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Sample records for chinone

  1. Sulfid-Chinon Reduktase (SQR) aus Aquifex aeolicus: Gensynthese, Expression, Reinigung und biochemische Charakterisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Schödl, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Biologische Sulfidoxidation findet in Organismen aller drei Domänen des Lebens statt. Als das in vielen Bakterien dafür verantwortliche Enzym wurde eine Sulfid:Chinon Oxidoreduktase (SQR) identifiziert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die SQR aus dem hyperthermophilen Eubakterium Aquifex aeolicus heterolog in Escherichia coli exprimiert und zur Homogenität gereinigt. Dazu wurde ein künstliches Gen synthetisiert, welches an den Codon-Gebrauch von Escherichia coli angepasst ist. Das gereinigte...

  2. La fouille du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Premiers résultats The excavation of fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dufaÿ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette note présente les premiers résultats des fouilles menées en 2003 et 2004 sur la quasi-totalité du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Celui-ci est l’un des trois éléments de la forteresse médiévale qui domine la ville. La fouille a permis de préciser la fonction du fort, construit dans la deuxième moitié du XIIe s., à l’époque où Chinon est le centre administratif des possessions continentales des Plantagenêt, rois d’Angleterre. Du point de vue militaire, il formait une fortification avancée, protégeant le château principal, selon une structure que Richard Cœur de Lion appliquera au Château Gaillard. À l’intérieur, de vastes bâtiments constituaient des logis, conçus peut-être au départ pour héberger la chancellerie royale.This article presents the first results of the excavations undertaken in 2003 and 2004 over almost all of the Fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire, one of three elements of the medieval fortress which dominates the town. The excavation enabled us to clarify the function of the fort, built in the 2nd half of the 12th century at a time when Chinon was the administrative centre of the continental possesions of the Plantagenet King of England. From a military point of view, it formed an advanced fortification protecting the main castle, within a structure that Richard the Lionheart would apply to the Chayeau Gaillard. Inside, some vast buildings made up the dwellings, designed perhaps initially to house the royal chanceller.

  3. Chinon plant - Report on the complementary safety assessment of nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Chinon B plant to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond the level for which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence. Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like EDF's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. The creation of a nuclear rapid action force (FARN) is proposed: this will be a national emergency force made up of specialized teams equipped to intervene in less than 24 hours on a nuclear site hit by an accident. This report is divided into 8 main chapters: 1) features of the site, 2) earthquake risk, 3) flooding risk, 4) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 5) the loss of electrical power supplies and of heat sink, 6) management of severe accidents (accidents with core melt), 7) task subcontracting policy, 8) synthesis and list of improvements. 4 following appendices review: EDF's crisis organization, the FARN, radiation protection organization and accidental event trees. (A.C.)

  4. Decree from August 27, 1996 authorizing Electricite de France to modify in order to keep under surveillance and in an intermediate dismantling state the basic nuclear installation named Chinon A 3 (reactor definitely decommissioned) on the Chinon nuclear site of the Avoine town (Indre-et-Loire)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decree from the French prime minister, the minister of environment and the minister of industry and postal services gives permission to Electricite de France (EdF) to modify and keep under surveillance the partially dismantled Chinon A 3 reactor which will be renamed Chinon A 3D. The modification consist in confining the internal structures and heat exchangers inside their buildings with the plugging of all apertures. Primary and auxiliary circuits will be dismantled. The decree describes the installation and summarizes the technical rules which must be applied concerning the works schedule, the quality assurance, the confinement and protection against risks of radioactivity dissemination, the personnel and public protection against ionizing radiations, the control of environmental pollution with liquid and gaseous effluents, the reduction of volume and radioactivity of solid wastes, the transport and handling of radioactive materials, the protection against earthquakes and fire, and the personnel training. (J.S.)

  5. The ISIS operation: Robotics repair work on the CHINON A3 natural uranium, carbon dioxide cooled, graphite moderated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After describing the upper internal support structures of the CHINON A3 reactor, the problems resulting from their degradation due to corrosion and to the difficulties of the ISIS operation are presented here. The repair method is as follows: all tools and repair parts reach the working area by the feeding-pipes drilled through the 7 m thick concrete vessel surrounding the reactor core; the robots handle into the reactor, the tool heads and the repair parts which are automatically positioned and welded around the corroded structure, thus restoring the support of measurement devices. The parts are either linked together or to the existing structure by means of 2 studs of 12 mm in diameter. The different phases to sort out a problem are: in-core topography, reconforming of the full-scale mock-up with the repair area, learning on this mock-up and in-core repair. The technical specificities of the robots used are the following: they have an 11 meter long, 0.22 meter across telescopic mast with jointed arms reaching a radius of 2.7 m. Then the useful load is 70 daN and the repeatability 0.1 mm. Different tool heads can be handled by the robot: telemeter and laser reconstruction: it allows to locate the in core points and to materialize them on the mock-up by a laser crossed-beams locating technique; scouring: it cleans the corroded parts of the structures before welding; welding: it allows the parts handling and the carried studs welding; screwing; tensile test: carried out when the stud welds are defective. A high level computerized control system is organized around a central unit which calculates the displacements of robots and synchronises the actions of different tools by communicating with several local units. A 100,000 hour designing, a 200,000 hour building and assembling and a 450,000 hour operating on working area were necessary to repair 15 out of the 102 corroded structures by fitting and welding 205 repair parts. 10 figs

  6. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chinon nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the facilities (INBs no. 94 (irradiated materials workshop), 99 (fuel storage facility), 107 and 132 (NPPs in operation), 133, 153 and 161 (NPPs under deconstruction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  7. L’avant-corps de la tour philippienne du château de Chinon (Indre-et-Loire : un exemple d’adaptation d’un standard architectural aux contraintes topographiques The projecting part of a Philippe Auguste tower in the stronghold of Chinon (Indre-et-Loire: an example of the adaption of an architectural standard to topographic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Lefebvre

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le “ donjon du Coudray ” est une tour circulaire de type philippien dont le donjon n’est pas entièrement classique, puisque, contrairement aux autres érigés par les ingénieurs de Philippe Auguste, elle est desservie par un avant-corps rectangulaire donnant accès au premier étage. Sa fouille et l’étude fine de ses élévations ont permis de s’assurer que cet avant-corps atypique était bien contemporain de la tour. On a pu en reconstituer avec certitude les parties disparues. Plus qu’un archaïsme contredit par le soin apporté à l’édifice tout entier, les auteurs l’interprètent comme une réponse ponctuelle à une contrainte topographique.The Coudray keep is a circular tower of the Philippe Auguste type. The tower type is not entirely classic, since, as opposed to others erected by the engineers of Philippe Auguste, it is served by a rectangular projection which gives access to the first floor. The excavation and detailed study of its elevations have enabled us to ensure that the unusual projection was really comptemporary with the tower. It was possible to reconstruct its missing sections with certainty. More than just an archaism contradicted by the care given to the building as a whole, the creators construed it as a short term answer to a topographic constraint.

  8. Kodak DC-50:PC即时摄影简单易行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Grotta; Sally; Wiener; Grotta; 饶一梅

    1996-01-01

    Kodak Digital Science DC-50 Zoom Camera集双方优点于一身:它使用与Kodak DC-40相同的电荷耦合器件(CCD)成象、曝光补偿控制和一流固件(firmware);还使用Chinon ES-3000和Dycam 10C(曾获Editors' Choice奖)的自动测光计、自动对焦、3倍变焦、宏功能及可替换存储卡。因此售价979美元的DC-50在操作使用和图象品质上都更加出色。 在外部,DC-50看上去与Chinon

  9. Reliability applied to robotics: I.S.I.S. operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability study of the whole robotic equipment devoted to repairing operations of internal upper structures of Chinon A3 reactor required the application of specific methods such as failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, (methods of failure combination) and graphs of states. Studies results allowed to define the risks due to the intervention systems in reactor, to calculate their occurrence probabilities and to reduce them owing to the modifications proposal or to the recommendations before each use (test,...)

  10. French experience with electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the results obtained in CHINON B1 comparing deposited activity observed on different surface finishes EDF decided to electropolish steam generator channel heads (S.G.C.H.) in order to reduce operator dose during plant maintenance. The qualification tests were performed on steam generator materials (Inconel 600 and S.S. 308 L) with the full on site operational equipment (i.e. a sealed sucker). In 1988 the 4 SGCH of NOGENT 2 were electropolished. In 1990 we observed a dose rate reduction of 45% at NOGENT 2 compared to NOGENT 1. Other French experience is electropolishing of 27 S.G.C.H., since 1988. (author)

  11. Robotics before its time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Society Hispano Suiza developed, to repair the upper internal structures of the Chinon A3 nuclear power plant which had been attacked by corrosion, third-generation robots, designed for working in hostile environments and accessing the reactor core via the loading wells to perform a series of programmed operations inside the core: telemetry, geometry mapping by laser, scouring, and fitting and welding of new parts quickly and safely and with a high standard of workmanship. This paper presents us the repair principle; five robots are required for the repair program. Finally, the ISIS robot general technical data and tool-hearts are given

  12. Reliability applied to robotics - I.S.I.S. operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability study of the whole robotic equipments devoted to repairing operations of internal upper structures of the reactor Chinon A3 required the application of specific methods such as failure mode and effect analysis, fault trees, (methods of failure combination) and graphs of states. The results of the studies allowed to define the risks due to the intervention systems in reactor, to calculate their occurrence probabilities and to reduce them owing to the modification proposals or to the recommendations before each use (test,...). 10 refs

  13. Assessment of the radiological inventory of EDF's graphite waste through an assimilation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definitive disposal of graphite from the decommissioned UNGG reactors (Chinon A3, Saint-Laurent A1, Saint-Laurent A2 and Bugey 1) has required a radiological inventory of the irradiated graphite. This study focuses on Cl36 that is produced by neutron absorption on Cl35 that was present initially in graphite as an impurity (about 80 mg/t of Cl initially in Bugey 1 graphite)). It appears that the changes of Cl36 concentration along the height of a stack of graphite do neither fit the changes in the neutron flux nor the changes in the graphite temperature. This fact is explained by the high level of purity of the graphite and the nugget effect. Challenged by the absence of spatial correlation of the Cl36 concentration, an EDF's team has developed an assimilation method based on comparisons between calculations and measurements in order to get a conservative inventory. (A.C.)

  14. Savoir lire les centres historiques comme clé pour construire la ville de demain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Sierra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Yves Dauge est sénateur d’Indre et Loire (membre de la commission de la culture, de l'éducation et de la communication, membre du groupe d'études sur le patrimoine architectural. Inspecteur général de l’équipement, ancien maire de Chinon, il a été délégué interministériel à la ville et au développement social urbain de 1988 à 1991. Il a conduit la délégation française au Vème Forum Urbain Mondial à Rio. Il anime avec les services du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères et Européennes, le nouvea...

  15. Presentation of the GIE INTRA Group's operational means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Located on the Chinon nuclear power plant site, the Intra Group is an economic interest grouping which has been created by the three French nuclear operators (EDF, CEA, and COGEMA now AREVA) after the Chernobyl accident. Its missions are to possess permanently available means of intervention in case of severe accident or radiological situation, to be able to intervene at any time on the French territory, to develop a European network of expertise, and to build up an ability centre for robotic intervention in hostile environment. This document briefly presents its different available means: remotely controlled equipment (inside and outside equipment, public works equipment), and radiological characterization equipment. Other aspects are briefly evoked: organization, information transmission, exercises and interventions, international relationships, future trends

  16. A.C.R.O. activity report 2006; A.C.R.O. rapport d'activite 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This association participated in different working groups: North Cotentin radioecology group, groups of expertise on the uranium mines of Limousin, executive committee for the management of the post accidental phase of a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency situation, radioactive waste management, radiological surveillance of the territory, radiation protection mission by the Asn, radiological surveillance of the environment of the Chinon nuclear power plant, study of the presence of {sup 235}U around the site of Brennilis, study of the radioactive waste management at the Manche plant, radiological surveillance of the Cyceron cyclotron at Caen, Aurengo commission on the consequences in France of the Chernobylsk accident. Actions of information, regular publications, meeting with public are also a part of the work of this association. (N.C.)

  17. ALARA and planning of interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of ALARA programs implies integration of radiation protection criterion at all stages of outage management. Within the framework of its ALARA policy, Electricide de France (EDF) has given an incentive to all of its nuclear power plants to develop open-quotes good practicesclose quotes in this domain, and to exchange their experience by the way of a national feed back file. Among the developments in the field of outage organization, some plants have focused on the planning stage of activities because of its influence on the radiological conditions of interventions and on the good succession of tasks within the radiological controlled areas. This paper presents the experience of Chinon nuclear power plant. At Chinon, we are pursuing this goal through careful outage planning. We want the ALARA program during outages to be part of the overall maintenance task planning. This planning includes the provision of the availability of every safety-related component, and of the variations of water levels in hthereactor and steam generators to take advantage of the shield created by the water. We have developed a computerized data base with the exact position of all the components in the reactor building in order to avoid unnecessary interactions between different tasks performed in the same room. A common language between Operation and Maintenance had been established over the past years, using open-quotes Milestones and Corridorsclose quotes. A real time dose rate counting system enables the Radiation Protection (RP) Department to do an accurate and efficient follow up during the outage for all the open-quotes ALARAclose quotes maintenance tasks

  18. [The hospitals constructed in France for the U.S. Army from 1950 to 1967. Organization, location, usage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrude, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A few years after the Second World War the US Army was authorized to set up in France a line of communication intended to resupply the occupying forces in Germany. The logistical zone was greatly developed after the creating of Nato in 1949. It was made up of numerous depots and some hospitals built between 1953 and 1960 and placed along the road joining La Rochelle to Kaiserslautern in FRG that is La Rochelle, Poitiers, Chinon, Orléans, Vitry-le-François, Toul, Bar-le-Duc and Verdun. After the departure of US Army in 1966-1967, some of these hospitals were used by the French Army and its Health Service. Except for one of them all were sold and essentially used as hospitals. Nowadays they are disappearing and at the end of 2007 only three buildings are still complete: Toul is used as a hospital, Olivet as barracks and Croix-Chapeau (La Rochelle) as an industrial zone and in complete renewing. PMID:19230435

  19. National inventory of uranium mining sites. Version 1. Made in the framework of the Mimausa program (memory and impact of uranium mines, synthesis and archives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mimausa program was launched in 2003 with the aim of establishing a radiological status of the surrounding environment of uranium mining sites. It comprises 2 aspects: a knowledge status aspect which gathers the existing data about each site, and a specific study aspects which completes the existing information by additional field investigations. The inventory is the first phase of the first aspect. It consists in an exhaustive recording of all sites involved in the exploration, extraction or processing of uranium ore in France. The informations gathered are synthesized in the form of a series of site files. These files are only factual without any judgement or interpretation about the environmental impact. This documents presents, first, the context of the Mimausa program and the informations reported in the site files with their legend, and then the files themselves with one file per mining area: Allier, Ambert, Aquitaine, Aveyron, La Benaize, Bretagne, Cantal, Chateau Chinon, Correze, Creuze, Crouzille, Forez, Gartempe, Guerande, Lacour, Lodeve, Lozere, PACA, Saone et Loire, St Symphorien, and Vendee. (J.S.)

  20. Foodstuff monitoring. To protect the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of articles describes the activities of the IRSN in the field of foodstuff monitoring about nuclear plants, in order to assess the exposure of population by food. Simulation codes have been developed to model the deposit of radionuclides on grass and their transfer to cows and milk, but also to local vegetable productions. In case of accidental release, it would be possible to forbid the consumption of some products. The IRSN performs a continuous monitoring of the environment at the local, regional and national levels. For each of these levels, a sampling plan is defined in terms of sampling location and frequency. These controls are different according to the region. The radiological quality of water is monitored and several actors are involved in this process (regional and national agencies, producers and distributors, laboratories). The case of the region of Chinon is more particularly addressed. Local production and consumption habits are studied for a better assessment of their health impact. Some projects are finally evoked: inclusion of children in food-habit survey, investigations in different regions, analysis of bottled waters, widening of the area for the study of post-accidental consequences

  1. Examination of the SG tube fatigue cracking at Fessenheim unit no.2 of EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 2008, a primary-to-secondary leak occurred at Fessenheim Unit No.2 on a steam generator. A circumferential fatigue crack was observed at the upper tube support plate level of the R12C62 tube although the stability ratio evaluation performed to take into account some prior international events, concluded that this tube had no risk of fluid-elastic instability. A new tube pull process was developed and performed by AREVA in 2011 just before the SG replacement. The extraction at the uppermost TSP elevation was a first occurrence in the French EDF PWR. Destructive examinations were carried out in the EDF hot laboratory of CEIDRE/Chinon in order to characterize damage mechanisms at the initiation and propagation stage. The document relates the major results of laboratory examinations leading us to exclude the fluid-elastic instability scenario as previously reported in North-Anna (1987) and Mihama (1991) tube rupture incidents. Results analysis with particular focus on the fracture surface description using Scanning Electron microscopy observations and metallurgical investigations provide new elements concerning the aggravating factors of fatigue damage. Fracture surface investigations reveal that the circumferential crack was due to high cycle fatigue with a very low stress intensity factor. Some aggravating factors like intergranular corrosion appeared to be critical for the fatigue cracking initiation stage. The deterioration was also largely promoted by the lack of tube support at the Anti-Vibration Bars

  2. Lessons learned from tubes pulled from French steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Ph.; Boursier, J.M.; Dallery, D.; De Keroulas, F.; Rouillon, Y. [Electricite de France, Generating and Transmission Div. (France)

    1998-07-01

    Since 1981, the Chinon Hot Laboratory has completed more than 380 metallurgical examinations of pulled French steam generator tubes. Electricite de France decided to perform such investigations from the very outset of the French nuclear program, in order to contribute to nuclear power plant safety. The main reasons for withdrawing tubes are to evaluate the degradation, to validate non destructive examination (NDE) techniques, to gain a better understanding of cracking phenomena, and to ensure that the criteria on which plugging operations are based remain conservative. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the field of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), OD (secondary) side corrosion, leak and burst tests, and various tube plugging techniques. This paper focuses on the PWSCC phenomenon and on the secondary side corrosion process, and in particular, attempts to correlate French data from pulled tubes with the results of fundamental R and D studies. Finally, within the framework of the Nuclear Power Plant Safety and Maintenance Policy, all these results are discussed in terms of optimization of the field inspection of tube bundles and plugging criteria. (author)

  3. Part 1: The detection of criticality accidents in the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. Part 2: The Burst Slug Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of the plant. The techniques developed during this programme can be subsequently adapted to easily solve problems of detection in other types of reactor. The main characteristics of the evolution of the various installations constructed or under construction is reflected in the continuous progress towards greater automation and the use of detectors working under higher and higher temperatures and pressures. Succeeding to the reactor G3 whose BSD installation was already highly automatic, the EDF reactors at Chinon use digital computers especially meant for BSD data processing. In the planned reactor EL 4, the BSD measurements will be processed with all the other control measurements in a centralized computer unit. The progressive pressure increase of the cooling gas (15 bars in G3, 25 bars in the Chinon reactors, 60 bars in EL 4) has required the development of electric precipitations able to separate and measure the fission products in the carbonic gas at temperatures reaching 300 C and under pressures as high as 60 bars. In spite of the severe conditions of utilisation, the various devices developed offer all the guarantees of safety and long life expectancy required for their use on BSD installations. (authors)

  4. Food surveys for assessing chemical and dosimetric impacts near industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating the ingestion of potentially contaminated foodstuffs around conventional and nuclear industrial sites requires data about the food practices and eating habits of the local residents, especially the consumption of locally- and home-produced food. The IRSN thus chose to conduct surveys about these practices in the vicinity of nuclear sites. Their methodology was based on previous surveys near nuclear sites. In 2004, in partnership with AREVA and BEGEAT, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety studied the eating habits of the residents of Bollene, near the Tricastin plant (Rhone Valley), with the aim of improving the quantification of the plant's potential health impacts. Based on these studies and as part of the SENSIB project to characterize vulnerability to nuclear risks, we developed and tested a survey protocol during the summer 2008, around the Chinon nuclear plant, in collaboration with EDF. The protocol is currently being tested around the Marcoule nuclear plant, in collaboration with the CEA. The aim was to optimize the feasibility and the reproducibility of the approach, while losing none of the robustness of the results. The data obtained made it possible to evaluate daily food intake values for individuals and to assess the rates of consumption of locally-grown products for many food categories. The data showed the existence of local population groups with very high rates of locally-grown food consumption - over 90 % of certain food products. This comparative study thus shows the significant variability of eating habits in the French population and proposes a reproducible approach to evaluating realistic indicators of potentially risky dietary habits. (authors)

  5. The annual report for 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power: 1. The total installed nuclear power-generating capacity in the world increased by 13.77% during 1985, reaching 250 GW(e) by the end of the year. Nuclear power plants accounted for 15% of the world's electricity generation in 1985, at the end of which there were 374 nuclear power plants in operation; 32 new plants came on line during the year. 2. There was still no general upturn in the ordering of nuclear power plants, and construction work started on only six new plants. However, vigorous nuclear power programmes continued in a number of Member States - notably France, Japan and the East European Member States belonging to CMEA. At the same time, five developing countries (China, Egypt, the Republic of Korea, Turkey and Yugoslavia) issued bid invitations or were negotiating contracts for nuclear power plants. Two new plants came on line in developing countries, one in India and one in the Republic of Korea. 3. Last year was the first year since 1973 without any cancellations of nuclear power plant orders or suspensions of plant construction. 4. Three nuclear power plants (El-4 and Chinon-A2 in France and VAK Kahl in the Federal Republic of Germany) were permanently shut down at what was judged to be the end of their economically useful lifetimes. 5. In contrast with the uncertainties about the current nuclear power programmes in some countries, the development of advanced nuclear systems was highlighted in 1985 by three major events: by the start-up of the 1200 MW(e) Super Phenix in France; by the start-up of the THTR-300 prototype high-temperature reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany; and by the start-up of India's fast breeder test reactor. 6. The Agency's efforts to help strengthen nuclear power planning in developing Member States continued, through advisory missions, training courses and guidebooks. Issues relating to the financing of nuclear power programmes were discussed at a seminar where the participants concluded that the Agency

  6. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswald facility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing international guidelines. The international agencies

  7. Cost of transporting irradiated fuels and maintenance costs of a chemical treatment plant for irradiated fuels; Cout de transport des combustibles irradies et cout d'entretien d'une usine de traitement chimique des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousselier, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Numerous studies have been made of the cost of a fuel cycle, but many of them are based on a priori studies and are therefore to be treated with reserve. Thus, in the part dealing with the treatment of irradiated fuels, some important factors in the cost have only rarely been given on the basis of practical experience: the cost of transporting the fuels themselves and the plant maintenance costs. Investigations relating to transport costs are generally based on calculations made from somewhat arbitrary data. The studies carried out in France on the transport of irradiated uranium between the EDF reactors at Chinon and the retreatment plant at La Hague of the irradiated uranium from research reactors to foreign retreatment plants, are reported; they show that by a suitable choice of transport containers and details of expedition it has been possible to reduce the costs very considerably. This has been achieved either by combining rail and road transport or by increasing the writ capacities of the transport containers: an example is given of a container for swimming-pool pile elements which can transport a complete pile core at one time, thus substantially reducing the cost. Studies concerning the maintenance costs of retreatment plants are rarer still, although in direct maintenance plants these figures represent an appreciable fraction of the total treatment cost. An attempt has been made, on the basis of operational experience of a plant, to obtain some idea of these costs. Only maintenance proper has been considered, excluding subsidiary operations such as the final decontamination of apparatus, the burial of contaminated material and radioprotection operations Maintenance has been divided into three sections: mechanical maintenance, maintenance of electrical equipment and maintenance of control and adjustment apparatus. In each of these sections the distinction has been made between manpower and the material side. In order to allow comparisons to be made with

  8. Decommissioning in western Europe; Kaernkraftsavveckling i Vaesteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor arbetslivskonsulter AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    and waterproof conditions for a longer period of time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswaldfacility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing

  9. Feedback from dismantling operations (level 2) on EDF's first generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF's policy as regards the dismantling of the reactors that have ceased commercial operation, namely the eight power plants of the first generation and the Creys-Malville power plant, is explained. Generally speaking, prior to the year 2001, EDF had opted for the de-construction of these power plants to comply with a 'long wait' scenario, which consisted of waiting for a period of 5 to 10 years to achieve IAEA level 2 (partial release of the site), then postponing the total de-construction of the facilities for 25 to 50 years. Today, EDF has decided to undertake the total de-construction of these reactors, which have ceased commercial operation, over a period of 25 years. The purpose of this document is to present: - The reactors concerned, their background and their 'regulatory' situation, - The main operations performed and/or currently in progress, - The main elements of feedback from such operations, shedding light on the approach adopted in 2001. The installations concerned by the de-construction programme are as follows: - The 8 power plants of the first generation, which were built during the fifties and sixties and ceased commercial operation between 1973 and 1994, namely: Brennilis (industrial prototype using heavy water technology, jointly operated by EDF and CEA), the 6 power units of the NUGG type (natural uranium gas graphite) at Chinon, Saint-Laurent des Eaux and Bugey and the PWR reactor at Chooz A, - The storage silos at Saint-Laurent, where the sleeves for the fuel assemblies of reactors SLA1 and SLA2 are stored, corresponding to approximately 2000 tonnes of graphite, - The Creys-Malville reactor, FBR (fast breeder reactor) shut down in accordance with a government decision, which is currently undergoing decommissioning. At the current stage, our feedback from the dismantling operations carried out on nuclear facilities is based on (i) the work carried out or in progress that will make it possible to achieve the equivalent of IAEA level 2 in the

  10. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of radiation protection

  11. Chemical Test and TLC Analysis of Oxytropis glabra DC%小花棘豆化学成分预试及薄层色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈基萍; 牟新瑞; 白松; 赵宝玉; 王占新; 李蓉

    2011-01-01

    为给小花棘豆化学成分研究及其各萃取部分指纹图谱的建立提供依据,采用植物化学成分系统预试法、薄层色谱分析技术及平面色谱图像定量法对小花棘豆化学成分进行分析.结果表明,小花棘豆含有油脂、酚类、鞣质、生物碱、黄酮及其苷类、皂甙、有机酸、蒽醌类等化合物,无强心苷、氰甙和脂肪族硝基化合物;石油醚、氯仿、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇萃取部分至少含有9、7、6和5种化合物,经与标准品对照,证明正丁醇萃取部分含有苦马豆素;各萃取部分相对含量最高的斑点依次为1、7、5、1,小花棘豆化学成分主要集中在石油醚和正丁醇萃取部分.%For further investigating the chemical principals of Oxytropis glabra DC and providing theoretical bases to prevention and treatment of locoweed poisoning and developing the medicinal value.Phytochemistry composition preliminary systematic and special tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were applied to analyze the chemical principals.The results showed that the plant contained oils, phenols, tannin, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, Saponins organic acid, chinones, et al.but no cardiac glycoside, cyanophoric glycoside and aliphatic nitro compounds; 10 kg materials were reflux extracted with industrial alcohol for four times and 1 167.5 g extractum was obtained.After dissolving with distilled water, the extractum was extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in turn.Four parts were separately obtained 172.23, 12.64,30.71, 180.5 g,which indicated that the principals were distributed in petroleum ether and n-butanol fractions; it was showed that 9, 7, 6 and 5 kinds of principals were located in the four fractions after analyzed by TLC and swainsonine was contained in n-butanol fraction when compared with the proof sample.The silica gel plates best developed were analyzed to determine the contents with planar chromatography image

  12. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005; Congres National de Radioprotection - SFRP 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagroye, I. [Bordeaux Univ., Lab. de Bioelectromagnetisme de l' EPHE, Lab. PIOM, ENSCPB, 33 (France); Gonzague, A. [EDF, Centre d' appui du parc en exploitation, Groupe prevention des risques environnement, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Ammerich, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France); Blanc, D.; Lecomte, J.F.; Boucher, D.; Boucher, D.; Averbeck, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Barbey, P.; Bourguignon, M.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Radecki, J.J.; Schieber, C.; Cosset, J.M.; Lecomte, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Metivier, H.; Sugier, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Aurengo, A.; Lamartine, J.; Martin, M.; Mallard, C.; Malfoy, B.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.; Schlumberger, M.; Laurier, D.; White-Koning, M.L.; Hemon, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Jougla, E.; Clavel, J.; Miccoli, L.; Barber, R.; Angulo, J.F.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Le Gall, B.; Phan, G.; Grillon, G.; Rouit, E.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Deverre, J.R.; Legros, A.; Beuter, A.; Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Schmitt, P.; Roth, P.; Nadi, M.; Joly, L.; Chapel, C.; Burgain, A.; Marliot, F.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D.; Elabbassi, E.B.; Seze, R. de

    2005-07-01

    particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of

  13. Dismantling of nuclear facilities and related problems - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    facilitating the definitive shutdown of the Jules Horowitz reactor (J. Estrade); 17 - Integration of dismantling at the design stage of the French EPR reactor (Y. Beneteau, J.P. Richard); 18 - Use of the Gampix gamma camera at dismantling sites (H. Lemaire); 19 - Stakes for the wastes intended to be disposed off in waste centres in operation (F. Dutzer); 20 - Cleansing of non-nuclear contaminated sites (V. Faure); 21 - Rehabilitation of dismantling sites - management plan for the old effluents channel of the Brennilis effluents processing plant (G. Pellenz, C. Ollivier-Dehaye); 22 - Problem of confinement keeping during deconstruction (A. Ginet, L. Fabrier); 23 - Project of wells cleansing at the irradiated materials workshop (AMI) of Chinon NPP (F. Duveau); 24 - Nuclear decontamination using a laser (F. Moggia); 25 - TIVA, adaptable and ventilated intervention dress (A. Dochy, P. Benjamin); 26 - Dismantling project - optimisation thanks to virtual reality-based software solutions (L. Ardellier, A. Pin)

  14. 几种防褐剂对马铃薯愈伤组织培养褐化现象的抑制效应%Inhibition Effect of Several Antioxidants on Browning of the Potato Callus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚晓洁

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] There is a badly explant browning during the process of potato tissue culture. Explants are covered with phenol that can be oxidized very easily and then converted into brown chinone, which seriously influences the induction procedure of callus. However, browning can be inhibited by controlling culture conditions appropriately. [Method] 5 antioxidants (Na2S2O3, activated carbon, Vc, citric acid and PVP) were selected to study their effects on browning control. Different concentrations of each antioxidant were used to carry out the parallel test. The medium contained 1/2MS +0.3% agar +1.5% sucrose + 1.0 mg/L NAA + 2.0 mg/L2, 4-D and was cultured without light at 15 ℃. Finally, browning rates were counted and effects of different antioxidants were compared. [Result] All of these substances could inhibit browning,while 2.0 g/L Na2S2O3 and 8.0 mg/L citric acid repressed browning most effectively, and the browning ratio can be reduced below 15%. [Conclusion] Adding some components to tissue culture can be useful to inhibit browning.%[目的]在马铃薯的组织培养过程中存在着严重的外植体褐化现象.外植体表面的酚类物质容易氧化而生成褐色醌类,严重影响愈伤组织的诱导过程,适当控制培养条件可抑制褐化.[方法]选取硫代硫酸钠(Na2S2O3)、活性炭、维生素C、柠檬酸、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVP)5种抗褐剂进行防褐化效果的研究.每种抗褐剂都取不同的浓度进行平行试验.培养基为1/2 MS+0.3%琼脂+1.5%蔗糖+1.0 mg/L NAA+2.0 mg/L 2,4-D,于15 ℃下暗培养,每周转瓶1次.最后,统计褐化率,比较不同抗褐剂的作用效果.[结果]各种抗褐剂对马铃薯的生长均有一定的抗褐效果,其中,2.0 g/L的硫代硫酸钠和8.0 mg/L柠檬酸的防褐效果最好,可以将褐化率降低到15%以下.[结论]对生长的外植体添加一定的防褐剂有助于抑制组织培养中外植体的褐化现象.

  15. Proceedings of the 6. conference days on radioprotection optimization in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    optimization at our cancer centre (R. Buchianec); 12 - Radioprotection optimisation during the fire detection renovation of a storage building (S. Ponsard); 13 - Supervisor position for risk prevention (S. Marques); 14 - Use of experience feedback to improve radioprotection optimisation in the medical sector (M. Moukarzel); 15 - Involvement of a medical physicist in radiology and nuclear medicine: the Swiss experience after 18 months of optimisation practice (F. Verdun); 16 - Application of ALARA method for the design of a medical department (S. Balduyck); 17 - ALARA implementation at the design stage of cyclotrons (C. Bouvy); 18 - ALARA at the design and post-incident stages (L. Davet); 19 - Radioprotection during the design and realisation of the Fessenheim NPP raft (P. Carlier); 20 - Serious games as pedagogical tools for radioprotection training (P. Livolsi); 21 - Continued professional development and Radioprotection? (H. Ducou Le Pointe); 22 - New training reference requirements in the domain of patients radioprotection (Y. Le Faou); 23 - Digital radioprotection workshop (CERNUM) at the Civaux site (E. Courageot); 24 - Presentation of the SIBAG simulator for glovebox work training (N. Lantheaume); 25 - Operating block: the radioprotection dunce? (D. Schiedts); 26 - Optimization in dismantling: three facilities, three different ways? (P. Deboodt); 27 - Cold cutting confining processes (P. Nouveau, B. Walterscheid); 28 - ALARA approach for long lasting works - The Chinon A3 example (E. Humbert); 29 - Dosimetric optimization and professional activity management (P. Tranchant); 30 - CADOR: application to the installation of biological protections during plant shutdown (F. Renard); 31 - Do you apply ALARA? Organisation of an ALARA benchmark at Forsmark and Ringhals NPPs (Sweden) (S. Andresz); 32 - Diagnostic reference levels as optimisation tool (P. Roch); 33 - Optimisation in pediatrics scanning: new tools contribution (A. Bouette); 34 - Elaboration of interventional

  16. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005; Congres National de Radioprotection - SFRP 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagroye, I. [Bordeaux Univ., Lab. de Bioelectromagnetisme de l' EPHE, Lab. PIOM, ENSCPB, 33 (France); Gonzague, A. [EDF, Centre d' appui du parc en exploitation, Groupe prevention des risques environnement, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Ammerich, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France); Blanc, D.; Lecomte, J.F.; Boucher, D.; Boucher, D.; Averbeck, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Barbey, P.; Bourguignon, M.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Radecki, J.J.; Schieber, C.; Cosset, J.M.; Lecomte, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Metivier, H.; Sugier, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Aurengo, A.; Lamartine, J.; Martin, M.; Mallard, C.; Malfoy, B.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.; Schlumberger, M.; Laurier, D.; White-Koning, M.L.; Hemon, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Jougla, E.; Clavel, J.; Miccoli, L.; Barber, R.; Angulo, J.F.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Le Gall, B.; Phan, G.; Grillon, G.; Rouit, E.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Deverre, J.R.; Legros, A.; Beuter, A.; Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Schmitt, P.; Roth, P.; Nadi, M.; Joly, L.; Chapel, C.; Burgain, A.; Marliot, F.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D.; Elabbassi, E.B.; Seze, R. de

    2005-07-01

    particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of