and from isobaric species. We herein describe the application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI)-MSI in rat brain coronal and sagittal slices for direct spatial monitoring of neurotransmitters and choline with no need of derivatization reagents and/or deuterated materials. The amino acids γ-aminobutyric (GABA), glutamate, aspartate, serine, as well as acetylcholine, dopamine, and choline were successfully imaged using a commercial DESI source coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The spatial distribution of the analyzed compounds in different brain regions was determined. We conclude that the ambient matrix-free DESI-MSI is suitable for neurotransmitter imaging and could be applied in studies that involve evaluation of imbalances in neurotransmitters levels.

  8. Direct Visualization of Neurotransmitters in Rat Brain Slices by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI - MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anna Maria A. P.; Vendramini, Pedro H.; Galaverna, Renan; Schwab, Nicolas V.; Alberici, Luciane C.; Augusti, Rodinei; Castilho, Roger F.; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2016-12-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of neurotransmitters has so far been mainly performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) where derivatization reagents, deuterated matrix and/or high resolution, or tandem MS have been applied to circumvent problems with interfering ion peaks from matrix and from isobaric species. We herein describe the application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI)-MSI in rat brain coronal and sagittal slices for direct spatial monitoring of neurotransmitters and choline with no need of derivatization reagents and/or deuterated materials. The amino acids γ-aminobutyric (GABA), glutamate, aspartate, serine, as well as acetylcholine, dopamine, and choline were successfully imaged using a commercial DESI source coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The spatial distribution of the analyzed compounds in different brain regions was determined. We conclude that the ambient matrix-free DESI-MSI is suitable for neurotransmitter imaging and could be applied in studies that involve evaluation of imbalances in neurotransmitters levels.

  9. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Molecular Distributions in Cultured Neurons and Their Processes: Comparative Analysis of Sample Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin R.; Li, Zhen; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2012-11-01

    Neurons often exhibit a complex chemical distribution and topography; therefore, sample preparation protocols that preserve structures ranging from relatively large cell somata to small neurites and growth cones are important factors in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging studies. Here, SIMS was used to investigate the subcellular localization of lipids and lipophilic species in neurons from Aplysia californica. Using individual neurons cultured on silicon wafers, we compared and optimized several SIMS sampling approaches. After an initial step to remove the high salt culturing media, formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde, and glycerol, and various combinations thereof, were tested for their ability to achieve cell stabilization during and after the removal of extracellular media. These treatments improved the preservation of cellular morphology as visualized with SIMS imaging. For analytes >250 Da, coating the cell surface with a 3.2 nm-thick gold layer increased the ion intensity; multiple analytes previously not observed or observed at low abundance were detected, including intact cholesterol and vitamin E molecular ions. However, once a sample was coated, many of the lower molecular mass (cell stabilization with glycerol and 4 % paraformaldehyde. The sample preparation methods described here enhance SIMS imaging of processes of individual cultured neurons over a broad mass range with enhanced image contrast.

  10. THE LEECH EXOPLANET IMAGING SURVEY: ORBIT AND COMPONENT MASSES OF THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE, LATE-TYPE BINARY NO UMa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlieder, Joshua E. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip; Leisenring, Jarron; Defrère, Denis; Close, Laird M.; Eisner, Josh A. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Esposito, Simone [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Weber, Michael [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Biller, Beth A.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Buenzli, Esther; Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556 (United States); Hofmann, Karl-Heinz, E-mail: joshua.e.schlieder@nasa.gov [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); and others

    2016-02-10

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBT Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt exoplanet imaging survey. Our H-, K{sub s}-, and L′-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.″09. The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ∼7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0 ± 0.5 primary and K6.5 ± 0.5 secondary are 0.83 ± 0.02 M{sub ⊙} and 0.64 ± 0.02 M{sub ⊙}, respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87 ± 0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ∼500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group, and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa binary components to those predicted by five sets of stellar evolution models at the age of the Ursa Major group. We find excellent agreement between our measured masses and model predictions with little systematic scatter between the models. NO UMa joins the short list of nearby, bright, late-type binaries having known ages and fully characterized orbits.

  11. Topographical and Chemical Imaging of a Phase Separated Polymer Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Infrared Spectroscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tamin; Karácsony, Orsolya; Bocharova, Vera; Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the use of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/infrared spectroscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform was demonstrated for the acquisition and correlation of nanoscale sample surface topography and chemical images based on infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The infrared chemical imaging component of the system utilized photothermal expansion of the sample at the tip of the atomic force microscopy probe recorded at infrared wave numbers specific to the different surface constituents. The mass spectrometry-based chemical imaging component of the system utilized nanothermal analysis probes for thermolytic surface sampling followed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the gas phase species produced with subsequent mass analysis. The basic instrumental setup, operation, and image correlation procedures are discussed, and the multimodal imaging capability and utility are demonstrated using a phase separated poly(2-vinylpyridine)/poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer thin film. The topography and both the infrared and mass spectral chemical images showed that the valley regions of the thin film surface were comprised primarily of poly(2-vinylpyridine) and hill or plateau regions were primarily poly(methyl methacrylate). The spatial resolution of the mass spectral chemical images was estimated to be 1.6 μm based on the ability to distinguish surface features in those images that were also observed in the topography and infrared images of the same surface.

  12. Intrahepatic and hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma: Qualitative and quantitative evaluation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattach, Hassan El, E-mail: hassangreenmed@gmail.com [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Dohan, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.dohan@lrb.aphp.fr [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 Avenue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); UMR INSERM 965-Paris 7 “Angiogenèse et recherche translationnelle”, 2 rue Amboise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Guerrache, Youcef, E-mail: docyoucef05@yahoo.fr [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Dautry, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.dautry@lrb.aphp.fr [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 Avenue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • DW-MR imaging helps depicts all intrahepatic or hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas. • DW-MRI provides best conspicuity of intrahepatic or hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas than the other MRI sequences (P < 0.001). • The use of normalized ADC using the liver as reference organ results in the most restricted distribution of ADC values of intrahepatic or hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas (variation coefficient = 16.6%). - Abstract: Objective: To qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the presentation of intrahepatic and hilar mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Materials and methods: Twenty-eight patients with histopathologically proven mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma (hilar, n = 17; intrahepatic, n = 11) underwent hepatic DW-MRI at 1.5-T using free-breathing acquisition and three b-values (0,400,800 s/mm{sup 2}). Cholangiocarcinomas were evaluated qualitatively using visual analysis of DW-MR images and quantitatively with conventional ADC and normalized ADC measurements using liver and spleen as reference organs. Results: All cholangiocarcinomas (28/28; 100%) were visible on DW-MR images. DW-MRI yielded best conspicuity of cholangiocarcinomas than the other MRI sequences (P < 0.001). Seven cholangiocarcinomas (7/11; 64%) showed hypointense central area on DW-MR images. Conventional ADC value of cholangiocarcinomas (1.042 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s ± 0.221 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; range: 0.616 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s to 2.050 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly lower than that of apparently normal hepatic parenchyma (1.362 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s ± 0.187 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.0001), although substantial overlap was found. No significant differences in ADC and normalized ADC values were found between intrahepatic and hilar cholangiocarcinomas. The use of normalized ADC using the liver as reference organ resulted in the most restricted

  13. Differentiation of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma from hepatocellular carcinoma on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Rihyeon; Shin, Cheong-Il; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Joo, Ijin; Kim, Seong Ho; Hwang, Inpyeong [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Sun; Choi, Byung Ihn [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine the different imaging features of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma (IMCC) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study was institutional review board approved and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with histologically confirmed IMCCs (n = 46) or HCCs (n = 58) were included. Imaging features of IMCCs and HCCs on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI including T2- and T1-weighted, diffusion weighted images, dynamic study and hepatobiliary phase (HBP) images were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify relevant differentiating features between IMCCs and HCCs. Multivariate analysis revealed heterogeneous T2 signal intensity and a hypointense rim on the HBP as suggestive findings of IMCCs and the wash-in and ''portal wash-out'' enhancement pattern as well as focal T1 high signal intensity foci as indicative of HCCs (all, p < 0.05). When we combined any three of the above four imaging features, we were able to diagnose IMCCs with 94 % (43/46) sensitivity and 86 % (50/58) specificity. Combined interpretation of enhancement characteristics including HBP images, morphologic features, and strict application of the ''portal wash-out'' pattern helped more accurate discrimination of IMCCs from HCCs. (orig.)

  14. 3D multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry reveals penetration of 18O-trehalose in mouse sperm nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude P Lechene

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genetically engineered mice in medical research has led to ever increasing storage costs. Trehalose has a significant beneficial effect in preserving the developmental potential of mouse sperm following partial desiccation and storage at temperatures above freezing. Using multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry, we are able to image and measure trehalose in individual spermatozoa. We provide the first evidence that trehalose penetrates the nucleus of a mammalian cell, permitting tolerance to desiccation. These results have broad implications for long-term storage of mammalian cells.

  15. High-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides in the root of Paeonia lactiflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Römpp, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution atmospheric-pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) at 10 μm pixel size was performed to unravel the spatio-chemical distribution of major secondary metabolites in the root of Paeonia lactiflora. The spatial...... distributions of two major classes of bioactive components, gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides, were investigated and visualized at the cellular level in tissue sections of P. lactiflora roots. Accordingly, other primary and secondary metabolites were imaged, including amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids...

  16. Assessing the fundamental limits of multiple star formation: An imaging search for the lowest mass stellar companions to intermediate-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchene, Gaspard; Tzern Oon, Jner; Kantorski, Patrick; De Rosa, Robert J.; Thomas, Sandrine; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Nielsen, Eric L.; Konopacky, Quinn M.

    2017-01-01

    Stellar binaries are a common byproduct of star formation and therefore inform us on the processes of collapse and fragmentation of prestellar cores. While multiplicity surveys generally reveal an extensive diversity of multiple systems, with broad ranges of semi-major axis, mass ratio and eccentricities, one remarkable feature that was identified in the last two decades is the so-called brown dwarf desert, i.e., the apparent paucity of (non-planetary) substellar companions to solar-type stars. This "desert" was primarily identified among spectroscopic binaries but also appears to be a significant feature of wider, visual binaries. The physical origin of this feature has not been fully accounted for but is likely established during the formation of the systems. One way to shed new light on this question is to study the frequency of low-mass stellar companions to intermediate-mass star (late-B type, or 3-5 Msun), as those form through a similar, albeit scaled-up, mechanism as solar-type stars. Here we present preliminary results from two adaptive-optics based surveys to search for such multiple systems. Specifically, we are using the new ShaneAO system on the Lick3m telescope (~100 stars observed to date) and the Gemini Planet Imager (45 stars observed). We are targeting stars located both in open clusters and scattered in the Galactic field to search for potential evidence of dynamic evolution. To identify candidate low-mass companions as close in to target stars, we use advanced point spread function (PSF) subtraction algorithms, specifically implementations of the LOCI and KLIP algorithms. In the case of the ShaneAO observations, which do not allow for field rotation, we use LOCI in combination with Reference Differential Imaging (ADI), using our library of science images as input for PSF subtraction. In this contribution, we will discuss the potential of ShaneAO to reveal faint, subarcsecond companions in this context and present candidate companions from both

  17. Molecule-Specific Imaging Analysis of Carcinogens in Breast Cancer Cells Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, J N; Knize, M G; Kulp, K S; Wu, K J

    2003-08-19

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is used to study the localization of heterocyclic amines in MCF7 line of human breast cancer cells. The detection sensitivities of a model rodent mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were determined. Following an established criteria for the determination of status of freeze-fracture cells, the distribution of PhIP in the MCF7 cells are reported.

  18. Nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: Novel sample preparation methods and nanoparticle screening for plant metabolite imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagnik, Gargey B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    The main goal of the presented research is development of nanoparticle based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This dissertation includes the application of previously developed data acquisition methods, development of novel sample preparation methods, application and comparison of novel nanoparticle matrices, and comparison of two nanoparticle matrix application methods for MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS imaging.

  19. SATURNʼS INNER SATELLITES: ORBITS, MASSES, AND THE CHAOTIC MOTION OF ATLAS FROM NEW CASSINI IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Nicholas J.; Renner, Stéfan; Murray, Carl D.; Evans, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present numerically derived orbits and mass estimates for the inner Saturnian satellites, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus from a fit to 2580 new Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem astrometric observations spanning 2004 February to 2013 August. The observations are provided as machine-readable and Virtual Observatory tables. We estimate GM Atlas = (0.384 ± 0.001) × 10 −3 km 3 s −2 , a value 13% smaller than the previously published estimate but with ...

  20. HIghMass -- High HI Mass, HI-rich Galaxies at z~0: Sample Definition, Optical and Halpha Imaging, and Star Formation Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Shan; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael G; Adams, Elizabeth A; Brinchmann, Jarle; Chengalur, Jayaram N; Hunt, Leslie K; Masters, Karen L; Matsushita, Satoki; Saintonge, Amelie; Spekkens, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    We present first results of the study of a set of exceptional HI sources identified in the 40% ALFALFA extragalactic HI survey catalog alpha.40 as being both HI massive (M_HI > 10^10 Msun) and having high gas fractions for their stellar masses: the HIghMass galaxy sample. We analyze UV- and optical-broadband and Halpha images to understand the nature of their relatively underluminous disks in optical and to test whether their high gas fractions can be tracked to higher dark matter halo spin parameters or late gas accretion. Estimates of their star formation rates (SFRs) based on SED-fitting agree within uncertainties with the Halpha luminosity inferred SFRs. The HII region luminosity functions have standard slopes at the luminous end. The global SFRs demonstrate that the HIghMass galaxies exhibit active ongoing star formation (SF) with moderate SF efficiency, but relative to normal spirals, a lower integrated SFR in the past. Because the SF activity in these systems is spread throughout their extended disks, ...

  1. Final LDRD report : development of sample preparation methods for ChIPMA-based imaging mass spectrometry of tissue samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this short-term LDRD project was to acquire the tools needed to use our chemical imaging precision mass analyzer (ChIPMA) instrument to analyze tissue samples. This effort was an outgrowth of discussions with oncologists on the need to find the cellular origin of signals in mass spectra of serum samples, which provide biomarkers for ovarian cancer. The ultimate goal would be to collect chemical images of biopsy samples allowing the chemical images of diseased and nondiseased sections of a sample to be compared. The equipment needed to prepare tissue samples have been acquired and built. This equipment includes an cyro-ultramicrotome for preparing thin sections of samples and a coating unit. The coating unit uses an electrospray system to deposit small droplets of a UV-photo absorbing compound on the surface of the tissue samples. Both units are operational. The tissue sample must be coated with the organic compound to enable matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and matrix enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) measurements with the ChIPMA instrument Initial plans to test the sample preparation using human tissue samples required development of administrative procedures beyond the scope of this LDRD. Hence, it was decided to make two types of measurements: (1) Testing the spatial resolution of ME-SIMS by preparing a substrate coated with a mixture of an organic matrix and a bio standard and etching a defined pattern in the coating using a liquid metal ion beam, and (2) preparing and imaging C. elegans worms. Difficulties arose in sectioning the C. elegans for analysis and funds and time to overcome these difficulties were not available in this project. The facilities are now available for preparing biological samples for analysis with the ChIPMA instrument. Some further investment of time and resources in sample preparation should make this a useful tool for chemical imaging applications.

  2. Coupling a versatile aerosol apparatus to a synchrotron: Vacuum ultraviolet light scattering, photoelectron imaging, and fragment free mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinian; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Leone, Stephen R.

    2006-04-01

    An aerosol apparatus has been coupled to the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This apparatus has multiple capabilities for aerosol studies, including vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light scattering, photoelectron imaging, and mass spectroscopy of aerosols. By utilizing an inlet system consisting of a 200μm orifice nozzle and aerodynamic lenses, aerosol particles of ˜50nm-˜1μm in diameter can be sampled directly from atmospheric pressure. The machine is versatile and can probe carbonaceous aerosols generated by a laboratory flame, nebulized solutions of biological molecules, hydrocarbon aerosol reaction products, and synthesized inorganic nanoparticles. The sensitivity of this apparatus is demonstrated by the detection of nanoparticles with VUV light scattering, photoelectron imaging, and charged particle detection. In addition to the detection of nanoparticles, the thermal vaporization of aerosols on a heater tip leads to the generation of intact gas phase molecules. This phenomenon coupled to threshold single photon ionization, accessible with tunable VUV light, allows for fragment-free mass spectrometry of complex molecules. The initial experiments with light scattering, photoelectron imaging, and aerosol mass spectrometry reported here serve as a demonstration of the design philosophy and multiple capabilities of the apparatus.

  3. Intraventricular mass lesions at magnetic resonance imaging: iconographic essay - part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Felipe Damasio de; Reis, Fabiano; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Giocondo, E-mail: fdamasiocastro@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    The present essay is illustrated with magnetic resonance images obtained at the authors’ institution over the past 15 years and discusses the main imaging findings of intraventricular tumor-like lesions (colloid cyst, oligodendroglioma, astroblastoma, lipoma, cavernoma) and of inflammatory/infectious lesions (neurocysticercosis and an atypical presentation of neurohistoplasmosis). Such lesions represent a subgroup of intracranial lesions with unique characteristics and some imaging patterns that may facilitate the differential diagnosis. (author)

  4. Intraventricular mass lesions at magnetic resonance imaging: iconographic essay - part 2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Felipe Damásio; Reis, Fabiano; Guerra, José Guilherme Giocondo

    2014-01-01

    The present essay is illustrated with magnetic resonance images obtained at the authors' institution over the past 15 years and discusses the main imaging findings of intraventricular tumor-like lesions (colloid cyst, oligodendroglioma, astroblastoma, lipoma, cavernoma) and of inflammatory/infectious lesions (neurocysticercosis and an atypical presentation of neurohistoplasmosis). Such lesions represent a subgroup of intracranial lesions with unique characteristics and some imaging patterns that may facilitate the differential diagnosis. PMID:25741092

  5. Quantitative mass barcode-like image of nicotine in single longitudinally sliced hair sections from long-term smokers by matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Nirasawa, Takashi; Takubo, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometric technique (IMS) offered a new breakthrough perspective in the analysis of drug abuse in forensic science; however, it only produced barcode-like images, semi-quantitative analysis. In order to develop intermittent monitoring by this IMS for forensic and medical sciences, it is important to quantitatively measure the contents of longitudinally sliced hair sections. We developed quantitative imaging mass spectrometry (QIMS) of nicotine (NC) in longitudinally sliced hairs by MALDI-IMS with the selected reaction monitoring mode using a labeled NC ((13)C3-NC) standard for the serially chronological monitoring and traceability of NC intake in heavy smokers. The calibration curve of NC/(13)C3-NC was virtually a linear equation at ranges from 1 to 50 ng/mL, the slope was 0.020, and the intercept was almost 0.023 and the R(2) was 0.9965. The limit of quantitation of NC was calculated as 1.6 ng/mg hair (an average weight of the hair would be assumed 0.06 mg/cm) by QIMS. Moreover, NC concentrations in two separate heavy smokers (n = 3) were 8.5 ± 1.2 and 34.5 ± 2.8 ng/mg hair, respectively, and covariations were ∼10% using a single hair. Quantitative mass barcode-like image of sliced section of hair allowed for the quantitative assessment of NC concentrations in long-term smokers similar to drugs and medicines during drug histories.

  6. HIghMass-high H I mass, H I-rich galaxies at z ∼ 0 sample definition, optical and Hα imaging, and star formation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shan; Matsushita, Satoki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael G.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Chengalur, Jayaram N. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Pune 411007 (India); Hunt, Leslie K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo East Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Masters, Karen L. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth POI 3FX (United Kingdom); Saintonge, Amelie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Spekkens, Kristine, E-mail: shan@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2014-09-20

    We present first results of the study of a set of exceptional H I sources identified in the 40% ALFALFA extragalactic H I survey catalog α.40 as both being H I massive (M{sub HI}>10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) and having high gas fractions for their stellar masses: the HIghMass galaxy sample. We analyze UV- and optical-broadband and Hα images to understand the nature of their relatively underluminous disks in optical and to test whether their high gas fractions can be tracked to higher dark matter halo spin parameters or late gas accretion. Estimates of their star formation rates (SFRs) based on spectral energy distribution fitting agree within uncertainties with the Hα luminosity inferred current massive SFRs. The H II region luminosity functions, parameterized as dN/dlog L∝L {sup α}, have standard slopes at the luminous end (α ∼ –1). The global SFRs demonstrate that the HIghMass galaxies exhibit active ongoing star formation (SF) with moderate SF efficiency but, relative to normal spirals, a lower integrated SFR in the past. Because the SF activity in these systems is spread throughout their extended disks, they have overall lower SFR surface densities and lower surface brightness in the optical bands. Relative to normal disk galaxies, the majority of HIghMass galaxies have higher Hα equivalent widths and are bluer in their outer disks, implying an inside-out disk growth scenario. Downbending double exponential disks are more frequent than upbending disks among the gas-rich galaxies, suggesting that SF thresholds exist in the downbending disks, probably as a result of concentrated gas distribution.

  7. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramoto, S.; Forbes, T.P.; van Asten, A.C.; Gillen, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal i

  8. Direct imaging of plant metabolites in leaves and petals by Desorption Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Janfelt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    of leaves from the same plant, only some of the metabolites were accessible, even with the ternary solvent system. For these samples, the leaves could be imaged with direct DESI after chloroform had been used to remove most of the cuticle, thus exposing lower layers in the leaf structure. A number...... and demonstrated on leaves and petals of Hypericum perforatum. The direct imaging approaches are in contrast to previous DESI imaging studies where indirect analysis via imprints were used in order to overcome the morphological barrier presented by the layer of cuticular waxes covering the surface of a leaf...... or a petal. In order to enable direct imaging of such plant materials, a new ternary solvent system is introduced, providing a higher and more stable signal from soft plant materials than the binary solvent systems typically used in DESI. With this ternary solvent system, it was possible to image a number...

  9. Monitoring Toxic Ionic Liquids in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Consuelo J.; Tata, Alessandra; de Campos, Michel L.; Peng, Chun; Ifa, Demian R.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry imaging has become an increasingly powerful technique for the direct analysis of biological tissues in the open environment with minimal sample preparation and fast analysis times. In this study, we introduce desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) as a novel, rapid, and sensitive approach to localize the accumulation of a mildly toxic ionic liquid (IL), AMMOENG 130 in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The work demonstrates that DESI-MSI has the potential to rapidly monitor the accumulation of IL pollutants in aquatic organisms. AMMOENG 130 is a quaternary ammonium-based IL reported to be broadly used as a surfactant in commercialized detergents. It is known to exhibit acute toxicity to zebrafish causing extensive damage to gill secondary lamellae and increasing membrane permeability. Zebrafish were exposed to the IL in a static 96-h exposure study in concentrations near the LC50 of 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/L. DESI-MS analysis of zebrafish gills demonstrated the appearance of a dealkylated AMMOENG 130 metabolite in the lowest concentration of exposure identified by a high resolution hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer as the trimethylstearylammonium ion, [C21H46N]+. With DESI-MSI, the accumulation of AMMOENG 130 and its dealkylated metabolite in zebrafish tissue was found in the nervous and respiratory systems. AMMOENG 130 and the metabolite were capable of penetrating the blood brain barrier of the fish with significant accumulation in the brain. Hence, we report for the first time the simultaneous characterization, distribution, and metabolism of a toxic IL in whole body zebrafish analyzed by DESI-MSI. This ambient mass spectrometry imaging technique shows great promise for the direct analysis of biological tissues to qualitatively monitor foreign, toxic, and persistent compounds in aquatic organisms from the environment.

  10. Development and application of a channelized Hotelling observer for DBT optimization on structured background test images with mass simulating targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dimitar; Michielsen, Koen; Cockmartin, Lesley; Zhang, Gouzhi; Young, Kenneth; Marshall, Nicholas; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D mammography technique that promises better visualization of low contrast lesions than conventional 2D mammography. A wide range of parameters influence the diagnostic information in DBT images and a systematic means of DBT system optimization is needed. The gold standard for image quality assessment is to perform a human observer experiment with experienced readers. Using human observers for optimization is time consuming and not feasible for the large parameter space of DBT. Our goal was to develop a model observer (MO) that can predict human reading performance for standard detection tasks of target objects within a structured phantom and subsequently apply it in a first comparative study. The phantom consists of an acrylic semi-cylindrical container with acrylic spheres of different sizes and the remaining space filled with water. Three types of lesions were included: 3D printed spiculated and non-spiculated mass lesions along with calcification groups. The images of the two mass lesion types were reconstructed with 3 different reconstruction methods (FBP, FBP with SRSAR, MLTRpr) and read by human readers. A Channelized Hotelling model observer was created for the non-spiculated lesion detection task using five Laguerre-Gauss channels, tuned for better performance. For the non-spiculated mass lesions a linear relation between the MO and human observer results was found, with correlation coefficients of 0.956 for standard FBP, 0.998 for FBP with SRSAR and 0.940 for MLTRpr. Both the MO and human observer percentage correct results for the spiculated masses were close to 100%, and showed no difference from each other for every reconstruction algorithm.

  11. Arterial spin labeling MR imaging for characterisation of renal masses in patients with impaired renal function: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, Ivan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Rafatzand, Khashayar; Robson, Philip; Alsop, David C. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wagner, Andrew A. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Surgery, Division of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Atkins, Michael B. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Hematology/Oncology, Boston, MA (United States); Rofsky, Neil M. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Departments of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of vascularity of renal masses in patients with impaired renal function. Between May 2007 and November 2008, 11/67 consecutive patients referred for MRI evaluation of a renal mass underwent unenhanced ASL-MRI due to moderate-to-severe chronic or acute renal failure. Mean blood flow in vascularised and non-vascularised lesions and the relation between blood flow and final diagnosis of malignancy were correlated with a 2-sided homogeneous variance t-test and the Fisher Exact Test, respectively. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Seventeen renal lesions were evaluated in 11 patients (8 male; mean age = 70 years) (range 57-86). The median eGFR was 24 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} (range 7-39). The average blood flow of 11 renal masses interpreted as ASL-positive (134 +/- 85.7 mL/100 g/min) was higher than that of 6 renal masses interpreted as ASL-negative (20.5 +/- 8.1 mL/100 g/min)(p = 0.015). ASL-positivity correlated with malignancy (n = 3) or epithelial atypia (n = 1) at histopathology or progression at follow up (n = 7). ASL detection of vascularity in renal masses in patients with impaired renal function is feasible and seems to indicate neoplasia although the technique requires further evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Self-compassion moderates the relationship between body mass index and both eating disorder pathology and body image flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Miller, Kathryn E

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether self-compassion, the tendency to treat oneself kindly during distress and disappointments, would attenuate the positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder pathology, and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility. One-hundred and fifty-three female undergraduate students completed measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, eating disorder pathology, and body image flexibility, which refers to one's acceptance of negative body image experiences. Controlling for self-esteem, hierarchical regressions revealed that self-compassion moderated the relationships between BMI and the criteria. Specifically, the positive relationship between BMI and eating disorder pathology and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility were weaker the higher women's levels of self-compassion. Among young women, self-compassion may help to protect against the greater eating disturbances that coincide with a higher BMI, and may facilitate the positive body image experiences that tend to be lower the higher one's BMI.

  13. Speckle Imaging Excludes Low-mass Companions Orbiting the Exoplanet Host Star TRAPPIST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Horch, Elliott P.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Hirsch, Lea; Nusdeo, Dan; Scott, Nicholas J.

    2016-09-01

    We have obtained the highest-resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 au. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 au. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that TRAPPIST-1 is a single star.

  14. Speckle Imaging Excludes Low-Mass Companions Orbiting the Exoplanet Host Star TRAPPIST-1

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Elliott P. Horch; Winters, Jennifer G.; Hirsch, Lea; Nusdeo, Dan; Scott, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained the highest resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 AU. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 AU. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that T...

  15. Speckle Imaging Excludes Low-Mass Companions Orbiting the Exoplanet Host Star TRAPPIST-1

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Steve B; Horch, Elliott P; Winters, Jennifer G; Hirsch, Lea; Nusdeo, Dan; Scott, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained the highest resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 AU. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 AU. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that TRAPPIST-1 is a single star.

  16. Spectrum of Fat-containing Soft-Tissue Masses at MR Imaging: The Common, the Uncommon, the Characteristic, and the Sometimes Confusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pushpender; Potti, Tommy A; Wuertzer, Scott D; Lenchik, Leon; Pacholke, David A

    2016-01-01

    Fat-containing tumors are the most common soft-tissue tumors encountered clinically. The vast majority of fat-containing soft-tissue masses are benign. Lipomas are the most common benign fat-containing masses and demonstrate a characteristic appearance at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Less common benign soft-tissue masses include lipoblastoma, angiolipoma, spindle cell lipoma/pleomorphic lipoma, myolipoma, chondroid lipoma, lipomatosis of nerve, lipomatosis, hibernoma, and fat necrosis. Well-differentiated liposarcomas (WDLPSs)/atypical lipomatous tumors (ALTs) are locally aggressive soft-tissue masses that do not metastasize. Biologically more aggressive liposarcomas include myxoid, pleomorphic, and dedifferentiated liposarcomas. At MR imaging, lipomas typically resemble subcutaneous fat but may contain a few thin septa. The presence of thick, irregular, enhancing septa and nonfatty soft-tissue mass components suggests liposarcoma rather than lipoma. However, benign lipomatous lesions and WDLPS/ALT often have overlapping MR imaging findings. Distinguishing WDLPS/ALT from a benign lipomatous lesion or from fat necrosis at imaging can be challenging and often requires histologic evaluation. We present the spectrum of fat-containing masses, using the World Health Organization classification of adipocytic tumors, with an emphasis on commonly encountered lesions, characteristic MR imaging findings associated with specific tumors, and overlapping MR imaging findings of certain tumors that may require histologic sampling. We also briefly discuss the role of molecular markers in proper characterization and classification of fat-containing soft-tissue masses. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  17. OGLE-2012-BLG-0563Lb: a Saturn-mass Planet around an M Dwarf with the Mass Constrained by Subaru AO imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fukui, A; Sumi, T; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Han, C; Suzuki, D; Beaulieu, J -P; Batista, V; Udalski, A; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y; Hundertmark, M; Abe, F; Freeman, M; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Koshimoto, N; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Philpott, L C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, T; Sullivan, D J; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Choi, J -Y; Christie, G W; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Drummond, J; Gaudi, B S; Hwang, K -H; Kavka, A; Lee, C U; McCormick, J; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shin, I-G; Tan, T -G; Yee, J C; Szymański, M K; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Poleski, R; Kozłowski, S; Pietrukowicz, P; Ulaczyk, K; Bramich, Ł Wyrzykowski D M; Browne, P; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a microlensing exoplanet OGLE-2012-BLG-0563Lb with the planet-star mass ratio ~1 x 10^{-3}. Intensive photometric observations of a high-magnification microlensing event allow us to detect a clear signal of the planet. Although no parallax signal is detected in the light curve, we instead succeed at detecting the flux from the host star in high-resolution JHK'-band images obtained by the Subaru/AO188 and IRCS instruments, allowing us to constrain the absolute physical parameters of the planetary system. With the help of a spectroscopic information of the source star obtained during the high-magnification state by Bensby et al. (2013), we find that the lens system is located at 1.3^{+0.6}_{-0.8} kpc from us, and consists of an M dwarf (0.34^{+0.12}_{-0.20} M_sun) orbited by a Saturn-mass planet (0.39^{+0.14}_{-0.23} M_Jup) at the projected separation of 0.74^{+0.26}_{-0.42} AU (close model) or 4.3^{+1.5}_{-2.5} AU (wide model). The probability of contamination in the host star's flux...

  18. The TRENDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey. VI. Discovery of a Mass, Age, and Metallicity Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R; Bechter, Eric B; Montet, Benjamin T; Johnson, John Asher; Piskorz, Danielle; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The mass and age of substellar objects are degenerate parameters leaving the evolutionary state of brown dwarfs ambiguous without additional information. Theoretical models are normally used to help distinguish between old, massive brown dwarfs and young, low mass brown dwarfs but these models have yet to be properly calibrated. We have carried out an infrared high-contrast imaging program with the goal of detecting substellar objects as companions to nearby stars to help break degeneracies in inferred physical properties such as mass, age, and composition. Rather than using imaging observations alone, our targets are pre-selected based on the existence of dynamical accelerations informed from years of stellar radial velocity (RV) measurements. In this paper, we present the discovery of a rare benchmark brown dwarf orbiting the nearby ($d=18.69\\pm0.19$ pc), solar-type (G9V) star HD 4747 ([Fe/H]=$-0.22\\pm0.04$) with a projected separation of only $\\rho=11.3\\pm0.2$ AU ($\\theta \\approx$ 0.6''). Precise Doppler m...

  19. High-Contrast 3.8 Micron Imaging of the Brown Dwarf/Planet-Mass Companion to GJ 758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne M.; Bailey, Vanessa; Fabrycky, Daniel; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rodigas, Timothy; Hinz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    We present L' band (3.8 Micron) MMT/Clio high-contrast imaging data for the nearby star GJ 758, which was recently reported by Thalmann et al. (2009) to have one - possibly two - faint comoving companions (GJ 7588 and "C", respectively). GJ 758B is detected in two distinct datasets. Additionally, we report a \\textit{possible} detection of the object identified by Thalmann et al as "GJ 758C" in our more sensitive dataset, though it is likely a residual speckle. However, if it is the same object as that reported by Thalmann et al. it cannot be a companion in a bound orbit. GJ 7588 has a H-L' color redder than nearly all known L-T8 dwarfs. 8ased on comparisons with the COND evolutionary models, GJ 7588 has Te approx. 560 K (+150 K, -90 K) and a mass ranging from approx.10-20 Mj if it is approx.1 Gyr old to approx. 25-40 Mj if it is 8.7 Gyr old. GJ 7588 is likely in a highly eccentric orbit, e approx. 0.73 (+0.12,-0.21), with a semimajor axis of approx. 44 AU (+32 AU, -14 AU). Though GJ 7588 is sometimes discussed within the context of exoplanet direct imaging, its mass is likely greater than the deuterium-burning limit and its formation may resemble that of binary stars rather than that of jovian-mass planets.

  20. Using Orthogonal Images to Infer Spatial Variations in Opacity of Remaining Ablator and Fuel Mass in Imploding Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Laura Robin; Bradley, David; Glenn, Steven; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Khan, Shahab; Kyrala, George; Ma, Tammy; Pak, Art; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Tommasini, Riccardo; Town, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Experiments at the National Ignition Facility attempt to achieve laser-driven inertial confinement fusion by imploding a capsule of DT fuel. In order to achieve sufficient density and temperature to drive nuclear fusion, the imploding capsule must be both highly convergent and highly symmetric. X-ray self-emission from imploding capsules is imaged for size and symmetry along two orthogonal axes by time-integrated (image plates) and time-resolved (framing cameras) diagnostics. Differences in emission along these axes indicate either an anisotropic hot core or anisotropy in total optical depth of the remaining ablator and fuel mass. We compare integrated emission intensity along a common-line-of-sight to further remove the ambiguity between anisotropy of emission and absorption. While we find good correlation for some recent NIF implosions (indicating isotropic or optically thin remaining mass), we find significant variations for others, suggesting an observable anisotropy in the thickness or density of the remaining mass. These results may help explain observations of asymmetric neutron yield. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL-ABS-564186.

  1. HST/WFC3 Imaging of Protostellar Jets in Carina: [Fe II] Emission Tracing Massive Jets from Intermediate Mass Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, Megan

    2013-01-01

    We present narrowband WFC3-UVIS and -IR images of four externally irradiated protostellar jets in the Carina nebula: HH666, HH901, HH902, and HH1066. These massive jets are unusual because they are bathed in UV radiation from dozens of nearby O stars, but despite the strong incident ionizing radiation, portions of the jet remain neutral. Near-IR [Fe II] images reveal dense, neutral gas that was not seen in previous studies of H-alpha emission. We show that near-IR [Fe II] emitting gas must be self-shielded from Lyman continuum photons, regardless of its excitation mechanism (shocks, FUV radiation, or both). High densities are required for the survival of Fe+ amid the strong Lyman continuum from Tr14, raising estimates of the mass-loss rates by an order of magnitude. Higher jet mass-loss rates require higher accretion rates onto their driving protostars, implying that these jets are driven by intermediate-mass (IM; ~2-8 Msun) stars. Indeed, the IR driving sources of two of these outflows have luminosities that...

  2. Determination of paclitaxel distribution in solid tumors by nano-particle assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Morosi

    Full Text Available A sensitive, simple and reproducible protocol for nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging technique is described. The use of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles abolishes heterogeneous crystallization, matrix background interferences and enhances signal detection, especially in the low mass range. Molecular image normalization was based on internal standard deposition on tissues, allowing direct comparison of drug penetration and distribution between different organs and tissues. The method was applied to analyze the distribution of the anticancer drug paclitaxel, inside normal and neoplastic mouse tissue sections. Spatial resolution was good, with a linear response between different in vivo treatments and molecular imaging intensity using therapeutic drug doses. This technique distinguishes the different intensity of paclitaxel distribution in control organs of mice, such as liver and kidney, in relation to the dose. Animals treated with 30 mg/kg of paclitaxel had half of the concentration of those treated with 60 mg/kg. We investigated the spatial distribution of paclitaxel in human melanoma mouse xenografts, following different dosage schedules and found a more homogeneous drug distribution in tumors of mice given repeated doses (5×8 mg/kg plus a 60 mg/kg dose than in those assigned only a single 60 mg/kg dose. The protocol can be readily applied to investigate anticancer drug distribution in neoplastic lesions and to develop strategies to optimize and enhance drug penetration through different tumor tissues.

  3. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). VI. Comparing the Mass and Light in MACSJ0416.1-2403 using Frontier Field imaging and GLASS spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoag, Austin; Treu, Tommaso; Bradač, Maruša; Schmidt, Kasper B; Wang, Xin; Brammer, Gabriel B; Broussard, Adam; Amorin, Ricardo; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Schrabback, Tim; Trenti, Michele; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    We present a strong and weak gravitational lens model of the galaxy cluster MACSJ0416.1-2403, constrained using spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) and Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. We search for emission lines in known multiply imaged sources in the GLASS spectra, obtaining secure spectroscopic redshifts of 31 multiple images belonging to 16 distinct source galaxies. The GLASS spectra provide the first spectroscopic measurements for 6 of the source galaxies. The weak lensing signal is acquired from 884 galaxies in the F606W HFF image. By combining the weak lensing constraints with 15 multiple image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and 9 multiple image systems with photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster on an adaptive grid. The resulting total mass density map is compared with a stellar mass density map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields imaging data to study the relative distribution of stellar and total m...

  4. CHARACTERIZING THE STAR FORMATION OF THE LOW-MASS SHIELD GALAXIES FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Simones, Jacob E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7900 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Jürgen, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The Survey of Hi in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the Hi Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey based on their low Hi mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color–magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply be low-luminosity dwarf irregulars. We do not find a correlation between the recent star formation activity and the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy, suggesting that the star formation process is not driven by gravitational interactions, but regulated internally. Further, we find a broadening in the star formation and gas properties (i.e., specific SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions) compared to the generally tight correlation found in more massive galaxies. Overall, the star formation and gas properties indicate these very low-mass galaxies host a fluctuating, non-deterministic, and inefficient star formation process.

  5. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women.

  6. Characterizing the Star Formation of the Low-Mass SHIELD Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew E; Skillman, Evan D; Haynes, Martha P; Simones, Jacob E; Salzer, John J; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Elson, Ed C; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Ott, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ~10% of the HI ALFALFA survey based on their low HI mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star-formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color-magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star-formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star-formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply...

  7. Masses of the Planetary Nebula Central Stars in the Galactic Globular Cluster System from HST Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, George H.; De Marco, Orsola; Davies, James; Lotarevich, I.; Bond, Howard E.; Harrington, J. Patrick; Lanz, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    The globular cluster (GC) system of our Galaxy contains four planetary nebulae (PNe): K 648 (or Ps 1) in M15, IRAS 18333-2357 in M22, JaFu 1 in Pal 6, and JaFu 2 in NGC 6441. Because single-star evolution at the low stellar mass of present-epoch GCs was considered incapable of producing visible PNe, their origin presented a puzzle. We imaged the PN JaFu 1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain photometry of its central star (CS) and high-resolution morphological information. We imaged IRAS 18333-2357 with better depth and resolution, and we analyzed its archival HST spectra to constrain its CS temperature and luminosity. All PNe in Galactic GCs now have quality HST data, allowing us to improve CS mass estimates. We find reasonably consistent masses between 0.53 and 0.58 M ⊙ for all four objects, though estimates vary when adopting different stellar evolutionary calculations. The CS mass of IRAS 18333-2357, though, depends strongly on its temperature, which remains elusive due to reddening uncertainties. For all four objects, we consider their CS and nebula masses, their morphologies, and other incongruities to assess the likelihood that these objects formed from binary stars. Although generally limited by uncertainties (∼0.02 M ⊙) in post-AGB tracks and core mass versus luminosity relations, the high-mass CS in K 648 indicates a binary origin. The CS of JaFu 1 exhibits compact, bright [O iii] and Hα emission, like EGB 6, suggesting a binary companion or disk. Evidence is weaker for a binary origin of JaFu 2. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained [from the Data Archive] at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11558.

  8. Design and evaluation of a new automated method for the segmentation and characterization of masses on ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Nees, Alexis; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Zhou, Chuan; Shi, Jiazheng

    2008-03-01

    Segmentation of masses is the first step in most computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for characterization of breast masses as malignant or benign. In this study, we designed an automated method for segmentation of masses on ultrasound (US) images. The method automatically estimated an initial contour based on a manually-identified point approximately at the mass center. A two-stage active contour (AC) method iteratively refined the initial contour and performed self-examination and correction on the segmentation result. To evaluate our method, we compared it with manual segmentation by an experienced radiologists (R1) on a data set of 226 US images containing biopsy-proven masses from 121 patients (44 malignant and 77 benign). Four performance measures were used to evaluate the segmentation accuracy; two measures were related to the overlap between the computer and radiologist segmentation, and two were related to the area difference between the two segmentation results. To compare the difference between the segmentation results by the computer and R1 to inter-observer variation, a second radiologist (R2) also manually segmented all masses. The two overlap measures between the segmentation results by the computer and R1 were 0.87+ 0.16 and 0.73+ 0.17 respectively, indicating a high agreement. However, the segmentation results between two radiologists were more consistent. To evaluate the effect of the segmentation method on classification accuracy, three feature spaces were formed by extracting texture, width-to-height, and posterior shadowing features using the computer segmentation, R1's manual segmentation, and R2's manual segmentation. A linear discriminant analysis classifier using stepwise feature selection was tested and trained by a leave-one-case-out method to characterize the masses as malignant or benign. For case-based classification, the area A z under the test receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.90+/-0.03, 0.87+/-0.03 and 0

  9. The accumulation mechanism of the hypoxia imaging probe “FMISO” by imaging mass spectrometry: possible involvement of low-molecular metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Yukiko; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yukari; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Zhao, Songji; Higashino, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Shingo; Numata, Yoshito; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) has been widely used as a hypoxia imaging probe for diagnostic positron emission tomography (PET). FMISO is believed to accumulate in hypoxic cells via covalent binding with macromolecules after reduction of its nitro group. However, its detailed accumulation mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the chemical forms of FMISO and their distributions in tumours using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), which visualises spatial distribution of chemical compositions based on molecular masses in tissue sections. Our radiochemical analysis revealed that most of the radioactivity in tumours existed as low-molecular-weight compounds with unknown chemical formulas, unlike observations made with conventional views, suggesting that the radioactivity distribution primarily reflected that of these unknown substances. The IMS analysis indicated that FMISO and its reductive metabolites were nonspecifically distributed in the tumour in patterns not corresponding to the radioactivity distribution. Our IMS search found an unknown low-molecular-weight metabolite whose distribution pattern corresponded to that of both the radioactivity and the hypoxia marker pimonidazole. This metabolite was identified as the glutathione conjugate of amino-FMISO. We showed that the glutathione conjugate of amino-FMISO is involved in FMISO accumulation in hypoxic tumour tissues, in addition to the conventional mechanism of FMISO covalent binding to macromolecules. PMID:26582591

  10. [Consensus Meeting of Course Directors in Breast Imaging, 9 May 2009, in Frankfurt am Main - Topic: Masses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schimpfle, M P; Heindel, W; Kettritz, U; Schulz-Wendtland, R; Bick, U

    2010-08-01

    Fourteen directors of breast imaging courses met on behalf of the German Society of Radiology to discuss the actual standards of the diagnosis of masses. Open questions on the fields of mammography, breast ultrasound and breast MRI were elucidated by a presentation of one of the 14 panel members, followed by an electronic anonymous voting. Beside of the panel members, more than 300 participants of the consensus meeting contributed their opinions by electronic voting. Answers with definite majorities (> 75 %), answers with narrow majorities and those with missing majorities were discriminated from each other. The opinions of the plenum were compared to the majorities of the podium and showed only a few critical differences. Due to unequivocal majorities seven answers to important questions concerning the diagnosis of masses can lead to a further standardization of breast cancer diagnosis.

  11. Medical image of the week: right neck mass with thoracic extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi TA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old female with a history of chronic pancreatitis s/p total pancreatectomy and auto-islet cell transplantation developed a progressively enlarging right neck mass of 4 weeks duration. Coccidioides IgM antibodies were negative and IgG antibodies were positive by immunoassay (EIA, with titers 1:4 by complement fixation (CF. Fine needle aspiration with subsequent excisional biopsy of the right neck mass was performed and showed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia without fungal elements. Bronchoscopy with right upper lobe endobronchial biopsy and 4R lymph node endobronchial ultrasound-fine needle aspiration revealed granulomatous inflammation and Coccidioides spherules on Gomori's methenamine silver stain. Fungal cultures from the right neck mass fine needle aspiration, endobronchial biopsy, and 4R lymph node grew Coccidioides after three weeks of culture.

  12. Capillary-induced Homogenization of Matrix in Paper: A Powerful Approach for the Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Maico; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Herein we present a novel approach for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using mass spectrometry imaging. This strategy uses a filter paper previously “eluted” with a MALDI matrix solution as a support for analyte application. Samples are submitted to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and quantification through characteristic fingerprints is ultimately performed. Results for the content of rosuvastatin from a known formulation are comparable to those obtained with a validated HPLC method.

  13. Rapid and simultaneous in situ assessment of aflatoxins and stilbenes using silica plate imprinting mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Diogo N; Ferreira, Mônica S; Catharino, Rodrigo R

    2014-01-01

    A fast and direct combination of techniques for simultaneous mycotoxin and phytoalexin identification in peanut skin and kernel is described. Silica Plate Imprinting Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (SPILDI-MSI) is a powerful technique that exhibits great advantages, such as solvent-free and matrix-free characteristics, as well as no sample preparation or separation steps. It also permits accurate identification of mycotoxins and phytoalexins with unique fingerprint profiles in just a few seconds. Results are expressed as chemical images of the 4 identified types of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and a stilbenoid (resveratrol). Also, SPILDI-MSI allows the comparison between the spatial distribution of aflatoxins and resveratrol found in kernel and skin. This novel application has proven to be useful for instantaneous qualitative assessment of aflatoxins and stilbenoids both in the peanut skin and kernel and offers precise tracking of fungal contamination in nuts and other foodstuffs.

  14. Considerations for quantification of lipids in nerve tissue using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Rachelle R; Garrett, Timothy J; Conaway, Maria C Prieto; Calcutt, Nigel A; Stacpoole, Peter W; Yost, Richard A

    2011-10-30

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric imaging is a technique that provides the ability to identify and characterize endogenous and exogenous compounds spatially within tissue with relatively little sample preparation. While it is a proven methodology for qualitative analysis, little has been reported for its utility in quantitative measurements. In the current work, inherent challenges in MALDI quantification are addressed. Signal response is monitored over successive analyses of a single tissue section to minimize error due to variability in the laser, matrix application, and sample inhomogeneity. Methods for the application of an internal standard to tissue sections are evaluated and used to quantify endogenous lipids in nerve tissue. A precision of 5% or less standard error was achieved, illustrating that MALDI imaging offers a reliable means of in situ quantification for microgram-sized samples and requires minimal sample preparation.

  15. Rapid and simultaneous in situ assessment of aflatoxins and stilbenes using silica plate imprinting mass spectrometry imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo N de Oliveira

    Full Text Available A fast and direct combination of techniques for simultaneous mycotoxin and phytoalexin identification in peanut skin and kernel is described. Silica Plate Imprinting Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (SPILDI-MSI is a powerful technique that exhibits great advantages, such as solvent-free and matrix-free characteristics, as well as no sample preparation or separation steps. It also permits accurate identification of mycotoxins and phytoalexins with unique fingerprint profiles in just a few seconds. Results are expressed as chemical images of the 4 identified types of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and a stilbenoid (resveratrol. Also, SPILDI-MSI allows the comparison between the spatial distribution of aflatoxins and resveratrol found in kernel and skin. This novel application has proven to be useful for instantaneous qualitative assessment of aflatoxins and stilbenoids both in the peanut skin and kernel and offers precise tracking of fungal contamination in nuts and other foodstuffs.

  16. Imaging Metals in Brain Tissue by Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic J; Kysenius, Kai; Paul, Bence; Knauer, Beate; Hutchinson, Robert W; O'Connor, Ciaran; Fryer, Fred; Hennessey, Tom P; Bush, Ashley I; Crouch, Peter J; Doble, Philip A

    2017-01-22

    Metals are found ubiquitously throughout an organism, with their biological role dictated by both their chemical reactivity and abundance within a specific anatomical region. Within the brain, metals have a highly compartmentalized distribution, depending on the primary function they play within the central nervous system. Imaging the spatial distribution of metals has provided unique insight into the biochemical architecture of the brain, allowing direct correlation between neuroanatomical regions and their known function with regard to metal-dependent processes. In addition, several age-related neurological disorders feature disrupted metal homeostasis, which is often confined to small regions of the brain that are otherwise difficult to analyze. Here, we describe a comprehensive method for quantitatively imaging metals in the mouse brain, using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and specially designed image processing software. Focusing on iron, copper and zinc, which are three of the most abundant and disease-relevant metals within the brain, we describe the essential steps in sample preparation, analysis, quantitative measurements and image processing to produce maps of metal distribution within the low micrometer resolution range. This technique, applicable to any cut tissue section, is capable of demonstrating the highly variable distribution of metals within an organ or system, and can be used to identify changes in metal homeostasis and absolute levels within fine anatomical structures.

  17. Determinants of Left Ventricular Mass and Hypertrophy in Hemodialysis Patients Assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajan K.; Oliver, Scott; Mark, Patrick B.; Powell, Joanna R.; Emily P. McQuarrie; Traynor, James P.; Dargie, Henry J.; Jardine, Alan G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for premature cardiovascular death in hemodialysis (HD) patients and one of the three forms of uremic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a volume-independent technique to assess cardiac structure. We used CMR to assess the determinants of left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVH in HD patients.

  18. Glomus vagale presenting as a supraclavicular mass: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puvaneswary, M.; Gani, J. [John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Departments of Medical Imaging and Surgery; Kalnins, I.K. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Sydney NSW (Australia)

    1998-11-01

    Glomus vagale are rare vascular tumours of the paraganglion cells of the vagus nerve, and they usually occur in the carotid space. Tumours can be familial, multicentric, malignant but rarely hormonally active. A rare case is reported of glomus vagale presenting as a supraclavicular mass. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Peptide and Protein Analyses: A Critical Review of On-Tissue Digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillero-Pastor, B.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has established itself among the plethora of mass spectrometry applications. In the biomedical field, MALDI-MSI is being more frequently recognized as a new method for the discovery of biomarkers and targets of treatme

  20. Exposure to slim images in mass media: television commercials as reminders of restriction in restrained eaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; van Strien, T.; Engels, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to slim images and diet-related products in commercials on actual food intake in relation to dietary restraint. Design: An experimental design was used, in which food intake was measured in 124 female students who watched

  1. Distribution of terfenadine and its metabolites in locusts studied by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line Rørbæk; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Janfelt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    imaging studies on insects, a method for cryosectioning of whole locusts was developed, and the distributions of a number of endogenous compounds are reported, including betaine and a number of amino acids and phospholipids. Terfenadine was detected in the stomach region and the intestine walls, whereas...

  2. Focal masses in a non-cirrhotic liver: The additional benefit of CEUS over baseline imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiorean, L., E-mail: lilichiorean@yahoo.com [Sino-German Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University (China); Med. Klinik 2, Caritas Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany); Département d’imagerie médicale, Clinique des Cévennes, 07100 Annonay (France); Cantisani, V., E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Oncologiche, Anatomo-patologiche, Policlinico Umberto I, Univ. Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Jenssen, C., E-mail: C.Jenssen@khmol.de [Innere Medizin, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland, Prötzeler Chaussee 5, 15433 Strausberg (Germany); Sidhu, P.S., E-mail: paulsidhu@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, England (United Kingdom); Baum, U., E-mail: Ulrich.Baum@ckbm.de [Department of Radiology, Caritas Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany); Dietrich, C.F., E-mail: christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de [Sino-German Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University (China); Med. Klinik 2, Caritas Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in detection of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in characterization of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in final diagnosis of focal liver lesions. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in liver metastases screening. • Roles of cross-sectional imaging techniques for focal liver lesions assessment. • Advantages of contrast-enhanced ultrasound over other imaging procedures. - Abstract: Incidentally detected focal liver lesions are commonly encountered in clinical practice presenting a challenge in the daily department work flow. Guidelines for the management of incidental focal liver lesions have been published but comments, illustrations and recommendations regarding practical issues are crucial. The unique features of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-invasive assessment of focal liver lesion enhancement throughout the vascular phases in real-time has allowed an impressive improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound. We highlight the additional benefit of contrast-enhanced ultrasound over conventional B-mode ultrasound imaging in detection, characterization, differential and final diagnosis of focal liver lesions, as well as for liver metastases screening. The current roles of cross-sectional imaging are explained in detail, with indications and limitations for each procedure. The advantages of CEUS, such as non-ionizing radiation exposure, cost benefits, non-iodinate contrast agents, and repeatability are also described ultimately improving patient management.

  3. Milne "en Masse": A Case Study in Digitizing Large Image Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkema, Craig; Avery, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    In December 2012, the University of Saskatchewan Library's University Archives and Special Collections acquired the complete image collection of Courtney Milne, a professional photographer whose worked encompassed documentary, abstract and fine art photographs. From acquisition to digital curation, the authors identify, outline, and discuss the…

  4. Experimental differentiation of intraocular masses using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging--a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Falke

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The case reports presented here were compiled to demonstrate the potential for improved diagnosis and monitoring of disease progress of intraocular lesions using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM at 7.1 Tesla. METHODS: High-resolution ex vivo ocular magnetic resonance (MR images were acquired on an ultrahigh-field MR system (7.1 Tesla, ClinScan, Bruker BioScan, Germany using a 2-channel coil with 4 coil elements and T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE sequences of human eyes enucleated because of different intraocular lesions. Imaging parameters were: 40×40 mm field of view, 512×512 matrix, and 700 µm slice thickness. The results were correlated with in vivo ultrasound and histology of the enucleated eyes. RESULTS: Imaging was performed in enucleated eyes with choroidal melanoma, malignant melanoma of iris and ciliary body with scleral perforation, ciliary body melanoma, intraocular metastasis of esophageal cancer, subretinal bleeding in the presence of perforated corneal ulcer, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, and premature retinopathy with phthisis and ossification of bulbar structures. MR imaging allowed differentiation between solid and cystic tumor components. In case of hemorrhage, fluid-fluid levels were identified. Melanin and calcifications caused significant hypointensity. Microstructural features of eye lesions identified by MRM were confirmed by histology. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the potential of MRM for the visualization and differential diagnosis of intraocular lesions. At present, the narrow bore of the magnet still limits the use of this technology in humans in vivo. Further advances in ultrahigh-field MR imaging will permit visualization of tumor extent and evaluation of nonclassified intraocular structures in the near future.

  5. Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lipids and Metabolites in Tissues by Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Thomas, Mathew; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K.; yang, Pengxiang; Prieto, Mari; Laskin, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of tissue sections is a new frontier in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Here we report on fast 3D imaging of lipids and metabolites associated with mouse uterine decidual cells and embryo at the implantation site on day 6 of pregnancy. 2D imaging of 16-20 serial tissue sections deposited on the same glass slide was performed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) – an ambient ionization technique that enables sensitive localized analysis of analytes on surfaces without special sample pre-treatment. In this proof-of-principle study, nano-DESI was coupled to a high-resolution Q-Exactive instrument operated at high repetition rate of >5 Hz with moderate mass resolution of 35,000 (m/Δm at m/z 200), which enabled acquisition of the entire 3D image with a spatial resolution of ~150 μm in less than 4.5 hours. The results demonstrate localization of acetylcholine in the primary decidual zone (PDZ) of the implantation site throughout the depth of the tissue examined, indicating an important role of this signaling molecule in decidualization. Choline and phosphocholine – metabolites associated with cell growth – are enhanced in the PDZ and abundant in other cellular regions of the implantation site. Very different 3D distributions were obtained for fatty acids (FA), oleic acid and linoleic acid (FA 18:1 and FA 18:2), differing only by one double bond. Localization of FA 18:2 in the PDZ indicates its important role in decidualization while FA 18:1 is distributed more evenly throughout the tissue. In contrast, several lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) observed in this study show donut-like distributions with localization around the PDZ. Complementary distributions with minimal overlap were observed for LPC 18:0 and FA 18:2 while the 3D image of the potential precursor phosphatidylcholine (PC 36:2) showed a significant overlap with both LPC 18:0 and FA 18:2.

  6. Islet-selectivity of G-protein coupled receptor ligands evaluated for PET imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cell mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu [Yale University School of Medicine (United States); Zhao, Xiaojian [Yale University School of Medicine (United States); Jakowski, Amy B.; Soeller, Walter C.; Treadway, Judith L. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton CT (United States)

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} We screened G-protein coupled receptors for imaging pancreatic. {yields} Database mining and immunohistochemistry identified GPCRs enriched in {beta}-cells. {yields} In vitro and in vivo assays were used to determine exocrine vs endocrine specificity. {yields} GPCR candidates for imaging of {beta}-cell mass are Prokineticin-1R, mGluR5, and GLP-1R. -- Abstract: A critical unmet need exists for methods to quantitatively measure endogenous pancreatic {beta}-cell mass (BCM) for the clinical evaluation of therapies to prevent or reverse loss of BCM and diabetes progression. Our objective was to identify G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed with a high degree of specificity to islet {beta}-cells for receptor-targeted imaging of BCM. GPCRs enriched in pancreatic islets relative to pancreas acinar and hepatic tissue were identified using a database screen. Islet-specific expression was confirmed by human pancreas immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro selectivity assessment was determined from the binding and uptake of radiolabeled ligands to the rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cell line and isolated rat islets relative to the exocrine pancreas cell-type, PANC-1. Tail-vein injections of radioligands into rats were used to determine favorable image criteria of in vivo biodistribution to the pancreas relative to other internal organs (i.e., liver, spleen, stomach, and lungs). Database and IHC screening identified four candidate receptors for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation for PET imaging of BCM: prokineticin-1 receptor (PK-1R), metabotropic glutamate receptor type-5 (mGluR5), neuropeptide Y-2 receptor (NPY-2R), and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R). In vitro specificity ratios gave the following receptor rank order: PK-1R > GLP-1R > NPY-2R > mGluR5. The biodistribution rank order of selectivity to the pancreas was found to be PK-1R > VMAT2 {approx} GLP-1R > mGluR5. Favorable islet selectivity and biodistribution

  7. The systematics of strong lens modeling quantified: the effects of constraint selection and redshift information on magnification, mass, and multiple image predictability

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Traci L

    2016-01-01

    Until now, systematic errors in strong gravitational lens modeling have been acknowledged but never been fully quantified. Here, we launch an investigation into the systematics induced by constraint selection. We model the simulated cluster Ares 362 times using random selections of image systems with and without spectroscopic redshifts and quantify the systematics using several diagnostics: image predictability, accuracy of model-predicted redshifts, enclosed mass, and magnification. We find that for models with $>15$ image systems, the image plane rms does not decrease significantly when more systems are added; however the rms values quoted in the literature may be misleading as to the ability of a model to predict new multiple images. The mass is well constrained near the Einstein radius in all cases, and systematic error drops to $10$ image systems. Magnification errors are smallest along the straight portions of the critical curve, and the value of the magnification is systematically lower near curved por...

  8. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbania, Thomas H. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kammen, Bamidele F.; Nancarrow, Paul A. [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Morrell, Rose Ellen [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Nephrology, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  9. Image Quality and Radiation Exposure in Coronary CT Angiography According to Tube Voltage and Body Mass Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo Kyung [Ewha Womans University MokDong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    To investigate the image quality and radiation dose of a coronary CT angiography (CCTA) according to tube voltage and body mass index (BMI). This study included 139 patients who underwent CCTA using a retrospective electrocardiography- gating technique. A total of 48 patients (BMI <2 5, group A) were examined with 100 kVp, 45 patients (BMI > 25, group B) with 120 kVp, and 46 patients (BMI < 25, group C) with 120 kVp. Attenuation and image noise of the aorta and coronary arteries was measured. Moreover, the image quality of 9 coronary segments was graded on a scale of 1-5, where grade 4 or 5 was considered to be diagnostic. Image quality parameters and radiation dose were compared using a t-test or Chi-squared test. Results: Vessel attenuation in group A was significantly higher than in groups B or C (group A, 592 {+-} 85 HU; group B, 437 {+-} 46 HU; group C, 469 {+-} 62 HU, p<0.001). Image noise was similar in group A and group B (23 {+-} 5 HU versus 22 {+-} 6 HU, p=0.427), but significantly higher in group A compared to group C (23 {+-} 5 HU versus 17 {+-} 4 HU, p<0.001). A significant difference was observed in the signal-to-noise ratio between the three groups (group A, 24 {+-} 6; group B, 19 {+-} 3; group C, 27 {+-} 5: p<0.05). Moreover, the contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher in group A than group B (group A 18 {+-} 5 versus group B 14 {+-} 3, p < 0.001) but not significantly different between group A and group C (group C 20 {+-} 4, p=0.127). The percentage of coronary segments with diagnostic image quality was 97.9% in group A, 96.0% in group B, and 99.0% in group C. The mean image quality score was 4.5 {+-} 0.5 in group A, 4.1 {+-} 0.4 in group B, and 4.2 {+-} 0,4 in group C (p<0.001). The effective radiation doses were 8.5 {+-} 0.8 mSv in group A, 14.3 {+-} 1.3 mSv in group B, and 14.9 {+-} 1.3 mSv in group C. A 42% reduction in mean effective radiation dose in group A was observed compared with groups B and C. In patients with BMI less than 25

  10. A recent accretion burst in the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA imaging of its related chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Jes K; Sakai, Nami; Bergin, Edwin A; Brinch, Christian; Harsono, Daniel; Lindberg, Johan E; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Bisschop, Suzanne E; Persson, Magnus V

    2013-01-01

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates through-out their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C17O, H13CO+, CH3OH, C34S and C2H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.5" (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H13CO+ is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.5" (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO+ is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 years increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity....

  11. Event Detection Using Mobile Phone Mass GPS Data and Their Reliavility Verification by Dmsp/ols Night Light Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Akiyama; Satoshi, Ueyama; Ryosuke, Shibasaki; Adachi, Ryuichiro

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we developed a method to detect sudden population concentration on a certain day and area, that is, an "Event," all over Japan in 2012 using mass GPS data provided from mobile phone users. First, stay locations of all phone users were detected using existing methods. Second, areas and days where Events occurred were detected by aggregation of mass stay locations into 1-km-square grid polygons. Finally, the proposed method could detect Events with an especially large number of visitors in the year by removing the influences of Events that occurred continuously throughout the year. In addition, we demonstrated reasonable reliability of the proposed Event detection method by comparing the results of Event detection with light intensities obtained from the night light images from the DMSP/OLS night light images. Our method can detect not only positive events such as festivals but also negative events such as natural disasters and road accidents. These results are expected to support policy development of urban planning, disaster prevention, and transportation management.

  12. Computer-Aided Characterization of Breast Masses on Volumetric Ultrasound Images: An Adjunct to Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    ductal carcinoma in-situ, one was medullary carcinoma, and 4 were other invasive carcinoma. Of the biopsy-proven benign masses, 18 were fibroadenoma , 12...shadows that are sometimes associated with fibroadenomas could be avoided. Let P denote the mean grayscale value within the darkest posterior strip...Skaane P, Engedal K. Analysis of sonographic features in differentiation of fibroadenoma and invasive ductal carcinoma. AJR 1998; 170:109-114. 10

  13. omniSpect: an open MATLAB-based tool for visualization and analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, R Mitchell; Galhena, Asiri S; Gamage, Chaminda M; Bennett, Rachel V; Wang, May D; Fernández, Facundo M

    2013-04-01

    We present omniSpect, an open source web- and MATLAB-based software tool for both desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) that performs computationally intensive functions on a remote server. These functions include converting data from a variety of file formats into a common format easily manipulated in MATLAB, transforming time-series mass spectra into mass spectrometry images based on a probe spatial raster path, and multivariate analysis. OmniSpect provides an extensible suite of tools to meet the computational requirements needed for visualizing open and proprietary format MSI data.

  14. Man-machine interactive imaging and data processing using high-speed digital mass storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsberg, H.; Nathan, R.

    1975-01-01

    The role of vision in teleoperation has been recognized as an important element in the man-machine control loop. In most applications of remote manipulation, direct vision cannot be used. To overcome this handicap, the human operator's control capabilities are augmented by a television system. This medium provides a practical and useful link between workspace and the control station from which the operator perform his tasks. Human performance deteriorates when the images are degraded as a result of instrumental and transmission limitations. Image enhancement is used to bring out selected qualities in a picture to increase the perception of the observer. A general purpose digital computer, an extensive special purpose software system is used to perform an almost unlimited repertoire of processing operations.

  15. Optically induced effective mass renormalization: the case of graphite image potential states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, M.; Pagliara, S.; Galimberti, G.; Dal Conte, S.; Ferrini, G.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-10-01

    Many-body interactions with the underlying bulk electrons determine the properties of confined electronic states at the surface of a metal. Using momentum resolved nonlinear photoelectron spectroscopy we show that one can tailor these many-body interactions in graphite, leading to a strong renormalization of the dispersion and linewidth of the image potential state. These observations are interpreted in terms of a basic self-energy model, and may be considered as exemplary for optically induced many-body interactions.

  16. Sample Preparation Strategies for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of 3D Cell Culture Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlf Wheatcraft, Dorothy R.; Liu, Xin; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional cell cultures are attractive models for biological research. They combine the flexibility and cost-effectiveness of cell culture with some of the spatial and molecular complexity of tissue. For example, many cell lines form 3D structures given appropriate in vitro conditions. Colon cancer cell lines form 3D cell culture spheroids, in vitro mimics of avascular tumor nodules. While immunohistochemistry and other classical imaging methods are popular for monitoring the distribu...

  17. Separation of malignant and benign masses using image and segmentation features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnard, Lisa M.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Wang, Paul C.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Chouikha, Mohamed F.

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of image features versus likelihood features of tumor boundaries for differentiating benign and malignant tumors and to compare the effectiveness of two neural networks in the classification study: (1) circular processing-based neural network and (2) conventional Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). The segmentation method used is an adaptive region growing technique coupled with a fuzzy shadow approach and maximum likelihood analyzer. Intensity, shape, texture, and likelihood features were calculated for the extracted Region of Interest (ROI). We performed these studies: experiment number 1 utilized image features used as inputs and the MLP for classification, experiment number 2 utilized image features used as inputs and the neural net with circular processing for classification, and experiment number 3 used likelihood values as inputs and the MLP for classification. The experiments were validated using an ROC methodology. We have tested these methods on 51 mammograms using a leave-one-case-out experiment (i.e., Jackknife procedure). The Az values for the four experiments were as follows: 0.66 in experiment number 1, 0.71 in experiment number 2, and 0.84 in experiment number 3.

  18. Trace elemental imaging of coralline hydroxyapatite by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J; Austin, C; Doble, P; Ben-Nissan, B; Milthorpe, B

    2014-07-01

    The determination of trace element concentrations, as well as their distribution in different biomaterials aimed for clinical applications, is a challenging task in both the areas of biological and materials research. In this research, LA-ICP-MS was employed for image mapping of the trace element distribution in a hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite material aimed for tissue-scaffolding applications. Quantification using synthetic matrix-matched standards was successfully applied for the determination and distribution of elements of interest, Sr and Mg, that influences the mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite-based bone graft materials. The results showed that the instrument can successfully analyse trace elements and a relatively good image can be produced that identifies their distribution. The LA-ICP-MS method can provide an easy and effective tool, in the field of biomaterials with respect to distribution of trace elements, to better understand tissue-implant interactions, and will open up a new window for in vitro and in vivo analysis and imaging of different tissues and structures.

  19. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  20. Imaging mass spectrometry for assessing temporal proteomics: analysis of calprotectin in Acinetobacter baumannii pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jessica L; Becker, Kyle W; Nicklay, Joshua J; Boyd, Kelli L; Skaar, Eric P; Caprioli, Richard M

    2014-04-01

    Imaging MS is routinely used to show spatial localization of proteins within a tissue sample and can also be employed to study temporal protein dynamics. The antimicrobial S100 protein calprotectin, a heterodimer of subunits S100A8 and S100A9, is an abundant cytosolic component of neutrophils. Using imaging MS, calprotectin can be detected as a marker of the inflammatory response to bacterial challenge. In a murine model of Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia, protein images of S100A8 and S100A9 collected at different time points throughout infection aid in visualization of the innate immune response to this pathogen. Calprotectin is detectable within 6 h of infection as immune cells respond to the invading pathogen. As the bacterial burden decreases, signals from the inflammatory proteins decrease. Calprotectin is no longer detectable 96-144 h post infection, correlating to a lack of detectable bacterial burden in lungs. These experiments provide a label-free, multiplexed approach to study host response to a bacterial threat and eventual clearance of the pathogen over time.

  1. High-Resolution Live-Cell Imaging and Analysis by Laser Desorption/Ionization Droplet Delivery Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kyoo; Jansson, Erik T; Nam, Hong Gil; Zare, Richard N

    2016-05-17

    We have developed a new ambient-ionization mass spectrometric technique named laser desorption/ionization droplet delivery mass spectrometry (LDIDD-MS). LDIDD-MS permits high-resolution, high-sensitivity imaging of tissue samples as well as measurements of both single-cell apoptosis and live-cell exocytosis. A pulsed (15 Hz) UV laser beam (266 nm) is focused on a surface covered with target analytes to trigger their desorption and ionization. A spray of liquid droplets is simultaneously directed onto the laser-focused surface region to capture the ionized analytes and deliver them to a mass spectrometer. The approach of rapid and effective capturing of molecules after laser desorption/ionization allows the limit of detection for the amino acid lysine to be as low as 2 amol under ambient ionization conditions. Two-dimensional maps of the desorbed/ionized species are recorded by moving the sample on an XY translational stage. The spatial resolution for imaging with LDIDD-MS was determined to be 2.4 μm for an ink-printed pattern and 3 μm for mouse brain tissue. We applied LDIDD-MS to single-cell analysis of apoptotic HEK cells. Differences were observed in the profiles of fatty acids and lipids between healthy HEK cells and those undergoing apoptosis. We observed upregulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) with a relatively shorter carbon chain length and downregulation of PC with a relatively longer carbon chain length. We also applied LDIDD-MS for a real-time direct measurements of live-cell exocytosis. The catecholamine dopamine and trace amines (phenethylamine and tyramine) were detected from live PC12 cells without damaging them.

  2. Dynamical Mass Measurement of the Young Spectroscopic Binary V343 Normae AaAb Resolved With the Gemini Planet Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Eric L; Wang, Jason; Rameau, Julien; Song, Inseok; Graham, James R; Macintosh, Bruce; Ammons, Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P; Barman, Travis S; Bulger, Joanna; Chilcote, Jeffrey K; Cotten, Tara; Doyon, Rene; Duchene, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Follette, Katherine B; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn M; Larkin, James E; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David W; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D; Poyneer, Lisa A; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyro, Fredrik T; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J; Wolff, Schuyler G

    2016-01-01

    We present new spatially resolved astrometry and photometry from the Gemini Planet Imager of the inner binary of the young multiple star system V343 Normae, which is a member of the beta Pictoris moving group. V343 Normae comprises a K0 and mid-M star in a ~4.5 year orbit (AaAb) and a wide 10" M5 companion (B). By combining these data with archival astrometry and radial velocities we fit the orbit and measure individual masses for both components of M_Aa = 1.10 +/- 0.10 M_sun and M_Ab = 0.290 +/- 0.018 M_sun. Comparing to theoretical isochrones, we find good agreement for the measured masses and JHK band magnitudes of the two components consistent with the age of the beta Pic moving group. We derive a model-dependent age for the beta Pic moving group of 26 +/- 3 Myr by combining our results for V343 Normae with literature measurements for GJ 3305, which is another group member with resolved binary components and dynamical masses.

  3. Heat and mass flux measurements using Landsat images from the 2000-2004 period, Lascar volcano, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C.; Inostroza, M.; Aguilera, F.; González, R.; Viramonte, J.; Menzies, A.

    2015-08-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of 13 Landsat TM and ETM + images of Lascar volcano for the 2000-2004 period was performed by applying the three bands and three components method to determine heat and mass flux and understand the magma circulation process in a passive degassing volcano related to permanent fumarolic activity. The behavior and evolution of spectral radiance during the study period suggest that prior to low-to-moderate magnitude eruptions these values reach their localized temporal minimum levels, corresponding to 1.9-4.38 mW/cm2srμm in July 2000 and 4.38-7.11 mW/cm2srμm in December 2003 eruptions, respectively. Similar behavior is observed for anomaly area, heat and mass fluxes. During the 2000-2004 period the heat flux was estimated to vary from 75.46 and 10,527 MW, while mass flux ranged between 131 and 18,469 kg s- 1. A magma circulation model is proposed to explain these variations, where the thermal anomaly is related to the presence of a fumarolic field and fluids movement from a magma chamber located at ~ 10-17 km depth.

  4. Dynamical Mass Measurement of the Young Spectroscopic Binary V343 Normae AaAb Resolved With the Gemini Planet Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Eric L.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Wang, Jason; Rameau, Julien; Song, Inseok; Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Ammons, Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis S.; Bulger, Joanna; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Cotten, Tara; Doyon, Rene; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David W.; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2016-12-01

    We present new spatially resolved astrometry and photometry from the Gemini Planet Imager of the inner binary of the young multiple star system V343 Normae, which is a member of the β Pictoris (β Pic) moving group. V343 Normae comprises a K0 and mid-M star in a ˜4.5 year orbit (AaAb) and a wide 10″ M5 companion (B). By combining these data with archival astrometry and radial velocities we fit the orbit and measure individual masses for both components of {M}{Aa}=1.10+/- 0.10 {M}⊙ and {M}{Ab}=0.290+/- 0.018 {M}⊙ . Comparing to theoretical isochrones, we find good agreement for the measured masses and JHK band magnitudes of the two components consistent with the age of the β Pic moving group. We derive a model-dependent age for the β Pic moving group of 26 ± 3 Myr by combining our results for V343 Normae with literature measurements for GJ 3305, which is another group member with resolved binary components and dynamical masses.

  5. Distribution of coniferin in differentiating normal and compression woods using MALDI mass spectrometric imaging coupled with osmium tetroxide vapor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Arata; Kamitakahara, Hiroshi; Takabe, Keiji

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) was employed to detect monolignol glucosides in differentiating normal and compression woods of two Japanese softwoods, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Cryptomeria japonica Comparison of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry collision-induced dissociation fragmentation analysis and structural time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF CID-FAST) spectra between coniferin and differentiating xylem also confirmed the presence of coniferin in differentiating xylem. However, as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and MALDI-TOF CID-FAST spectra of sucrose were similar to those of coniferin, it was difficult to distinguish the distribution of coniferin and sucrose using MALDI-MSI and collision-induced dissociation measurement only. To solve this problem, osmium tetroxide vapor was applied to sections of differentiating xylem. This vapor treatment caused peak shifts corresponding to the introduction of two hydroxyl groups to the C=C double bond in coniferin. The treatment did not cause a peak shift for sucrose, and therefore was effective in distinguishing coniferin and sucrose. Thus, it was found that MALDI-MSI combined with osmium tetroxide vapor treatment is a useful method to detect coniferin in differentiating xylem.

  6. Searching for Scatterers: High-Contrast Imaging of Young Stars Hosting Wide-Separation Planetary-Mass Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Bryan, Marta L; Knutson, Heather A; Kraus, Adam L; Hinkley, Sasha; Mawet, Dimitri; Nielsen, Eric L; Blunt, Sarah C

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 AU). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is \\Delta K ~ 12.5 at 1". We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M$_{\\rm Jup}$ bodies in these systems down to 1...

  7. Weighing the Giants I: Weak Lensing Masses for 51 Massive Galaxy Clusters - Project Overview, Data Analysis Methods, and Cluster Images

    CERN Document Server

    von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E; Kelly, Patrick L; Allen, Steven W; Ebeling, Harald; Burchat, Patricia R; Burke, David L; Donovan, David; Morris, R Glenn; Blandford, Roger; Erben, Thomas; Mantz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers in which we measure accurate weak-lensing masses for 51 of the most X-ray luminous galaxy clusters known at redshifts 0.15mass proxies for cosmological cluster experiments. The primary aim is to improve the absolute mass calibration of cluster observables, currently the dominant systematic uncertainty for cluster count experiments. Key elements of this work are the rigorous quantification of systematic uncertainties, high-quality data reduction and photometric calibration, and the "blind" nature of the analysis to avoid confirmation bias. Our target clusters are drawn from RASS X-ray catalogs, and provide a versatile calibration sample for many aspects of cluster cosmology. We have acquired wide-field, high-quality imaging using the Subaru and CFHT telescopes for all 51 clusters, in at least three bands per cluster. For a subset of 27 clusters, we have data in at least five bands, allowing accurate photo-z estimates of...

  8. TOF-secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of polymeric scaffolds with surrounding tissue after in vivo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerk, Leendert A; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Popa, Eliane R; Bosman, Anton W; Sanders, Marjolein E; Reedquist, Kris A; Heeren, Ron M A

    2010-06-01

    Supramolecular polymeric materials are of increasing interest for the use as drug delivery carriers. A thorough insight in the biocompatibility and the degradation of these materials in vivo are of fundamental importance to further their development and application in medical practice. Molecular imaging techniques are powerful tools that enable the elucidation of molecular distributions in and around such polymer implants. A supramolecular polymeric hydrogel was implanted under the renal capsule to study its biocompatibility with TOF-SIMS. This results in a molecular cartography of the polymer implant combined with the cellular signature of the implantation environment. In this experiment, molecular signals are observed from cells that are involved in the biological response to the implant, e.g., macrophages. These molecular signatures are compared with macrophage standards cultured in different polarization environments. On the basis of this comparison, information can be acquired on the various macrophage differentiations that are connected to different stages in the foreign body response. Mass spectrometric imaging techniques offer the opportunity to visualize different histological phenomena in a single experiment without the need for specific immunohistochemical markers. Cellular infiltration into the polymer is visualized, offering a clear view on both biological and polymer features in a single imaging experiment.

  9. High-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides in the root of Paeonia lactiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution atmospheric-pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) at 10 μm pixel size was performed to unravel the spatio-chemical distribution of major secondary metabolites in the root of Paeonia lactiflora. The spatial distributions of two major classes of bioactive components, gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides, were investigated and visualized at the cellular level in tissue sections of P. lactiflora roots. Accordingly, other primary and secondary metabolites were imaged, including amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and monoterpenes, indicating the capability of untargeted localization of metabolites by using high-resolution MSI platform. The employed AP-SMALDI MSI system provides significant technological advancement in the visualization of individual molecular species at the cellular level. In contrast to previous histochemical studies of tannins using unspecific staining reagents, individual gallotannin species were accurately localized and unequivocally discriminated from other phenolic components in the root tissues. High-quality ion images were obtained, providing significant clues for understanding the biosynthetic pathway of gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides and possibly helping to decipher the role of tannins in xylem cells differentiation and in the defence mechanisms of plants, as well as to investigate the interrelationship between tannins and lignins.

  10. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  11. Visualizing metabolite distribution and enzymatic conversion in plant tissues by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Baden, Camilla Knudsen; Hansen, Natascha Kristine Krahl

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to the technology platforms developed to localize transcripts and proteins, imaging tools for visualization of metabolite distributions in plant tissues are less well developed and lack versatility. This hampers our understanding of plant metabolism and dynamics. In this study we......) tubers. The hydroxynitrile glucoside levels were highest in the outer cell layers, as verified by LC-MS analyses. The unexpected discovery of a hydroxynitrile derived di-glycoside shows the potential of DESI-MSI to discover and guide investigations into new metabolic routes. © 2013 The Authors. The Plant...

  12. Measuring Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Atmospheric Particles through in Situ Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piens, Dominique S; Kelly, Stephen T; Harder, Tristan H; Petters, Markus D; O'Brien, Rachel E; Wang, Bingbing; Teske, Ken; Dowell, Pat; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K

    2016-05-17

    Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental composition of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state of 158 other particles from the sample broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. These methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicrometer atmospheric particles.

  13. Measuring Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Atmospheric Particles through in situ Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piens, Dominique` Y.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Harder, Tristan; Petters, Markus D.; O' Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Teske, Ken; Dowell, Pat; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2016-04-18

    Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental composition of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state determined for 158 particles broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer the atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. These methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicron atmospheric particles.

  14. Inclusive sharing of mass spectrometry imaging data requires a converter for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Alan M; Styles, Iain B; Bunch, Josephine

    2012-08-30

    With continued efforts towards a single MSI data format, data conversion routines must be made universally available. The benefits of a common imaging format, imzML, are slowly becoming more widely appreciated but the format remains to be used by only a small proportion of imaging groups. Increased awareness amongst researchers and continued support from major MS vendors in providing tools for converting proprietary formats into imzML are likely to result in a rapidly increasing uptake of the format. It is important that this does not lead to the exclusion of researchers using older or unsupported instruments. We describe an open source converter, imzMLConverter, to ensure against this. We propose that proprietary formats should first be converted to mzML using one of the widely available converters, such as msconvert and then use imzMLConverter to convert mzML to imzML. This will allow a wider audience to benefit from the imzML format immediately.

  15. Direct Imaging Discovery of a Remarkably Red Planetary-Mass Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Mawet, Dimitri; Ngo, Henry; Malo, Lison; Mace, Gregory N.; McLane, Jacob; Lu, Jessica; Tristan, Isaiah; Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Benneke, Björn; Best, William M. J.

    2017-01-01

    High-contrast imaging surveys have uncovered a growing number of planets orbiting young stars, but the evolution of giant planet atmospheres from dusty L dwarfs to cloud-free T dwarfs remains poorly constrained. We present the discovery of an 11-14 Mjup late-L dwarf companion to a likely member of the ~120 Myr AB Dor moving group as part of a large adaptive optics imaging program to find and characterize planets at Keck Observatory. The near-infrared colors of this new object are redder than the young giant planets HR 8799 bcde and nearly all free-floating red L dwarfs currently known. In color-magnitude diagrams, this object is located at the tip of the red L dwarf sequence and marks the ``elbow'' of the AB Dor substellar isochrone, implying that giant planets can retain thick clouds even at relatively old ages (>100 Myr). Altogether, this new benchmark offers important clues about the evolutionary timescales and physical properties of clouds in giant planet atmospheres.

  16. The International Deep Planet Survey II: The frequency of directly imaged giant exoplanets with stellar mass

    CERN Document Server

    Galicher, Raphael; Macintosh, Bruce; Zuckerman, Ben; Barman, Travis; Konopacky, Quinn; Song, Inseok; Patience, Jenny; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Nielsen, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    Radial velocity and transit methods are effective for the study of short orbital period exoplanets but they hardly probe objects at large separations for which direct imaging can be used. We carried out the international deep planet survey of 292 young nearby stars to search for giant exoplanets and determine their frequency. We developed a pipeline for a uniform processing of all the data that we have recorded with NIRC2/Keck II, NIRI/Gemini North, NICI/Gemini South, and NACO/VLT for 14 years. The pipeline first applies cosmetic corrections and then reduces the speckle intensity to enhance the contrast in the images. The main result of the international deep planet survey is the discovery of the HR 8799 exoplanets. We also detected 59 visual multiple systems including 16 new binary stars and 2 new triple stellar systems, as well as 2,279 point-like sources. We used Monte Carlo simulations and the Bayesian theorem to determine that 1.05[+2.80-0.70]% of stars harbor at least one giant planet between 0.5 and 14...

  17. Rhinosporidiosis: A Rare Cause of Proptosis and an Imaging Dilemma for Sinonasal Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rhinosporidiosis is a common disease entity in tropical countries; however, it can be encountered in other parts of the world as well due to increasing medical tourism. It may mimic other more malignant and vigorous pathologies of the involved part. Case Report. We present a case of a 36-year-old male presenting with proptosis due to involvement of nasolacrimal duct which is rare. We will discuss typical CT and MRI features of the disease which were present in the case. Conclusion. For a surgeon and a radiologist, this is a necessary differential to be kept in mind for sinonasal masses. CT and MRI are invaluable investigations. However, FNAC is confirmatory. Both clinical and radiological aspects are required to reach correct diagnosis.

  18. Two-Dimensional Graphene as a Matrix for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, William L.; Schultz, Brian J.; Destino, Joel F.; Alivio, Theodore E. G.; Steet, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Wood, Troy D.

    2015-11-01

    Here, a matrix using two-dimensional (2D) graphene is demonstrated for the first time in the context of MALDI IMS using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Although graphene flakes have been used previously in MALDI, it is described here how a single 2D layer of graphene is applied directly on top of rat brain sections and soybean leaves. Several classes of molecules are desorbed and ionized off of the surface of the tissues examined using 2D graphene, with minimal background interference from the matrix. Moreover, no solvents are employed in application of 2D graphene, eliminating the potential for analyte diffusion in liquid droplets during matrix application. Because 2D graphene is an elemental form of carbon, an additional advantage is its high compatibility with the long duration needed for many IMS experiments.

  19. Two-dimensional graphene as a matrix for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, William L; Schultz, Brian J; Destino, Joel F; Alivio, Theodore E G; Steet, Joseph R; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Wood, Troy D

    2015-11-01

    Here, a matrix using two-dimensional (2D) graphene is demonstrated for the first time in the context of MALDI IMS using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Although graphene flakes have been used previously in MALDI, it is described here how a single 2D layer of graphene is applied directly on top of rat brain sections and soybean leaves. Several classes of molecules are desorbed and ionized off of the surface of the tissues examined using 2D graphene, with minimal background interference from the matrix. Moreover, no solvents are employed in application of 2D graphene, eliminating the potential for analyte diffusion in liquid droplets during matrix application. Because 2D graphene is an elemental form of carbon, an additional advantage is its high compatibility with the long duration needed for many IMS experiments. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. The social image of drinking - mass media campaigns may inadvertently increase binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina

    2016-11-23

    Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.

  1. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic imaging of live biofilms in a microchannel by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Xin; Marshall, Matthew J.; Xiong, Yijia; Ma, Xiang; Zhou, Yufan; Tucker, Abigail E.; Zhu, Zihua; Liu, Songqin; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum compatible microfluidic reactor, SALVI (System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface) was employed for in situ chemical imaging of live biofilms using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Depth profiling by sputtering materials in sequential layers resulted in live biofilm spatial chemical mapping. 2D images were reconstructed to report the first 3D images of hydrated biofilm elucidating spatial and chemical heterogeneity. 2D image principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted among biofilms at different locations in the microchannel. Our approach directly visualized spatial and chemical heterogeneity within the living biofilm by dynamic liquid ToF-SIMS.

  2. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic imaging of live biofilms in a microchannel by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xin; Marshall, Matthew J; Xiong, Yijia; Ma, Xiang; Zhou, Yufan; Tucker, Abigail E; Zhu, Zihua; Liu, Songqin; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum compatible microfluidic reactor, SALVI (System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface), was employed for in situ chemical imaging of live biofilms using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Depth profiling by sputtering materials in sequential layers resulted in live biofilm spatial chemical mapping. Two-dimensional (2D) images were reconstructed to report the first three-dimensional images of hydrated biofilm elucidating spatial and chemical heterogeneity. 2D image principal component analysis was conducted among biofilms at different locations in the microchannel. Our approach directly visualized spatial and chemical heterogeneity within the living biofilm by dynamic liquid ToF-SIMS.

  3. Aspects of Quantitation in Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigated on Cryo-Sections of Spiked Tissue Homogenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi Toft; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    as internal standard. The results showed, even after correction with internal standard, significantly lower intensities from brain and to some extent also lung tissue, differences which may be ascribed to binding of the drug to proteins or lipids as known from traditional bioanalysis. The differences, which...... for these results range approximately within a factor of 3 (but for other compounds in other tissues could be higher), underscore the importance of preparing the standard curve in the same matrix as the unknown sample whenever possible. In, for example, whole-body imaging where a diversity of tissue types...... are present, this variation across tissue types will therefore add to the overall uncertainty in quantitation. The tissue homogenates were also used in a characterization of various phenomena in quantitative MSI, such as to study how the signal depends of the thickness of the cryo-section, and to assess...

  4. Imaging of metals, metalloids, and non-metals by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J Sabine; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization and distribution of essential and beneficial metals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Co, Ti, Al, Ca, K, Na, Cr and others), toxic metals (like Cd, Pb, Hg, U), metalloids (e.g., As, Se, Sb), and non-metals (such as C, S, P, Cl, I) in biological tissues is a challenging task for life science studies. Over the past few years, the development and application of mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) techniques for elements has been rapidly growing in the life sciences in order to investigate the uptake and the transport of both essential and toxic metals in plant and animal sections. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a very sensitive and efficient trace, surface, and isotopic analytical technique for biological samples. LA-ICP-MS is increasingly utilized as an elemental mass spectrometric technique using double-focusing sector field (LA-ICP-SFMS) or quadrupole mass spectrometers (LA-ICP-QMS) to produce images of detailed regionally specific element distributions in thin biological tissue sections. Nowadays, MSI studies focus on brain research for studying neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, stroke, or tumor growth, or for the imaging of cancer biomarkers in tissue sections.The combination of the mass spectrometry imaging of metals by LA-ICP-MS with proteomics using biomolecular mass spectrometry (such as MALDI-MS or ESI-MS) to identify metal-containing proteins has become an important strategy in the life sciences. Besides the quantitative imaging of metals, non-metals and metalloids in biological tissues, LA-ICP-MS has been utilized for imaging metal-containing proteins in a 2D gel after electrophoretic separation of proteins. Recent progress in applying LA-ICP-MS in life science studies will be reviewed including the imaging of thin slices of biological tissue and applications in proteome analysis in combination with MALDI/ESI-MS to analyze metal-containing proteins.

  5. Spatial mapping of metals in tissue-sections using combination of mass-spectrometry and histology through image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyz, Jiri; Vyslouzilova, Lenka; Vaculovic, Tomas; Tvrdonova, Michaela; Kanicky, Viktor; Haase, Hajo; Horak, Vratislav; Stepankova, Olga; Heger, Zbynek; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new procedure for the parallel mapping of selected metals in histologically characterized tissue samples. Mapping is achieved via image registration of digital data obtained from two neighbouring cryosections by scanning the first as a histological sample and subjecting the second to laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This computer supported procedure enables determination of the distribution and content of metals of interest directly in the chosen histological zones and represents a substantial improvement over the standard approach, which determines these values in tissue homogenates or whole tissue sections. The potential of the described procedure was demonstrated in a pilot study that analysed Zn and Cu levels in successive development stages of pig melanoma tissue using MeLiM (Melanoma-bearing-Libechov-Minipig) model. We anticipate that the procedure could be useful for a complex understanding of the role that the spatial distribution of metals plays within tissues affected by pathological states including cancer.

  6. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young-Jin; Chapman, Kent D

    2016-02-01

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. It is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding to metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation.

  7. A RECENT ACCRETION BURST IN THE LOW-MASS PROTOSTAR IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA IMAGING OF ITS RELATED CHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Brinch, Christian; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harsono, Daniel; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Persson, Magnus V., E-mail: jeskj@nbi.dk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-12-20

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates throughout their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C{sup 17}O, H{sup 13}CO{sup +}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sup 34}S and C{sub 2}H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.''5 (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H{sup 13}CO{sup +} is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.''5 (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO{sup +} is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 yr increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity. Such a burst in luminosity can also explain the centrally condensed CH{sub 3}OH and extended warm carbon-chain chemistry observed in this source and furthermore be reflected in the relative faintness of its compact continuum emission compared to other protostars.

  8. Characterization of Cystic Breast Masses on Ultrasound: Comparative Study among Conventional, Tissue Harmonic, Compound, and a Combination of Tissue Harmonic and Compound Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Ji Yung; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Baek Hyun [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Young [Institute of Economics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This prospective study was to compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of breast cystic masses by conventional and advanced ultrasound (US) techniques including tissue harmonic, compound, and the combination of these techniques. All 91 patients, collectively having 109 breast cystic masses were scanned using four US techniques (complicated cysts in 36, septated cysts in 33, and complex cysts in 40). Two breast radiologists independently assessed the image quality and possibility of malignancy. Image quality was evaluated in terms of contrast and clarity of the wall and internal echo pattern and then graded on a scale of 1 (poor) to grade 3 (satisfactory). The possibility of malignancy was graded on a scale of 1 (suggestive of benignancy) to 5 (suggestive of malignancy) using US images. The histopathological results and follow-up images were used as the reference standard for the assessment of diagnostic performance. Results were evaluated by Friedman's test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. In terms of image quality, a grade of 3 was significantly more frequent in the three advanced US techniques than conventional US (p < 0.05). For assessment of diagnostic performance, areas under the ROC curves in three advanced techniques were significantly higher than in conventional US (p < 0.05). Advanced US techniques including compound and tissue harmonic US techniques provide a better image quality in breast cystic masses and also improve the diagnostic performance compared with conventional US

  9. Mass Spectum Imaging of Organics Injected into Stardust Aerogel by Cometary Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, S. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Comets have largely escaped the hydrothermal processing that has affected the chemistry and mineralogy of even the most primitive meteorites. Consequently, they are expected to better preserve nebular and interstellar organic materials. Organic matter constitutes roughly 20-30% by weight of vol-atile and refractory cometary materials [1,2]. Yet organic matter identified in Stardust aerogel samples is only a minor component [3-5]. The dearth of intact organic matter, fine-grained and pre-solar materials led to suggestions that comet 81P/Wild-2 is com-posed largely of altered materials, and is more similar to meteorites than the primitive view of comets [6]. However, fine-grained materials are particularly susceptible to alteration and destruction during the hypervelocity impact. While hypervelocity capture can cause thermal pyrolysis of organic phases, some of the impacting organic component appears to have been explosively dispersed into surrounding aerogel [7]. We used a two-step laser mass spectrometer to map the distribution of organic matter within and sur-rounding a bulbous Stardust track to constrain the dispersion of organic matter during the impact.

  10. Saturn's inner satellites : orbits, masses and the chaotic motion of Atlas from new Cassini imaging observations

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, N J; Murray, C D; Evans, M W

    2014-01-01

    We present numerically-derived orbits and mass estimates for the inner Saturnian satellites, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus and Epimetheus from a fit to 2580 new Cassini ISS astrometric observations spanning February 2004 to August 2013. The observations are provided in a supplementary table. We estimate GM_ Atlas=0.384+/-0.001 x 10^(-3)km^3s^(-2), a value 13% smaller than the previously published estimate but with an order of magnitude reduction in the uncertainty. We also find GM_ Prometheus=10.677+/-0.006x10(-3)km^3s^(-2), GM_Pandora=9.133+/-0.009x10^(-3)km^3s^(-2), GM_Janus=126.51+/-0.03x10^(-3)km^3s^(-2) and GM_Epimetheus=35.110+/-0.009x10^(-3)km^3s^(-2), consistent with previously published values, but also with significant reductions in uncertainties. We show that Atlas is currently librating in both the 54:53 co-rotation-eccentricity resonance (CER) and the 54:53 inner Lindblad (ILR) resonance with Prometheus, making it the latest example of a coupled CER-ILR system, in common with the Saturnian sa...

  11. Seaweed allelopathy against coral: surface distribution of a seaweed secondary metabolite by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, Tiffany D; Alexander, Troy S; Gahlena, Asiri; Parry, R Mitchell; Fernandez, Facundo M; Kubanek, Julia; Wang, May D; Hay, Mark E

    2012-10-01

    Coral reefs are in global decline, with seaweeds increasing as corals decrease. Although seaweeds inhibit coral growth, recruitment, and survivorship, the mechanism of these interactions is poorly understood. Here, we used field experiments to show that contact with four common seaweeds induces bleaching on natural colonies of Porites rus. Controls in contact with inert, plastic mimics of seaweeds did not bleach, suggesting seaweed effects resulted from allelopathy rather than shading, abrasion, or physical contact. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the hydrophobic extract from the red alga Phacelocarpus neurymenioides revealed a previously characterized antibacterial metabolite, neurymenolide A, as the main allelopathic agent. For allelopathy of lipid-soluble metabolites to be effective, the compounds would need to be deployed on algal surfaces where they could transfer to corals on contact. We used desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to visualize and quantify neurymenolide A on the surface of P. neurymenioides, and we found the molecule on all surfaces analyzed, with highest concentrations on basal portions of blades.

  12. Large-Scale Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigation of Consequences of Cortical Spreading Depression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Abdelmoula, Walid M.; van Heiningen, Sandra H.; van Zeijl, Rene J.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Ferrari, Michel D.; Tolner, Else A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Transgenic mice carrying the R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene, which in patients causes familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), exhibit increased propensity to CSD. Herein, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was applied for the first time to an animal cohort of transgenic and wild type mice to study the biomolecular changes following CSD in the brain. Ninety-six coronal brain sections from 32 mice were analyzed by MALDI-MSI. All MSI datasets were registered to the Allen Brain Atlas reference atlas of the mouse brain so that the molecular signatures of distinct brain regions could be compared. A number of metabolites and peptides showed substantial changes in the brain associated with CSD. Among those, different mass spectral features showed significant ( t-test, P < 0.05) changes in the cortex, 146 and 377 Da, and in the thalamus, 1820 and 1834 Da, of the CSD-affected hemisphere of FHM1 R192Q mice. Our findings reveal CSD- and genotype-specific molecular changes in the brain of FHM1 transgenic mice that may further our understanding about the role of CSD in migraine pathophysiology. The results also demonstrate the utility of aligning MSI datasets to a common reference atlas for large-scale MSI investigations.

  13. Absolute Quantification of Rifampicin by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Using Multiple TOF/TOF Events in a Single Laser Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Chumbley, Chad W.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2016-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) allows for the visualization of molecular distributions within tissue sections. While providing excellent molecular specificity and spatial information, absolute quantification by MALDI IMS remains challenging. Especially in the low molecular weight region of the spectrum, analysis is complicated by matrix interferences and ionization suppression. Though tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can be used to ensure chemical specificity and improve sensitivity by eliminating chemical noise, typical MALDI MS/MS modalities only scan for a single MS/MS event per laser shot. Herein, we describe TOF/TOF instrumentation that enables multiple fragmentation events to be performed in a single laser shot, allowing the intensity of the analyte to be referenced to the intensity of the internal standard in each laser shot while maintaining the benefits of MS/MS. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative analyses of rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, in pooled human plasma using rifapentine (RPT) as an internal standard. The results show greater than 4-fold improvements in relative standard deviation as well as improved coefficients of determination (R2) and accuracy (>93% quality controls, HPLC-MS/MS, showing a percent difference of 10.6%.

  14. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Revealed the Accumulation Characteristics of the 2-Nitroimidazole-Based Agent "Pimonidazole" in Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Yukiko; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Feng, Fei; Zhao, Songji; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a key factor promoting tumor progression and angiogenesis and resistance of cancer to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. 2-Nitroimidazole-based agents have been widely used in pathological and nuclear medicine examinations to detect hypoxic regions in tumors; in particular, pimonidazole is used for histochemical staining of hypoxic regions. It is considered to accumulate in hypoxic cells via covalent binding with macromolecules or by forming reductive metabolites after reduction of its nitro group. However, the detailed mechanism of its accumulation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the accumulation mechanism of pimonidazole in hypoxic tumor tissues in a mouse model by mass spectrometric analyses including imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Pimonidazole and its reductive metabolites were observed in the tumor tissues. However, their locations in the tumor sections were not similar to the positively stained areas in pimonidazole-immunohistochemistry, an area considered hypoxic. The glutathione conjugate of reduced pimonidazole, a low-molecular-weight metabolite of pimonidazole, was found in tumor tissues by LC-MS analysis, and our IMS study determined that the intratumor localization of the glutathione conjugate was consistent with the area positively immunostained for pimonidazole. We also found complementary localization of the glutathione conjugate and reduced glutathione (GSH), implying that formation of the glutathione conjugate occurred in the tumor tissue. These results suggest that in hypoxic tumor cells, pimonidazole is reduced at its nitro group, followed by conjugation with GSH.

  15. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Revealed the Accumulation Characteristics of the 2-Nitroimidazole-Based Agent “Pimonidazole” in Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Takeshi; Feng, Fei; Zhao, Songji; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a key factor promoting tumor progression and angiogenesis and resistance of cancer to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. 2-Nitroimidazole-based agents have been widely used in pathological and nuclear medicine examinations to detect hypoxic regions in tumors; in particular, pimonidazole is used for histochemical staining of hypoxic regions. It is considered to accumulate in hypoxic cells via covalent binding with macromolecules or by forming reductive metabolites after reduction of its nitro group. However, the detailed mechanism of its accumulation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the accumulation mechanism of pimonidazole in hypoxic tumor tissues in a mouse model by mass spectrometric analyses including imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Pimonidazole and its reductive metabolites were observed in the tumor tissues. However, their locations in the tumor sections were not similar to the positively stained areas in pimonidazole-immunohistochemistry, an area considered hypoxic. The glutathione conjugate of reduced pimonidazole, a low-molecular-weight metabolite of pimonidazole, was found in tumor tissues by LC-MS analysis, and our IMS study determined that the intratumor localization of the glutathione conjugate was consistent with the area positively immunostained for pimonidazole. We also found complementary localization of the glutathione conjugate and reduced glutathione (GSH), implying that formation of the glutathione conjugate occurred in the tumor tissue. These results suggest that in hypoxic tumor cells, pimonidazole is reduced at its nitro group, followed by conjugation with GSH. PMID:27580239

  16. Absolute Quantification of Rifampicin by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Using Multiple TOF/TOF Events in a Single Laser Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Chumbley, Chad W.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) allows for the visualization of molecular distributions within tissue sections. While providing excellent molecular specificity and spatial information, absolute quantification by MALDI IMS remains challenging. Especially in the low molecular weight region of the spectrum, analysis is complicated by matrix interferences and ionization suppression. Though tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can be used to ensure chemical specificity and improve sensitivity by eliminating chemical noise, typical MALDI MS/MS modalities only scan for a single MS/MS event per laser shot. Herein, we describe TOF/TOF instrumentation that enables multiple fragmentation events to be performed in a single laser shot, allowing the intensity of the analyte to be referenced to the intensity of the internal standard in each laser shot while maintaining the benefits of MS/MS. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative analyses of rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, in pooled human plasma using rifapentine (RPT) as an internal standard. The results show greater than 4-fold improvements in relative standard deviation as well as improved coefficients of determination (R2) and accuracy (>93% quality controls, determined by IMS is in agreement with the concentration determined by HPLC-MS/MS, showing a percent difference of 10.6%.

  17. MASAS ADRENALES: PAPEL ACTUAL DE LAS IMÁGENES DIAGNÓSTICAS Masses adrenales: the current role of diagnostic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Poveda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el rol que desempeñan en la actualidad las imágenes diagnósticas, en especial la tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética, para el diagnóstico d e masas adrenales. Se exponen los conceptos de lavado en tomografía y desplazamiento químico en resonancia magnética en la caracterización morfológica y dinámica con el medio de contraste de las misma y se revisan las patologías más frecuentes con énfasis en la diferenciación entre patología benigna y maligna. Se sugiere un diagrama de flujo del diagnóstico de las masas adrenales.This article describes the role currently being played by diagnostic images (especially computerised tomography and magnetic resonance for diagnosing adrenal masses. It deals with the concepts of washing in tomography and chemical displacement in magnetic resonance in morphological and dynamic characterisation with pertinent contrast medium and reviews the most frequent pathologies, emphasising differentiation between benign and malign pathologies. A flow diagram for adrenal mass diagnosis is suggested.

  18. Direct analysis of pharmaceutical tablet formulations using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Caroline J; Carolan, Vikki A; Richards, Don S; Clench, Malcolm R

    2010-06-15

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) has been used to directly analyse a range of tablets in order to assess the homogeneity of the active drug compound throughout the excipients contained within the tablets studied. The information gained from the imaging experiments can be used to improve and gain a greater understanding of the manufacturing process; such knowledge will enable improvements in finished product quality to make safer and more efficacious tablet formulations. Commercially available and prescription tablet formulations have been analysed, including aspirin, paracetamol, sildenafil citrate (Viagra(R)) and a batch of tablets in development (tablet X: placebo; 1 mg; 3 mg and 6 mg). MALDI MSI provides semi-quantitative information that is related to ion abundance, therefore Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a multivariate analysis technique, has been used to differentiate between tablets containing different amounts of active drug ingredient. Aspects of sample preparation have also been investigated with regard to tablet shape and texture. The results obtained indicate that MALDI MSI can be used effectively to analyse the spatial distribution of the active pharmaceutical component (API) in pharmaceutical tablet formulations.

  19. Top-down proteomics with mass spectrometry imaging: a pilot study towards discovery of biomarkers for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ye

    Full Text Available In the developing mammalian brain, inhibition of NMDA receptor can induce widespread neuroapoptosis, inhibit neurogenesis and cause impairment of learning and memory. Although some mechanistic insights into adverse neurological actions of these NMDA receptor antagonists exist, our understanding of the full spectrum of developmental events affected by early exposure to these chemical agents in the brain is still limited. Here we attempt to gain insights into the impact of pharmacologically induced excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in infancy on the brain proteome using mass spectrometric imaging (MSI. Our goal was to study changes in protein expression in postnatal day 10 (P10 rat brains following neonatal exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK801. Analysis of rat brains exposed to vehicle or MK801 and comparison of their MALDI MS images revealed differential relative abundances of several proteins. We then identified these markers such as ubiquitin, purkinje cell protein 4 (PEP-19, cytochrome c oxidase subunits and calmodulin, by a combination of reversed-phase (RP HPLC fractionation and top-down tandem MS platform. More in-depth large scale study along with validation experiments will be carried out in the future. Overall, our findings indicate that a brief neonatal exposure to a compound that alters excitatory/inhibitory balance in the brain has a long term effect on protein expression patterns during subsequent development, highlighting the utility of MALDI-MSI as a discovery tool for potential biomarkers.

  20. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R L Paine

    Full Text Available High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy.

  1. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Gaul, David A.; Wang, May D.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. PMID:27159635

  2. Three-Dimensional Imaging of Dislocations in a Ti–35mass%Nb Alloy by Electron Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Sato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We have studied three-dimensional (3D configurations of dislocations in the β phase of a Ti–35mass%Nb alloy by means of single-axis tilt tomography using bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF-STEM. To visualize dislocations, the hh0 systematic reflections were excited throughout tilt-series acquisition with the maximum tilt angle of 70°. Dislocations in the β grains were clearly reconstructed by the weighted back-projection algorithm. The slip planes of the dislocations were deduced by rotating the reconstructed volumes with the aid of selected area electron diffraction patterns. It was found that BF-STEM images with relatively low contrasts, taken along low-order zone axes, are capable to reproduce and preserve the quality of reconstructed image of dislocations. We also found that tilt angles as low as 40° are practically acceptable to visualize 3D configurations of dislocations, while there exists limitation in resolution due to the existence of a large missing wedge.

  3. Intrasplenic masses of ``preserved`` functioning splenic tissue in sickle cell disease: correlation of imaging findings (CT, ultrasound, MRI, and nuclear scintigraphy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, T.L. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Haller, J.O. [Department of Radiology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Ruzal-Shapiro, C. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Hurlet-Jenson, A. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, New York (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Purpose. We studied six patients with sickle cell disease (SSD), five homozygous for sickle cell anemia and one with sickle beta-thalassemia, in whom rounded intrasplenic masses proved to be preserved functioning splenic tissue. Materials and methods. Available images including computed tomography, ultrasonography, bone scans (Tc-99m MDP), liver spleen scans (Tc-99m sulfur colloid), and MRI were evaluated. Results. The masses were low density on CT (in an otherwise calcified spleen), hypoechoic relative to the echogenic spleen on US, and had the imaging characteristics of normal spleen on MRI. They failed to accumulate Tc-99m MDP but did demonstrate uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Conclusion. In a patient with SSD and intrasplenic masses, proper correlation of multiple imaging modalities will establish the diagnosis of functioning splenic tissue and avoid mistaken diagnosis of splenic abscess or infarction. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. An HST Imaging Survey of Low-mass Stars in the Chamaeleon I Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberto, M.; Spina, L.; Da Rio, N.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Ricci, L.; Goddi, C.; Testi, L.; Palla, F.; Bacciotti, F.

    2012-09-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 observations of 20 fields centered around T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region. Images have been obtained in the F631N ([O I] λ6300), F656N (Hα), and F673N ([S II] λλ6716, 6731) narrow-band filters, plus the Johnson V-band equivalent F547M filter. We detect 31 T Tauri stars falling within our fields. We discuss the optical morphology of 10 sources showing evidence of either binarity, circumstellar material, or mass loss. We supplement our photometry with a compilation of optical, infrared, and submillimeter (sub-mm) data from the literature, together with new sub-mm data for three objects, to build the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 19 single sources. Using an SED model fitting tool, we self-consistently estimate a number of stellar and disk parameters, while mass accretion rates are directly derived from our Hα photometry. We find that bolometric luminosities derived from dereddened optical data tend to be underestimated in systems with high α2-24 IR spectral index, suggesting that disks seen nearly edge-on may occasionally be interpreted as low-luminosity (and therefore more evolved) sources. On the other hand, the same α2-24 IR spectral index, a tracer of the amount of dust in the warmer layers of the circumstellar disks, and the mass accretion rate appear to decay with the isochronal stellar age, suggesting that the observed age spread (sime 0.5-5 Myr) within the cluster is real. Our sample contains a few outliers that may have dissipated their circumstellar disks on a shorter timescale.

  5. The expression profile of phosphatidylinositol in high spatial resolution imaging mass spectrometry as a potential biomarker for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Goto

    Full Text Available High-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (HR-MALDI-IMS is an emerging application for the comprehensive and detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of ionized molecules in situ on tissue slides. HR-MALDI-IMS in negative mode in a mass range of m/z 500-1000 was performed on optimal cutting temperature (OCT compound-embedded human prostate tissue samples obtained from patients with prostate cancer at the time of radical prostatectomy. HR-MALDI-IMS analysis of the 14 samples in the discovery set identified 26 molecules as highly expressed in the prostate. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS showed that these molecules included 14 phosphatidylinositols (PIs, 3 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs and 3 phosphatidic acids (PAs. Among the PIs, the expression of PI(18:0/18:1, PI(18:0/20:3 and PI(18:0/20:2 were significantly higher in cancer tissue than in benign epithelium. A biomarker algorithm for prostate cancer was formulated by analyzing the expression profiles of PIs in cancer tissue and benign epithelium of the discovery set using orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm for prostate cancer diagnosis in the 24 validation set samples were 87.5 and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, HR-MALDI-IMS identified several PIs as being more highly expressed in prostate cancer than benign prostate epithelium. These differences in PI expression profiles may serve as a novel diagnostic tool for prostate cancer.

  6. Distinctive Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Human Seminoma and Adjacent Normal Tissues by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Timothy A.; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Mattarozzi, Monica; Cheng, Liang; Beck, Stephen D. W.; Bianchi, Federica; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-08-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has been successfully used to discriminate between normal and cancerous human tissue from different anatomical sites. On the basis of this, DESI-MS imaging was used to characterize human seminoma and adjacent normal tissue. Seminoma and adjacent normal paired human tissue sections (40 tissues) from 15 patients undergoing radical orchiectomy were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned to 15 μm thickness and thaw mounted to glass slides. The entire sample was two-dimensionally analyzed by the charged solvent spray to form a molecular image of the biological tissue. DESI-MS images were compared with formalin-fixed, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides of the same material. Increased signal intensity was detected for two seminolipids [seminolipid (16:0/16:0) and seminolipid (30:0)] in the normal tubule testis tissue; these compounds were undetectable in seminoma tissue, as well as from the surrounding fat, muscle, and blood vessels. A glycerophosphoinositol [PI(18:0/20:4)] was also found at increased intensity in the normal testes tubule tissue when compared with seminoma tissue. Ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C) was found at increased amounts in seminoma tissue when compared with normal tissue. DESI-MS analysis was successfully used to visualize the location of several types of molecules across human seminoma and normal tissues. Discrimination between seminoma and adjacent normal testes tubules was achieved on the basis of the spatial distributions and varying intensities of particular lipid species as well as ascorbic acid. The increased presence of ascorbic acid within seminoma compared with normal seminiferous tubules was previously unknown.

  7. The SLUGGS Survey: stellar masses and effective radii of early-type galaxies from Spitzer Space Telescope 3.6 μm imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Sinpetru, Luciana; Savorgnan, Giulia; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Galaxy starlight at 3.6 μm is an excellent tracer of stellar mass. Here we use the latest 3.6 μm imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure the total stellar mass and effective radii in a homogeneous way for a sample of galaxies from the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey. These galaxies are representative of nearby early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range of 10 samples of early-type galaxies. We model each galaxy in 2D and estimate its total asymptotic magnitude from a 1D curve-of-growth. Magnitudes are converted into stellar masses using a 3.6 μm mass-to-light ratio from the latest stellar population models of Röck et al., assuming a Kroupa initial mass function. We apply a ratio based on each galaxy's mean mass-weighted stellar age within one effective radius (the mass-to-light ratio is insensitive to galaxy metallicity for the generally old stellar ages and high metallicities found in massive early-type galaxies). Our 3.6 μm stellar masses agree well with masses derived from 2.2 μm data. From the 1D surface brightness profile, we fit a single Sérsic law, excluding the very central regions. We measure the effective radius, Sérsic n parameter and effective surface brightness for each galaxy. We find that galaxy sizes derived from shallow optical imaging and the 2MASS survey tend to underestimate the true size of the largest, most massive galaxies in our sample. We adopt the 3.6 μm stellar masses and effective radii for the SLUGGS survey galaxies.

  8. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  9. In situ probing of cholesterol in astrocytes at the single-cell level using laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric imaging with colloidal silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdian, D C; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Yeung, Edward S; Lee, Young Jin

    2010-04-30

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level.

  10. Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimation of fat-free mass in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle, Stine Skov; Tang Møllehave, Line; Kadkhoda, Zahra Taheri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Changes in body composition in cancer patients during chemotherapy are associated with treatment related toxicities or mortalities. Thus, it is relevant to identify accessible, relatively inexpensive, portable and reliable tools for evaluation of body composition in cancer patients...... during the course of their treatments. Objective: To examine relationships between single cross-sectional thighs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skeletal muscle mass (SM) as reference and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) in patients with colorectal cancer...

  11. Macroscopic and microscopic spatially-resolved analysis of food contaminants and constituents using laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nielen, Michel W.F.; VAN BEEK, TERIS A.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) does not require very flat surfaces, high-precision sample preparation, or the addition of matrix. Because of these features, LAESI-MSI may be the method of choice for spatially-resolved food analysis. In this work, LAESI time-of-flight MSI was investigated for macroscopic and microscopic imaging of pesticides, mycotoxins, and plant metabolites on rose leaves, orange and lemon fruit, ergot bodies, cherry tomatoes, ...

  12. Galaxy-scale gravitational lens candidates from the Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging survey and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly spectroscopic survey

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, James H H; More, Anupreeta; Oguri, Masamune; Chiueh, Tzihong; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J; Price, Paul; Tait, Philip J; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Utsumi, Yousuke; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    We present a list of galaxy-scale lens candidates including a highly probable interacting galaxy-scale lens in the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) imaging survey. We combine HSC imaging with the blended-spectra catalog from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to identify lens candidates, and use lens mass modeling to confirm the candidates. We find 46 matches between the HSC S14A_0b imaging data release and the GAMA catalog. Ten of them are probable lens systems according to their morphology and redshifts. There is one system with an interacting galaxy pair, HSC J084928+000949, that has a valid mass model. We predict the total mass enclosed by the Einstein radius of $\\sim0.72$" ($\\sim1.65$kpc) for this new expected lens system to be $\\sim10^{10.59}M_{\\odot}$. Using the photometry in the {\\it grizy} bands of the HSC survey and stellar population synthesis modeling with a Salpeter stellar initial mass function, we estimate the stellar mass within the Einstein radius to be $\\sim10^{10.46}\\,M_{\\odot}$. We thus fin...

  13. Shaping the Image of the Inner Mongolian Product on the Mass Media%大众媒体上内蒙古产品形象塑造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨日郎

    2011-01-01

    The product image is not only a major factor of the inner Mongolia image.,but also an important window of comprehensive understanding of Inner Mongolia.The good product image can promote the opening of inner Mongolia and regional economic cooperation.The mass media can provide an important place to the process of product image building and promotion. This article mainly study the problems that building inner Mongolian product image to the mass media encountered and the specific measures to building the inner Mongolian product image of the mass media%内蒙古产品形象是形成内蒙古形象的主要因素,也是全面了解内蒙古的重要窗口。良好的产品形象还可以促进内蒙古的对外开放与区域经济合作。产品形象塑造与推广过程中大众传媒可以提供不可或缺的重要场所。本文主要探讨大众媒体上内蒙古产品形象存在的问题及通过大众媒体塑造内蒙古的形象的具体措施。

  14. Imaging findings of common benign renal tumors in the era of small renal masses: Differential diagnosis from small renal cell carcinoma: Current status and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sung Min; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs.

  15. Central sensibility of human cases with different body mass during oral glucose tolerance test using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the limitation of technique, there are few researches on regulating function of central hypothalamus by metabolism, especially the researches on real-time function.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of hypothalamus to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in different body-weighted subjects by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) so as to investigate the relationship between the sensitivity of hypothalamus in glycoregulation and disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism.DESIGN: Paired design.SETTING: Department of Radiology and Beijing Geriatrics Institute, Beijing Hospital, National Public Health Bureau.PARTICIPANTS: A total of twenty healthy volunteers were selected from Beijing Geriatrics Institute,National Public Health Bureau, including 10 subjects with obesity (5 males and 5 females; body mass >28.0 kg/m2) and 10 subjects with normal body mass (5 males and 5 females; body mass from 18.5 to 23.9 kg/m2). All subjects gave written informed consent before participating in the study.METHODS: fMRI study was performed on GE 1.5 T Signa Twinspeed Infinity with Excite. Each volunteer was ingested of glucose during the fMRI scan. T2* images were acquired using a single-shot gradient echo (EPI) technique. The parameters of EPI included: TR 3 000 ms, TE 40 ms, Flip angle 90 ° , field of view (FOV) 24 cm × 24 cm, thickness 5 mm, gap 0 mm, matrix 64 × 64, number of excitation 1. All 10 subjects with normal body mass underwent a repeat fMRI scan after consuming an equivalent amount of water without glucose on a separate day. The procedure for the fMRI scan with water intake was the same as for glucose ingestion. fMRI data were processed with Intensity Averaging Method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The central response of hypothalamus and feedback orientation during OGTT in different body-weighted subjects.RESULTS: An acute transient decrease of fMRI intensity in posterior inferior and anterior inferior of hypothalamus was observed in all

  16. Localization of ergot alkaloids in sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopstadt, Julian; Vens-Cappell, Simeon; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Cramer, Benedikt; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    The fungus Claviceps purpurea produces highly toxic ergot alkaloids and accumulates these in the hardened bodies of fungal mycelium. These so-called sclerotia, or ergot bodies, replace the crop seed of infected plants, which can include numerous important food- and feedstuff such as rye and wheat. While several studies have explored details of the infection process and development of ergot bodies, little information is available on the spatial distribution of the mycotoxins in the sclerotia. Here we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) at a lateral resolution of 35 μm to visualize the distribution of two representative alkaloids, ergocristine and ergometrine, produced by Ecc93 and Gal 310 variants of C. purpurea, respectively, after infection of rye. To improve cryosectioning of this fragile biological material tissue with complex texture, we developed a practical embedding protocol based on cellulose polymers. The MALDI-MS images recorded from the so produced intact tissues sections revealed that ergometrine exhibited a relatively homogeneous distribution throughout the ergot body, whereas ergocristine was found to be enriched in the proximal region. This finding can be correlated to the morphological development of sclerotia as ergot alkaloids are only produced in the sphacelial stage. The ability to localize toxins and other secondary metabolites in intact sections of crop-infecting fungi with high lateral resolution renders MALDI-MSI a powerful tool for investigating biosynthetic pathways and for obtaining a deeper understanding of the parasite-host interaction. Graphical abstract Workflow for identification and spatial localization of ergot alkaloids in infected rye grains.

  17. Current opportunities and challenges of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and mass spectrometry imaging for mapping cancer metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gigin; Chung, Yuen-Li

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is known to have unique metabolic features such as Warburg effect. Current cancer therapy has moved forward from cytotoxic treatment to personalized, targeted therapies, with some that could lead to specific metabolic changes, potentially monitored by imaging methods. In this paper we addressed the important aspects to study cancer metabolism by using image techniques, focusing on opportunities and challenges of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-MRS, positron emission tomography (PET), and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) for mapping cancer metabolism. Finally, we highlighted the future possibilities of an integrated in vivo PET/MR imaging systems, together with an in situ MSI tissue analytical platform, may become the ultimate technologies for unraveling and understanding the molecular complexities in some aspects of cancer metabolism. Such comprehensive imaging investigations might provide information on pharmacometabolomics, biomarker discovery, and disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response monitoring for clinical medicine.

  18. Macroscopic and microscopic spatially-resolved analysis of food contaminants and constituents using laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Beek, van T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) does not require very flat surfaces, high-precision sample preparation, or the addition of matrix. Because of these features, LAESI-MSI may be the method of choice for spatially-resolved food analysis. In this work, LAESI

  19. Measurement of Surface Displacement and Deformation of Mass Movements Using Least Squares Matching of Repeat High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misganu Debella-Gilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Displacement and deformation are fundamental measures of Earth surface mass movements such as glacier flow, rockglacier creep and rockslides. Ground-based methods of monitoring such mass movements can be costly, time consuming and limited in spatial and temporal coverage. Remote sensing techniques, here matching of repeat optical images, are increasingly used to obtain displacement and deformation fields. Strain rates are usually computed in a post-processing step based on the gradients of the measured velocity field. This study explores the potential of automatically and directly computing velocity, rotation and strain rates on Earth surface mass movements simultaneously from the matching positions and the parameters of the geometric transformation models using the least squares matching (LSM approach. The procedures are exemplified using bi-temporal high resolution satellite and aerial images of glacier flow, rockglacier creep and land sliding. The results show that LSM matches the images and computes longitudinal strain rates, transverse strain rates and shear strain rates reliably with mean absolute deviations in the order of 10−4 (one level of significance below the measured values as evaluated on stable grounds. The LSM also improves the accuracy of displacement estimation of the pixel-precision normalized cross-correlation by over 90% under ideal (simulated circumstances and by about 25% for real multi-temporal images of mass movements.

  20. Imaging with Mass Spectrometry: A SIMS and VUV-Photoionization Study of Ion-Sputtered Atoms and Clusters from GaAs and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Lynelle; Zhou, Jia; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-12-05

    A new mass spectrometry surface imaging method is presented in which ion-sputtered neutrals are postionized by wavelength-tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light from a synchrotron source. Mass spectra and signal counts of the photoionized neutrals from GaAs (100) and Au are compared to those of the secondary ions. While clusters larger than dimers are more efficiently detected as secondary ions, certain species, such as As2, Au and Au2, are more efficiently detected through the neutral channel. Continuously tuning the photon wavelength allows photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves to be obtained for sputtered Asm (m=1,2) and Aun (n=1-4). From the observed ionization thresholds, sputtered neutral As and Au show no clear evidence of electronic excitation, while neutral clusters have photoionization onsets shifted to lower energies by ~;;0.3 eV. These shifts are attributed to unresolved vibrational and rotational excitations. High-spatial resolution chemical imaging with synchrotron VUV postionization is demonstrated at two different photon energies using a copper TEM grid embedded in indium. The resulting images are used to illustrate the use of tunable VUV light for verifying mass peak assignments by exploiting the unique wavelength-dependent PIE of each sputtered neutral species. This capability is valuable for identifying compounds when imaging chemically complex systems with mass spectrometry-based techniques.

  1. Investigation of the shape change of bio-flocs and its influence on mass transport using particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, T T; Xiao, F; Sun, W J; Sun, F Y; Lam, K M; Li, X Y

    2014-01-01

    In this laboratory study, an advanced flow visualization technique - particle image velocimetry (PIV) - was employed to investigate the change of shape of activated sludge flocs in water and its influence on the material transport characteristics of the flocs. The continuous shape change of the bio-flocs that occurred within a very short period of time could be captured by the PIV system. The results demonstrate that the fluid turbulence caused the shift of parts of a floc from one side to the other in less than 200 ms. During the continuous shape change, the liquid within the floc was forced out of the floc, which was then refilled with the liquid from the surrounding flow. For the bio-flocs saturated with a tracer dye, it was shown that the dye could be released from the flocs at a faster rate when the flocs were swayed around in water. The experimental results indicate that frequent shape change of bio-flocs facilitates the exchange of fluid and materials between the floc interior and the surrounding water. This mass transfer mechanism can be more important than molecular diffusion and internal permeation to the function and behavior of particle aggregates, including bio-flocs, in natural waters and treatment systems.

  2. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals Elevated Glomerular ATP/AMP in Diabetes/obesity and Identifies Sphingomyelin as a Possible Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Miyamoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is suppressed in diabetes and may be due to a high ATP/AMP ratio, however the quantitation of nucleotides in vivo has been extremely difficult. Via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI to localize renal nucleotides we found that the diabetic kidney had a significant increase in glomerular ATP/AMP ratio. Untargeted MALDI-MSI analysis revealed that a specific sphingomyelin species (SM(d18:1/16:0 accumulated in the glomeruli of diabetic and high-fat diet-fed mice compared with wild-type controls. In vitro studies in mesangial cells revealed that exogenous addition of SM(d18:1/16:0 significantly elevated ATP via increased glucose consumption and lactate production with a consequent reduction of AMPK and PGC1α. Furthermore, inhibition of sphingomyelin synthases reversed these effects. Our findings suggest that AMPK is reduced in the diabetic kidney due to an increase in the ATP/AMP ratio and that SM(d18:1/16:0 could be responsible for the enhanced ATP production via activation of the glycolytic pathway.

  3. Association between magnetic resonance imaging patterns and baseline disease features in multiple myeloma: analyzing surrogates of tumour mass and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Elias K.; Merz, Maximilian; Shah, Sofia; Hillengass, Michaela; Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk; Raab, M.S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kloth, Jost K.; Weber, Marc-Andre [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    To assess associations between bone marrow infiltration patterns and localization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and baseline clinical/prognostic parameters in multiple myeloma (MM). We compared baseline MM parameters, MRI patterns and localization of focal lesions to the mineralized bone in 206 newly diagnosed MM patients. A high tumour mass (represented by International Staging System stage III) was significantly associated with severe diffuse infiltration (p = 0.015) and a higher number of focal lesions (p = 0.006). Elevated creatinine (p = 0.003), anaemia (p < 0.001) and high LDH (p = 0.001) correlated with severe diffuse infiltration. A salt and pepper diffuse pattern had a favourable prognosis. A higher degree of destruction of mineralized bone (assessed by X-ray or computed tomography) was associated with an increasing number of focal lesions on MRI (p < 0.001). Adverse cytogenetics (del17p/gain1q21/t(4;14)) were associated with diffuse infiltration (p = 0.008). The presence of intraosseous focal lesions exceeding the mineralized bone had a borderline significant impact on prognosis. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI correlates with adverse cytogenetics, lowered haemoglobin values and high tumour burden in newly diagnosed MM whereas an increasing number of focal lesions correlates with a higher degree of bone destruction. Focal lesions exceeding the cortical bone did not adversely affect the prognosis. (orig.)

  4. Dirigent Protein-Mediated Lignan and Cyanogenic Glucoside Formation in Flax Seed: Integrated Omics and MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye Won; Lee, Choonseok; Yang, Hong; Rübel, Oliver; Bowen, Benjamin P; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-06-26

    An integrated omics approach using genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics (MALDI mass spectrometry imaging, MSI), and bioinformatics was employed to study spatiotemporal formation and deposition of health-protecting polymeric lignans and plant defense cyanogenic glucosides. Intact flax (Linum usitatissimum) capsules and seed tissues at different development stages were analyzed. Transcriptome analyses indicated distinct expression patterns of dirigent protein (DP) gene family members encoding (-)- and (+)-pinoresinol-forming DPs and their associated downstream metabolic processes, respectively, with the former expressed at early seed coat development stages. Genes encoding (+)-pinoresinol-forming DPs were, in contrast, expressed at later development stages. Recombinant DP expression and DP assays also unequivocally established their distinct stereoselective biochemical functions. Using MALDI MSI and ion mobility separation analyses, the pinoresinol downstream derivatives, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and SDG hydroxymethylglutaryl ester, were localized and detectable only in early seed coat development stages. SDG derivatives were then converted into higher molecular weight phenolics during seed coat maturation. By contrast, the plant defense cyanogenic glucosides, the monoglucosides linamarin/lotaustralin, were detected throughout the flax capsule, whereas diglucosides linustatin/neolinustatin only accumulated in endosperm and embryo tissues. A putative biosynthetic pathway to the cyanogens is proposed on the basis of transcriptome coexpression data. Localization of all metabolites was at ca. 20 μm resolution, with the web based tool OpenMSI enabling not only resolution enhancement but also an interactive system for real-time searching for any ion in the tissue under analysis.

  5. Localization of fatty acids with selective chain length by imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Katrin; Nygren, Håkan; Malmberg, Per; Hagenhoff, Birgit

    2007-07-01

    Localization of fatty acids in biological tissues was made by using TOF-SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). Two cell-types with a specific fatty acid distribution are shown. In rat cerebellum, different distribution patterns of stearic acid (C18:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) were found. Stearic acid signals were observed accumulated in Purkinje cells with high intensities inside the cell, but not in the nucleus region. The signals colocalized with high intensity signals of the phosphocholine head group, indicating origin from phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin. In mouse intestine, high palmitic acid signals were found in the secretory crypt cells together with high levels of phosphorylinositol colocalized in the crypt region. Palmitic acid was also seen in the intestinal lumen that contains high amounts of mucine, which is known to be produced in the crypt cells. Linoleic acid signals (C18:2) were low in the crypt region and high in the villus region. Oleic acid signals were seen in the villi and stearic acid signals were ubiquitous with no specific localization in the intestine. We conclude that the results obtained by using imaging TOF-SIMS are consistent with known brain and intestine biochemistry and that the localization of fatty acids is specific in differentiated cells.

  6. Imaging mass spectrometry reveals fiber-specific distribution of acetylcarnitine and contraction-induced carnitine dynamics in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Yasuro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Manabe, Yasuko; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Masuda, Kazumi; Fujii, Nobuharu L

    2014-10-01

    Carnitine is well recognized as a key regulator of long-chain fatty acyl group translocation into the mitochondria. In addition, carnitine, as acetylcarnitine, acts as an acceptor of excess acetyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Here, we provide a new methodology for accurate quantification of acetylcarnitine content and determination of its localization in skeletal muscles. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) to visualize acetylcarnitine distribution in rat skeletal muscles. MALDI-IMS and immunohistochemistry of serial cross-sections showed that acetylcarnitine was enriched in the slow-type muscle fibers. The concentration of ATP was lower in muscle regions with abundant acetylcarnitine, suggesting a relationship between acetylcarnitine and metabolic activity. Using our novel method, we detected an increase in acetylcarnitine content after muscle contraction. Importantly, this increase was not detected using traditional biochemical assays of homogenized muscles. We also demonstrated that acetylation of carnitine during muscle contraction was concomitant with glycogen depletion. Our methodology would be useful for the quantification of acetylcarnitine and its contraction-induced kinetics in skeletal muscles.

  7. Spatial analysis of time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometric images by ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighted interpolation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Tammy M; Gardella, Joseph A

    2008-07-01

    Ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighted (IDW) are two interpolation methods for spatial analysis of data and are commonly used to analyze macroscopic spatial data in the fields of remote sensing, geography, and geology. In this study, these two interpolation techniques were compared and used to analyze microscopic chemical images created from time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry images from a patterned polymer sample of fluorocarbon (C(x)F(y)) and poly(aminopropyl siloxane) (APS, a.k.a. siloxane). Data was eliminated from the original high-resolution data set by successive random removal, and the image file was interpolated and reconstructed with a random subset of points using both methods. The statistical validity of the reconstructed image was determined by both standard geographic information system (GIS) validation statistics and evaluating the resolution across an image boundary using ASTM depth and image resolution methodology. The results show that both ordinary kriging and IDW techniques can be used to accurately reconstruct an image using substantially fewer sample points than the original data set. Ordinary kriging performed better than the IDW technique, resulting in fewer errors in predicted intensities and greater retention of original image features. The size of the data set required for the most accurate reconstruction of the original image is directly related to the autocorrelation present within the data set. When 10% of the original siloxane data set was used for an ordinary kriging interpolation, the resulting image still retained the characteristic gridlike pattern. The C(x)F(y) data set exhibited stronger spatial correlation, resulting in reconstruction of the image with only 1% of the original data set. The removal of data points does result in a loss of image resolution; however, the resolution loss is not directly related to the percentage of sample points removed.

  8. Elevation of sulfatides in ovarian cancer: An integrated transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis including tissue-imaging mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald John F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfatides (ST are a category of sulfated galactosylceramides (GalCer that are elevated in many types of cancer including, possibly, ovarian cancer. Previous evidence for elevation of ST in ovarian cancer was based on a colorimetric reagent that does not provide structural details and can also react with other lipids. Therefore, this study utilized mass spectrometry for a structure-specific and quantitative analysis of the types, amounts, and tissue localization of ST in ovarian cancer, and combined these findings with analysis of mRNAs for the relevant enzymes of ST metabolism to explore possible mechanisms. Results Analysis of 12 ovarian tissues graded as histologically normal or having epithelial ovarian tumors by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI-MS/MS established that most tumor-bearing tissues have higher amounts of ST. Because ovarian cancer tissues are comprised of many different cell types, histological tissue slices were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tissue-imaging MS (MALDI-TIMS. The regions where ST were detected by MALDI-TIMS overlapped with the ovarian epithelial carcinoma as identified by H & E staining and histological scoring. Furthermore, the structures for the most prevalent species observed via MALDI-TIMS (d18:1/C16:0-, d18:1/C24:1- and d18:1/C24:0-ST were confirmed by MALDI-TIMS/MS, whereas, a neighboring ion(m/z 885.6 that was not tumor specific was identified as a phosphatidylinositol. Microarray analysis of mRNAs collected using laser capture microdissection revealed that expression of GalCer synthase and Gal3ST1 (3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate:GalCer sulfotransferase were approximately 11- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively, in the ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells versus normal ovarian stromal tissue, and they were 5- and 2.3-fold higher in comparison with normal surface ovarian epithelial cells, which is a likely

  9. A Sociological Study or the Effect of Western Values and Mass Media on Body Image (The Case of 15-and-above Years Old Women in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad Abbaszadeh

    2014-04-01

    Body image is a complicated phenomenon including physiological, psychological and sociological indexes. Recently, new studies are conducted about body image. From a psychological perspective, it is defined, as "an image of the body one has in mind and the way that the body is seen". In fact, Body image is a mentality means that everyone is concerned with his /her appearance. Much of this mindset, positive or negative, roots in values of the society in which it is promoted. In every society, there are certain patterns and characteristics associated with cultural ideals of beauty and the ways that female body should look and appear. One specific example of this, which is accepted in most societies, is being slim. However, appearance and its ideals have a broad meaning and cannot be considered only from a physiological perspective. Instead, it can be studied from a sociological perspective, as it is the society which dictates the appropriate appearance for people. To the extent that a person tries to have an acceptable appearance, he or she is accepted by the community. The society and culture in which a person is born and grows, teaches them how to define and interpret many of the changes that occur in the body. It is through our perceptions of our body that we come to understand how to establish relations with others, and may also affect the responses that we receive from others. Considering the fact that mass media and Western values are among the most important influential sources by which body image is defined, this study examines the relationship between Western values and mass media with body image Materials and Methods The statistical population of this study includes all 15-and-above years old women in Tabriz. Sample size was chosen through Cochran Formula, according to which 316 women were selected by means of cluster sampling method. This study is done through survey method and we used questionnaire for collecting the data. Also, we analyzed the data by

  10. MALDI-mass spectrometric imaging revealing hypoxia-driven lipids and proteins in a breast tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jiang; Chughtai, Kamila; Purvine, Samuel O.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Raman, Venu; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.; Glunde, Kristine

    2015-06-16

    Hypoxic areas are a common feature of rapidly growing malignant tumors and their metastases, and are typically spatially heterogeneous. Hypoxia has a strong impact on tumor cell biology and contributes to tumor progression in multiple ways. To date, only a few molecular key players in tumor hypoxia, such as for example hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), have been discovered. The distribution of biomolecules is frequently heterogeneous in the tumor volume, and may be driven by hypoxia and HIF-1α. Understanding the spatially heterogeneous hypoxic response of tumors is critical. Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) provides a unique way of imaging biomolecular distributions in tissue sections with high spectral and spatial resolution. In this paper, breast tumor xenografts grown from MDA-MB-231-HRE-tdTomato cells, with a red fluorescent tdTomato protein construct under the control of a hypoxia response element (HRE)-containing promoter driven by HIF-1α, were used to detect the spatial distribution of hypoxic regions. We elucidated the 3D spatial relationship between hypoxic regions and the localization of small molecules, metabolites, lipids, and proteins by using principal component analysis – linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) on 3D rendered MSI volume data from MDA-MB-231-HRE-tdTomato breast tumor xenografts. In this study we identified hypoxia-regulated proteins active in several distinct pathways such as glucose metabolism, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, protein folding, translation/ribosome, splicesome, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, hemoglobin chaperone, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, aurora B signaling/apoptotic execution phase, the RAS signaling pathway, the FAS signaling pathway/caspase cascade in apoptosis and telomere stress induced senescence. In parallel we also identified co-localization of hypoxic regions and various lipid species such as PC(16:0/18:1), PC(16:0/18:2), PC(18:0/18:1), PC

  11. Biomonitoring of metal contamination in a marine prosobranch snail (Nassarius reticulatus) by imaging laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirian C; Wagner, Martin; Wu, Bei; Scheider, Jessica; Oehlmann, Jörg; Cadore, Solange; Becker, J Sabine

    2009-12-15

    An imaging mass spectrometric method using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was developed to determine Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb and metal distribution in longitudinal tissue sections of the marine snail Nassarius reticulatus (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Snails were sampled in northern Brittany (France) at three stations with different contamination levels. The quantification of metal distribution (imaging or mapping) in a thin slice of the snail tissue was carried out using different strategies: by one-point calibration and via matrix-matched laboratory standards using different biological materials (BCR 278, snail tissue, and rat brain). Together with the imaging of metals the distribution of two non-metals (carbon and sulfur) was analyzed. The imaging LA-ICP-MS analysis yielded an inhomogeneous distribution for all elements investigated. The detection limits for the distribution analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb measured by LA-ICP-MS were in the low microg g(-1) range.

  12. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Acyl-Chain- and Region-Specific Sphingolipid Metabolism in the Kidneys of Sphingomyelin Synthase 2-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Obesity was reported to cause kidney injury by excessive accumulation of sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2 is an important enzyme for hepatic sphingolipid homeostasis and its dysfunction is considered to result in fatty liver disease. The expression of SMS2 is also high in the kidneys. However, the contribution of SMS2 on renal sphingolipid metabolism remains unclear. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to visualize the distribution and provide quantitative data on lipids in tissue sections. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the effects of SMS2 deficiency on the distribution and concentration of sphingomyelins in the liver and kidneys of mice fed with a normal-diet or a high-fat-diet using imaging mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Our study revealed that high-fat-diet increased C18-C22 sphingomyelins, but decreased C24-sphingomyelins, in the liver and kidneys of wild-type mice. By contrast, SMS2 deficiency decreased C18-C24 sphingomyelins in the liver. Although a similar trend was observed in the whole-kidneys, the effects were minor. Interestingly, imaging mass spectrometry revealed that sphingomyelin localization was specific to each acyl-chain length in the kidneys. Further, SMS2 deficiency mainly decreased C22-sphingomyelin in the renal medulla and C24-sphingomyelins in the renal cortex. Thus, imaging mass spectrometry can provide visual assessment of the contribution of SMS2 on acyl-chain- and region-specific sphingomyelin metabolism in the kidneys.

  13. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Acyl-Chain- and Region-Specific Sphingolipid Metabolism in the Kidneys of Sphingomyelin Synthase 2-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masayuki; Wakabayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Zhao, Songji; Sakai, Shota; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity was reported to cause kidney injury by excessive accumulation of sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is an important enzyme for hepatic sphingolipid homeostasis and its dysfunction is considered to result in fatty liver disease. The expression of SMS2 is also high in the kidneys. However, the contribution of SMS2 on renal sphingolipid metabolism remains unclear. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to visualize the distribution and provide quantitative data on lipids in tissue sections. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the effects of SMS2 deficiency on the distribution and concentration of sphingomyelins in the liver and kidneys of mice fed with a normal-diet or a high-fat-diet using imaging mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Our study revealed that high-fat-diet increased C18–C22 sphingomyelins, but decreased C24-sphingomyelins, in the liver and kidneys of wild-type mice. By contrast, SMS2 deficiency decreased C18–C24 sphingomyelins in the liver. Although a similar trend was observed in the whole-kidneys, the effects were minor. Interestingly, imaging mass spectrometry revealed that sphingomyelin localization was specific to each acyl-chain length in the kidneys. Further, SMS2 deficiency mainly decreased C22-sphingomyelin in the renal medulla and C24-sphingomyelins in the renal cortex. Thus, imaging mass spectrometry can provide visual assessment of the contribution of SMS2 on acyl-chain- and region-specific sphingomyelin metabolism in the kidneys. PMID:27010944

  14. The SLUGGS Survey: stellar masses and effective radii of early-type galaxies from Spitzer Space Telescope 3.6$\\mu$m imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Duncan A; Savorgnan, Giulia; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy starlight at 3.6$\\mu$m is an excellent tracer of stellar mass. Here we use the latest 3.6$\\mu$m imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure the total stellar mass and effective radii in a homogeneous way for a sample of galaxies from the SLUGGS survey. These galaxies are representative of nearby early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range of 10 $<$ log M$_{\\ast}$/M$_{\\odot}$ $<$ 11.7, and our methodology can be applied to other samples of early-type galaxies. We model each galaxy in 2D and estimate its total asymptotic magnitude from a 1D curve-of-growth. Magnitudes are converted into stellar masses using a 3.6$\\mu$m mass-to-light ratio from the latest stellar population models of R\\"ock et al., assuming a Kroupa IMF. We apply a ratio based on each galaxy's mean mass-weighted stellar age within one effective radius (the mass-to-light ratio is insensitive to galaxy metallicity for the generally old stellar ages and high metallicities found in massive early-type galaxies). Our 3.6$\\mu$m s...

  15. Hubble Frontier Fields : A High-Precision Strong-Lensing Mass Model of the Massive Galaxy Cluster Abell 2744 using 150 Multiple Images

    CERN Document Server

    Jauzac, Mathilde; Jullo, Eric; Clément, Benjamin; Limousin, Marceau; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ebeling, Harald; Atek, Hakim; Massey, Richard; Eckert, Dominique; Egami, Eiichi; Rexroth, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-precision mass model of galaxy cluster Abell 2744, based on a strong-gravitational-lensing analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data, which now include both Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide-Field Camera 3 observations to the final depth. Taking advantage of the unprecedented depth of the visible and near-infrared data, we identify 33 new multiply imaged galaxies, bringing the total to 51, comprising 159 individual lensed images. In the process, we correct previous erroneous identifications and positions of multiple systems in the northern part of the cluster core. With the Lenstool software and the new sets of multiple images, we model the cluster using two cluster-scale dark matter halos plus galaxy-scale halos for the cluster members. Our best-fit model predicts image positions with an RMS error of 0.69", which constitutes an improvement by almost a factor of two over previous parametric models of this cluster. We measure the total projected mass inside ...

  16. Maize Mass Prediction Based on Matlab Image Processing Technology%基于图像处理技术的玉米质量预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏鹏; 乔岳; 王琳; 薛凯; 苏博群

    2014-01-01

    This thesis carries out a segmentation process on the obtained images by using image processing techniques, so as to obtain the binary images of the niblet in the sample images and calculate out the number of the niblets, and fanally calculate out the mass of the niblets based on the empirical data. Furthermore, the mass of the niblet measured in the experiment is compared with that from the image processing, and the maximum prediction error is 3.291%. This experiment is of great theoretical guiding significance to the estimation of the maize yield.%文章利用图像处理技术对获取的图像进行分割处理,获取样本图像中的玉米的二值图像,计算出样本图像中玉米粒的个数,根据经验数据计算得出图像中玉米粒质量。实验测量玉米的质量,并与图像处理获得玉米质量进行对比,预测最大误差为3.291%。本试验研究对玉米产量的估计研究具有很好的理论指导意义。

  17. Primary cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor manifesting numerous small and huge ulcerated masses: its complete remission by chemotherapy and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea); Chang, Eun-Deok; Lee, An-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Pathology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea); Bae, Jung Min; Kim, Jin Woo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Dermatology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea); Chun, Kyung-Ah [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea); Rho, Sang-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Hemato-oncology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea)

    2010-06-15

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (ES) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) are widely regarded as clinically and histologically identical tumors which consist of small blue round cells. Extraskeletal ESs/PNETs usually occur in the deep soft tissues of the paraspinal region, chest wall, or lower extremities. However, superficially located cases, so-called cutaneous ESs/PNETs, are exceedingly rare, and the vast majority of the reported cases present as a single small mass. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical course of a unique case of primary cutaneous ES/PNET presenting as numerous huge masses with severe ulceration on them. (orig.)

  18. Integrating imaging FTIR and secondary ion mass spectrometry for the analysis of embedded paint cross-sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeren, Ron M.A.; Boon, Jaap J.; Noble, Petria

    1999-01-01

    Novel chemical imaging techniques provide new insight in the organic chemistry of embedded paint cross-sections. FTIR imaging microscopy delivers a two-dimensional image of the functional group distribution, revealing chemical aspects of the binding medium in each individual paint layer. Secondar...... and identity of various lead soaps and lead hydroxychloride in these inclusions....

  19. Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fox Kathleen M; Bazata Debbra D; Bays Harold E; Grandy Susan; Gavin James R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI) is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS) is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM. Metho...

  20. HIghMass - High HI Mass, HI-rich Galaxies at z~0: High-Resolution VLA Imaging of UGC 9037 and UGC 12506

    CERN Document Server

    Hallenbeck, Gregory; Spekkens, Kristine; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Brinchmann, Jarle; Chengalur, Jayaram; Hunt, Leslie K; Masters, Karen L; Saintonge, Amélie

    2014-01-01

    We present resolved HI observations of two galaxies, UGC 9037 and UGC 12506, members of a rare subset of galaxies detected by the ALFALFA extragalactic HI survey characterized by high HI mass and high gas fraction for their stellar masses. Both of these galaxies have M$_*>10^{10}$ M$_\\odot$ and M$_\\text{HI}>$ M$_*$, as well as typical star formation rates for their stellar masses. How can such galaxies have avoided consuming their massive gas reservoirs? From gas kinematics, stability, star formation, and dark matter distributions of the two galaxies, we infer two radically different histories. UGC 9037 has high central HI surface density ($>10$ M$_\\odot$ pc$^{-2}$). Its gas at most radii appears to be marginally unstable with non-circular flows across the disk. These properties are consistent with UGC 9037 having recently acquired its gas and that it will soon undergo major star formation. UGC 12506 has low surface densities of HI, and its gas is stable over most of the disk. We predict its gas to be HI-domi...

  1. ChiMS: Open-source instrument control software platform on LabVIEW for imaging/depth profiling mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Hanley, Luke

    2015-06-01

    ChiMS is an open-source data acquisition and control software program written within LabVIEW for high speed imaging and depth profiling mass spectrometers. ChiMS can also transfer large datasets from a digitizer to computer memory at high repetition rate, save data to hard disk at high throughput, and perform high speed data processing. The data acquisition mode generally simulates a digital oscilloscope, but with peripheral devices integrated for control as well as advanced data sorting and processing capabilities. Customized user-designed experiments can be easily written based on several included templates. ChiMS is additionally well suited to non-laser based mass spectrometers imaging and various other experiments in laser physics, physical chemistry, and surface science.

  2. Comparison of Drug Distribution Images from Thin Tissue Sections Obtained Using Desorption Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Whole-Body Autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Vavek, Marissa [Merck Research Laboratories; Koeplinger, Kenneth A. [Merck Research Laboratories; Schneider, Bradley B [MDS Sciex; Covey, Thomas R. [MDS Sciex

    2008-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (DESI-MS/MS) and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) were used for chemical imaging of whole-body thin tissue sections of mice intravenously dosed with propranolol (7.5 mg/kg). DESI-MS/MS imaging utilized selected reaction monitoring detection performed on an AB/MDS SCIEX 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer equipped with a prototype extended length particle discriminator interface. Propranolol images of the tissue sections using DESI-MS/MS were obtained at surface scan rates of 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 7 mm/s. Although signal decreased with increasing scan rate, useful whole-body images for propranolol were obtained from the tissues even at 7 mm/s, which required just 79 min of analysis time. Attempts to detect and image the distribution of the known propranolol metabolites were unsuccessful. Regions of the tissue sections showing the most radioactivity from WBA sections were excised and analyzed by HPLC with radiochemical detection to determine relative levels of propranolol and metabolites present. Comparison of the DESI-MS/MS signal for propranolol and the radioactivity attributed to propranolol from WBA sections indicated nominal agreement between the two techniques for the amount of propranolol in the brain, lung, and liver. Data from the kidney showed an unexplained disparity between the two techniques. The results of this study show the feasibility of using DESI-MS/MS to obtain useful chemical images of a drug in whole-body thin tissue sections following drug administration at a pharmacologically relevant level. Further optimization to improve sensitivity and enable detection of the drug metabolites will be among the requirements necessary to move DESI-MS/MS chemical imaging forward as a practical tool in drug discovery.

  3. Interspecific variation in localization of hypericins and phloroglucinols in the genus Hypericum as revealed by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharíková, Andrea; Kimáková, Katarína; Janfelt, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    of secondary metabolites in different plant tissues. This study is focused on localization of major secondary compounds in the leaves of 17 different in vitro cultured Hypericum species classified in 11 sections. Generally, all identified naphtodianthrones, protohypericin, hypericin, protopseudohypericin......Plants of the genus Hypericum are widely known for their therapeutic properties. The most biologically active compounds of this genus are naphtodianthrones and phloroglucinols. Indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging allows visualization and localization...

  4. MSI.R scripts reveal volatile and semi-volatile features in low-temperature plasma mass spectrometry imaging (LTP-MSI) of chilli (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Becerra, Roberto; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Winkler, Robert

    2015-07-01

    In cartography, the combination of colour and contour lines is used to express a three-dimensional landscape on a two-dimensional map. We transferred this concept to the analysis of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data and developed a collection of R scripts for the efficient evaluation of .imzML archives in a four-step strategy: (1) calculation of the density distribution of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) signals in the .imzML file and assembling of a pseudo-master spectrum with peak list, (2) automated generation of mass images for a defined scan range and subsequent visual inspection, (3) visualisation of individual ion distributions and export of relevant .mzML spectra and (4) creation of overlay graphics of ion images and photographies. The use of a Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) colour model in MSI graphics takes into account the human perception for colours and supports the correct evaluation of signal intensities. Further, readers with colour blindness are supported. Contour maps promote the visual recognition of patterns in MSI data, which is particularly useful for noisy data sets. We demonstrate the scalability of MSI.R scripts by running them on different systems: on a personal computer, on Amazon Web Services (AWS) instances and on an institutional cluster. By implementing a parallel computing strategy, the execution speed for .imzML data scanning with image generation could be improved by more than an order of magnitude. Applying our MSI.R scripts ( http://www.bioprocess.org/MSI.R ) to low-temperature plasma (LTP)-MSI data shows the localisation of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in the cross-cut of a chilli (Capsicum annuum) fruit. The subsequent identification of compounds by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS, LC-MS) proves that LTP-MSI enables the direct measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) distributions from biological tissues.

  5. Sublimation of new matrix candidates for high spatial resolution imaging mass spectrometry of lipids: enhanced information in both positive and negative polarities after 1,5-diaminonapthalene deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aurélien; Charbonneau, Jade Laveaux; Fournaise, Erik; Chaurand, Pierre

    2012-02-21

    Matrix sublimation has demonstrated to be a powerful approach for high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging of lipids, providing very homogeneous solvent-free deposition. This work presents a comprehensive study aiming to evaluate current and novel matrix candidates for high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry of lipids from tissue section after deposition by sublimation. For this purpose, 12 matrices including 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), sinapinic acid (SA), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), 2,6-dihydroxyacetphenone (DHA), 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), 3-hydroxypicolinic acid (3-HPA), 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN), 1,8,9-anthracentriol (DIT), 1,5-diaminonapthalene (DAN), p-nitroaniline (NIT), 9-aminoacridine (9-AA), and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) were investigated for lipid detection efficiency in both positive and negative ionization modes, matrix interferences, and stability under vacuum. For the most relevant matrices, ion maps of the different lipid species were obtained from tissue sections at high spatial resolution and the detected peaks were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. First proposed for imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) after sublimation, DAN has demonstrated to be of high efficiency providing rich lipid signatures in both positive and negative polarities with high vacuum stability and sub-20 μm resolution capacity. Ion images from adult mouse brain were generated with a 10 μm scanning resolution. Furthermore, ion images from adult mouse brain and whole-body fish tissue sections were also acquired in both polarity modes from the same tissue section at 100 μm spatial resolution. Sublimation of DAN represents an interesting approach to improve information with respect to currently employed matrices providing a deeper analysis of the lipidome by IMS.

  6. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-17

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  7. Dithranol as a matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging on a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Cuong H; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H

    2013-11-26

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) determines the spatial localization and distribution patterns of compounds on the surface of a tissue section, mainly using MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization)-based analytical techniques. New matrices for small-molecule MSI, which can improve the analysis of low-molecular weight (MW) compounds, are needed. These matrices should provide increased analyte signals while decreasing MALDI background signals. In addition, the use of ultrahigh-resolution instruments, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometers, has the ability to resolve analyte signals from matrix signals, and this can partially overcome many problems associated with the background originating from the MALDI matrix. The reduction in the intensities of the metastable matrix clusters by FTICR MS can also help to overcome some of the interferences associated with matrix peaks on other instruments. High-resolution instruments such as the FTICR mass spectrometers are advantageous as they can produce distribution patterns of many compounds simultaneously while still providing confidence in chemical identifications. Dithranol (DT; 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroanthracen-9-one) has previously been reported as a MALDI matrix for tissue imaging. In this work, a protocol for the use of DT for MALDI imaging of endogenous lipids from the surfaces of mammalian tissue sections, by positive-ion MALDI-MS, on an ultrahigh-resolution hybrid quadrupole FTICR instrument has been provided.

  8. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  9. The challenging image-guided abdominal mass biopsy: established and emerging techniques 'if you can see it, you can biopsy it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainani, Nisha I; Arellano, Ronald S; Shyn, Paul B; Gervais, Debra A; Mueller, Peter R; Silverman, Stuart G

    2013-08-01

    Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of abdominal masses is among the most commonly performed procedures in interventional radiology. While most abdominal masses are readily amenable to percutaneous biopsy, some may be technically challenging for a number of reasons. Low lesion conspicuity, small size, overlying or intervening structures, motion, such as that due to respiration, are some of the factors that can influence the ability and ultimately the success of an abdominal biopsy. Various techniques or technologies, such as choice of imaging modality, use of intravenous contrast and anatomic landmarks, patient positioning, organ displacement or trans-organ approach, angling CT gantry, triangulation method, real-time guidance with CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound, sedation or breath-hold, pre-procedural image fusion, electromagnetic tracking, and others, when used singularly or in combination, can overcome these challenges to facilitate needle placement in abdominal masses that otherwise would be considered not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. Familiarity and awareness of these techniques allows the interventional radiologist to expand the use of percutaneous biopsy in clinical practice, and help choose the most appropriate technique for a particular patient.

  10. Saturn's inner satellites: Orbits, masses, and the chaotic motion of atlas from new Cassini imaging observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, N. J.; Murray, C. D. [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Renner, S. [Université Lille 1, Laboratoire d' Astronomie de Lille (LAL), 1 impasse de l' Observatoire, F-59000 Lille (France); Evans, M. W. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present numerically derived orbits and mass estimates for the inner Saturnian satellites, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus from a fit to 2580 new Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem astrometric observations spanning 2004 February to 2013 August. The observations are provided as machine-readable and Virtual Observatory tables. We estimate GM{sub Atlas} = (0.384 ± 0.001) × 10{sup −3} km{sup 3} s{sup −2}, a value 13% smaller than the previously published estimate but with an order of magnitude reduction in the uncertainty. We also find GM{sub Prometheus} = (10.677 ± 0.006) × 10{sup −3} km{sup 3} s{sup −2}, GM{sub Pandora} = (9.133 ± 0.009) × 10{sup −3} km{sup 3} s{sup −2}, GM{sub Janus} = (126.51 ± 0.03) × 10{sup −3} km{sup 3} s{sup −2}, and GM{sub Epimetheus} = (35.110 ± 0.009) × 10{sup −3} km{sup 3} s{sup −2}, consistent with previously published values, but also with significant reductions in uncertainties. We show that Atlas is currently librating in both the 54:53 co-rotation-eccentricity resonance (CER) and the 54:53 inner Lindblad (ILR) resonance with Prometheus, making it the latest example of a coupled CER-ILR system, in common with the Saturnian satellites Anthe, Aegaeon, and Methone, and possibly Neptune's ring arcs. We further demonstrate that Atlas's orbit is chaotic, with a Lyapunov time of ∼10 years, and show that its chaotic behavior is a direct consequence of the coupled resonant interaction with Prometheus, rather than being an indirect effect of the known chaotic interaction between Prometheus and Pandora. We provide an updated analysis of the second-order resonant perturbations involving Prometheus, Pandora, and Epimetheus based on the new observations, showing that these resonant arguments are librating only when Epimetheus is the innermost of the co-orbital pair, Janus and Epimetheus. We also find evidence that the known chaotic changes in the orbits of Prometheus and Pandora are not

  11. Saturnʼs Inner Satellites: Orbits, Masses, and the Chaotic Motion of Atlas from New Cassini Imaging Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, N. J.; Renner, S.; Murray, C. D.; Evans, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    We present numerically derived orbits and mass estimates for the inner Saturnian satellites, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus from a fit to 2580 new Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem astrometric observations spanning 2004 February to 2013 August. The observations are provided as machine-readable and Virtual Observatory tables. We estimate G{{M}Atlas} = (0.384 ± 0.001) × 10-3 km3 s-2, a value 13% smaller than the previously published estimate but with an order of magnitude reduction in the uncertainty. We also find G{{M}Prometheus} = (10.677 ± 0.006) × 10-3 km3 s-2, G{{M}Pandora} = (9.133 ± 0.009) × 10-3 km3 s-2, G{{M}Janus} = (126.51 ± 0.03) × 10-3 km3 s-2, and G{{M}Epimetheus} = (35.110 ± 0.009) × 10-3 km3 s-2, consistent with previously published values, but also with significant reductions in uncertainties. We show that Atlas is currently librating in both the 54:53 co-rotation-eccentricity resonance (CER) and the 54:53 inner Lindblad (ILR) resonance with Prometheus, making it the latest example of a coupled CER-ILR system, in common with the Saturnian satellites Anthe, Aegaeon, and Methone, and possibly Neptune's ring arcs. We further demonstrate that Atlas's orbit is chaotic, with a Lyapunov time of ˜10 years, and show that its chaotic behavior is a direct consequence of the coupled resonant interaction with Prometheus, rather than being an indirect effect of the known chaotic interaction between Prometheus and Pandora. We provide an updated analysis of the second-order resonant perturbations involving Prometheus, Pandora, and Epimetheus based on the new observations, showing that these resonant arguments are librating only when Epimetheus is the innermost of the co-orbital pair, Janus and Epimetheus. We also find evidence that the known chaotic changes in the orbits of Prometheus and Pandora are not confined to times of apse anti-alignment.

  12. Utility of spatially-resolved atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques as alternatives to mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) in drug metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blatherwick, Eleanor Q. [University of Warwick, UK; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Pickup, Kathryn [AstraZeneca R& D Sweden; Johansson, Maria K. [AstraZeneca R& D Sweden; Beaudoin, Marie-Eve [AstraZeneca, USA; Cole, Roderic [ORNL; Day, Jennifer M. [AstraZeneca R& D, UK; Iverson, Suzanne [AstraZeneca R& D Sweden; Wilson, Ian D. [AstraZeneca R& D, UK; Scrivens, James H. [University of Warwick, UK; Weston, Daniel J. [AstraZeneca R& D, UK

    2011-01-01

    1. Tissue distribution studies of drug molecules play an essential role in the pharmaceutical industry and are commonly undertaken using quantitative whole body autoradiography (QWBA) methods. 2. The growing need for complementary methods to address some scientific gaps around radiography methods has led to increased use of mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) technology over the last 5 to 10 years. More recently, the development of novel mass spectrometric techniques for ambient surface sampling has redefined what can be regarded as fit-for-purpose for MSI in a drug metabolism and disposition arena. 3. Together with a review of these novel alternatives, this paper details the use of two liquid microjunction (LMJ)- based mass spectrometric surface sampling technologies. These approaches are used to provide qualitative determination of parent drug in rat liver tissue slices using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and to assess the performance of a LMJ surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP) interface for quantitative assessment of parent drug in brain, liver and muscle tissue slices. 4. An assessment of the utility of these spatially-resolved sampling methods is given, showing interdependence between mass spectrometric and QWBA methods, in particular there emerges a reason to question typical MSI workflows for drug metabolism; suggesting the expedient use of profile or region analysis may be more appropriate, rather than generating time-intensive molecular images of the entire tissue section.

  13. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drug Related Crystal-Like Structures in Formalin-Fixed Frozen and Paraffin-Embedded Rabbit Kidney Tissue Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinen, Anne L; van Oevelen, Cateau; Eijkel, Gert B; Van Heerden, Marjolein; Cuyckens, Filip; Heeren, Ron M A

    2016-01-01

    A multimodal mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) based approach was used to characterize the molecular content of crystal-like structures in a frozen and paraffin embedded piece of a formalin-fixed rabbit kidney. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging were combined to analyze the frozen and paraffin embedded sample without further preparation steps to remove the paraffin. The investigated rabbit kidney was part of a study on a drug compound in development, in which severe renal toxicity was observed in dosed rabbits. Histological examination of the kidney showed tubular degeneration with precipitation of crystal-like structures in the cortex, which were assumed to cause the renal toxicity. The MS imaging approach was used to find out whether the crystal-like structures were composed of the drug compound, metabolites, or an endogenous compound as a reaction to the drug administration. The generated MALDI-MSI data were analyzed using principal component analysis. In combination with the MS/MS results, this way of data processing demonstrates that the crystal structures were mainly composed of metabolites and relatively little parent drug.

  14. Imaging of metals in biological tissue by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS): state of the art and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine Becker, J

    2013-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is well established as a sensitive trace and ultratrace analytical technique with multielement capability for bioimaging of metals and studying metallomics in biological and medical tissue. Metals and metalloproteins play a key role in the metabolism and formation of metal-containing deposits in the brain but also in the liver. In various diseases, analysis of metals and metalloproteins is essential for understanding the underlying cellular processes. LA-ICP-MS imaging (LA-ICP-MSI) combined with other complementary imaging techniques is a sophisticated tool for investigating the regional and cellular distribution of metals and related metal-containing biomolecules. On the basis of successful routine techniques for the elemental bioimaging of cryosections by LA-ICP-MSI with a spatial resolution between 200 and ~10 µm, the further development used online laser microdissection ICP-MSI to study the metal distribution in small biological sample sections (at the cellular level from 10 µm to the submicrometer range). The use of mass spectrometric imaging of metals and also nonmetals is demonstrated on a series of biological specimens. This article discusses the state of the art of bioimaging of metals in thin biological tissue sections by LA-ICP-MSI with spatial resolution at the micrometer scale, future developments and prospects for quantitative imaging techniques of metals in the nanometer range. In addition, combining quantitative elemental imaging by LA/laser microdissection-ICP-MSI with biomolecular imaging by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-MSI will be challenging for future life science research.

  15. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Orbit and Component Masses of the Intermediate-Age, Late-Type Binary NO UMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Leisenring, Jarron; Bailey, Vanessa; Defrère, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Weber, Michael; Biller, Beth A.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird M.; Crepp, Justin R.; Eisner, Josh A.; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Henning, Thomas; Morzinski, Katie M.; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2016-02-01

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBT Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt exoplanet imaging survey. Our H-, Ks-, and L‧-band observations resolve the system at angular separations Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.

  16. Free-breathing Sparse Sampling Cine MR Imaging with Iterative Reconstruction for the Assessment of Left Ventricular Function and Mass at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarski, Sonja; Henzler, Thomas; Haubenreisser, Holger; Dösch, Christina; Zenge, Michael O; Schmidt, Michaela; Nadar, Mariappan S; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Papavassiliu, Theano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of left ventricle (LV) analysis with a two-dimensional real-time cine true fast imaging with steady-state precession (trueFISP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence featuring sparse data sampling with iterative reconstruction (SSIR) performed with and without breath-hold (BH) commands at 3.0 T. Materials and Methods Ten control subjects (mean age, 35 years; range, 25-56 years) and 60 patients scheduled to undergo a routine cardiac examination that included LV analysis (mean age, 58 years; range, 20-86 years) underwent a fully sampled segmented multiple BH cine sequence (standard of reference) and a prototype undersampled SSIR sequence performed during a single BH and during free breathing (non-BH imaging). Quantitative analysis of LV function and mass was performed. Linear regression, Bland-Altman analysis, and paired t testing were performed. Results Similar to the results in control subjects, analysis of the 60 patients showed excellent correlation with the standard of reference for single-BH SSIR (r = 0.93-0.99) and non-BH SSIR (r = 0.92-0.98) for LV ejection fraction (EF), volume, and mass (P BH SSIR: 178.5 g ± 62.0 [P BH SSIR: 175.3 g ± 63.7 [P BH SSIR, 48.8% ± 11 with non-BH SSIR; P = .03 and P = .12, respectively). Bland-Altman analysis showed similar measurement errors for single-BH SSIR and non-BH SSIR when compared with standard of reference measurements for EF, volume, and mass. Conclusion Assessment of LV function with SSIR at 3.0 T is noninferior to the standard of reference irrespective of BH commands. LV mass, however, is overestimated with SSIR. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  17. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of ovarian masses with suspicious features: Strengths and challen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mansour

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: DWI supported by conventional MRI data can confirm or exclude malignancy in suspicious ovarian masses. The combined analysis of quantitative and qualitative criteria and knowledge of the sequence pitfalls are required.

  18. Reconstructing the stellar mass distributions of galaxies using S4G IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron images: II. The conversion from light to mass

    CERN Document Server

    Meidt, Sharon E; van de Ven, Glenn; Zaritsky, Dennis; Peletier, Reynier; Knapen, Johan; Sheth, Kartik; Regan, Michael; Querejeta, Miguel; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Kim, Taehyun; Hinz, Joannah L; de Paz, Armando Gil; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Buta, Ronald J; Cisternas, Mauricio; Ho, Luis C; Holwerda, Benne; Skibba, Ramin; Laurikainen, E; Salo, H; Gadotti, D A; Laine, Jarkko; Erroz-Ferrer, S; Comeron, Sebastien; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Seibert, M; Mizusawa, T

    2014-01-01

    We present a new approach for estimating the 3.6 micron stellar mass-to-light ratio in terms of the [3.6]-[4.5] colors of old stellar populations. Our approach avoids several of the largest sources of uncertainty in existing techniques. By focusing on mid-IR wavelengths, we gain a virtually dust extinction-free tracer of the old stars, avoiding the need to adopt a dust model to correctly interpret optical or optical/NIR colors normally leveraged to assign M/L. By calibrating a new relation between NIR and mid-IR colors of GLIMPSE giant stars we also avoid discrepancies in model predictions for the [3.6]-[4.5] colors of old stellar populations due to uncertainties in molecular line opacities. We find that the [3.6]-[4.5] color, which is driven primarily by metallicity, provides a tight constraint on M/L_3.6, which varies intrinsically less than at optical wavelengths. The uncertainty on M/L_3.6 of ~0.07 dex due to unconstrained age variations marks a significant improvement on existing techniques for estimatin...

  19. Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kathleen M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM. Methods Respondents (n = 13,887 to the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD 2006 survey self-reported their weight and height for BMI calculation. On the gender-specific Stunkard FRS, respondents selected the figure most closely resembling their body image. Spearman correlation was computed between perceived body image and BMI for men and women separately. Student's t-test analysis compared the mean BMI differences between respondents with and without T2DM. Results Men with T2DM did not significantly differ from men without diabetes mellitus in mean BMI per body image figure except at the extremes in body figures. Women with T2DM had a significantly higher BMI for the same body figure compared with women without diabetes mellitus for most figures (p Conclusions Individuals, particularly women, with T2DM may differ in their perception of body image compared with those without diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if these perceived differences increase the risk of T2DM, or if the diagnosis of T2DM alters body image perceptions.

  20. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  1. Metal imaging on surface of micro- and nanoelectronic devices by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and possibility to measure at nanometer range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoriy, Myroslav V; Mayer, Dirk; Becker, J Sabine

    2009-05-01

    An analytical mass spectrometric method for the elemental analysis of nano-bioelectronic devices involved in bioengineering research was developed and applied for measurements of selected metals (Au, Ti, Pt, Cr, etc.) on interdigitated electrode array chips (IDA-chip). An imaging laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (LA-ICP-MS) procedure was used to map the elements of interest on the surface of the analyzed sample. The obtained images of metals were in a good agreement and corresponded to the micro- and nanofabricated metal electrode pattern. For the analysis at nanometer resolution scale a NF-LA-ICP-MS (NF-near-field) procedure was applied, which utilize thin Ag needle to enhance laser beam energy and improve spatial resolution of the method. The results show a approximately 100x enhancement of analyte signal, when the needle was positioned in the "near-field region" to the sample surface and the laser shot was performed. In addition, mass spectrometric studies of reproducibly for five separated NF-LA shots in different places of analyzed sample yielded an RSD of the measurement of 16%.

  2. High-resolution ALMA observations of SDP.81. I. The innermost mass profile of the lensing elliptical galaxy probed by 30 milli-arcsecond images

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Yoichi; Iono, Daisuke; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Matsuda, Yuichi; Hayashi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed modeling of a mass profile of a $z = 0.2999$ massive elliptical galaxy using 30 milli-arcsecond resolution 1-mm Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) images of the galaxy-galaxy lensing system SDP.81. The detailed morphology of the lensed multiple images of the $z = 3.042$ infrared-luminous galaxy, which is found to consist of tens of $\\lesssim 100$-pc-sized star-forming clumps embedded in a $\\sim 2$ kpc disk, are well reproduced by a lensing galaxy modeled by an isothermal ellipsoid with a 400 pc core. The core radius is consistent with that of the visible stellar light, and the mass-to-light ratio of $\\sim 2\\,M_{\\odot}\\,L_{\\odot}^{-1}$ is comparable to the locally measured value, suggesting that the inner 1 kpc region is dominated by luminous matter. The position of the predicted mass centroid is consistent to within $\\simeq 30$ mas with that of a non-thermal source detected with ALMA, which likely traces an active galactic nucleus of the foreground elliptical galaxy. A po...

  3. Deep Near-Infrared Imaging of the rho Oph Cloud Core: Clues to the Origin of the Lowest-Mass Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Kenneth A; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Lowrance, Patrick J; Cutri, Roc M; Velusamy, Thangasamy

    2010-01-01

    A search for young substellar objects in the rho Oph cloud core region has been made using the deep-integration Combined Calibration Scan images of the 2MASS extended mission in J, H and Ks bands, and Spitzer IRAC images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 microns. The field of view of the combined observations was 1 deg x 9.3 arcmin, and the 5 sigma limiting magnitude at J was 20.5. Comparison of the observed SEDs with the predictions of the COND and DUSTY models, for an assumed age of 1 Myr, supports the identification of many of the sources with brown dwarfs, and enables the estimation of effective temperature, Teff. The cluster members are then readily distinguishable from background stars by their locations on a plot of flux density versus Teff. The range of estimated Teff extends down to ~ 750 K, suggesting the presence of objects of sub-Jupiter mass. The results also suggest that the mass function for the rho Oph cloud resembles that of the sigma Orionis cluster based on a recent study, with both rising towards l...

  4. Combined Atomic Force Microscope-Based Topographical Imaging and Nanometer Scale Resolved Proximal Probe Thermal Desorption/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL; Bradshaw, James A [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Nanometer scale proximal probe thermal desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD/ESI-MS) was demonstrated for molecular surface sampling of caffeine from a thin film using a 30 nm diameter nano-thermal analysis (nano-TA) probe tip in an atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled via a vapor transfer line and ESI interface to a MS detection platform. Using a probe temperature of 350 C and a spot sampling time of 30 s, conical desorption craters 250 nm in diameter and 100 nm deep were created as shown through subsequent topographical imaging of the surface within the same system. Automated sampling of a 5 x 2 array of spots, with 2 m spacing between spots, and real time selective detection of the desorbed caffeine using tandem mass spectrometry was also demonstrated. Estimated from the crater volume (~2x106 nm3), only about 10 amol (2 fg) of caffeine was liberated from each thermal desorption crater in the thin film. These results illustrate a relatively simple experimental setup and means to acquire in automated fashion sub-micrometer scale spatial sampling resolution and mass spectral detection of materials amenable to TD. The ability to achieve MS-based chemical imaging with 250 nm scale spatial resolution with this system is anticipated.

  5. Localization of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng with different age by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hangrui; Wang, Shujuan; Liu, Jianjun; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-07-15

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. (P. ginseng) is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines, with ginsenosides as its main bioactive components. Because different ginsenosides have varied pharmacological effects, extraction and separation of ginsenosides are usually required for the investigation of pharmacological effects of different ginsenosides. However, the contents of ginsenosides vary with the ages and tissues of P. ginseng root. In this research, an efficient method to explore the distribution of ginsenosides and differentiate P. ginseng roots with different ages was developed based on matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-TOF-MSI). After a simple sample preparation, there were 18 peaks corresponding to 31 ginsenosides with distinct localization in the mass range of m/z 700-1400 identified by MALDI-TOF-MSI and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. All the three types of ginsenosides were successfully detected and visualized in images, which could be correlated with anatomical features. The P. ginseng at the ages of 2, 4 and 6 could be differentiated finely through the principal component analysis of data collected from the cork based on the ion images but not data from the whole tissue. The experimental result implies that the established method for the direct analysis of metabolites in plant tissues has high potential for the rapid identification of metabolites and analysis of their localizations in medicinal herbs. Furthermore, this technique also provides valuable information for the component-specific extraction and pharmacological research of herbs.

  6. Using computer-extracted image features for modeling of error-making patterns in detection of mammographic masses among radiology residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing, E-mail: jing.zhang2@duke.edu; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C. [Department of Radiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Department of Radiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Mazurowski, Maciej A. [Department of Radiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Mammography is the most widely accepted and utilized screening modality for early breast cancer detection. Providing high quality mammography education to radiology trainees is essential, since excellent interpretation skills are needed to ensure the highest benefit of screening mammography for patients. The authors have previously proposed a computer-aided education system based on trainee models. Those models relate human-assessed image characteristics to trainee error. In this study, the authors propose to build trainee models that utilize features automatically extracted from images using computer vision algorithms to predict likelihood of missing each mass by the trainee. This computer vision-based approach to trainee modeling will allow for automatically searching large databases of mammograms in order to identify challenging cases for each trainee. Methods: The authors’ algorithm for predicting the likelihood of missing a mass consists of three steps. First, a mammogram is segmented into air, pectoral muscle, fatty tissue, dense tissue, and mass using automated segmentation algorithms. Second, 43 features are extracted using computer vision algorithms for each abnormality identified by experts. Third, error-making models (classifiers) are applied to predict the likelihood of trainees missing the abnormality based on the extracted features. The models are developed individually for each trainee using his/her previous reading data. The authors evaluated the predictive performance of the proposed algorithm using data from a reader study in which 10 subjects (7 residents and 3 novices) and 3 experts read 100 mammographic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology was applied for the evaluation. Results: The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the error-making models for the task of predicting which masses will be detected and which will be missed was 0.607 (95% CI,0.564-0.650). This value was statistically significantly different

  7. Macroscopic and microscopic spatially-resolved analysis of food contaminants and constituents using laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielen, Michel W F; van Beek, Teris A

    2014-11-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) does not require very flat surfaces, high-precision sample preparation, or the addition of matrix. Because of these features, LAESI-MSI may be the method of choice for spatially-resolved food analysis. In this work, LAESI time-of-flight MSI was investigated for macroscopic and microscopic imaging of pesticides, mycotoxins, and plant metabolites on rose leaves, orange and lemon fruit, ergot bodies, cherry tomatoes, and maize kernels. Accurate mass ion-map data were acquired at sampling locations with an x-y center-to-center distance of 0.2-1.0 mm and were superimposed onto co-registered optical images. The spatially-resolved ion maps of pesticides on rose leaves suggest co-application of registered and banned pesticides. Ion maps of the fungicide imazalil reveal that this compound is only localized on the peel of citrus fruit. However, according to three-dimensional LAESI-MSI the penetration depth of imazalil into the peel has significant local variation. Ion maps of different plant alkaloids on ergot bodies from rye reveal co-localization in accordance with expectations. The feasibility of using untargeted MSI for food analysis was revealed by ion maps of plant metabolites in cherry tomatoes and maize-kernel slices. For tomatoes, traveling-wave ion mobility (TWIM) was used to discriminate between different lycoperoside glycoalkaloid isomers; for maize quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) was successfully used to elucidate the structure of a localized unknown. It is envisaged that LAESI-MSI will contribute to future research in food science, agriforensics, and plant metabolomics.

  8. Enzyme kinetics by directly imaging a porous silicon microfluidic reactor using desorption/ionization on silicon mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kevin P; Azoz, Seyla; Gardeniers, Han J G E

    2008-11-01

    Enzyme kinetics were obtained in a porous silicon microfluidic channel by combining an enzyme and substrate droplet, allowing them to react and deposit a small amount of residue on the channel walls, and then analyzing this residue by directly ionizing the channel walls using a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) laser source. The porous silicon of the channel walls functions in a manner analogous to the matrix in MALDI-MS, and is referred to as a desorption/ionization on silicon mass spectrometry (DIOS-MS) target when used in this configuration. Mass spectrometry signal intensity of substrate residue correlates with relative concentration, and position in the microchannel correlates with time, thus allowing determination of kinetic parameters. The system is especially suitable for initial reaction velocity determination. This microreactor is broadly applicable to time-resolved kinetic assays as long as at least one substrate or product of the reaction is ionizable by DIOS-MS.

  9. Application of the discrete torus wavelet transform to the denoising of magnetic resonance images of uterine and ovarian masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarty, Gordon E.; Atkins, M. Stella; Olatunbosun, Femi; Chizen, Donna; Loewy, John; Kendall, Edward J.; Pierson, Roger A.

    1999-10-01

    A new numerical wavelet transform, the discrete torus wavelet transform, is described and an application is given to the denoising of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The discrete tori wavelet transform is an undecimated wavelet transform which is computed using a discrete Fourier transform and multiplication instead of by direct convolution in the image domain. This approach leads to a decomposition of the image onto frames in the space of square summable functions on the discrete torus, l2(T2). The new transform was compared to the traditional decimated wavelet transform in its ability to denoise MRI data. By using denoised images as the basis for the computation of a nuclear magnetic resonance spin-spin relaxation-time map through least squares curve fitting, an error map was generated that was used to assess the performance of the denoising algorithms. The discrete torus wavelet transform outperformed the traditional wavelet transform in 88% of the T2 error map denoising tests with phantoms and gynecologic MRI images.

  10. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). VI. Comparing the Mass and Light in MACS J0416.1-2403 Using Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Wang, X.; Brammer, G. B.; Broussard, A.; Amorin, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Schrabback, T.; Trenti, M.; Vulcani, B.

    2016-11-01

    We present a model using both strong and weak gravitational lensing of the galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403, constrained using spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) and Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. We search for emission lines in known multiply imaged sources in the GLASS spectra, obtaining secure spectroscopic redshifts of 30 multiple images belonging to 15 distinct source galaxies. The GLASS spectra provide the first spectroscopic measurements for five of the source galaxies. The weak lensing signal is acquired from 884 galaxies in the F606W HFF image. By combining the weak lensing constraints with 15 multiple image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and nine multiple image systems with photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster on an adaptive grid. The resulting map of total mass density is compared with a map of stellar mass density obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields imaging data to study the relative distribution of stellar and total mass in the cluster. We find that the projected stellar mass to total mass ratio, f ⋆, varies considerably with the stellar surface mass density. The mean projected stellar mass to total mass ratio is =0.009+/- 0.003 (stat.), but with a systematic error as large as 0.004-0.005, dominated by the choice of the initial mass function. We find agreement with several recent measurements of f ⋆ in massive cluster environments. The lensing maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available to the broader community in the standard HFF format.

  11. Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allansdotter-Johnsson Ase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV and ejection fraction (EF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Methods Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male. Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA. Results Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006 and ESV (p Conclusion LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use.

  12. The DODO Survey II: A Gemini Direct Imaging Search for Substellar and Planetary Mass Companions around Nearby Equatorial and Northern Hemisphere White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, E; Clarke, F J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Degenerate Objects around Degenerate Objects (DODO) survey is to search for very low mass brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets in wide orbits around white dwarfs via direct imaging. The direct detection of such companions would allow the spectroscopic investigation of objects with temperatures much lower ( T8.5 and so could belong to the proposed Y dwarf spectral sequence. The detection of a planet around a white dwarf would prove that such objects can survive the final stages of stellar evolution and place constraints on the frequency of planetary systems around their progenitors (with masses between 1.5 - 8 solar masses, i.e., early B to mid F). This paper presents the results of a multi-epoch J band common proper motion survey of 23 nearby equatorial and northern hemisphere white dwarfs. We rule out the presence of any common proper motion companions, with limiting masses determined from the completeness limit of each observation, to 18 white dwarfs. For the remaining five targets, the motion...

  13. The mass of planet GJ676A b from ground-based astrometry: A planetary system with two mature gas giants suitable for direct imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Sahlmann, J; Ségransan, D; Astudillo-Defru, N; Bonfils, X; Delfosse, X; Forveille, T; Hagelberg, J; Curto, G Lo; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Udry, S; Zimmerman, N T

    2016-01-01

    GJ676A is an M0 dwarf hosting both gas-giant and super-Earth-type planets discovered with radial-velocity measurements. Using FORS2/VLT, we obtained position measurements of the star in the plane of the sky that tightly constrain its astrometric reflex motion caused by the super-Jupiter planet `b` in a 1052-day orbit. This allows us to determine the mass of this planet to $M_\\mathrm{b} = 6.7^{+1.8}_{-1.5}\\,M_\\mathrm{J}$, which is $\\sim$40 \\% higher than the minimum mass inferred from the radial-velocity orbit. Using new HARPS radial-velocity measurements, we improve upon the orbital parameters of the inner low-mass planets `d` and `e` and we determine the orbital period of the outer giant planet `c` to $P_\\mathrm{c}=7340$ days under the assumption of a circular orbit. The preliminary minimum mass of planet `c` is $M_\\mathrm{c} \\sin i = 6.8\\,M_\\mathrm{J}$ with an upper limit of $\\sim$$39\\,M_\\mathrm{J}$ that we set using NACO/VLT high-contrast imaging. We also determine precise parallaxes and relative proper mo...

  14. Chemical imaging of molecular changes in a hydrated single cell by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry and super-resolution microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Xin; Szymanski, Craig J.; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhou, Yufan; Ma, Xiang; Yu, Jiachao; Evans, James E.; Orr, Galya; Liu, Songqin; Zhu, Zihua; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2016-05-15

    Chemical imaging of single cells is important in capturing biological dynamics. Single cell correlative imaging is realized between structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) using System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI), a multimodal microreactor. SIM characterized cells and guided subsequent ToF-SIMS analysis. Dynamic ToF-SIMS provided time- and space-resolved cell molecular mapping. Lipid fragments were identified in the hydrated cell membrane. Principal component analysis was used to elucidate chemical component differences among mouse lung cells that uptake zinc oxide nanoparticles. Our results provided submicron chemical spatial mapping for investigations of cell dynamics at the molecular level.

  15. Imaging procedures in gastrointestinal mass lesions in pediatric patients. Einsatz bildgebender Verfahren bei gastrointestinalen Erkrankungen mit raumfordernder Wirkung im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmke, K. (Roentgenabteilung der Kinderklinik, Univ.-Krankenhaus, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    Sonography is gaining in importance for examinatin of childhood illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract. Disadvantages of ultrasound result from the gaseous elements naturally contained in the intestine. Tumors of the digestive tract can be best classified on the basis of their relationship to the tract wall and their intra- or extraluminal location. The type of echogenicity can also aid diagnosis. A differentiation between infectious pseudotumors and neoplasms is thus often possible when sonographic images are considered in combination with clinical and laboratory data. The systematic use of ultrasound also allows more precise application of endoscopy and other imaging techniques. (orig.)

  16. Metabolite localization by atmospheric pressure high-resolution scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging in whole-body sections and individual organs of the rove beetle Paederus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Schott, Matthias; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging provides for non-targeted, label-free chemical imaging. In this study, atmospheric pressure high-resolution scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) was used for the first time to describe the chemical distribution of the defensive compounds pederin, pseudopederin, and pederon in tissue sections (16 μm thick) of the rove beetle Paederus riparius. The whole-insect tissue section was scanned with a 20-μm step size. Mass resolution of the orbital trapping mass spectrometer was set to 100,000 at m/z 200. Additionally, organ-specific compounds were identified for brain, nerve cord, eggs, gut, ovaries, and malpighian tubules. To confirm the distribution of the specific compounds, individual organs from the insect were dissected, and MSI experiments were performed on the dissected organs. Three ganglia of the nerve cord, with a dimension of 250-500 μm, were measured with 10-μm spatial resolution. High-quality m/z images, based on high spatial resolution and high mass accuracy were generated. These features helped to assign mass spectral peaks with high confidence. Mass accuracy of the imaging experiments was pederin and its analogues could be visualized in the whole-insect section. Without any labeling, we assigned key lipids for specific organs to describe their location in the body and to identify morphological structures with a specificity higher than with staining or immunohistology methods.

  17. Adaptive Optics imaging of VHS 1256-1257: A Low Mass Companion to a Brown Dwarf Binary System

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Jordan M; Kratter, Kaitlin M; Dupuy, Trent J; Close, Laird M; Eisner, Josh A; Fortney, Jonathan J; Hinz, Philip M; Males, Jared R; Morley, Caroline V; Morzinski, Katie M; Ward-Duong, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Gauza et al. (2015) reported the discovery of a companion to the late M-dwarf, VHS J125601.92-125723.9 (VHS 1256-1257). The companion's absolute photometry suggests its mass and atmosphere are similar to the HR 8799 planets. However, as a wide companion to a late-type star, it is more accessible to spectroscopic characterization. We discovered that the primary of this system is an equal-magnitude binary. For an age $\\sim300$ Myr the A and B components each have a mass of $64.6^{+0.8}_{-2.0}~M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, and the b component has a mass of $11.2^{+9.7}_{-1.8}$, making VHS 1256-1257 only the third brown dwarf triple system. There exists some tension between the spectrophotometric distance of $17.2\\pm2.6$ pc and the parallax distance of $12.7\\pm1.0$ pc. At 12.7 pc VHS1256-1257 A and B would be the faintest known M7.5 objects, and are even faint outliers among M8 types. If the larger spectrophotmetric distance is more accurate than the parallax, then the mass of each component increases. In particul...

  18. Right ventricular volume and mass determined by cine magnetic resonance imaging in HIV patients with possible right ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2006-01-01

    Impaired right ventricular (RV) function has been reported to occur in patients with HIV when studied by echocardiography. However, for accurate evaluation of RV function and morphology, first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) and cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) are methods of c...

  19. The use of STEM imaging to analyze thickness variations due to electromigration-induced mass transport in thin polycrystalline nanobridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudneva, M.; Kozlova, T.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging is applied to analyze the electromigration-induced thickness variations of thin polycrystalline films, It is shown that a high angle annular dark field (HAADF) detector is required to minimize the effect of diffraction contact. A further reduc

  20. High Throughput In Situ DDA Analysis of Neuropeptides by Coupling Novel Multiplex Mass Spectrometric Imaging (MSI) with Gas-Phase Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    OuYang, Chuanzi; Chen, Bingming; Li, Lingjun

    2015-12-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool to map the spatial distribution of biomolecules on tissue sections. Recent developments of hybrid MS instruments allow combination of different types of data acquisition by various mass analyzers into a single MSI analysis, which reduces experimental time and sample consumptions. Here, using the well-characterized crustacean nervous system as a test-bed, we explore the utility of high resolution and accurate mass (HRAM) MALDI Orbitrap platform for enhanced in situ characterization of the neuropeptidome with improved chemical information. Specifically, we report on a multiplex-MSI method, which combines HRAM MSI with data dependent acquisition (DDA) tandem MS analysis in a single experiment. This method enables simultaneous mapping of neuropeptide distribution, sequence validation, and novel neuropeptide discovery in crustacean neuronal tissues. To enhance the dynamic range and efficiency of in situ DDA, we introduced a novel approach of fractionating full m/z range into several sub-mass ranges and embedding the setup using the multiplex-DDA-MSI scan events to generate pseudo fractionation before MS/MS scans. The division of entire m/z into multiple segments of m/z sub-ranges for MS interrogation greatly decreased the complexity of molecular species from tissue samples and the heterogeneity of the distribution and variation of intensities of m/z peaks. By carefully optimizing the experimental conditions such as the dynamic exclusion, the multiplex-DDA-MSI approach demonstrates better performance with broader precursor coverage, less biased MS/MS scans towards high abundance molecules, and improved quality of tandem mass spectra for low intensity molecular species.

  1. Developmental patterning and segregation of alkaloids in areca nut (seed of Areca catechu) revealed by magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimany, Amitava; George, Christy; Naik, Hemanta R; Pinto, Danica Glenda; Chandrakumar, N; Pradeep, T

    2016-05-01

    Areca nut (seed of Areca catechu) is consumed by people from different parts of Asia, including India. The four major alkaloids present in areca nut are arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline and guvacine. Upon cutting, the nut reveals two kinds of regions; white and brown. In our present study, we have monitored the formation of these two regions within the nut during maturation, using the non-invasive techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and volume localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) imaging have been used to study the associated change in the alkaloid contents of these two regions during the growth of the nut. Our study reveals that white and brown regions start forming within the nut when the liquid within starts solidifying. At the final stage of maturity, arecoline, arecaidine and guvacoline get segregated in the brown region whereas guvacine gets to the white region of the nut. The transport of molecules with maturity and corresponding pattern formation are expected to be associated with a multitude of physiochemical changes.

  2. High Resolution Imaging of Very Low Mass Spectral Binaries: Three Resolved Systems and Detection of Orbital Motion in an L/T Transition Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Gagliuffi, Daniella C Bardalez; Burgasser, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    We present high resolution Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics imaging of 43 late-M, L and T dwarf systems with Keck/NIRC2. These include 17 spectral binary candidates, systems whose spectra suggest the presence of a T dwarf secondary. We resolve three systems: 2MASS J1341$-$3052, SDSS J1511+0607 and SDSS J2052$-$1609; the first two are resolved for the first time. All three have projected separations $<8$ AU and estimated periods of $14-80$ years. We also report a preliminary orbit determination for SDSS J2052$-$1609 based on six epochs of resolved astrometry between 2005$-$2010. Among the 14 unresolved spectral binaries, 5 systems were confirmed binaries but remained unresolved, implying a minimum binary fraction of $47^{+12}_{-11}\\%$ for this sample. Our inability to resolve most of the spectral binaries, including the confirmed binaries, supports the hypothesis that a large fraction of very low mass systems have relatively small separations and are missed with direct imaging.

  3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging: a powerful tool for probing the molecular topology of plant cutin polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veličković, Dušan; Herdier, Hélène; Philippe, Glenn; Marion, Didier; Rogniaux, Hélène; Bakan, Bénédicte

    2014-12-01

    The cutin polymers of different fruit cuticles (tomato, apple, nectarine) were examined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) after in situ release of the lipid monomers by alkaline hydrolysis. The mass spectra were acquired from each coordinate with a lateral spatial resolution of approximately 100 μm. Specific monomers were released at their original location in the tissue, suggesting that post-hydrolysis diffusion can be neglected. Relative quantification of the species was achieved by introducing an internal standard, and the collection of data was subjected to non-supervised and supervised statistical treatments. The molecular images obtained showed a specific distribution of ions that could unambiguously be ascribed to cutinized and suberized regions observed at the surface of fruit cuticles, thus demonstrating that the method is able to probe some structural changes that affect hydrophobic cuticle polymers. Subsequent chemical assignment of the differentiating ions was performed, and all of these ions could be matched to cutin and suberin molecular markers. Therefore, this MALDI-MSI procedure provides a powerful tool for probing the surface heterogeneity of plant lipid polymers. This method should facilitate rapid investigation of the relationships between cuticle phenotypes and the structure of cutin within a large population of mutants.

  4. The use of matrix coating assisted by an electric field (MCAEF) to enhance mass spectrometric imaging of human prostate cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Han, Jun; Hardie, Darryl B; Yang, Juncong; Borchers, Christoph H

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we combined a newly developed matrix coating technique - matrix coating assisted by an electric field (MCAEF) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to enhance the imaging of peptides and proteins in tissue specimens of human prostate cancer. MCAEF increased the signal-to-noise ratios of the detected proteins by a factor of 2 to 5, and 232 signals were detected within the m/z 3500-37500 mass range on a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and with the sinapinic acid MALDI matrix. Among these species, three proteins (S100-A9, S100-A10, and S100-A12) were only observed in the cancerous cell region and 14 proteins, including a fragment of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 2, a fragment of cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 19, 3 apolipoproteins (C-I, A-I, and A-II), 2 S100 proteins (A6 and A8), β-microseminoprotein, tumor protein D52, α-1-acid glycoprotein 1, heat shock protein β-1, prostate-specific antigen, and 2 unidentified large peptides at m/z 5002.2 and 6704.2, showed significantly differential distributions at the p < 0.05 (t-test) level between the cancerous and the noncancerous regions of the tissue. Among these 17 species, the distributions of apolipoprotein C-I, S100-A6, and S100-A8 were verified by immunohistological staining. In summary, this study resulted in the imaging of the largest group of proteins in prostate cancer tissues by MALDI-MS reported thus far, and is the first to show a correlation between S100 proteins and prostate cancer in a MS imaging study. The successful imaging of the three proteins only found in the cancerous tissues, as well as those showing differential expressions demonstrated the potential of MCAEF-MALDI/MS for the in situ detection of potential cancer biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Oxygen-isotopic composition and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of Martian carbonate in Lafayette meteorite

    OpenAIRE

    Vicenzi, E. P.; Eiler, J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbonate from SNC meteorites gives insight into a variety of processes on and/or beneath the surface of Mars. In Lafayette, carbonate occurs in unusually intimate association with hydrous phases when compared with other carbonate-bearing SNCs [1]. We have measured the ^(18)O/^(16)O ratio of carbonate in the alteration veins of Lafayette using the magnetic sector ion microprobe. In addition, we obtained isotope images of major- and minor-element cations in veinlets with the ...

  6. Estimation of regional myocardial mass at risk based on distal arterial lumen volume and length using 3D micro-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huy; Wong, Jerry T; Molloi, Sabee

    2008-09-01

    The determination of regional myocardial mass at risk distal to a coronary occlusion provides valuable prognostic information for a patient with coronary artery disease. The coronary arterial system follows a design rule which allows for the use of arterial branch length and lumen volume to estimate regional myocardial mass at risk. Image processing techniques, such as segmentation, skeletonization and arterial network tracking, are presented for extracting anatomical details of the coronary arterial system using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Moreover, a method of assigning tissue voxels to their corresponding arterial branches is presented to determine the dependent myocardial region. The proposed micro-CT technique was utilized to investigate the relationship between the sum of the distal coronary arterial branch lengths and volumes to the dependent regional myocardial mass using a polymer cast of a porcine heart. The correlations of the logarithm of the total distal arterial lengths (L) to the logarithm of the regional myocardial mass (M) for the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX) and right coronary (RCA) arteries were log(L)=0.73log(M)+0.09 (R=0.78), log(L)=0.82log(M)+0.05 (R=0.77) and log(L)=0.85log(M)+0.05 (R=0.87), respectively. The correlation of the logarithm of the total distal arterial lumen volumes (V) to the logarithm of the regional myocardial mass for the LAD, LCX and RCA were log(V)=0.93log(M)-1.65 (R=0.81), log(V)=1.02log(M)-1.79 (R=0.78) and log(V)=1.17log(M)-2.10 (R=0.82), respectively. These morphological relations did not change appreciably for diameter truncations of 600-1400microm. The results indicate that the image processing procedures successfully extracted information from a large 3D dataset of the coronary arterial tree to provide prognostic indications in the form of arterial tree parameters and anatomical area at risk.

  7. The mass of planet GJ 676A b from ground-based astrometry. A planetary system with two mature gas giants suitable for direct imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlmann, J.; Lazorenko, P. F.; Ségransan, D.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.; Hagelberg, J.; Lo Curto, G.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Udry, S.; Zimmerman, N. T.

    2016-11-01

    The star GJ 676A is an M0 dwarf hosting both gas-giant and super-Earth-type planets that were discovered with radial-velocity measurements. Using FORS2/VLT, we obtained position measurements of the star in the plane of the sky that tightly constrain its astrometric reflex motion caused by the super-Jupiter planet "b" in a 1052-day orbit. This allows us to determine the mass of this planet to be , which is 40% higher than the minimum mass inferred from the radial-velocity orbit. Using new HARPS radial-velocity measurements, we improve upon the orbital parameters of the inner low-mass planets "d" and "e" and we determine the orbital period of the outer giant planet "c" to be Pc = 7340 days under the assumption of a circular orbit. The preliminary minimum mass of planet "c" is Mcsini = 6.8 MJ with an upper limit of 39 MJ that we set using NACO/VLT high-contrast imaging. We also determine precise parallaxes and relative proper motions for both GJ 676A and its wide M3 companion GJ 676B. Although the system is probably quite mature, the masses and projected separations ( 0.̋1-0.̋4) of planets "b" and "c" make them promising targets for direct imaging with future instruments in space and on extremely large telescopes. In particular, we estimate that GJ 676A b and GJ 676A c are promising targets for directly detecting their reflected light with the WFIRST space mission. Our study demonstrates the synergy of radial-velocity and astrometric surveys that is necessary to identify the best targets for such a mission. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 385.C-0416 (A,B), 086.C-0515(A), 089.C-0115(D,E), 072.C-0488(E), 180.C-0886(A), 183.C-0437(A), 085.C-0019(A), 091.C-0034(A), 095.C-0551(A), 096.C-0460(A).Full Table A.2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/A77

  8. Enhanced capabilities for imaging gangliosides in murine brain with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to ion mobility separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrášková, Karolina; Claude, Emmanuelle; Jones, Emrys A; Towers, Mark; Ellis, Shane R; Heeren, Ron M A

    2016-07-15

    The increased interest in lipidomics calls for improved yet simplified methods of lipid analysis. Over the past two decades, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been established as a powerful technique for the analysis of molecular distribution of a variety of compounds across tissue surfaces. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI is widely used to study the spatial distribution of common lipids. However, a thorough sample preparation and necessity of vacuum for efficient ionization might hamper its use for high-throughput lipid analysis. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is a relatively young MS technique. In DESI, ionization of molecules occurs under ambient conditions, which alleviates sample preparation. Moreover, DESI does not require the application of an external matrix, making the detection of low mass species more feasible due to the lack of chemical matrix background. However, irrespective of the ionization method, the final information obtained during an MSI experiment is very complex and its analysis becomes challenging. It was shown that coupling MSI to ion mobility separation (IMS) simplifies imaging data interpretation. Here we employed DESI and MALDI MSI for a lipidomic analysis of the murine brain using the same IMS-enabled instrument. We report for the first time on the DESI IMS-MSI of multiply sialylated ganglioside species, as well as their acetylated versions, which we detected directly from the murine brain tissue. We show that poly-sialylated gangliosides can be imaged as multiply charged ions using DESI, while they are clearly separated from the rest of the lipid classes based on their charge state using ion mobility. This represents a major improvement in MSI of intact fragile lipid species. We additionally show that complementary lipid information is reached under particular conditions when DESI is compared to MALDI MSI.

  9. Metal imaging in non-denaturating 2D electrophoresis gels by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for the detection of metalloproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J Susanne; Lobinski, Ryszard; Becker, J Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was developed as a powerful analytical technique for metal imaging of 2D gels for the detection of metalloproteins in rat kidney after electrophoretic separation. Protein complexes, extracted with water, were separated in their native state in the first and second dimension by blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Essential and toxic metals, such as zinc, copper, iron, manganese and lead, were monitored by LA-ICP-MS after gel ablation by a focused laser beam in a way that the total surface of a selected fragment of the gel was totally ablated. The metal distribution of this part of the gel was then constructed by plotting the metal (isotope) signal intensity as a function of the x,y (isoelectric point, molecular mass) coordinates of the gel. The proteins at locations rich in metals were cut out, digested with trypsin and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS).

  10. Accuracy and variability of right ventricular volumes and mass assessed by dual-source computed tomography: influence of slice orientation in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Christoph J. [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Duke University Medical Center, Duke Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center, Durham, NC (United States); Wolf, Alexander; Eberle, Holger C.; Sabin, Georg V.; Bruder, Oliver [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Nassenstein, Kai; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate the accuracy and variability of right ventricular (RV) volumes and mass using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and the influence of slice orientation in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). In 33 patients undergoing cardiac DSCT and CMR, RV parameters were calculated using the short-axis (DSCT, CMR) and axial orientation (DSCT). Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Short-axis orientation: RV parameters of the two techniques were not statistically different. Axial orientation: RV volumes and mass were significantly overestimated compared with short-axis parameters whereas EF was similar. The short-axis approach resulted in low variability, although the axial orientation had the least amount of intra- and interobserver variability. RV parameters can be more accurately assessed by DSCT compared with CMR using short-axis slice orientation. RV volumes and mass are significantly higher using axial compared with short-axis slices, whereas EF is unaffected. RV parameters derived from both approaches yield high reproducibility. (orig.)

  11. IRAC Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field South: Star Formation Histories and Stellar Masses of Red Galaxies at z>2

    CERN Document Server

    Labbé, I; Franx, M; Rudnick, G; Barmby, P; Daddi, E; Van Dokkum, P G; Fazio, G G; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Moorwood, A F M; Rix, H W; Rottgering, H; Trujillo, I; Van der Werf, P P

    2005-01-01

    We present deep 3.6 - 8 micron imaging of the Hubble Deep Field South with IRAC on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We study Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs) at z>2 selected by Js - Ks > 2.3 and compare them to a sample of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z=2-3. The observed UV-to-8 micron spectral energy distributions are fit with stellar population models to constrain star formation histories and derive stellar masses. We find that 70% of the DRGs are best described by dust-reddened star forming models and 30% are very well fit with old and ``dead'' models. Using only the I - Ks and Ks - 4.5 micron colors we can effectively separate the two groups. The dead systems are among the most massive at z~2.5 (mean stellar mass = 0.8 x 10^11 Msun) and likely formed most of their stellar mass at z>5. To a limit of 0.5 x 10^11 Msun their number density is ~10 x lower than that of local early-type galaxies. Furthermore, we use the IRAC photometry to derive rest-frame near-infrared J, H, and K fluxes. The DRGs and LBGs together s...

  12. On-Tissue Derivatization via Electrospray Deposition for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Endogenous Fatty Acids in Rat Brain Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Comi, Troy J; Li, Bin; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2016-06-07

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is used for the multiplex detection and characterization of diverse analytes over a wide mass range directly from tissues. However, analyte coverage with MALDI MSI is typically limited to the more abundant compounds, which have m/z values that are distinct from MALDI matrix-related ions. On-tissue analyte derivatization addresses these issues by selectively tagging functional groups specific to a class of analytes, while simultaneously changing their molecular masses and improving their desorption and ionization efficiency. We evaluated electrospray deposition of liquid-phase derivatization agents as a means of on-tissue analyte derivatization using 2-picolylamine; we were able to detect a range of endogenous fatty acids with MALDI MSI. When compared with airbrush application, electrospray led to a 3-fold improvement in detection limits and decreased analyte delocalization. Six fatty acids were detected and visualized from rat cerebrum tissue using a MALDI MSI instrument operating in positive mode. MALDI MSI of the hippocampal area allowed targeted fatty acid analysis of the dentate gyrus granule cell layer and the CA1 pyramidal layer with a 20-μm pixel width, without degrading the localization of other lipids during liquid-phase analyte derivatization.

  13. The DODO survey - II. A Gemini direct imaging search for substellar and planetary mass companions around nearby equatorial and Northern hemisphere white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, E.; Burleigh, M. R.; Clarke, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the Degenerate Objects around Degenerate Objects (DODO) survey is to search for very low-mass brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets in wide orbits around white dwarfs via direct imaging. The direct detection of such companions would allow the spectroscopic investigation of objects with temperatures much lower (T8.5, and so could belong to the proposed Y dwarf spectral sequence. The detection of a planet around a white dwarf would prove that such objects can survive the final stages of stellar evolution and place constraints on the frequency of planetary systems around their progenitors (with masses between 1.5 and 8Msolar, i.e. early B to mid-F). This paper presents the results of a multi epoch J band common proper motion survey of 23 nearby equatorial and Northern hemisphere white dwarfs. We rule out the presence of any common proper motion companions, with limiting masses determined from the completeness limit of each observation, to 18 white dwarfs. For the remaining five targets, the motion of the white dwarf is not sufficiently separated from the non-moving background objects in each field. These targets require additional observations to conclusively rule out the presence of any common proper motion companions. From our completeness limits, we tentatively suggest that ~ 500 K between projected physical separations of 60-200 au.

  14. Imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry of a paint cross section taken from an early Netherlandish painting by Rogier van der Weyden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Katrien; Boon, Jaap J

    2004-03-01

    Static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is introduced as an analytical technique for the examination of paint cross sections to obtain simultaneous information about the nature and distribution of pigments and the binding medium from a single sample. A sample taken from the virgin's blue robe in the panel painting The Descent from the Cross (Museo del Prado, Madrid) of the Early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden (1399/1400-1464) was selected for investigation. Data were compared with reference compounds and reference lead white linseed oil paint and egg tempera paint. The static SIMS technique gave position-sensitive mass spectra that were used to image the elemental distribution of pigments and the molecular signature of components of the oleaginous binding medium. SIMS ion images of sodium and aluminum superimposed with the blue pigment ultramarine and those of copper, lead, and calcium with the position of the mineral pigments of azurite, lead white, and chalk, respectively. Preserved monocarboxylic acids of palmitic and stearic acids present as fatty acids and fatty acid lead soaps pointed to the use of linseed oil as a binding medium. Images from the oleaginous binding medium fatty acids show a correlation with the three main paint layers. The observed palmitic/stearic acid ratios for the two ultramarine layers and azurite layers are 1.3, 1.4, and 1.8, respectively. Fatty acids and fatty acid soaps show highest ion yields near lead white, a mineral pigment that serves as a natural chemical drier and is proposed to act as a template for the initial grafting of the polyunsaturated triglycerides of the linseed oil. Almost no fatty acids were detected in other layers visible by light microscopy. The fatty acid lead soaps point toward a mature ionomeric oil paint system that developed over centuries. SIMS evidence for egg tempera, still used in the 15th century, is not detected in the paint cross section. SIMS images correlate well with SEM/EDX, FT

  15. Slope mass movements on SPOT satellite images: A case of the Železniki area (W Slovenia after flash floods in September 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Jemec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods in Slovenia, which was exposed on September 18th 2007, demanded 6 lives, several thousand houses and over one thousand kilometres of roads were damaged and more also than 50 bridges. The highest amount of rain fell at west and north-west parts of Slovenia (northern Primorska region and southern Gorenjska region,from where heavy rain spread eastwards over the central Slovenia and in east part of Slovenia. In the article we focused on area of western and north-western part of Slovenia. The aim of present research was in the first phase to describe methodology to determine landslide occurrences from satellite images before and after natural disaster on Železniki region. Second phase was based on comparison of obtained results with the existing models for prediction of slope mass movements, and finally also to determine identificability of landslide types on a satellite image.Results have shown, that the highest part of obtaining area from supervised and unsupervised classification of satellite images, are comparable with classes of landslide susceptibility, where occurrences of landslide are largest.

  16. Correlation of skin blanching and percutaneous absorption for glucocorticoid receptor agonists by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging and liquid extraction surface analysis with nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter; Toteu-Djomte, Valerie; Bareille, Philippe; Perry, Hayley; Brown, Gillian; Baumert, Mark; Biggadike, Keith

    2010-09-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) with nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nESI-MS) have both been successfully employed to determine the degree of percutaneous absorption of three novel nonsteroid glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists in porcine ear sections. Historically, the ability of a glucocorticoid to elicit a skin blanching response when applied at low dose in ethanol solution to the forearms of healthy human volunteers has been a reliable predictor of their topical anti-inflammatory activity. While all three nonsteroidal GR agonists under investigation caused a skin blanching effect, the responses did not correlate with in vitro GR agonist potencies and different time courses were also observed for the skin blanching responses. MALDI MSI and LESA with nESI-MS were used to investigate and understand these different responses. The findings of the investigation was that the depth of porcine skin penetration correlates to the degree of skin blanching obtained for the same three compounds in human volunteers.

  17. Right ventricular volume and mass determined by cine magnetic resonance imaging in HIV patients with possible right ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Gerstoft, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Impaired right ventricular (RV) function has been reported to occur in patients with HIV when studied by echocardiography. However, for accurate evaluation of RV function and morphology, first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) and cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) are methods...... ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF). To do so, we screened patients with RNV and performed an additional cine-MRI in those with reduced RVEF determined by RNV. Ninety patients with HIV were included. To evaluate the MRI measures exactly we included 18 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers to establish...

  18. A THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING STUDY OF VERY LOW MASS, WIDE-SEPARATION BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS STARS: CONSTRAINING CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip M.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hoffmann, William F.; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Hill, John M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kim, Jihun [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Murray-Clay, Ruth; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nelson, Matthew J., E-mail: vbailey@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-04-10

    We present a 3-5 {mu}m LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low masses/mass ratios (M{sub BD} <25 M{sub Jup}; M{sub BD}/M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1%-2%) and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4 {mu}m and 24 {mu}m photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/circumsecondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing that this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24 {mu}m excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4 {mu}m excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24 {mu}m excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4 {mu}m colors of HIP 78530B match a spectral type of M3 {+-} 2, inconsistent with the M8 spectral type assigned based on its near-IR spectrum, indicating that it may be a low-mass star rather than a BD. We present new upper limits on additional low-mass companions in the system (<5 M{sub Jup} beyond 175 AU). Finally, we examine the utility of circumsecondary disks as probes of the formation histories of wide BD companions, finding that the presence of a disk may disfavor BD formation near the primary with subsequent outward scattering.

  19. The prediction of total skeletal muscle mass in a Caucasian population - comparison of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Pourhassan, Maryam; Braun, Wiebke; Schweitzer, Lisa; Müller, Manfred J

    2017-03-01

    Dual-energy X-ray (DXA) is an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure skeletal muscle mass. DXA assesses lean body mass (LBM), and MRI measures skeletal muscle mass (SMM). Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 378; J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004; 97: 655) developed MRI-based algorithms to estimate whole-body SMM by DXA. These algorithms were based on an ethnically mixed study population (Kim et al., Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 378; J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004; 97: 655). It is unclear whether Kim's algorithms are accurate in an exclusive Caucasian population. The aim of our study was to validate Kim's equation in a Caucasian population of 346 subjects. SMMMRI was assessed using MRI, and LBM and BMCDXA were measured by DXA and fat mass (FMADP ) by air-displacement plethysmographie (ADP). SMMMRI and predicted SMM were highly correlated (r = 0·944; P<0·05). The standard error of estimate of the regression equation was 2·4 kg. However, Bland-Altman plots showed a significant (P<0·001) systematic bias between SMMMRI (median 25·1 kg; IQ 20·2-31·1 kg) and predicted SMM (median 26·3 kg; IQ 22·6-33·0 kg), overestimating SMM by 9·8%. Multiple regression analyses showed that weight explained 4·4% of the variance in the differences between SMMMRI and predicted SMM with the major part unexplained. Kim's algorithm has a systematic unexplained bias and is not recommended in Caucasians.

  20. A comprehensive study of the young open star cluster NGC 6611 based on deep VRI CCD images and 2MASS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Selim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have used Deep CCD images of the extremely young open star cluster NGC 6611, up to a limiting magnitude of V ∼ 22.86 mag in V, R and I passbands. The resulting color-magnitude V; (V–I diagram as well as their radial density profiles has been determined. Using 2MASS data, we confirmed the consistency between the 2MASS photometry, by fitting isochrones, the extinction E(V–I = 0.530 ± 0.04 mag, E(J–H = 0.31 ± 0.02, from the color magnitude diagram the cluster distance =2.2 ± 0.21 kpc and age = 3.6 Myr, based on the fitting of theoretical stellar isochrones of solar metallicity Z = 0.019. The distance modulus of the cluster is estimated at 12.3. The radial stellar density profiles and the cluster center have been determined by two methods. The core and cluster radii are determined from the radial stellar density profiles. Only about 40% of the cluster members are present in the core region. The cluster luminosity function has been calculated. The mass function slope of the entire cluster is ∼−0.67 ± 0.12. The effects of mass segregation, most probably due to dynamical evolution, have been observed in the cluster.

  1. Quantitative Comparison of Methods for Predicting the Arrival of Coronal Mass Ejections at Earth: using SECCHI and LASCO imaging observations

    CERN Document Server

    Colaninno, R C; Wu, C -C

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of six methods for predicting the CME time of arrival (ToA) and velocity at Earth using a sample of nine Earth-impacting CMEs between May 2010 and June 2011. The CMEs were tracked continuously from the Sun to near Earth in multi-viewpoint imaging data from STEREO SECCHI and SOHO LASCO. We use the Graduate Cylindrical Shell (GCS) model to estimate the three-dimensional direction and height of the CMEs in every image out to $\\sim$200 R$_\\odot$. We fit the derived three-dimensional (deprojected) height and time data with six different methods to extrapolate the CME ToA and velocity at Earth. We compare the fitting results with the in situ data from the WIND spacecraft. We find that a simple linear fit after a height of 50$R_\\odot$ gives the best ToA with a total error $\\pm$13 hours. For seven (78%) of the CMEs, we are able to predict the ToA to within $\\pm$6 hours. These results are a full day improvement over past CME arrival time methods that only used SOHO LASCO data. We conclud...

  2. Mass and heat flux balance of La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe) from aerial infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Beauducel, François; Coutant, Olivier; Delacourt, Christophe; Richon, Patrick; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Hammouya, Gilbert

    2016-06-01

    La Soufrière of Guadeloupe is an active volcano of Lesser Antilles that is closely monitored due to a high eruptive hazard potential. Since 1992 it exhibits a medium-level but sustained background hydrothermal activity with low-energy and shallow seismicity, hot springs temperature increase and high flux acidic gas fumaroles at the summit. The problem of estimating the heat balance and quantifying the evolution of hydrothermal activity has become a key challenge for surveillance. This work is the first attempt of a global mapping and quantification of La Soufrière thermal activity performed in February 2010 using aerial thermal infrared imagery. After instrument calibration and data processing, we present a global map of thermal anomalies allowing to spot the main active sites: the summit area (including the fumaroles of Tarissan Pit and South Crater), the Ty Fault fumarolic zone, and the hot springs located at the vicinity of the dome. In a second step, we deduce the mass and the energy fluxes released by the volcano. In particular, we propose a simple model of energy balance to estimate the mass flux of the summit fumaroles from their brightness temperature and size. In February 2010, Tarissan Pit had a 22.8 ± 8.1 kg s -1 flux (1970 ± 704 tons day -1), while South Crater vents had a total of 19.5 ± 4.0 kg s -1 (1687 ± 348 tons day -1). Once converted into energy flux, summit fumaroles represent 98% of the 106 ± 30 MW released by the volcano, the 2% remaining being split between the hot springs and the thermal anomalies at the summit and at the Ty Fault fumarolic zone. These values are in the high range of the previous estimations, highlighting the short-term variability of the expelled fluxes. Such a heat flux requires the cooling of 1500 m 3 of magma per day, in good agreement with previous geochemical studies.

  3. Probing organic ligands and their binding schemes on nanocrystals by mass spectrometric and FT-IR spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jin Gyeong; Choi, Eunjin; Piao, Yuanzhe; Han, Sang Woo; Lee, Tae Geol

    2016-02-01

    We report an analysis method to identify conjugated ligands and their binding states on semiconductor nanocrystals based on their molecular information. Surface science techniques, such as time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectroscopy, are adopted based on the micro-aggregated sampling method. Typical trioctylphosphine oxide-based synthesis methods of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been criticized because of the peculiar effects of impurities on the synthesis processes. Because the ToF-SIMS technique provides molecular composition evidence on the existence of certain ligands, we were able to clearly identify n-octylphosphonic acid (OPA) as a surface ligand on CdSe/ZnS QDs. Furthermore, the complementary use of the ToF-SIMS technique with the FT-IR technique could reveal the OPA ligands' binding state as bidentate complexes.We report an analysis method to identify conjugated ligands and their binding states on semiconductor nanocrystals based on their molecular information. Surface science techniques, such as time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectroscopy, are adopted based on the micro-aggregated sampling method. Typical trioctylphosphine oxide-based synthesis methods of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been criticized because of the peculiar effects of impurities on the synthesis processes. Because the ToF-SIMS technique provides molecular composition evidence on the existence of certain ligands, we were able to clearly identify n-octylphosphonic acid (OPA) as a surface ligand on CdSe/ZnS QDs. Furthermore, the complementary use of the ToF-SIMS technique with the FT-IR technique could reveal the OPA ligands' binding state as bidentate complexes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional data (Fig. S1-S5). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07592k

  4. Reagent Precoated Targets for Rapid In-Tissue Derivatization of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Isoniazid Followed by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, M. Lisa; Reyzer, Michelle L.; Goh, Anne; Dartois, Veronique; Via, Laura E.; Barry, Clifton E.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-08-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is an important component of front-line anti-tuberculosis therapy with good serum pharmacokinetics but unknown ability to penetrate tuberculous lesions. However, endogenous background interferences hinder our ability to directly analyze INH in tissues. Chemical derivatization has been successfully used to measure isoniazid directly from tissue samples using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). MALDI targets were pretreated with trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA) prior to mounting tissue slices. Isoniazid present in the tissues was efficiently derivatized and the INH-CA product measured by MS/MS. Precoating of MALDI targets allows the tissues to be directly thaw-mounted and derivatized, thus simplifying the preparation. A time-course series of tissues from tuberculosis infected/INH dosed animals were assayed and the MALDI MS/MS response correlates well with the amount of INH determined to be in the tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS.

  5. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)-based analysis and imaging of polyethylene microplastics formation during sea surf simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnickel, H; Pund, R; Tentschert, J; Reichardt, P; Laux, P; Harbach, H; Luch, A

    2016-09-01

    Plastic particles smaller than 5mm, so called microplastics have the capability to accumulate in rivers, lakes and the marine environment and therefore have begun to be considered in eco-toxicology and human health risk assessment. Environmental microplastic contaminants may originate from consumer products like body wash, tooth pastes and cosmetic products, but also from degradation of plastic waste; they represent a potential but unpredictable threat to aquatic organisms and possibly also to humans. We investigated exemplarily for polyethylene (PE), the most abundant constituent of microplastic particles in the environment, whether such fragments could be produced from larger pellets (2mm×6mm). So far only few analytical methods exist to identify microplastic particles smaller than 10μm, especially no imaging mass spectrometry technique. We used at first time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) for analysis and imaging of small PE-microplastic particles directly in the model system Ottawa sand during exposure to sea surf simulation. As a prerequisite, a method for identification of PE was established by identification of characteristic ions for PE out of an analysis of grinded polymer samples. The method was applied onto Ottawa sand in order to investigate the influence of simulated environmental conditions on particle transformation. A severe degradation of the primary PE pellet surface, associated with the transformation of larger particles into smaller ones already after 14days of sea surf simulation, was observed. Within the subsequent period of 14days to 1month of exposure the number of detected smallest-sized particles increased significantly (50%) while the second smallest fraction increased even further to 350%. Results were verified using artificially degraded PE pellets and Ottawa sand.

  6. A New Safety Concern for Glaucoma Treatment Demonstrated by Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Benzalkonium Chloride Distribution in the Eye, an Experimental Study in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  7. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Brignole-Baudouin

    Full Text Available We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety

  8. High-resolution laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry imaging of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Thibaut; Van Malderen, Stijn J M; Van Heerden, Marjolein; McDuffie, James Eric; Cuyckens, Filip; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-11-16

    Two-dimensional elemental mapping (bioimaging) via laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was performed on 5 μm thick formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney tissue sections from Cynomolgus monkeys administered with increasing pharmacological doses of cisplatin. Laterally resolved pixels of 1 μm were achieved, enabling elemental analysis on a (sub-)cellular level. Zones of high Pt response were observed in the renal cortex, where proximal tubules are present, the epithelium of which is responsible for partial reabsorption of cisplatin. Histopathological evaluation, of hematoxylin and eosin-stained serial sections, adjacent to the sections probed via LA-ICP-MS, revealed minimal to mild cisplatin-related lesions (<100 μm) in the renal cortex. Necrotic proximal tubules with sloughed epithelial cells in their lumen could be linked directly to the areas with the highest accumulation of cisplatin, indicating a direct link between cellular concentration and toxicity, thereby providing more insight into the mechanisms through which renal damage occurs.

  9. A Thermal Infrared Imaging Study of Very Low-Mass, Wide Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Upper Scorpius Stars: Constraining Circumstellar Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Vanessa; Currie, Thayne; Su, Kate Y L; Esposito, Simone; Hill, John M; Hoffmann, William F; Jones, Terry; Kim, Jihun; Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Nelson, Matthew J; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Skrutskie, Michael F; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Wilson, John C

    2013-01-01

    We present a 3-5um LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low-masses/mass ratios (M_BD < 25M_Jup; M_BD / M_star ~ 1-2%), and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4um and 24um photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/secondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24um excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4um excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24um excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4um colors of HIP 7853...

  10. Multicenter matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) identifies proteomic differences in breast-cancer-associated stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Tim J A; Balluff, Benjamin D; Jones, Emrys A; Schöne, Cédrik D; Schmitt, Manfred; Aubele, Michaela; Kroep, Judith R; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Mesker, Wilma E; Walch, Axel; McDonnell, Liam A

    2014-11-07

    MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has rapidly established itself as a powerful biomarker discovery tool. To date, no formal investigation has assessed the center-to-center comparability of MALDI MSI experiments, an essential step for it to develop into a new diagnostic method. To test such capabilities, we have performed a multicenter study focused on biomarkers of stromal activation in breast cancer. MALDI MSI experiments were performed in two centers using independent tissue banks, infrastructure, methods, and practitioners. One of the data sets was used for discovery and the other for validation. Areas of intra- and extratumoral stroma were selected, and their protein signals were compared. Four protein signals were found to be significantly associated with tumor-associated stroma in the discovery data set measured in Munich. Three of these peaks were also detected in the independent validation data set measured in Leiden, all of which were also significantly associated with intratumoral stroma. Hierarchical clustering displayed 100% accuracy in the Munich MSI data set and 80.9% accuracy in the Leiden MSI data set. The association of one of the identified mass signals (PA28) with stromal activation was confirmed with immunohistochemistry performed on 20 breast tumors. Independent and international MALDI MSI investigations could identify validated biomarkers of stromal activation.

  11. Desert Dust Air Mass Mapping in the Western Sahara, using Particle Properties Derived from Space-based Multi-angle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Fiebig, Marcus; Schladitz, Alexander; von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the SAhara Mineral dUst experiMent (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the sub-orbital aerosol measurements into the satellite's larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days for which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05 to 0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR's ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (a) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (b) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow, and (c) show an air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometers away.

  12. Desert Dust Aerosol Air Mass Mapping in the Western Sahara, Using Particle Properties Derived from Space-Based Multi-Angle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Esselborn, Michael; Fiebig, Marcus; Heese, Birgit; Knippertz, Peter; Mueller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the Sahara mineral dust experiment (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the suborbital aerosol measurements into the satellite s larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days during which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05 0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR s ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (1) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (2) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow and (3) show an aerosol air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometres away.

  13. Global changes of phospholipids identified by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Hye; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Dong Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Ho; Shanta, Selina Rahman; Jung, Jae Hun; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia; however, at the present time there is no disease-modifying drug for AD. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of lipid changes in the process of normal cognitive aging and in the etiology of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. AD is characterized by the presence of intraneuronal protein clusters and extracellular aggregates of β-amyloid (Aβ). Disrupted Aβ kinetics may activate intracellular signaling pathways, including tau hyperphosphorylation and proinflammatory pathways. We analyzed and visualized the lipid profiles of mouse brains using MALDI-TOF MS. Direct tissue analysis by MALDI-TOF imaging MS (IMS) can determine the relative abundance and spatial distribution of specific lipids in different tissues. We used 5XFAD mice that almost exclusively generate and rapidly accumulate massive cerebral levels of Aβ-42 (1). Our data showed changes in lipid distribution in the mouse frontal cortex, hippocampus, and subiculum, where Aβ plaques are first generated in AD. Our results suggest that MALDI-IMS is a powerful tool for analyzing the distribution of various phospholipids and that this application might provide novel insight into the prediction of disease.

  14. Set-up errors in patients undergoing image guided radiation treatment. Relationship to body mass index and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Bertelsen, Anders; Hansen, Christian Rønn;

    2008-01-01

    by the relative weight change over time. Results: The SD of the translational and rotational random set-up errors during the first three sessions for H&N were 0.9 mm (Left-Right), 1.1mm (Anterior-Posterior), 0.7 mm (Cranio-Caudal) and 0.7 degrees (LR-axis), 0.5 degrees (AP-axis), and 0.7 degrees (CC......BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to quantify the set-up errors of patient positioning during IGRT and to correlate set-up errors to patient-specific factors such as weight, height, BMI, and weight loss. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty four consecutively treated head-and-neck cancer patients...... Limit protocol and compared to pre-treatment CT images. The average 3D deviation from three initial cone beam scans was compared to deviations at the 10th and 20th treatment session and correlated by linear regression analysis to height, weight, and BMI, and in H&N to weight loss as expressed...

  15. Comparative Study of Metal Quantification in Neurological Tissue Using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Imaging and X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Katherine M; Hare, Dominic J; Bohic, Sylvain; James, Simon A; Billings, Jessica L; Finkelstein, David I; Doble, Philip A; Double, Kay L

    2015-07-07

    Redox-active metals in the brain mediate numerous biochemical processes and are also implicated in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. A number of different approaches are available for quantitatively measuring the spatial distribution of biometals at an image resolution approaching the subcellular level. Measured biometal levels obtained using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS; spatial resolution 15 μm × 15 μm) were within the range of those obtained using X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM; spatial resolution 2 μm × 7 μm) and regional changes in metal concentration across discrete brain regions were replicated to the same degree. Both techniques are well suited to profiling changes in regional biometal distribution between healthy and diseased brain tissues, but absolute quantitation of metal levels varied significantly between methods, depending on the metal of interest. Where all possible variables affect metal levels, independent of a treatment/phenotype are controlled, either method is suitable for examining differences between experimental groups, though, as with any method for imaging post mortem brain tissue, care should be taken when interpreting the total metal levels with regard to physiological concentrations.

  16. Examination of the translocation of sulfonylurea herbicides in sunflower plants by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David M G; Carolan, Vikki A; Crosland, Susan; Sharples, Kate R; Clench, Malcolm R

    2010-11-30

    Pesticides are widely used in agriculture to control weeds, pests and diseases. Successful control is dependent on the compound reaching the target site within the organism after spray or soil application. Conventional methods for determining uptake and movement of herbicides and pesticides include autoradiography, liquid scintillation and chromatographic techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Autoradiography using radiolabelled compounds provides the best indication of a compound's movement within the plant system. Autoradiography is an established technique but it relies on the synthesis of radiolabelled compounds. The distribution of four sulfonylurea herbicides in sunflower plants has been studied 24  h after foliar application. The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) images of protonated molecules and fragment ions (resulting from fragmentation at the urea bond within the sulfonylurea herbicides) has provided evidence for translocation above and below the application point. The translocation of nicosulfuron and azoxystrobin within the same plant system has also been demonstrated following their application to the plant stem. This study provides evidence that MALDI-MSI has great potential as an analytical technique to detect and assess the foliar, root and stem uptake of agrochemicals, and to reveal their distribution through the plant once absorbed and translocated.

  17. Visualization of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in mouse tongue body by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sugiura, Yuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro

    2011-06-01

    The mammalian tongue is one of the most important organs during food uptake because it is helpful for mastication and swallowing. In addition, taste receptors are present on the surface of the tongue. Lipids are the second most abundant biomolecules after water in the tongue. Lipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) are considered to play fundamental roles in the mediation of cell signaling. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is powerful tool for determining and visualizing the distribution of lipids across sections of dissected tissue. In this study, we identified and visualized the PC, LPC, and SM species in a mouse tongue body section with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-IMS. The ion image constructed from the peaks revealed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing PC, LPC, linoleic acid-containing PC and SM (d18:1/16:0), and oleic acid-containing PC were mainly distributed in muscle, connective tissue, stratified epithelium, and the peripheral nerve, respectively. Furthermore, the distribution of SM (d18:1/16:0) corresponded to the distribution of nerve tissue relating to taste in the stratified epithelium. This study represents the first visualization of PC, LPC and SM localization in the mouse tongue body.

  18. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry profiling of N-glycans in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded clinical tissue blocks and tissue microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Powers

    Full Text Available A recently developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS method to spatially profile the location and distribution of multiple N-linked glycan species in frozen tissues has been extended and improved for the direct analysis of glycans in clinically derived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues. Formalin-fixed tissues from normal mouse kidney, human pancreatic and prostate cancers, and a human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue microarray were processed by antigen retrieval followed by on-tissue digestion with peptide N-glycosidase F. The released N-glycans were detected by MALDI-IMS analysis, and the structural composition of a subset of glycans could be verified directly by on-tissue collision-induced fragmentation. Other structural assignments were confirmed by off-tissue permethylation analysis combined with multiple database comparisons. Imaging of mouse kidney tissue sections demonstrates specific tissue distributions of major cellular N-linked glycoforms in the cortex and medulla. Differential tissue distribution of N-linked glycoforms was also observed in the other tissue types. The efficacy of using MALDI-IMS glycan profiling to distinguish tumor from non-tumor tissues in a tumor microarray format is also demonstrated. This MALDI-IMS workflow has the potential to be applied to any FFPE tissue block or tissue microarray to enable higher throughput analysis of the global changes in N-glycosylation associated with cancers.

  19. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Lipids and Gene Expression Reveals Differences in Fatty Acid Metabolism between Follicular Compartments in Porcine Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Uzbekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, oocytes develop inside the ovarian follicles; this process is strongly supported by the surrounding follicular environment consisting of cumulus, granulosa and theca cells, and follicular fluid. In the antral follicle, the final stages of oogenesis require large amounts of energy that is produced by follicular cells from substrates including glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (FAs. Since lipid metabolism plays an important role in acquiring oocyte developmental competence, the aim of this study was to investigate site-specificity of lipid metabolism in ovaries by comparing lipid profiles and expression of FA metabolism-related genes in different ovarian compartments. Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging, images of porcine ovary sections were reconstructed from lipid ion signals for the first time. Cluster analysis of ion spectra revealed differences in spatial distribution of lipid species among ovarian compartments, notably between the follicles and interstitial tissue. Inside the follicles analysis differentiated follicular fluid, granulosa, theca and the oocyte-cumulus complex. Moreover, by transcript quantification using real time PCR, we showed that expression of five key genes in FA metabolism significantly varied between somatic follicular cells (theca, granulosa and cumulus and the oocyte. In conclusion, lipid metabolism differs between ovarian and follicular compartments.

  20. Enhanced visualization of small peptides absorbed in rat small intestine by phytic-acid-aided matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong-Min; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Yoshii, Saori; Mine, Yoshinori; Matsui, Toshiro

    2013-11-05

    Enhanced visualization of small peptides absorbed through a rat intestinal membrane was achieved by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) with the aid of phytic acid as a matrix additive. Penetrants through intestinal peptide transporter 1, i.e., glycyl-sarcosine (Gly-Sar, 147.1 m/z) and antihypertensive dipeptide, Val-Tyr (281.2 m/z), were chosen for MALDI-IMS. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of dipeptides Gly-Sar and Val-Tyr were seen to increase by 2.4- and 8.0-fold, respectively, when using a 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) matrix containing 5.0 mM phytic acid, instead of the THAP matrix alone. Owing to the phytic-acid-aided MALDI-IMS method, Gly-Sar and Val-Tyr absorbed in the rat intestinal membrane were successfully visualized. The proposed imaging method also provided useful information on intestinal peptide absorption; to some extent, Val-Tyr was rapidly hydrolyzed to Tyr by peptidases located at the intestinal microvillus during the absorption process. In conclusion, the strongly acidic additive, phytic acid, is beneficial for enhancing the visualization of small peptides using MALDI-IMS, owing to the suppression of ionization-interfering salts in the tissue.

  1. Imaging mass spectrometry visualizes ceramides and the pathogenesis of dorfman-chanarin syndrome due to ceramide metabolic abnormality in the skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Goto-Inoue

    Full Text Available Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS is a useful cutting edge technology used to investigate the distribution of biomolecules such as drugs and metabolites, as well as to identify molecular species in tissues and cells without labeling. To protect against excess water loss that is essential for survival in a terrestrial environment, mammalian skin possesses a competent permeability barrier in the stratum corneum (SC, the outermost layer of the epidermis. The key lipids constituting this barrier in the SC are the ceramides (Cers comprising of a heterogeneous molecular species. Alterations in Cer composition have been reported in several skin diseases that display abnormalities in the epidermal permeability barrier function. Not only the amounts of different Cers, but also their localizations are critical for the barrier function. We have employed our new imaging system, capable of high-lateral-resolution IMS with an atmospheric-pressure ionization source, to directly visualize the distribution of Cers. Moreover, we show an ichthyotic disease pathogenesis due to abnormal Cer metabolism in Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome, a neutral lipid storage disorder with ichthyosis in human skin, demonstrating that IMS is a novel diagnostic approach for assessing lipid abnormalities in clinical setting, as well as for investigating physiological roles of lipids in cells/tissues.

  2. Imaging mass spectrometry visualizes ceramides and the pathogenesis of dorfman-chanarin syndrome due to ceramide metabolic abnormality in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Kimiko; Holleran, Walter M; Sano, Shigetoshi; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a useful cutting edge technology used to investigate the distribution of biomolecules such as drugs and metabolites, as well as to identify molecular species in tissues and cells without labeling. To protect against excess water loss that is essential for survival in a terrestrial environment, mammalian skin possesses a competent permeability barrier in the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis. The key lipids constituting this barrier in the SC are the ceramides (Cers) comprising of a heterogeneous molecular species. Alterations in Cer composition have been reported in several skin diseases that display abnormalities in the epidermal permeability barrier function. Not only the amounts of different Cers, but also their localizations are critical for the barrier function. We have employed our new imaging system, capable of high-lateral-resolution IMS with an atmospheric-pressure ionization source, to directly visualize the distribution of Cers. Moreover, we show an ichthyotic disease pathogenesis due to abnormal Cer metabolism in Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome, a neutral lipid storage disorder with ichthyosis in human skin, demonstrating that IMS is a novel diagnostic approach for assessing lipid abnormalities in clinical setting, as well as for investigating physiological roles of lipids in cells/tissues.

  3. Effect of Body Mass Index on Magnitude of Setup Errors in Patients Treated With Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Endometrial Cancer With Daily Image Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lilie L., E-mail: lin@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hertan, Lauren; Rengan, Ramesh; Teo, Boon-Keng Kevin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on daily setup variations and frequency of imaging necessary for patients with endometrial cancer treated with adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with daily image guidance. Methods and Materials: The daily shifts from a total of 782 orthogonal kilovoltage images from 30 patients who received pelvic IMRT between July 2008 and August 2010 were analyzed. The BMI, mean daily shifts, and random and systematic errors in each translational and rotational direction were calculated for each patient. Margin recipes were generated based on BMI. Linear regression and spearman rank correlation analysis were performed. To simulate a less-than-daily IGRT protocol, the average shift of the first five fractions was applied to subsequent setups without IGRT for assessing the impact on setup error and margin requirements. Results: Median BMI was 32.9 (range, 23-62). Of the 30 patients, 16.7% (n = 5) were normal weight (BMI <25); 23.3% (n = 7) were overweight (BMI {>=}25 to <30); 26.7% (n = 8) were mildly obese (BMI {>=}30 to <35); and 33.3% (n = 10) were moderately to severely obese (BMI {>=} 35). On linear regression, mean absolute vertical, longitudinal, and lateral shifts positively correlated with BMI (p = 0.0127, p = 0.0037, and p < 0.0001, respectively). Systematic errors in the longitudinal and vertical direction were found to be positively correlated with BMI category (p < 0.0001 for both). IGRT for the first five fractions, followed by correction of the mean error for all subsequent fractions, led to a substantial reduction in setup error and resultant margin requirement overall compared with no IGRT. Conclusions: Daily shifts, systematic errors, and margin requirements were greatest in obese patients. For women who are normal or overweight, a planning target margin margin of 7 to 10 mm may be sufficient without IGRT, but for patients who are moderately or severely obese, this is insufficient.

  4. Agreement of left ventricular mass in steady state free precession and delayed enhancement MR images: implications for quantification of fibrosis in congenital and ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivecrona Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular mass (LVM is used when expressing infarct or fibrosis as a percentage of the left ventricle (LV. Quantification of LVM is interchangeably carried out in cine steady state free precession (SSFP and delayed enhancement (DE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. However, these techniques may yield different LVM. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare LVM determined by SSFP and DE MRI in patients and determine the agreement with these sequences with ex vivo data in an experimental animal model. Methods Ethics committees approved human and animal studies. Informed written consent was obtained from all patients. SSFP and DE images were acquired in 60 patients (20 with infarction, 20 without infarction and 20 pediatric patients. Ex vivo MRI was used as reference method for LVM in 19 pigs and compared to in vivo SSFP and DE. Results LVM was greater in SSFP than in DE (p 2 = 0.98, and a bias of 7.3 ± 6.7% (p 2 = 0.83. Bias for SSFP and DE images compared to ex vivo LVM was -0.2 ± 9.0% and -7.7 ± 8.5% respectively. Conclusions LVM was higher when measured with SSFP compared to DE. Thus, the percentage infarction of the LV will differ if SSFP or DE is used to determine LVM. There was no significant difference between SSFP and ex vivo LVM suggesting that SSFP is more accurate for LVM quantification. To avoid intrinsic error due to the differences between the sequences, we suggest using DE when expressing infarct as a percentage of LVM.

  5. Lipidomic and spatio-temporal imaging of fat by mass spectrometry in mice duodenum during lipid digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyer, Alexandre; Cantiello, Michela; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Nauze, Michel; Bézirard, Valérie; Collet, Xavier; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Coméra, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL). Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion after a lipid gavage, for the first time. Fatty acids progressively increased in enterocytes as well as taurocholic acid, secreted by bile and engaged in the entero-hepatic re-absorption cycle. Cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) from enterocytes were originally purified separating chylomicron-like, intermediate droplets and smaller HDL-like. A lipidomic quantification revealed their contents in triglycerides, free and esterified cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and ceramides but also in free fatty acids, mono- and di-acylglycerols. An acyl-transferase activity was identified and the enzyme monoacylglycerol acyl transferase 2 (MGAT2) was immunodetected in all CLD. The largest droplets was also shown to contain the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), the acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) 1 and 2, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). This highlights the fact that during the digestion of fats, enterocyte CLD contain some enzymes involved in the different stages of the metabolism of diet fatty acids and cholesterol, in anticipation of the crucial work of endoplasmic reticulum in the process. The data further underlines the dual role of chylomicrons and iHDL in fat digestion which should help to efficiently complement lipid-lowering therapy.

  6. 用于工业异纤分检的一种伪彩色方法%A New Pseudo-color Transform for Fibre Masses Inspection of Industrial Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路香菊; 丁名晓; 王云宽

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel pseudo-color approach which can effectively mark all different particulars while it has the ability to divide foreign pieces with indiscernible brightness in fibre masses. Hence, it yields highly separate color images for this kind of industrial images. Our approach aims at constructing an adaptive fuzzy rule based on a feature space of gradients, gray values, local entropies, and local features from scalable morphological filters. Due to the fact that the method is based on a full contextual information, it can handle small changes in images more adaptively than classical pseudo-color methods. And it is perfectly suitable to distinguish impurities mixed in fibre masses, as tested in a simulating cotton inspection system and demonstrated by several cotton sample images.

  7. Imaging of nutrient elements in the leaves of Elsholtzia splendens by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Zoriy, Miroslav; Chen, Yingxu; Becker, J Sabine

    2009-04-15

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for the quantitative imaging of nutrient elements (such as K, Mg, Mn, Cu, P, S and B) in the leaves of Elsholtzia splendens. The plant leaves were scanned directly with a focused Nd:YAG laser in the laser ablation chamber. The ablated material was transported with argon as carrier gas to a quadrupole-based ICP-MS (ICP-QMS), and the ion intensities of (39)K(+), (24)Mg(+), (55)Mn(+), (63)Cu(+), (31)P(+), (34)S(+) and (11)B(+) were measured by ICP-QMS to study the distribution of the elements of interest. The imaging technique using LA-ICP-MS on plant leaves does not require any sample preparation. Carbon ((13)C(+)) was used as an internal standard element to compensate for the difference in the amount of material ablated. Additional experiments were performed in order to study the influence of the water content of the analyzed leaves on the intensity signal of the analyte. For quantification purposes, standard reference material (NIST SRM 1515 Apple Leaves) was selected and doped with standard solutions of the analytes within the concentration range of 0.1-2000 mg L(-1). The synthetic laboratory standards together with the samples were measured by LA-ICP-MS. The shape and structure of the leaves was clearly given by LA-ICP-MS imaging of all the elements measured. The elemental distribution varied according to the element, but with a high content in the veins for all the elements investigated. Specifically, Cu was located uniformly in the mesophyll with a slightly higher concentration in the main vein. High ion intensity was measured for S with a high amount of this element in the veins similar to the images of the metals, whereas most of the B was detected at the tip of the leaf. With synthetic laboratory standard calibration, the concentrations of elements in the leaves measured by LA-ICP-MS were between 20 microg g(-1) for Cu and 14,000 microg g(-1) for K.

  8. Direct demonstration of tissue uptake of an inhaled drug: proof-of-principle study using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehniger, Thomas E; Végvári, Akos; Rezeli, Melinda; Prikk, Kaiu; Ross, Peeter; Dahlbäck, Magnus; Edula, Goutham; Sepper, Ruth; Marko-Varga, György

    2011-11-01

    Drug therapy is often directed to specific organ and tissue compartments where the mode of action of the compound affects specifically targeted biological processes. However, the direct measurement of drug uptake in terms of a time kinetic and concentrations attained at the local sites has not been readily available as a clinical index for most drugs. A proof-of-principle study was conducted to test the utility of applying matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to demonstrate the qualitative distribution pattern of a locally administered drug within tissue sites of targeted action. Here we have measured the occurrence of an inhaled bronchodilator, the muscarinic receptor antagonist ipratropium, within human bronchial biopsies obtained by fiber optic bronchoscopy shortly after dosing exposure. Cryo-preserved biopsy samples from five subjects being evaluated for airway obstruction or potential tumor development were prepared as thin frozen sections. Samples coated with a MALDI matrix were analyzed by a MALDI LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer at large (100 μm) and small (30 μm) raster sizes. Our results demonstrate that ipratropium is rapidly absorbed into the airway wall. Ipratropium parent ion (m/z 332.332) and daughter ions (m/z 166.2 and 290.2) were coincidently partitioned within submucosal spaces containing targeted airway smooth muscle in four out of five subjects. The signal intensity of ipratropium fragment ions provided estimates that local drug concentrations between 3 and 80 nM were achieved within the airway wall. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study in applying MALDI-MSI to demonstrate the localization of a drug administered at therapeutic levels. The study highlights the potential benefit of MALDI-MSI to provide important measurements of drug efficacy in clinical settings.

  9. Chemical characterization of latent fingerprints by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, mega electron volt secondary mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging: an intercomparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Melanie J; Bright, Nicholas J; Croxton, Ruth S; Francese, Simona; Ferguson, Leesa S; Hinder, Stephen; Jickells, Sue; Jones, Benjamin J; Jones, Brian N; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ojeda, Jesus J; Webb, Roger P; Wolstenholme, Rosalind; Bleay, Stephen

    2012-10-16

    The first analytical intercomparison of fingerprint residue using equivalent samples of latent fingerprint residue and characterized by a suite of relevant techniques is presented. This work has never been undertaken, presumably due to the perishable nature of fingerprint residue, the lack of fingerprint standards, and the intradonor variability, which impacts sample reproducibility. For the first time, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, high-energy secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to target endogenous compounds in fingerprints and a method is presented for establishing their relative abundance in fingerprint residue. Comparison of the newer techniques with the more established gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging shows good agreement between the methods, with each method detecting repeatable differences between the donors, with the exception of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, for which quantitative analysis has not yet been established. We further comment on the sensitivity, selectivity, and practicability of each of the methods for use in future police casework or academic research.

  10. Direct Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Plant Leaves Using Surface-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionizatio