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Sample records for chinone

  1. Sulfid-Chinon Reduktase (SQR) aus Aquifex aeolicus: Gensynthese, Expression, Reinigung und biochemische Charakterisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Schödl, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Biologische Sulfidoxidation findet in Organismen aller drei Domänen des Lebens statt. Als das in vielen Bakterien dafür verantwortliche Enzym wurde eine Sulfid:Chinon Oxidoreduktase (SQR) identifiziert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die SQR aus dem hyperthermophilen Eubakterium Aquifex aeolicus heterolog in Escherichia coli exprimiert und zur Homogenität gereinigt. Dazu wurde ein künstliches Gen synthetisiert, welches an den Codon-Gebrauch von Escherichia coli angepasst ist. Das gereinigte...

  2. La fouille du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Premiers résultats The excavation of fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dufaÿ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette note présente les premiers résultats des fouilles menées en 2003 et 2004 sur la quasi-totalité du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Celui-ci est l’un des trois éléments de la forteresse médiévale qui domine la ville. La fouille a permis de préciser la fonction du fort, construit dans la deuxième moitié du XIIe s., à l’époque où Chinon est le centre administratif des possessions continentales des Plantagenêt, rois d’Angleterre. Du point de vue militaire, il formait une fortification avancée, protégeant le château principal, selon une structure que Richard Cœur de Lion appliquera au Château Gaillard. À l’intérieur, de vastes bâtiments constituaient des logis, conçus peut-être au départ pour héberger la chancellerie royale.This article presents the first results of the excavations undertaken in 2003 and 2004 over almost all of the Fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire, one of three elements of the medieval fortress which dominates the town. The excavation enabled us to clarify the function of the fort, built in the 2nd half of the 12th century at a time when Chinon was the administrative centre of the continental possesions of the Plantagenet King of England. From a military point of view, it formed an advanced fortification protecting the main castle, within a structure that Richard the Lionheart would apply to the Chayeau Gaillard. Inside, some vast buildings made up the dwellings, designed perhaps initially to house the royal chanceller.

  3. A robot-automated work site for repair of the Chinon A3 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, following degradation due to corrosion of low-carbon steel by carbon dioxide gas, the utility undertook to repair some of the support structures at Chinon A3. This involved consolidation and reinforcing thermocouples and gas monitor pipeworks supports. A welding process was selected and the use of robots became indispensable because of the large number of components to be replaced (200 per outage). Two robots, supplied with tool heads and replacement components from outside the reactor were used. The robots and their servers were coordinated by a central computer and monitored by a closed circuit television system. Each repair operation was performed after ''training'' on a full-scale mockup of the top of the reactor reconstructed from telemetry of the real reactor dimensions. Since becoming operational in June 1986, the robots have accumulated over 20 000 hours of operation and seventy parts have been welded to the reactor. A 3D CAD system has been adapted to simulate the robots and analyse long trajectories in order to reduce robot learning time

  4. Study and Construction of the Metal Vessels for the Reactors of the EDF1 and EDF2 Sectors at Chinon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first two natural uranium-graphite-C02 reactors at the Chinon station have metal vessels of thick manganese-molybdenum steel plate. The studies carried out on these vessels raised certain problems, particularly in connection with the design and dimensions of the port reinforcements. The reinforcements for the control-rod channels and fuel ports were studied on mock-ups and the results obtained were checked on the completed reactors during hydraulic tests. The type of construction initially used for the EDF1 vessel was relatively simple. The plates to be welded were locally preheated, and the vessel was not supposed to undergo more than one stress-relief heat treatment after completion of all the welding. Serious cracks developed, however, and it became necessary to alter the whole method of construction. In particular, the welding was now done after overall preheating and the vessel was subjected to multiple stress-relief treatments. This made it possible to fabricate the vessels for EDF1 and EDF2, but at the same time imposed certain limitations which considerably complicated work on the site. (author)

  5. Experience in Neutron Physics Acquired at Marcoule and Chinon. Its Value for the Graphite-Reactor Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entry into service of the first French power reactor - Gl, G2 and G3 at Marcoule and EDF1 at Chinon - has provided fundamental experience for the further development of this reactor type. This experience has accrued both from start-up tests and from power operation. The most important start-up tests consisted of : (a) Progressive replacement experiments, which made it possible to perfect the methods of calculation for G2 and EDF1; and (b) Fixed absorber and control rod-tests. Through the operation of G2 and G3, a better adjustment of the reactivity balance under power has been achieved, taking into account effects of temperature and xenon poisoning. Similarly, experiments carried out with the reactors during operation under power have made it possible to check the validity of the kinetic models used to study transient phenomena in this type of reactor. The experience acquired with the first French graphite reactors - though it still has to be completed by measurements of a more basic and systematic kind on assemblies specially designed for the purpose, such as MARIUS and CESAR - has thus proved to be of extreme value both for future projects and for studies on the operation of large power stations, where problems of control and kinetics are especially important. (author)

  6. Chinon plant - Report on the complementary safety assessment of nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Chinon B plant to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond the level for which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence. Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like EDF's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. The creation of a nuclear rapid action force (FARN) is proposed: this will be a national emergency force made up of specialized teams equipped to intervene in less than 24 hours on a nuclear site hit by an accident. This report is divided into 8 main chapters: 1) features of the site, 2) earthquake risk, 3) flooding risk, 4) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 5) the loss of electrical power supplies and of heat sink, 6) management of severe accidents (accidents with core melt), 7) task subcontracting policy, 8) synthesis and list of improvements. 4 following appendices review: EDF's crisis organization, the FARN, radiation protection organization and accidental event trees. (A.C.)

  7. Decree from August 27, 1996 authorizing Electricite de France to modify in order to keep under surveillance and in an intermediate dismantling state the basic nuclear installation named Chinon A 3 (reactor definitely decommissioned) on the Chinon nuclear site of the Avoine town (Indre-et-Loire)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decree from the French prime minister, the minister of environment and the minister of industry and postal services gives permission to Electricite de France (EdF) to modify and keep under surveillance the partially dismantled Chinon A 3 reactor which will be renamed Chinon A 3D. The modification consist in confining the internal structures and heat exchangers inside their buildings with the plugging of all apertures. Primary and auxiliary circuits will be dismantled. The decree describes the installation and summarizes the technical rules which must be applied concerning the works schedule, the quality assurance, the confinement and protection against risks of radioactivity dissemination, the personnel and public protection against ionizing radiations, the control of environmental pollution with liquid and gaseous effluents, the reduction of volume and radioactivity of solid wastes, the transport and handling of radioactive materials, the protection against earthquakes and fire, and the personnel training. (J.S.)

  8. The ISIS operation: Robotics repair work on the CHINON A3 natural uranium, carbon dioxide cooled, graphite moderated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After describing the upper internal support structures of the CHINON A3 reactor, the problems resulting from their degradation due to corrosion and to the difficulties of the ISIS operation are presented here. The repair method is as follows: all tools and repair parts reach the working area by the feeding-pipes drilled through the 7 m thick concrete vessel surrounding the reactor core; the robots handle into the reactor, the tool heads and the repair parts which are automatically positioned and welded around the corroded structure, thus restoring the support of measurement devices. The parts are either linked together or to the existing structure by means of 2 studs of 12 mm in diameter. The different phases to sort out a problem are: in-core topography, reconforming of the full-scale mock-up with the repair area, learning on this mock-up and in-core repair. The technical specificities of the robots used are the following: they have an 11 meter long, 0.22 meter across telescopic mast with jointed arms reaching a radius of 2.7 m. Then the useful load is 70 daN and the repeatability 0.1 mm. Different tool heads can be handled by the robot: telemeter and laser reconstruction: it allows to locate the in core points and to materialize them on the mock-up by a laser crossed-beams locating technique; scouring: it cleans the corroded parts of the structures before welding; welding: it allows the parts handling and the carried studs welding; screwing; tensile test: carried out when the stud welds are defective. A high level computerized control system is organized around a central unit which calculates the displacements of robots and synchronises the actions of different tools by communicating with several local units. A 100,000 hour designing, a 200,000 hour building and assembling and a 450,000 hour operating on working area were necessary to repair 15 out of the 102 corroded structures by fitting and welding 205 repair parts. 10 figs

  9. In vitro stanovení antimikrobiální, antioxidativní a protizánětlivé aktivity chinonů ze semen černuchy seté

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokoška, L.; Maršík, Petr; Landa, Přemysl; Tesařová, H.; Svobodová, B.; Halamová, K.; Flesar, J.; Přibylová, Marie

    Praha: ČZU Praha, 2010, s. 119-122. ISBN 978-80-213-2121-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/08/1179 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Nigella sativa * chinons * dihydrothymochinon Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chinon nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the facilities (INBs no. 94 (irradiated materials workshop), 99 (fuel storage facility), 107 and 132 (NPPs in operation), 133, 153 and 161 (NPPs under deconstruction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  11. Synthese, spektroskopische Charakterisierung und Elektronentransfereigenschaften kovalent verknüpfter Chlorin- und Bacteriochlorin-Chinone als Photosynthese-Modellverbindungen

    OpenAIRE

    Mößler, Johann

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation describes the synthesis and electron transfer properties of covalently linked biomimetic diads, containing a chlorin or a bacteriochlorin as electron donor and p-benzoquinone as electron aceptor. Two meso-substituted chlorin-quinones, linked via the chlorin-positions 5 and 10, and a bacteriochlorin-quinone were obtained by reduction of a porphyrin-hydroquinone with diimine, followed by selective oxidation of the hydroquinone moiety with p--benzoquino...

  12. 78 FR 69302 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... bladder rupture. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in the soil beneath the ruptured bladder. The fuel... was below the former El Toro MCAS background concentration. Total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons... Chinon Wash, near the former El Toro MCAS boundary. Within the Agua Chinon Wash, total...

  13. Mortality around French nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity production from nuclear origin is, in France, old and very important. So, it was essential to study the observed mortality between 0 and 24 years in cities that are situated around the main french nuclear plants. Results are separately presented for each of main facilities in operation before 1975: Chinon, Chooz, La Hague, Marcoule, Saint-Laurent and Bugey

  14. Kodak DC-50:PC即时摄影简单易行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Grotta; Sally; Wiener; Grotta; 饶一梅

    1996-01-01

    Kodak Digital Science DC-50 Zoom Camera集双方优点于一身:它使用与Kodak DC-40相同的电荷耦合器件(CCD)成象、曝光补偿控制和一流固件(firmware);还使用Chinon ES-3000和Dycam 10C(曾获Editors' Choice奖)的自动测光计、自动对焦、3倍变焦、宏功能及可替换存储卡。因此售价979美元的DC-50在操作使用和图象品质上都更加出色。 在外部,DC-50看上去与Chinon

  15. Use of laser extensometer for mechanical test on irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques have been developed by EDF's hot laboratory in Chinon for performing mechanical tests on irradiated materials. Some of these techniques aim to facilitate strain measurements, which are particularly difficult to perform on irradiated specimens at high temperatures or on subsize specimens. Recent progress has been driven by laser technology combined with software development. The use of this technique, which allows strain measurements without contact on the specimen, is described for tensile (especially on subsize specimens), fatigue and creep tests

  16. Reliability applied to robotics: I.S.I.S. operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability study of the whole robotic equipment devoted to repairing operations of internal upper structures of Chinon A3 reactor required the application of specific methods such as failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, (methods of failure combination) and graphs of states. Studies results allowed to define the risks due to the intervention systems in reactor, to calculate their occurrence probabilities and to reduce them owing to the modifications proposal or to the recommendations before each use (test,...)

  17. Experience of steam generator tube examination in the hot laboratory of EDF: analysis of recent events concerning the secondary side

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Y.; Bouvier, O. de; Boccanfuso, M.; Coquio, N.; Barbe, V.; Molinie, E. [EDF-DIN-CEIDRE (France)

    2011-07-01

    Until 2010, more than 60 steam generator (SG) tubes have been removed and analysed in the EDF hot laboratory of CEIDRE/Chinon. This article is particularly related to three recent events that lead to the extraction of several tubes dedicated to laboratory destructive examinations. The first event that constitutes a first occurrence on the EDF Park, concerns the detection of a circumferential crack on the external surface of a tube located at tube support plate elevation. After this observation, several tubes have been extracted from Bugey 3 and Fessenheim 2 nuclear power plants with steam generators equipped with 600 MA bundle. The other two events concern the consequences of chemical cleaning of the tube bundle steam generators. The examples chosen are from Cruas 4 et Chinon B2 units whose tubes were extracted following non destructive testing performed immediately after or at the completion of cycle following the chemical cleaning. In the case of Cruas 4, Eddy Current Testing (ET) were performed for requalification of steam Generators after chemical cleaning. They allowed the detection of an indication located at the bottom of tube for a large number of tubes; the ET signal was similar to that corresponding to 'deposit' corrosion. Moreover, inspections of Chinon-B2 SGs at the end of the operation cycle following the chemical cleaning, showed the presence of conductor deposits at the bottom of some tubes. The first part of this document presents the major results of laboratory examinations of the pulled tubes of Bugey 3 and Fessenheim 2 and their analysis. Hypothesis concerning damage mechanisms of the tubes are also proposed. The second part of the paper relates the results of the laboratory examinations of the pulled tubes of Cruas 4 and Chinon B 2 after chemical cleaning and their analysis. (authors)

  18. French experience with electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the results obtained in CHINON B1 comparing deposited activity observed on different surface finishes EDF decided to electropolish steam generator channel heads (S.G.C.H.) in order to reduce operator dose during plant maintenance. The qualification tests were performed on steam generator materials (Inconel 600 and S.S. 308 L) with the full on site operational equipment (i.e. a sealed sucker). In 1988 the 4 SGCH of NOGENT 2 were electropolished. In 1990 we observed a dose rate reduction of 45% at NOGENT 2 compared to NOGENT 1. Other French experience is electropolishing of 27 S.G.C.H., since 1988. (author)

  19. Robotics before its time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Society Hispano Suiza developed, to repair the upper internal structures of the Chinon A3 nuclear power plant which had been attacked by corrosion, third-generation robots, designed for working in hostile environments and accessing the reactor core via the loading wells to perform a series of programmed operations inside the core: telemetry, geometry mapping by laser, scouring, and fitting and welding of new parts quickly and safely and with a high standard of workmanship. This paper presents us the repair principle; five robots are required for the repair program. Finally, the ISIS robot general technical data and tool-hearts are given

  20. Reliability applied to robotics - I.S.I.S. operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability study of the whole robotic equipments devoted to repairing operations of internal upper structures of the reactor Chinon A3 required the application of specific methods such as failure mode and effect analysis, fault trees, (methods of failure combination) and graphs of states. The results of the studies allowed to define the risks due to the intervention systems in reactor, to calculate their occurrence probabilities and to reduce them owing to the modification proposals or to the recommendations before each use (test,...). 10 refs

  1. The Use of Prestressed Concrete Vessels in the French Power Reactor Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the use of pre-stressed concrete for the G2 and G3 reactors at Marcoule and for the EDF3 reactor now under construction at Chinon. The first two reactors have been operating at power since 1959 and 1960 respectively. Messrs. Conte and Dambrine discuss the problems that arose during construction of the vessels for G2 and G3 and also deal with the experience gained in operation - experience which suggests that they are extremely safe- Work on the EDF3 vessel, begun at Chinon in the second half of 1961, is still under way and should be finished towards the end of 1963. Mr. Gaussot discusses the reasons for choosing this type of vessel, the results of calculations and mock-up tests, and the problems presented by the construction itself. A number of studies have been devoted to the future prospects of prestressed concrete structures for reactors. It would seem that working pressures could be increased, if desired, and, in any case, that dimensions could be considerably enlarged, thus offering the chance of integral-type solutions. (author)

  2. A.C.R.O. activity report 2006; A.C.R.O. rapport d'activite 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This association participated in different working groups: North Cotentin radioecology group, groups of expertise on the uranium mines of Limousin, executive committee for the management of the post accidental phase of a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency situation, radioactive waste management, radiological surveillance of the territory, radiation protection mission by the Asn, radiological surveillance of the environment of the Chinon nuclear power plant, study of the presence of {sup 235}U around the site of Brennilis, study of the radioactive waste management at the Manche plant, radiological surveillance of the Cyceron cyclotron at Caen, Aurengo commission on the consequences in France of the Chernobylsk accident. Actions of information, regular publications, meeting with public are also a part of the work of this association. (N.C.)

  3. Assessment of the radiological inventory of EDF's graphite waste through an assimilation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definitive disposal of graphite from the decommissioned UNGG reactors (Chinon A3, Saint-Laurent A1, Saint-Laurent A2 and Bugey 1) has required a radiological inventory of the irradiated graphite. This study focuses on Cl36 that is produced by neutron absorption on Cl35 that was present initially in graphite as an impurity (about 80 mg/t of Cl initially in Bugey 1 graphite)). It appears that the changes of Cl36 concentration along the height of a stack of graphite do neither fit the changes in the neutron flux nor the changes in the graphite temperature. This fact is explained by the high level of purity of the graphite and the nugget effect. Challenged by the absence of spatial correlation of the Cl36 concentration, an EDF's team has developed an assimilation method based on comparisons between calculations and measurements in order to get a conservative inventory. (A.C.)

  4. Systematic monitoring of atmosphere radioactivity on the main French nuclear sites in 1961

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having indicated the different stations, departments and bodies involved in the monitoring of radioactivity for radiation protection purposes (notably CEA, EDF, National Navy for their establishments in Saclay, Le Bouchet, Grenoble, Marcoule, Cadarache, Cherbourg, Chinon, Antony) and briefly described how this network operates, this report presents the measurement program which comprises measurements of global instantaneous radioactivity at the vicinity of the ground, measurements of long life radioactivity, the identification and dosing of long life radio-elements, and additional measurements. It presents sampling and measurement methods for these different measurements performed on different forms of radioactive elements (airborne dusts, gas, gamma and cosmic ambient radiation, precipitations). Results are discussed and presented under tabular and graphical forms

  5. Presentation of the GIE INTRA Group's operational means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Located on the Chinon nuclear power plant site, the Intra Group is an economic interest grouping which has been created by the three French nuclear operators (EDF, CEA, and COGEMA now AREVA) after the Chernobyl accident. Its missions are to possess permanently available means of intervention in case of severe accident or radiological situation, to be able to intervene at any time on the French territory, to develop a European network of expertise, and to build up an ability centre for robotic intervention in hostile environment. This document briefly presents its different available means: remotely controlled equipment (inside and outside equipment, public works equipment), and radiological characterization equipment. Other aspects are briefly evoked: organization, information transmission, exercises and interventions, international relationships, future trends

  6. Savoir lire les centres historiques comme clé pour construire la ville de demain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Sierra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Yves Dauge est sénateur d’Indre et Loire (membre de la commission de la culture, de l'éducation et de la communication, membre du groupe d'études sur le patrimoine architectural. Inspecteur général de l’équipement, ancien maire de Chinon, il a été délégué interministériel à la ville et au développement social urbain de 1988 à 1991. Il a conduit la délégation française au Vème Forum Urbain Mondial à Rio. Il anime avec les services du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères et Européennes, le nouvea...

  7. ALARA and planning of interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of ALARA programs implies integration of radiation protection criterion at all stages of outage management. Within the framework of its ALARA policy, Electricide de France (EDF) has given an incentive to all of its nuclear power plants to develop open-quotes good practicesclose quotes in this domain, and to exchange their experience by the way of a national feed back file. Among the developments in the field of outage organization, some plants have focused on the planning stage of activities because of its influence on the radiological conditions of interventions and on the good succession of tasks within the radiological controlled areas. This paper presents the experience of Chinon nuclear power plant. At Chinon, we are pursuing this goal through careful outage planning. We want the ALARA program during outages to be part of the overall maintenance task planning. This planning includes the provision of the availability of every safety-related component, and of the variations of water levels in hthereactor and steam generators to take advantage of the shield created by the water. We have developed a computerized data base with the exact position of all the components in the reactor building in order to avoid unnecessary interactions between different tasks performed in the same room. A common language between Operation and Maintenance had been established over the past years, using open-quotes Milestones and Corridorsclose quotes. A real time dose rate counting system enables the Radiation Protection (RP) Department to do an accurate and efficient follow up during the outage for all the open-quotes ALARAclose quotes maintenance tasks

  8. [The hospitals constructed in France for the U.S. Army from 1950 to 1967. Organization, location, usage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrude, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A few years after the Second World War the US Army was authorized to set up in France a line of communication intended to resupply the occupying forces in Germany. The logistical zone was greatly developed after the creating of Nato in 1949. It was made up of numerous depots and some hospitals built between 1953 and 1960 and placed along the road joining La Rochelle to Kaiserslautern in FRG that is La Rochelle, Poitiers, Chinon, Orléans, Vitry-le-François, Toul, Bar-le-Duc and Verdun. After the departure of US Army in 1966-1967, some of these hospitals were used by the French Army and its Health Service. Except for one of them all were sold and essentially used as hospitals. Nowadays they are disappearing and at the end of 2007 only three buildings are still complete: Toul is used as a hospital, Olivet as barracks and Croix-Chapeau (La Rochelle) as an industrial zone and in complete renewing. PMID:19230435

  9. Quelques Aspects de l'Art Militaire sous Philippe Auguste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finó, J. F.

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    LE règne de Philippe Auguste est marqué par le long conflit qui l'oppose aux Plantagenêts. C'est une lutte de plus de trente ans, jalonnée tantôt par les défaites du Capétien (Fréteval 1194, Courcelles 1198, tantôt par ses victoires diplomatiques ou militaires aboutissant à la conquête de places telles Gisors, Château-Gaillard, Loches, Chinon. Finalement, les Plantagenêts sont vaincus et l'annexion de la Normandie, de la Touraine, de l'Anjou, de l'Artois, de I'Ammiénois, de l'Auvergne et d'une partie du Poitou, font du roi de France le plus puissant souverain d'Europe. Cette lutte a de profondes répercussions sur l'évolution de l'art militaire et il est peut-être opportun de rappeler quelques uns des travaux qui ont été consacrés à trois aspects fondamentaux: les armes, les effectifs, les bâtiments.

  10. National inventory of uranium mining sites. Version 1. Made in the framework of the Mimausa program (memory and impact of uranium mines, synthesis and archives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mimausa program was launched in 2003 with the aim of establishing a radiological status of the surrounding environment of uranium mining sites. It comprises 2 aspects: a knowledge status aspect which gathers the existing data about each site, and a specific study aspects which completes the existing information by additional field investigations. The inventory is the first phase of the first aspect. It consists in an exhaustive recording of all sites involved in the exploration, extraction or processing of uranium ore in France. The informations gathered are synthesized in the form of a series of site files. These files are only factual without any judgement or interpretation about the environmental impact. This documents presents, first, the context of the Mimausa program and the informations reported in the site files with their legend, and then the files themselves with one file per mining area: Allier, Ambert, Aquitaine, Aveyron, La Benaize, Bretagne, Cantal, Chateau Chinon, Correze, Creuze, Crouzille, Forez, Gartempe, Guerande, Lacour, Lodeve, Lozere, PACA, Saone et Loire, St Symphorien, and Vendee. (J.S.)

  11. Ultrasonic measurement of high burn-up fuel elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrasonic method developed for the evaluation of high burn-up fuel elastic properties is presented hereafter. The objective of the method is to provide data for fuel thermo-mechanical calculation codes in order to improve industrial nuclear fuel and materials or to design new reactor components. The need for data is especially crucial for high burn-up fuel modelling for which the fuel mechanical properties are essential and for which a wide range of experiments in MTR reactors and high burn-up commercial reactor fuel examinations have been included in programmes worldwide. To contribute to the acquisition of this knowledge the LAIN activity is developing in two directions. First one is development of an ultrasonic focused technique adapted to active materials study. This technique was used few years ago in the EdF laboratory in Chinon to assess the ageing of materials under irradiation. It is now used in a hot cell at ITU Karlsruhe to determine the elastic moduli of high burnup fuels from 0 to 110 GWd/tU. Some of this work is presented here. The second on going programme is related to the qualification of acoustic sensors in nuclear environments, which is of a great interest for all the methods, which work, in a hostile nuclear environment

  12. Examination of the SG tube fatigue cracking at Fessenheim unit no.2 of EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 2008, a primary-to-secondary leak occurred at Fessenheim Unit No.2 on a steam generator. A circumferential fatigue crack was observed at the upper tube support plate level of the R12C62 tube although the stability ratio evaluation performed to take into account some prior international events, concluded that this tube had no risk of fluid-elastic instability. A new tube pull process was developed and performed by AREVA in 2011 just before the SG replacement. The extraction at the uppermost TSP elevation was a first occurrence in the French EDF PWR. Destructive examinations were carried out in the EDF hot laboratory of CEIDRE/Chinon in order to characterize damage mechanisms at the initiation and propagation stage. The document relates the major results of laboratory examinations leading us to exclude the fluid-elastic instability scenario as previously reported in North-Anna (1987) and Mihama (1991) tube rupture incidents. Results analysis with particular focus on the fracture surface description using Scanning Electron microscopy observations and metallurgical investigations provide new elements concerning the aggravating factors of fatigue damage. Fracture surface investigations reveal that the circumferential crack was due to high cycle fatigue with a very low stress intensity factor. Some aggravating factors like intergranular corrosion appeared to be critical for the fatigue cracking initiation stage. The deterioration was also largely promoted by the lack of tube support at the Anti-Vibration Bars

  13. Foodstuff monitoring. To protect the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of articles describes the activities of the IRSN in the field of foodstuff monitoring about nuclear plants, in order to assess the exposure of population by food. Simulation codes have been developed to model the deposit of radionuclides on grass and their transfer to cows and milk, but also to local vegetable productions. In case of accidental release, it would be possible to forbid the consumption of some products. The IRSN performs a continuous monitoring of the environment at the local, regional and national levels. For each of these levels, a sampling plan is defined in terms of sampling location and frequency. These controls are different according to the region. The radiological quality of water is monitored and several actors are involved in this process (regional and national agencies, producers and distributors, laboratories). The case of the region of Chinon is more particularly addressed. Local production and consumption habits are studied for a better assessment of their health impact. Some projects are finally evoked: inclusion of children in food-habit survey, investigations in different regions, analysis of bottled waters, widening of the area for the study of post-accidental consequences

  14. Lessons learned from tubes pulled from French steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Ph.; Boursier, J.M.; Dallery, D.; De Keroulas, F.; Rouillon, Y. [Electricite de France, Generating and Transmission Div. (France)

    1998-07-01

    Since 1981, the Chinon Hot Laboratory has completed more than 380 metallurgical examinations of pulled French steam generator tubes. Electricite de France decided to perform such investigations from the very outset of the French nuclear program, in order to contribute to nuclear power plant safety. The main reasons for withdrawing tubes are to evaluate the degradation, to validate non destructive examination (NDE) techniques, to gain a better understanding of cracking phenomena, and to ensure that the criteria on which plugging operations are based remain conservative. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the field of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), OD (secondary) side corrosion, leak and burst tests, and various tube plugging techniques. This paper focuses on the PWSCC phenomenon and on the secondary side corrosion process, and in particular, attempts to correlate French data from pulled tubes with the results of fundamental R and D studies. Finally, within the framework of the Nuclear Power Plant Safety and Maintenance Policy, all these results are discussed in terms of optimization of the field inspection of tube bundles and plugging criteria. (author)

  15. Part 1: The detection of criticality accidents in the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. Part 2: The Burst Slug Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of the plant. The techniques developed during this programme can be subsequently adapted to easily solve problems of detection in other types of reactor. The main characteristics of the evolution of the various installations constructed or under construction is reflected in the continuous progress towards greater automation and the use of detectors working under higher and higher temperatures and pressures. Succeeding to the reactor G3 whose BSD installation was already highly automatic, the EDF reactors at Chinon use digital computers especially meant for BSD data processing. In the planned reactor EL 4, the BSD measurements will be processed with all the other control measurements in a centralized computer unit. The progressive pressure increase of the cooling gas (15 bars in G3, 25 bars in the Chinon reactors, 60 bars in EL 4) has required the development of electric precipitations able to separate and measure the fission products in the carbonic gas at temperatures reaching 300 C and under pressures as high as 60 bars. In spite of the severe conditions of utilisation, the various devices developed offer all the guarantees of safety and long life expectancy required for their use on BSD installations. (authors)

  16. Learning from EDF investigations on SG divider plates and vessel head nozzles. Evidence of prior deformation effect on stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel Based alloys Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) has been a major concern for all the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) utilities since the beginning of the seventies. At EDF, the nineties were marked by the occurrence of cracks on vessel head nozzles. These cracks were responsible for a leak at Bugey 3 vessel head, which was the precursor leading to the replacement of all vessel heads. From 2002, new cases of Stress Corrosion Cracking were reported on Steam Generator (SG) Divider Plates (SGDP) welded junctions. These cracks are periodically inspected inservice and reparations could be performed in case of a significant evolution of the phenomenon even if the safety issue is less relevant than for the vessel head nozzles. Both issues have led to an important non-destructive testing (NDT) program and to destructive investigations campaigns. NDT were performed on an exhaustive basis for all vessel head nozzles and for all the divider plates of 900 MWe plants. Destructive investigations were performed on more than 30 vessel head nozzles and on 6 divider plates. The last investigations were performed on samples from two decommissioned Steam Generators of Chinon B1 which present SCC cracks. In this paper, the main conclusions driven from the analysis of both NDT and destructive investigation results are reported and a comparison of the behaviours of divider plates and vessel head nozzles is given. Results give evidence that prior plastic deformation of the components before operation is fundamental for the further environmental behaviour of the material. Analysis of field experience based on parameters characteristics of prior deformation and parameters characteristics of material microstructure can be used to account for the components which are the most sensitive to SCC cracking. Some perspectives on SCC predictive models are also presented. (authors)

  17. Part 1: The detection of criticality accidents in the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. Part 2: The Burst Slug Detection; 1. partie: la detection des accidents de criticite au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. 2. partie.: la detection des ruptures de gaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debrie, G.; Lavie, J.; Planque, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    economics of the plant. The techniques developed during this programme can be subsequently adapted to easily solve problems of detection in other types of reactor. The main characteristics of the evolution of the various installations constructed or under construction is reflected in the continuous progress towards greater automation and the use of detectors working under higher and higher temperatures and pressures. Succeeding to the reactor G3 whose BSD installation was already highly automatic, the EDF reactors at Chinon use digital computers especially meant for BSD data processing. In the planned reactor EL 4, the BSD measurements will be processed with all the other control measurements in a centralized computer unit. The progressive pressure increase of the cooling gas (15 bars in G3, 25 bars in the Chinon reactors, 60 bars in EL 4) has required the development of electric precipitations able to separate and measure the fission products in the carbonic gas at temperatures reaching 300 C and under pressures as high as 60 bars. In spite of the severe conditions of utilisation, the various devices developed offer all the guarantees of safety and long life expectancy required for their use on BSD installations. (authors) [French] Dans toute installation ou est manipulee de la matiere fissile en quantite potentiellement superieure a la masse critique, existe, quelles que soient les precautions prises, un risque permanent d'excursion nucleaire accidentelle, pouvant entrainer une irradiation grave du personnel. La detection immediate suivie d'une evacuation rapide limite considerablement les risques d'irradiation dus aux produits de fission ou a la reaction nucleaire elle-meme si elle se poursuit. Les phenomenes physiques qui accompagnent une excursion nucleaire, demeurant insuffisants pour suivre l'alarme et pouvant preter a confusion, la necessite d'un appareillage approprie de la detection des accidents de criticite s'impose donc. Compte

  18. Role of Hypoxia in advances in new anticancer diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contemporary radiopharmacy has played a significant role in the development of early oncological diagnostics. Such radiopharmaceutics as 18F-FMISO, 123I-IAZA, 99m Tc-HL-91 are used in the state-of-the art scintigraphic and tomographic techniques, i.e. in the PET and SPECT methods to determine carcinoma progression and detect cells in hypoxic state already at the early stage of carcinoma development. These noninvasive and selective for hypoxic cells methods are characterized by excellent sensitivity and do not exert noxious effect on the remaining cells of the human organism. Characteristic hypoxia of solid tumors can be also identified with invasive methods, e.g. Elisa test or measurement of oxygen concentration in pathological cells using a microprobe. However, medical interference in the tissues affects the condition of the whole organism. Technical complications and low accuracy resulting from non-uniform hypoxia of the cancerous tissue environment render rear usage of these methods in clinical practice. Diagnosis of hypoxia occurring in the carcinoma-changed cells permits treatment with drugs possessing bioreductive mechanism of activity. In this group of drugs, apart from nitro compounds and chinon derivatives, we can distinguish compounds with N-oxide structure. Tripazamine and banoxantrone represent the latter group of compounds. These are so far the drugs with the best therapeutic parameters expressed by selectivity, efficiency of action and low general toxicity. Also, gene therapy with the use of adenovirus vector coding nitroreductase seems to be a promising mode of treatment. This enzyme induces cytotoxic activity of nitro compounds, e.g. CB1954, for cancerous cells with hypoxia. (authors)

  19. Food surveys for assessing chemical and dosimetric impacts near industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating the ingestion of potentially contaminated foodstuffs around conventional and nuclear industrial sites requires data about the food practices and eating habits of the local residents, especially the consumption of locally- and home-produced food. The IRSN thus chose to conduct surveys about these practices in the vicinity of nuclear sites. Their methodology was based on previous surveys near nuclear sites. In 2004, in partnership with AREVA and BEGEAT, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety studied the eating habits of the residents of Bollene, near the Tricastin plant (Rhone Valley), with the aim of improving the quantification of the plant's potential health impacts. Based on these studies and as part of the SENSIB project to characterize vulnerability to nuclear risks, we developed and tested a survey protocol during the summer 2008, around the Chinon nuclear plant, in collaboration with EDF. The protocol is currently being tested around the Marcoule nuclear plant, in collaboration with the CEA. The aim was to optimize the feasibility and the reproducibility of the approach, while losing none of the robustness of the results. The data obtained made it possible to evaluate daily food intake values for individuals and to assess the rates of consumption of locally-grown products for many food categories. The data showed the existence of local population groups with very high rates of locally-grown food consumption - over 90 % of certain food products. This comparative study thus shows the significant variability of eating habits in the French population and proposes a reproducible approach to evaluating realistic indicators of potentially risky dietary habits. (authors)

  20. A.C.R.O. activity report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As regards the environmental protection, the A.C.R.O. maintained in 2001 its programs of surveillance around the main western nuclear installations of France. The radioecological surveillance of the site of Cogema La-Hague for the dismantling of the former pipe of release in sea was one of the key points of this action environmental surveillance. The two accidents of atmospheric release in may and october 2001 at Cogema La Hague have shown the interest of an association as A.C.R.O.. It is thank to the measure, by our laboratory, of repercussions on environment of these incidents that it has been possible to bring to light a dysfunction of the measurement system of the gaseous effluents released by the facility operator. To improve the public information, A.C.R.O. concerns its main efforts on the development of the consumer technical information available on-line via its web site and in its regular publication 'the nuclear chronicle'. Besides, the participation of the A.C.R.O. to the radioecology North Cotentin group (within the framework of the continuation of its mission) but also at various local commissions of information (C.L.I.) as well as at the superior council of the safety and nuclear information ( C.S.S.I.N.) stays an essential action. Concerning the environmental protection, the A.C.R.O. maintains its programs of surveillance around the nuclear facilities of La Hague and Chinon and continues the surveillance of the site of Cogema La hague as regards the new pipe of release in sea. Among the new commitments for 2000, the participation to the radioecology North Cotentin group in the framework of the continuation of its mission and the participation to the international intercomparison 'N.O.R.C.O. 2000' punctuated the year. (N.C.)

  1. Cost of transporting irradiated fuels and maintenance costs of a chemical treatment plant for irradiated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous studies have been made of the cost of a fuel cycle, but many of them are based on a priori studies and are therefore to be treated with reserve. Thus, in the part dealing with the treatment of irradiated fuels, some important factors in the cost have only rarely been given on the basis of practical experience: the cost of transporting the fuels themselves and the plant maintenance costs. Investigations relating to transport costs are generally based on calculations made from somewhat arbitrary data. The studies carried out in France on the transport of irradiated uranium between the EDF reactors at Chinon and the retreatment plant at La Hague of the irradiated uranium from research reactors to foreign retreatment plants, are reported; they show that by a suitable choice of transport containers and details of expedition it has been possible to reduce the costs very considerably. This has been achieved either by combining rail and road transport or by increasing the writ capacities of the transport containers: an example is given of a container for swimming-pool pile elements which can transport a complete pile core at one time, thus substantially reducing the cost. Studies concerning the maintenance costs of retreatment plants are rarer still, although in direct maintenance plants these figures represent an appreciable fraction of the total treatment cost. An attempt has been made, on the basis of operational experience of a plant, to obtain some idea of these costs. Only maintenance proper has been considered, excluding subsidiary operations such as the final decontamination of apparatus, the burial of contaminated material and radioprotection operations Maintenance has been divided into three sections: mechanical maintenance, maintenance of electrical equipment and maintenance of control and adjustment apparatus. In each of these sections the distinction has been made between manpower and the material side. In order to allow comparisons to be made with

  2. EDF feedback on recent EPRI SGOG SG chemical cleanings applications for TSP blockage reduction and heat transfer recover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 2007 and 2008, six Steam Generators Chemical Cleanings (SGCC) with the inhibitor free high temperature process were applied on EDF PWR units. The main goal was to reduce the excessive Tube Support Plate blockages observed on several units of the EDF fleet and the consequences on wide range levels and the risk of tube cracks. The heat transfer recovery was the second objective. Despite the correct results obtained, the corrosion impact of the high temperature process on internal metallic surfaces, higher than expected, and the environmental issues led EDF to move to a new cleaning process. The low temperature process developed by EPRI SGOG and applied for many years was selected for the same purpose. Some qualification laboratory tests were performed by Dominion Engineering Inc (DEI) to demonstrate the innocuousness an the efficiency of the process to achieve these goals. The EPRI SGOG process was then applied seven times by Westinghouse on the EDF units Cruas 3, Cruas 2, Belleville 1, Cattenom 1, Cattenom 3, Chinon B3 and Cattenom 4 between 2008 and 2010. All these units operate from the initial start at low AVT pH 25oC (9,2) in the secondary circuit. Due to copper presence in the deposits to remove, the cleaning sequence 'Copper - Iron - Copper steps' was performed each time. After a short description of the process, including the specific adaptation in France, lessons learned are reported in this paper in the following areas: process monitoring, corrosion, efficiency, liquid and gaseous wastes, chemical pollution during start-up. Based on the 3 first applications in 2008, some modifications of the process were implemented, particularly for the copper step. For the units cleaned, 1100 to 4500 kg of deposits per SG have been removed, including TS sludge lancing. The reduction of TSP blockages was satisfying. The effect on steam pressure improvement and the wide range level is then discussed. The paper concludes on EDF perspectives for soft

  3. The annual report for 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power: 1. The total installed nuclear power-generating capacity in the world increased by 13.77% during 1985, reaching 250 GW(e) by the end of the year. Nuclear power plants accounted for 15% of the world's electricity generation in 1985, at the end of which there were 374 nuclear power plants in operation; 32 new plants came on line during the year. 2. There was still no general upturn in the ordering of nuclear power plants, and construction work started on only six new plants. However, vigorous nuclear power programmes continued in a number of Member States - notably France, Japan and the East European Member States belonging to CMEA. At the same time, five developing countries (China, Egypt, the Republic of Korea, Turkey and Yugoslavia) issued bid invitations or were negotiating contracts for nuclear power plants. Two new plants came on line in developing countries, one in India and one in the Republic of Korea. 3. Last year was the first year since 1973 without any cancellations of nuclear power plant orders or suspensions of plant construction. 4. Three nuclear power plants (El-4 and Chinon-A2 in France and VAK Kahl in the Federal Republic of Germany) were permanently shut down at what was judged to be the end of their economically useful lifetimes. 5. In contrast with the uncertainties about the current nuclear power programmes in some countries, the development of advanced nuclear systems was highlighted in 1985 by three major events: by the start-up of the 1200 MW(e) Super Phenix in France; by the start-up of the THTR-300 prototype high-temperature reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany; and by the start-up of India's fast breeder test reactor. 6. The Agency's efforts to help strengthen nuclear power planning in developing Member States continued, through advisory missions, training courses and guidebooks. Issues relating to the financing of nuclear power programmes were discussed at a seminar where the participants concluded that the Agency

  4. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswald facility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing international guidelines. The international agencies

  5. Decommissioning in western Europe; Kaernkraftsavveckling i Vaesteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor arbetslivskonsulter AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    and waterproof conditions for a longer period of time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswaldfacility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing

  6. Feedback from dismantling operations (level 2) on EDF's first generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF's policy as regards the dismantling of the reactors that have ceased commercial operation, namely the eight power plants of the first generation and the Creys-Malville power plant, is explained. Generally speaking, prior to the year 2001, EDF had opted for the de-construction of these power plants to comply with a 'long wait' scenario, which consisted of waiting for a period of 5 to 10 years to achieve IAEA level 2 (partial release of the site), then postponing the total de-construction of the facilities for 25 to 50 years. Today, EDF has decided to undertake the total de-construction of these reactors, which have ceased commercial operation, over a period of 25 years. The purpose of this document is to present: - The reactors concerned, their background and their 'regulatory' situation, - The main operations performed and/or currently in progress, - The main elements of feedback from such operations, shedding light on the approach adopted in 2001. The installations concerned by the de-construction programme are as follows: - The 8 power plants of the first generation, which were built during the fifties and sixties and ceased commercial operation between 1973 and 1994, namely: Brennilis (industrial prototype using heavy water technology, jointly operated by EDF and CEA), the 6 power units of the NUGG type (natural uranium gas graphite) at Chinon, Saint-Laurent des Eaux and Bugey and the PWR reactor at Chooz A, - The storage silos at Saint-Laurent, where the sleeves for the fuel assemblies of reactors SLA1 and SLA2 are stored, corresponding to approximately 2000 tonnes of graphite, - The Creys-Malville reactor, FBR (fast breeder reactor) shut down in accordance with a government decision, which is currently undergoing decommissioning. At the current stage, our feedback from the dismantling operations carried out on nuclear facilities is based on (i) the work carried out or in progress that will make it possible to achieve the equivalent of IAEA level 2 in the

  7. Releases at EDF nuclear sites undergoing decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF' French nuclear fleet under decommissioning is based on nine shutdown state reactors headquartered in six geographical sites. These reactors operated between 1964 and 1998 and they fall into four categories: - 'Natural uranium graphite gas' (Bugey 1, Saint-Laurent A1 et A2 et Chinon A1, A2 et A3); - 'Fast breeder' (Creys-Malville); - 'Heavy water reactor' (Brennilis); - 'Pressurized water reactor' (Chooz A, first PWR operating in France). To complete its dismantling nuclear program, EDF formally requests the French Administration (Department in charge of nuclear safety) and the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), in accordance with Article 37 of the Enforcement Decree of the French Nuclear Safety and Transparency Act. Each application for dismantling authorisation contains an environmental impact assessment of the scenario used which includes the procedures for waste and environmental monitoring (Article L. 122-1 of the Environmental Code). The environmental risks are analyzed on the basis of the discharge limits permits requested by the operator to accomplish its project. Input data necessary for sizing discharges authorisations and monitoring are described below: - The scenario of dismantling and the provisional schedule; - The physical, chemical and radiological inventories; - The containment means and the discharges treatment capacities. Activity mobilised at the nuclear premises during dismantling is estimated by applying suspension coefficients adapted to each case (dismantling in ambient air, dismantling under water, dismantling with mechanical cuts or laser cuts or water cooling, decontamination, remediation..). Radioactivity or chemical pollutants likely to be released into the environment are estimated by considering the containment means and the discharges treatment carried out. A reduction factor dependent on treatment processes and present radionuclides is applied to pollutants mobilised in the

  8. Photophysical properties of novel Porphyrin-Flavin Dyads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthesis belongs to the fundamentals of life on earth, therefore it is an important matter in natural sciences. The basic principle of photosynthesis is the transformation of solar light into chemical energy. The starting steps of photosynthesis are light-induced energy- and electron-transfer-steps with singular efficiency. One attempt to enlighten the molecular processes involved is to synthesize simpler model systems with similar properties. Important research goals are the dependencies of light-induced processes on distance and orientation of donor and acceptor. A second aim next to the clarification of the molecular conditions of photosynthesis is to create molecular light-driven machines. The most simple so-called biomimetic model system consists of an electron-donor connected to an electron-acceptor via a spacer-group. This simplest form is also referred to as dyad. Beyond dyads far more complicated compounds have been introduced consisting of several donors and/or acceptors, so-called triads, tetrads, pentads etc. Usually porphyrin serves as electron-donor. Next to chinones several other electron-acceptors are used, e.g. anthracene, pyromellitimide and fullerene. Artificial photosynthetic centers are often more stable and/or the excited states are easier to detect compared to the natural photosynthetic center. The photophysical characteristics of four dyads are reported in this work. The dyads consist of porphyrin (either free-base or zinc-metallated) and flavin, connected by different spacers. These dyads reveal photo-induced electron transfer from porphyrin to flavin and energy-transfer in the reversed direction with different efficiencies. The object of the study is the dependency of these processes on the structural features. The spacer of the dyads 1a-1c is an aromatic bridge which leads to well defined donor-acceptor distances. Because of this structure conjugation through the spacer is increased, whereas the absorption in the visible and near UV

  9. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of radiation protection

  10. A.C.R.O. activity report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    control organisation, with the Minister of health international colloquium on the risk management, S.F.R.P. congress on radiation protection, university colloquium on risk management, S.F.R.P. congress on carbon 14, S.F.R.P. congress I.R.P.A. european congress on radiation protection presentation of the working group in radiation protection, S.F.R.P. congress on evaluation and surveillance of radioactive releases of nuclear installations, european commission stake holders conference on approaches to the management of environmental radioactivity, ethical lesson and society at the national school of the Departments of civil engineering, think tank and working groups, participation to the local commission of information (C.L.I.) and in its regular publication 'the nuclear chronicle', participation to the superior council of nuclear safety and information (C.S.S.I.N.); about the environmental surveillance two environments are the object of a regular follow-up: the plateau of La Hague (reprocessing plant and Manche plant where are treated and stored radioactive waste), Touraine area where is situated the nuclear power plant of Chinon; Radio ecological follow through of the aquatic environment both continental and marine of the sea-coast of Normandy from 2001 to 2003; Radio ecological monitoring of the environment of the Cogema la Hague building site in the Moulinets cove; measurements of radon; inventory of the tritium levels in the drinking water of the Manche department; radiation monitoring of the effluents released by the hospitals in the town of Caen. (N.C.)

  11. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005; Congres National de Radioprotection - SFRP 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagroye, I. [Bordeaux Univ., Lab. de Bioelectromagnetisme de l' EPHE, Lab. PIOM, ENSCPB, 33 (France); Gonzague, A. [EDF, Centre d' appui du parc en exploitation, Groupe prevention des risques environnement, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Ammerich, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France); Blanc, D.; Lecomte, J.F.; Boucher, D.; Boucher, D.; Averbeck, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Barbey, P.; Bourguignon, M.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Radecki, J.J.; Schieber, C.; Cosset, J.M.; Lecomte, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Metivier, H.; Sugier, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Aurengo, A.; Lamartine, J.; Martin, M.; Mallard, C.; Malfoy, B.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.; Schlumberger, M.; Laurier, D.; White-Koning, M.L.; Hemon, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Jougla, E.; Clavel, J.; Miccoli, L.; Barber, R.; Angulo, J.F.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Le Gall, B.; Phan, G.; Grillon, G.; Rouit, E.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Deverre, J.R.; Legros, A.; Beuter, A.; Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Schmitt, P.; Roth, P.; Nadi, M.; Joly, L.; Chapel, C.; Burgain, A.; Marliot, F.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D.; Elabbassi, E.B.; Seze, R. de

    2005-07-01

    particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of

  12. Dismantling of nuclear facilities and related problems - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    facilitating the definitive shutdown of the Jules Horowitz reactor (J. Estrade); 17 - Integration of dismantling at the design stage of the French EPR reactor (Y. Beneteau, J.P. Richard); 18 - Use of the Gampix gamma camera at dismantling sites (H. Lemaire); 19 - Stakes for the wastes intended to be disposed off in waste centres in operation (F. Dutzer); 20 - Cleansing of non-nuclear contaminated sites (V. Faure); 21 - Rehabilitation of dismantling sites - management plan for the old effluents channel of the Brennilis effluents processing plant (G. Pellenz, C. Ollivier-Dehaye); 22 - Problem of confinement keeping during deconstruction (A. Ginet, L. Fabrier); 23 - Project of wells cleansing at the irradiated materials workshop (AMI) of Chinon NPP (F. Duveau); 24 - Nuclear decontamination using a laser (F. Moggia); 25 - TIVA, adaptable and ventilated intervention dress (A. Dochy, P. Benjamin); 26 - Dismantling project - optimisation thanks to virtual reality-based software solutions (L. Ardellier, A. Pin)

  13. 几种防褐剂对马铃薯愈伤组织培养褐化现象的抑制效应%Inhibition Effect of Several Antioxidants on Browning of the Potato Callus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚晓洁

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] There is a badly explant browning during the process of potato tissue culture. Explants are covered with phenol that can be oxidized very easily and then converted into brown chinone, which seriously influences the induction procedure of callus. However, browning can be inhibited by controlling culture conditions appropriately. [Method] 5 antioxidants (Na2S2O3, activated carbon, Vc, citric acid and PVP) were selected to study their effects on browning control. Different concentrations of each antioxidant were used to carry out the parallel test. The medium contained 1/2MS +0.3% agar +1.5% sucrose + 1.0 mg/L NAA + 2.0 mg/L2, 4-D and was cultured without light at 15 ℃. Finally, browning rates were counted and effects of different antioxidants were compared. [Result] All of these substances could inhibit browning,while 2.0 g/L Na2S2O3 and 8.0 mg/L citric acid repressed browning most effectively, and the browning ratio can be reduced below 15%. [Conclusion] Adding some components to tissue culture can be useful to inhibit browning.%[目的]在马铃薯的组织培养过程中存在着严重的外植体褐化现象.外植体表面的酚类物质容易氧化而生成褐色醌类,严重影响愈伤组织的诱导过程,适当控制培养条件可抑制褐化.[方法]选取硫代硫酸钠(Na2S2O3)、活性炭、维生素C、柠檬酸、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVP)5种抗褐剂进行防褐化效果的研究.每种抗褐剂都取不同的浓度进行平行试验.培养基为1/2 MS+0.3%琼脂+1.5%蔗糖+1.0 mg/L NAA+2.0 mg/L 2,4-D,于15 ℃下暗培养,每周转瓶1次.最后,统计褐化率,比较不同抗褐剂的作用效果.[结果]各种抗褐剂对马铃薯的生长均有一定的抗褐效果,其中,2.0 g/L的硫代硫酸钠和8.0 mg/L柠檬酸的防褐效果最好,可以将褐化率降低到15%以下.[结论]对生长的外植体添加一定的防褐剂有助于抑制组织培养中外植体的褐化现象.

  14. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005; Congres National de Radioprotection - SFRP 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagroye, I. [Bordeaux Univ., Lab. de Bioelectromagnetisme de l' EPHE, Lab. PIOM, ENSCPB, 33 (France); Gonzague, A. [EDF, Centre d' appui du parc en exploitation, Groupe prevention des risques environnement, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Ammerich, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France); Blanc, D.; Lecomte, J.F.; Boucher, D.; Boucher, D.; Averbeck, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Barbey, P.; Bourguignon, M.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Radecki, J.J.; Schieber, C.; Cosset, J.M.; Lecomte, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Metivier, H.; Sugier, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Aurengo, A.; Lamartine, J.; Martin, M.; Mallard, C.; Malfoy, B.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.; Schlumberger, M.; Laurier, D.; White-Koning, M.L.; Hemon, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Jougla, E.; Clavel, J.; Miccoli, L.; Barber, R.; Angulo, J.F.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Le Gall, B.; Phan, G.; Grillon, G.; Rouit, E.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Deverre, J.R.; Legros, A.; Beuter, A.; Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Schmitt, P.; Roth, P.; Nadi, M.; Joly, L.; Chapel, C.; Burgain, A.; Marliot, F.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D.; Elabbassi, E.B.; Seze, R. de

    2005-07-01

    particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of

  15. Proceedings of the 6. conference days on radioprotection optimization in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    optimization at our cancer centre (R. Buchianec); 12 - Radioprotection optimisation during the fire detection renovation of a storage building (S. Ponsard); 13 - Supervisor position for risk prevention (S. Marques); 14 - Use of experience feedback to improve radioprotection optimisation in the medical sector (M. Moukarzel); 15 - Involvement of a medical physicist in radiology and nuclear medicine: the Swiss experience after 18 months of optimisation practice (F. Verdun); 16 - Application of ALARA method for the design of a medical department (S. Balduyck); 17 - ALARA implementation at the design stage of cyclotrons (C. Bouvy); 18 - ALARA at the design and post-incident stages (L. Davet); 19 - Radioprotection during the design and realisation of the Fessenheim NPP raft (P. Carlier); 20 - Serious games as pedagogical tools for radioprotection training (P. Livolsi); 21 - Continued professional development and Radioprotection? (H. Ducou Le Pointe); 22 - New training reference requirements in the domain of patients radioprotection (Y. Le Faou); 23 - Digital radioprotection workshop (CERNUM) at the Civaux site (E. Courageot); 24 - Presentation of the SIBAG simulator for glovebox work training (N. Lantheaume); 25 - Operating block: the radioprotection dunce? (D. Schiedts); 26 - Optimization in dismantling: three facilities, three different ways? (P. Deboodt); 27 - Cold cutting confining processes (P. Nouveau, B. Walterscheid); 28 - ALARA approach for long lasting works - The Chinon A3 example (E. Humbert); 29 - Dosimetric optimization and professional activity management (P. Tranchant); 30 - CADOR: application to the installation of biological protections during plant shutdown (F. Renard); 31 - Do you apply ALARA? Organisation of an ALARA benchmark at Forsmark and Ringhals NPPs (Sweden) (S. Andresz); 32 - Diagnostic reference levels as optimisation tool (P. Roch); 33 - Optimisation in pediatrics scanning: new tools contribution (A. Bouette); 34 - Elaboration of interventional