WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese scientific literature

  1. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tippi K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  2. Scientific publications on systematic review and meta-analysis from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the English literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiping; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2012-03-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are playing an increasingly important role in clinical research and practice. This study aimed to measure the scientific production of systematic review and meta-analysis from the three major regions of China: the Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). English articles on systematic review and meta-analysis from ML, HK, and TW from 2001 to 2010 were retrieved from the PubMed database. The total number of articles, impact factors (IF), and articles published in high-impact journals were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons among the three regions. There were 1 587 published articles from ML (1 292), HK (203), and TW (92) during the past ten years. The annual total numbers of articles in the three regions increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 (from 13 to 677). The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from TW since 2001, and surpassed that from HK in 2003. The accumulated IF of articles from ML (3 488.24) was higher than those from HK (493.16) and TW (216.39). HK had the highest average IF of 3.31, followed by ML of 2.90 and TW of 2.85. Researchers from HK published a larger proportion of papers in high-impact journals than those from ML and TW. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was the most popular journal in China. Chinese authors have been very active to enhance the systematic review and meta-analysis research over the past ten years, especially in ML. The gap between ML and the other two regions has been narrowed. But there is still considerable room for Chinese authors to improve their studies on systematic review and meta-analysis.

  3. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  4. Access to the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarède, Francis

    The Public Library of Science Open Letter (http://www.publiclibraryofscience.org) is a very generous initiative, but, as most similar initiatives since the advent of electronic publishing, it misses the critical aspects of electronic publishing.Ten years ago, a Publisher would be in charge of running a system called a “scientific journal.” In such a system, the presence of an Editor and peer Reviewers secures the strength of the science and the rigor of writing; the Publisher guarantees the professional quality of printing, efficient dissemination, and long-term archiving. Publishing used to be in everyone's best interest, or nearly everyone. The Publisher, because he/she is financially motivated, ensures widespread dissemination of the journal amongst libraries and individual subscribers. The interest of the Author is that the system guarantees a broad potential readership. The interest of the Reader is that a line is drawn between professionally edited literature, presumably of better quality, and gray literature or home publishing, so that he/she does not waste time going through ‘low yield’ ungraded information. The Publisher could either be a private company, an academic institution, or a scholarly society. My experience is that, when page charges and subscription rates are compounded, journals published by scholarly societies are not necessarily cheaper. The difference between these cases is not the cost of running an office with rents, wages, printing, postage, advertisement, and archiving, but that a private Publisher pays shareholders. Shareholders have the bad habit of minding their own business and, therefore, they may interfere negatively with scientific publishing. Nevertheless, while the stranglehold imposed by private Publishers on our libraries over the last 10 years by increasing subscription rates may in part be due to shareholders' greed, this is true only in part. The increases are also a consequence of the booming number of pages being

  5. Geant4 in Scientific Literature

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, M G; Bell, Z W; Dressendorfer, P V

    2009-01-01

    The Geant4 reference paper published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods A in 2003 has become the most cited publication in the whole Nuclear Science and Technology category of Thomson-Reuter's Journal Citation Reports. It is currently the second most cited article among the publications authored by two major research institutes, CERN and INFN. An overview of Geant4 presence (and absence) in scholarly literature is presented; the patterns of Geant4 citations are quantitatively examined and discussed.

  6. INTRODUCTION TO CHINESE MEDICAL LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAN, L B

    1965-01-01

    The history of medicine in China is divided into four periods, from about 2700 B.C. to the present. Brief descriptions of standard works of these periods (e.g. Pèn-Ts'ao, Nei Ching, Nan Ching, Shang Han Lun, Ch'in K'ue Yao Lüeh, Chai I Ching, Chou Hou Pei Chi Fang, Mo Ching, Ming I Pieh Lu, Ch'ao Shih Pin Yüan, Chien Chin Yao Fang, Wai T'ai Pi Yao, Hsi Yüan Lu, Pèn-Ts'ao Kang-Mu, etc.) are given. The latter part of the paper deals with the state of modern medical research and literature in Mainland China, where equal emphasis is placed on the practice of both traditional Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of diseases, thus resulting in a new era in Chinese medical history. This is based on the information obtainable in Hong Kong. Information about medical developments in Taiwan is readily available elsewhere and so has been omitted.

  7. Translation of Idioms in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹丹

    2009-01-01

    <正>This paper explains two approaches to the translation of idioms in Chinese literature: free translation and literal translation.Chinese idioms,in its broad sense including set phrases,proverbs and two-part allegorical,have the specific features and rich in their content.By analyzing the basic principles of translation,we can better understand how to make full use of various translation methods,which can lay a good foundation for the translation of Chinese idioms.

  8. Trends in scientific publications of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; He, Hui; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important component of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The fast economic growth of mainland China in the past two decades has promoted the use of TCM beyond Chinese-speaking countries. Chinese researchers have published more TCM research studies in CAM-related professional journals, including the American Journal of Chinese Medicine (AJCM), the highest impact journal in Chinese medicine. The consistent increase of the impact factor of the AJCM suggests a growth in TCM popularity. This study analyzed articles published in the AJCM between 2004 and 2011. Our data show that while enthusiasm towards cardiovascular, nervous system and inflammation related research remained high, more herbal investigations and cancer studies were published. Furthermore, a reduction in TCM formulation studies was replaced by increasing botanical single constituent research. Examples of frequently cited studies, including those before 2004, are presented. These data are not only important to the scientific community for recognition of trends in TCM research, but also for providing information to TCM researchers who are targeting potentially highly cited studies.

  9. ENGLISH LITERATURE TEACHING IN CHINESE CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ignorance of English literature hinders Chinese studentsfrom improving their English reading and writing abilities.Aneffective solution is to introduce a little English literature toChinese students in their English class.Three tactics ofintroduction of English literature—fragmented quotations,comparison and guided reading—are recommended andillustrated in details in this article.Though most Chinese students spend as long as eight yearson English study,few of them get to see English literature.It isabsurd that of the hundreds of articles in English textbooks forChinese students(who do not major in English)available,notone is a passage of English literary works,and none of themintroduce English writers or recommend English poets.Resultedly,Chinese students know very little about Englishliterature and their knowledge of English culture and traditionsis also limited.This hinders them from improving their readingand writing abilities.Trying for years to introduce a little English literature toChinese students in my English class,I find the effect has beenunexpectedly inspiring,not only making my lectures morevivid,but also enriching my students’English knowledge andarousing their enthusiasm for further study of Englishliterautre.My methods are as follows.

  10. On Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Scientific Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范智鹏

    2013-01-01

    Scientific socialism provides proletarian with ideological weapon, which is used to lead and organize the masses to pursue socialism. The formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the product of scientific socialism in China, which is the latest achievement combining scientific socialism and Chinese national conditions.

  11. 2005-2012年新疆医科大学科技文献发表情况分析%Analysis of Chinese scientific literatures published during the year of 2005 to 2012 by Xinjiang Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建新; 熊道海; 朱晖; 耿庆玲; 张超; 张玲; 郭立群; 刘奎; 须玉红

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析新疆医科大学2005-2012年科研论文发表情况,为某校在科研管理和学科建设上提供重要的科学依据.方法 运用文献计量学的方法,对收录于CNKI《中国期刊全文数据库》2005-2012年新疆医科大学科技文献,从年度分布、文献刊载期刊、作者情况、学科分类、研究层次等方面进行统计分析.结果 2005-2012年新疆医科大学共发表中文论文18 004篇,其中中文核心期刊4 205篇.2012年发表论文数量是2005年的2.19倍,中文核心文献量是3.94倍,年平均增长速度1.12%.18 004篇论文刊载在1 190种期刊上,期刊平均发文量15篇.新疆刊物所占比例较大(70%).2005-2012年作者人数为7 270人,人均发文2.48篇.合作度为3.55.合著率92.86%.学科分布居前6位的是:肿瘤学、外科学、临床医学、中医学、心血管系统疾病、医学教育与医学边缘学科.研究层次,工程技术(自科)基础与应用基础研究(自科)这两项研究层次占据了发表文献的90%.结论 对揭示某校文献的发表规律,探讨科研的发展趋势,客观地评价科研工作的成就,促进科研工作的不断发展,具有重要的指导意义.%Objective Toanalizethe scientific literatures published during the year of 2005 to 2012 by Xinjiang Medical University for the reference of the scientific administration and discipline constructions.Methods Thesciientific literatures published during the year of 2005 to 2012 by Xinjiang Medical University included in CNKI were statistically analized on the year distribution,journals,authors,disciplines and research levelusing the methods of bibliometrics.Results Totally 18 004 manuscripts were published in Chinese by Xinjiang Medical University from 2005 to 2012,of which 4 205 were from Chinese core journals.The number of manuscripts published in 2012 was 2.19 times as many asthat of 2005,and 3.94 times in case of Chinese core journal with a mean increase of 1.12% per year

  12. Harnessing Scientific Literature Reports for Pharmacovigilance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, Anna; Tonning, Joseph; Munoz, Monica; Hasan, Rashedul; Ly, Thomas; Francis, Henry; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objectives We seek to develop a prototype software analytical tool to augment FDA regulatory reviewers’ capacity to harness scientific literature reports in PubMed/MEDLINE for pharmacovigilance and adverse drug event (ADE) safety signal detection. We also aim to gather feedback through usability testing to assess design, performance, and user satisfaction with the tool. Methods A prototype, open source, web-based, software analytical tool generated statistical disproportionality data mining signal scores and dynamic visual analytics for ADE safety signal detection and management. We leveraged Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) indexing terms assigned to published citations in PubMed/MEDLINE to generate candidate drug-adverse event pairs for quantitative data mining. Six FDA regulatory reviewers participated in usability testing by employing the tool as part of their ongoing real-life pharmacovigilance activities to provide subjective feedback on its practical impact, added value, and fitness for use. Results All usability test participants cited the tool’s ease of learning, ease of use, and generation of quantitative ADE safety signals, some of which corresponded to known established adverse drug reactions. Potential concerns included the comparability of the tool’s automated literature search relative to a manual ‘all fields’ PubMed search, missing drugs and adverse event terms, interpretation of signal scores, and integration with existing computer-based analytical tools. Conclusions Usability testing demonstrated that this novel tool can automate the detection of ADE safety signals from published literature reports. Various mitigation strategies are described to foster improvements in design, productivity, and end user satisfaction. PMID:28326432

  13. Against besieged literature: fictions, obsessions and globalisations of Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Prado-Fonts

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese literature in the 20th century has seen how the combination between, on one hand, the canon established by Socialist realism in China and, on the other, the approaches of Area Studies in the West imposed a limited vision and a partial and slanted assessment of its complexity. The article defends the fact that it is essential to recover the literariness of the literary text, appealing to the sophistication and critical capacity of readers, as a basic strategy for liberating Chinese literature from the interpretive siege that constrains it. The article analyses the interrelation of various aspects -such as the confusion between reality and fiction, the obsessions for interpretations of a national allegorical nature or other mechanisms of globalisation and self-Orientalism- that, in an interrelated way, determine the production and circulation of modern and contemporary Chinese literature in the global literary system. The novel Fortress Besieged by the writer Qian Zhongshu is a paradigmatic example of this situation.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND PROBLEMS OF CHINESE COMPARATIVE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiyun Yue

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis of the development of the Chinese Studies ofComparative Literature. After having delineated a short history of the discipline in China, the authordiscusses a series of fundamental theoretical nodes in order to characterize appropriately the wide fieldof action of the comparatist research. According to the author, in the period of transition withoutprecedence that we all have been living, the Comparative Literature is called to play a fundamentalrole in the construction of an ideal world, in which the various cultures can coexist and become rich bymeans of mutual exchange. The single national cultures, in fact, are destined unavoidably to open theirown borders and to develop, thanks to the encounter and interaction with the other cultures.

  15. Renovation and Involution-Paradox of Chinese Literature in Modernity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-bin

    2013-01-01

    With a special matter, Chinese literature has differences with traditional theories from western countries in essence, so that Chinese literature demonstrates its renovation and involution. The main reason is its trends of modernity. The transformation from oversea exchange is very important. This paper mainly explains the specific content of paradox of Chinese literature in mo-dernity, and explores the reasons for differences between China and western countries.

  16. Scientific Literature as Hierarchy: Library Instruction and Robert M. Gagne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance R.

    1982-01-01

    Establishes the connection between the learning theories of Robert M. Gagne and systematic patterns in scientific literature and discusses implications of this connection for instruction in library use. Twenty-four references are listed. (Author/EJS)

  17. Images of Women in Chinese Literature. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-ning, Li, Ed.

    This book examines the ways in which Chinese literature offers a vast array of prospects, new interpretations, new fields of study, and new themes for the study of women. As a result of the global movement toward greater recognition of gender equality and human dignity, the study of women as portrayed in Chinese literature has a long and rich…

  18. Mining skeletal phenotype descriptions from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available Phenotype descriptions are important for our understanding of genetics, as they enable the computation and analysis of a varied range of issues related to the genetic and developmental bases of correlated characters. The literature contains a wealth of such phenotype descriptions, usually reported as free-text entries, similar to typical clinical summaries. In this paper, we focus on creating and making available an annotated corpus of skeletal phenotype descriptions. In addition, we present and evaluate a hybrid Machine Learning approach for mining phenotype descriptions from free text. Our hybrid approach uses an ensemble of four classifiers and experiments with several aggregation techniques. The best scoring technique achieves an F-1 score of 71.52%, which is close to the state-of-the-art in other domains, where training data exists in abundance. Finally, we discuss the influence of the features chosen for the model on the overall performance of the method.

  19. Chinese duo fired for scientific fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li

    2010-02-01

    A major case of academic fraud in China has led to calls for the country to adopt a new system of academic evaluation that steers away from heavily supporting scientists who publish the most papers. The calls have been made after some 70 papers published by Chinese scientists in Acta Crystallographica Section E were retracted from the journal late last year. The authors acknowledged that their analysis had been fabricated.

  20. THAI LITERATURES REFLECTING CHINESE IDENTITY IN THAI SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchawadee Kesmanee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures present the picture of people’s lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authors’ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content and context were related to the Chinese residing in Thailand. Data collected had been inspected, classified, analyzed and composed. It was found that the Thai literatures could possibly represent Chinese identity in Thai society in the areas of the relationship of the family members from being a male-dominated family to a female-accepted one, the conservation of Chinese language to represent the unity of the Chinese community, the importance of the Chinese opera and its struggle to survive in recent times and the existence of Chinese culture and tradition, which are acculturated and assimilated to the Thai culture. From the study of Chinese identity in Thai literature in four aspects: (1 family relationships, system of relatives and surnames; (2 Chinese Language; (3 Performing Arts and (4 Culture and tradition, it was found that no matter how strict the first generations are to the traditions, they cannot resist the cultural assimilation in the next generations, who are descendants of Chinese overseas in Thailand. Since these new generations were born and grew up in Thai culture, which is different from the one of their ancestors, their versions of Chinese traditions were affected by the Thai society, economy and political situations which led to the changes of the old Chinese tradition and even result in the loss of some tradition.

  1. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Sarah C; Lijek, Rebeccah S

    2016-03-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.

  2. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Fankhauser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.

  3. Scientific psychology within the Chinese language and cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Heyong

    2006-01-01

    The Scientific Psychology that was founded by Wilhelm Wundt appeared in China in the late nineteenth century. The scholars translated the name of psychology into Chinese as Xin-Li-Xue, for which the meaning of the words looks like "heartology," i.e., "the study of the heart." In Chinese, the same core structure related to "heart" (Xin) is found in most of the terms of psychology, such as emotion, thinking, will, forgetting, and memory. By translating Xin as "heart" instead of "mind," we maintain an embodied approach to understanding the "principles of the heart." Through a historical approach to the influence of Western psychology, a cultural analysis of the meaning of the term psychology in Chinese, and a focus on the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, we can witness the significance of psychology in the Chinese language and cultural context. I will use three parts to present psychology in the Chinese cultural context: the origins of Chinese psychology, from a historical approach; the meaning of "psychology" in Chinese, using a cultural analysis; and the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, focusing on the development and future.

  4. Acquisition of Scientific Literature in Developing Countries. 2: Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Rosna

    1989-01-01

    Describes the acquisition of scientific literature by academic libraries in Malaysia. The discussion covers the impact of government policies, library acquisition policies, the selection process, acquisition of special materials, the role of gifts and exchanges, and problems with customs clearance and censorship. Progress in cooperative…

  5. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  6. Chinese Graduate Students' Experiences with Writing a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun; Krugly-Smolska, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Based on interview data, this study investigated four Chinese graduate students' experiences with writing a literature review at a medium-sized university in Canada. These students, from four subject areas, held varying perceptions of a literature review, but all saw the writing challenges that they encountered mainly as linguistic problems,…

  7. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, C; Feller, A; Arlt, K; Balthasar, H; Bauer, S -M; González, N Bello; Berkefeld, T; Caligari, P; Collados, M; Fischer, A; Granzer, T; Hahn, T; Halbgewachs, C; Heidecke, F; Hofmann, A; Kentischer, T; Klvaňa, M; Kneer, F; Lagg, A; Nicklas, H; Popow, E; Puschmann, K G; Rendtel, J; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Sobotka, M; Solanki, S K; Soltau, D; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Volkmer, R; Waldmann, T; Wiehr, E; Wittmann, A D; Woche, M

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the "historical" context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.

  8. Nobel Prize winners for literature as palliative for scientific English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi

    2003-02-01

    Plagiarism causes a serious concern in scientific literature. I distinguish two types of plagiarism. What is routinely highlighted and discussed is the reprehensible type of stealing another author's ideas and words. This type I categorize as "heterotrophic" plagiarism. A more prevalent and less-discussed type of plagiarism is the verbatim use of same sentences repetitively by authors in their publications. This I categorize as "autotrophic" plagiarism. Though harmless per se, autotrophic plagiarism is equally taxing on the readers. The occurrence of autotrophic plagiarism is mainly caused by the lack of proficiency in the current lingua franca of science, ie, English. The writings of 22 Nobel literature laureates who wrote in English, especially their travelogues, essays, and letters to the press can be used for benefit of improving one's own vocabulary and writing skills and style. I suggest the writings of three literati--Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell, and Ernest Hemingway--as palliatives for autotrophic plagiarism in scientific publishing.

  9. Human and the animal in Victorian gothic scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    McKechnie, Claire Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the role of animals in nineteenth-century science and Victorian Gothic fiction of the latter half of the century. It is interdisciplinary in its exploration of the interrelationship between science writings and literary prose and it seeks to place the Gothic animal body in its cultural and historical setting. This study is interested in the ways in which Gothic literature tests the limits of the human by using scientific ideas about disease, evolution, species co...

  10. Viziometrics: Analyzing Visual Information in the Scientific Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Po-shen; West, Jevin D.; Howe, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Scientific results are communicated visually in the literature through diagrams, visualizations, and photographs. These information-dense objects have been largely ignored in bibliometrics and scientometrics studies when compared to citations and text. In this paper, we use techniques from computer vision and machine learning to classify more than 8 million figures from PubMed into 5 figure types and study the resulting patterns of visual information as they relate to impact. We find that the...

  11. Training students to appraise the quality of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Sebastian P; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Implementing evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) into clinical practice requires not only the ability to retrieve, interpret, and apply the results of published scientific studies, but also the ability to critically evaluate the quality of the literature. These skills, however, are not widely taught in the veterinary curriculum. The objective of this study was to test a literature evaluation form (LEF) designed to assist veterinary students in appraising the quality of literature on animal reproduction and to compare their ability to do so with that of students who were provided with a control form (CF). The 68 participants were in their fifth year of study and attended a clinical rotation at the Clinic for Animal Reproduction. Students in the LEF group determined the quality of two scientific papers, considering statements about study design, information content, and objectivity, and determined rating points to obtain an overall score. Participants using the CF ranked the quality of the article without the assistance of the quality assessment form. The LEF group was able to more correctly assess the quality of the literature and the variability of the chosen evidence levels was higher in the CF group. The questionnaire was found to be a useful tool for the systematic assessment of the quality of publications within a reasonable period of time. Seventy-eight per cent of the participants agreed that the LEF helps them evaluate the quality and validity of biomedical scientific information. We conclude that courses that introduce EBVM should be taught in the first semesters of the veterinary curriculum so that students can develop competence in defining a clinical problem, retrieving information from the literature, and developing independent critical thinking.

  12. [Investigation methodology and application on scientific and technological personnel of traditional Chinese medical resources based on data from Chinese scientific research paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-yan; Li, Yuan-hai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fang-zhou; Wang, Jing; Tian, Ye; Yang, Ce; Liu, Yang; Li, Meng; Sun Li-ying

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the present status of the scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resource science. Based on the data from Chinese scientific research paper, an investigation regarding the number of the personnel, the distribution, their output of paper, their scientific research teams, high-yield authors and high-cited authors was conducted. The study covers seven subfields of traditional Chinese medicine identification, quality standard, Chinese medicine cultivation, harvest processing of TCM, market development and resource protection and resource management, as well as 82 widely used Chinese medicine species, such as Ginseng and Radix Astragali. One hundred and fifteen domain authority experts were selected based on the data of high-yield authors and high-cited authors. The database system platform "Skilled Scientific and Technological Personnel in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resource Science-Chinese papers" was established. This platform successfully provided the retrieval result of the personnel, output of paper, and their core research team by input the study field, year, and Chinese medicine species. The investigation provides basic data of scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine resource science for administrative agencies and also evidence for the selection of scientific and technological personnel and construction of scientific research teams.

  13. Learning across Borders--Chinese Migrant Literature and Intercultural Chinese Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongyang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…

  14. Local literature bias in genetic epidemiology: an empirical evaluation of the Chinese literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglun Pan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postulated epidemiological associations are subject to several biases. We evaluated whether the Chinese literature on human genome epidemiology may offer insights on the operation of selective reporting and language biases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We targeted 13 gene-disease associations, each already assessed by meta-analyses, including at least 15 non-Chinese studies. We searched the Chinese Journal Full-Text Database for additional Chinese studies on the same topics. We identified 161 Chinese studies on 12 of these gene-disease associations; only 20 were PubMed-indexed (seven English full-text. Many studies (14-35 per topic were available for six topics, covering diseases common in China. With one exception, the first Chinese study appeared with a time lag (2-21 y after the first non-Chinese study on the topic. Chinese studies showed significantly more prominent genetic effects than non-Chinese studies, and 48% were statistically significant per se, despite their smaller sample size (median sample size 146 versus 268, p < 0.001. The largest genetic effects were often seen in PubMed-indexed Chinese studies (65% statistically significant per se. Non-Chinese studies of Asian-descent populations (27% significant per se also tended to show somewhat more prominent genetic effects than studies of non-Asian descent (17% significant per se. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence for the interplay of selective reporting and language biases in human genome epidemiology. These biases may not be limited to the Chinese literature and point to the need for a global, transparent, comprehensive outlook in molecular population genetics and epidemiologic studies in general.

  15. Nanotoxicology: characterizing the scientific literature, 2000-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, Alexis D.; Martin, Tyronne; Conti, Joseph; Hurt, Indy; Harthorn, Barbara Herr, E-mail: harthorn@cns.ucsb.ed [University of California, NSF Center for Nanotechnology in Society (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials and nano-enabled products is important for human and environmental health and safety as well as public acceptance. Assessing the state of knowledge about nanotoxicology is an important step in promoting comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental implications of these new materials. To this end, we employed bibliometric techniques to characterize the prevalence and distribution of the current scientific literature. We found that the nano-toxicological literature is dispersed across a range of disciplines and sub-fields; focused on in vitro testing; often does not specify an exposure pathway; and tends to emphasize acute toxicity and mortality rather than chronic exposure and morbidity. Finally, there is very little research on consumer products, particularly on their environmental fate, and most research is on the toxicity of basic nanomaterials. The implications for toxicologists, regulators and social scientists studying nanotechnology and society are discussed.

  16. Open access to the scientific journal literature: situation 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Christer Björk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Internet has recently made possible the free global availability of scientific journal articles. Open Access (OA can occur either via OA scientific journals, or via authors posting manuscripts of articles published in subscription journals in open web repositories. So far there have been few systematic studies showing how big the extent of OA is, in particular studies covering all fields of science. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The proportion of peer reviewed scholarly journal articles, which are available openly in full text on the web, was studied using a random sample of 1837 titles and a web search engine. Of articles published in 2008, 8.5% were freely available at the publishers' sites. For an additional 11.9% free manuscript versions could be found using search engines, making the overall OA percentage 20.4%. Chemistry (13% had the lowest overall share of OA, Earth Sciences (33% the highest. In medicine, biochemistry and chemistry publishing in OA journals was more common. In all other fields author-posted manuscript copies dominated the picture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that OA already has a significant positive impact on the availability of the scientific journal literature and that there are big differences between scientific disciplines in the uptake. Due to the lack of awareness of OA-publishing among scientists in most fields outside physics, the results should be of general interest to all scholars. The results should also interest academic publishers, who need to take into account OA in their business strategies and copyright policies, as well as research funders, who like the NIH are starting to require OA availability of results from research projects they fund. The method and search tools developed also offer a good basis for more in-depth studies as well as longitudinal studies.

  17. The scientific building blocks for business coaching: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flip Schutte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Business coaching is a relatively new approach to leadership development. It is also slowly growing as an academic discipline with only a small number of active researchers and a dearth of published literature reviews.Research purpose: This article is an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to business coaching by means of a systematic literature review.Motivation of the study: Previous literature reviews summarised the available published articles. In order to contribute to establishing business coaching as an independent academic discipline, the building blocks for science in the phenomenon under investigation have to be scientifically not only summarised, but also synthesised and explored to ground this new discipline as an academic field of research.Research design, approach and method: A methodological framework has been developed to analyse the information. The data were synthesised according to the following building blocks for science: concepts, definitions, typologies, models, theories and paradigms.Main findings: A total of 84 articles were accessed by the specified search strategy and 36 were analysed according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. Although coaching has not been sufficiently developed as an academic discipline, it is possible to develop a comprehensive definition of coaching, as well as to identify the main models and theories that apply to this field.Practical/managerial implications: This literature review has synthesised and summarised the available data in such a way that it will contribute to the conceptualisation and foundation of business coaching as an academic discipline.Contribution: The building blocks for business coaching as a relatively new and emerging science within the field of business leadership have been defined. This will contribute to the articulation of concepts within this discipline by future researchers and practitioners.

  18. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Kulesz, James J [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  19. Between Sovereignties: Chinese Minor Settler Literature Across the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Taking as its subject Chinese immigrant-settler literature across the Pacific, this study introduces the concept of minor settler to describe settlers who are marginalized within settler society, as later-coming immigrants, racialized minority, or colonized peoples. Maintaining that their experiences of settlement differ from those of dominant settlers, and also foregrounding their role and responsibility as settlers perpetuating Indigenous dispossession, this dissertation is motivated by two...

  20. Introducing Pre-University Students to Primary Scientific Literature through Argumentation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for…

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Food Therapy, and Hypertension Control: A Narrative Review of Chinese Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control. Based on a statistical analysis of antihypertensive foods recommended in 20 books on the application of food therapy for hypertension control, the 38 most frequently recommended are celery, tomato, banana, hawthorn, garlic, onion, seaweed, apple, corn, green beans, persimmon, laver, kiwi, watermelon, eggplant, carrots, mushroom, peanut, soy products, sea cucumber, buckwheat, garland chrysanthemum, spinach, honey, dairy products, vinegar, black fungus, jellyfish, green onion, shepherd's purse, soybean, potato, pear, winter melon, bitter melon, oat, pea, and tea. Food therapy emphasizes the therapeutic effects of food, considering its nature, taste, and function on human balanced health, which leads to optimal blood pressure control. Current literature suggests that food therapy is effective in blood pressure control and can be incorporated into blood pressure self-management in the Chinese population.

  2. National scientific literature on nursing ethics: a systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Nicéia D’Aquino Oliveira Teixeira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most prevalent nursing ethical issues published in scientific Brazilian journals. Methods: A systematic literature review with the following inclusion criteria: (1 articles on Nursing Ethics written in Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish; (2 published in Brazilian journals; (3 in the period from January 1997 to February 2009. The search was carried out in four databases BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO. The key-words were ethics AND nursing. The selected studies were classified into categories. The content of the articles were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse. The categories generated discourses by organizing the main excerpts from the abstracts of the selected studies, which are the “key expressions”. Results: A hundred and thirty three articles that met the inclusion criteria were classified into eight categories: 1. Nursing Care; 2. Dilemmas and Controversies; 3. Education; 4. Legal Aspects; 5. Research; 6. Management; 7. Values and Beliefs; 8. Perspectives and Health Policies. The category “Nursing Care” prevailed in 36% of the selected articles, and it was classified into six subcategories. “Dilemmas and Controversies” was the second most prevalent category (15%. Conclusion: The number of theoretical papers on ethical issues is high, but there is little research on the ethical experiences in nursing practice.

  3. Traditional Chinese medicine formulas for irritable bowel syndrome: from ancient wisdoms to scientific understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai-Tao; Zhong, Linda; Tsang, Siu-Wai; Lin, Ze-Si; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) serves as the most common alternative therapeutic approach for Western medicine and benefits IBS patients globally. Due to the lack of scientific evidence in the past, TCM formulas were not internationally well recognized as promising IBS remedies. In this review, firstly, we present the etiology and therapy of IBS in terms of traditional Chinese medical theory. Secondly, we summarize the clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM formulas for IBS patients that are available in the literature (from 1998 to September 2013), in which 14 RCTs conducted of high quality were discussed in detail. Of the 14 selected trials, 12 of those concluded that TCM formulas provided superior improvement in the global symptoms of IBS patients over the placebo or conventional medicines. As well, all 14 RCTs suggested that TCM formulas have good safety and tolerability. Last but not least, we explore the pharmacological mechanisms of the anti-IBS TCM formulas available in the literature (from 1994 to September, 2013). Collectively, in combating IBS symptoms, most TCM formulas exert multi-targeting actions including the regulation of neurotransmitters and hormones in the enteric nervous system (ENS), modulation of smooth muscle motility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, attenuation of intestinal inflammation and restoration of intestinal flora, etc. In conclusion, TCM formulas appear to be promising for IBS treatment. This review provides a useful reference for the public in furthering a better understanding and acceptance of TCM formulas as IBS remedies.

  4. Scientific Evidence on the Supportive Cancer Care with Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William CS CHO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.

  5. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using

  6. Analysis on Pathogenesis Theory of Coronary Heart Disease in Modern Chinese Medicine---Literatures Based on National and Ministerial and Provincial Scientific Researches above Second Prize%冠心病中医病因病机学说分析--基于省部级二等奖以上科技成果的文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红蓉

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the coronary heart disease pathogenesis theories in modern Chinese medicine,the author researched the lit-eratures on national science and technology progress winning provincial and ministerial scientific research achievement above the second prize in diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese before 2012.The results showed 33 scientific research achievement and 149 related papers.Coronary heart disease pathogenesis theory had a bigger development with representative views of blood stasis,blood stasis and toxin,phlegm and blood stasis,phlegm and blood stasis of spleen,spleen and stomach relation,collateral disease,blood stasis included Qi deficiency and blood stasis,Yang deficiency and blood stasis,Qi stagna-tion and blood stasis,phlegm and stasis of different types.Pathogenesis of various theories had different focus on asthenia of healthy qi, or asthenia of pathogenic factors,but their essence were consistent,and stressed coronary heart disease was asthenia healthy qi and as-thenia pathogenic factor syndrome.%作者为总结现代以来中医诊治冠心病的基本规律和各家特点,提炼和阐明中医诊治冠心病的基本理论框架,开展中医诊治冠心病的学术调研。作为调研内容之一,首先就2012年以前,在中医理论指导下诊治冠心病并获得国家科技进步奖或省部级二等奖以上的科技成果进行文献调研。文献调研的初步结果表明:有相关科技成果33项,期刊论文149篇。关于冠心病的病因病机,代表性学说有血瘀说、瘀毒从化说、痰瘀互结说、心脾痰瘀相关说、脾胃相关说、络病说等。其中,血瘀说又有气虚血瘀、阳虚血瘀、气滞血瘀、痰阻血瘀等不同类型。上述病机学说,有侧重正虚、邪实的差异,共同点是均强调冠心病为本虚标实之证,并据此开展了不同角度的临床和基础研究。

  7. Chinese Scientific and Technical Information Institutions: Development and Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanning, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The collection, storage, processing, and dissemination of scientific and technical information make an important basis for economic and social development as well as for scientific development. A nation has to develop the right mechanisms and modalities to collect, store, process, and disseminate scientific and technical information tailored to…

  8. [Process and key points of clinical literature evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The clinical literature evaluation of the post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine is a comprehensive evaluation by the comprehensive gain, analysis of the drug, literature of drug efficacy, safety, economy, based on the literature evidence and is part of the evaluation of evidence-based medicine. The literature evaluation in the post-marketing Chinese medicine clinical evaluation is in the foundation and the key position. Through the literature evaluation, it can fully grasp the information, grasp listed drug variety of traditional Chinese medicines second development orientation, make clear further clinical indications, perfect the medicines, etc. This paper discusses the main steps and emphasis of the clinical literature evaluation. Emphasizing security literature evaluation should attach importance to the security of a comprehensive collection drug information. Safety assessment should notice traditional Chinese medicine validity evaluation in improving syndrome, improveing the living quality of patients with special advantage. The economics literature evaluation should pay attention to reliability, sensitivity and practicability of the conclusion.

  9. 76 FR 71045 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the Diagnosis... literature and information concerning the use of non- standardized allergenic extracts in the diagnosis and... Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of...

  10. The Using Condition of Interactive Reading Strategy in Reading Scientif-ic and Technological English Literature of Postgraduates of Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hong; CUI Xiao-ling

    2014-01-01

    In the reading process and after reading of the scientific and technological English literature for postgraduates of engi-neering, there are several barriers like the understanding of the vocabulary, the analyzing the complex sentences and the grasping the whole texts. This paper tries to investigate the using condition of interactive reading strategy in reading scientific and techno-logical English literature of postgraduates of engineering. The study reveals that postgraduates of engineering frequently using some of strategies of the interactive reading strategy, but the overall using condition is only in the average level, and is not so flexi-ble.

  11. [Chinese medicine adverse reactions' literature statistical analysis in recent five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2011-10-01

    Since the state food and drug administration (SFDA) issued the first edition of adverse drug reaction(ADR) information in November, 2001, it has 32 edition, reported the drug 66 species of adverse reactions, involving the variety of 12 traditional Chinese medicines, it was effectively reminds all social concern of adverse drug reaction. For statistical analysis in recent years reported adverse drug reaction of prepared Chinese medicine, collected 462 literatures from 2005-09 CNKI Chinese journal full-text database of medicine health directory. In all the collections, about 94 literatures are closely related to adverse drug reaction report of prepared Chinese medicine. But there are only 7 references could identify traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine correctly in 72 literatures with the value of statistical analysis. That means only 8.9% of literatures can correctly identify western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. So it proved that TCM workers' knowledge of ADR remains to be greatly improved.

  12. Searching the scientific literature: implications for quantitative and qualitative reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Aylward, Brandon S; Roberts, Michael C; Evans, Spencer C

    2012-08-01

    Literature reviews are an essential step in the research process and are included in all empirical and review articles. Electronic databases are commonly used to gather this literature. However, several factors can affect the extent to which relevant articles are retrieved, influencing future research and conclusions drawn. The current project examined articles obtained by comparable search strategies in two electronic archives using an exemplar search to illustrate factors that authors should consider when designing their own search strategies. Specifically, literature searches were conducted in PsycINFO and PubMed targeting review articles on two exemplar disorders (bipolar disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and issues of classification and/or differential diagnosis. Articles were coded for relevance and characteristics of article content. The two search engines yielded significantly different proportions of relevant articles overall and by disorder. Keywords differed across search engines for the relevant articles identified. Based on these results, it is recommended that when gathering literature for review papers, multiple search engines should be used, and search syntax and strategies be tailored to the unique capabilities of particular engines. For meta-analyses and systematic reviews, authors may consider reporting the extent to which different archives or sources yielded relevant articles for their particular review.

  13. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.

  14. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness centrality. Moreover, the series of polices implemented by the Chinese government to recruit oversea experts seems to contribute a lot to China-US scientific collaboration.

  15. [Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-09-01

    The compound Chinese materia medica is the medication pattern of the traditional Chinese medicine for the disease prevention and treatment. The single Chinese materia medica (mostly in decoction pieces) is the prescription composition of the compound Chinese materia medica. The study of the effective substance basis of Chinese materia medica should be based on the chemical compositions of the compound Chinese materia medica as an entry point considering the different status of "Monarch, Minister, Assistant, and Guide" for a certain single Chinese materia medica in the different compound Chinese materia medica while substance basis research of a certain single Chinese materia medica should be a full component analysis as well as both stable and controllable quality. Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica.

  16. Searching for a Common Ground--A Literature Review of Empirical Research on Scientific Inquiry Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnebeck, Silke; Bernholt, Sascha; Ropohl, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of scientific inquiry in science education, researchers and educators disagree considerably regarding what features define this instructional approach. While a large body of literature addresses theoretical considerations, numerous empirical studies investigate scientific inquiry on quite different levels of detail and also…

  17. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for secondary education, but none of these strategies focused specifically on scientific argumentation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a strategy for teaching pre-university students to read unadapted primary scientific literature, translated into students' native language, based on a new argumentation analysis framework. This framework encompasses seven types of argumentative elements: motive, objective, main conclusion, implication, support, counterargument and refutation. During the intervention, students studied two research articles. We monitored students' reading comprehension and their opinion on the articles and activities. After the intervention, we measured students' ability to identify the argumentative elements in a third unadapted and translated research article. The presented framework enabled students to analyse the article by identifying the motive, objective, main conclusion and implication and part of the supports. Students stated that they found these activities useful. Most students understood the text on paragraph level and were able to read the article with some help for its vocabulary. We suggest that primary scientific literature has the potential to show students important aspects of the scientific process and to learn scientific vocabulary in an authentic context.

  18. List of Scientific Publication in Chinese in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    1 Chinese Journal of Urology,Vol.36,20151)Clinical efficacy of 131I-MIBG therapy in malignant pheochromocytoma/malignant paraganglioma,No.1,p.24.JIN Cong-jun,SHAO Yu-jun,et al2 Inorganic Chemicals Industry,Vol.47,20151)Study on optimal conditions on molten salt chlorination process with orthogonal experiment,No.3,p.8.LI Xun,LIN Ru-shan,YE Guo-an,et al,HE Hui

  19. Cardiac protection of new compounds from scientific Chinese medicine (SCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yi-zhun

    2008-01-01

    Objective Purification and Standardization of Chinese herbal extracts became a hot topic since last decade. Though traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used as a mixture from several herbs for centuries, it has been drawn much attention for studying the standardized Chinese herbs using modern technology. Methods Recently, we compared purified Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (PSME) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, Rarnipril, in in vitro experiments and also in vivo using animal model of myocardial infarction. Results PSME was found to have a significantly higher trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity which indicated a great capacity for scavenging free radicals. PSME could also prevent pyrogalto red bleaching and DNA damage. After 2 weeks treatment with PSME or Ramipril, survival rates of rats with experimental myocardial infarction were marginally increased (68.2% and 71.4%) compared with saline (61.5%). In another recent study, we evaluated the cardioprotective effects of PSME on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts and in hypoxic vascular smooth muscle calls. We found that PSME treated hearts showed significant postischemic contractile function recovery (develop pressure recovered to 44.2±4.9 % versus 17.1±5.7 %, P<0.05; maximum contraction recovered to 57.2±5.9 % versus 15.1±6.3%, P<0. 001; maximum relaxation restored to 69.3±7.3% versus 15.4±6.3%, P<0.001 in PSME and control group respectively). Conclusions Significant elevated in end-diastolic pressure, which indicated LV stiffening in PSME hearts might be resulted by exceed dose of PSME used. Purified and standardized Chinese herb could provide an alternative regimen for the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  20. Sustainable Development: The Role of Scientific Literature in Dutch Municipal Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, Lucas; van Straalen, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show how Dutch municipalities use scientific literature about sustainable development in their spatial planning policies and processes. The approach to this research is twofold. First, we conducted a literature review that summarized the most important discourses

  1. Scholarly literature and the press: scientific impact and social perception of physics computing

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia; Bell, Zane W; Dressendorfer, Paul V

    2014-01-01

    The broad coverage of the search for the Higgs boson in the mainstream media is a relative novelty for high energy physics (HEP) research, whose achievements have traditionally been limited to scholarly literature. This paper illustrates the results of a scientometric analysis of HEP computing in scientific literature, institutional media and the press, and a comparative overview of similar metrics concerning representative particle physics measurements. The picture emerging from these scientometric data documents the scientific impact and social perception of HEP computing. The results of this analysis suggest that improved communication of the scientific and social role of HEP computing would be beneficial to the high energy physics community.

  2. Migration and gender in the mexican context: scientific literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rebolledo Gámez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Female migration is a phenomenon with socioeducational considerations thar determine their analysis.The prensent article presents a literature review aims to analyze the aspect thar are discussed in relation to the issue of migration and gender in Mexico. Therefore, it has selected more than forty articles from magazines, discussion forums and books in the last decade hace collected reflexions and research on this reality. As a result of this review, it has taken three areas in the contributions published: Human Rights and policy migratory; female migration characteristics; and vulnerability and risk situation. Despite the thematic diversity, appear repeatedly ideas like the idiosyncasies of female migration, vulnerability and risk assumed by women in border transit and the violation of rights of women to political and institutional level.Received: 04/12/2013 / Accepted: 17/01/2014How to reference this articleRebolledo Gámez, T., Rodríguez Casado, M. R. (2014. Migraciones y género en el contexto mexicano: revisión de la literatura científica. Foro de Educación, 12(17, pp. 165-185. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2014.012.017.008

  3. MememxGATE: Unearthing Latent Content Features for Improved Search and Relevancy Ranking Across Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; McGibbney, L. J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Joyce, M.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying scientific relevancy is of increasing importance to NASA and the research community. Scientific relevancy may be defined by mapping the impacts of a particular NASA mission, instrument, and/or retrieved variables to disciplines such as climate predictions, natural hazards detection and mitigation processes, education, and scientific discoveries. Related to relevancy, is the ability to expose data with similar attributes. This in turn depends upon the ability for us to extract latent, implicit document features from scientific data and resources and make them explicit, accessible and useable for search activities amongst others. This paper presents MemexGATE; a server side application, command line interface and computing environment for running large scale metadata extraction, general architecture text engineering, document classification and indexing tasks over document resources such as social media streams, scientific literature archives, legal documentation, etc. This work builds on existing experiences using MemexGATE (funded, developed and validated through the DARPA Memex Progrjam PI Mattmann) for extracting and leveraging latent content features from document resources within the Materials Research domain. We extend the software functionality capability to the domain of scientific literature with emphasis on the expansion of gazetteer lists, named entity rules, natural language construct labeling (e.g. synonym, antonym, hyponym, etc.) efforts to enable extraction of latent content features from data hosted by wide variety of scientific literature vendors (AGU Meeting Abstract Database, Springer, Wiley Online, Elsevier, etc.) hosting earth science literature. Such literature makes both implicit and explicit references to NASA datasets and relationships between such concepts stored across EOSDIS DAAC's hence we envisage that a significant part of this effort will also include development and understanding of relevancy signals which can ultimately

  4. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina.

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the Chinese literature for the treatment of achalasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Wang; You-Ming Li; Lan Li; Chao-Hui Yu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of different approaches in the treatment of achalasia in China.METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of Chinese literature by searching the Chinese Biomedical Database and Chinese scientific Journals database (up to March 2008). All cohort studies (controlled or uncontrolled) in which the patients were observed for more than a year were reviewed in detail. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for controlled trials. The efficacy in uncontrolled trials was assessed by a pooled estimate of response rate with individual studies weighted in proportion to the sample size.RESULTS: Seven controlled trials compared the effect of botulinum toxin injection (BoTx) with pneumatic dilation (PD). PD was superior to BoTx [65.2% vs 45.3%; RR 1.47 (95% CI 1.23-1.77), P <0.0001], and had a lower clinical relapse rate (BoTx 30.2% vs PD 10%, RR 0.32 (0.16-0.65), P=0.001). Heller myotomy (HM) had superior remission rate compared to PD [HM 94.0% vs PD 64.1%, RR 1.48 (1.15-1.99), P=0.002]. In uncontrolled trials, the effectiveness of PD was 86.6% (23.9%) vs 94.8% (10.6%) for HM. The main complications of PD were perforation and gastroesophageal reflux disease.CONCLUSION: HM is the most effective long-term treatment for patients with achalasia in China. In the future, controlled clinical trials on the treatment of achalasia should focus on comparing laparoscopic myotomy with or without antireflux procedure, including different partial and total fundoplication techniques.

  6. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC are investigated. PMID:28344554

  7. Treatment of cholecystitis with Chinese herbal medicines: A systematic review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Dong; Guan-Liang Wang; Xing Liu; Jia Liu; De-Zeng Zhu; Chang-Quan Ling

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the literature on the use of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of cholecystitis.METHODS:The literature on treatment of cholecystitis with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) was analyzed based on the principles and methods described by evidence-based medicine (EBM).Eight databases including MEDLINE,EMbase,Cochrane Central (CCTR),four Chinese databases (China Biological Medicine Database,Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Database of Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals,Database of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology) and Chinese Clinical Registry Center,were searched.Full text articles or abstracts concerning TCM treatment of cholecystitis were selected,categorized according to study design,the strength of evidence,the first author's hospital type,and analyzed statistically.RESULTS:A search of the literature published from 1977 through 2009 yielded 1468 articles in Chinese and 9 in other languages; and 93.92% of the articles focused on clinical studies.No article was of level I evidence,and 9.26% were of level Ⅱ evidence.The literature cited by Science Citation Index (SCI),MEDLINE and core Chinese medical journals accounted for 0.41%,0.68% and 7.29%,respectively.Typically,the articles featured in case reports of illness,examined from the perspective of EBM,were weak in both quality and evidence level,which inconsistently conflicted with the fact that most of the papers were by authors from Level-3 hospitals,the highest possible level evaluated based on their comprehensive quality and academic authenticity in China.CONCLUSION:The published literature on TCM treatment of cholecystitis is of low quality and based on low evidence,and cognitive medicine may functions as a useful supplementary framework for the evaluation.

  8. On The Prehistory Of Chinese-Western Comparative Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓彤; 曹薇

    2010-01-01

    @@ The earlist prehistory of western comparative literature can be traced back to the Ancient Rome, as the literature of that period (in ancient Latin) intentionally imitated the Ancient Greek literature(in ancient Greek), like the Virgil's Aeneid was an imitation of Homeric epic, so the writers and theorists of Ancient Rome always compare the differences and similarities of the two periods、 nationalities and languages that reflected in literature.

  9. 76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... study methods. Provided objective and evaluable data. For skin test data in the studies: Obtained... scientific and medical literature and other data sources for each extract in order to identify those studies that used acceptable alternative testing methods. FDA also collected information from studies...

  10. Citations, References and the Growth of Scientific Literature: A Model of Dynamic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, Tadeusz K.; Hillinger, Claude

    1971-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented which explains the observed exponential growth rates of citations and references in a scientific discipline. The independent variables are the growth rate of the number of articles published and the decay rate of citation of old literature. (13 references) (Author)

  11. C-Rank: A Link-based Similarity Measure for Scientific Literature Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Seok-Ho; Park, Sunju

    2011-01-01

    As the number of people who use scientific literature databases grows, the demand for literature retrieval services has been steadily increased. One of the most popular retrieval services is to find a set of papers similar to the paper under consideration, which requires a measure that computes similarities between papers. Scientific literature databases exhibit two interesting characteristics that are different from general databases. First, the papers cited by old papers are often not included in the database due to technical and economic reasons. Second, since a paper references the papers published before it, few papers cite recently-published papers. These two characteristics cause all existing similarity measures to fail in at least one of the following cases: (1) measuring the similarity between old, but similar papers, (2) measuring the similarity between recent, but similar papers, and (3) measuring the similarity between two similar papers: one old, the other recent. In this paper, we propose a new ...

  12. TASER® conducted electrical weapons: misconceptions in the scientific/medical and other literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James R

    2015-03-01

    TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have become an important law-enforcement tool. Controversial questions are often raised during discussion of some incidents in which the devices have been used. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some misconceptions about CEWs that have been published in the scientific/medical and other literature. This is a narrative review, using a multidisciplinary approach of analyzing reports from scientific/medical and other literature sources. In previous reports, durations of incapacitating effects and possible associations of CEWs with deaths-in-custody have often been overstated or exaggerated. Comparisons of CEW effects with "electrocution" are misleading. Clarification of these misconceptions may be important during policymaker decisions, practitioner operations, expert witness testimonies, and court proceedings. Despite misconceptions in the literature, CEWs can still be a valuable tool for law enforcement activities. Scientists, medical professionals, legal advisors, and investigators of police tactics should be aware of these misconceptions.

  13. Writing on Boundaries: The Split Subject in Chinese Canadian Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaobo

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual grasp of the corpus of work produced by Chinese Canadian writers and a framework for analysing its tropes and interpreting their political resonance. It defines the Chinese Canadian work as a three-phase counterhegemonic discourse: Writing back into a forbidden past; negotiating into the present; writing on boundaries. For the ambivalent, split diasporic subject to negotiate into the present from the forbidden past is to reinscribe itself as a locus of crisis, a non-identity, a doubling, a third term. Writing on boundaries can be read as a strategy of decolonization deployed by the subaltern in striving for self-vindication and self-fulfilment.

  14. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Kathryn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19% and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%. Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey

  15. Workplace Interventions to Prevent Disability from Both the Scientific and Practice Perspectives: A Comparison of Scientific Literature, Grey Literature and Stakeholder Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Bültmann, Ute; Amick, Benjamin; Munir, Fehmidah; Tveito, Torill H; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Purpose The significant individual and societal burden of work disability could be reduced if supportive workplace strategies could be added to evidence-based clinical treatment and rehabilitation to improve return-to-work (RTW) and other disability outcomes. The goal of this article is to summarize existing research on workplace interventions to prevent disability, relate these to employer disability management practices, and recommend future research priorities. Methods The authors participated in a year-long collaboration that ultimately led to an invited 3-day conference, Improving Research of Employer Practices to Prevent Disability, held October 14-16, 2015, in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The collaboration included a topical review of the literature, group conference calls to identify key areas and challenges, drafting of initial documents, review of industry publications, and a conference presentation that included feedback from peer researchers and a question/answer session with an expert panel with direct employer experience. Results Evidence from randomized trials and other research designs has shown general support for job modification, RTW coordination, and organizational support, but evidence is still lacking for interventions at a more granular level. Grey literature reports focused mainly on job re-design and work organization. Panel feedback focused on organizational readiness and the beliefs and values of senior managers as critical factors in facilitating changes to disability management practices. While the scientific literature is focused on facilitating improved coping and reducing discomforts for individual workers, the employer-directed grey literature is focused on making group-level changes to policies and procedures. Conclusions Future research might better target employer practices by tying interventions to positive workplace influences and determinants, by developing more participatory interventions and research designs, and by

  16. Brazilian scientific literature on alcohol and other drugs: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Luis Caribé Cerqueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a bibliometric study that aimed to quantify and describe the characteristics of scientific literature on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian universities from 2003 to 2012. The study involved the pursuit of doctoral dissertation abstracts and master's theses deposited in the Bank CAPES theses. By applying mathematical and statistical methods on literature sources were analyzed a total of 350 abstracts of theses and dissertations of 739 abstracts. All references found were systematized in software spreadsheet Statiscal Package Social Science (SPSS version 15.0 according to the following variables: type of study (Masters or PhD, publication year, area of expertise, geographic region and educational institution higher. This study showed that most of the scientific literature on the topic of alcohol and other drugs developed in the investigated period occurred in the dissertations format, with the highest concentration of studies in the Southeast, traditional focal point of scientific research in various fields. Further investigations are important to deepen the analysis of academic productions collected in addition to the summaries, contributing to a more detailed verification of the research profile, dissertation and thesis character, developed in the country

  17. A Case of Mutual Exclusion: Portrayals by Immigrant and American-Born Chinese of Each Other in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Marlon K.

    1984-01-01

    Examines literary works by first-generation Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans. Reports that each group has been critical in its portrayals of the other, especially when some direct interaction between the two groups is depicted. Asserts that this literature has shown how ethnocentrism has divided the Chinese in America. (KH)

  18. Coloring Crude Drug on Old Chinese Literatures about Herbalogical Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    水野,瑞夫/清水,孝重/井上,健夫; ミズノ,ミズオ/シミズ,タカシゲ/イノウエ,タケオ; MIZUNO,MIZUO/SHIMIZU,TAKASHIGE/INOUE,TAKEO

    1995-01-01

    Chinese literature about herbalogical medicine contains not only plants but also animals and other natural resources. In China, after publishing "Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (神農本草経) " herbaloglcal medicine had developed and Li Shi Zhen (李時珍) made a comprehensive compilation of this field. We report in this paper, the lists of coloring crude drugs and their explanation about coloring with the source of literature.

  19. Scientific Literature on the Reliability and Validity of the Manchester Triage System (MTS Protocol: A Integrative Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Chaves de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific production about the validity and reliability of the Manchester Triage System (MTS protocol. METHOD A descriptive study of an integrative literature review. Articles on the validity and reliability of the MTS developed with children and adults published between 1999 and 2013 were included. RESULTS 14 articles were selected from a total of 8438, nine of validity and five of reliability. The reliability of the MTS ranged from moderate to almost perfect, with higher intra-evaluation. Regarding validity, the results seem to point to equivalent and satisfactory sensibility and specificity levels of the MTS. The instrument proved to be a good predictor of the need for hospitalization and of hospital mortality. CONCLUSION The reliability and validity of the MTS obtained in the studies is varied. It is recommended that new studies indicate necessary modifications to the MTS so that it is more safely used by nurses.

  20. "Migratory Literature": A "Third Place" for Intercultural Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Trevor; Wang, Yongyang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, drawing upon multidisciplinary studies such as critical and cultural studies, literary criticism, intercultural communication and second language acquisition, suggests a specific literary genre--"migratory literature"--to support intercultural competence for learners of Chinese. We begin by elucidating key terms--"migratory,"…

  1. Literature Review of the Reasons of Chinese Master Students ’Language Choices in UK Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qian

    2016-01-01

    As one of the challenges that international students face during their study in a foreign country, language has been more and more of concern. The aim of this literature review is to know the reasons of Chinese master students’language choices in UK universities. In this paper the reasons of language choices, and the gaps between previous and present research are discussed.

  2. "Migratory Literature": A "Third Place" for Intercultural Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Trevor; Wang, Yongyang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, drawing upon multidisciplinary studies such as critical and cultural studies, literary criticism, intercultural communication and second language acquisition, suggests a specific literary genre--"migratory literature"--to support intercultural competence for learners of Chinese. We begin by elucidating key…

  3. Moxibustion in Early Chinese Medicine and Its Relation to the Origin of Meridians: A Study on the Unearthed Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiankang; Han, Li; Liu, Juntian; Yu, Mengyun

    2017-01-01

    Moxibustion is an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It achieved higher level of recognition and had more general application in ancient times than in contemporary life. As the vital historical sources, the records of unearthed literatures offered precious insights to Chinese social life pattern and medical practice in Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–220 AD). There was no surprise that the bamboo and silk documents excavated from Mawangdui (马王堆) tomb, Hantanpo (旱滩坡) tomb, and other relics had a large amount of texts relevant to moxibustion. This research sorted moxibustion recordings from seven unearthed literatures and discovered that moxibustion had been developed into different modalities and utilized to treat many diseases at that time. In addition, the indications, contraindications of moxibustion, and the method of postmoxibustion care were also discussed. On this basis, some hints were provided to support the hypothesis that the practice of moxibustion led to the discovery of meridians. All our preliminary results in the research have drawn attention for this old therapy and given a new source for its application in clinic and scientific research.

  4. Traditional chinese medicine and temporomandibular disorders management: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry C.F. Li

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The most common TCM treatment modalities in treating TMDs include acupuncture,moxibustion with or without acupuncture and medicated compress. A review of these TCM treatment modalities showed that possible beneficialeffects existed in TMDs management. Acupuncture seems to be the most evidenced based treatment modality among the three and being investigated the most. However,due to a lack of evidence based studies, more scientific and rigorous randomised controlled clinical trials are needed to further evaluate TCM′s safety,efficacy and effectiveness.

  5. A global scientific literature of research on water quality indices: trends, biases and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Ribeiro Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Water quality has been the subject of many recent studies, moreover, the physical, chemical and biological parameters of water are used to investigate water quality and can be combined into a single index, the Water Quality Index (WQI, for use by water resource managers and the general public. The aim of this study was to use scientometrics to evaluate how water quality has been addressed in the international scientific literature. METHOD: For the quantitative analysis of the publications on WQI, we used the search database SCOPUS (http://www.scopus.com. The search was performed using the words "QUALIT* WATER* INDEX*" in papers published in all databases (through 2011. RESULTS: We found 554 articles that dealt with the use of WQI the number of publications has increased significantly over the last 20 years. India had the most studies, with 177 articles, followed by China, Brazil and the United States. These four countries together published 57% of studies on WQI. We generated 15 linear models to explain the number of publication by study sit (country. According to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, the best model to explain the number of publications by country was the model that combined Sanitation and Public Supply. CONCLUSION: Finally, this paper presents the state of scientific literature on WQI and demonstrates the growing interest of the scientific community in this issue, which is certainly due to the importance of the quantity and quality of water for human supply, economics, health and the conservation of water resources.

  6. Analysis of the Differences between Chinese and Western Culture from Love Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Meng

    2016-01-01

    Love is an eternal theme of world literature. Both the ancient and the modern literature tend to take marriage and love as their paramount theme;however, there is rarely any research sorting out these themes from the perspective of cultural differ-ence. Being engaged in exploring the love literature, this paper intends to make a comparison with Chinese and western perspec-tives of love and analyzes the embodied culture essences and differences from the comparative researches on their literary status, attitudes towards love, and the choice of themes.

  7. A weapon for the future: the scientific use of audiovisual media in the teaching of Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosdany Morejón Ortega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel teaching literature in high school students has become vital premise to achieve the formation of the new man. A man able to understand the complex realities of today's world, while enjoying the aesthetic pleasure of reading. Thus it was conceived this article, which takes as a benchmark the effectiveness of audiovisual media to fulfill academic training objectives expected for that level. These results were supported by scientific research previously presented as an option to the academic title of Master of Science in Education and whose validity, still part of the actions of this subject in computer Polytechnics. Given the breadth of the indicators analyzed, this topic can be generalized in other fields of scientific knowledge, always remembering that visual stimuli are powerful tools in motivation, concentration and abstraction of knowledge.

  8. A reference ontology for digital scientific journals applied to systematic literature review processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Benedet Ghisi

    Full Text Available This paper presents possible approaches to the use of a reference ontology for digital journals, supporting bibliographic processes in systematic literature reviews. The benefits are highlighted of using specialized services through "batch" or "on-the-fly" processing of information from different repositories, such as recognized and indexed databases and portals or specific websites. It is concluded that the use of reference ontology enables the creation of services that ensure greater interoperability between different repositories, allowing a more inclusive and accurate retrieval of information, as it standardizes the concepts related to the access points of scientific journals.

  9. Exploring access to scientific literature using content-based image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    The number of articles published in the scientific medical literature is continuously increasing, and Web access to the journals is becoming common. Databases such as SPIE Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, indices such as PubMed, and search engines such as Google provide the user with sophisticated full-text search capabilities. However, information in images and graphs within these articles is entirely disregarded. In this paper, we quantify the potential impact of using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) to access this non-text data. Based on the Journal Citations Report (JCR), the journal Radiology was selected for this study. In 2005, 734 articles were published electronically in this journal. This included 2,587 figures, which yields a rate of 3.52 figures per article. Furthermore, 56.4% of these figures are composed of several individual panels, i.e. the figure combines different images and/or graphs. According to the Image Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (ImageCLEF), the error rate of automatic identification of medical images is about 15%. Therefore, it is expected that, by applying ImageCLEF-like techniques, already 95.5% of articles could be retrieved by means of CBIR. The challenge for CBIR in scientific literature, however, is the use of local texture properties to analyze individual image panels in composite illustrations. Using local features for content-based image representation, 8.81 images per article are available, and the predicted correctness rate may increase to 98.3%. From this study, we conclude that CBIR may have a high impact in medical literature research and suggest that additional research in this area is warranted.

  10. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2006-11-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of economical, political and social macrostructural factors. In this paper, we report the number of scientific studies published between 2000 and 2004 about the main causes of maternal death, as identified by WHO, and compare the proportion of papers on each cause with the corresponding burden of each cause. Secondly, we systematically review the characteristics and quality of the papers on the macrostructural determinants of maternal mortality. In view of their burden, obstructed labour, unsafe abortion and haemorrhage are proportionally underrepresented in the scientific literature. In our review, most studies analysed were cross-sectional, and were carried out by developed countries without the participation of researchers in the developing countries where maternal mortality was studied. The main macrostructural factors mentioned were socioeconomic variables. Overall, there is a lack of published information about the cultural and political determinants of maternal mortality. We believe that a high-quality scientific approach must be taken in studies of maternal mortality in order to obtain robust comparative data and that study design should be improved to allow causality between macrostructural determinants and maternal mortality to be shown.

  11. An Eminent Specialist in Both Chinese Literature and Comparative Literature—An Interview with Prof.Stephen Owen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Interviewee:Stephen Owen,James Bryant Conant University Professor and a member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences(1991-),is working at Harvard University as Professor of Comparative Literature in the Dept.of Comparative Literature and Professor of Chinese Literature in the Dept.of Asian Studies.

  12. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  13. The classics of ancient Chinese literature%中国古代文学的经典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承学

    2007-01-01

    This essay discusses the ancient Chinese literary classics by borrowingthe prospective of "canon" from the studies of Western literature.Studying thecentral issues of establishment,quality,type,and influence of ancient classics,the authors attempt to present their ancient history,decadent practices,and theircentral position in ancient literature and literary criticism.Moreover,from abroader perspective of modem theory,this essay argues that ancient classics arepart of the important resources to release the tension between the traditional andthe modem world.

  14. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism.

  15. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Vulink, Nienke C; van der Wal, Sija J; Nakamae, Takashi; Tan, Zhonglin; Derks, Eske M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy associated with the disorder, perhaps even more so in Asian countries. PMID:27366074

  16. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Vulink, Nienke C; van der Wal, Sija J; Nakamae, Takashi; Tan, Zhonglin; Derks, Eske M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy associated with the disorder, perhaps even more so in Asian countries.

  17. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 1. Gastrointestinal tract; Aktuelle Schwerpunkte und Literatur der Abdominalradiologie im deutschsprachigen Raum. T. 1. Gastrointestinaltrakt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Clinic for Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technical University Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Konietzke, P. [University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Grenacher, L. [Diagnostic Muenchen - Diagnostic Imaging Center, Munich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract with all parenchymatous abdominal organs. In addition to the clinical and scientific further development of abdominal radiology, the education of radiologists within this core discipline of radiology is one of the major aims. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. This manuscript focuses on the most recent literature on the diagnosis of the stomach, small bowel, colon and rectum. The review with a focus on the most recent studies published by German radiologists concludes with a synopsis of mesenterial bleeding and ischemia followed by a critical appraisal of the current literature on conventional abdominal radiography.

  18. [Death education for nursing professors and students: a document review of the scientific literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Janaina Luiza; Bueno, Sonia Maria Villela

    2011-03-01

    In Western cultures, Death is not among the favorite topics. Nevertheless, how should professionals who deal with Death on a daily basis behave? What meaning does Death have to them? This study consists of a survey on scientific literature about the referred subject in nursing education. Using a qualitative method, a documentary exploratory study was performed, characterized by a survey over a five-year period. The following keywords were used: Nursing Professor and Student, Death and Dying. Twelve articles were located and comprised three categories: Nursing students and dealing with death every day; The nursing professor dealing with death every day and the teaching skills; Academic education providing support for a critical-reflexive view about death-dying. In conclusion, there is o preparation for nursing students on the referred theme. Changing the current situation is only possible with greater investments and if further studies are performed.

  19. Pharmacological and analytical aspects of withaferin A:A concise report of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanika Patel; Ravi B Singh; Dinesh K Patel

    2013-01-01

    Withaferin A is an important phytoconstituents of Withania somnifera (W. Somnifera) belonging to the category of withanolides, that are a group of naturally occurring C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids. Withaferin A has been used in the traditional and indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various disorders. In view of its unique therapeutic potential, it has gained much attention in the modern science. In the couple of the years, Withaferin A has been scientifically validated for different pharmacological activities including anti-cancer, adaptogenic, anti-stress, anti-convulsant, immunomodulatory, neurological, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective activities. Pharmacological and analytical aspects of Withaferin A were highlighted in the present article. From the literature review it was found that Withaferin A has a very impressive pharmacological profile especially against cancer and could be useful for the development of the new drug in the future for the treatment of cancer and other metabolic disorders.

  20. Public acceptance of wind farm development: Developer practices and review of scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin, Tom; Ram, Bonnie; Gannon, Jim

    This report is the first deliverable of Work Package 3 of the Wind2050 project. The Wind2050 project is about the public perception of wind power in Denmark, its role in the planning and development of wind farms and, ultimately, the meaning it has for reaching the Danish government’s targets...... for wind power in 2050. Work Package 3 looks specifically at how private developers handle the public’s perception of wind power and what it means for their projects. This report firstly outlines the common stages found in wind farm development and then discusses what manner of interaction the developer...... commonly has with the public at each stage. The report then shifts focus to what scientific literature says about two important topics in this realm: public risk perception and the NIMBY concept. Finally, the report concludes with suggested topics for research questions and highlights the next steps...

  1. Fishes and other aquatic species in the Byzantine literature. Classification, terminology and scientific names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CHRONE-VAKALOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishes and other aquatic species were substantial food in the every day life of Byzantine people. The predomination of Christianity contributed to the increased consumption of fishes and other seafood compared to the meat of land animals and chicken. More than a hundred ten names of fishes and about thirty names of other aquatic organisms are found in the sources of the Byzantine literature. Most frequent references are found in the medical texts of the Byzantine doctors, where, fishes are classified in categories depending on their physiology and origin, because, according to the writers, these are determining factors for the evaluation of the nutritional value of each species.The purpose of this study is to present the terminology of the fishes and the various aquatic species that are found in the Byzantine sources and to identify, in parallel, each species with its current scientific name.  

  2. Good practices for a literature survey are not followed by authors while preparing scientific manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, D R; Oliveira, O N; Costa, L da F

    2010-01-01

    The number of citations received by authors in scientific journals has become a major parameter to assess individual researchers and the journals themselves through the impact factor. A fair assessment therefore requires that the criteria for selecting references in a given manuscript should be unbiased with respect to the authors or the journals cited. In this paper, we advocate that authors should follow two mandatory principles to select papers (later reflected in the list of references) while studying the literature for a given research: i) consider similarity of content with the topics investigated, lest very related work should be reproduced or ignored; ii) perform a systematic search over the network of citations including seminal or very related papers. We use formalisms of complex networks for two datasets of papers from the arXiv repository to show that neither of these two criteria is fulfilled in practice.

  3. [Maternal mortality in Brazil: what has the scientific literature shown in the last 30 years?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Marcia Lait; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Barbosa, Mariane Doelinger; Calil, Manuele Bonatto; Eyer, Fernanda Pinella Carvalhal

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze maternal mortality in Brazil in the last 30 years, by means of a literature review. The authors performed an electronic search of scientific articles from 1980 to 2010 in LILACS and MEDLINE and found 486 abstracts, of which 50 articles were selected. Studies showed a decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), although varying across regions of the country. A few articles evaluated maternal mortality factors, identifying social inequalities associated with skin color and schooling. There was persistent underreporting of maternal deaths and inadequate completion of death certificates. Direct obstetric causes were the most frequent, mainly hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. Analysis of avoidability revealed deficiencies in prenatal and childbirth care. Despite the relevance of maternal mortality in Brazil, there are few studies on the subject. Although MMR has decreased, it is still above the desired levels. Improvements are thus needed in the quality of prenatal and perinatal care.

  4. Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhim, Evan A; Hon, Carol; Xia, Bo; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Dongping

    2016-06-28

    Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods.

  5. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, M.; Sun, M.; Wijk, E. van; Wietmarschen, H. van; Wijk, R. van; Wang, Z.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2016-01-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal

  6. Cholesterol lowering effect of a commercial margarine in hypercholesterolemic adults: a review of the scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bernácer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the hypercholesterolemia is a growing problem, responsible of one fifth of coronary events in Spain. It is considered that plant sterols (PS could play an important role in their treatment.Objective: we review the role of a range of functional foods with added PS (including specific studies using Flora pro•activ in adults with hypercholesterolemia.Methods: we performed a review of the literature in the PubMed database to locate human studies that have evaluated the role of Flora pro•activ or PS fortified foods with a similar composition. We also have been consulted the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA database.Results: Flora pro•activ demonstrated in rigorous scientific studies to lower cholesterol in adults with hypercholesterolemia. Two servings of Flora pro•activ (1.5 g PS are needed to observe this effect. Lowering cholesterol with Flora pro•activ (2 servings / day oscillate as EFSA notes, between 7 and 10%. This effect is observed after 2-3 weeks. Its composition allows to make health claims about lowering cholesterol as is described for the European Union. The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of PS enriched foods that are not margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressings or dairy products is under-researched. With few exceptions, the use of fortified foods with PS is safe.Conclusions: the current scientific evidence justify the promotion of the use of PS to lower LDL cholesterol in adults with hypercholesterolemia.

  7. Vinyl chloride industry in the courtroom and corporate influences on the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ugo; Mastroangelo, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Pressure from the vinyl chloride (VC) industry on researchers involved in industry-sponsored studies and on regulatory agencies has been documented since 1970s. This commentary describes the influence of a lawsuit pursued by workers of an Italian VC plant on the recent scientific debate on VC exposure and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Original studies carried out by consultants of the public prosecutors and by independent researchers supported the above association. VC-industry consultants published two reviews during the lawsuit, claiming that liver angiosarcoma was the only VC-related cancer. The judges concluded that the evidence of the association between HCC and VC was still not convincing. After the trial, the risk of HCC was confirmed by a re-assessment of VC carcinogenicity from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, but other subsequent industry-funded reviews criticized the new evidence. Industry-funded authors cited each other, and rarely disclosed conflicts of interest. Based on a network of collaborating researchers, industrial interests can shape the literature enhancing the background noise surrounding the scientific evidence.

  8. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  9. The scientific literature on Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) from 1982 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fabiana G

    2014-09-01

    Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) is a freshwater bivalve native to Southeast Asia, but is becoming an invasive species in several aquatic ecosystems in the world. In this study, a scientometric analysis was performed to identify the patterns, trends and gaps of knowledge for this invasive species. A survey of the published literature was conducted using the database of the Thomson Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). A total of 107 papers were surveyed that were published between 1982 and 2012 in 60 journals. The number of papers on L. fortunei over the years has increased, especially within the last eight years of the study period. Argentina, Brazil, and Japan are the countries that contributed the most papers to the literature on invasive bivalve. The majority of papers were field-observational studies. Among some important gaps that need to be addressed are the relatively small number and/or lack of studies conducted in the native countries and in countries invaded by L. fortunei, the lack of internationally collaborative publications in these countries, as well as a low number of internationally collaborative studies.

  10. Trends and biases in global scientific literature about ecological niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, U L; Cunha, H F; Nabout, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, ecological niche models have been employed to investigate the potential geographical distribution of species. However, it is necessary to analyze the vast number of publications on this topic to understand the trends and biases of research using ecological niche models (ENMs). Therefore, this study aims to investigate trends in the scientific literature regarding studies on ENMs. For the quantitative analysis of the literature on ENMs, we performed a search in the Thomson ISI (Web of Science) database between 1991 and 2013. The search identified 3042 papers containing preselected keywords in either the title or abstract. The results showed that the number of papers has increased over the years (r=0.77, Pplants (402 papers, or 28.36% of the total). There was no relationship between the modeling method used and the taxonomic group studied (χ2=4.8, P=0.15). Finally, the wide availability of biological, environmental and computational resources has elicited the broad use of tools for ENMs. Despite the conceptual discussions of the ENMs, this method is currently the most effective way to evaluate the potential geographical distribution of species, and to predict the distribution under different environmental conditions (i.e., future or past scenarios).

  11. Risk factors and control of hospital acquired infections: a comparison between Wikipedia and scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Maggi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: nowadays Wikipedia is one of the main on-line sources of general information. It contains several items about nosocomial infections and their prevention, together of items on virtually every scientific topic.This study aims to assess whether Wikipedia can be considered a reliable source for professional updating, concerning Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI.Methods: Wikipedia has been searched in order to gather items on HAI. 387 items were found with a search string. The field of research was reduced at those articles (27 items containing exhaustive information in relation to prevention of HAI. The messages contained in those articles were than compared with the recommendations of a selected guideline (NICE 2003, completed by a literature search, with the aim of testing their reliability and exhaustivity.Results: 15 Wiki items were found and 51 messages selected. NICE guidelines contained 119 recommendations and 52 more recommendations has been found in a further literature search. 45.1% of Wikipedia’s messages were even found in the guidelines. On this percentage, 21.6% completely agreed with the messages of the guidelines, 15.7% partially agreed, 3.9% disagreed and 3.9% showed different level of evidence in different articles. Moreover, 54.9% of Wikipedia’s messages were not included in the guidelines and 84.2% of the recommendations contained in the guidelines were not present in Wikipedia.Conclusions: Wikipedia should not be considered as a reliable source for professional updating on HAI.

  12. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  13. Literature review and analysis of the application of health outcome assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Pei-wu Li; Qian-wen Li; Nelson Xie; Jing-wei Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:To evaluate the application of health assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:According to a pre-defined search strategy,a comprehensive literature search for all articles published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted.The resulting articles that met the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for analysis.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine have been used in fundamental and theoretical research,and 14 of these were also used in 29 clinical trials that were randomized controlled trials,or descriptive or cross-sectional studies.In 2 152 Chinese medicine-based studies that used instruments in their methodology,more than 150 questionnaires were identified.Among the identified questionnaires,51 were used in more than 10 articles (0.5%).Most of these instruments were developed in Western countries and few studies (4%) used the instrument as the primary evidence for their conclusions.CONCLUSION:Usage of instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,current limitations include selection rationale,result interpretation and standardization,which must be addressed accordingly.

  14. Current Situation of Published SCI Paper in Traditional Chinese Medicine Scientific Research in Stitutes%我国中医药科研单位发表SCI论文现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学俊; 陈玉龙

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析我国中医药科研机构发表SCI论文情况.方法:利用ISI Web of Knowledge数据库进行了检索,从学科类别、文献类别、研究机构、发表年份、出版物、引文等方面进行了分析.结果:我国中医药科研机构发表的SCI论文逐年增多,中药学相关论文数目明显多于中医学相关论文,发表在中国大陆出版的期刊比例较重,论文引用率相对较低.结论:我国中医药科研单位发表的SCI论文数量增长迅速,但仍有发展空间,质量亟待提高,中药与中医相关论文发展呈不平衡态势.%Objective: Analyze the current situation of published SCI paper in traditional Chinese medicine scientific research institutes. Methods:Use the ISI Web of Knowledge database to analyze from the subject category,literature type,research institutions,published year,publications,citations and so on. Results:SCI paper published in the Chinese medicine scientific research institutions increase annually , Chinese medicine related significantly more than traditional Chinese medicine related and more published in the journal published in Chinese mainland with low quoted rate. Conclusion: Published SCI paper in the traditional Chinese medicine scientific research institutes increases rapidly,but still need development and improvement. The development of Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese medicine development related thesis shows imbalance.

  15. Assessment of Student Skills for Critiquing Published Primary Scientific Literature Using a Primary Trait Analysis Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Varela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Instructor evaluation of progressive student skills in the analysis of primary literature is critical for the development of these skills in young scientists. Students in a senior or graduate-level one-semester course in Immunology at a Masters-level comprehensive university were assessed for abilities (primary traits to recognize and evaluate the following elements of a scientific paper: Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, Results, Critical Thinking and Analysis, and Conclusions. We tested the hypotheses that average recognition scores vary among elements and that scores change with time differently by trait. Recognition scores (scaled 1 to 5, and differences in scores were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA, regression, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA (n = 10 papers over 103 days. By multiple comparisons testing, we found that recognition scores statistically fell into two groups: high scores (for Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, and Conclusions and low scores (for Results and Critical Thinking and Analysis. Recognition scores only significantly changed with time (increased for Hypothesis and Rationale and Results. ANCOVA showed that changes in recognition scores for these elements were not significantly different in slope (F1,16 = 0.254, P = 0.621 but the Results trait was significantly lower in elevation (F1,17 = 12.456, P = 0.003. Thus, students improved with similar trajectories, but starting and ending with lower Results scores. We conclude that students have greatest difficulty evaluating Results and critically evaluating scientific validity. Our findings show extant student skills, and the significant increase in some traits shows learning. This study demonstrates that students start with variable recognition skills and that student skills may be learned at differential rates. Faculty can use these findings or the primary trait analysis scoring scale to focus on specific paper elements for which

  16. Nordic interdisciplinary reviews of the scientific literature concerning the relationsiip between indoor environmental factors and health, Nordworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, C.-G.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between indoor air environments and health is, however, a truly interdisciplinary area involving numerous disciplines. Scientific work is primarily "within disciplinary", often resulting in conclusions that would not stand in an interdisciplinary context. Results are mostly...... today, a number of interdisciplinary scientific groups have been created within the Nordic countries with the aim at reviewing the scientific literature within specific areas, and creating an interdisciplinary consensus on the present state of the art. Results from four so-called NORD-groups (NORDVOC...

  17. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas:A review of 553 cases in Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To sum up the clinical and pathological characte- ristics of solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) and the experience with it.METHODS: A total of 553 SPT patients reported in Chinese literature between January 1996 and January 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the 553 SPT patients included in this review was 27.2 years, and the male to female ratio was 1:8.37. Their symptoms were non-specific, and nearly one third of the patients were asymptomatic. Computed tomography...

  18. Pulmonary-bronchus myelolipoma and review on extra-adrenal myelolipomas in Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-ting; ZHAO Shi-jun; LIN Dong-mei

    2012-01-01

    Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are extremely rare,especially in bronchus and lung.Up to now,only nine cases of intra pulmonary lesions have been reported all over the world.Here we describe a new discovered pulmonary-bronchus myelolipoma in a 53-year-old man,which is different from the previously reported ones.And we mainly comment on the pathology and diagnosis,comparing with the findings of the extra-adrenal cases reported in Chinese literature.

  19. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang LL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LiLi Zhang,1 JiTao Li,2–4 YanJie Zhao,5 Yun’Ai Su,2–4 Tianmei Si2–4 1Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, 3Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 5National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, has been introduced as a novel atypical antipsychotic agent in many countries. It is available both as an oral extended-release (ER formulation and as a long-acting injection (paliperidone palmitate, PP, which have been approved for treating schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China since 2009 and 2012, respectively. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on the databases covering international and Chinese core journals, published from January 1, 2008, to May 22, 2015. Results: A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53, nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP

  20. Understanding Texts with the Help of Experimentation: The Example of Cupellation in Arabic Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau, Sébastien; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The article aims to show how experimentation can help us understand historical texts, by focusing on the specific case of cupellation in Arabic scientific literature. It also provides new information about cupellation in the Arab-Muslim Middle Ages. The article consists of translations of three of the most detailed accounts of cupellation: Hamdānī's Kitāb al-jawharatayn al-'atīqatayn (first half of the fourth/tenth century), Maslama b. Qāsim al-Qurṭubī, Rutbat al-ḥakīm (339-342/950-953), and Manṣūr b. Ba'ra, Kitāb kashf al-asrār al-'ilmiyya bi-dār al-ḍarb al-miṣriyya (615-635/1218-1238). These are accompanied by commentaries based on a series of experiments carried out in the course of archaeological research on cupellation, which are here used to shed new light on the medieval texts and resolve several problems in interpreting them.

  1. 中医科学性的再思考%Reconsideration of the Scientific Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏睦新; 胡平

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the debates among traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine have never stopped, some people put forward abolishing traditional Chinese medicine or just leaving along Chinese herbs. However tides of opposition had never destroyed traditional Chinese medicine. There must been reasons in it. The deepest reason why traditional Chi-nese medicine can live along lles in its scientific characteristics. So how to develop traditional Chinese medicine should been the point people focus on.%东西方医学的争论近年来从未停止过,有人以"中医不科学"为由,提出废除中医药,或者"废医存药",但一波又一波的反对浪潮从未能摧毁中医,中医之所以能生存下来,必然有其理由.究其内因在于中医是具有科学性的,因此如何发展中医应该是人们重视及研究的焦点.

  2. Literature review and analysis of the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Zheng-zheng Zhang; Di Xie; Nelson Xie; Hong Thach Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:A comprehensive literature search for all published articles in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Chongqing VIP Database and WANFANG Data was conducted.The studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to extract information according to a predesigned assessment instrument.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine were identified.Of these questionnaires,7 were generic,12 were condition-specific and 78 were disease-specific.All instruments were suitable for adults,children,and both men and women.These instruments aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life,signs and symptoms as well as patient satisfaction and doctor-reported outcome.However,the descriptions were poorly constructed for some of the most basic parameters,such as the domains and items,administrative mode,response options,memory recall periods,burden evaluation,format,copyright,content validity,and other properties.CONCLUSION:The instrument development for health outcomes assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,there are many limitations in current methodologies and standards,and further studies are needed.

  3. Common Agricultural Policy Reform and its Impact on Biodiversity and Livelihoods in Developing Countries - A review of scientific literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.M.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of scientific literature on the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and its impacts on biodiversity in developing countries. The review was requested by Europe External Policy Advisors (EEPA) and Tilburg University to validate the findings of the study by Van Reise

  4. Semantic representation of scientific literature: bringing claims, contributions and named entities onto the Linked Open Data cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Sateli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Finding relevant scientific literature is one of the essential tasks researchers are facing on a daily basis. Digital libraries and web information retrieval techniques provide rapid access to a vast amount of scientific literature. However, no further automated support is available that would enable fine-grained access to the knowledge ‘stored’ in these documents. The emerging domain of Semantic Publishing aims at making scientific knowledge accessible to both humans and machines, by adding semantic annotations to content, such as a publication’s contributions, methods, or application domains. However, despite the promises of better knowledge access, the manual annotation of existing research literature is prohibitively expensive for wide-spread adoption. We argue that a novel combination of three distinct methods can significantly advance this vision in a fully-automated way: (i Natural Language Processing (NLP for Rhetorical Entity (RE detection; (ii Named Entity (NE recognition based on the Linked Open Data (LOD cloud; and (iii automatic knowledge base construction for both NEs and REs using semantic web ontologies that interconnect entities in documents with the machine-readable LOD cloud.Results. We present a complete workflow to transform scientific literature into a semantic knowledge base, based on the W3C standards RDF and RDFS. A text mining pipeline, implemented based on the GATE framework, automatically extracts rhetorical entities of type Claims and Contributions from full-text scientific literature. These REs are further enriched with named entities, represented as URIs to the linked open data cloud, by integrating the DBpedia Spotlight tool into our workflow. Text mining results are stored in a knowledge base through a flexible export process that provides for a dynamic mapping of semantic annotations to LOD vocabularies through rules stored in the knowledge base. We created a gold standard corpus from computer

  5. Dental movement acceleration: Literature review by an alternative scientific evidence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Angela Domínguez; Cujar, Sergio Andres Velásquez

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the majority of publications using effective methods to speed up orthodontic treatment and determine which publications carry high evidence-based value. The literature published in Pubmed from 1984 to 2013 was reviewed, in addition to well-known reports that were not classified under this database. To facilitate evidence-based decision making, guidelines such as the Consolidation Standards of Reporting Trials, Preferred Reporting items for systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, and Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs check list were used. The studies were initially divided into three groups: local application of cell mediators, physical stimuli, and techniques that took advantage of the regional acceleration phenomena. The articles were classified according to their level of evidence using an alternative method for orthodontic scientific article classification. 1a: Systematic Reviews (SR) of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 1b: Individual RCT, 2a: SR of cohort studies, 2b: Individual cohort study, controlled clinical trials and low quality RCT, 3a: SR of case-control studies, 3b: Individual case-control study, low quality cohort study and short time following split mouth designs. 4: Case-series, low quality case-control study and non-systematic review, and 5: Expert opinion. The highest level of evidence for each group was: (1) local application of cell mediators: the highest level of evidence corresponds to a 3B level in Prostaglandins and Vitamin D; (2) physical stimuli: vibratory forces and low level laser irradiation have evidence level 2b, Electrical current is classified as 3b evidence-based level, Pulsed Electromagnetic Field is placed on the 4th level on the evidence scale; and (3) regional acceleration phenomena related techniques: for corticotomy the majority of the reports belong to level 4. Piezocision, dentoalveolar distraction, alveocentesis, monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament

  6. A New Theory on the Evaluation of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture Mechanisms from the Latest Medical Scientific Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanç, Betül Battaloğlu

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is a key component of traditional Chinese medicine involving the insertion of needles through the skin at specific points on the body to achieve therapeutic effects and is an ancient Chinese art of healing. Using ancient scientific principles, acupuncture treats illnesses by bringing a person's body into harmony and regulating the balance of Yin and Yang. Balancing Yin and Yang is one basic principle of Chinese medicine, and balancing methods for combination of meridians and acupoints have been described throughout the history of Chinese medicine. Clinical observations and principal research on acupuncture focus on the adjustment of the Zang-Fu organ and have shown that the adjustment by acupuncture relied largely on the effective components in different organs. What does this effectiveness mean? In fact, is acupuncture a treatment that shows its effects with signals to the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine pathways? What role does embryology play in this area? Furthermore, molecular biology has opened avenues to newer methods for the study of embryology and to enhance our understanding of growth and development. Can evaluation of acupuncture with these branches of science be more scientific? We discuss this interesting topic in this original article. After all this time, it is reasonable that different therapeutic techniques and approaches are developed for acupuncture.

  7. Summary of the scientific literature for pain and anxiety control in dentistry journal literature, January 1986-December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, L C

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains both foreign (in brackets) and English language citations obtained from Index to Dental Literature, Index Medicus, and Psychological Abstracts for the period January 1986 to December 1987. Although a careful search of these indexes was performed, every relevant citation may not be included. Comments or suggestions regarding this bibliography are welcomed by the author.

  8. Rape in Armed Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Koya, Mapendo; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Jeannot, Emilien; Rehani, Sylvie B; Chastonay, Philippe

    2016-05-19

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 1996 and 2013 on rape in war-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to better understand the interest of the scientific community in describing the magnitude and characteristics of the problem. The literature search was conducted in French and English using several databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, Sapphire, BDSP, Embase, Rero, and Web of Science) with the key words "rape and DRC" combined with several Medical Subject Headings concepts. Our systematic review yielded 2,087 references, among which only 27 are original studies, that is 20 are based on population surveys and the remaining 7 are original data based on case studies and reviews. Ten studies provided prevalence rates of rape victims, 18 provided specific information on the profile of the victims, 10 reported that most of the perpetrators of rape were military personnel, 14 referred to the negligence of the government in protecting victims, and 10 reported a lack of competent health-care facilities. The awareness of rape in conflict-ridden DRC is still limited as reported in the scientific literature: Published scientific papers are scarce. Yet more research would probably help mobilize local authorities and the international community against this basic human rights violation.

  9. Bacteria Community in the Terrestrial Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research of the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Xia, Y.; Dong, H.; Dong, X.; Yang, K.; Dong, Z.; Huang, L.

    2005-12-01

    Microbial communities in the deep drill cores from the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling were analyzed with culture-independent and dependent techniques. Genomic DNA was extracted from two metamorphic rocks: S1 from 430 and S13 from 1033 meters below the ground surface. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. The total cell number was counted using the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and biomass of two specific bacteria were quantified using real-time PCR. Enrichment was set up for a rock from 3911 meters below the surface in medium for authotrophic methanogens (i.e., CO2 + H2). The total cell number in S13 was 1.0 × 104 cells per gram of rock. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that low G + C Gram positive sequences were dominant (50 percent of all 54 clone sequenced) followed by the alpha-, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria. Within the low G + C Gram positive bacteria, most clone sequences were similar to species of Bacillus from various natural environments (deserts, rivers etc.). Within the Proteobacteria, our clone sequences were similar to species of Acinetobacter, Acidovorax, and Aeromonas. The RT-RCP results showed that biomass of two particular clone sequences (CCSD1305, similar to Aeromonas caviae and CCSD1307, similar to Acidovorax facilis) was 95 and 1258 cells/g, respectively. A bacterial isolate was obtained from the 3911-m rock in methanogenic medium. It was Gram negative with no flagella, immobile, and facultative anaerobic, and grows optimally at 65oC. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the genus of Bacillus. Physiological tests further revealed that it was a strain of Bacillus caldotenax.

  10. HeoSeuk’s Thought for the Chinese Literature-Geography:Centering on Chinese Literature Travelas%许世旭文学地理学学理探讨-以《中国文学纪行》为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴南用

    2015-01-01

    HeoSeuk (1934—2010) is not only a distinguished Korean scholar of Chinese literature but also a poet and prose writer who has created so many works by making use of Korean and Chinese. I regarded HeoSeuk’s main writing Chinese Literature Travelas a subject of study. I researched the conception, implication, category, structure and influence of the Chinese literature-geography which HeoSeuk has. Furthermore, I researched the opinion of the Chinese literature-geography which means it combines the literature with geography. When HeoSeuk wrote the Chinese history of literature book, he put great emphasis on the human geography and physical geography of Chinese writer and literary work. Fundamentally, he insisted the close association between geography and literature. He mainly studied the ethnic style and local cultural features of the Chinese literature. Consequently, HeoSeuk’s thought for the Chinese literature-geography had an excellent and unusual meaning. In addition, he contributed the new research viewpoint and criticism methodology to the sinology academic world of Korea.We could understand the international exchange between the Chinese literature and cultural geography through HeoSeuk’s cultural translation of the Chinese Literature-Geography Travelas.%许世旭先生(1934—2010)是韩国十分著名的中国文学研究家,也是用韩语、汉语双重语言来创作的诗人、散文家。文章以许世旭先生的主要著作《中国文学纪行》为研究对象,探讨他对中国文学地理概念的定义、含义、范畴、结构、影响等方面观点和对文学与地理互相结合的文学地理学的观念。在阐述几部中国文学史著作时,他非常重视中国文人和作品中的人文地理和自然地理。他坚持认为地理与文学之间存在密切关系,主要研究中国文学中的民族风格和地域文化特色。总而言之,许世旭先生对文学地理学有独到见解,而且为韩国的

  11. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blom RM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rianne M Blom,1 Nienke C Vulink,1 Sija J van der Wal,1 Takashi Nakamae,1–3 Zhonglin Tan,1,4 Eske M Derks,1 Damiaan Denys1,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 3Department of Neural Computation for Decision-Making, ATR Brain Information Communication Research Laboratory Group, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Hangzhou Mental Health Center, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: Body integrity identity disorder (BIID is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy

  12. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-03-14

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  13. Private Science and Public Knowledge: The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal and its Use of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinch, T. J.; Collins, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Shows the part played by formal/informal literatures in the social construction of scientific knowledge, analyzing the work of the "Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal" (which critically investigates fringe-sciences). Indicates that popular literature can deconstruct facts while scientific…

  14. Benefits and harms of general health checks- lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arreskov, Anne Beiter; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke

    the paper using the method of critical appraisal. Session content The didactic method used in the workshop is mostly small group activities with eight participants and two tutors in each group. The participants will receive two scientific papers: the BMJ-version of the Cochrane review about general health......Abstract title: Benefits and harms of general health checks - lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature Objectives After this workshop the participants will know the basics of how to read a systematic literature review and interpret a meta-analysis and be able...... to assess if: • the research valid? • what are the results? • should we apply the research in our practice? Background GPs often experience difficulties in keeping up-to-date, and at times feel they reach the outer boundaries of their knowledge. The practice of medicine in which the busy physician finds...

  15. Promoting integrative medicine by computerization of traditional Chinese medicine for scientific research and clinical practice: The SuiteTCM Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur de Sá Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Chinese and contemporary Western medical practices evolved on different cultures and historical contexts and,therefore,their medical knowledge represents this cultural divergence.Computerization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is being used to promote the integrative medicine to manage,process and integrate the knowledge related to TCM anatomy,physiology,semiology,pathophysiology,and therapy.METHODS:We proposed the development of the SuiteTCM software,a collection of integrated computational models mainly derived from epidemiology and statistical sciences for computerization of Chinese medicine scientific research and clinical practice in all levels of prevention.The software includes components for data management (DataTCM),simulation of cases (SimTCM),analyses and validation of datasets (SciTCM),clinical examination and pattern differentiation (DiagTCM,Tongue TCM,and Pulse TCM),intervention selection (AcuTCM,HerbsTCM,and DietTCM),management of medical records (ProntTCM),epidemiologic investigation of sampled data (ResearchTCM),and medical education,training,and assessment (StudentTCM).DISCUSSION:The SuiteTCM project is expected to contribute to the ongoing development of integrative medicine and the applicability of TCM in worldwide scientific research and health care.The SuiteTCM 1.0 runs on Windows XP or later and is freely available for download as an executable application.

  16. Academic Writing in Reflexive Professional Writing: Citations of Scientific Literature in Supervised Pre-Service Training Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Chaves de Melo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate citation practices of scientific literature in reflexive writing from the genre of supervised pre-service training report produced by pre-service teachers enrolled in the mandatory pre-service training subject of English Language Teaching, at an undergraduate language teaching course. The aim of this research is to analyze how these pre-services teacher represent themselves based on citation practices of scientific literature, and characterize some of the functions deployed by the citations in the reflexive writing emerging in the academic sphere. We use the dialogic approach to language from Bakhtinian studies as a theoretical base, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions regarding types of sequences and of discourse proposed by Adam and Bronckart. The results of this research show that the practice of citation of scientific literature is an invocation of authority as a form of erudition, amplification and ornamentation of the discourse produced. This practice can also guide pedagogical action developed by pre-service teachers in their supervised training.

  17. The Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research in China: Results from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H.; Zhang, G.; Huang, L.; Dai, X.; Wang, Y.; Lu, G.; Dong, Z.; Dong, X.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial abundance and community structure from ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks and deep fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) project were investigated by using geochemical and cultivation and molecular microbiology methods. The drilling site is located in the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu ultra high-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) orogenic belt at the convergent plate boundary between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze Plates. This integrated approach conclusively demonstrates that microbes can survive in the deep continental subsurface (down to ~4500 m) and they play important roles in biogeochemical transformations of minerals and rocks. Direct cell counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis identified microbial life in rock samples taken from as deep as ~4500 m, where the temperature was estimated to be approximately 130oC. The subsurface distribution of microorganisms was continuous and the abundance of microbial cells was unrelated to the depth. However, analysis of 16S rDNA sequences derived from the rock DNA samples by PCR showed that the diversity of microorganisms decreased with increasing depth. The bacterial clone sequences shifted from a Proteobacteria-dominated community to a Firmicutes-dominated one with increased depth. From the ground surface to 2030 m, most clone sequences were related to nitrate reducers, with a saline, alkaline, and cold habitat. From 2290 to ~4500 m most clone sequences were closely related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface marine environments. A number of enrichments and isolates were obtained from the rocks and fluids, including thermophilic metal reducers and alkaliphiles. Thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria were incubated with lactate as the electron donor and structural Fe(III) in solid minerals as

  18. Using HeLa cell stress response to introduce first year students to the scientific method, laboratory techniques, primary literature, and scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, Karen K

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular biology course that couples inquiry-based experimental design with extensive scientific writing was designed at Westminster College to expose first year students to these concepts early in their undergraduate career. In the module students used scientific literature to design and then implement an experiment on the effect of cellular stress on protein expression in HeLa cells. In parallel the students developed a research paper in the style of the undergraduate journal BIOS to report their results. HeLa cells were used to integrate the research experience with the Westminster College "Next Chapter" first year program, in which the students explored the historical relevance of HeLa cells from a sociological perspective through reading The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. In this report I detail the design, delivery, student learning outcomes, and assessment of this module, and while this exercise was designed for an introductory course at a small primarily undergraduate institution, suggestions for modifications at larger universities or for upper division courses are included. Finally, based on student outcomes suggestions are provided for improving the module to enhance the link between teaching students skills in experimental design and execution with developing student skills in information literacy and writing.

  19. Representing Divorce, Reforming Interiority: Narratives of Gender, Class and Family in Post-Reform Chinese Literature and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This project stands at the juncture of modern Chinese literature, post-socialist studies, cultural history of divorce, and critical studies about global middle-class cultures. Employing analytical tools mainly from literary studies, cultural studies and feminist theories, I examine stories, novels, films and TV dramas about divorce produced…

  20. Library consortia and funding scientific literature and databases in Slovenia in the year 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Južnič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic ways of scientific communication is publishing in scientific journals which play a key role in the evaluation of scientific excellence and as such represent an indispensable part of scientific infrastructure. Their relevance is reflected in the high use rate. The article presents experiences in consortium purchases of scientific journals in the Republic of Slovenia within the management of the Central Technological Library at the University of Ljubljana (CTK. In 2009, the number of successful full-text article requests amounted to 829,576 EUR, an increase of 33% compared to the year 2008 and 178% more requests than in 2006. The Slovenian Research Agency (SRA supports libraries in consortium purchasing and is responsible for co-financing foreign scientific library resources in the Republic of Slovenia. In 2009, the amount of EUR 3,520,000 was given to libraries, of which the consortium received EUR 1,421,458,an increase of 419% compared to the previous year. Consequently eight new members joined the consortium in 2010, now involving 22 institutions. The article also presents the benefits of additional financial means given to the consortium.

  1. Concentration of the most-cited papers in the scientific literature: analysis of journal ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P A Ioannidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A minority of scientific journals publishes the majority of scientific papers and receives the majority of citations. The extent of concentration of the most influential articles is less well known. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 100 most-cited papers in the last decade in each of 21 scientific fields were analyzed; fields were considered as ecosystems and their "species" (journal diversity was evaluated. Only 9% of journals in Journal Citation Reports had published at least one such paper. Among this 9%, half of them had published only one such paper. The number of journals that had published a larger number of most-cited papers decreased exponentially according to a Lotka law. Except for three scientific fields, six journals accounted for 53 to 94 of the 100 most-cited papers in their field. With increasing average number of citations per paper (citation density in a scientific field, concentration of the most-cited papers in a few journals became even more prominent (p<0.001. Concentration was unrelated to the number of papers published or number of journals available in a scientific field. Multidisciplinary journals accounted for 24% of all most-cited papers, with large variability across fields. The concentration of most-cited papers in multidisciplinary journals was most prominent in fields with high citation density (correlation coefficient 0.70, p<0.001. Multidisciplinary journals had published fewer than eight of the 100 most-cited papers in eight scientific fields (none in two fields. Journals concentrating most-cited original articles often differed from those concentrating most-cited reviews. The concentration of the most-influential papers was stronger than the already prominent concentration of papers published and citations received. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a plethora of available journals, the most influential papers are extremely concentrated in few journals, especially in fields with high citation density. Existing

  2. Investigation of Plant Species with Identified Seed Oil Fatty Acids in Chinese Literature and Analysis of Five Unsurveyed Chinese Endemic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Cheng, Xiaojun; Jia, Qingli; Song, Huan; Liu, Xiangling; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Cuizhu; Zhang, Yansheng; Ohlrogge, John; Zhang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Diverse fatty acid structures from different plant species are important renewable resources for industrial raw materials and as liquid fuels with high energy density. Because of its immense geographical and topographical variations, China is a country with enormous diversity of plant species, including large numbers of plants endemic to China. The richness of this resource of species provides a wide range of fatty acids in seeds or other tissues, many of which have been identified by Chinese scientists. However, in the past, most publications describing analysis of these plants were written in Chinese, making access for researchers from other countries difficult. In this study, we investigated reports on seed and fruit oil fatty acids as described in Chinese literature. Six books and more than one thousand papers were collected and the identified fatty acids and relevant plant species were summarized. In total, about 240 fatty acids from almost 1,500 plant species were identified from available Chinese literature. Only about one third of these species were retrieved in the PhyloFAdb and SOFA online databases of plant fatty acids. By referring to a summary of plant species endemic to China, 277 Chinese endemic species from 68 families have been surveyed for seed fatty acids. These account for <2% of total Angiosperm species endemic to China indicating the scope of species yet to be surveyed. To discover additional new fatty acid structures that might benefit society, it is important in the future to study oilseed fatty acids of the many other Chinese endemic plants. As an example, seeds of five unsurveyed species were collected and their fatty acids were analyzed. Ricinoleic acid was detected for the first time in the Salicaceae family. PMID:28275379

  3. Molluscicidal efficacies of different formulations of niclosamide: result of meta-analysis of Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo-Jing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The control efforts on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, cannot be easily excluded from the integrated approach of schistosomiasis control in China. Application of chemical compounds, molluscicides, in snail habitats is a common method for snail control in addition to environmental modification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the molluscicidal effects of the currently recommended 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder and a new 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder developed by Chinese researchers. Literature was searched from three Chinese databases, i.e. Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Database and Wanfang Database, on field mollusciciding trials of niclosamide in China (from January 1, 1990 to April 1, 2010. Molluscicidal effects on reduction of snail population of the 50% or 4% niclosamide formulations in field trial were evaluated 3 days, 7 days or 15 days post-application. Out of 90 publications, 20 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity tests indicated that no publication bias existed but heterogeneity between studies was present. Meta-analysis in a random effect model showed that the snail mortality of 3, 7 and 15 days after spraying the 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were 77% [95%CI: 0.68-0.86], 83% [95%CI: 0.77-0.89], and 88% [95%CI: 0.82-0.92], respectively. For the 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder, the snail mortality after 3, 7 and 15 days were 81% [95%CI: 0.65-0.93], 90% [95%CI: 0.83-0.95] and 94% [95%CI: 0.91-0.97], respectively. Both are good enough to be used as molluscicides integrated with a schistosomiasis control programme. The 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder can be applied in the field without water supply as the surrogate of the current widely used 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder. However, to consolidate the schistosomiasis control

  4. Molluscicidal efficacies of different formulations of niclosamide: result of meta-analysis of Chinese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Li, Wei; Sun, Le-Ping; Wu, Feng; Yang, Kun; Huang, Yi-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-09-07

    The control efforts on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, cannot be easily excluded from the integrated approach of schistosomiasis control in China. Application of chemical compounds, molluscicides, in snail habitats is a common method for snail control in addition to environmental modification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the molluscicidal effects of the currently recommended 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder and a new 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder developed by Chinese researchers. Literature was searched from three Chinese databases, i.e. Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Database and Wanfang Database, on field mollusciciding trials of niclosamide in China (from January 1, 1990 to April 1, 2010). Molluscicidal effects on reduction of snail population of the 50% or 4% niclosamide formulations in field trial were evaluated 3 days, 7 days or 15 days post-application. Out of 90 publications, 20 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity tests indicated that no publication bias existed but heterogeneity between studies was present. Meta-analysis in a random effect model showed that the snail mortality of 3, 7 and 15 days after spraying the 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were 77% [95%CI: 0.68-0.86], 83% [95%CI: 0.77-0.89], and 88% [95%CI: 0.82-0.92], respectively. For the 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder, the snail mortality after 3, 7 and 15 days were 81% [95%CI: 0.65-0.93], 90% [95%CI: 0.83-0.95] and 94% [95%CI: 0.91-0.97], respectively. Both are good enough to be used as molluscicides integrated with a schistosomiasis control programme. The 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder can be applied in the field without water supply as the surrogate of the current widely used 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder. However, to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievement gained, it is

  5. A Review of Literature Regarding Scientific Controversies Surrounding the Psychometric Properties of the Rorschach Inkblot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kevin Neil

    2009-01-01

    The Rorschach Inkblot Test has been the focus of intense controversy, significantly impacting clinicians who currently rely on Exner's Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) in clinical and forensic settings. This paper evaluates recent empirical CS research to determine whether or not it reveals lack of scientific merit as some skeptics have…

  6. An Evaluation of Text Mining Tools as Applied to Selected Scientific and Engineering Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.; Wyllys, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses an approach to the discovery of scientific knowledge through an examination of data mining and text mining techniques. Presents the results of experiments that investigated knowledge acquisition from a selected set of technical documents by domain experts. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/LRW)

  7. STATE OF THE ART OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE ON Hancornia speciosa: TRENDS AND GAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANE MADUREIRA DE ALMEIDA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The economic and scientific interest in Hancornia speciosa (mangabeira has been growing in recent years, mainly due to the marketing of fruit and extraction of natural compounds with high pharmacological potential. In this study, a scientometric survey about mangabeira was carried out in order to promote and direct future studies on the species. As a result, low scientific productivity associated with this species was found, with only 131 articles published in the last 69 years. In addition, this study identified some trends in bibliographic production on mangabeira, among them: the increasing number of articles over the years; scientific dissemination in nationwide journals; the main focus of this study is associated with agronomic studies; the experimental approach is more frequent and usually associated with populations of restricted geographical distribution; and the scientific production is mainly from education institutions. Furthermore, this study also allowed the identification of some gaps in knowledge about mangabeira, among them the difficulty in describing and characterizing botanical lines; lack of analysis of the genetic diversity of widely distributed populations; lack of management and conservation projects for the species; lack of description of cultivation, collection and preservation techniques of fruits; and lack of identification of natural compounds responsible for its pharmacological activity. It is expected that the data generated in this study will serve to direct future studies on H. speciosa.

  8. A Combination of influence from Confucianism and Taoism upon Chinese culture and literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英华

    2008-01-01

    @@ Preface The mixture of various cultures including those deep rooted in Chinese history and those imported in the ancient time has led to the profoundness,uniqueness and colorfulness of Chinese culture,among which the combination of two of them---Confucianism and Taoism has fundamental influence in the way Chinese think and behave.

  9. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 2. Abdominal parenchymal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenacher, L. [Diagnostik Muenchen-Diagnostic Imaging Centre (Germany); Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regenburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-03-15

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the parenchymal abdominal organs. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. The working group experts cover the most recent relevant studies concerning liver-specific contrast media with an emphasis on a new classification system for liver adenomas. Additionally studies regarding selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) are reviewed. For the pancreas the most important tumors are described followed by an introduction to the most recently introduced functional imaging techniques. The manuscript concludes with some remarks on recent studies and concerning chronic pancreatitis as well as autoimmune pancreatitis.

  10. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Fuster, Héctor; Gil, Frederic; Panova, Tayana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and video games. Methods: Articles indexed in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2006 and 2010 related to the pathological use of Internet, cell phones, and video games were retrieved. Search results were reviewed to eliminate articles that were not relevant or were duplicates. Results: Three hundred and thirty valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO from 2006 to 2010. Results were compared with those of 1996–2005. The year with the highest number of articles published was 2008 (n = 96). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were China (n = 67), the United States (n = 56), the United Kingdom (n = 47), and Taiwan (n = 33). The most commonly used language was English (70.3%), followed by Chinese (15.4%). Articles were published in 153 different journals. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology and Behavior (n = 73), followed by Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology (n = 27) and International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (n = 16). Internet was the area most frequently studied, with an increasing interest in other areas such as online video games and cell phones. Conclusions: The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition

  11. Researches on Tic Disorder in Chinese Ancient Literatures%抽动障碍古代文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮铭; 吴敏

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the name, causes, pathology and the treatment of the tic disorders in ancient Chinese literatures through the database of Ancient Chinese Literature on Pediatric, and reveals the previous treatment for the disease by statistics for medication. It supplies the theoretical basis for clinical treatment.%通过查阅《中医儿科古代文献数据库》中与抽动障碍疾病相关的古代文献,综述抽动障碍的病名、病因病机以及治法;并通过对治疗药物的统计,揭示了历代医家对该病认识的总体规律,为临床治疗抽动障碍提供理论基础.

  12. Déjà vu: a database of highly similar citations in the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; Long, Tara C.; George, Angela C.; Garner, Harold R.

    2009-01-01

    In the scientific research community, plagiarism and covert multiple publications of the same data are considered unacceptable because they undermine the public confidence in the scientific integrity. Yet, little has been done to help authors and editors to identify highly similar citations, which sometimes may represent cases of unethical duplication. For this reason, we have made available Déjà vu, a publicly available database of highly similar Medline citations identified by the text similarity search engine eTBLAST. Following manual verification, highly similar citation pairs are classified into various categories ranging from duplicates with different authors to sanctioned duplicates. Déjà vu records also contain user-provided commentary and supporting information to substantiate each document's categorization. Déjà vu and eTBLAST are available to authors, editors, reviewers, ethicists and sociologists to study, intercept, annotate and deter questionable publication practices. These tools are part of a sustained effort to enhance the quality of Medline as ‘the’ biomedical corpus. The Déjà vu database is freely accessible at http://spore.swmed.edu/dejavu. The tool eTBLAST is also freely available at http://etblast.org. PMID:18757888

  13. Deja vu: a database of highly similar citations in the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; Long, Tara C; George, Angela C; Garner, Harold R

    2009-01-01

    In the scientific research community, plagiarism and covert multiple publications of the same data are considered unacceptable because they undermine the public confidence in the scientific integrity. Yet, little has been done to help authors and editors to identify highly similar citations, which sometimes may represent cases of unethical duplication. For this reason, we have made available Déjà vu, a publicly available database of highly similar Medline citations identified by the text similarity search engine eTBLAST. Following manual verification, highly similar citation pairs are classified into various categories ranging from duplicates with different authors to sanctioned duplicates. Déjà vu records also contain user-provided commentary and supporting information to substantiate each document's categorization. Déjà vu and eTBLAST are available to authors, editors, reviewers, ethicists and sociologists to study, intercept, annotate and deter questionable publication practices. These tools are part of a sustained effort to enhance the quality of Medline as 'the' biomedical corpus. The Déjà vu database is freely accessible at http://spore.swmed.edu/dejavu. The tool eTBLAST is also freely available at http://etblast.org.

  14. Needle-like instruments for steering through solid organs: A review of the scientific and patent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Marta; Pusch, Tim P; Breedveld, Paul; Dodou, Dimitra

    2016-12-01

    High accuracy and precision in reaching target locations inside the human body is necessary for the success of percutaneous procedures, such as tissue sample removal (biopsy), brachytherapy, and localized drug delivery. Flexible steerable needles may allow the surgeon to reach targets deep inside solid organs while avoiding sensitive structures (e.g. blood vessels). This article provides a systematic classification of possible mechanical solutions for three-dimensional steering through solid organs. A scientific and patent literature search of steerable instrument designs was conducted using Scopus and Web of Science Derwent Innovations Index patent database, respectively. First, we distinguished between mechanisms in which deflection is induced by the pre-defined shape of the instrument versus mechanisms in which an actuator changes the deflection angle of the instrument on demand. Second, we distinguished between mechanisms deflecting in one versus two planes. The combination of deflection method and number of deflection planes led to eight logically derived mechanical solutions for three-dimensional steering, of which one was dismissed because it was considered meaningless. Next, we classified the instrument designs retrieved from the scientific and patent literature into the identified solutions. We found papers and patents describing instrument designs for six of the seven solutions. We did not find papers or patents describing instruments that steer in one-plane on-demand via an actuator and in a perpendicular plane with a pre-defined deflection angle via a bevel tip or a pre-curved configuration.

  15. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Eduard; van Wietmarschen, Herman; van Wijk, Roeland; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-04-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal models published from 1979 through 1998. The research fields can be categorized as follows: (1) human physiological states measured using UPE; (2) characteristics of human UPE in relation to various pathological states; and (3) the relationship between diagnosis (e.g., Chinese syndromes) and the dynamics of UPE in animal models. We conclude that UPE has clear potential in terms of understanding the systems view on health and disease as described using Chinese medicine-based diagnostics, particularly from a biochemistry-based regulatory perspective. Linking UPE with metabolomics can further bridge biochemistry-based Western diagnostics with the phenomenology-based Chinese diagnostics, thus opening new avenues for studying systems diagnostics in the early stage of disease, for prevention-based strategies, as well as for systems-based intervention in chronic disease.

  16. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-fen Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  17. Dreaming scientists and scientific dreamers: Freud as a reader of French dream literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroy, Jacqueline

    2006-03-01

    The argument of this paper is to situate The Interpretation of Dreams within an historical context. It is, therefore, impossible to believe Freud entirely when he staged himself in his letters to Fliess as a mere discoverer. In reality Freud also felt he belonged to a learned community of dream specialists, whom I call "dreaming scientists" and "scientific dreamers." Instead of speaking, as Ellenberger does, in terms of influence, I will be offering as an example a portrait of Freud as a reader of two French authors, Maury, and indirectly, Hervey de Saint-Denys. I will analyze how Freud staged himself as replacing Maury and dreaming sometimes like Hervey de Saint-Denys. My premise in this work is that we must forget Freud, in order to adventure into a learned dream culture peculiar to the nineteenth century. Only afterwards can we come back to Freud and place him in this context as a creative heir.

  18. Data on the number and frequency of scientific literature citations for established medulloblastoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Ivanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article collates information about the number of scientific articles mentioning each of the established medulloblastoma cell lines, derived through a systematic search of Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar in 2016. The data for each cell line have been presented as raw number of citations, percentage share of the total citations for each search engine and as an average percentage between the three search engines. In order to correct for the time since each cell line has been in use, the raw citation data have also been divided by the number of years since the derivation of each cell line. This is a supporting article for a review of in vitro models of medulloblastoma published in “in vitro models of medulloblastoma: choosing the right tool for the job” (D.P. Ivanov, D.A. Walker, B. Coyle, A.M. Grabowska, 2016 [1].

  19. Identifying scientific artefacts in biomedical literature: the Evidence Based Medicine use case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Groza, Tudor; Hunter, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) provides a framework that makes use of the current best evidence in the domain to support clinicians in the decision making process. In most cases, the underlying foundational knowledge is captured in scientific publications that detail specific clinical studies or randomised controlled trials. Over the course of the last two decades, research has been performed on modelling key aspects described within publications (e.g., aims, methods, results), to enable the successful realisation of the goals of EBM. A significant outcome of this research has been the PICO (Population/Problem-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome) structure, and its refined version PIBOSO (Population-Intervention-Background-Outcome-Study Design-Other), both of which provide a formalisation of these scientific artefacts. Subsequently, using these schemes, diverse automatic extraction techniques have been proposed to streamline the knowledge discovery and exploration process in EBM. In this paper, we present a Machine Learning approach that aims to classify sentences according to the PIBOSO scheme. We use a discriminative set of features that do not rely on any external resources to achieve results comparable to the state of the art. A corpus of 1000 structured and unstructured abstracts - i.e., the NICTA-PIBOSO corpus - is used for training and testing. Our best CRF classifier achieves a micro-average F-score of 90.74% and 87.21%, respectively, over structured and unstructured abstracts, which represents an increase of 25.48 percentage points and 26.6 percentage points in F-score when compared to the best existing approaches.

  20. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: a report of six cases and a review of the Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jifang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Goals The main purpose of this study is to broaden the clinicopathological spectrum and increase recognition of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS through analysis of the clinical and pathological features of 50 cases. Methods The clinicopathological features of total 50 cases of FDCS were analyzed including a review of 44 cases reported in Chinese literature before October 2009 and six original cases from the pathology files conducted by the authors. Results The youngest patient came under observation in this study is only seven years old. Including the cases contributed by the authors, our literary review indicated that male dominated the tumor cases (M: F = 3: 2. 28 cases (56% present with this disease in extranodal sites. Tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for the follicular dendritic cell markers CD21 (47/49, CD35 (43/45, CD23 (20/23 and CD68 (23/25. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA was performed in 10 cases. Nevertheless, EBV expression was absent in all these cases. The follow-up analysis of all cases shows that 26 (81.2% patients were alive and disease free; 6 (18.8% patients were alive with recurrent disease or metastasis; and nobody had died of this disease at the time of last follow-up. Conclusions The diagnosis of the FDCS is based on the findings of morphology and immunohistochemistry. The FDCS occurred in China should be viewed and treated as a low-grade sarcoma, and the role of the EBV in the pathogenesis of this tumor is still uncertain. There is a possibility that the tumor might be racial or geographic correlated, because most cases were reported from Eastern Asia area; it's particular the case of the liver or spleen tumor.

  1. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  2. Scientific literature on teaching strategies used in biochemistry courses: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Trindade Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know teaching strategies undertaken by biochemistry teachers in higher education. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, and was included articles developed in Brazilian universities, published in the 2004-2015 period, with descriptors learning, biochemistry and graduation. 40 publications were found, and 2004 was the year with most studies (n=7. The most common activities were conducting experimental activity (32,5%, development of various teaching tools (22,5%, use of Problem-based Learning (20%, use of information technologies (17,5% and development courses (7,5%. Thus, it was observed that there are groups of teachers working with different teaching strategies seeking to improve student learning. The production and publication of knowledge in teaching in biochemistry can help this process.

  3. Prostate cancer, treatment modalities and complications: an evaluation of the scientific literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: santos-filho@uer.br; Missailids, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences

    2008-12-15

    Prostate (PR) cancer (CA) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in men all over the world. In general, if prostate cancer (PC) is detected early, treatment usually involves either surgical removal of the prostate or radiotherapy (RT). Hormone Therapy (HT) or chemotherapy (CH) is the preferred treatment for more advanced cases of PC or if CA spreads beyond the PT. A number of complications, such as urinary incontinence (IU) or erectile dysfunction (ED), can be associated with some modalities of treatment of the PC. The aim of this work is to evaluate, in PubMed, the number of publications related with prostate cancer and the main modalities of treatment, as well as some clinical complications. The searches were performed in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi) in the period 1950 to 2008 using the words: CA, CA and PR or penis or testis, CA and PR and RT, CA and PR and surgery (SU), CA and PR and CH and, CA and PR and HT and CA and PR and RT and IU or ED, CA and PR and SU and IU or ED, CA and PR and CH and IU or ED and, CA and PR and HT and CH and IU or ED, and (V) PC and the same modalities of treatment. The data was obtained on July 20th, 2008. PC, as expected has been cited extensively and surgery has been identified as the most widely referenced modality of treatment. Furthermore, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction are important complications that have attracted significant scientific interest. In conclusion, these findings have shown the relevance of the PubMed to analyze quantitatively the publications in cancer and this information could be worthwhile in aiding the comprehension of some clinical aspects related with PC, as well as the development of preventative actions. The analysis of the scientific interest, considering the number of publications in the PubMed, reveals research trends in the field and demonstrates the importance of the surgical procedures in the treatment of the prostate cancer. Moreover, this finding is

  4. Toward Sublime:the Comparison of Sea Poems in Chinese and English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单健; 翟静

    2014-01-01

    This essay briefly discusses different reflections of western and Chinese philosophy towards sea in poems. By the com-parison of the evaluation of sea in Chinese and English poems, this essay reaches the conclusion that both cultures have sublime understanding towards sea.

  5. Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Prasad SK; Hemalatha S

    2011-01-01

    Substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual behavior and satisfaction in humans and animals are called ‘aphrodisiac’. Uses of plant material to treat sexual disorder is a long back history in the different system of medicine and it was practiced by different type of vaidyas and traditional healer in almost all the countries in the world, like China, India, Egypt, Rome and Greek. Even though there was an unavailability of the scientific data, these substances have been used as aphrodisiac. During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria,Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans, Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo and in vitro model. Even though the study showed positive response to a particular substance, there is always a need to run the clinical trial before administering the tested drug in human being. The present review article summarizes the plant material which has been tested for its aphrodisiac activity in different experimental model (in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in human clinical trials) and comply its claim in the different system of medicine. A brief overview about the data of percentage study in the last eighteen years duration on aphrodisiac activity of plant material was done on the basis of the CAB abstract database.

  6. Scientific publications in anesthesiology journals from East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The scientific publications in anesthesiology research from East Asian authors have not been reported yet. The present study was designed to analyze the contribution of articles from East Asia to anesthesiology research. Articles published in 17 journals in anesthesiology originating from Japan, China, and South Korea from 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Web of Science. From 2000 to 2009, there were 3,076 articles published from East Asia. During this period, there were a notable decrease in publications from Japan and modest increases in publications from both China and South Korea. The average 5-year impact factor of the published articles was similar among the three regions, and China had the highest average number of citations to each article. Anesthesia & Analgesia published more articles than any other journal from all three regions. Our analysis showed that Japan was the most productive region in East Asia, but there was a notable decrease in publications from Japan in 2000-2009. The impact factor of the articles suggests similar levels of scholarship. Anesthesia & Analgesia was the most popular journal in East Asia.

  7. Resource Disambiguator for the Web: Extracting Biomedical Resources and Their Citations from the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Ibrahim Burak; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Martone, Maryann E; Bandrowski, Anita E

    2016-01-01

    The NIF Registry developed and maintained by the Neuroscience Information Framework is a cooperative project aimed at cataloging research resources, e.g., software tools, databases and tissue banks, funded largely by governments and available as tools to research scientists. Although originally conceived for neuroscience, the NIF Registry has over the years broadened in the scope to include research resources of general relevance to biomedical research. The current number of research resources listed by the Registry numbers over 13K. The broadening in scope to biomedical science led us to re-christen the NIF Registry platform as SciCrunch. The NIF/SciCrunch Registry has been cataloging the resource landscape since 2006; as such, it serves as a valuable dataset for tracking the breadth, fate and utilization of these resources. Our experience shows research resources like databases are dynamic objects, that can change location and scope over time. Although each record is entered manually and human-curated, the current size of the registry requires tools that can aid in curation efforts to keep content up to date, including when and where such resources are used. To address this challenge, we have developed an open source tool suite, collectively termed RDW: Resource Disambiguator for the (Web). RDW is designed to help in the upkeep and curation of the registry as well as in enhancing the content of the registry by automated extraction of resource candidates from the literature. The RDW toolkit includes a URL extractor from papers, resource candidate screen, resource URL change tracker, resource content change tracker. Curators access these tools via a web based user interface. Several strategies are used to optimize these tools, including supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms as well as statistical text analysis. The complete tool suite is used to enhance and maintain the resource registry as well as track the usage of individual resources through an

  8. 20世纪中国文学中的 "风水" 叙事%The Feng Shui Narration in the 20 th Century Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旋波

    2015-01-01

    近代以来, 作为中国传统文化一脉的风水观因其缺乏 "真确的知识" 而受到摒弃和批判, 五四以来风水一直受到科学理性、 唯物主义主导的文学思潮的攻伐. 随后, 20世纪中国社会及文化思潮发生了巨大的变迁,风水在文学中的境遇也因时而易, 这不但反映了时代思潮的嬗变, 还纠结着20世纪纷繁复杂的政治、 哲学及美学取向. 尤其是随着90年代中国文化语境的变迁, 风水文化逐渐浮现出其反思现代性的 "复魅" 特质.%In modern times, Feng Shui, which has been inherent to traditional Chinese culture, has been denounced and defamed as lack of scientific and truthful knowledge, and has long been criticized by the rational and materialistic school of literature since the May Fourth Movement. In the 20th century, as the Chinese society and ideology is undergoing dramatic changes, Feng Shui varies from time to time in literature, which reflects not only the transformation of ideology but also the complication of politics, philosophy and aesthetics. Particularly in the 1990s, as the cultural environment in China has greatly changed, the culture of Feng Shui tends to be charged with the nature of "revitalizing the enchantment of the world", i. e. reflections upon modernism.

  9. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Methods: Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. Results: There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05, especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81, followed by Hong Kong (720.39 and Mainland China (583.94. The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46 was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42 and Mainland China (1.33. Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392, followed by Hong Kong (3,785 and Mainland China (1,493. The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65 was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57 and Mainland China (3.41. The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Discussion: Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  10. 科技查新工作质量的影响因素分析%Factors influencing the assessment of scientific literature novelty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕淑云

    2016-01-01

    After a discussion of how to abstract and summarize the literature novelty points, how to use the retrieval words and how to write the conclusion in assessment of scientific literature novelty, the major factors influencing the assessment of scientific literature novelty were analyzed with suggestions put forward for improving the assessment of scientific literature novelty.%探讨了科技查新过程中查新点的提炼与归纳、查新检索用词及查新结论的撰写,分析了影响查新质量的主要因素,并提出了提高查新工作质量的建议。

  11. Green areas and health outcomes: a systematic review of the scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Nardo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Growing medical evidence shows that access to the natural environment improves health and wellbeing, prevents disease and helps people recover from illness. Experiencing nature in the outdoors can help tackle obesity and coronary heart disease. Green areas exert their benefits on both physical and mental health, promoting physical activity and strengthening the sense of community thus positively influencing social interaction. Urbanization poses problems through effects such as environmental pollution, accidents, heat island effects, climate change and a consequent demand for urban green areas.

    Material and methods: We performed literature searches of electronic journal databases for studies and reviews that focused on the relationship between green spaces and health. We looked at the effects on physical health, mental health, social health, physical activity and well-being in its broadest sense and then we categorically organized our findings.

    Results: We found many contradictory and unexpected results. However, the reported findings were generally consistent and supported the current view that urban design and the availability of urban green spaces are key elements of prosperity and individual/collective comfort, so as to influence both the perceived health and the objective physical conditions in a measurable way. A weak relationship between physical activity levels and green space availability is observed.

    Conclusions: The occasionally contradictory results that emerged in this study suggest that a opulation’s esponse to urban design interventions is often unpredictable. Further research is needed to quantify the trength of relation between green spaces and urban health, but also to investigate the social and behavioural spects which are more difficult to measure and understand.

  12. The Short Stay Unit as a new option for hospitals: A review of the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Gianfranco; Pinnarelli, Luigi; Sommella, Lorenzo; Vena, Valentina; Magrini, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The short stay unit (SSU) is a ward providing targeted care for patients requiring brief hospitalization and dischargeable as soon as clinical conditions are resolved. Therefore, SSU is an alternative to the ordinary ward (OW) for the treatment of selected patients. The SSU model has been tested in only a few hospitals, and the literature lacks systematic evaluation of the impact of SSU use. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of SSUs in terms of length of hospital stay, mortality and readmission rate. Material/Methods A random effect meta-analysis was carried out by consulting electronic databases. Studies were selected that focused on comparison between use of SSUs and OWs. Mean difference of length of stay was calculated within 95% confidence intervals. Results Six articles were selected, for a total of 21 264 patients. The estimated mean difference was −3.06 days (95% CI −4.71, −1.40) in favor of the SSU. The selected articles did not show any differences in terms of mortality and readmission rate. Conclusions Use of SSUs could reduce patient length of stay in hospital, representing an alternative to the ordinary ward for selected patients. A shorter period of hospitalization could reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections, increase patient satisfaction and yield more efficient use of hospital beds. Findings of this study are useful for institutional, managerial and clinical decision-makers regarding the implementation of the SSU in a hospital setting, and for better management of continuity of care. PMID:21629205

  13. 中国文学的历史星空%Historical Starry Sky in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The paper explains that Chinese literature has developed the trends during the four thousand years to from the Chinese cultural context. The ancient articles, Spring and Autumn period writings, Han Fu—the arti-cles in Han Dynasty, Pian Yong—the articles in Wei and Jin Dynasty, the poems in Tang and Song Dynasty, Yuan verse and traditional opera in Yuan Dynasty, novels in the Ming and Qing Dynasty, and with many litera-ti and masterpieces together make up various bright stars Chinese literature history.%阐明中华文学经四千年的演变潮流,形成中国文脉。上古文存、春秋笔墨、两汉散赋、魏晋骈咏、唐宋诗词、元曲杂剧、明清小说,历代文人佳作汇集,构成了中国文学历史上,繁星满天,璀璨夺目。

  14. Quantitative analysis and relevant features of the scientific literature related to SAXS and SANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craievich, Aldo F [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Fischer, Hannes, E-mail: craievich@if.usp.b, E-mail: hannes@jacto.com.b [Jacto Maquinas Agricolas SA, Pompeia-SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    We present and discuss here numerical information derived from a systematic searching of scientific papers related to SAXS and SANS published in indexed journals - from 1945 until nowadays - recorded by the Web of Science Data Bank (WoS). We have detected interesting features regarding the time dependence of the number of papers/year, N(t), indicating the existence of three well-defined periods of historical evolution with rather well-defined boundaries. All three periods exhibit a positive and approximately linear variation of N(t) but, at the two transitions between periods, the rate of growth exhibits clear and strong increases. Differences of the historical evolutions in the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS were established. The different behaviours regarding the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS and the existence of three different and well defined periods for N(t) can be qualitatively understood as a consequence of the progressive and increasing availability along the last three decades of very brilliant synchrotrons, last generation commercial X-ray sources, new neutron facilities, powerful computers and novel theoretical approaches for SAS data analysis. The rates of growth in the number of papers/year published by authors from a set of different countries are approximately constant along the last two decades. For other countries we have detected a slowing down effect in the number of papers/year while a clear acceleration could be noticed for the production of SAS papers by authors from several emerging countries. These opposite trends compensate in such a way that the number of SAS (SAXS+SAXS) articles published per year all around the world maintained a vigorous linear growth - during more than 20 years - at a constant rate of 60 papers/year, without any indication of eventual saturation. The observed distribution of articles among different journals indicates that a very high fraction of the volume of SAS research is

  15. The First Decade with the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register - A Systematic Review of the Output in the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstedt, Susanna M; Wettermark, Björn; Hoffmann, Mikael

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and characterize the scientific output from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) the first decade after its establishment. A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, EMBASE and PubMed (2005-2014). Additional publications were identified by personal knowledge, reference lists, contact with active authors and a citation search in Web of Sciences. Publications using SPDR data were included in the analysis and characterized regarding study type, presence of patient-level record linkage, target population and topic. A total of 719 publications were identified in the literature search and an additional 148 by other strategies. Three hundred and thirty-eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority were analytic (n = 166; 49.1%) or descriptive (n = 100; 29.5%). The remaining studies focused on validation (n = 20; 5.9%), health economics (n = 16; 4.7%) or miscellaneous (n = 36; 10.7%). The analytic studies investigating effects of drug exposure focused mainly on safety (n = 46) and/or effectiveness (n = 24). The first publications appeared in 2007 (n = 6), and in 2014, 90 articles using SPDR were published. Over the years, linkage with other registers using the personal identity number increased (0-88.9% of the publications). The population was often selected by age (49.7%), condition (45.0%) and/or drug (22.8%) and concerned predominantly psychiatric (29.0%) and cardiovascular (20.4%) diseases. In conclusion, this study illustrates that the establishment of a nationwide individual-based register on dispensed prescription drugs facilitates an encouraging development of pharmacoepidemiological research, both regarding the number of publications and the scientific level of the analyses.

  16. Analysis of the production of scientific literature in clinical research areas in Physiotherapy between 2005 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Narváez Martha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: characterize the behavior of clinical research in Physiotherapy, through the analysis of theproduction of scientific literature in a period of five years in order to identify areas of concentrationand dispersion, collaborative research and types of clinical studies have conducted. Methods andmaterials: descriptive study on the papers in Medline/PubMed from 2005-2009. Were considereda total 404 publications, clinical trials and epidemiological studies side, analyzed according to thepercentage distribution of articles by clinical area, year of publication, and institutional affiliation ofresearchers. Results: It found a greater number of trials (93% systematic reviews represented thegreatest number of epidemiological studies side. The clinical areas pulmonary and cardiovascularaccount for 65% of scientific publications in the studies analyzed. The year with highest numberof publications was 2008. Half of the clinical research produced in this five-year have affiliationwith academic institutions, and secondly, studies conducted in hospitals. Conclusions: the clinicalresearch publications in Physiotherapy in Medline/PubMed registered show sustained activity ofscientific production in the pulmonary and cardiovascular areas, consistent with the major healthconcerns in the world. The findings suggest that the ability of physiotherapists to develop qualityresearch, use and transfer of results into clinical practice should achieve greater development.

  17. Applying a text mining framework to the extraction of numerical parameters from scientific literature in the biotechnology domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André SANTOS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications are the main vehicle to disseminate information in the field of biotechnology for wastewater treatment. Indeed, the new research paradigms and the application of high-throughput technologies have increased the rate of publication considerably. The problem is that manual curation becomes harder, prone-to-errors and time-consuming, leading to a probable loss of information and inefficient knowledge acquisition. As a result, research outputs are hardly reaching engineers, hampering the calibration of mathematical models used to optimize the stability and performance of biotechnological systems. In this context, we have developed a data curation workflow, based on text mining techniques, to extract numerical parameters from scientific literature, and applied it to the biotechnology domain. A workflow was built to process wastewater-related articles with the main goal of identifying physico-chemical parameters mentioned in the text. This work describes the implementation of the workflow, identifies achievements and current limitations in the overall process, and presents the results obtained for a corpus of 50 full-text documents.

  18. Applying a text mining framework to the extraction of numerical parameters from scientific literature in the biotechnology domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anália LOURENÇO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications are the main vehicle to disseminate information in the field of biotechnology for wastewater treatment. Indeed, the new research paradigms and the application of high-throughput technologies have increased the rate of publication considerably. The problem is that manual curation becomes harder, prone-to-errors and time-consuming, leading to a probable loss of information and inefficient knowledge acquisition. As a result, research outputs are hardly reaching engineers, hampering the calibration of mathematical models used to optimize the stability and performance of biotechnological systems. In this context, we have developed a data curation workflow, based on text mining techniques, to extract numerical parameters from scientific literature, and applied it to the biotechnology domain. A workflow was built to process wastewater-related articles with the main goal of identifying physico-chemical parameters mentioned in the text. This work describes the implementation of the workflow, identifies achievements and current limitations in the overall process, and presents the results obtained for a corpus of 50 full-text documents.

  19. On the Chinese Version of the Term "Chinese American Literature" and Its Definition%论Chinese American Literature的中文译名及其界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王理行; 郭英剑

    2001-01-01

    本文论述了Chinese American Literature的中文译名及其界定问题,认为,其中文译名应为"美国华裔文学",对它的界定是:"有中国血统的美国公民用英语创作的文学作品".

  20. 幼儿国学教育点滴谈%View on Ancient Chinese Literature Search Education on Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾艳

    2014-01-01

    “Ancient Chinese Literature Search education should educated from baby”has become a social common voice. From an early age children learn Ancient Chinese Literature Search classic can not only cultivate children elegant personality, inspire children’s intelligence, the development of children’s memory and understanding, but also let the children become more confident, creative, but also more filial piety. Using various ways,meanstry to combine Ancient Chinese Literature Search classical education with kindergarten day activities, harmonious family, love friends, all-round development of children’s heart are expected to cultivated.%“国学教育要从娃娃抓起”已经成为社会大众普遍的呼声。从小让孩子学习国学经典不仅能培养孩子优雅的人格,启迪孩子的智慧,开发儿童的记忆力和理解力,还能让孩子变得更加自信、有创造力,同时也更懂得孝顺。利用各种方式、手段,尝试将国学经典教育融入到幼儿园的一日活动中,培养具有尊长尊师、好学重道、和睦家庭、友爱朋友等身心全面发展的幼儿。

  1. Current Situations of Competitive Scientific Research Projects for Agri-scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO; Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    This paper collected and arranged competitive scientific research projects undertaken by Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences in 2003-2014. Through statistical analysis on quantity of projects,funded amount,age of person responsible,professional title of person responsible,academic degree of person responsible,research object,it discussed relevant characteristics and rules. Finally,it came up with pertinent measures and recommendations,in the hope of providing services for decision-making and scientific and technological management.

  2. Female Cross-Dressing in Chinese Literature Classics and their English Versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Bo Tso Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-dressing, as a cultural practice, suggests gender ambiguity and allows freedom of self expression. Yet, it may also serve to reaffirm ideological stereotypes and the binary distinctions between male and female, masculine and feminine, homosexual and heterosexual. To explore the nature and function of cross-dressing in Chinese and Western cultures, this paper analyzes the portrayals of cross-dressing heroines in two Chinese stories: The Ballad of Mulan (500-600 A.D., and The Butterfly Lovers (850-880 A.D.. Distorted representations in the English translated texts are also explored..

  3. 普实克论中国文学的抒情传统∗%Prek’s Research on Lyric Tradition of Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云

    2015-01-01

    在普实克看来,中国现代文学的抒情性特征既受到欧洲浪漫主义文学的直接影响,也是中国古典文学抒情传统的现代发展。西方浪漫主义抒情传统注重自我情感的抒发,中国古典文学抒情传统具有强烈的现实关怀,是一种感时忧国的思想情感。中国现代文学的抒情性融合了中西抒情传统,内涵更为复杂。由此,普实克不仅细致分析了中国文学抒情传统与欧洲浪漫主义抒情传统的不同,展示了中国文学抒情传统的独特性,而且深刻把握了中国现代抒情文学发生的根本动力。%In Prek’s opinion,modern Chinese lyrical literature was mainly affected by European roman-ticism and Chinese classical lyrical tradition.Western romantic lyric tradition was focused on self-expres-sion,while,Chinese classical literature had a strong realistic concern about the time and the nation.Modern Chinese literature had more complex connotation with western lyric tradition and Chinese lyric tradition blending in.Prek precisely analyzed differences between the lyrical tradition of Chinese literature and Western romanticism.His research demonstrates the uniqueness of Chinese lyric tradition and the main driving force of modern Chinese lyrical literature.

  4. Todai Scientific Information Retrieval (TSIR-1) System. II. Generation of a Scientific Literature Data Base in a Center-Oriented Format by a Tape-to-Tape Conversion of CAS SDF Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Yammoto, Takeo

    1972-01-01

    Conversion of the Chemical Abstract Service scientific literature data base from Standard Distribution Format to a center-oriented file format, STF, is described. A tape file format is described in which variable length logical records, possibly longer than the blocksize, may be stored safely. (7 references) (Author/NH)

  5. College Chinese language and literature:from Theory to Practice%大学语文:从理论到实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蔚; 何二元

    2014-01-01

    This paper first reviews the whole process of Chinese language and literature from conducting research, writing the monograph, compiling textbooks to classroom teaching. The author explores the theory of College Chinese Language and Literature from the perspective of higher education of mother language and proposes that the compiling of College Chinese Language and Literature textbooks should be based on theories and the textbooks must be tested through teaching practice. This paper presents a summary of the experiences and achievements of College Chinese Language and Literature in the form of both theory and practice, hoping to offer references for the national Chinese Language and Literature teachers.%本文回顾了作者课题研究、撰写专著、教材编写、课堂实践的完整过程,从母语高等教育的高度探讨了大学语文学科理论,提出大学语文教材编写必须有理论开路、实践检验的观点,全面总结了大学语文从理论到实践所取得的经验与成果,希望能给全国大学语文同行们提供参考。

  6. Detection of drug-drug interactions through data mining studies using clinical sources, scientific literature and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Santiago; Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George

    2017-02-17

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) constitute an important concern in drug development and postmarketing pharmacovigilance. They are considered the cause of many adverse drug effects exposing patients to higher risks and increasing public health system costs. Methods to follow-up and discover possible DDIs causing harm to the population are a primary aim of drug safety researchers. Here, we review different methodologies and recent advances using data mining to detect DDIs with impact on patients. We focus on data mining of different pharmacovigilance sources, such as the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and electronic health records from medical institutions, as well as on the diverse data mining studies that use narrative text available in the scientific biomedical literature and social media. We pay attention to the strengths but also further explain challenges related to these methods. Data mining has important applications in the analysis of DDIs showing the impact of the interactions as a cause of adverse effects, extracting interactions to create knowledge data sets and gold standards and in the discovery of novel and dangerous DDIs.

  7. What's in a Name: Is “Evolutionary Psychology” Eclipsing “Sociobiology” in the Scientific Literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Webster

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Is the term “evolutionary psychology” supplanting “sociobiology” in the scientific literature? How influential was E. O. Wilson's (1975 book, Sociobiology, in establishing the discipline of the same name? Similarly, how influential were the two Tooby-Cosmides chapters appearing in The Adapted Mind (Cosmides and Tooby, 1992; Tooby and Cosmides, 1992 in establishing evolutionary psychology as a viable outgrowth of sociobiology? The purpose of the present research was to answer these questions using quantitative analyses of publication trends. The Internet search engine Google Scholar was used to count the number of hits (i.e., the number of scholarly works, citations, etc. for “sociobiology” and “evolutionary psychology” separately per year from 1960 to 2003. Interrupted time-series analyses revealed significant increases (intercept shifts for sociobiology hits between 1974 and 1975, and for evolutionary psychology hits between 1991 and 1992. Evolutionary psychology hits also experienced a significant increase in change-over-time (a slope shift between 1991 and 1992. Growth curve analyses revealed that the rate of growth for evolutionary psychology, which was accelerating over time, was significantly greater than that for sociobiology, which was decelerating. The implications of these findings for understanding the histories of sociobiology and evolutionary psychology are discussed.

  8. Non-surgical spinal decompression therapy: does the scientific literature support efficacy claims made in the advertising media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dwain M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traction therapy has been utilized in the treatment of low back pain for decades. The most recent incarnation of traction therapy is non-surgical spinal decompression therapy which can cost over $100,000. This form of therapy has been heavily marketed to manual therapy professions and subsequently to the consumer. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a debate pertaining to the relationship between marketing claims and the scientific literature on non-surgical spinal decompression. Discussion Only one small randomized controlled trial and several lower level efficacy studies have been performed on spinal decompression therapy. In general the quality of these studies is questionable. Many of the studies were performed using the VAX-D® unit which places the patient in a prone position. Often companies utilize this research for their marketing although their units place the patient in the supine position. Summary Only limited evidence is available to warrant the routine use of non-surgical spinal decompression, particularly when many other well investigated, less expensive alternatives are available.

  9. Evaluation in Moves: An Integrated Analysis of Chinese MA Thesis Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate communicative purpose of literature reviews is to convince the reader of the worthiness of the writer's research, which is realized stage by stage and evaluation plays an important role in achieving this end. However, concerns about evaluation demonstration in novice academic writers' literature reviews have been repeatedly voiced in…

  10. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  11. Similarities and Dissimilarities in Coauthorship Networks: Gestalt Theory as Explanation for Well-Ordered Collaboration Structures and Production of Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Hildrun

    2002-01-01

    Based on Gestalt theory, the author assumes the existence of a field-force equilibrium to explain how, according to the conciseness principle, mathematically precise gestalts could exist in coauthorship networks. Develops a mathematical function to describe these gestalts in scientific literature and discusses structural characteristics of…

  12. Evidence-based practice method of integrative Chinese and Western medicine based on literature retrieval through PICO question and complementary and alternative medicine topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiu-feng; Ni, Qing; Wei, Jun-ping; Xu, Hao

    2010-12-01

    An evidence-based practice method according to literature retrieval through PICO (Patients, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) questions and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) topics, which can obtain helpful evidence for guiding clinical practice, was introduced with a practical example in this paper. The knowledge of diseases and Western medicine treatment can be acquired by literature retrieval through PICO question, while searching by CAM topics may provide evidence for Chinese medicine (CM). Thus the author held that literature retrieval through both PICO question and CAM topics was an ideal evidence-based practice method for integrative Chinese and Western medicine (ICWM). However, since the standard in CM evidence hierarchy is still under study, the value of the CAM thematic retrieval method remains very limited. In the future, studies on the definition and hierarchy of CM evidences and the herb-drug interaction between Western and Chinese medicine during a combination therapy should be strengthened to improve the status of ICWM evidence-based practice.

  13. Current status of pediatric kidney transplantation in China: data analysis of Chinese Scientific Registry of Kidney Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Longshan; Zhang Huanxi; Fu Qian; Chen Liping; Sun Chuanhou; Xiong Yunyi; Shi Bingyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation (KTx) is the primary therapy for children with renal failure.Unlike KTx in adult patients,it is commonly agreed that pediatric KTx in China is far behind that of America.There has been no systematic analysis of Chinese pediatric KTx reported.This study aimed to demonstrate the current status of pediatric KTx in China.Methods Registry data of pediatric KTx (1983-2012) from Chinese Scientific Registry of Kidney Transplantation (CSRKT) were retrospectively analyzed.Results There were 851 pediatric KTx from 102 transplant units.The recipients were (15.4±2.5) years of age,93.9% of who were over 10 years old.Chronic glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis accounted for 75.6% of recognized primary diseases.Allografts were from deceased donors (72.2%) or living donation (27.7%).The patient survival for 1,3,5,and 10 years was 96.9%,94.2%,92.3%,and 92.3% and the graft survival was 94.6%,91.4%,86.3%,and 79.2%,respectively.The majority of post-transplant complications were acute rejection and infections.Annual transplant reached the peak in 2008 (n=114),and decreased sharply in 2006 (n=41) and 2010 (n=57).The percentage of pediatric KTx in total KTx was highest in 2007 (1.95%) and decreased to trough level in 2010 (1.0%).Living donation increased by 32.5-folds from 2004 to 2008 and then decreased by 86.6% till 2010.The percentage of living donation in pediatric or total KTx dynamically changed in a similar manner,while living donation ratio in pediatric KTx was much higher.Conclusions Kidney transplant can provide long-term benefits to pediatric recipients.Rejection and infections are worthy of concern during follow-up.Pediatric kidney transplant in China is very much lagging behind that in developed countries.Living donation played an important role in its development in the past decades.New strategies for implementation are encouraged to increase the priority of uremic children in organ allocation so as to

  14. Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…

  15. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low

  16. 1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

  17. Writers' Chronicle of Modern Chinese Literature%中国现代文学作家表谱文献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏绪

    2015-01-01

    Tables, chronicles and biographies are generally used in studying the lives of modern Chinese literary writers, and have become an important genre in this field. The chronological table is mainly adopted for listing the writers' activities, publications, translations and literary events. In summary, there is no strict difference between tables and chronicles in studies of documents of modern Chinese literature.%表、谱、传在中国现代文学史的作家生平研究中,被普遍采用,成为中国现代文学文献的重要类型.中国现代文学文献对于表这一历史体裁的采用,主要是年经事纬体的年表,用以编写作家个人的生平活动年表,著译系年和整个现代文学史大事年表等.中国现代文学文献学中的年谱与年表之间并无严格的区别.

  18. Portal venous gas and thrombosis in a Chinese patient with fulminant Crohn's colitis: A case report with literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Siu-Man Ng; Raymond Ying-Chang Yiu; Janet Fung-Yee Lee; Jimmy Chak-Man Li; Ka-Lau Leung

    2006-01-01

    Ever since its earliest reports, portal venous gas (PVG)has been associated with numerous intraabdominal catastrophes and has served as an indication for urgent surgical exploration. It is traditionally regarded to be an ominous finding of impending death, with highest mortality reported in patients with underlying bowel ischemia. Today, computed tomography has demonstrated a wider range of clinical conditions associated with PVG, some of which are 'benign' and do not necessarily require surgery, unless when there are signs of intraabdominal catastrophe or systemic toxicity. One of these 'benign' conditions is Crohn's disease. The present report describes a 19-year-old Chinese boy with Crohn's pancolitis who presented with septic shock associated with PVG and portal vein thrombosis, and was successfully managed surgically. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PVG and portal vein thrombosis associated with Crohn's disease in a Chinese patient. In addition, we have also reviewed the reports of another 18 Crohn's patients with PVG previously described in the English literature. Specific predisposing factors for PVG were identified in 8 patients, including barium enema,colonoscopy, blunt abdominal trauma, and enterovenous fistula. The patients who developed PVG following barium enema and blunt trauma were all asymptomatic and no specific treatment was necessary. Eleven patients (58%)who presented with signs of intraabdominal catastrophe or systemic toxicity required either immediate or eventual surgery. The overall mortality rate among the 19 patients was only 11%. The present literature review has shown that the finding of PVG associated with Crohn's disease does not always mandate surgical intervention. It is the clinical features and the related complications that ultimately determine the treatment approaches. The overall outcome of PVG associated with Crohn's disease has been favourable.

  19. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009-2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions.

  20. On Nationality of Chinese and——Western MythologIcal Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤涛; 童玥

    2015-01-01

    Mythology, which explains how the world comes into being, is formed at the early times of human being, when human being knows nothing about their origin; Knowing national characteristics of mythological literature of both China and the western world and their root causes, it can not only benefit our research on literary works, but also does good for our understanding their natinal traits.

  1. Seeking Accurate Cultural Representation: Mahjong, World War II, and Ethnic Chinese in Multicultural Youth Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjie

    2009-01-01

    The sheer amount of American children's and young adult literature, boasting an outpouring of 5,000 titles every year, often amazes a person who is new to this field. Not only is a large proportion of these books of high printing and binding quality, but, at a quick glance, among them is also a pleasant diversity of genre, format, targeted age…

  2. Effects of Translation Literature on the Development of Chinese Language%翻译文学对汉语演变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董利晓

    2014-01-01

    The development of Chinese is an ongoing process and translation literatures have always been an essential and exter-nal drive in the evolvement of Chinese. Translation activities have exerted many effects on the Chinese language. Some acknowl-edged effects of translation on Chinese vocabulary, grammar and syntax will be examined.%汉语的发展演变是一个持续不断的漫长过程,而翻译文学在汉语的演变中一直起着外在助推力的作用。丰富的翻译活动和翻译文学对汉语的发展产生了深远的影响,涉及词汇、语法和句法等方面。

  3. The Relationships between Chinese Higher Education Students' Epistemic Beliefs and Their Judgmental Standards of Searching for Literature Online: Undergraduate versus Graduate Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Yu, Yue-Yue; Wu, Jui-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between Chinese higher education students' epistemic beliefs and their judgmental standards of searching for literature online. Data were collected from 449 higher education students (152 college students and 297 graduate students) in Beijing via two self-reported questionnaires: one…

  4. The 2nd Convention of Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics & International Symposium on Literatures in English(June 15-16,2013)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to further promote literary scholarship and international academic exchange,the University of Pennsylvania-based Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics(CAAP)will collaborate with the School of Foreign Languages and School of Humanities of Central China Normal University, Foreign Literature Studies,

  5. Terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency ablation of tumors in the scientific literature: Systematic review of compliance with reporting standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for

  6. Progress in laparoscopic anatomy research: A review of the Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic surgery has generated the new field of study, laparoscopic anatomy. This article reviews the reported literature on laparoscopic anatomy and explores how it has evolved along with advances in abdominal surgery. In addition, the principal concerns in current laparoscopic anatomy research are discussed, including: (1) types of special adjacent anatomical structures; and (2) special surgical planes and anatomical landmarks. Understanding of systematic laparoscopic anatomy can pr...

  7. Rethinking on the Scientific Property and the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine%中医科学性及其发展问题的再思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张稚鲲; 张宗明

    2012-01-01

    The scientific property of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) is a long debating topic and the result is still uncertain. This paper states that along with the deeper understanding of the concept of science, the scientific property of TCM should not be doubted. The problems of westernized TCM, the integrative medicine etc. , are not only challenges but also opportunities. The key point is to attach importance to the characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, solve problems specifically, so as to seize the opportunities and create bright future for Traditional Chinese Medicine.%中医的科学属性是长期争论的焦点,目前仍无统一的认识.随着人们对“科学”的认识的不断深入,中医的科学性不应再被怀疑,目前面临的中医西化、中西医结合等问题,是挑战,也是机遇,关键是统一认识、脚踏实地,在当前环境下重视中医特色,解决具体问题,以抓住机遇、创造未来.

  8. 从中国文化资源重新定义文学%Redefine Literature through Chinese Culture: On the Development of Chinese Literature and World Literature in the A~e of Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张法

    2012-01-01

    西方对文学的定义是:文学是虚构,是与现实不同的艺术,体现为诗歌、小说、剧本。这一定义由西方向全球扩张而成为世界性的定义;同时,又在全球化的电子主潮中让文学被边缘化了。但在全球化时代不同文化汇通中,文学实际上最能显示一个文化的特质。如何让文学走出边缘化,而把文化的特质显示出来,就成为一个重要课题。在这一点上,中国古代文化关于文学的定义具有重要的意义。中国古代资源把文学定义为语言之美。任何文体,只要有语言之美,就可以成为文学。这一定义不但让人们重新思考文学和文学的各种类型,以扩大文学的类型,而且使人们有一种新的眼光去理解文学与文化的关系。更重要的是,让文学的品质在全球化时代的各种互动中得到提升。%The definition of literature in the West is that literature is fictive which is different from the reality but a kind of art, and which embodies in three forms, poetry, fiction and drama. This definition become a general thought with the process of expansion of Western culture aroud the world. When e-culture gets its main position in the age of globalization, literature is been peripherized. However literature can presents charateristic of culture in the age of globalization when the various different cultures communicate togather, so it is important to make literature give play to strong points. At this point, the definition of literature from ancient China is able to play its role. It defines literature as the beauty of language. Any form maken from words has light of beauty, it can be called literature. This definition makes us rethink literature, rethink what kind of form can be called literature and geves us a new vision to understand the relation between literature and culture. Impotantly the role of literature will be promoted into a carract position.

  9. A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Price, Jordan V; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Most scientists agree that comprehension of primary scientific papers and communication of scientific concepts are two of the most important skills that we can teach, but few undergraduate biology courses make these explicit course goals. We designed an undergraduate neuroimmunology course that uses a writing-intensive format. Using a mixture of primary literature, writing assignments directed toward a layperson and scientist audience, and in-class discussions, we aimed to improve the ability of students to 1) comprehend primary scientific papers, 2) communicate science to a scientific audience, and 3) communicate science to a layperson audience. We offered the course for three consecutive years and evaluated its impact on student perception and confidence using a combination of pre- and postcourse survey questions and coded open-ended responses. Students showed gains in both the perception of their understanding of primary scientific papers and of their abilities to communicate science to scientific and layperson audiences. These results indicate that this unique format can teach both communication skills and basic science to undergraduate biology students. We urge others to adopt a similar format for undergraduate biology courses to teach process skills in addition to content, thus broadening and strengthening the impact of undergraduate courses.

  10. 俄汉科技术语语言特征对比及翻译%Comparison Analysis of Russian and Chinese Scientific Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉富

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics and rules of Russian and Chinese scientific terms. Based on linguistics, cultural studies, and logic aspects, we compared the similarities and differences between Russian and Chinese terms and proposed related solutions for translation.%文章剖析了俄汉科技术语的特征和规律,从语言学、文化学、逻辑学几个方面对其进行对比,为认知和把握它们的特征和异同,解读其原理以及为解决此类翻译瓶颈,甄别翻译过程中的假朋友,提出认知途径并给出翻译的建议。

  11. Trends in scientific literature on addiction to the internet, video games, and cell phones from 2006 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Carbonell

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5 th Edition could change the publication trends in the technological addiction area and underline the relevance of this upcoming disorder in dissatisfaction with life in general.

  12. A Review of Chinese-English Translation of Scientific Paper Abstracts%科技论文摘要的汉英翻译研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏历

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews previous studies on Chinese-English translation of scientific paper abstracts. Several features are found. First, a large part of existing studies are conducted by journal editors, and are generally summaries of common lan-guage problems and error analyses. Second, in recent years, development of empirical research has given rise to some corpus-based studies on Chinese-English translation of scientific paper abstracts. Third, how to use some translation tools to address problems in the translation of scientific paper abstracts is discussed. The translation methods, strategies and principles are also examined. Fourth, successful management experiences of abstract translation by some top Chinese journals are also reported. Based on the above analysis, this paper suggests some possible directions for future research in this field.%文章对科技论文摘要汉英翻译研究的现状与特点进行了梳理。结果发现,已有研究有很大一部分是期刊编辑对摘要英译的错误统计与分析;近年来,还出现了不少基于语料库的相关研究;少数研究探讨了如何利用翻译辅助手段来解决摘要英译中的一些问题,以及相关翻译方法、策略及原则的总结;还有少量报道介绍了一些优秀的中文科技期刊如何处理摘要英译的成功经验。在此基础上,文章还尝试指出未来可继续研究的一些方向。

  13. [Analysis on scraping therapy literatures in Chinese national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) from 2002 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong-rong, Jiang; Gui-hua, Xu; Hua, Chen; Jie, Li

    2013-04-01

    In order to figure out the current situation and development of scraping therapy, and provide references for further researches. With "scroping therapy" as key word, the inclusive literatures in CNKI from 2002 to 2012 were retrieved and they were analyzed with the bibliometric method. Totaly 420 valid articles were acquined. The article number was increasing yearly and clinical trial was the main researching type. The articles were published in 147 different journals, of which 36.7% were source journals. The articles were mainly from areas with dominating TCM cultural atmosphere, specific folk medicine and prosperous economy. In recent 10 years, although the development of scraping therapy can be seen, the researching depth and width is not enough. In the future, the key point and direction of the research should focus on basic research of action mechanism and standardization of clinical trials in scraping therapy.

  14. Scientific publications in nephrology and urology journals from Chinese authors in East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diseases of the kidneys and genitourinary tract are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we compared the quantity and quality of nephrological and urological articles published in international journals from the three major regions of China: the mainland (ML, Hong Kong (HK, and Taiwan (TW. METHODS: Nephrological and urological articles originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published in 61 journals from 1999-2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the numbers of total articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, case reports, impact factors (IF, citations, and articles published in the leading general-medicine journals. We used these data to compare the quantity and quality of publication output from the three regions. RESULTS: The total number of articles increased significantly from 1999 to 2008 in the three regions. The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from HK since 2004, and surpassed that from TW in 2008. Publications from TW had the highest accumulated IF, total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading general-medicine journals. However, HK publications had the highest average IF. Although ML produced the largest quantity of articles, it exhibited the lowest quality among the three regions. CONCLUSION: The number of nephrological and urological publications originating from the three major regions of China increased significantly from 1999 to 2008. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK was higher than that from ML.

  15. 水芹的本草考证%Textual study on Oenanthe javanica documented in ancient Chinese medicinal literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正明; 杨新波; 曹文斌

    2001-01-01

    Object To obtain a deeper understanding of the origin andvarieties of Oenanthe javanica (Bl.) DC. for therapeutic use. Methods Literatures documented through generations of practical experiences were retrieved with simultaneous field study and laboratory identification of chemical constituents and pharmacological actions for comparison. Results The growth pattern and its therapeutic efficacy in different indications as recorded in the ancient literatures were found to be basically identical to that obtained by modern scientific research. Conclusion Only Oenanthe javanica (BL.) DC. of the Umbelliferae family can be considered as the orthodox product for therapeutic use.%目的 通过对水芹的本草学研究,考证其基源及药用品种。方法 查阅有关历代文献,实地考察和应用现代科学技术对水芹的化学成分和药理作用等进行研究。结果 表明历代本草文献中所记载水芹的生长特征及其功能主治与现代研究结果基本一致。结论 水芹基源仅伞形科水芹属植物水芹Oenanthejavanica(B1.)DC.为药用正品。

  16. IgE Myeloma: the First Report of Chinese Case and a Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOUJian; JIANGHua; HUHuixian; HEJin

    2004-01-01

    To report a case of IgE myeloma and to compare its clinical features with those reported in the literature. Methods: M-component in serum and urine was determined using celluloseacetate membrane electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis and quantification of immunoglobulins. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of IgE and its light chain. Results: A monoclonal peak was detected by cellulose-acetate membrane electrophoresis. The monoclonal band showed on immunofixation electrophoresis the following reactive patterns: positive for A antisera and negative for κ, IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD antisera. The serum immunoglobulin concentrations were: IgG 21.6 g/L, IgA1.2 g/L, IgM 2.64 g/L, κ 7.49 g/L, λ 16.0 g/L, κ/A 0.47. The results of immunohistochemistry showed cytoplasmic expression of IgE immunoglobulin and A light chain in the tumor tissue. Conclusion: This is the first case of IgE multiple myeloma reported in China.

  17. Management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis: a case report and review of the Chinese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Da-ren; Feng, Cheng-cheng; Zhou, Chuan-biao; Zhan, Chen-ni; Que, Ri-sheng; Chen, Li

    2014-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a common malignancy. The general treatments are thyroidectomy of the affected lobe along with lymphadenectomy. However, bone metastasis is rare in DTC compared with other malignancies and the management of metastasis foci is still controversial. Here we present a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with the 6th cervical vertebra body metastasis successfully treated by total thyroidectomy, cervical corpectomy, and internal fixation, followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy. Eleven additional patients diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis collected from Chinese literature between January 1996 and December 2013 were also reviewed. The mean age of the 12 patients at presentation was (53.9±9.2) years (rang, 42-72 years) and the male to female ratio was 1:2. Nine cases received total/near-total thyroidectomy or lobectomy while the other three patients refused for personal reasons. The interventions for bone metastasis were one-stage operation (9/12), I(131) adjuvant therapy (3/12), chemotherapy (1/12), and no intervention (1/12). During the follow-up, two patients died of metastatic carcinoma recurrence, one died of multiple organ metastasis, and one with an unknown reason. We conclude that the management of thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis needs multidisciplinary cooperation. Surgical resection is still the first choice for cure, while the combined one-stage operation on the primary and metastatic sites followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy is an applicable treatment.

  18. 形象学视角下美国华裔文学的汉译问题%On the Chinese Translation Issues of Chinese American Literature in the Perspective of Imagologie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 张景华

    2012-01-01

    美国华裔文学的创作及汉译都承载着中美跨文化交流的使命,充当着中美人民相互了解的媒介。汉译者在做好传递美国华裔文学作品中民族形象的同时,应注意加深了解美国文化,努力减少翻译过程中产生的变异,以促进中美文化交流。%The creation and Chinese transaltion of Chinese American literature is carried by the mission of intercultural communication between China and America and the media of mutual understanding between the people of two countries. The Chinese translators are not only supposed to make a good transmission of the national iamge in the works of Chinese American literature but also pay more attention to the further understanding of American culture with the effort to decrease the variation in the course of translation for the promotion of the cultural communication.

  19. 20世纪90年代马华报纸与文学的互动、互塑%The Interaction between the Chinese Newspaper and Chinese Literature in Malaysia in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王列耀

    2015-01-01

    The obvious characteristics of the 1990s'Chinese literary world in Malaysian is the limited literature space and the important role of the newspaper supplement. The Chinese newspaper was not only a publishing space,but also a living room and a development surrounding. But the development of Chinese literature didn't absolutely rely on the Chinese newspaper;the real relation of them was interaction with a common goal.%20世纪90年代马来西亚华文文坛的显著特征是文学园地稀少、报纸副刊作用极为重要.华文报纸不仅提供了华文文学的发表园地,也提供了华文文学的生长园地及发展氛围;但马华文学与报纸的真正关系是共谋中的互动,而不是依附之.

  20. 高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业应用型人才培养研究%Research on Fostering the Applied Talents Majoring in Chinese Language and Literature Education in Normal University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜刚

    2012-01-01

    The applied talents majoring in Chinese language and literature education are expected to be with noble character, rich knowledge on Chinese language and literature, skillful technique and strong practice abilities. None- theless,while fostering these talents, universities do have some issues such as inaccurate orientation of teaching,irra- tional course structure and imperfect evaluation system and so on. The new reform requires these talents to have an admirable appreciation of literature and a strong ability of expression, reading, writing, and teaching. Thus, we should lay our efforts on constructing a scientific curriculum system and a teaching staff with both and vocational qualifications. In the meanwhile, we should perfect the scientific evaluation practice links. These are effective methods to put emphasis on fostering the applied talents literature education in normal university, and achieve the goal of cultivating the talented guage for the basic education stage.%高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业应用型人才具有人格高尚、文化底蕴深厚、技能高超、实践能力强等内涵与特征。目前该专业人才培养中存在办学定位不准确、课程结构不合理、评价体系不完善等主要问题。新的改革要求高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业培养的人才应具有较强的文学鉴赏、语言表达、阅读、写作、教学实践等能力。因此,应该采取建立科学的课程体系、建设双师型的教师队伍、构建科学的评价体系、强化实践环节等有效路径,着力加强高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业应用型人才的培养,从而达到为基础教育阶段输送高素质优秀语文教师的目的。

  1. Mining Learning and Crafting Scientific Experiments: A Literature Review on the Use of Minecraft in Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Steve; Schneider, Sascha; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Since the field of educational videogames or serious games is not limited to games that are specifically designed for educational purposes, videogames such as Minecraft have aroused the attention of teachers and researchers alike. To gain insights into the applicability of Minecraft, we reviewed the literature on use of the game in education and…

  2. Bibliometric analysis of Chinese literatures about hemophilia care research%血友病护理研究中文文献计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 段志光

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To know about the research status of Chinese literatures in the field of hemophilia care,so as to provide references for targetedly improving hemophilia care research in China.Methods:Chinese literatures about hemophilia care research were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI),China ac-ademic journal network publication database and Wanfang Data knowledge service platform,and were analyzed in statistical methods.Results:422 researchers published 207 papers totally,31.401% by sole authors.Coopera-tive research was limited in the same organization,lack of cross regional and interdisciplinary integration.Most researchers and institutions were from provincial hemophilia treatment centers,and six institutions of Hemo-philia Treatment Centers Collaborative Network of China were the main research forces.5.314% of the papers had been funded primarily by provincial、civic and school foundations.Nursing research had been published on 43 kinds of journals,44.186% of them were nursing journals.Research hotspots focused on the field of “bleeding”,“comprehensive care”and “home care”.Conclusion:The overall strength of domestic hemophilia care research was weaker and should increase investment in policy support and scientific research of hemophilia care research, strengthen domestic and international exchanges and cooperation,promote interdisciplinary research,and accel-erate the setting of hemophilia nurse positions in our country.%[目的]了解血友病护理领域中文文献的研究状况,为有针对性地提高我国血友病护理研究提供参考依据。[方法]采用文献计量学方法,检索中国知网(CNKI)和万方数据知识服务平台,对国内血友病护理研究中文文献进行统计分析。[结果]422名研究人员共发文207篇,31.401%为独著,合作研究局限在同一机构,缺乏跨地区及学科间的交叉融合;血友病护理研究人员及机构多来自省级血友病诊疗中心,以中

  3. Contemporary Chinese Ecological Politics under the Guidance of Scientific Outlook%科学发展观指导下的当代中国生态政治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颜艳

    2012-01-01

    At present,the ecological environment endangers the human survival and development and the ecological problems have become a political problem.The ecological politics has become a sustainable developing strategy for Chinese economy.The scientific outlook,as the guidance for Chinese political ecology,guides the development of Chinese ecological politics.The contents of ecological politics and its guiding thought are analyzed from the evolving process of human and nature relation.The future of Chinese ecological politics is also analyzed through the analysis of the challenge faced by the ecological politics.%当生态环境问题危及人类生存发展时,生态问题实质上就上升为一个重大的政治问题。当前生态政治化已成为我国经济社会可持续发展战略的一个重要因素。科学发展观作为当代中国生态政治的指导思想,它的提出、贯彻、落实引领着当代中国生态政治不断向前发展。笔者从人与自然关系的演变历程入手,详细阐述了生态政治的内容,并论述了当代中国生态政治的指导思想,最后通过分析当代中国生态政治面临的机遇和挑战,对未来中国生态政治做了展望。

  4. Analysis of SOD1 mutations in a Chinese population with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case-control study and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, QianQian; Zhou, QingQing; Chen, YongPing; Ou, RuWei; Cao, Bei; Xu, YaQian; Yang, Jing; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Although the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene has been identified in both familial ALS (FALS) and sporadic ALS (SALS), it has rarely been studied in Chinese patients with ALS, and there are few studies with large samples. This study sought to assess the prevalence of SOD1 mutations in Chinese ALS patients. We screened a cohort of 499 ALS patients (487 SALS and 12 FALS) from the Department of Neurology at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University and analyzed all coding exons of SOD1 by Sanger sequencing. In addition, we reviewed the mutation frequencies of common ALS causative genes in Chinese populations. Eight missense mutations in SOD1 were found in 8 ALS individuals: two novel mutations (p.G73D and p.V120F) and six previously reported mutations. The frequencies of SOD1 mutations were 1.03% (5/487) in SALS and 25% (3/12) in FALS from Southwest China. A literature review indicated that the mutation rates of major ALS causative genes were 53.55% in FALS and 6.29% in SALS. In Chinese SALS and FALS, the highest mutation frequency was in the SOD1 gene. Our results suggest that SOD1 mutation is the most common cause of ALS in Chinese populations and that the mutation spectrum of ALS varies among different ethnic populations. PMID:28291249

  5. Chinese Pop Literature Studies in the First Half of the 20th Century%20世纪上半叶的俗文学文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠元

    2012-01-01

    20世纪上半叶,众多学者对俗文学文献进行收藏、整理、校勘研究等工作。这些工作不仅仅为俗文学研究提供了丰富的史料,同时也在显现这些被长久遮蔽、遗忘的文学历史时解答了众多文学史的谜团,恢复了中国文学的全真面目。它在提高俗文学历史地位的同时,在推动俗文学学科建设的过程中起到了地基性作用。%In the first half of the 20th century, many scholars collected and studied literature of Chinese pop literature. Their work provided plenty of research materials and solved many mysteries long neglected in the literary history. By revealing the true face of Chinese literature, it has improve the statue of pop literature and laid a solid foundation for the establishment of pop literature as a discipline.

  6. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time.

  7. On Training of Scientific Literature Education to the Scientific Literacy of Young Children%论科学文艺教育对幼儿科学素质的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于敏

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, under the influence of"education"strategy and the"Science education should start with children"under the slogan of the past twenty years time, science education has become the new darling of nursery education. The scientific quality of foster children became the slogan of many of the media, has become the choice of many parents. The scien-tific literature in which its unique charm is attracting young children, science and arts education to enhance the scientific quality of foster children has an important role, is an important way to promote the scientific development of children.%改革开放以来,在“科教兴国”战略的影响下以及“科学教育要从娃娃抓起”口号下,短短二十几年的时间,科学教育成为幼儿园教育的新宠。培养幼儿的科学素质成为了众多媒体的口号,也成为了众多家长的选择。而在这其中科学文艺以其独特的魅力正吸引着年幼的孩子,科学文艺教育对幼儿科学素质的提升与培养具有重要的作用,是促进幼儿科学素质养成的重要方式。

  8. Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia: A New Branch of Chinese Overseas Literature%海外华人文学的新支:东南亚回族华人文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建军

    2016-01-01

    Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia is literature branch active in Singapore and Malaysia , which has not yet attracted researchers attention .From 1950s to date, it could be divided into three stages .The formation of the Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia is related to the Chinese Hui Muslims ' migration and the develop-ment of the Chinese literature .Studying on it will be helpful for comprehending the relations between Chinese Overseas lit -erature and Islamic culture , which mainly covered the themes crossing with Zhenghe , female and authors ' creativeness .%东南亚回族华人文学是海外华人文学中尚未引起研究者重视的一支. 东南亚回族华人文学活跃于新加坡和马来西亚,从20世纪50年代至今,大致可分为三个发展阶段,出现了戴小华等一批作家. 东南亚回族华人文学的形成与回族华人的移民活动和东南亚华人文学的发展有关,对其进行研究,有助于学界思考东南亚华人文学与伊斯兰文化的关系. 东南亚回族华人文学的特色在于郑和题材创作、女性题材创作,以及作家创作的跨越性.

  9. 简析中国残疾人文学的价值与意义*%A Discussion on the Value and Signiifcance of the Chinese Disabled Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管恩森; 仵从巨

    2013-01-01

    Chinese disabled literature is an important part of the disabled career in China, and it is also the indispensable content of the culture construction in China. Therefore, it is with unique value in contemporary Chinese literature. This thesis gave a comprehensive discussion of social value, literary value, art value and academic value of the Chinese disabled literature, and put forward the suggestion of carrying out the academic thoughts and some related subjects of Chinese disabled literary study.%中国残疾人文学创作是中国残疾人事业的重要组成部分,也是中国文化建设不可或缺的重要内容之一,因而在中国当代文学创作中具有较为独特的价值,包括社会价值、文学价值、艺术价值和学术价值,残疾人文学在创作形式、主题与影响等诸多层面均在中国当代文学景观中具有鲜明的艺术特色,可以从中外残疾人文学研究、比较文学跨学科研究的视阈出发,围绕“经验与想象性”、“主题与开掘性”、“写作与工具性”、“特性与国际性”等内涵,紧扣残疾人文学中的“疾病”隐喻,深入开展对中国残疾人文学的学术研究。

  10. 加强中医院校科研实验室建设的思考%Considerations on Strengthening Scientific Research Lab-oratory Construction in Traditional Chinese Medicine U-niversities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宁

    2014-01-01

    The scientific research laboratory for Traditional Chi-nese Medicine is an important place for the implementation of scientific experiments on Traditional Chinese Medicine, so it is of great significance for the improvement of scientific research level on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Starting from the practice of scientific research laboratory construction in this university, this paper proposed suggestions on how to strengthen laboratory con-struction, and promote the development of scientific research laboratory for Traditional Chinese Medicine.%中医药科研实验室是实施中医药科学实验的场所,对提高中医药科研水平有重要的意义。文章从该校科研实验室建设的实践出发,就如何加强实验室建设,促进中医药科研实验室的发展,提出了建议。

  11. Marxism and Chinese New Literature and Art%马克思主义与中国新文艺(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炯

    2011-01-01

    马克思主义与中国新文艺的发展有密切的关系,回顾“五四”后三个30年我国文艺界在中国共产党的领导下运用马克思主义于实践所导致的历史和文艺的变化,以及在历史发展过程中文艺理论与文艺实践的互动和有关争论,应深刻总结90年来中国马克思主义文艺理论所达到的关于文艺基本规律和社会主义文艺规律的认识。%This article discusses the relationship between Marxism and the development of Chinese new literature and art. By reviewing the historical and cultural changes brought about by the Communist Party of China through putting Marxism into practice in three "thirty years" after "May Fourth", and exploring the interaction between theory and practice of literature and art, as well as related controversy in the process of historical development, this paper analyzes the basic understanding of contemporary Chinese Marxist literary theory on the basic law of literature and art and the law of socialist literature and art.

  12. Marxismand Chinese New Literature and Art%马克思主义与中国新文艺(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炯

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between Marxism and the development oi Chinese new literature and art. By reviewing the historical and cultural changes brought about by the Communist Party of China through putting Marxism into practice in three "thirty years" after "May Fourth", and exploring the interaction between theory and practice of literature and art, as well as related controversy in the process of historical development, this paper analyzes the basic understanding of contemporary Chinese Marxist literary theory on the basic law of literature and art and the law of socialist literature and art._%马克思主义与中国新文艺的发展有密切的关系,回顾“五四“后三个30年我国在中国共产党的领导下运用马克思主义于实践所导致的历史和文艺的变化,以及在历史发展过程中文艺理论与文艺实践的互动和有关争论,应深刻总结了90年来中国马克思主义文艺理论所达到的关于文艺基本规律和社会主义文艺规律的认识。

  13. Literatura científica brasileira sobre transtornos do espectro autista Brazilian scientific literature about autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo refere-se a uma revisão sistemática, cujo objetivo foi conduzir uma análise da produção científica de autores brasileiros sobre Transtornos do espectro autista (TEA, no período de 2002 a 2009. MÉTODOS: A busca bibliográfica foi realizada nas bases de dados: PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS e portal CAPES, incluindo diversos descritores, tais como autismo e transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento. RESULTADOS: Um total de 93 artigos foi identificado, tendo sido publicados, sobretudo por autores da região Sudeste e de universidades públicas. Aproximadamente um terço dos artigos foi publicado em revistas com algum fator de impacto variando entre 0,441 e 3,211; sendo a maioria dos artigos baseada em amostras pequenas. Foram identificadas 140 dissertações e teses; 82,1% eram dissertações de mestrado. O principal tema de pesquisa abordado neste material relacionou-se a programas de intervenção para TEA. CONCLUSÃO: Esta revisão mostra o interesse de pesquisadores brasileiros na temática dos TEA, entretanto, uma parte considerável dessa produção científica se concentra em dissertações/teses e a minoria em artigos científicos publicados em revistas com elevado fator de impacto. Os resultados desta revisão sistemática mostram a necessidade de novos estudos com amostras maiores que levariam a um maior impacto e visibilidade da produção científica brasileira relativa aos TEA.OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic review aiming to conduct a general analysis of the scientific production covering publications of Brazilian authors about ASD in the period from 2002 to 2009. METHODS: The bibliographic search was conducted in the following scientific databases: PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS and portal CAPES, by using keywords such as autism and pervasive developmental disorders. RESULTS: A total of 93 papers were identified mainly produced by authors from tSoutheast Brazil and from public universities. Approximately one

  14. Aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: a critical review of the evidence and its dissemination into the scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole, a second-generation antipsychotic medication, has been increasingly used in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this indication in 2005. Given its widespread use, we sought to critically review the evidence supporting the use of aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and examine how that evidence has been disseminated in the scientific literature. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched multiple databases to identify double-blind, randomized controlled trials of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder while excluding other types of studies, such as open-label, acute, and adjunctive studies. We then used a citation search to identify articles that cited these trials and rated the quality of their citations. Our evidence search protocol identified only two publications, both describing the results of a single trial conducted by Keck et al., which met criteria for inclusion in this review. We describe four issues that limit the interpretation of that trial as supporting the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance: (1 insufficient duration to demonstrate maintenance efficacy; (2 limited generalizability due to its enriched sample; (3 possible conflation of iatrogenic adverse effects of abrupt medication discontinuation with beneficial effects of treatment; and (4 a low overall completion rate. Our citation search protocol yielded 80 publications that cited the Keck et al. trial in discussing the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance. Of these, only 24 (30% mentioned adverse events reported and four (5% mentioned study limitations. CONCLUSIONS: A single trial by Keck et al. represents the entirety of the literature on the use of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Although careful review identifies four critical limitations to the trial's interpretation

  15. Liyue Culture and the Evolution of Chinese Verse Literature%礼乐文化与中国韵文学的嬗变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安裴智

    2015-01-01

    “礼乐文化”是中华文化一大特点,是“礼教”、“乐教”、“诗教”的三位一体,以“乐”致“礼”、以“诗”传“教”的特点,促成了中国韵文学的发达。“诗”与“乐”是调节文人心态、让其回归“明德”高境界、从而养成君子人格的重要媒介,通过“乐”的艺术形式,达至“礼”的道德境界,这是古代“礼乐文化”长盛不衰的原因,也是中国韵文学在世界文坛独标一帜之内因。韵文学是理境情趣与格律声调和谐相融、带有音乐属性、可以吟唱的文学。中国韵文学最主要的文体形式是诗、词、曲。而长期的韵文学研究,片面地将“曲”肢解为散曲(清曲),而将以元杂剧、明清传奇为代表的剧曲排斥在曲体文学之外,从而割裂了中国韵文学的完整性。作为昆曲文学脚本的明清传奇,不仅是中国曲体文学的最后一次辉煌,也是曲体文学发展的最高范式,是中国古代韵文学的晚期杰作。%“(rites-music) Culture”, comprising of “( propriety education )”, “( music education )”, and“(poetry education)”, is a major characteristic of Chinese culture. With“yue (music)”to advocate “ (propriety)”, and with “(poetry)” to spread “(Confucian teaching) ”, “Culture”contributed to the boom of Chinese verse literature. “ ” and “ ” are the important medium for literary individuals to adjust their state of mind to bring it back to“mingde (original state of human mind) ”, and nurture the gentleman personality. People attempted to get to the ideal moral state of “li” through the artistic form of“ ”, which kept the ancient “Culture” prosperous, and was also the internal reason that made Chinese verse literature a unique literary form worldwide. The verse literature, a perfect blend of content (ideas, scenes, emotion, taste, etc.) and rhythmic qualities of language (like

  16. A Study on the Classification and Well-Logging Identification of Eclogite in the Main Hole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jian'en; Wei Wenbo; Jin Sheng; Ye Gaofeng; Deng Ming

    2007-01-01

    Eclogite, one of the important lithologies in the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project, exists above the depth of 3 245 m and has distinctive responses of gamma-ray, compensating density and neutron well-logging, and so on. In this study, according to the diversities of minerals and chemical components and well-logging responses, eclogites are classified from three aspects of origin, content of oxygen, and sub-mineral. We studied the logging identification method for eclogite sub-classes based on multi-element statistics and reconstructed 11 kinds of eclogite.As a result, eclogites can be divided into 6 types using well logs. In the light of this recognition, the eclogite in the main hole is divided into 20 sections, and the distribution characters of all sub-classes of eclogite are analyzed, which will provide important data for geological research of CCSD.

  17. APPLICATION OF PARAMETER CONTINUATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR. PROBLEM STATE. SHORT SURVEY OF WORLD SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bazhenov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their works study vibroimpact system dynamic behaviour by numerical parametric continuation technique combined with shooting and Newton-Raphson’s methods. The technique is adapted to two-mass two-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact system under periodic excitation. Impact is simulated by nonlinear contact interaction force based on Hertz’s contact theory. Stability or instability of obtained periodic solutions is determined by monodromy matrix eigenvalues (multipliers based on Floquet’s theory. In the present paper we describe the state of problem of parameter continuation method using for nonlinear tasks solution. Also we give the short survey of numerous contemporary literature in English and Russian about parameter continuation method application for nonlinear problems. This method is applied for vibroimpact problem solving more rarely because of the difficulties connected with repeated impacts.

  18. 刘若愚《中国文学理论》的技巧观%On the Skills View of Liu Ruoyu's Chinese Literature Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺根民

    2012-01-01

    In view of western culture and the world literature, Liu Ruoyu's Chinese Literature Theories explored the systematized thoughts of the art of Chinese poetry. The skills of bearing the meaning in the speech reveal the Taoism of the human social law. The thought of Liu's poetic skills increased Chinese influence on the field of the world literary.%参以西学文化,立足世界文学视野来探究中国诗学的技巧观,刘若愚《中国文学理论》发掘了中国诗学的系统化思想。以言语为意义承载的技巧,跃升为揭示人类社会规律的道,刘若愚中国诗学的技巧之思,加重了世界文论领域的中国声音。

  19. CONTEMPORARYFOREIGN LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence Bue; Marshall Brown; Alfred Hornung; James Phelan; Elizabeth Schultz; David Attwell

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Foreign Literature ( CFL,CN32-1087/I,ISSN 1001-1757 ),originated in 1980,is a journal of articles and reviews on contemporary literature except that of China.Peer-reviewed and published quarterly,in January,April,July and October,by the Institute of Foreign Literature,Nanjing University and the Yilin Press,CFL is indexed in the Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index (CSSCI).

  20. The influence of culture on the oral health-related beliefs and behaviours of elderly chinese immigrants: a meta-synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, André; MacEntee, Michael I; Beattie, B Lynn; Brondani, Mario; Bryant, Ross; Graf, Peter; Hornby, Kathryn; Kobayashi, Karen; Wong, Sabrina T

    2013-03-01

    Neglect of the mouth can lead to impairment, disability, and discomfort; as a result, it can have a negative impact on quality of life in old age. Some minority groups in North America shoulder a disproportionate burden of dental impairment compared to people of European origins, possibly because of different cultural beliefs and a distrust of Western oral healthcare. This paper explores these factors in elderly Chinese immigrants through a meta-synthesis of selected literature that reveals a dynamic interplay of traditional Chinese beliefs about oral health, immigration, and structural factors mediating access to Western dentistry. It also identifies several conceptual issues and gaps in knowledge, offers avenues of research including the cross-cultural application of two recent models of oral health, and discusses various strategies for improving access to dental services for minority populations.

  1. 《古代汉语》①敦煌文献选录献疑%Questioning on the Selection of Dunhuang Literature inOld Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚泽军; 华海燕

    2015-01-01

    Compared withOld Chinesecompiled by Wang Li andOld Chinese compared by Ge Xiliang, the Old Chinese compiled by Dong Zhiqiao and Yang Lin is creative in many aspects. But as to the selected Dunhuang Literature, there are some places worth questioning in terms of the transcription of master copy, misprinting of common words and articles and the interpretation of words.%董志翘、杨琳先生主编的《古代汉语》较之王力《古代汉语》、郭锡良《古代汉语》有诸多创新,但其选录的敦煌文献在遵从底本,俗字、讹文的誊录,词语的注释等方面还有值得商榷的地方。

  2. 汉译《圣经》的文学价值%The Literature Value of Bible's Chinese Version

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海鹰

    2011-01-01

    Being classics of Christian, Bible takes far-reaching effect on world culture and literature. Bible in Chinese has exerted a great influence upon China's politics, philosophy, literature, language, art, culture and other areas. It is not only mental resources for modern Chinese literature but also valuable inspiration for writers' creation.%《圣经》作为基督教经典对世界文化和文学的影响极为深远。《圣经》的汉译,对中国的政治、哲学、文学、语言、艺术、文化等领域的影响极其广泛。特别是从对中国现代文学的贡献和影响来看,汉译《圣经》既是中国现代文学的精神资源,又是现代文学家创作灵感的聚宝盆。

  3. The unusual stability of TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene): A review of the scientific literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, S.F.; Simpson, R.L.

    1990-07-04

    This review is intended as an up-to-date review of the scientific literature on TATB since its discovery as a high explosive. In particular, it focuses on clarifying our current understanding of the relationship between the structure of TATB and its unique thermal stability. We review a large number of different publications by many authors. A small portion of the work on TATB'' presented actually consists of experimental studies on TATB formulated as PBX-9502 or as LX-17. Where relevant, this distinction is indicated. However, inasmuch as this review focuses on thermal response and the relationship of chemical reactivity to the molecular and lattice structure of TATB as a pure material, results from these other formulations may not be directly applicable, and in general we have omitted them. 4 refs.

  4. 科技文献搜索引擎元数据仓储建设实践*%Construction of Metadata Repository in Scientific Literature Search Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘大广; 苏学; 张正峰

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the opportunities and chal enges of a user query behavior, industry resources publishing model change on the integration of digital resources, focusing on the actual work of scientific literature search engine underlying metadata repository construction, including metadata harvesting, metadata specification, and metadata integration.%  文章分析了用户查询行为、行业资源出版模式等变化对数字资源整合的机遇与挑战,重点结合实际工作介绍了科技文献搜索引擎底层元数据仓储的建设过程,包括元数据采集、元数据规范、元数据整合等环节。

  5. Statistical Analysis of Literatures for the Scientific Data Sharing Research%科学数据共享研究的文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔

    2013-01-01

      The scientific data sharing is an important driving force promoting the development of modern science, which is the key element of promoting national scientific and technological innovation. Subject headings by"Science Data Shared" for academic journals without time range, searches 234 articles correlative academic paper through on the CNKI Databases under of literature retrieved in this paper, and then it analysis annual issued volume, journals distribution, core author distribution, research body distribution, science research fund funding situation and eight theme area by the SATI3.2, Ucinet6 and SPSS18.0software on samples literature, so as to provide some reference to related studies in China.%  科学数据共享是促进现代科学发展重要的推动力量,是推动国家科技创新的关键要素。以“科学数据共享”作为主题词,不限定时间范围,选择文献类型为学术期刊,通过对《中国知网学术期刊网络出版总库》的文献检索,检索到234篇相关的学术论文,综合利用SATI3.2、Ucinet6与SPSS18.0等软件对样本文献的年度发文量、期刊分布、核心作者分布、研究机构分布、科研基金资助情况以及研究主题等8个方面进行分析,从而为国内相关研究提供一定的参考。

  6. Rethinking of Sima Changfeng's History of New Chinese Literature%司马长风《中国新文学史》再探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 韦群芳

    2011-01-01

    After the Cultural Revolution,a new pattern in the writing of history of modern Chinese literature was gradually formed under the great influence of Sima Changfeng's History of New Chinese Literature,especially its unique framework,timeline setting and criteria for value judgment.Even today,we can still learn from its distinctive and enthusiastic modes of narration,as well as its exuberant language.At the watershed in the writing of history of modern Chinese literature,reviewing and analyzing this masterpiece may reveal the nature of the past and enlighten the present.%司马长风的《中国新文学史》对中国现代文学史的编写产生了较大的影响,其独特的编写体例、分期方式及价值评判方式直接或间接地促进"文革"后中国现代文学史编写新格局的形成。《中国新文学史》充满活力的写史语言、富于个性和激情的叙述方式时至今日仍有较大的借鉴价值。在当前中国现代文学史编写面临转向的关头,回顾与梳理这部史著意在正本清源、启示当前。

  7. 论中国古典文学中的正义叙事%Narrative of Justice in Classical Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑双

    2015-01-01

    关于文学的社会功能,中国古代文论有“诗缘情”和“诗言志”两种传统,其中,“诗言志”生发叙事传统,赋予文学以载道的使命,体现了对正义价值的追求,并使得中国古典文学具有正义叙事的脉络。该正义叙事具有鲜明的民族特征:受“诗缘情”诗歌传统影响,正义叙事和诗性叙事呈交叉和弥合状态;受儒家礼制渗透,中国古典文学具有鲜明的道德教化功用,正义叙事背后是内在伦理秩序的构建;正义叙事反映了我们民族特有的审美文化和独特的语境,中国的阴阳二元思想与起源于结构主义的现代叙事理论有某些相似处。解读正义叙事对理解我们民族的哲学思想和文学叙事理论有重要的方法论意义。%As to the social function of literature, there are two kinds of poetry in classical Chinese lit-erature:Shiyuanqing 诗缘情 ( poetry expressing emotions) and Shiyanzhi 诗言志 ( poetry expressing lofty aspirations) . The latter, from which our narrative tradition originated, endows literature with the mission to convey truth and introduces narrative of justice into classical Chinese literature, revealing our pursuit of justice. Justice narrative shows distinctive national characteristics. Under the influence of Shiyuanqing, it is closely connected with poetic justice. Due to Confucian ritual theory, the func-tion of moralization is greatly emphasized in classical Chinese literature. Hence, what is behind justice narrative is the construction of our internal ethical order. Also, justice narrative reflects our unique aesthetic taste and cultural context. Chinese yin-yang theory is kind of similar to modern narrative the-ory originating from structuralism. Interpreting justice narrative is of methodological significance for understanding our philosophy and theory of literary narrative.

  8. Functional Pathways of Social Support for Mental Health in Work and Family Domains Among Chinese Scientific and Technological Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yiqun; Gan, Tingting; Chen, Zhiyan; Miao, Miao; Zhang, Kan

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the role of social support in the complex pattern of associations among stressors, work-family interferences and depression in the domains of work and family. A questionnaire was administered to a nationwide sample of 11,419 Chinese science and technology professionals. Several structural equation models were specified to determine whether social support functioned as a predictor or a mediator. Using Mplus 5.0, we compared the moderation model, the independence model, the antecedent model and the mediation model. The results revealed that the relationship between work-family interference and social support was domain specific. The independence model fit the data best in the work domain. Both the moderation model and the antecedent model fit the family domain data equally well. The current study was conducted to answer the need for comprehensive investigations of cultural uniqueness in the antecedents of work-family interference. The domain specificity, i.e. the multiple channels of the functions of support in the family domain and not in the work domain, ensures that this study is unique and culturally specific.

  9. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study.

  10. 中国古代文论的审美主体间性特征研究%Research on the Aesthetic Intersubjectivity Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙根

    2015-01-01

    当前的世界,是全球化的思潮逐渐蔓延的时代,同时,现代性的思潮危机也是我们必须反思的内容,在两者相互碰撞的时代危机之下,我们可以从审美主体间性这一全新的角度来对中国古代文论进行全新的考察。我们认为,中国古代文论的审美主体间性主要体现在浑融的艺术感知性、双向对举的艺术张力以及艺类渗透的文本融合性。中国古代文论的这种审美主体间性是与西方文论有着截然不同的特质的,是具有中国特色的古典文论,它对世界美学都会产生极为重要的影响,而且也应该成为世界美学中的重要组成部分。%The current world is the era in which the current of globalization is gradually spreading, while at the same time, the crisis of modernity of thought is what we must reflect on. Under the age of crisis in which the contents of the two colliding, we can carry out a new study on Chinese Ancient Literature from a new perspective of aesthetic intersubjectivity. The writer believes that the aesthetic intersubjectivity of Chinese Ancient Literature is mainly reflected in the artistic perception of oneness, two-way artistic tension and text fusion of art class penetration. The aesthetic intersubjectivity of Chinese Ancient Literature has distinct traits compared with western literary theory, which is classical literary theory with Chinese characteristics and is an important part and will have a very important impact on aesthetics in the world.

  11. On ZHU Zi-qing's Appreciation Theories of Chinese Classic Literature%朱自清古典文学欣赏理论初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方大卫

    2009-01-01

    欣赏中国古典文学作品离不开吟诵,要在吟诵的基础上了解,在培养欣赏力的同时培养判断力.欣赏也是想象、感受和理解的过程,更是一个再创造的过程.这是朱自清对古典文学欣赏理论的系统总结.这一欣赏理论,不仅内涵丰富,而且还有自己的特色.%The appreciation of Chinese classic literature works cannot be separated from the intonation of them. Comprehension is acquired on the basis of the intonation, and thus the appreciation as well as the judgment is cultivated. The appreciation is a course of imagination, perception and comprehension, and furthermore a course of recreation. This is a systematic conclusion of ZHU Zi-qing's theory of appreciation of Chinese classic literature works. The theory is rich in content with its own traits.

  12. Advertising Aesthetic Creation Referenced to Chinese Ancient Literature%论广告创作对中国古代文学的审美借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜婷婷

    2014-01-01

    当今我国广告业的发展面临着摆脱西方模式、创作具有中国美学特色作品的挑战。中国古代文学是中国传统文化的重要组成部分,又与中国古典美学相表里,可为之提供借鉴,具体可在以下三个方面入手:寻求情感切入点,凸显“在心为志,发言为诗”的表现之美;注重意境创造,展现“温柔敦厚”的含蓄之美;引用和借鉴古诗文,彰显“文抽丽锦”“拍按香檀”的形式之美。%The development of advertising industry in China is facing challenges that break away from the Western model, possessing chinese aesthetics features in works. Chinese ancient literature is an important part of Chinese traditional culture, associated with Chinese classical aesthetics, which can provide reference for them. There are the following three aspects: seeking emotional point that can outstand performance beauty of“ the heart as ambition , speak as the poem";paying attention to the artistic conception creation that can show implicit beauty of"gentle and sincere”; quoting and referencing the ancient poetry that can highlight form beauty of "the pumping Lijin""shoot at Xiang Tan".

  13. Diffusion of Tang Dynasty Literature and Traditional Chinese Medicinal Culture%唐代文学与#医药文化的传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雨; 韩静

    2016-01-01

    有唐一代,是中国文学的繁荣时期,可谓诗文众体皆备。唐传奇的创作与发展,使得中国小说走向成熟。由于经济与文化的繁荣,唐代的医学也获得了进一步的发展,中国医学在医经、医方、本草、针灸等方面都达到了空前的高度。在唐代,文人通医的现象已相当普遍,他们创作了大量与医药相关的文学作品。优美的语言、艺术的思维,既丰富了中医药的文化内涵,又从更广泛的层面促进了中医药文化的普及与传播。%ABSTRACT:As a prosperous period of literature,Tang Dynasty boasts its colorful poems and proses,which drives the maturity of Chinese novel.Economic and cultural prosperity also promotes the further development of Chinese medicine of Tang Dynasty,making it reach an unprecedented height in medical classics,medical prescriptions,ma-teria medica,acupuncture and moxibustion.During the Tang Dynasty,a great number of literary works concerning medicine have been composed by many literati who master a great deal of medicine.Such works with beautiful lan-guage and thinking pattern have enriched the cultural connotation of traditional Chinese medicine and promoted the popularization and dissemination of traditional Chinese medicinal culture in a broad way.

  14. Ideal Sentenments in Romantic Modern Chinese Literature%中国现代浪漫主义文学中的理想情愫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喜仁

    2011-01-01

    Ideals are an indispensable motive in the development course of modern Chinese literature and they are prominently deconstrated in romantic literature.They promoted the development of romantic literature and at the same time restricted its improvement.This article makes a research of it on the basis of the works writen by Lu Xun,Guo Moruo,Yu Dafu,Jiang Guangci,Fei Ming and Shen Congwen.Facts show that the personal ideals and those of the society are always in the controdictory unity of opposites and in the unity of opposites various possibilities in romantic literature were reduced.%中国现代文学的发展过程中,理想是一个不可缺少的动因,而在浪漫主义文学中表现得尤为突出,它促进了浪漫主义文学的发展,但也制约了它的进一步提高。本文选取鲁迅、郭沫若、郁达夫、蒋光慈、废名和沈从文六人的作品进行考察,事实表明作家的个人理想和社会理想总是处于矛盾的对立统一中,在对立统一中演绎了现代浪漫主义文学的诸种可能。

  15. Fluid inclusions associated with exsolution quartz needles in omphacite of UHP eclogites from the main hole of Chinese continental scientific drilling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Shen, K.; Liou, J.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Abundant primary fluid inclusions are recognized in omphacite of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogites from the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD), located at the southern Sulu orogenic belt. The eclogites consist of garnet, omphacite, coesite and rutile. Mineral and fluid inclusions are distributed alternatively and parallel to each other. The solid inclusions occur as needles with a length of 10~100 m and a width of 1~10 m whereas the fluid inclusions occur as tubes with the size varying from less then 3~5 m to greater then 50 m. The mineral inclusions were identified as quartz. Most fluid inclusions contain a gas bubble, a liquid phase and one to several solids. The liquid and gas phases are determined as H2O. The solid phases include halite, quartz and calcite, as well as opaque and unknown minerals. Some small thin-tubed fluid inclusions contain little or no solid and even without gas bubble; they contain dominantly water. The inclusion fluid was estimated to contain components in the system of NaCl-CaCl2-CO2-H2O-SiO2 with possibly trace Fe and Mg. We suggest that these fluid inclusions were conventional primary ones, and trapped during omphacite crystallization; upon decompression they acted as nucleation site for the crystallographically controlled precipitation of quartz from the omphacite matrix. Therefore the omphacite is considered to be one of the major fluid carriers during subduction of continental crust to mantle depths.

  16. The first step in the development of text mining technology for cancer risk assessment: identifying and organizing scientific evidence in risk assessment literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most neglected areas of biomedical Text Mining (TM is the development of systems based on carefully assessed user needs. We have recently investigated the user needs of an important task yet to be tackled by TM -- Cancer Risk Assessment (CRA. Here we take the first step towards the development of TM technology for the task: identifying and organizing the scientific evidence required for CRA in a taxonomy which is capable of supporting extensive data gathering from biomedical literature. Results The taxonomy is based on expert annotation of 1297 abstracts downloaded from relevant PubMed journals. It classifies 1742 unique keywords found in the corpus to 48 classes which specify core evidence required for CRA. We report promising results with inter-annotator agreement tests and automatic classification of PubMed abstracts to taxonomy classes. A simple user test is also reported in a near real-world CRA scenario which demonstrates along with other evaluation that the resources we have built are well-defined, accurate, and applicable in practice. Conclusion We present our annotation guidelines and a tool which we have designed for expert annotation of PubMed abstracts. A corpus annotated for keywords and document relevance is also presented, along with the taxonomy which organizes the keywords into classes defining core evidence for CRA. As demonstrated by the evaluation, the materials we have constructed provide a good basis for classification of CRA literature along multiple dimensions. They can support current manual CRA as well as facilitate the development of an approach based on TM. We discuss extending the taxonomy further via manual and machine learning approaches and the subsequent steps required to develop TM technology for the needs of CRA.

  17. 论世界语理想与弱小民族文学%The ideal of Esperanto and the translation of the literatures of minor nationalities into Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炳辉

    2007-01-01

    Esperanto movement presents a specific language and cultural phenomenon in the history of intercultural communication,which once exerted an extensive influence on modern Chinese culture.As an artificial intemational auxiliary language with a tinge of idealism,Esperanto has displayed complex cultural functions of translingual practices.In the 20th century,Esperanto was used in China as a medium to translate foreign literatures.mostly those from minor nationalities in central and eastern Europe.in which the contradiction between the cosmopolitism and antagonism of minor nationalities is reflected,and the inherent tension of modemity of the Chinese literature is exposed,which is worth noting for those engaged in the studies of the relations between Chinese and foreign literatures.

  18. [Floods and public health: a review of the recent scientific literature on the causes, consequences and responses to prevention and mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli

    2012-06-01

    Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1) causes; 2) consequences; 3) responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention and/or mitigation of the risks and impacts of flooding. Tables for each of the items selected were organized in order to systematize and synthesize the results for causes (attributed to natural and human activities); environmental, infrastructure and services, and health consequences (injuries and diseases classified according to chapters of ICD-10); prevention and mitigation responses and actions. It was concluded that given the scenarios of increased frequency and severity of these events, the challenges facing public health for disaster risk reduction require integrated responses with broad policies for sustainable development.

  19. Scientific Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest grain consumers,food security has always been a major concern for the Chinese nation.China must confront the challenge of feeding a fifth of the world's population with less than 9 percent of the planet's arable land.In 2011,China's grain output recorded growth for the eighth successive year,and total production reached an all-time high of 571million tons.In terms of food security,China's goal is to maintain a self-sufficiency rate of above 95 percent.However,an annual net population growth of 7.39 million and the effective decline of the area of farmland in the country,as a result of urbanization,make achieving such selfsufficiency a serious challenge.Given the heavy burden placed on Chinese agriculture,constantly raising productivity by relying on scientific and technological progress has become a priority for China's agricultural sector.The Ministry of Agriculture,for example,has worked to raise China's annual grain yield per-unit area by 1 percent,on average,over the past decade.Last year,the contributory rate of scientific and technological development to China's agriculture reached 52 percent,surpassing the contribution made by land,labor and other production factors for the first time in history.

  20. 民族医药古籍保护性研究意义及现状%Significance and Present Status of Conservation Research on Ancient Literatures of Chinese Ethnic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 冯岭

    2015-01-01

    -of-mouth might face the danger of failure in finding an eligible heir to inherit them.Therefore,it is urgent and necessary for the whole society to gather strength to carry out emergent investigations of various versions of those ancient literatures of ethnic medicine and afterward specialized and scientific protection,arrangement and research work.Take the protective research of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures for example,with the special attention and financial aids of all different levels of government departments such as the Ministry of Science and Technology,a nationwide project of the survey,collection and arrangement of Ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was carried out for the first time.After more than five yearswork,a catalogue was published for the first time by the re-search team as an approach to protect the cultural property right of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures.It was the first time for the catalogue to be translated into Tibetan,Chinese,English and Latin according to international standards as a research result for promotional purposes.It was also the first time for the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures to be permanently preserved,protected and spread in digital form-by way of building an information platform.Besides,the intellectual property right of ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was also protected through registering patents and copyrights,etc.The work experience and scientific research model that the research team gained laid a solid foundation for the scientific protection,inheritance and development of the ancient literatures of ethnic medicine in China;it also established a mature,scientific orientation for further research.

  1. On the Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature Criticism%中国现当代文学批评观批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丕智

    2011-01-01

    The modern and contemporary Chinese literature criticism underwent such an inflexion progress: from the criticism of evolution theory to the criticism of classes and to the diversification literature criticism. This literature criticism method, which has pioneering theorization level, has important historical milestone meaning. But this literature criticism, which seriously leaned the nonfiction' social position, is reversal and vicarious on the basic relation of literature and society. It leads to a series of biased error and needs to seriously discriminate and criticize.%中国现当代文学批评观经历了从进化论文学批评观下的多元化批评,到以现实主义模式独尊的阶级(政治)论文学批评观,再到以社会政治为主导的多元并存的文学批评观的曲折变化历程。这一具有开创性的理论化层次的文学批评道路,有着历史历程碑的重要意义。但这种严重倾斜到非文学的社会立场之上的文学批评观,在文学与社会的基本关系上是颠倒、错位的,导致了一系列批评观念的偏误,需进行严肃的辨析和批判。

  2. Pushkin and Chinese Literature Review of 20th Century%普希金与20世纪中国文论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季水河

    2000-01-01

    普希金文学理论传入中国60多年了。60多年来,普希金文学理论对中国文学理论界产生了三个方面的重要影响:一是对中国文学理论中人民性、民族性理论的影响,二是对中国文学理论中文学批评观念的影响,三是对中国文学理论中典型人物复杂性格理论的影响。%It has been over 60 years since the literature theory of Pushkin was first introduced into China. Since then, his theory has caused important influences on the field of Chinese literature theory in three ways as followes:The influence on the theory of affinity to the people and nationality; The influence on literature criticism ideology;And the influence on the theory of complicated disposition of typical character.

  3. 中国古代文学编辑活动的特点%The Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Literature Editing Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达科

    2012-01-01

    中国古代文学编辑活动的特点十分突出。它在编、刊、售三位一体的格局中起着重要的主导作用,与收藏、访书、宣传、娱情互为因果、多元一体,与文学风气乃至文化思潮关联互动、相互呼应。这些特点为当今信息化社会的文学活动提供了许多启迪性因素和可资借鉴的文化资源。%The characteristics of Chinese ancient literature editing activities was very outstanding. It played an important leading role in the trinity situation of of edition, printing and saling, and became cause each other and pluralism with collection, visiting books, propaganda, entertainment, association interactions and mutual e- cho with Literature ethos even cultural ideological trend. These characteristics provided many enlightenment sexual factors and culture resources that can be referenced for the literature activities in the current information society.

  4. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Chronology of Selected Literature, Reports, Policy Instruments, and Significant Events Affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States, 1945-1990. Report Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting federal scientific and technical information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest that relate to the evolution of aerospace and aerospace knowledge…

  5. Mathematics and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琳

    2016-01-01

    In both China and the West, mathematics is closely connected with literature. The maths thought implied in Chinese and western literature is worth our study, and the maths thought in the field of literature is also appear in aesthetics and philoso-phy, so literature, mathematics, aesthetics and philosophy become a network of interconnected.

  6. A Literature Review on Acculturation of Chinese Immigrants%中国移民的文化适应研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 祝春兰; 马亮; 张利

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing number of literature researches on the acculturation of Chinese immigrant groups in the last decad. The existent researches involve parent-child relationship and parenting styles, identity and satisfaction, physical and mental health, view of values and acculturation, as well as the interactions of mental mechanism. The author, therefore, concludes that further researches are needed in the areas of Chinese cultural history and views of values to profoundly indicate the Chinese immigrants’ acculturated characteristics.%近十几年来,对中国移民群体文化适应的研究在数量上呈现出明显增长的趋势。已有的与中国移民文化适应有关的研究涉及到与亲子关系和教养方式、身份认同与满意感、身心健康水平、价值观念等因素与文化适应的关系,也对文化适应与这些因素相互作用的心理机制进行了探讨。今后的研究应进一步从中国文化历史和价值观的大背景下分析中国移民文化适应的特点,将这一研究主题推向深入。

  7. 中国现代文学史编撰中的一个盲区%A Blind Zone in the Historiography of M odern Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树勤

    2001-01-01

    There is a blind zone in the history writing of m odern Chinese literature.That is the absence of feminity.This absence,caused by many factors,exists in two forms:the obvious one and the hidden one.It is a cult ural injustice which should be subverted.%女性缺席现象构成了中国现代文学史编 撰中的一个盲区,这种缺席呈现为显形缺席与隐形缺席两种形态,其产生具有多方面原因 ,是应该受到颠覆的文化的不公正。

  8. Literature Analysis on Distribution Regularity of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes in Wilson's Disease%Wilson病中医证候文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王共强; 王伟; 薛本春; 胡文彬; 胡纪源; 韩咏竹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution regularity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes in an attempt to provide a basis for the standardization of TCM syndromes in Wilson’s disease (WD). Methods The TCM literatures about WD were collected from Chinese Biomedical Literature online Database, Chinese Journal Full Text Database, and Chinese Technology Journal Database from 1979 to 2010. The 736 cases from 21 literatures in line with inclusion criteria were analyzed by frequency analysis and cluster analysis using SPSS 19. 0 software. Results There was 13 TCM syndrome types in WD, the top four types included liver-gallbladder damp-heat, liver-kidney yin deficiency, liver-wind stirring, and phlegm-damp accumulation in collaterals. Cluster analysis results were slightly different from the frequencies of TCM syndromes in literatures. Among syndrome factors, viscera factors included liver, kidney, bile and spleen, successively; nature factors included damp-heat, yin deficiency, endogenous wind, and phlegmdamp, successively. Conclusion Liver-gallbladder damp-heat, liver-kidney yin deficiency, liver-wind stirring, and phlegm-damp accumulation in collaterals were the common TCM syndrome types of WD, especially liver-gallbladder damp-heat. Excess syndrome factors were mainly characterized as damp-heat, and phlegm-turbid; deficiency syndrome factors were mainly characterized as yin deficiency and endogenous wind.%目的 探讨Wilson病(Wilson's disease,WD)中医证候分布规律,为WD中医证候规范化研究提供依据.方法 从中国生物医学文献网络版数据库、中国期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊数据库中检索1979-2010年间有关WD的中医药文献,对符合纳入标准的21篇文献中736例患者证候分布情况运用SPSS 19.0软件进行频数分析和聚类分析.结果 WD共出现13个中医证型,频数前4位依次为肝胆湿热、肝肾阴虚、肝风内动、痰湿阻络.聚类分析结果与中医证型频数分

  9. 中国古代悲秋文学中的生命意识%Life Consciousness in Ancient Chinese Sentimental Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪萍

    2001-01-01

    与西方在宗教安慰中消除对死亡的恐惧不同,中国古代文人士子以建功立业达到对死亡的超越。悲秋文学以人生价值实现过程中的苦难为核心,以忧惧生命短暂为外在形式表达了古代文人的生命观,反映了中国文化天人合一的宇宙观和伦理价值观念对文人生命意识的深刻影响。%In the west, people's fear toward death can be erased with religious comfort. Yet it is quite different from that in ancient Chinese works. The men of letters surpassed death with the meritorious deeds performed. Sentimental literature focused upon the tribulation experienced in the process of value accomplishment. The extrinsic form of the works is the scholars' worry and apprehension about life's transience. Those works reflect the universe outlook of unique combination between heaven and human in Chinese culture. The moral values' great influence upon scholars' life conscious-ness is also mirrored out.

  10. 商科院校中国现当代文学教学的新视域%The New Horizon of Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature Teaching in Business Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文忠; 杨虹

    2015-01-01

    To include business literature in Chinese modern and contemporary literature teaching practice, break the teaching rule, play to the commercial literature's unique role actively in talent training business, and establish their own position through the dialogue with business will help the Chinese modern and contemporary literature teaching business to coruscate new vitality.%将商业文学纳入到中国现当代文学的教学实践中,打破教学陈规,积极发挥商业文学在商科院校人才培养中的独特作用,并在与商业的对话中重新确立自己的地位,有助于商科院校中国现当代文学课程教学重新焕发出勃勃生机.

  11. 20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型阐释%20th Century Chinese Literature Gun Yu Archetypical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙胜杰

    2014-01-01

    Gun Yu myth as a prototype in the literature as a hero mythology, it is perhaps the epitome of human to the hero worship, accumulate at the bottom of the pioneers of the original consciousness. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype is not simply repeat the Gun Yu myth, not just confined to a single, forever hero model, but with the development of history and the cultural background of the different age is rich, the constantly changing, constantly displacement deformation, from hero to ordinary mortals. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype become forces so as to express its own cultural codes, not only reflects the profound connotation of culture and history of the works, but also let us in the same original thinking mode of the experience of different cultures, and more direct, more profound understanding prototype this is both abstract and concrete, is both varied and genetic stability of human culture and literature.%鲧禹神话作为原型在文学中被塑造成英雄神话,它凝结了人类对英雄的崇拜,积淀在原始先民的意识底层。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型并不是对鲧禹神话的简单重复,也不仅局限在单一的、永远不变的英雄模式,而是随着历史发展和不同时代文化背景被不断丰富、变化,不断置换变形,从英雄走向普通凡人。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型成为各种力量借以表达自身的文化符码,既体现出了作品的深厚的文化底蕴和历史内涵,又能让我们在相同的原始思维的模式下体验不同的文化,也能更直接、更深刻地认识原型这一既抽象又具体,既多变又稳定的人类文化与文学基因。

  12. Rethinking about the Starting Point of Modern Chinese Literature%关于中国现代文学起点问题的再思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯敏

    2014-01-01

    From the 1950s ,Chinese modern literature discipline established to the early 1980s ,“political-ness”had always been the subject of measuring the modern literature .In the mid and late 1980s ,academic world gradually observed the political philosophy’s repression and shelter towards many literary phenome-na and essence .Therefore ,academic world advocated dating back to literature ,and suggested using “mo-dernity” to rethink literature .With the reflection on the literature of “modernity” in the 1990s ,and the proposition of “ no late Qing Dynasty ,no May 4th movement”and“starting point of the first year of the republic of China” ,and“May 4th”as the starting point of modern literature status were constantly ques-tioned by some scholars .Accordingly ,the starting point of modern Chinese literature continuously pushed forward .But the“May 4th” with its particularity and significance ,had its irreplaceable reason .Thus if the position of “May 4th” could not be increased ,we must clear the boundary tablets and the important position of “May 4th”in the modern literature development .%自20世纪50年代中国现代文学学科建立起到20世纪80年代前期,“政治性”一直是估衡现代文学的主题词。进入80年代中期后,学界逐渐体察到政治理念对于诸多文学现象及文学本质的压抑与遮蔽,于是纷纷倡导回到文学自身,并主张用“现代性”重新考量文学。而随着20世纪90年代学界对文学“现代性”的全面反思,以及“没有晚晴,何来‘五四’”“民国元年起点说”等命题的提出,“五四”作为现代文学的起点地位,不断遭到一些学者的质疑。与此相应,中国现代文学的起点呈现出不断向前推移之势。但“五四”以其特殊性和重要意义,有其不可替代的理由。因此在不能拔高“五四”地位的同时,必须要明晰“五四”在整个现代文学发展流脉中的界碑性和重要位置。

  13. Interethnic Dialogue between Malaysian Chinese Literature and Malay Literature in Allegory Writing%马华文学与马来文学的跨族对话:从国族寓言的角度探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽丽

    2015-01-01

    马来西亚的华文文学以及马来文学是同一国家属性但不同语种的文学系统. 它们之间不仅跨民族跨语言,而且有各自特殊的文化历史背景. 从国族寓言切入,探讨马华文学与马来文学两个系统之间的跨文化对话,有助于考察双方文本如何结构多元背景的族群关系、文化属性以及其间的张力.%The multi-culture in Malaysia provides an environment for the co-existence of different literary systems. These differ-ent literary systems not only cross ethnic and language, but also have their special cultural and historical backgrounds. A study on the interethnic dialogue between Malaysian Chinese literature and Malay literature from the perspective of allegorical writing is expected to show us a full picture of the ethic structure, cultural affiliation and tension between two ethic groups in the context of multi culture.

  14. The "Chinese" Image in German Expressionism Literature%德国表现主义文学中的“中国人”形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2012-01-01

    Imagology explores the ways different nations observe and express each other through the study on literature.The "image" in imagology not only refers to foreign characters and sceneries,but also refers to the feelings,notions and statements about other countries in the literature works.In China,more and more attention of comparative culture researchers is being drawn by this emerging subject.In recent years,researches on expression of "Chinese" image in foreign countries have been gradually on the rise in China.With the help of imagology theories,this essay takes some noted Chinese novels by German expressionist writers Alfred Dblin,Albert Ehrenstein and Franz Kafka as examples,conducts an analysis and interpretation of the "Chinese" image.%形象学(Imagologie)通过对文学的研究来了解民族与民族之间是怎样互相观察、互相表述的。形象学中的"形象",不仅仅指异国的人物、景物,也可以指作品中关于异国的情感、观念和言辞。这一新兴学科正越来越多地吸引着我国比较文化研究者的目光。近年来,国内关于"中国形象"的异域表述的研究也逐渐兴起。选取德国表现主义作家阿尔弗雷德.德布林(Alfred D?blin,1878———1957)、阿尔伯特.埃伦施泰因(Albert Eh-renstein,1886-1950)、弗兰茨.卡夫卡(Franz Kafka,1883-1924)的著名中国小说为例,借助形象学的理论,进行"中国人"形象的分析和阐释。

  15. On Chinese Contemporary Literature Creation Limitations from Snail House%从《蜗居》看中国当代文学创作的局限性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛涛

    2011-01-01

    The Snail House TV version is very faithful to the original novel. The banning of TV series Snail House not only reflects the non - ecological characteristic of the contemporary cultural context, but also exposes the structural lack of the whole contemporary literary creation : 1. realism makes Snail House follow the emotional logic and life logic character on the characterization and plot structure , not like the contemporary urban novels which write the urban marginal group with civilization disease on the modernism or post - modernism cultural position ; the Snail House reflects that contemporary literature has forgotten the" May 4"literature realism ; 2. the tragic of Snail House grips the ordinary people in the real life, which is different from "17 years" literature and the post - cuhural revolution literature which is the historicization of tragedy ; it is also different from the pioneer literature , feminism literature, root- searching literature which culturalzed and philosophized tragedy ; Snail House makes tragedy reflect the universality of Scheler sense , also breaks the ideology myth that the contemporary Chinese literature does not have real tragedy. 3. the strong practical critical spirit of the Snail House reflects the predicament in the Chinese realistic contemporary literature creation, and realism has been an ideological strategies, and makes the" real life" in the contemporary literature lost. Therefore, the development of Chinese contemporary literature does not have the ecological significance of the "bush style", and more like a beautiful and pale "penning art".%《蜗居》的电视版非常忠实于小说原作。电视剧《蜗居》的被禁不仅折射出了当代文化语境的非生态性,更暴露了整个当代文学创作的结构性匮乏:一是,写实性使《蜗居》在塑造人物、构置情节上遵循人物的情感逻辑和生活逻辑,而非当代都市小说那样在现代主义或后现代

  16. Review on Researches in Pre-modern Chinese Narrative Literature in the Perspective of Narration%叙事学视域下中国近世叙事文学研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明贵

    2012-01-01

    叙事学为中国古典叙事文学研究提供了全新的视角。借鉴西方叙事学理论和方法解析中国近世叙事文本,是促成中国近世叙事文学文本意义再生的有效手段。本文结合研究者的理论愿景与操作手段,对叙事学视域下中国近世叙事文学的研究成果作了初步梳理,并认为在叙事学视域下开展中国近世叙事文学研究必须坚持两个原则,一是尊重中国近世叙事文学在文化思维和话语表述方面的特殊性,二是确保叙事学理论对文本的“有效介入”。%The narratology provides a new perspective for Chinese classical narrative literature study. Learn from Western narrative theory and methods to resolve the pre-modem Chinese narrative text, is an effective means to contribute the meaning regeneration of the Pre-modern Chinese narrative text. In this paper, the writer according to the researcher's theoretical vision and operational means, accomplished a preliminary neaten for research result in pre-modem Chinese narrative literature study under the narrative perspective, and believes pre-modem Chinese narrative literature study under the Narrative perspective must stick to two principles, one is value the particularity of pre-modern Chinese narrative literature's cultural thought pattern and language expressing, the other is to ensure the effective intervention between narrative theory and text.

  17. Song of Youth: Youth Narratives and Representations of Young People in Contemporary Chinese Literature, Film, and Popular Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The challenge for contemporary literary scholars comes down to the question of how useful a cultural product is in describing and configuring the contemporary cultural scene, for example, the impact of literature, film, and TV in the globalizing era. Many scholars, in order to capture this diversified post-socialist cultural phenomenon, explore as many genres of art as they can in their research. However, identifying the common feature of post-socialist diversity in China still remains a ques...

  18. 中西乌托邦文学流变研究%On the Transmission of Chinese and Western Utopia Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 李赫

    2011-01-01

    As one kind of imagination, reposing and the expression of human's future and ideal society, utopia and I literature seem to have a natural connection. Since the birth of human society, utopian writing has a long history in Eastern and Western literature. Although the Chinese and Western utopia literature's development way and the cultural moral character are different, their starting point and standpoint both stem from the sincere attention to the human contemporary life and the relentless thinking to human ultimate fate.%作为人类对未来和理想社会的一种想象、寄托与表达,乌托邦和文学似乎有着天然的联系,自从人类社会诞生以来,乌托邦创作便在东西方文学宝库中层出不穷,源远流长。中西方乌托邦文学的发展路径和文化品格不尽相同,但其出发点和立足点都是源于对人类当下生活的深切关注和对人类终极命运的的不懈思考。

  19. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  20. External Context Construction of Chinese Enterprises and a Literature Review%中国企业外部情境架构构建与研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏敬勤; 刘畅

    2016-01-01

    This paper makes a grounded analysis based on 405 articles published in nine domestic leading journals in the management research fields from 2003 to 2013 and related to Chinese enterprises’external context factors.From a perspective of research breadth,it re-fines external context factors of Chinese enterprises through existing literature.Then it cate-gorizes them through PEST framework,analyzes main and minor context factors paid atten-tion to in contextualized research,and integrates the relationship among related factors.It re-views the status and characteristics of existing domestic contextualized research from the perspectives of research depth and methodology.%本文通过对2003-2013年间发表于国内9种权威管理类期刊中涉及中国企业外部情境因素的405篇文献进行了扎根分析。文章在研究广度层面提炼出已有研究成果中受关注的中国企业外部情境因素,并根据 PEST 框架进行归类,分析了各领域情境化研究中受关注的主、次要情境因素,整合相关因素间的关系。文章从研究深度及研究方法两个层面梳理了我国外部情境化研究的发展现状及特征。

  1. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pythium Insidiosum Corneal Ulcer in a Chinese Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Liu, Hongshan; Chen, Xiaolian; Wu, Jiaochan; He, Miao; Zhong, Xingwu

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 7 Final Diagnosis: Pythium insidiosum Symptoms: Painful vision loss • red eye Medication:— Clinical Procedure: Application of multiple antifungal medicines followed by the penetrating keratoplasty Specialty: Ophthalmology Objective: Rare disease Background: Pythium insidiosum keratitis is a rare but sight-threatening disease with a high morbidity rate. It can be mis-diagnosed as fungal keratitis in clinic settings. We report a case of severe Pythium insidiosum keratitis in a Chinese child, treated with combined approaches. Case Report: A 7-year-old boy from Hainan province in the south of China developed a suppurative corneal ulcer after being in a forest. A mass of hyphae was detected by confocal imaging in vivo, fungal smear test, and histochemical examination. Treatment with Natamycin, fluconazole, and Voriconazole for 1 month was unsuccessful, and a penetrating keratoplasty with anterior vitrectomy was performed. The infection reappeared 1 day after surgery, immediately after which anterior chamber irrigation with 0.02% Fluconazole and amphotericin B solution was performed. Finally, the globe was saved and there was no further recurrent infection. A cultured mycelial organism, which was hard to identify by biomorphology, was confirmed by PCR to be Pythium insidiosum. The zoospores were observed in water environments. The imaging characteristics of P. insidiosum in confocal microscopy are described herein. Conclusions: This is the first case of Pythium insidiosum keratitis reported in China. It can be misdiagnosed as fungal keratitis in the clinic. Improving the awareness of clinicians, promoting early diagnosis, and a multidisciplinary approach, especially early surgery, improve the prognosis. PMID:28025573

  2. Applying Literature to ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟悦

    2007-01-01

    Literature is no longer a frightening word to English language learner. Interactive teaching methods and attractive activities can help motivating Chinese university English learners. This essay will first elaborate the reasons to use literature in ELT ( English Language Teaching) class and how to apply literature to ELT class.

  3. Aggression of Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia:A systematic literature review%我国住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为的文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼妮; 周建松

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review and analyze literature on episodes of aggression in psychiatric wards and to determine the coping and preventive strategies employed to deal with aggression of patients with schizophrenia.Methods: We used the key words such as "schizophrenia" and "aggression" to collect literature citations, which were published between July 1997 and November 2011, by searching databases such as the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD). The literature reports of aggression by patients with schizophrenia were surveyed by computer-assisted searches, scanning of reference lists, and manual search of relevant journals. We analyzed the reports of episodes of aggression in psychiatric wards.Results: Prevalence of aggression in psychiatric wards was reported to range from 9.1% (95% CI: 6.3 to 11.9) to 49.6% (95% CI: 41.1 to 58.1), with most reports in the range of 20% to 40% (mean 28.0%). The aggressive behavior often occurred in special groups and typically bore a close relationship with the patient's personal qualities, social environment, or psychiatric symptoms. The aggressive behaviors can be attributed to a lack of standardized assessments and intervention instruments.Conclusion: There is a high risk of aggression in Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia, and it is urgent to establish the scientific, standardized, operational systems for assessing and treating the aggression of these patients.%目的:分析我国住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为发生情况,探讨应对和预防精神分裂症患者攻击行为的策略.方法:以精神分裂症和攻击行为等为主题词,运用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库等国内主要文献数据库(1997年1月至2011年11月),同时辅以手工检索,并从参考文献中筛选收集有关精神分裂症患者攻击行为的文献.对符合要求的文献进行分析,总结既往对住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为的研究情况.结果:住院精神分裂症患者攻击

  4. Analysis of clinical research literature about treated plague by using traditional Chinese medicine%中医药治疗瘟疫的临床文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐; 张华敏; 曹洪欣

    2011-01-01

    目的通过对中医药治疗瘟疫临床文献进行分析,提出当今瘟疫临床研究的特点,同时分析其中存在的问题.方法 以文献中某一类瘟疫的辨治方法作为数据的主要来源,围绕病因-症状-病位-病性-方剂-药物等信息,建立某一类瘟疫中医辨治的数据库,对数据库文献进行分析.结果 瘟疫临床研究特点主要表现为:①不同邪气所致瘟疫具有不同的病机特点和演变规律;②当代瘟疫病名以西医病名为主,形成了辨病与辨证相结合的新模式;③给药途径的多样化有利于中药治疗突发传染性疾病.结论 瘟疫研究缺少既体现个体化诊疗,又能把握临床规律的中医临床研究文献.应根据新发瘟疫的病因病机特点和演变规律,研究和丰富中医瘟疫理论,指导临床实践.%Objective To analyze the problems of treating plague by TCM and find out the characteristics of clinical research of contemporary plague by the analysis of clinical research literature on the treatment of plague by TCM. Methods Differential treatment methods of one kind of plague in the literature as the main source of the data and the information that the pathogenesis-symptom-location of disease-nature of disease-prescriptions-drugs were taken to build the data base of the syndrome differentiation and treatment of certain kind of plague. Results Analyzed with literatures,the characteristics of plague clinical research showed: Different pathogenesis characteristics and evolution of plague were caused by diff① erent evils. ②Contemporary plague was named by western disease name. A new model which disease differentiation combined with syndrome differentiation has been formed. ③The diversification of administration promoted the treatment of emergent communicable disease with Chinese medicine. Conclusion The plague research lacked such research literature which could both reflect individualized diagnosis and embody the clinical rules

  5. 论中国古典诗学中“文学经典意识”的发展脉络%On Development Way of Literature Classic Awareness in Chinese Classic Poetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫霞

    2012-01-01

    Literature classic awareness is people's cognition of the literature classics and the creation of literature classics.In Chinese classic poetics,literature classic awareness has experienced a process of development.It has tight relation with the literature concept conscious or not and with the art spirit independent or not.The earliest form of the literature classic awareness is culture classic consciousness.The second stage is the literature classic awareness of Confucian school.The third stage is the literature classic awareness built on the pure literature concepts.The different implication of the literature classic awareness in different development stage also has an important effect on Chinese classic poetics.%"文学经典意识"是人们关于文学经典及如何创作出文学经典的认识。在中国古典诗学中,文学经典意识的发展有一个过程,它与文学观念的自觉、艺术精神的独立与否是相伴相行的。文学经典意识的最早形态应是文化经典意识,接着是汉以来的经学式的文学经典意识,再发展到以纯粹文学观念为基础的文学经典意识。文学观念发展的不同阶段,人们所具有的"文学经典意识"的内涵也有不同,这又深刻影响了中国古典诗学的建构。

  6. 宗教文学·中国宗教文学史·魏晋南北朝道教文学史——关于“中国宗教文学史”的理论思考与实践构想%Religious Literature,History of Chinese Religious Literature and the History of Daoist Literature of Wei,Jin,Northern and Southern Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵益

    2012-01-01

    In modern Chinese humane studies,from the concepts,theories to practices,there are many problems in the studies on religious literature.The most important one is that most scholars concentrated efforts on the relations between religion and literature by instead of the religious literature itself.Both Chinese religion and religious literature have their special properties which the study of history of Chinese religious literature must devote its mind to.As one typical problem,the history of Daoist literature of Wei,Jin,Northern and Southern Dynasties could embody the important principles and meanings of the studies on the history of Chinese religious literature.%在中国现当代学术语境中,"宗教文学"的研究从概念、问题、理论到具体实践都存在较多的问题,最主要的表现是研究者往往致力于宗教与文学关系的探讨,而忽视了宗教文学本身的研究。中国宗教和宗教文学都具有独特的自性,"中国宗教文学史"的建构必须符合这种对象属性,而"宗教性"的内涵标准和"大文学"的文体观念,正是构建民族本位宗教文学研究的重要原则之一。作为中国宗教文学史重要阶段的"魏晋南北朝道教文学史",尤其可以体现此一原则的价值和意义。

  7. Value Guidance of Religion in Contemporary Chinese Literature%宗教在当代文学中的价值引领

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张懿红

    2011-01-01

    The values of contemporary Chinese works of fiction on religious theme lie in many aspects. Firstly, these works criticize the political party's ideology and completely renew our values. For example, The Plain of White Deer, Heavenly Principles and Human Desire and The Spirit on the Highway all break fresh ground with criticisms to the ruling ideology from their new religious angle, while The History of the Soul exposes the extreme emotions of monotheism. Secondly,these works show ultimate concern, which is a new tendency of contemporary Chinese literature and deepens its cultural implications. In Bei Cun's "sacred writings", Fan Wen's Trilogy of Tibet, Zhao Defa's Holdthe Palms Together and Xue Mo's Incantation of Western Xia Dynasty, the writers search the way to sublimate the spirit and are all converted to religion, they also care about the universal values of religions and their future. In the other hand, these works of fiction also expose some problems,such as the narrow religious exclusivism,the conflict between universal values of religions and concepts about country, nation,religious sects, law and morality,the paradox of religious highest authority and human beings' decision-making power, the balance between religion thoughts and aesthetic nature of literature. In addition,ecological concern is also an important orientation of values in respect of contemporary Chinese works of fiction on religious theme.%从宗教视角质疑造成多次民族灾难的党派意识形态,是宗教题材小说强有力的价值追问,带来价值观念的全面更新,《白鹿原》、《天理暨人欲》、《公路上的灵魂》等作品对正统意识形态的质疑与批判因宗教视角而别开生面,《心灵史》则暴露出一神教的偏激狭隘.宗教在文学中的另一价值追求是终极关怀,宗教题材小说对终极价值的深入探索,是当代文学的新趋势,深化了当代文学的思想文化内涵.在北村“神性写作”、范稳“

  8. On the Relationship between Apocryphal Sutras and the Ancient Chinese Literature%疑伪经与中国古代文学关系之检讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小荣

    2012-01-01

    在国际汉学领域之佛教文学研究中,学人对重要的单部疑伪经或同类型的疑伪经较为关注,故相关成果也相对突出,但对疑伪经总体性质的认识却较有欠缺。有鉴于此,有必要从宏观角度来讨论疑伪经与中国古代文学之关系。它主要表现在四大层面:一者从文学史言,疑伪经本身就是古代宗教文学不可分割的组成部分之一;二者从思想史言,疑伪经是印度佛教中国化最直接的文本体现;三者从欣赏趣味言,疑伪经塑造的人物形象更符合中土民众的审美心理;四者从影响言,疑伪经既为后世作家提供了大量的文学创作素材,进而形成固定的母题,同时,又促成了某些佛教法会仪式的形成与流播。当然,中土固有的文学作品,也对疑伪经的撰作产生过相当的影响。%In the academic circle of internaitonal sinology, shcolars pay more attention to single Apocry- phal or Apocryphals of same kind in terms of Buddhist literature. Therefore, it is productive in this field of re- search with abundant achievements. However, there lacks recognition concerning the overall quality of all A- pocryphals. This article discussed relationship between Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras and ancient Chinese litera- ture from a macro point of view. It is mainly manifested in the four levels: ( 1 ) from ancient Chinese literary history, the Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras itself is an integral part of the ancient religious literature; (2) from the history of ideas, the Apocryphal Sutras reflects the most direct Indian Buddhism's process in China; (3) from the Chinese people's appreciating tastes, the characters shaped by the Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras have more national aesthetic psychology than those original Buddhist scriptures; (4) from the impacts, the Bud- dhist apocryphal sutras have not only provided a great deal of literary creation materials, thus forming a fixed motif, but also led to

  9. Grey Literature 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Simandlová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The paper tries to describe grey literature in the context of platforms and tools of the web 2.0. We can follow up that increasing trends in the scientific communication are e.g. microblogging, scientific blogging and there are also scientific social networks in the distribution cycle of grey literature. Except the examples of grey literature 2.0, the paper also discusses the problems of the promotion of grey literature and grey literature community through the social media.

  10. 立足本土提升科技期刊国际影响力%Enhancement of international impact of scientific journals in Chinese based on native language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秀菊; 王柳; 刘丽英; 赵爱琴; 朱明

    2014-01-01

    In order to inherit and disseminate Chinese culture, and enhance international collaboration in science and technology, international impact of scientific journals in Chinese should be enhanced. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of CSAE) was coved by authority indexes such as EI Compendex, CAB Abstracts and ACSESS Digital Library. Transactions of CSAE was ranked No.10 in journals in Chinese by Google scholar for its high citation in 2014. Transactions of CSAE was given the honor of the 2013 most influential Chinese academic journals in the world (Top 5). All of these honors should mainly owe to a series of measure carried by of Transactions of CSAE to enhance international impact of scientific journals in Chinese based on native language. Practice demonstrate that scientific journals in Chinese could enhance their international impact by in-creasing the amount of English information in papers and improving the quality of English, by hiring editors who have studied abroad and hiring associate editors who were in abroad, by developing English website, by exhibiting journals on more international digital platform, The experience is a reference for journals in Chinese enhancing international impact.%为了传承和传播中华文化,加强对外的科技交流,增强中国的软实力,除了扶持中国英文科技期刊外,还需立足本土,提升中文科技期刊的国际影响力。《农业工程学报》在被国际工程权威数据库EI(美国工程索引)、国际农业权威数据库CAB Abstracts等收录的基础上被美国农学、环境、土壤学会联合会数字图书馆(ACSESS Digital Library)收录;2014年位列国际学术搜索引擎Google学术搜索高被引中文期刊第10名;2013年入选(Top 5)“2013中国最具国际影响力学术期刊”,这些都得益于采取的一系列的立足本土提升中文科技期刊影响力的措施。实践证明中文科技期刊

  11. Statistical Analysis on the Scientific Literature of Tea Economics%茶经济类科技文献的统计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永兴; 姜爱芹

    2012-01-01

    1449 Chinese literatures with tea economic themes were collected and filtered. With these articles statistical analysis on bibliometrics and keywords analysis were carried out. Results showed that during the latest 10 years the number of tea economic articles developed as a path of increasing curve with a low valley; these articles were published on 461 journals, among which the top 3 journals published more than 50 articles in each; and also there are 64.2% journals only published 1 article in each. There are 1 152 first authors in these 1 449 articles, among which there are 12 first authors who published more than 5 articles in each. These first authors affiliate to 803 institutions, which mainly belong to high education field and agriculture field, and fewer belong to research and economic institutions. The keyword analysis results showed that there are totally 3 642 keywords in 1 449 tea economic articles with total frequency of 8 595. The keywords with highest frequencies as follows: "tea industry", "industrialization", "development", "countermeasure", "brand", "famous tea", "organic tea", "Pu-erh tea", "sustainable development", "economic effect", "trade", "market", etc. In different years there are different high frequency keywords. In recent years, it occurrences some new keywords, in which the most important ones are "dark tea", "market construction", "tea industry association", "distract brand", "brand marketing", "industrial structure", etc. In the latest 10 years, the conceptions of tea brand, tea culture were gotten more attentions. Whereas, the attention to the tea export concept was dropped down for several years, but recovered in some degree in recent 3 years.%搜集、整理了中文茶经济类科技文献1 449篇,从文献统计和关键词分析的角度对其进行综述.文献统计显示,该类文献的数量在最近10年中呈现出具一定下凹度的曲线向上的增长趋势;共有461种期刊刊登茶经济类文献,其中发表50

  12. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...

  13. On the History of Critics on Chinese Juvenile Literature Theory%试论《中国儿童文学理论批评史》的学术价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金禾

    2001-01-01

    The History of Critics on Chinese Juvenile Literature Theory, Written by Professor Fang Wei-ping, is the first systematical work on the history of critics on Chinese juvenile literature theory in the world, This paper makes an jective and precise comment on its theoritical contributions, academic characteristics and historical data value.%方卫平教授《中国儿童文学理论批评史》是富有开创性的国内第一部系统论述中国儿童文学理论批评发展史的学术著作。本文对该书的理论贡献、学术特征,以及史料价值作了较为客观、确切的评论。

  14. A Comparative Study of Western and Chinese Precaution of Dishonesty in Scientific Research and the Enlightenment%防范科研不端行为的制度借鉴与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张效英; 李强; 姚跃传; 陈卫平

    2011-01-01

    近些年来,科研不端现象呈现出新的发展趋势,科研活动中的行为规范问题日益显现出其重要性。西方发达国家在科研不端行为的界定、认定、防范与治理等方面进行了大量的研究与实践,并且从法规及制度上不断地完善对科研不端行为的约束,积累了较为丰富的经验。这些有益经验对于加强我国学术道德建设,建立适合我国国情的科研活动管理规范体系具有重要的借鉴意义。%In recent years,the increasing spread of dishonesty in scientific research has been witnessed,making the issue of setting code of conduct highly urgent.In western countries,the studies on dishonesty in scientific research have been conducted in the aspects of definition,affirmation,precaution and solution to enhance the sanctioning effect through legislation-drafting and regulation improvement.These rich experience is valuable for us to develop the scientific ethic and establish the management system of scientific research with Chinese characteristics.

  15. Bibliometrics Analysis of Acupuncture Treatment for Chronic Atrophic Gastritis in Chinese Literature%针灸治疗萎缩性胃炎中文文献计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锐; 赵雪; 陈泽林; 郭义; 潘兴芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To use bibliometrics methods to analyze the characteristics of TCM literatures about acupuncture treatment for Chronic Atrophic Gastritis,to summarize the general rule and guide the clinical practice and scientific research. Methods; Establish the inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and search strategy of the literatures. Database includes CNKI (1989-2011.2), VIP (1989-2011.2), CBM (1994-2011.2) , Wan-Fang (1989 - 2011. 2). Conduct bibliometric analysis on the basic information of the documents, context and the methodology characteristics of the literature RCT. Results:The number of included literatures was 109, the overall number of the published article showed a rising trend, focusing on Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibus-tion, Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Journal of clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion; Diagnostic and therapeutic effect criteria of CAG is not unified; the clinical treatment was mainly concentrated on acupuncture point injection, acupuncture and moxibustion, acupuncture and acupuncture and medicine; acu-points concentrate on Zusanli, Wei Shu, Zhong Wan etc;the methodology characteristics of RCT was not integrity. Conclusion: Domestic researchers do related research on the efficacy of CAG by acupuncture and moxibustion. Now it has formed an " information database" and provide a standard for acupuncture treatment for chronic atrophic gastritis and research.%目的:采用文献计量学方法对近20年针灸治疗萎缩性胃炎现代文献特征进行分析,总结规律以指导临床及科研.方法:制定文献的纳入、排除标准以及文献检索策略,数据库包括:中国知网( CNKI,1989 ~2011.2),维普资讯(VIP,1989 ~2011.2)中国生物文献数据库(CBM,1994~2011.2),万方数据库(1989 ~2011.2).对纳入文献的基本信息、文章内容以及RCT文献的方法学特征进行计量学分析.结果:纳入文献109篇,发表数量总体呈上升趋势,集中发表在《中国针灸》、《

  16. The Significance of Thematology to Methodological Innovation of Research on Chinese Narrative Literature%主题学对中国叙事文学研究方法创新的借鉴意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2011-01-01

    Thematology, originated from the mid-19th century, has maintained a close relationship with Chinese narrative literature. Great results have been achieved in the application of thematology to Chinese narrative literature research since the 20th century. The introduction of thematology has important impact upon the perspective and horizon of Chinese narrative literature research in terms of document collation and cultural analysis.%源于19世纪中叶的主题学产生不久便和中国叙事文学研究结下了不解之缘,20世纪以来主题学应用于中国叙事文学研究取得的丰硕的成果。主题学的引入,在研究角度、研究视域等方面对中国叙事文学产生了重要的意义。主题学对中国叙事文学在文献整理和文化分析等方面都产生了方法论层面的影响。

  17. The dilemma of the development of Chinese language and literature in the network environment%网络环境下汉语言文学发展困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华坚

    2016-01-01

    随着社会的发展,科技的进步,互联网出现。互联网的出现对传统的汉语言文学来说是一项挑战,也是机遇。本文以互联网为切入点,具体分析了汉语言文学专业在发展的过程中可能面临的问题,并找出了解决的路径。%With thedevelopment of society,the progress of science and technology,the Internet appears. The emergence of the Internet is a challenge to the traditional Chinese language and literature,and it is also an opportunity for the Chinese language and literature.In this paper,the Internet as the breakthrough point,the specific analysis of the Chinese language and literature in the course of the development of the problem may be faced,and find a solution to the path.

  18. Rapid Collaborative Scientific and Technical Literature Push Mechanism Based on Intelligent Agent%一种基于智能Agent的科技文献快速协作推送机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小龙; 赵昌耀; 耿卫健; 程春玲

    2011-01-01

    The current scientific and technical literature network-sharing platforms have a mass of papers, which is difficult for users to get what they really need. We presented a new Rapid collaborative scientific and technical literature push model based on intelligent Agent. This model adopts Intelligent Agent technology to build the User Agent, Data Transfer Agent, Information Evaluation Agent, Information Analysis Agent, Server Monitor Agent and Data Mining Agent, to establish an effective collaborative relationship between clients and servers, provide scientific and technical literatures jointly for each users meeting their needs perfectly. We also proposed a Literature-Readers Matching Assessment Algorithm(LRMAA) ,which is to comprehensively consider the subscription information provided by user initiatively,the user's reading history, the objective assessment of literature as well as the literature publishing time, to get the matching vector, resulting in a true and accurate access to the user's research interests and focuses in time to provide users with the most valuable, suitable and high-quality scientific and technical literature information. This paper first analyzed the current network Information Pull and Push methods, and then introduced the Intelligent Agent-based rapid collaborative scientific and technical literature push model, at last, discussed LRMAA in detail about all parameters computing of the vector.%针对目前网络科技文献共享平台上汇聚的海量的科技文献,提出了一种新的基于智能Agent的科技文献快速协作推送模型,通过引入由智能Agent技术构建的用户Agent、数据传递Agent、信息评估Agent、信息分析Agent、服务器监控Agent和数据挖掘Agent,在客户机和服务器之间建立一种有效的协作关系,联合为每个用户主动提供最符合其需求的科技文献.提出了一种新的文献一读者契合度评估算法,算法综合考虑用户主动提供的订阅信息、

  19. Investigation on the Influencing Factors of the Scientific and Innovative Elites:With a National Key Laboratory's Scientific Researcher of Chinese Academic of Sciences as the Research Object%科技拔尖创新人才影响因素研究--以中科院某院级重点实验室的科研人员为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 李冰

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a national key laboratory's scientific re-searcher of Chinese academic of sciences is set as a research ob-ject. The sample scientists are analyzed, counted in macro and micro aspects. By exploring the progress along the meritocratic path, valid suggestions are put forward for cultivating the scien-tific and innovative talent.%  本文选取了中国科学院某院级重点实验室的科研人员作为考察对象,从宏观和微观方面对选取的科学家样本进行各种分析、统计,分析他们的创新成才之路,从而对培养我国的科技创新拔尖人才提出合理化建议。

  20. Development Methods Analysis of Scientific and Technological Literature Service in Big Data Era%大数据时代科技文献服务发展路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏峰; 张敏; 段炼

    2015-01-01

    大数据是继云计算、物联网之后IT产业又一次颠覆性的技术革命,大数据挖掘和应用可创造出超万亿美元的价值。大数据时代的来临对文献服务也提出了更高的要求。本文从科技文献服务面临的困境、大数据时代的机遇与挑战、科技文献服务转型与升级三个方面来阐述。%Big data is a disruptive technology revolution after the cloud computing and Internet of things in IT industry. The exploitation and application of big data can create a value of super trillion dollars. The coming of big data era also puts forward higher requirements on literature service. This article interprets from three perspectives of difficulties faced by scientific and technological literature service, opportunities and challenges in big data era, and the transformation and upgrading of scientific and technological literature service.

  1. Scientific publications in pharmacology and pharmacy journals from Chinese authors in various parts of North Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Hu, L-H; Liao, Z; Cui, H-C; Li, Z-S

    2010-01-01

    The amount and quality of pharmacology and pharmacy research by authors from China was investigated by comparing published articles from 136 international journals (1998 - 2007) by authors from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The number of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, case reports, impact factors, number of citations and number of articles published in top general medicine journals were compared. The total number of articles increased significantly between 1998 and 2007 (from 324 to 2536 per year). In total, there were 12 021 articles: 7576 from mainland China, 3267 from Taiwan and 1178 from Hong Kong. The accumulated impact factor of the articles from mainland China (16 688.94) was much higher than for those from Taiwan (8726.92) and Hong Kong (3161.22) but, among the three regions, Hong Kong had the highest mean impact factor and the most articles published in top general medicine journals.

  2. A Mountain Held in a Mustard Seed: Preface to A Brief History of Chinese Literature%敢纳须弥芥子中——《中国文学简史》前言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑞峰

    2011-01-01

    Looking back on the history of Chinese literature, one cannot help being amazed at its distinctive Chinese colors and the many great works that marked its progress: the features reflected by the works made up the literary heritage, which in turn made the history of Chinese literature. A review of Chinese literary historiography commits us to the expectation that the writing of the "macro history of literature" in the future should be based not only on independent personality, original conception and distinctive horizon of academic research, but also on a wider and more comprehensive new system of research. This means it is neces- sary to carry out the study in two ways : the "vertical" way which probes into the historical evolution of Chinese literature, and the "horizontal" way which addresses the correlation between Chinese literature and that of other countries.%追溯中国文学的历史流程,不能不瞩目于其鲜明的民族特色和千汇万状的优秀作品:作品映现出特色,特色凝固成传统,传统又沉淀为历史。追溯中国文学史的编写进程,则不能不期望:未来的“大文学史”除了应当兼有独立的学术品格、独特的学术构想和独到的学术视野外,还应当具备涵盖面更广、包容性更强的全新体系。这就必须从纵横两方面加以拓展——“纵”能思贯古今,勾勒出文学兴衰因革的轨迹;“横”能视通中外,映现出文学源流正变的脉络。

  3. 从中文文学期刊的特色谈其风格演变及发展变化%On the Style Changing and Development from Analyzing the Characters on Chinese Literature Periodicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振津

    2012-01-01

    在图书馆的藏书中,中文期刊占有很大比重,其中中文文学期刊又占据期刊榜首。探究其发展规律,为到馆的读者更好服务有着很深的意义。中文文学期刊在动乱结束后,曾迎来繁荣发展的大时代,满足了当时人们对其的渴望,中文文学期刊在当时为数不多的大众文化产品的中占有相当的地位。而今社会是信息产业的多样化,数字化,视觉化的多元时代,中文文学期刊受到不小冲击,为了寻求出路,必须走出低谷。从自身改变中寻求新的发展.探求发展变化中的规律,这些发展主要表现在多元化的包装,文学期刊与影视互动。为影视作品提供创作蓝本等等.为中文文学期刊适应当今社会发展奠定了基础。%Of the library storage, Chinese journal has a large proportion, while, Chinese literature periodicals is the top of the list. Studying its developing trend will significantly help service readers. After ten years of turmoil, Chinese lit journal faced an era of growing fruitfully, satisfying people's desire. Among the few public cultural products, Chinese lit journal played an important role. However, nowadays, there is an era of information industry with diversified, digital and visualized characters, Chinese lit journal suffers strikes, in order to find way out of trouble, literature periodicals must explore the developing trend and look for new development from self-changing. The new developments includes diversified package, interaction between literature periodicals and movie and providing chief source to films and television programs, making basis for Chinese literature periodicals adapting to social development today.

  4. 中西方文学中的人文精神比较分析%A Comparative Study of Humanistic Spirit Construction in Chinese and Western Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁晓洁

    2014-01-01

    Humanistic spirit is,in essence,a concern and thinking about people.Humanistic concern in modern society is manifested in many fields,among which is the literary creation,as it is the external expression of human subjective conscious-ness and a solidified form of human independent thinking.This paper explores the construction of the humanistic spirit in Chi-nese and Western literature in terms of the origin and development;then,it analyzes their differences in the focus and expression to better understand and develop the connotation of humanistic spirit.%现代社会对于人文精神的关注表现在多个领域之中,人文精神归根到底就是有关于人的关注和思考,在笔者看来与人文精神表达最为密切的莫过于文学创作中对于人的关注,文学创作本身就是人类主观意识的外在表达,是人独立思考的固化形式。本文即是在探寻中西方文学中对于人文精神构建基础的分析之上,从中西方文学的起源和发展轨迹中对中西方文学中的人文精神进行探究,分析其人文精神侧重和表达的不同之处,以更好地理解和发展人文精神的内涵。

  5. Chinese Medicine and Prescription Analysis on Chronic Constipation Based on Clinical and Patent Literature%中医临床及专利文献中的慢性便秘方药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文林; 谢松; 曾莉; 潘苏华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the general situation of studies on Chinese medicine and prescription for prevention and treatment of chronic constipation from journal and patent literature. Methods: Taking the Chinese biomedical literature database, Chinese periodical database of traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese patent database as retrieval source, the literatures concerning about TCM for prevention and treatment of chronic constipation from 1980 to July 2011 were retrieved. Results: 877 effective literatures from January 1980 to July 2011, including "Chinese medicine" and "chronic constipation" in abstract or full text, 465 Chinese medicine and 338 prescription were analysised. Some medicine such as Chinses Angelica, Chinese rhubarb and Hemp seed in Chinese medicine or Cannabis pill, Buzhong Yiqi Decoction, Zengye Chengqi Decoction, etc, were in high frequency. Conclusion: the traditional Chinese medicine in prevention and treatment of chronic constipation in Yin nourishing liquid increasing, replenishing qi and blood, liver qi, invigorating spleen, promoting blood circulation and Removing Blood Stasis Decoction for warming kidney were effective, some classical or famous prescription were widely used in clinical%目的:统计中医临床及专利文献中的常用治疗慢性便秘的中药及复方,为中药防治慢性便秘的新药开发提供参考.方法:以中国生物医学文献数据库、中国中医药期刊文献数据库及中国专利数据库为检索对象,对相关文献阅读、分析后统计有效方药.结果:3个数据库中共纳入1979年1月-2011年6月间在全文或摘要字段中含有“中药”、“便秘”、“脾约”的877篇有效文献,统计单味中药465种,经方或名方338个.(制)大黄、当归、火麻仁、白术、(制)甘草等在单味药中频次较高,麻子仁丸、补中益气汤、增液承气汤、大承气汤等基本方在复方中出现频次较高.结论:中药防治慢性便秘以滋阴增液、

  6. Social scientific environmental research in Finland. An overview on the research fields and literature; Yhteiskuntatieteellinen ympaeristoetutkimus Suomessa. Katsaus tutkimusaloihin ja kirjallisuuteen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viinikainen, T. [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents an overview on Finnish social scientific research on the environment. This research field studies the interaction between man and nature, as well as the causes, solutions and effects of environmental problems, in their social context. Research activities in the field have increased in Finland in the 1990`s. In the resort the following research areas are shortly described: environmental history, environmental philosophy and theology, environmental sociology, environmental research in communication studies, research on environmental politics, economics, geography and urban planning, environmental education, environmental law, and forestry. In each research field the latest projects in different research institutions are also listed. In addition to this, the report contains a bibliography on Finnish social scientific research on the environment between the years 1990 and 1996. (orig.) 98 refs.

  7. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  9. The Bent Branches---Chinese Online Literature Viewed from Nationalist Angle%“压弯的树枝”--民族主义视野下的中国网络文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡疆锋

    2014-01-01

    In the process of much mentioned historical context and globalization, Chinese online literature nurtures a complicated and rich mindset of a powerful nation, concerning Chinese territory, national sovereignty, national dignity, cultural identity, foreign policy, and other heated topics, which results in the cause-and-effect relationship with the new nationalism. Online literature reveals the difficult problems in Chinese society and tries to solve them, and clearly depicts the Chinese youth's search for their identity with complicated national consciousness, rational, feverish, nihilistic, cynical, and so on. The negative and harmful trends of contemporary nationalism manifested in online literature should be pointed out and discarded.%在架空的历史语境和全球化境遇中,中国网络文学建构出了复杂而丰富的大国想象,涉及中国领土、国家地位、民族尊严、文化认同、外交政策等热点问题,与新一轮的民族主义形成了互为因果的关系。网络文学揭示出并试图“解决”中国社会中许多尚未解决的难题,清晰勾勒出了当代中国青年在理性、狂热、虚无、犬儒等复杂的民族意识中寻找认同之路的印迹。网络文学中所体现出的当代民族主义中的一些不良倾向应该引起警惕并加以摒弃。

  10. Reflection on the Construction of the Application-oriented Talents Training Mode of Chinese Language and Literature Specialty%关于构建应用型汉语言文学专业人才培养模式的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟瑞青

    2015-01-01

    推动新建本科院校向应用型、技术型高校转型是我国高等教育未来改革发展的基本趋势。在学校转型发展背景下,传统的汉语言文学专业也面临着转型之痛。根据自身现实条件,构建新的适应社会发展需要的汉语言文学专业应用型人才培养模式,成为新建本科院校摆脱专业发展现实困境的必由之路。应该对汉语言文学专业的学生,在新闻、文秘、语文教育学等模块化培养方面进行应用型人才培养的模式化改革,并在课程体系设置、强化实践教学、改革考核方法、实行导师制下的学生职业发展规划、以科研带教学等方面进行深入探索。%To promote the newly built undergraduate course colleges and universities to the applied and technical transformation of colleges and universities is the basic trend of China’s higher education reform and development in the future. In the transformation of school development background, the traditional Chinese language and literature profession is faced with the pain of transformation.Therefore, according to the practical conditions, constructing a new training mode for the Chinese language and Literature specialty to meet the requirements of the social development has become the only way to free us from current predicament. This thesis gives a deep thought about the students’ enrollment of Chinese language and Literature Specialty, the mode reform in the News Specialty and the Secretarial Specialty, the Language Pedagogy Modular Specialty for carrying out talents training patterns, as well as strengthening the practice of teaching,reforming assessment methods, and also about how to put the mentoring student career development planning into practice so as to improve the teaching with the scientific research.

  11. On Chinese Feature of Mao Zedong′s People Oriented Literature Ideology%论毛泽东文艺思想以人民为本位的中国特色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孝评

    2001-01-01

    The entire Mao Zedong′s literature ideology is solely based on the mind of the people,the way Mao worked it never breaks the frame of people related literature. His ideology is actually people-oriented literature ideology in terms of Chinese feature.%毛泽东文艺思想的整个内容,都建立在人民的一元论基点之上;其全部运思,都凝定在文艺与人民关系的一元化框架之内。这一文艺思想,如果就其中国特色而言,乃是一种以人民为本位的文艺思想。

  12. 米兰·昆德拉的存在哲思对中国当代文学的影响%The Influence of Milan Kundera's Philosophical Thoughts of Existence on Chinese Contemporary literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张容

    2011-01-01

    The Czech-born French writer, Milan Kundera, is one of the foreign writers, who was much focused in China during the late twentieth century,and his works have an extensive influence on Chinese contemporary litera- ture.Milan Kundera's philosophical thinking of existence affects the history narrates, the performance and the theme of Chinese contemporary literature,and provides some new enlightenments for Chinese contemporary literature.%法籍捷克裔作家米兰·昆德拉是二十世纪后期备受中国关注的外国作家之一,其创作广泛地影响了中国当代文学的实践。昆德拉对存在的思考与探询对中国当代文学的史学叙事、表现深度和题材广度都产生了深远的影响,为中国当代文学的发展提供了有益的借鉴。

  13. Insight of Anthropology and Writing of the History of Chinese Literature --An Interpretation on "Redrawing the Map of Chinese Literature" Advocated by Yang Yi%人类学眼光与中国文学史的书写——对杨义“重绘中国文学地图”的一种解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏永前

    2011-01-01

    In the theory and practice of "redrawing the map of Chinese literature", Yang Yi's review of the relationship between the native and the west, the periphery and the center, as well as the writing and the oral, has a rich connotation of anthropology. It is both an awareness of the defects in the studies on Chinese literature and a response to the trend of literary anthropology, which has a huge influence on the writing of the history of Chinese literature. The integrated literature concept advocated by Yang Yi makes it possible for the researches of Chinese literature to return to the native paradigm.%在“重绘中国文学地图”的命题与实践中,杨义对“本土与西方”、“边缘与中心”、“书写与口传”、“汉族文学与少数民族文学”等多重关系的重新审视,显示出丰富的人类学内涵。这既是对当下中国文学研究中诸种缺失的自觉省察,也是对方兴未艾的文学人类学思潮的一种回应,在今后的中国文学史写作中具有重要的示范意义。杨义所倡导的“大文学观”,使得中国文学研究在经历了百年“失语”之后,有了回归本土范式的可能。

  14. Data mining for scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai VLASE

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching scientific literature on the Web is a difficult task because of the large volume and the complex dynamics of the scientific literature and because of the complexity and narrow target of typical queries. The problem is compounded by differences among publication standards and formats used in various fields of knowledge. In this paper we review several specific solutions that apply or adapt data mining techniques to searching scientific publications.

  15. [Spray for self-defense against subjects with aggressive behavior: review of the scientific literature on the use of oleoresin capsicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Pelettii, Gianfranco; Veneroni, Laura; de Micheli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In several countries oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray is being used as non lethal weapon in recent years. In 2009 in Italy a Security Act has established that self-defence spray devices can lawfully be purchased and possessed by citizens; at the same time corps of local police started to adopt these devices for self defence and aid in arresting aggressive individuals. This article analizes the multidisciplinar literature about the efficacy and possible acute and long-term health risks of pepper spray for exposed individuals and police or civilians users. The paper also reports updated considerations about correct use of this devices.

  16. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  17. 应用型本科院校汉语言文学专业毕业论文(设计)改革研究——以重庆文理学院为例%A Research on the Reformation of Graduation Thesis and Design of Specialty of Chinese Language and Literature in Applied Undergraduate Colleges——Taking Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长武

    2012-01-01

    The reformation of graduation thesis design of specialty of Chinese language and literature should target on the goal of cultivating of professional talent,and construct a reform model of graduation thesis,which respectively constructs a reform model with scientific research innovation ability,literary creation ability,oral expression ability,professional practice ability as the core of evaluation index of graduation thesis.We should promote the graduation thesis(design) work in the entire process of Chinese literature professional talent training,so as to improve the quality of application talents quality.%汉语言文学专业毕业论文(设计)改革应该从分析专业人才培养目标着手,构建以科研创新能力、文学创作能力、口语表达能力、实践教学能力为核心评价指标的毕业论文(设计)模式,将毕业论文(设计)工作贯穿于汉语言文学专业人才培养的全过程,这样才能达到提高应用型人才培养质量的目的。

  18. 先秦天人观与中国文学刍议%The Relationship between the Concept of Heaven and Mankind in Pre-Qin and Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张根云

    2015-01-01

    In the Pre-Qin period, although Confucianism and Taoism looking at the meaning of Heaven have emphasize partic-ularly on, but their starting point is Heaven and mankind, nature and humanity is similar interlinked, should be unified.It made a profound impact on Chinese literature in past dynasties.Confucian thought of“interactions Between Heaven and Mankind” emphasi-zing on moral identity between mankind and nature, enriched the writer's imagination, arouse the creative inspiration, took effect on the formation of the tradition of expressing ambition with the help of all things.Taoist thought of“people should follow the nature”emphasizing that in front of the noble Heaven, a man's wisdom and act is unnecessary, sparked the praise for natural beauty, the pursuit of unadorned style, longing for the state of “void and silence” in literary creation.%先秦时,儒、道二家考察“天”的涵义时,集中表现为“天人合一”的观念,它对中国历代文学都产生了深远影响。儒家的“天人感应”思想强调自然与人在道德上的同一性,这丰富了作家的想象力,激发了创作灵感,对托物言志、因物喻志传统的形成有决定作用。道家的“以天待人”思想强调在崇高的“天”面前,人的智慧与作为是多余的,应依循自然,这引发了文学创作对自然美的推崇,对朴素无华的艺术风格的追求和对艺术感知、构思时的“虚静”境界的神往。

  19. On the Thought of Inter subjectivity in Chinese Traditional Culture and Scientific Concept of Development%中国传统文化中的间性思想与科学发展观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士部

    2012-01-01

    The scientific concept of development is not only a response to the Chinese traditional culture, but also to the pulse of the spirit of the globalization, and the focal point of both lies in the thought of inter subjectivity. This way of thinking is not a simple theory imitation, but a theory of sublimation about the Chinese traditional culture in the new era. The scientific concept of development is suitable for the China' s national conditions, meeting the development trend of the world culture and covertly according with the thought of inter subjectivity, which has been refined and developed in the two way contingency of the Marxist doctrine and social practice.%科学发展观既是对中华优秀传统文化的回应,又是对全球化时代精神脉象的顺应,而两者的聚焦点就在于间性思维。这种间性思想方法不是对西方间性理论的简单套用,而是中华优秀传统文化中已有的问性思想在新的时代条件下的理论升华。科学发展观是切合中国国情、迎合世界文化发展趋势而又暗合间性思维规律的根本指导方针,它必将在马克思主义的理论学说与社会实践活动的双向遇合中不断得到完善与发展。

  20. A case report of collagenous gastritis in a young Chinese woman and literatures review%胶原性胃炎一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贺军; 金珠; 林三仁; 丁士刚; 白鹏; 崔荣丽; 韩亚京; 张颖; 尚惠茹

    2010-01-01

    Objective Collagenous gastritis is a rare entity, characterized by the deposition of a subepithelial collagen band with an inflammatory infiltrate in the mucosa.This report describes the first case of collagenous gastritis occurring in a young Chinese woman and reviews the literatures.Methods The patient underwent the gastroscopy screening, and the biopsy specimens were treated with HE staining, Masson staining, Congo red staining and Warthin-Starry staining.Patients' clinical data was discussed and followed up.Results A twenty-year-old girl had intermittent epigastric pain for 4 years, abdominal distention, hiccup and weight loss for two months.The gastric endoscopy revealed diffuse white nodular appearance of the mucosa in angular incisure and antrum.Pathologic examination of the gastric biopsies from the antrum and angular showed a subepithelial collagen deposition with moderate infiltrates of lymphoplasma cells and eosinophils of the lamina propria.The collagen band measured up to 120.3 μm (mean 43.8 μm).Prednisone 20 mg/d for 4 weeks led to clinical remission and weight gain.Conclusion There are about 40 cases in literatures to date, and the cause and pathogenesis of collagenous gastritis remain unknown.According to the clinical and pathological characteristics, the patient in this article is the subtype of collagenous gastritis that occurring in children and young adults.Specific therapy has not been established, the gluten-free diet and glucocorticosteroid may be helpful to relieve symptoms in collagenous gastritis patients.%目的 胶原性胃炎(coHagenous gastritis,CG)临床少见,现报道一例CG并进行文献复习.方法 患者行胃镜检查,活检组织切片分别行HE染色、Masson染色、刚果红染色及Warthin-Starry染色;分析病例临床资料并进行随访.结果 1例20岁女性患者主因无规律上腹痛4年,伴腹胀、呃逆、体重明显下降2个月就诊.胃镜检查于角切迹及窦部可见白色结节(活检).病理

  1. Chinese Characters in Korean Modern Literature:Take Potato and Farmer for Example%韩国现代文学中的华人形象:以《土豆》和《农民》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林大根

    2012-01-01

    金东仁的《土豆》(1925)和李泰俊的《农民》(1939)是韩国现代文学中描绘华人形象的代表作品。《土豆》中的“王掌柜”是首次出现在韩国现代文学作品中的华人形象,也是当时朝鲜社会剧增的华人的典型代表。然而,该形象被描写成非道德的、反社会的人物,而促使这一形象生成的中心媒介就是“金钱”。透过该人物形象,可以窥视到20世纪二十年代中期朝鲜社会对华人的看法。《农民》中的华人形象是聚集韩中矛盾焦点的主人公。但是,评价以万宝山事件为背景出现的这些华人形象时,需要了解当时韩中之间的民族矛盾是由日本的殖民政策和舆论炒作所造成的,只有对这些深层次的原因进行分析,才能以正确的逻辑进行思考。但是,以万宝山事件为背景进行叙述的小说《农民》并没有抓住这点,只以朝鲜人取得水路开垦的胜利而收尾,并把与朝鲜人对峙的华人集团塑造成暴力团体,可以说,这是创作过于疏懒的结果。这种试图将超越意识形态的问题集中在民族层面的文学形象化,对后来朝鲜对华(人)的认识产生了不小的影响。因此,有必要从批判的视角来解读这部作品。%This paper aims to analyze Potato(1925) by Kim Dong In and Farmer(1939) by Lee Tae Jun as the representatives of describing Chinese characters in Korean modern literature. "Wangseobang" in Potato is a representative of Chinese, who had sharply increased in number at that time of Joseon society and also the first Chinese figure in Korean modern literature. This mod- el of Chinese was often described as being immoral as well as antisocial, and the money is the root of the character. We can see the public perception of Chinese from 1920 to the middle of 1930 through the character. The Chinese figures in Farmer intensively show conflicts between Korean and Chinese. However

  2. Review of the Relationship between Chinese Martial Arts Films and Chivalrous Literature%中国武侠电影和侠文学的关系研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兴阳

    2016-01-01

    当前学界对武侠电影的研究相对透彻,对侠客、武侠小说、武侠文化等的研究较为成熟,但按照散文、小说、诗歌、戏曲的分类标准对武侠文本加以梳理并研究的则非常之少,中国武侠电影对侠文学的改编、借鉴、促进和武侠文学对武侠电影的影响研究也不很多。目前对中国武侠电影和侠文学关系的研究,还存在诸多问题有待解决。%At present ,the research on martial arts films is comparatively thorough ,and the research on knight-errant ,martial arts novels and martial arts is relatively mature .But in accordance with prose ,fic-tion ,poetry ,drama ,martial arts text to be carding ,classification and research is very rare .The study of the adaptation ,reference ,promotion of Chinese martial arts films on chivalrous literature and the influ-ence of martial arts literature on martial arts films is lacking .At present ,there are still many problems to be solved in the study of the relationship between Chinese martial arts films and chivalrous literature .

  3. Scientific publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The necessary work for developing a scientific publication is sometimes underestimated and requires the effective participation of many players to obtain a result in good standard. Initially it depends upon the determination of the authors that decide to write the scientific article. Scientific writing is a very challenging and time consuming task, but at the same time essential for any scientist. A published scientific article is unquestionably one of the main indicators of scientific production, especially if published in a qualified scientific journal with highly qualified editorial committee and strict peer review procedure. By looking at evaluation criteria for scientific production of the several Thematic Scientific Committees of the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq it becomes clear publications in scientific journals that has certified quality is the most important item in the evaluation of a scientist production.

  4. Review on Literature of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Recurrent Oral Ulceration%寒热中药外用治疗口腔溃疡的文献回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟华强; 王双艳; 张硕峰; 高明超; 马长华

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过文献查阅及整理,对寒热中药外用治疗口腔溃疡进行回顾与思考.方法:以CNKI,VIP数据库为依据,以口腔溃疡、中药外用、复方、临床研究、药理研究等为关键词,查阅数据库中近10年的相关文献,对单味药及复方中药治疗口腔溃疡的情况进行整理和分析.结果:外用治疗口腔溃疡的寒凉中药包括草珊瑚、青黛、白及、枯矾;温热中药包括细辛、吴茱萸、丁香、蜈蚣.复方中药主要有溃疡散、冰硼散、双黄连粉等,其方法以局部涂抹、穴位贴敷为主.结论:从寒热药性角度,对中药外用治疗口腔溃疡的文献进行系统分析,将为临床治疗口腔溃疡提供参考.%Objective: Through the revision and collation of literature, we think about the traditional Chinese medicine which could cure the Recurrent Oral Ulcer by external using. Method:We used CNKI and VIP database, based on the oral ulcer, external treatment of Traditional Chinese Medicine, compound, clinical research, pharmacological research as the key words in order to access the nearly 10 years of related literatures,then we collect and analysis the single herbs and compounds traditional Chinese medicine which could treatment for recurrent oral ulcer. Result: The single herbs which could external using for recurrent oral ulcer include warm herbs such as Sarcandra glabra, Indigo Naturalis, Rhizoma Platantherae Chloranthae, aridi and cold herbs such as Asarum, Evodia, Flos Caryophylli, Scolopendra. The compounds include Ulcers scattered, Bingpeng San, Shuanghuanglian powder and so on. They are mainly to be local daubed and acupoint sticking applide. Conclusion: From the Angle of the cold - heat nature of traditional Chinese medicine, we referred to the related literatures and reviewed the traditional Chinese medicine which could cure the Recurrent Oral Ulcer by external using, in order to provide reference for the clinical treatment of oral ulcers.

  5. On the basic ideas of the applied talents training of Chinese language and literature specialty%探讨汉语言文学专业应用型人才培养的基本思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈润生

    2013-01-01

      随着高等教育的普及,大学本科教育已从精英教育转变为大众教育了。传统学科——汉语言文学专业应用型人才的培养就成了一个值得关注的问题。本文旨在通过研究地方高校汉语言文学专业在对应用型人才的培养过程中所存在的问题,从人才培养目标的正确定位、课程结构的优化、教学方法的改革、实践环节的强化等四个方面探索汉语言文学专业应用型人才培养的基本思路。%With the popularization of higher education, bachelor's degree education from elite education to mass education. Traditional subject--Chinese language and literature specialty talents training became a concern. This paper aims to study the problems of the local college of Chinese language and literature specialty in the process of training applied talents, from the proper positioning of personnel training goal, the optimization of the curriculum structure, the reform of teaching methods, practice and so on four aspects to explore the basic ideas of the applied talents training of Chinese language and literature specialty.

  6. Darwinism:Variation of Propagation and Misreading in Modern Chinese Literature History%进化论:传播的“变异”与现代文学史编写中的“误读”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2012-01-01

      Yan Fu ignored the complexity of evolutionary process ,paid little attention to "alienation"and "degradation"and mistranslated Darwinism ,which provides ideological weapon for literary revolution and contributes to the transformation of Chinese literature in 20th century .The theory of evolution is not a value judgment standard so using the theory of evolution to judge the development of Chinese literature in the 20th century is a mistake that .To rational cognitive development and change of modern Chinese litera-ture ,misreading must be gotten rid of .%  严复对进化论的“误译”忽略了进化过程的复杂性,漠视了“异化”、“退化”等现象的存在。进化论为“文学革命”提供了思想武器和方法支撑,促成了中国文学在20世纪之交的转型。进化论不是一种价值评判标准,以之评判20世纪中国文学的发展是写史走入的误区。只有摆脱“误读”的影响,疏离“新”、“旧”二字价值判断上的应用,才能合理认知中国现代文学的发展与变革。

  7. 我国高校的科研竞争力--基于InCites数据库的比较分析%The Scientific Research Competitiveness of Chinese Universities:A Comparative Analysis Based on InCites Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娟

    2016-01-01

    从发文数量、引用率、社会影响力、决策影响力四个角度,分析对比了我国高校科研竞争力在1981-2013年的变化趋势。结果发现:在过去三十多年,我国发表论文数呈指数型增长,引用率显著提升,社会影响力逐步接近世界平均水平,决策影响力稳步提升;与美国等科研强国相比,无论在数量、引用率还是影响力上,仍有很大差距,但与“金砖国家”相比,各项指标位居前列。在统筹推进世界一流大学和一流学科发展战略下,我国高校应加强前瞻性和基础性问题研究,提升原始创新能力,打造一批有中国特色的新型高校智库,提高服务国家决策的能力。%From the perspectives of number of published papers, citation rate, social influence and decision-making influence, this paper analyzes the trends in scientific research competitiveness of Chinese universities between 1981 and 2013. It is found that over the past 30 years, the number of published papers has undergone exponential growth in China with significantly improved citation rate, social influence approaching the world average level and steadily improved decision-making influence. While the gap between China and the United States is still visible in terms of the quantity, citation rate and impact of published papers, China ranks ahead of other BRICS countries in scientific productivity. Guided by the overall strategy of promoting the development of world-class universities and first-class disciplines, it is imperative for Chinese universities to lay emphasis on the research on prospective and fundamental issues, to improve the ability of original innovation, to create a number of university think tanks with Chinese characteristics, and to enhance the capabilities of serving the nation.

  8. Unraveling Scientific Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Stremersch, S.; Camacho, N.M.A.; Vanneste, S.; Verniers, I.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    The number of citations a paper receives is the most commonly used measure of scientific impact. In this paper, we study not only the number but also the type of citations that 659 marketing articles generated. We discern five citation types: application, affirmation, negation, review and perfunctory mention (i.e., citing an article only indirectly without really using it). Prior literature in scientometrics recognizes that the former three types, on average, signal a higher level of scientif...

  9. Non-hematopoietic essential functions of bone marrow cells: a review of scientific and clinical literature and rationale for treating bone defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Harrell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis as the only essential function of bone marrow cells has been challenged for several decades through basic science (in vitro and in vivo and clinical data. Such work has shed light on two other essential functions of bone marrow cells: osteopoiesis and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis. Clinical utility of autologous concentrated bone marrow aspirate (CBMA has demonstrated both safety and efficacy in treating bone defects. Moreover, CBMA has been shown to be comparable to the gold standard of iliac crest bone graft (ICBG, or autograft, with regard to being osteogenic and osteoinductive. ICBG is not considered an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP, but CBMA may become regulated as an ATMP. The European Medicines Agency Committee for Advanced Therapies (EMA:CAT has issued a reflection paper (20 June 2014 in which reversal of the 2013 ruling that CBMA is a non-ATMP has been proposed. We review bone marrow cell involvement in osteopoiesis and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis to examine EMA:CAT 2013 decision to use CBMA for treatment of osteonecrosis (e.g, of the femoral head should be considered a non-ATMP. This paper is intended to provide discussion on the 20 June 2014 reflection paper by reviewing two non-hematopoietic essential functions of bone marrow cells. Additionally, we provide clinical and scientific rationale for treating osteonecrosis with CBMA.

  10. Status of articles published by the Chinese Journal of AIDS&STD in HIV/AIDS related domestic literature%《中国艾滋病性病》刊载文献在国内发表的艾滋病相关文献中的位置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑京婵; 张蕊; 刘霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解《中国艾滋病性病》刊载文献在国内发表艾滋病相关文献中的位置.方法 在CNKI中国知网数据库中,以“艾滋病”为关键词检索文献,下载题录信息后整理分析.结果 2006-2010年国内分别有461、464、462、469、457本杂志发表与“艾滋病”相关的文献,《中国艾滋病性病》的发表篇数(所占比例在6.2%~8.1%之间波动)、被引篇数、被引频次、下载篇数、下载频次始终居于第一位,被引率和下载率处于发表艾滋病相关文献篇数前6名杂志的中上水平.结论 《中国艾滋病性病》杂志在传播性病艾滋病科研成果方面起了重要作用,还存在增加载文数量的发展空间.%Objective To evaluate the status of the articles published by the Chinese Journal of AIDS &. STD in HIV/AIDS related domestic literatures. Method Literatures were searched in China CNKI database by using HIV/AIDS as a key word, and related information was downloaded and analyzed. Results There were totally 461, 464,462,469 and 457 domestic journals which published HIV/AIDS related articles in respective years from 2006 to 2010. The articles published by the Chinese Journal of AIDS &. STD accounted for 6. 2%- 8. 1% of all the related domestic articles, ranking the first in terms of number and frequency of citation and downloading. As for the rate of citation and downloading the journal stays at a high or middle level and is listed among the 6 top HIV/ AIDS related journals. Conclusion The Chinese Journal of AIDS & STD plays a vital role in publicizing STD/AIDS related scientific achievements in this country, but there is much room for its further increasing number of articles.

  11. 《在延安文艺座谈会上的讲话》发表70年来,中国文化发展路径和发展现状研究%A Study of Chinese Cultural Path with Status since Talks at Yan’an Forum on Literature and Art on its 70th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张从容; 李哲

    2016-01-01

    Talks at Yan’an Forum on Literature and Art is the scientific theory of Sinicization of Marxism, and more importantly, that of the Communist Party of China leading Chinese people to carry out cultural construction. Guided by the theory, Chinese culture has been moving forward in the right direction in past 70 years, and has achieved great prosperity. By exploring the development path and status of Chinese culture, it can be seen that Chinese cultural development has always firm socialist culture development under the leadership of the Communist Party of China in past 70 years as the fundamental purpose by adjusting to cultural developing strategies of the era, and by exploring the cultural system reform and by adhering to the cultural development through combining the inherit, learning and innovation with important practical significance for the realization the dream of the China.%《在延安文艺座谈会上的讲话》是马克思主义中国化的科学理论文献,更是中国共产党领导中国人民开展文化建设的理论纲领。以《讲话》理论为指导,70年来中国文化沿着正确的方向前进,并取得了大发展大繁荣。探寻中国文化的发展路径与发展现状,我们欣喜地看到,70年来中国文化发展始终坚定中国共产党领导下的社会主义文化前进方向;始终把文化为人民作为根本宗旨;并跟随时代的脚步调整文化发展策略,探索文化体制改革;始终坚持继承、借鉴与创新相结合的文化发展道路。《讲话》对实现中华民族的文化强国之梦具有重要的现实启迪意义。

  12. 中美青少年文学教育的比较研究%A comparative study of Chinese and American youth literature education in the movie background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陕倩倩

    2016-01-01

    通过对电影背后的中美青少年文学进行比较研究可知,电影背后的中美青少年文学虽然具备一定的共同点,但是在具体的人生观、价值观、文化关注点和兴趣点上还存在一定的差异。因此,正确了解电影背后中美青少年文学特点,对掌握中美青少年文学发展脉络和加深对中美青少年文学的理解具有重要的促进作用。%The study shows that the film behind the American adolescent literature, film behind the American adolescent literature although have certain things in common, but in specific life concept, values, cultural concerns and interests point still exist some differences. Therefore, understanding behind the movie American adolescent literature characteristics, to grasp the American adolescent literature development context and enhance mutual understanding of Chinese and American young adult literature has an important role in promoting.

  13. 香港中文大学科研管理研究%Management of Scientific Research of The Chinese University of Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴茵荷

    2016-01-01

    香港中文大学作为一所研究型综合大学,蜚声国际,具有较强的科研实力。卓越的科研离不开有效的科研管理。中大内部多样化的科研管理机构,注重绩效的科研政策以及对教研人员的科研奖励都很好地促进了科研发展。%Chinese University of Hong Kong as a comprehensive research university, renowned internationally, has strong re-search strength. Excellent research is inseparable from effective research management. Large internal diversification of re-search administration, performance-based research policy and research incentives for academic staff to promote the research and development.

  14. Scientific literature on monosialoganglioside in the Science Citation Index-Expanded bibliometric analysis of articles from 1942 to 2011 by each decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Xu; Miaojing Li; Zhijun Liu; Ruichun Liu; Jianzhong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The monosialoganglioside (GM1) is a popular topic of research but the bibliometric analysis of GM1 over the decades in Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) remains poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To identify the global research and to improve the understanding of research trends in the GM1 field from 1942 to 2011. DESIGN: A bibliometric study. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis based on the SCI-E published by the Institute of Scientific Information. INCLUSIVE CRITERIA: Articles closely related to GM1 were included. Exclusive criteria: (1) Articles related to gangliosidosis, disialo-ganglioside, trisialo-ganglioside or ganglioside GQIb. (2) Document types such as meeting abstracts, reviews, proceedings papers, notes, and letters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Type of publication output; (2) number of author outputs; (3) distribution of output in subject categories; (4) publication distribution of countries; (5) distribution of output in journals, and (6) distribution of citations in each decade.RESULTS: During 1942 to 2011, there were 10 126 papers on GM1 that were added to the SCI. Articles (8 004) were the most frequently used document type comprising 79.0%, followed by meeting abstracts, reviews and proceedings papers. Research on GM1 could be found in the SCI from 1942, it was developed in the 1970s, greatly increased in the 1980s, and reached a peak in the 1990s, and it was slightly decreased in 2000. The distribution of subject categories showed that GM1 research covered both clinical and basic science research. The USA, Japan, and Germany were the three most productive countries, and the publication numbers in the USA were highest in all decades. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Neurochemistry and Biochemistry were core subject journals in GM1 studies in each decade. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the topics in GM1 research that are being published around the world.

  15. 近五年中医药治疗骨质疏松文献分析%A late 5-year literature analysis of osteoporosis treatment using traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭新; 刘芳; 叶竹; 邓伟民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze and evaluate the clinical research literatures concerning traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of osteoporosis in CNKI during last 5 years (form 2005.01 to 2009.12),and to learn the general situation of the treatment of osteoporosis with traditional Chinese medicine from the aspect of syndrome differentiation, drug use, and the result. Methods Using osteoporosis as a key word, and traditional Chinese medicine, herbs, clinical study as pairs of key words to extend, literature searching was performed from the Chinese periodical full text database. Literatures of experimental animal study, reviews,and pathogenesis of the disease were excluded. The quality of the research was evaluated from the basic elements of clinical research literature, including the quality of the literature ( randomized, double-blinded,controlled), the content of the literature (syndrome differentiation, treatment method, formulas of herbs),and the metrology of the literature (year distribution, area distribution, journal distribution ). The general situation of osteoporosis treatment with traditional Chinese medicine was summarized. Results The number of literatures of clinical research of osteoporosis treatment with traditional Chinese medicine increased year by year. The treatment was mainly with tonifying method and with promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis. The medicine was mainly made up as traditional Chinese patent medicines and simple preparations convenient to use, with good efficacy. The regional distribution of the study was uneven. No research was reported in some region so far. High quality clinical studies were less. Conclusion The treatment of osteoporosis with traditional Chinese medicine was mainly with reinforcing kidney to strengthen spleen and with promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis. The clinical studies about the effect traditional Chinese medicine on pathogenesis and therapeutics of osteoporosis need to

  16. Comparison of journal self-citation rates between some Chinese and non-Chinese international journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Guo Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The past 3 decades have witnessed a boost in science development in China; in parallel, more and more Chinese scientific journals are indexed by the Journal Citation Reports issued by Thomson Reuters (SCI. Evaluation of the performance of these Chinese SCI journals is necessary and helpful to improve their quality. This study aimed to evaluate these journals by calculating various journal self-citation rates, which are important parameters influencing a journal impact factor. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We defined three journal self-citation rates, and studied these rates for 99 Chinese scientific journals, almost exhausting all Chinese SCI journals currently available. Likewise, we selected 99 non-Chinese international (abbreviated as 'world' journals, with each being in the same JCR subject category and having similar impact factors as their Chinese counterparts. Generally, Chinese journals tended to be higher in all the three self-citation rates than world journal counterparts. Particularly, a few Chinese scientific journals had much higher self-citation rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that generally Chinese scientific journals have higher self-citation rates than those of world journals. Consequently, Chinese scientific journals tend to have lower visibility and are more isolated in the relevant fields. Considering the fact that sciences are rapidly developing in China and so are Chinese scientific journals, we expect that the differences of journal self-citation rates between Chinese and world scientific journals will gradually disappear in the future. Some suggestions to solve the problems are presented.

  17. Network Characteristics of Chinese Scientific and Technical Vocabulary System%汉语科技词系统网络特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡长爱; 朱礼军

    2011-01-01

    传统的知识组织系统评价方式存在缺乏宏观测度,时滞过长,不能动态揭示等缺陷.本文结合复杂网络理论,从基本特性、动态特性和鲁棒性三个角度着手,对汉语科技词系统网络特性进行分析.基本特性的分析表明,汉语科技词系统同时具有小世界特性和无尺度特性,连通性良好,但是存在错误建设和重复建设的问题;动态特性的分析则表明,汉语科技词系统的小世界特性越来越显著,同时网络的性能有待进一步提高;鲁棒性的分析表明,汉语科技词系统网络面对随机删除时,具有良好的鲁棒性,面对蓄意攻击时,表现出较强的脆弱性.建议在以后的建设过程中采用有导向的建设,在系统管理和维护的过程中要注重词汇间相互关系,保证系统的连通性.%The evaluation of the traditional knowledge organization systems lacks of macroeconomic measure , works out very late, and cann't reveal dynamic process. Based on complex network theory, this paper has analyzed the network properties of the Chinese science and technology vocahulary system from the aspects of basic characteristics, dynamic characteristics and robustness. The analysis of basic characteristics shows that the Chinese science and technology vocabulary system is a small-world and scale-free network , and it has good connexity. But there are errors and multiplicity ;The analysis of dynamic property shows that the system is much more small-world , while the network's performance should be further improved. The analysis of robustness shows that the systerm is much robust. So that the suggestion has been advanced that the vocabulary system should be constructed under the direction,and the importance should be attached to each and every vocabulary to ensure the connectivity of the system.

  18. Application of Text Mining Technology in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature Research%文本挖掘技术在中医药文献研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪涛

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨文本挖掘技术在中医药文献研究中的应用成果.方法:对近年来文本挖掘技术应用于中医药研究的文献进行综述,总结文本挖掘技术在中医药中的应用成果.结果:文本挖掘技术能以线性和非线性方式解析数据,且能进行高层次的知识整合,又善于处理模糊和非量化数据.未来文本挖掘有可能整合中医药数据、蛋白质及代谢组学数据,分析组合中药活性成分,为新药发现和组合药物形成构建研发平台.结论:利用文本挖掘技术对中医药进行研究分析是一种很有前景的方法.%Objective:To investigate the application progress of text mining technology on traditional Chinese medicine literature research.Methods:Achievements of the application of text mining technology in TCM were summarized through literature review of the application of text mining technology in traditional chinese medicine in recent years.Results:Text mining technology can parse the data in the linear and nonlinear manner,with a high level of integration of knowledge.It is also good at dealing with fuzzy and not quantitative data.Text mining technology is likely to integrate traditional Chinese medicine data,protein and metabolomics data,analysis of combination traditional Chinese medicine active ingredients,which builds development platform for the new drug discovery and the form of combination drugs.Conclusion:Using text mining technology for research and analysis of traditional Chinese medicine is a promising method

  19. Changes of the usage of"motivation" and related concepts within Chinese literature of human resources for health%卫生人力资源研究中"激励"及相关基本概念的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明吉; 侯志远; 严非

    2015-01-01

    After introduction into Chinese academy, and in the application in health care domain, the usage of"motivation" and related concepts has been changed. The changes were partly due to pragmatic utility, and caused confusion in the application of motivation theory in Chinese human resource for health. Both English and Chinese lit-erature was reviewed and systematic literature review was applied. We analyzed the different definitions of "motiva-tion" in English, and how they were used and understand in Chinese academia in history. "Motivation" was divided into three Chinese concepts, representing the process of motivation, inner driver of motivation and psychological state of being motivated. The other usage changes include willful exchange of"incentive" and"motivation";"motivation"being used more as a means to motivate than a motivational process;the result of motivation as an aroused psychologi-cal state not seriously defined. Systematic literature review revealed the distribution of various motivation topics in Chinese literature and supported the abovementioned arguments. These changes of usage could cause barriers to re-search of human resource for health in China. It is recommended that usage of"motivation" should be clarified in ac-ademia in China and the process of motivation rather than motivation as a managerial means deserves more attention.%中文激励理论在卫生服务领域的应用过程中,中文激励理论的基本概念与英文原有理论的概念用法有所变化. 这些基本概念的变化有其应用方面的适宜性,但也造成了对卫生人力资源管理应用和未来理论发展的困扰. 本文使用了理论分析、文献评阅的方法,探讨了英文motivation的多个概念、中文激励理论的历史文本,系统评阅了2000年以来卫生服务领域的中文激励相关文献. 结果发现,英文motivation的三种定义分化为激励、动机、积极性三个中文词汇. 存在的概念变异是:刺激( incentive )

  20. 越南读者接受中国80后文学的情况%On the Situation of Vietnamese Readers' Acceptance of Chinese Literature Created by Writers Born after 1980

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文晓

    2012-01-01

    Chinese literature created by writers born after 1980 has been spread in Vietnam in recent years, which has been greeted and supported by young readers but received cold attitudes from Vietnamese critics. This literary phenomenon has imposed great influence on young Vietnamese psychological life and aesthetic hobby. However, the fact that the numbers of these literary works created by writers born after 1980 overweigh their quality results in the misunderstanding in many people that Chinese contemporary literature is just so-so.%最近几年来中国80后文学匆匆地进入到越南,它们受到年轻读者的欢迎和支持,但越南文学批评界的态度却很冷淡,同时有不同的看法。这种文学现象的出现对越南年轻人心理生活和审美爱好产生了很大影响。中国80后文学作品进入越南的数量比有艺术质量的文学作品进入越南的数量要多,这让不少人误解“中国当代文学只是如此”。

  1. 数字媒体时代下的中国儿童文学发展面向省思%Reflections on the Development of Chinese Children ’ s Literature in the Age of Digital Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿羽

    2015-01-01

    中国儿童文学兴起于五四新文化运动时期,伴随着中国现代社会的进步一路而行,其先后经历了多种社会思潮的影响并发生了有别于西方儿童文学的本土化转变。基于计算机技术的数字媒体改变了人类生活的整体面貌,一涌而出的视觉符号在深刻影响中国儿童文学发展环境的同时,也改变了儿童的阅读习惯。我国目前正处于经济转型期,有关儿童的社会问题日益明显,这些状况无疑是数字媒体时代下中国儿童文学理论思考的一个重要面向所在。%Chinese children ’ s literature originated from the New Culture Movement , developing along with the pro-gress of modern society .It has undergone the influence of many social thoughts before being localized .Computer-based digital media technology has changed the whole situation of human life .Artificial visual symbols and sounds are overwhelming Chinese children’s literature, which has profoundly changed children ’s reading habits.China is currently in a period of economic transition .Social problems about children have become increasingly prominent . Research on this situation is not only the direction of Chinese children ’ s literary theory,but also the destiny of this discipline in the digital media age .

  2. Los costos de la enfermedad laboral: revisión de literatura / Cost of occupational diseases: a review of scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha I. Riaño-Casallas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: identificar el estado de desarrollo de la investigación sobre los costos de la enfermedad laboral que ha sido publicada en la literatura durante la última década en el mundo. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de literatura, altamente sensible, con el objetivo de identificar publicaciones que se adaptaran a los criterios de inclusión predefinidos por los autores. Se consultaron bases de datos como Pubmed, Ebsco, Lilacs, Online Wiley, Embase y Springer. El periodo de tiempo consultado fue 2000-2013. Resultados: Se incluyeron 54 artículos, de los cuales el mayor porcentaje están escritos en inglés, la mayoría fue producto de investigaciones realizadas en Estados Unidos. La metodología utilizada principalmente por los autores de los artículos fue del tipo de estudios de carga y costos de la enfermedad. Los costos incluidos en estas publicaciones fueron directos e indirectos en su mayoría y la perspectiva predominante fue la de tipo social. Conclusiones: Las economías más avanzadas del mundo son las que en su mayoría realizan este tipo de investigaciones, balance que resalta la importancia de realizar estos estudios para economías de países en desarrollo. Con respecto al lenguaje de publicación solamente se encontraron publicaciones en español realizadas en España, de ahí que sea necesario adelantar más estudios de este tipo en Latinoamérica. / Abstract Objective: look the development of research about the work related illness published in the literature in different years, countries and economic activities and knows about the point of view to calculate the cost. Methodology: it was performance a systematic search, highly sensivity with the purpose of identify publications that could be accomplishment with inclusion criteria predefined by the authors. Databases such as PubMed, Ebsco, Lilacs, Online Wiley, Springer and Embase were consulted. The consultation period was from 2000 to 2013

  3. Bibliometric Analysis of The Sport Core Periodicals Scientific Literature of Tennis Research in Recent Ten Years%近10年体育类核心期刊网球科研文献计量学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕煜寰

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,using literature data method,mathematical statistics and logic analysis method,the CSSCI nearly 10 years (2006-2015),Chinese sports core periodicals in our country about tennis research literature as the research object,with range of study,journal of contribution rate,the author title,such as content analysis.Through objective data statistical analysis and data collected in nearly 10 years of domestic research Angle of view,the main academic point of view about the tennis project, value orientation,and the future research trend,further improve the research level of tennis sport in our country, promote the development of tennis in our country and popularity.%该文运用文献资料法、数理统计法、逻辑分析法,对近10年(2006—2015)我国中文类体育核心期刊有关网球科研文献进行文献计量分析,以研究领域、学刊贡献率、作者职称等内容进行统计分析,旨在通过客观的数据统计分析来探析近10年国内关于网球项目的研究视角、主要学术观点、价值取向、以及未来研究趋势等,进一步提高我国网球运动的科研水平,推动网球在我国的发展与普及。

  4. 得失参半的创新之作--《剑桥中国文学史》评议%Success Equals Failure in an Innovated Book-A Review about The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泽宝

    2015-01-01

    《剑桥中国文学史》旨在打破以往文学史写作中的习惯性范畴,开创新的文学史范式。其中最引人注目的是它特殊的“文学文化史”的书写姿态,立足于在文化史的背景下考察中国文学的发展进程。这种书写策略为我们认识文学史提供了新的视角与方法,但并没有在全书中得到全面的贯彻。《剑桥中国文学史》的文学史分期方式也引人注目,某些基于文学文化史立场的分期方式显得新颖别致。全书的文学史分期方式并没有统一的标准,也存在着按世纪、朝代为文学史分期的现象。由于全书的编者热衷于探求“过去的文学”原貌,在实践中往往对某些重要作家作品叙述较少,而对次要的文学现象评价过高。这种迥异于时流的评价可新人耳目,但有些评价是出于臆测,并没有坚实的依据。%The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History aims at creating a new pattern about the writing of Chinese literature history by removing familiar categories in the field.The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History is famous for its special view of the history of literature culture.The writ-ers believe that the real original appearance of literature is clear when we research literature by the hand of whole history of culture.Some problems in literature could be removed with the view of cul-ture,which is not reflected completely in the whole book.The divisions of literature history are also eye-attracting,some are reasonable based the view of culture history.Other kinds of division of histo-ry carry on changeless criterion as before.The book aims to seek the original appearance of literature happened as announced.Some famous writers in history are not take high while common ones are over praised.So,some evaluations in the book are not valid.

  5. 中国内观疗法文献分析(1988-2015年)%Analysis of Chinese Naikan Therapy Literature during 1 988 and 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭睿; 毛富强; 靳秀; 苏阳雪

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To summarize and analyze development dynamics and features of Naikan therapy in 27 years. Methods:Taking “Naikan”and “therapy”as search terms.Making topic,keywords and title/keywords search at CNKI,Wanfang medical network and VIP.The literature was between June,1 988 and Septemper,201 5.Screening the literature and making statistic analysis subject to bibliometrics principle.Results:China journal published a total of Naikan therapy and 222 literatures,the research and application of 147 articles(66.2%).Tianjin Medical University (59,26.6%),Soochow University(1 6,7.2%),the mental health center of Shanghai(13,5.9%)was one of the top three author;Mao Fuqiang(42,18.9%),Wang Zucheng(8,3.6%),Huang Xinyin(8,3.6%)was one of the top three communications the author China;the second session of the conference of Naikan therapy(34,1 5.3%),the master degree thesis of Tianjin Medical University(1 6,7.2%),Shanghai Journal of Psychiatry(1 1,5%),China Journal of Health Psychology(10,4.5%),Chinese Journal of behavioral medicine and Brain Science(9,4.1%)was the top five sources;mental health education(28,1 9.1%),schizophrenia(28,1 9.1%),Internet addiction(1 1,7.5%),depression (10,6.8%),alcohol dependence(10,6.8%)was used as one of the top five Field.Conclusion:Naikan therapy in show-ing the number of step growth;Naikan training base in Tianjin,Shanghai and other is published the main force;Graduate Dissertations and scientific journal conference proceedings,research is the primary literature sources;Nai-kan therapy is mainly used in mental health education and mental disorders treatment fields;in the future,we should further expand the core author groups,according to the national conditions to improve the methods,expand the ap-plication field of study,continuously improve the quality of the paper.%目的::总结和分析内观疗法在中国27年的发展动态和特点。方法:以“内观”&“疗法”为搜索词,分别对中国知网(CNKI)、万方医

  6. 《中国心血管杂志》2007-2011年引文分析%Analysis of cited literature in Chinese Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine published from 2007 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段春波; 周白瑜; 谭潇; 石婧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the citation characteristics of literatures in Chinese Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine published from 2007 to 2011. Methods According to the information of China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI),articles in Chinese Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine published from 2007 to 2011 were surveyed. The quantity,type of languages and self-cite rate etc were analyzed,and the Price's index,half-life of literatures were calculated. Results Of the 712 papers published in the journal from 2007 to 2011,62S papers cited 6601 literatures,with a citation rate of 87.10%. The average number of citations in each paper was 9. 16. The major language of citation was English (80.97% ) ,followed by Chinese and other languages,which were 18. 95% and 0. 08% ,respectively. The self-cite rates of author and periodical were 0. 82% and 1.64% ,respectively. The Price's index was 46. 22% and the half-life of literatures was 4. 20 years. Conclusions The authors of Chinese Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine cite a wide range of literature. The cited literatures of this journal are of good timeliness and high novelty. And the journal is one of the highest academic quality journals in China.%目的 分析《中国心血管杂志》2007-2011年刊载论文的引文情况,评价该杂志作者吸收和利用科技文献的规律和特征.方法 利用中国知识资源总库(China national knowledge internet,CNKI)对《中国心血管杂志》2007-2011年所载论文进行检索,应用文献计量学和引文分析法,对所载论文引文量、引文语种、引文年代分布和自引率等进行分析,并计算文献的半衰期和普赖斯指数.结果 该刊2007-2011年共刊载论文721篇,附有引文的论文628篇,引文率为87.10%;总引文条数6601条,篇均引文量为9.16条.该刊引文语种以英文为主,引文数占引文总数的80.97%( 5345/6601),中文引文数占18.95%( 1251/6601),其他语种占0.08% (5/6601).2007-2011

  7. Analysis of cited literatures in Chinese Journal of Geriatrics published from 2008 to 2012%2008-2012年《中华老年医学杂志》引文分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石婧; 孟丽; 段春波; 于普林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the citation characteristics of literatures in Chinese Journal of Geriatrics published from 2008 to 2012.Methods According to the information from Wanfang database,articles in Chinese Journal of Geriatrics published from 2008 to 2012 were surveyed.The quantity,type of languages and the self-cited rate,etc were analyzed,and the Price's index,half life of literatures were calculated.Results Of the 1567 papers published in the journal from 2008 to 2012,1479 papers cited 16054 literatures,with a citation rate of 94.4%.The average number of citations in each paper was 10.25.The major language of citation was English (73.33%),followed by Chinese (26.67%),and only one citation was in Japanese.The self cited rates of author and periodical were 1.20% and 5.23%,respectively.The Price's index was 45.71% and the half-life of literatures was 4.27 years.Conclusions The authors of Chinese Journal of Geriatrics cite a wide range of literature,and the journal plays an important role in publicizing research achievements of geriatric medicine.However,the average number of citations in each paper,timeliness and novelty of cited literatures,diversity of citation languages need further improving.%目的 分析《中华老年医学杂志》2008 2012年刊载论文的引文情况,评价该杂志作者掌握和利用科技文献的规律和特点. 方法 利用万方数据库对杂志2008-2012年所载论文进行检索,应用文献计量学和引文分析法,对所载论文引文量、引文语种、引文年代分布和自引率等进行分析,并计算文献的半衰期和普赖斯指数. 结果 该刊2008 2012年共1567篇,其中附有参考文献的论文1479篇,引文率为94.4%.共有引用文献16054条,篇均引文数为10.25条/篇.该刊引文语种以英文为主,引文数占引文总数的73.33%(11772/16054),中文引文数占引文总数的26.67%(4281/16054),仅1条为日语语种的引文.2008-2012年该刊作者自引文献193

  8. [Challenge in scientific publication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gilson Luiz; de Freitas, Eliane Gonçalves

    2003-05-01

    We discuss the main problems which make a scientific text difficult to find, to be read or to be accepted by readers. A scientific text is considered a logical argument. Therefore, methods, results and data from literature are premises supporting the conclusions of the work; and in the "Introduction" session, the justification corroborates the objective of the study. This conception makes the text a hermetically coherent structure where only the necessary data should be included (some controversy is still pertinent). In a second step, we show formal mistakes in scientific writing which make texts less attractive. Thus, we give examples of errors or inadequacy of formal aspects of presenting titles, abstracts, results (figures and tables), and grammar mistakes in Portuguese (but also valid for English grammar). After that, we emphasize the need for writing in international language (English) and for publication in periodicals with international impact on the scientific community. Finally, considerations to improve the Brazilian periodicals in the biological area are presented.

  9. A biologia em obras infantis de Monteiro Lobato: modulações literárias, científicas e culturais The Biology into monteiro lobato's child and teenage literature: literary, scientific and cultural modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Aparecida de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    between literature and biology and the intensity of the narrations that bring the beliefs, values and political interests in the scientific speech and that are brought into the literature in hybrid and nomad direction.

  10. Empirical study based on scientific research output and research efficiency of chinese universities%中国高校科研产出和科研效率经验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇鹏

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated scientific research output and research efficiency of Chinese universities through the 2005-2010 years of China′s 31 provinces and cities .In this paper , we empirically tests the rela-tionship between input and output of scientific research , the results show that there is positive relationship be-tween the number of papers published in foreign countries and the funding for basic research ; The number of published books on science&technology and basic research and experience research funding has positive correla -tion, and the number of scientific personnel did not correlate significantly , and there is positive relationship be-tween patent number and funding for basic research and applied research fund .Then , we examines relationship between efficiency of scientific research and scientific research investment , the result shows the significant invert-ed U type relationship between the per capita number of papers published in foreign countries , the per capita number of applications for invention patents and the number of scientific personnel .%通过2005-2010年我国31个省市的统计数据实证考察了我国高校的科研产出与科研效率。本文首先实证检验了科研投入与科研产出之间的关系,结果显示:我国高校在国外发表的论文数量与研究人员数量、基础研究经费显著正相关;出版的科技著作数量与基础研究和经验研究经费正相关,与科研人员数量的关系不显著;发明专利数量与科研人员数量、基础研究经费和应用研究经费显著正相关。继而,考察了科研效率与科研投入之间的关系,结果显示我国高校人均在国外发表的论文数量和人均发明专利申请数量与投入的科研人员数量间呈现出了显著的倒U型关系。经验研究结果表明我国高校应强化试验发展研究并加强高校内涵建设,提高科研人员的科研能力、提升高校科研效率。

  11. 归化与执守--美国华人文学中的“金山”意象解读%Naturalisation and Maintainguard:Image Interpretation of “Golden Hill”in American Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚丹; 张文东

    2016-01-01

    A century of “golden hill”heterogeneity culture has attracted further research of chinese-born Ameri-can writers. The writers have used record of actual events and imagine two writing ways to construct the metaphorical regional culture image, and presents the ethnic Chinese in foreign life and psycholog-ical emotional truth. The policy to China of different periods not only affected the pursuit of subjective of Chinese community, also influenced the construction of text space of Chinese writers, through con-structing text space the writers expressed their value judgment were naturalisation or maintainguard by linking with the “golden hill”regional space. This paper selected the “golden hill”city image as the thinking object, through studying the geography and culture of “golden hill”, extracted the connotation of “golden hill” image in American Chinese literature. The state power, diplomatic relations and na-tional identity were the important factors to dominate writers thinking and judgment.%一个世纪以来,“金山”的异质性文化吸引着美国华人作家不断深入探查。在叙事上,作家以纪实和想象两种书写方式来建构带有隐喻性的地域文化意象,并以此呈现华人族裔在异邦生存期间的生活、心理情感真相。而不同时期的对华政策不仅影响着华人群体的主体诉求,也影响着华人作家对文本空间的建构。作家意图通过建构文本空间,来表达出自己与“金山”地域空间的联系是归化还是执守的价值判断。选取“金山”城市意象作为研究对象,通过对“金山”的地理、文化能指内容的考察,提炼出美国华人文学中“金山”意象的所指内涵。而政治上的国家权力、外交关系和文化上的民族认同,是支配作家思考和判断的重要因素。

  12. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  13. Bibliometric Analysis of Research Literature on Bemisia tabaci in the Chinese Journal Full-text Database%重大外来入侵害虫烟粉虱核心期刊研究文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新周; 韩群鑫

    2011-01-01

    以《中国期刊全文数据库》作为数据来源,采用文献计量学方法对1990 -2010年烟粉虱研究文献的年份、核心期刊、文献主要产出单位、核心作者群分布情况进行统计分析,在总文献量534篇、第一作者343人中,确定了9位核心作者和8种核心期刊.%The paper took Chinese Journal Full-text Database as the data source, the bibliometric analysis was made on the research literatures of B. Tabaci with bibliometrics method during 1990 - 2010,including the literature number,distribution of publishing years,core authors,research groups and regional distribution. In 534 literatures and 343 first authors, 9 core authors and 8 kinds of core journals were determined.

  14. 基于语义模式和引用分布的科技文献信息抽取%Scientific literature information extraction based on semantic pattern and reference distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中国; 李洪奇; 朱丽萍; 刘蔷

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific and technology literature,the review of previous research results,analysis of existing prob-lems,propose solutions and other language fragment are part of the innovation of this information.The logical thinking pattern of problem analysis information in the paper and the discourse relation were analyzed.A utilization of reference distribution,discourse relation characteristics,negative emotional characteristics was made to construct universal seman-tic pattern of information extraction.The problem analysis information was extracted from the original text by matching the defined semantic pattern.At the same time,the guide words feature and semantic similarity were used to extract the mainly work information from papers.Focusing on the science and technology literature of the data mining field,the proposed method was evaluated by contrasting with the artificial extraction results.The results show that this method can accurately extract the corresponding information,provide the basic data source for clustering of scientific papers and the paper recommends.%科技文献中回顾前人研究成果、分析存在的问题、提出解决方法等语言片段是论文创新性信息的构成部分。分析论文写作过程中问题分析信息的逻辑思维以及在文章中呈现的篇章关系,综合利用引用分布特征、篇章关系特征、否定情感特征构建具有普适性的信息抽取语义模式。从论文原始文本中通过匹配定义好的语义模式抽取出问题分析信息。同时,利用引导词特征、语义相似度计算从论文文本中抽取出论文的主要工作信息。以数据挖掘领域科技文献为例,对比人工抽取结果对提出的方法进行评价,结果表明该方法能较准确抽取相应信息,为科技论文聚类、论文推荐提供基础数据来源。

  15. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhiqiang Wang,1 Lei Yuan,1 Yongchuan Wang,2 Baizhi Yang,1 Xiaohong Dong,1 Zhaowang Gao3 1Department of Urology, Shouguang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shouguang, 2Department of Urology, Weifang Traditional Chinese Hospital, Weifang, 3Department of Urology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for chronic prostatitis (CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes.Methods: An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software.Results: Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001 and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: -1.08, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.81, P<0.00001. Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of -1.39 (95% CI: -1.87 to -0.92, P<0.00001. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: -0.23, 95% CI: -0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06. The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34 and less than that

  16. Beyond Keyword Search: Discovering Relevant Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    12134 8490 9318 10372 Carl Nathan , MDnitrogen 10161 9318 Figure 5: Example illustrating trust calculation for an immunologist asking, “How much do I...trust Carl Nathan with respect to the concept ‘nitrogen’?” Thick dashed lines indicate influence from Dr. Nathan to individual elements of B, and pie...or Van Jacobson (computer networks), depending on who is answering. All are distinguished researchers, but each is associated with a distinct subfield

  17. The future of the electronic scientific literature

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    For electronic publishing to go forward, standards need to be developed but there also needs to be experimentation and flexibility in types of approach, to exploit the digital world to the full (2 pages).

  18. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  19. Scientific news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1994-01-01

    The Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus acquired funds through NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) to participate in a 7-year interdisciplinary cooperative programme of Indonesian and Dutch scientific institutions aiming at research in Irian Jaya, Cenderawasih province (the Bird’s Hea

  20. The heterozygous A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in a Chinese Han patient with Parkinson disease: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei-Xi; Sun, Yi-Min; Guan, Rong-Yuan; Luo, Su-Shan; Chen, Chen; An, Yu; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jian-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The missense mutation A53T of alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) was reported to be a rare but definite cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD). It seemed to be restricted geographically in Greece and Italy. We aimed to identify the SNCA mutations in a Chinese PD cohort. Ninety-one early onset PD patients or familial PD probands were collected consecutively for the screening of PD-related genes. The genetic analysis was carried out by target sequencing of the exons and the corresponding flanking regions of the PD-related genes using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dosage mutations of exons in these genes were carried out by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Among the 91 patients, we found only one heterozygous mutation of SNCA A53T, in a 23-year-old male patient with negative family history. The [(11)C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropan (CFT) PET and PD-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRP) via [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucos (FDG) PET confirmed a typical pattern of PD. After examining his parents, we found his mother was an asymptomatic carrier, with declined hand dexterity detected by quantitative motor tests. Reduced dopamine transporter uptake of his mother was identified by CFT PET, and abnormal PDRP pattern was found by FDG PET. Our investigation expanded the clinical and genetic spectrum of Chinese PD patients, and we suggested SNCA mutations to be screened in familial and early onset Chinese PD patients.

  1. 国内20年中医药治疗脑梗死的文献计量分析%Literature metrology Analysis on Domestic Studies on Chinese Medicine in Treating Cerebral Infarction in the Past Twenty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷亚玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:综合评价国内20年中医药治疗脑梗死的临床研究文献发表数量及内容的研究现状,总结规律,指导临床。方法采用文献计量学整理文献年度发表量、发表趋势,总结此领域的治疗方法、分期论治、辨证分型、治则治法及中药运用情况等。结果该领域文献发表数较多且逐年增加,临床随机对照研究文献数呈上升趋势,非随机对照研究文献数呈下降趋势;脑梗死急性期研究最多,且各期辨证用药及干预措施各有侧重;气虚血瘀证、痰瘀阻络证贯穿病程始终,为脑梗死的基本病机;中医药治疗脑梗死方法多样,中药运用细致周到。结论中医药治疗脑梗死的临床研究发展迅速且日趋成熟,治疗中体现出辨证论治的中医特色;但还需进一步提高研究水平,扩大该领域研究范围。%Objective To comprehensively evaluate the quantity,and content of research status, summary of regulation,clinical instruction of the domestic clinical trials on Chinese medicine in treating cere-bral infarction in the past 20 years. Methods Literature metrology was used to analyze the annual publishing amount,publishing trends,so as to summarize treatment methods,stage of governance,syndrome differentia-tion,therapeutic principle and application of traditional Chinese medicine and so on in this area. Results ①Clinical trials published in past20 years on the TCM treatment of cerebral infarction increased and the total number of randomized controlled trials showed increasing trend year by year;the number of randomized con-trolled clinical trials literature on the rise,the number of non -randomized controlled trial literature de-creased;②Acute cerebral infarction took account of the most studies and TCM drugs and interventions were used;③QDBS ,phlegm and blood stasis syndrome had always been throughout the course of cerebral infarc-tion,and ischemic stroke′s basic pathogenesis

  2. A Review of Chinese Biographical Literature Studies since the 21st Century%新世纪以来中国传记文学研究回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兰村; 全展

    2012-01-01

    进入新世纪以来,中国传记文学研究在十几年中取得新的实绩,具体体现在:传记文学理论研究取得了重大进展,传记文学理论体系初步建立;传记文学研究中国际对话格局业已形成;传记文学研究队伍壮大,新人辈出;传记研究者对当代传记现状更加关注,力图产生导向作用。%New achievements have been made in biographical literature studies in the past 12 years of the new century : there is a significant development of the theories of biographical literature ; a theoretical system of biographical literature has been formed; the international dialogues on biographical literature studies have emerged paid to ; the research forces have grown rapidly with new scholars springing up; and more attention has been the status quo of biographical literature by researchers with an effort to play the role of guidance.

  3. 论怀旧散文在中国现代文学史上的贡献与地位%On the Contributions and Status of Nostalgic Essays in the History of Modern Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明鹃

    2009-01-01

    This paper is to examine the contributions and status of the nostalgic essays in the history of modem Chinese literature. In this paper, three aspects have been discussed in three parts respectively: sincere feelings,strong historical awareness, and breadth of history and the depth of significance.%本文认为,情感的真挚、深具历史意识以及从时空方面拓展了作品的历史广度与意义深度为怀旧散文对现代文学所做出的特殊贡献,也正是以上几点,为怀旧散文在中国现代文学史上确定了其不可替代的以主情为核心特征的文学史地位.

  4. 论20世纪中国女性文学创作中的漂泊意识%On the Wandering Consciousness in Twentieth Century Chinese Female Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟瑞青

    2016-01-01

    The literature works by the twentieth century Chinese women writers is an important part of Chinese new literature unique . Throughout the twentieth century Chinese women literature writing ,there has been a refuge for wandering nothing latent consciousness ,which has its different rendering features though each period .If we placed the women writers’ wandering consciousness in the context of the development of Chinese literature ,we can find its unique significance and value individuality .Women writers have obviously difference between mechanisms and manifestations in terms of awareness generated by wandering from male writers .Since the majority of women writers are more sensitive to their ow n sex characteristics , they have been looking for the existence or construction of their ow n culture from the resistance to the patriarchal culture in the process ,in order to explore female’s culture w hich has long been obscured the significance of individual life .It is female cultural construction process that women writers constantly toward self life to explore the depths of life ,spirit and emotion of the landing site ,in order to place their own long wandering soul and look for the cultural value of their ow n existence .%20世纪中国女性作家的文学创作是中国新文学中独具特色的重要组成部分。在20世纪中国女性文学创作中,一直有一种无所归依的漂泊意识,而且各个时期有着不同的呈现特点。如果把女作家的漂泊意识放置在整个20世纪中国文学发展的大背景中去考察,可以发现其独特的意义与个性价值。在漂泊意识产生的机制和表现形态方面,女作家与男作家显然不同。女作家更加敏感于自身的性别特点,在抗拒男权中心文化的过程中,她们一直在寻找或者建构着自己所存在的文化,发掘女性长期以来被男权文化遮蔽了的个体生命意义。女性文化建构的过程是女性作

  5. The Perspective of Comparative Literature Parsing the "Moon"Image under the Context of Chinese and Western culture%中西文化语境下月亮的“意”与“象”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 薛虎

    2014-01-01

    The features of poetry is artistic conception ,which is integrated with emotion and image . Therefore ,the image is one of the most important elements of poetry .In the context of different cultures ,"the moon"can show the different national cultural psychology ,connotation and colorful image form .This paper will prase the "moon"image under the context of Chinese and western culture from the perspective of comparative literature and explore the "moon"the different images with the aid of the similarities and differences comparison method .Meanwhile ,it also can promote the communication and integration be-tween Chinese and western culture .%在不同文化语境下,“月亮”这一文学意象展现着不同的民族文化心理、意象内涵和多姿的意象形态。从比较文学角度出发,借助“异同比较法”来重新解析“月亮”意象背后隐藏的深层次的文化语境的差异,意在更好地促进中西文化的交流与融合。

  6. Content Analysis of Chinese Literature Researching the Interaction---Between Popularization of Science and Advertising%中国科普与广告互动研究的文献分析--基于内容分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正; 刘伟峰; 周荣庭

    2015-01-01

    This research quantitatively analyze the Chinese literature which studied in the interaction between popularization of science and advertising with the content analysis,and summed up the development and the present situation of this study. We find that, in Chinese context and background, the research of the interaction between popularization of science and advertising is comparatively deficient, fall behind with the practice of the interaction of popularization of science and advertising. But,it is also found that the research of this question increase with a high rate,and has a bright future.%本文采用内容分析方法对中文语境下有关科普与广告互动的研究文献进行定量分析,从而归纳出中国对于该问题的研究发展与现状。并从中发现中国对于科普与广告的互动研究尚处于起步阶段,研究水平落后于中国当下科普与广告互动的实践。但其研究发展呈高速率增长态势,发展前景较为明朗。

  7. QT Interval Prolongation Associated with Intramuscular Ziprasidone in Chinese Patients: A Case Report and a Comprehensive Literature Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Bin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular (IM ziprasidone has been associated with QTc interval prolongations in patients with preexisting risk factors. A 23-year-old male Chinese schizophrenia patient experienced an increase of QTc interval of 83 milliseconds (ms after receiving 20 mg IM ziprasidone (baseline and increased QT/QTc were, respectively, 384/418 and 450/501. This was rated as a probable adverse drug reaction (ADR by the Liverpool ADR causality assessment tool. A systematic review including all types of trials reporting the effect of IM ziprasidone on the QTc interval prolongation identified 19 trials with a total of 1428 patients. Mean QTc change from baseline to end of each study was −3.7 to 12.8 ms after IM ziprasidone. Four randomized trials (3 of 4 published in Chinese were used to calculate a meta-analysis of QTc interval prolongation which showed no significant differences between IM ziprasidone and IM haloperidol groups (risk ratio 0.49 to 4.31, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 19.68, P = 0.06 to 0.41. However, our review included two cases of patients who experienced symptoms probably related to QTc prolongation after IM ziprasidone. Thus, careful screening and close monitoring, including baseline ECG, should be considered in patients receiving IM ziprasidone for the first time.

  8. Zipf DISTRIBUTION OF WORD USE IN CHINESE LITERATURE%汉语言文学作品中词频的Zipf分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 刘宇凡; 陈清华

    2009-01-01

    A Zipf distribution of word use is found in Dream of the Red Chamber, Selected Works of Mao Tsertung and Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, after word extraction by CSW freeware. This is consistant with empirical researches from English, Spanish, French, Greek, and even the ancient Meroitic and other languages. To research Chinese character and Chinese character N-gram but not words is why debate arose in previous works.%以为对象,利用CSW分词软件进行词语的切分,统计发现这些材料的词频都表现出Zipf分布规律.这个结果与包括英语、西班牙语、法语、希腊语,甚至古代语言Meroitic等在内的很多种语言的实证研究结果是一致的.以往基于字和多元字对而不是用词的研究方法是出现争论的主要原因.

  9. 中国学者冲突话语研究综述%A Literature Review of Chinese Scholars’Research on Conflict Talk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季海龙

    2014-01-01

    Conflict talk, which is an important issues in discourse analysis, has been studied by western Scholars from different per-spectives. Chinese scholars also probes into conflict talk from the perspective of memetics, relevance theory adoption theory, Rap-port Management Model. By investigating Chinese scholars’study on conflict talk, this paper summers the achievement achieved as well as the gap that needs to be filled.%冲突话语研究是话语分析研究的一个重要课题,国外学者已从各个角度对冲突话语作了研究。国内学者也从模因论、关联理论、顺应理论、和谐理论等角度对冲突话语作了研究。本研究对国内冲突话语研究作了一番梳理,指出了所取得的成就以及需要加强研究的相关侧重点。

  10. The Wolf Image in Chinese Literature Shape Evolution and the Reform of the Cultural Connotation%中国文学塑造中狼意象的演变及其文化内涵变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂琴

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese literature,the Wolf image is often full of negative emotions of meaning.The 21st century, the works about Wolf re-examine the basic characteristics of the Wolf image.Carding and draw the outline of the evolution of the Wolf image and its cultural connotation,can more clearly identify the Wolf-image in literature,history,sociology and culture's role in the transformation process,which changes the Wolf image in Chinese culture in a relatively long period of time on the history of the pure culture connotation,has resumed its multiple symbolic meanings.%在中国传统文学中,狼意象往往是充满负性情感的阴险、狡诈的代名词。21世纪以来,关于狼性的文章作品重新审视了狼意象的基本特征。梳理并勾勒狼意象及其文化内涵的演变,可以更为明晰地辨识出“狼”形象在文学、史学、社会学等文化中所扮演角色的变迁历程,从而改变中国文化中狼意象在较长一段历史时间上的单纯文化内涵,使之重新恢复其多元象征意义。

  11. 中国俄罗斯侨民文学中儒释道文化研究%Study on Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism Culture in Chinese Russian Immigrant Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳菊; 苗慧

    2012-01-01

    中国俄罗斯侨民文学是伴随着俄罗斯侨民在中国的定居而产生的。顾名思义,中国俄罗斯侨民文学是俄罗斯的作家以中国社会环境为背景而创作出来的文学作品。泱泱五千年的中华文明史,将博大精深的儒释道文化融于一身,形成了具有独特意蕴的中国传统文化。它不仅影响着整个中华民族的意识形态,同时也对生活在中国半个世纪之久的俄侨作家产生了一定的影响。文章以文本分析形式解读、梳理中国俄侨作品中的中国儒释道文化。%Russian immigrant literature came into being with the settlement of exiled Russians in China. Thus, the so - called Russian immigrant literature in China refers to the literary works written by Russian writers set in the Chinese society. Based on the immemion of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism culture, China with 5,000 years of civilization has developed its own peeullar and profound traditional culture, which not only affects the ideology of the whole Chinese nation, but makes a certain impact on the Russian writers living in China for more than half a century. The paper delves into the Confueianism t Buddhism, and Tanism euhure in the Russian immigrant literary works in China by using text analysis techniques.

  12. Study on the Translation of Religious Culture in Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣

    2015-01-01

    The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries.Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.

  13. Study on the Translation of Religious Culture in Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣

    2015-01-01

    The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries. Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.

  14. 从莫言获奖反思新时期以来中国文学的经典化问题%Reflection on the Canonization of Chinese Literature in the New Era from Mo Yan’s Nobel Prize for Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2014-01-01

    The winning of the Nobel Prize for literature is not only the approval of Mo Yan’s liter-ary creation,but also the recognition of Chineseliterary achievement.Literary works could not become classics without the involvement and promotion of various authorities.In order to reflect on the canon-ization of Chinese literature in the new era,it is necessary to be aware of the characters of the classics and factors of its canonization.Being responsible to the canonization of the Chinese literature,atten-tion from the literary circle and the media may be needed.%2012年诺贝尔文学奖花落中国既是对莫言创作的认可,更是对新时期以来中国文学取得成就的肯定,促使思考其经典化的问题。文学经典的出现不是自发形成的,离不开各种权力话语的参与建构。合理认知经典的特征与生成因素有利于深入思考新时期以来中国文学经典化的诉求。在命名经典责任的驱使下,通过语文学和传播媒介等层面的关注,有助于新时期以来中国文学经典化的落实。

  15. 从古代文学作品看传统体育的历史与精神——《体育古文》前言%The History and Spirits of Traditional Sports Embodied in Traditional Literature Works -preface to Ancient Chinese Literature Works on Sports and Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵逵夫

    2012-01-01

    Many works in ancient Chinese literature (from Pre-Qin to the modern times), ranging in genre from pomes, Ci, Qu, Fu, prose, and novels, made descriptions of the sports and games people engaged in. The types of sports and games mentioned include ball games and Jirang, the game of throwing stuffs into the pot and horsing racing, archery, fencing, Jiao Di, sumo, Martial art, swimming, racing, long-jump, tug of war, skiing, fishing, the I-go, shuttlecock kicking and flying kite. These literature works not only showed vivid pictures of sports activities in different periods, thoughts, emotions and the spiritual states of the participants and the audiences, but also embodied the cultural connotations and the basic spirits of Chinese traditional sports. From these works, professionals in the sports field and sports enthusiasts can get to know the history of Chinese traditional sports and gain better understanding of the cultural connotations of the Chinese traditional sports.%中国古代文学中反映体育活动的作品很多,诗、词、曲、赋、散文、小说各种体裁的都有,时间从先秦至近代,关于体育活动的类型涉及各种球类及击壤、投壶及赛马、射箭、击剑、角抵、相扑、武术、游泳、赛跑、跳远、拔河、滑雪、钓鱼、围棋及妇女儿童的踢毽子、放风筝等。它们不仅生动地反映了古代各个时期一些体育活动进行的场面,参加活动者及观看者的思想情绪、精神状态,而且也反映出中国传统体育的文化内涵和基本精神。从事体育专业工作的人们和体育爱好者可以从中看到一部生动具象的中国古代体育史,同时对中国传统体育的文化内涵有更深的体会。

  16. The Study of Cultivating Core Competence of Students in Chinese Language and Literature Major in Western colleges: a Case Analysis of Chinese Language and Literature Major of Mianyang Normal University%西部普通高校汉语言文学专业学生核心竞争力培养研究——以绵阳师范学院文学与对外汉语学院为分析个案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    资建民; 朱学召

    2012-01-01

    The Western colleges in the level of development lag far behind the development areas in the eastern and central parts of China and face the inherent shortage of educational resources. Thus, taking it as the exploring base, students who are cultivated through the traditional majors of Western colleges have become an important indicator to test the professional development level of the Chinese language and literature in Western colleges. Based on practical experience of fostering students" core competence in Chinese language and literature school of Mianyang Normal University, this paper gives a specific analysis on how to build traditional majors and cultivate students'core competence of professional abilit- under the current new develoning trend.%西部普通高校在发展层次上明显滞后于东部、中部等发达地区,且面临教育资源的先天不足。以此作为探究问题的基点。西部普通高校传统专业培养出的学生,便成为检验西部地方高校汉语言文学专业发展水平的一项重要指标。本文拟结合绵阳师范学院文学院汉语言文学专业在培养学生核心竞争力的实践经验,具体分析怎样才能从根本上建好传统专业,以及如何在新形势下培养学生在专业能力方面的核心竞争力。

  17. Research on Evidence-based Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature Retrieval in PubMed%PubMed的循证中医药文献检索研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周满英

    2016-01-01

    文章介绍了利用PubMed数据库检索循证中医药证据时的检索技巧和四种有效而快捷的检索方式,并结合实例分析各方式的检索特点,以期为循证中医药研究人员检索PubMed时提供参考。%This paper introduces the search tips and foureffective andefficientways to usePubMedto retrieveevidenceof evidence -based traditionalChinese medicine, use retrieval case to analyzethe characteristic ofeachway,in order toprovide references to evidence-basedtraditional Chinesemedicineresearchersretrieve inPubMed.

  18. Trace to the Source of Depression in Traditional Chinese Medicinal Literature%抑郁症中医文献溯源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏利

    2012-01-01

    There is no record in traditional Chinese medicine for depression, most scholar think il as ihe depression of lung-Qi or depression of Liver-Qi. Some disease in traditional Chinese medicine was consider like il, Kiif h as Psychosis, lily disease, hysteria, running piglet, insomnia, forgetfulness and so on. Depressed mood should he considered as the chief manifestations in depression. In ancient times, fhere was a disease just like it. It was in 541 B.C., a doctor named Yihe diagnosis a disease caused Huo-disease for the King of Jin, pathogenesis was inability of kidney to arrest semen and incoordination between kidney and heart.%中医古籍并无“抑郁症”之病名,因此,现代中医学对抑郁症的认识甚不统一.抑郁症之病,抑郁乃其主要临床症状,但多数研究者却将以抑郁为病因的疾病归于抑郁症之中“癫证”、“百合病”、“脏躁”、“奔豚”、“失眠”、“健忘”、“郁证(情志抑郁类)”等中医病证,尽管在其发病过程中出现有类似抑郁症的症状,而其所以出现之病机并未证明与抑郁症发作病机相同中国古代疾病中,与抑郁症主证最相似的疾病之描述,乃公元前541年医和为晋平公诊断之惑疾,其病机为肾不藏精,心肾不交.

  19. An Analysis of the Subject Distribution of the Scientific Research of Chinese Soccer during the Eleventh Five-year Plan%“十一五”我国足球科研研究主题分布探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕吉旭

    2012-01-01

    采用文献法、内容分析法、统计法等方法。分析了“十一五”中文核心体育期刊刊载的足球论文的研究主题分布情况。发现研究主题在体育学二级学科的分布上存在不均衡现象,研究主题的基础从教育训练学迁移到了人文社会学,运动人体科学的足球科研比较薄弱。教育训练学的科研集中于比赛分析、训练方法与理论主题的研究,人文社会学的研究主题基本上都与我国足球发展面临的理论和实践问题密切联系.运动人体科学各子学科的研究主题侧重于各自学科的基础研究。%Through the methods of literature material, content analysis method and statistics, etc, the research subject distribution of soccer thesis, which published in Chinese major sport academic journals during the 1 lth Five-year plan, was analyzed in this paper. It was found that the research subjects were in the state of unbalanced distribution with the secondary discipline of sport science; the basic of the research subjects had been migrated fi'om physical education and training to humanistic sociology; the soccer research of sports human science was weak; the soccer research subjects of physical education and training were focused on game analysis and training ways and theory; the research subject of humanistic sociology was contacted closely with the theoretical and practical problem of Chinese football development; the research subjects of sports human science were focused on their respective discipline.

  20. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    . The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  1. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann

    2014-01-01

    Chinese scientific output has increased dramatically in recent years, but its internal spatial structure has received scant attention. Estimated gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass...

  2. 中国药用苔藓植物研究的文献分析(Ⅱ)%Analysis on Literatures of Chinese Medicinal Bryophytes(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国营; 宋培浪; 于美玲; 赵厚涛

    2013-01-01

    为更好地了解我国药用苔藓植物资源的现状,为药用苔藓植物化学成分、药效等深入研究提供依据,按照中国苔藓植物分区,对各分区内40余篇报道药用苔藓植物资源调查的学术论文进行研究分析.结果表明:在中国苔藓植物10个分区中,华北区、云贵区、华东区和华中区是我国药用苔藓植物资源文献报道较多的地区,而横断山区则未见报道;贵州、山东和河北等省份报道较多,江苏、陕西、青海、西藏、海南、广东、澳门、香港和台湾等省区未见有专门报道.%In order to get more attention and understanding about current status of medicinal bryophyte resources,and to provide basic references for further studying on chemical components and pesticide effects of bryophytes,more than 40 literatures,according to the bryological regions of China,were reviewed and analyzed.The results showed that there were more literatures reported in the North China region,Yunnan-Guizhou region,East China region and Central China region,but no literature in the Hengduan Mts region.Among the districts of China,Guizhou,Shandong and Hebei published more papers of medicinal bryophyte resources,but Jiangsu,Shaanxi,Qinghai,Tibet,Hainan,Guandong,Macao and Hongkong had not reported any special literatures.

  3. 2000-2014年CNKI中关于光催化研究的文献分析%Bibliometric Analysis of Literature on the Research of Photocatalysis from 2000 to 2014 in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贝贝; 徐航

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalysis, an excellent pollutant disposal technology, shows great promise for future use. Base on the principle and method of bibliometric analysis of literature, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastruture ( CNKI) database with the theme of “photocatalysis” from 2000 to 2014 was searched. Making a detail analysis, such as the growth, the fund, the areas of literature, and so on, the research of photocatalysis technology and the general situation were revealed, along with its future trend.%光催化是一种非常有应用前景的污染物处理技术。基于文献分析计量学的原理与方法,以“光催化”为检索词,年限从2000-2014年期间,对CNKI数据库国内公开发表的有关光催化的研究文章进行检索。针对文献增长情况、文献基金、文献地区等方面进行了详细的分析,揭示出该项技术的研究概况和未来发展趋势。

  4. 《圣经》、中国现代文学与跨文化交流%Bible,Modern Chinese Literature and Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立安·高利克[斯洛伐克; 刘燕(译)

    2016-01-01

    After the West European and Chinese cultures met at the end of the 16th and during the two next centuries , there developed a conflict of cultures. For the first time in history , two religiously , philosophically ,and linguistically very different worlds come into contact. The Chinese men of letters reached for the Bible as a source of inspiration or an object of creative and critical only in the time around the May Fourth Movement in 1919. Both Chinese writers who wrote on biblical subjects were influenced by Christianity may be divided into two groups:one is smaller group,consisting of the members which had had good experience with Christianity;and the second one where the impact of the last was chiefly negative. It is a pity that the New Testament lacks something comparable to the mythologem of Jacob ’s ladder ,forming a bridge between the countries where the missionaries came from and the countries where they spread the biblical teaching. Mythological ladders were always constructed in a simple way. The“ladders”of international communication and understanding are necessarily much more complicated and should be constructed according to the different systems and structural entities coming into direct contact with each other.%16世纪末,西欧文化与中国文化这两个在宗教、哲学以及语言等方面截然不同的世界有史以来首次直面相遇,在此后的两个世纪中,却引发了东西文化的持续而激烈的冲突。直到1919年“五四运动”前后,中国作家才把《圣经》视为灵感、创造和批评的源头。受到基督教影响、改写《圣经》题材的中国(男女)作家可划分为两类:一类是对基督教信仰——及其制度——有所体验的人,人数较少;另一类人则对基督教持有消极负面的印象,人数众多。令人遗憾的是,从知识分子的交流与理解来看,《新约》缺少一种与“雅各的梯子”类似的神话,作为

  5. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  6. Dialogue Between the History and Present:Thinking about How to Teach Chinese Ancient Literature%历史与现代的对话——中国古代文学教学断想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萍

    2012-01-01

    Chinese ancient literature has both diachronic and synchronic.It is necessary to think about from two aspects in teaching the ancient literature:on the one hand,the literature should be returned to the historical environment and the original ancient culture in order to interpret its true meaning as much as possible.On the other hand,from the perspective of humanistic care and spirit,we should look for meeting point between the ancient civilization and modern life,helping us build ideal personality.The previous aspect is basis and the latter aspect is goal.If we have cognized of the significance of ancient literature,our national spirit can be carried forward.%古代文学既具有历时性,又具有共时性,因此必须从这两个层面去构建其教学:一方面把文学还原在历史的场境中去解读,尽可能还原古代文学以本来面目,解读其真情真意。另一方面从人文关怀的角度,从中寻找古代文明与现代人生的契合点,力求为当代大学生的人格构建提供可资借鉴的东西。前一个层面是基础,后一个层面是目的,在认知古代文学的基础上,架通历史与现代的桥梁,让历史与现代对话,以古鉴今,弘扬民族精神。

  7. On the" Earth" Imagation of Chinese literature in the Twentieth Century%20世纪中国文学的“土地”意象探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴勇

    2012-01-01

    The earth worship has some kind of religious god meaning in the ideology, but leaves the fact that the people take the earth as the centralimage literature ,which loads to the reproduction awe and the parent substance dependence. The earth image of the present contemporary literature resented both continues with the ancient times myth and disobeys the line to be complex meaning. On the one hand it manifests the creation main body to the earth, the motherland, people' s deep love, and on the other hand it illustrious appears the modern industry civilization to the land plundering extrusion. Looking from the subject history angle , it has reflected the realistic society to the literature production content restriction and the promotion.%"土地"崇拜在意识形态上具有某种宗教神祗意味,而以"土地"为中心意象的文学负载出人们对生殖的敬畏和母体的依恋。现当代文学中"土地"意象呈现出与远古神话既相承接又相悖行的复杂意蕴。一方面体现出创作主体对土地、祖国、人民深沉的爱;另一方面又昭显出现代工业文明对土地的掠夺与挤压。从主题史角度上看,"土地"意象流变反映了现实社会对文学生成内容的制约与促进。

  8. 浅论中国文学中的渔父形象%On the Images of Fishermen in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慎春燕

    2009-01-01

    In Chinese literary world, the frequent emergence of the images of fishermen is a unique scenery phenomenon. The fishermen described by ancient writers were not only the anchorite who were broad-minded, indifferent to fames and relaxed in nature, the anglers who had talent left to rust and bitterly waited for the opportunity for the greatest success, but also great warriors who held their own faith and integrity and were in the pursuit of an ideal life. Many images of fishermen implied many intellectuals' dreams. Through our deeply analysis we can better know the inward world of ancient intellectuals.%频繁出现的渔父意象,是中国文学世界一道独特的风景线.古代文人笔下的渔父纷繁复杂,既有超脱旷达、恬淡自适、乐山爱水的隐逸者,又有怀才不遇、苦等时机、期待一飞冲天的垂钓者,还有坚守人格信念、追求至情至性的侠义者.林林总总的渔父意象,寄寓着无数文人的梦想,勾勒出古代文人复杂矛盾的内心世界.

  9. 关于人名地名音译的研究综述%Literature Review on Transliterating Names of People and Places from Chinese to English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张捷

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to translate names of people and places from English to Chinese. Although some researchers have already worked out a set of transliterated names which have been used widely and conveniently, there is still some disordered use. It is of necessity and emergency to keep the transliterated names consistent. In order to do that, this article aims at reviewing the existing findings.%人名和地名的翻译具有其特殊性和复杂性。目前所使用的译名是学者和研究人员努力研究的成果,这些译名的出现给翻译工作带来很多的便利,但不得不指出译名混乱的情况仍然存在。统一译名具有必要性和迫切性,为了进一步寻求新的音译原则,尝试对相关领域已有研究成果进行综述和总结。

  10. Symbolic Meanings of Daffodils in Chinese and English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤文绍

    2007-01-01

    Daffodils are popular among people around the world. The daffodil is made the top ten in flowers in China In English and Chinese literature, it is a popular theme glorified by poets and writers. This essay is to present different symbolic images of daffodils in Chinese and English poems so as to help Chinese readers understand the meaning of daffodils in English literature.

  11. Applied Talents Training:Issues,Approaches and Methods---A Case Study of Chinese Language and Literature Major%应用型人才培养:问题、路径与方法--以汉语言文学专业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峰

    2013-01-01

    Teaching,scientific research and service are three functions of universities.The local colleges should highlight their teaching and service functions.Training applied talents is the only cor-rect choice of local universities under the new historical conditions.To cultivate applied talents,we should emphasize “application”.The undergraduate education in local colleges and universities should attach great importance to training students'ability and practical teaching.The teaching obj ectives for the Chinese language and literature maj ors are to enable students to speak and write well,qualify to be teachers in middle schools,or engage in jobs related to secretary,management,and news media, and so on,and to achieve moral distinctions,solid foundation,strong ability and high quality.%教学、科研、服务是大学的三大职能,地方高校要更突出教学和服务的职能。培养应用型人才,是新的历史条件下地方高校的唯一正确选择。培养应用型人才重在“应用”,地方高校的本科生教育要以培养学生的能力为主导,加大实践教学力度,强化技能实训。汉语言文学专业要使学生能说会写,既有从事基础教育的教师技能,又能从事文秘、管理、新闻媒体等工作,达到品德优、基础实、能力强、素质高的培养目标。

  12. 中国现代文学教学与学生能力培养%On the Teaching of Modern Chinese Literature and the Cultivation of College Students' Professional Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建玲; 丁东粮

    2011-01-01

    大学教育应该加强对大学生实际能力的培养,这已成为近年来社会的共识。具体到中国现代文学大学课程的教学,最重要的任务就是要培养学生的文学感受能力和分析、理解作品的能力。为实现此目标,教师必须根据低年级大学生的思维特点和知识层次,根据现代文学学科特性和教学内容,寻找行之有效的途径和方法。第一要转变学生的学习心理和学习习惯,让学生走出应试教育思维定式;第二要纠正"文学无用"偏见,肯定文学及文学学习的价值,唤起学生研读文学的热情;第三也是最重要的一点就是通过大量文本阅读和文本鉴赏分析活动,把提高学生素质和能力落到实处;第四强化训练,以练促读、促思,促进综合能力的提高。%University education should focus on the cultivation of students' practical competence,a consensus reached by the public in recent years.In terms of the instruction of modern Chinese literature courses,the most important task lies in fostering the students' ability of literary perception and the ability to analyze and appreciate literary works.Teachers must explore every avenue to accomplish that task in light of the characteristics of thinking and knowledge structure of lower-level college students while taking into account the curriculum features and content of instruction of modern Chinese literature courses.Efforts should be made to 1) transform the students' learning psychology and learning habits and let them break through the exam-oriented stereotype;2) put right the prejudiced conception of "futility of literature",reinstate the value of literature and literature learning,and stimulate the students' enthusiasm for literature learning;3) enhance the students' overall competence and professional quality through enormous amounts of text reading and text appreciation activities;and 4) intensify training activities to give students

  13. INVESTIGACIÓN CLÍNICA EN FONOAUDIOLOGÍA: ANÁLISIS DE LA LITERATURA CIENTÍFICA 2005-2009 Research in language therapy: an analysis of scientific literature 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Hernández-Jaramillo

    2010-07-01

    .Background. There are few scientometric studies in speech pathology and audiology and therefore there is no evidence of the focus areas of research, as well as trends and behavior over time. Objective. Analyze the scientific production of clinical research in audiology, between 2005 and 2009, to characterize the bibliometric production and identify trends and growth in clinical research; to study the dispersion of the scientific literature and identify research cooperation. Material and methods. We analyzed the production of scientific literature clinical research in audiology areas, registered in PubMed-MEDLINE from the years 2005 to 2009. Results. We considered a total of 4127 publications. The analysis showed a higher number of publications for language and language disorders area, followed by hearing and hearing disorders and papers related to the swallowing and its disorders, in contrast to the fields stuttering and aural rehabilitation yielded the lowest values. No significant differences were comparatively in the number of publications between years. We noted an increased production of secondary epidemiological studies compared to clinical studies, however, clinical studies accounted for 42% of total publications and of these 42,4% were consistent with randomized trials. Most of the researchers were faculties affiliated, followed by health institutions and cooperation between both. Independent researchers and unconsolidated research networks presented the lower percentage of publications. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the capacity of audiologists to develop quality research, use, and transfer its results into clinical practice should achieve greater development

  14. 恩格斯的“最高标准”与中国现代文学课程教学%"THE HIGHEST STANDARD" OF ENGELS AND THE TEACHING OF CHINESE MODERN LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭正生

    2013-01-01

    In the articles of commenting Karl Grun and Ferdinand Lassalle's works, Engels proposed the basic principle, name-ly the highest standard of praising historical figures and literary works, which is dialectical unity of aesthetic viewpoint and his-torical viewpoint. According to the highest standard, in literary criticism, we should not only pay close attention to the works it-self by taking the aesthetic value(inner element) as standard, but consider the times of the works by taking the historical value (outer element)as standard as well. The core contents of the teaching in Chinese modern literature are the analysis of works, the narration of its history, and the criticism of historical narration. As an important theory of artistic criticism, the highest stan-dard of Engels is very instructive in the teaching of Chinese modern literature history undoubtedly%恩格斯在评价卡尔。格律恩和斐迪南。拉萨尔著作的文章里提出评价历史人物和文艺作品的“最高标准”,即“美学”和“历史”观点的辩证统一。依据“最高标准”,在进行文学批评时,既要关注文艺作品本身,以美学价值(内部因素)为评价尺度;又要考虑文学作品的具体时代,以历史价值(外部因素)为评价标准。中国现代文学课程教学的核心内容是现代作家作品分析、文学史叙事以及现代文学史学史批评。作为文艺批评的重要理论之一,恩格斯的“最高标准”无疑对中国现代文学课程教学具有指导和方法论意义。

  15. African Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Recek, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  16. 格林童话与中国现代儿童文学的诞生——纪念格林兄弟《儿童与家庭童话集》出版二百周年%Grimms' Fairy Tales and the Emergence of Modern Chinese Children's Literature: In Commemoration of the Bicentennial Anniversary of the Publication of Grimms' Fairy Tales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜荣

    2012-01-01

    More than one hundred years has passed since the first Chinese translation and introduction of Grimms' Fairy Tales, the very classic of western children's literature. This period also witnesses the emerging and development of Chinese children's literature. During the time period from "Eastward Dissemination of Western Learning" in the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the early Chinese translations of Grimms' Fairy Tales motivate the formation of the modern concept of children and children's literature in China, and embody the rich folkloristic and pedagogical value of the original work. The Grimm brothers' work of fairy tales' collecting inspires Chinese writers of children's litera- ture. Grimms' Fairy Tales becomes the maior source of modern Chinese children's literature.%西方儿童文学经典名著格林童话自20世纪初被译介到中国已有一百多年的历史,这一历程也伴随着中国儿童文学的发生与发展。在晚清“西学东渐”至20世纪初期这一时间段中,格林童话的早期汉译对中国现代儿童观和儿童文学观的建立具有历史促进作用,充分体现其丰富的民俗学和教育学价值,格林兄弟的童话收集工作对中国作家的童话收集和创作活动具有启发意义,格林童话成为中国现代儿童文学的重要渊源。

  17. The Influence of Evolution Theory on the Reform of Chinese New Literature From Late-Qing Dynasty to the May 4th Period%晚清至五四:进化论思想对中国新文学变革的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇生

    2014-01-01

    From Late-Qing Dynasty to the May 4th Period, the influence of evolution theory on the reform of Chinese New Lit-erature were briefly discussed as follows: First, as the theoretical resources of the Anti-tradition in Modern China, evolution theory forced the Emergence of Chinese New Literature strongly; Second, through the collapse of chinese traditional HuaYi idea and the ancient and modern concept, evolution theory effected the basic trend of Chinese New Literature directly;At last, because of the in-consistent acceptance on evolution theory and the conflict arising thereform , evolution theory porducted so much research fields of chi-nese morden literature.%进化论思想在晚清至五四中国新文学的变革中所扮演的角色主要体现在:作为近现代中国“积极反传统”的理论资源,有力地促成了新文学的“发生”;瓦解了中国传统的“华夷”和“古今”观念,直接影响了新文学的基本走向;不同个体对进化论思想的不同接受,以及由此产生的矛盾与冲突,酿就了近现代文学研究的诸多领域。

  18. 扩大中国文学版图 建构中国佛教诗学——《中国佛教文学史》编撰刍议%Modest Proposal on the Compilation of A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光正

    2012-01-01

    中国佛教文学史就是中国佛教徒创作的文学的历史,就是佛教实践即佛教修持与佛教弘传过程中产生的文学的历史,就是用汉语、西域胡语、藏语、蒙古语、傣语等语种写成的大中华佛教文学的历史。"中国佛教文学史"的书写应该禀持民族本位立场和教派史视野,全面清理中国佛教文学的历史进程,并进而提炼民族精神、建构宗教诗学。"中国佛教文学史"的书写特别要关注印度佛教在中国各民族地区的本土化进程以及汉语佛教在东北亚、东南亚地区的本土化进程,在民族互动和国际交流中探讨宗教实践对社会和谐、文明演进的重大贡献。%The history of Chinese Buddhist literature is the history when Chinese Buddhists produce literary works, the history when in the procedure of Buddhism practice and dissemination Chinese Buddhists produce literary accomplishments, and is the history of the Great China Buddhist literature written by Chinese, " Hu language of western region, Tibetan, Mongolian, Dai and other branches of languages. The position of national culture and the sight of sects ought to be kept when writing A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature, and meanwhile the historical course of Buddhist literature is to be straightened all sidedly, helping to extract the national spirit and to construct religious poetics. When writing A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature, two points should be paid close attention that the localization of Indian Buddhism in all localities and all ethnic groups of China and the localization of Buddhism written in Chinese in northeastern Asia, and also that the sig- nificant contribution to the social harmony and the progress in the civilization achievedby, Southeasten Asia, ethnic interaction and international communication investigating religious practices.

  19. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  20. Metrological Analysis on Literature in Chinese Agricultural Science Field Based on ESI Database%基于ESI数据库中国农业科学领域文献计量分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁花侠; 白君礼

    2013-01-01

    Based on United States ESI literature metrological analysis database, the paper metro logically analyzes the global agricultural and China agricultural science literatures in ten years from 2001 to 2011.By analysising the indicators, such as countries and regions, research institutions, journals, scientists, high cited papers, hot papers, the top articles, research frontier, the baseline and etc, the paper is thought to be able to provide important refrence for our country agricultural scientific research.%利用美国ESI文献计量分析数据库对2001年~ 2011年10年来全球农业科学领域和中国农业科学领域的文献进行了计量分析.通过对国家和地区、研究机构、期刊、科学家、高被引论文、热点论文、顶级论文、研究前沿、基线等各项指标统计分析,为我国农业科学研究提供重要参考.

  1. International Scientific Collaboration of China: Collaborating Countries, Institutions and Individuals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Wang, Zhi; Peng, Lian; Wang, Chuanli

    2014-01-01

    Using bibliometric methods, we investigate China's international scientific collaboration from 3 levels of collaborating countries, institutions and individuals. We design a database in SQL Server, and make analysis of Chinese SCI papers based on the corresponding author field. We find that China's international scientific collaboration is focused on a handful of countries. Nearly 95% international co-authored papers are collaborated with only 20 countries, among which the USA account for more than 40% of all. Results also show that Chinese lineage in the international co-authorship is obvious, which means Chinese immigrant scientists are playing an important role in China's international scientific collaboration, especially in English-speaking countries.

  2. 从想象力因素看第八届茅盾文学奖获奖作品%Chinese Contemporary Writers' Imagination:Analysis Based on the Works of 8th Mao Dun Literature Prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余梦

    2015-01-01

    Imagination is an eternal component of literature and is essential for its existence. Analysis of the imaginativeness of the works awarded the 8th Mao Dun Literature Prize reveals the strong tendency of representation: the framework of imaginativeness is based on historical facts with the secular social circumstances as the background, and the content is more likely to be realistic and the inner emotions are intense. A further investigation reveals that the description is too realistic with very limited transcendence, the sense of beauty is relatively shown in moral aspect,and at the same time,it also has the feature such as "plain narration" and"retentive representation",which lead to exquisite and couching descriptions deficient of alienation and skipping. Finally, suggestions are put forward on ways to improve the imaginativeness of Chinese contemporary writers.%想象力是文学存在的永恒命题,其重要性不言而喻. 第八届茅盾文学奖获奖作品所蕴含的想象力存在明显的再现倾向:想象的时间总是指向过去,背景偏爱世俗的社会情境,内容写实且内在情理感性色彩偏浓.进一步体现在:形象性过于写实,超越性深受限制,美感中道德意味相对凝重,同时存在"平实性叙事""滞留性再现",导致行文虽细腻感人但缺乏应有的异化和跳跃. 针对当代作家想象力的现状,蕴藉性表达、多元时空叙述不失为提升当代作家想象力的有益参考.

  3. 基于灰色聚类方法的慢性心力衰竭中医证型文献分析%Grey Clustering Method Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature of Chronic Heart Failure Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宾; 王付; 黄明宜

    2011-01-01

    Objective:CHF syndrome differentiation of the literature was collated and analyzed to explore the CHF syndrome differentiation type of objective laws.Method: Over the past 10 years, CHF Syndromes of literature,theoretical calculations using gray card type data series on gray and clustering.Result: 13 permits will be based,clustering is: Heart Qi and Yin deficiency, yang deficiency of water pan, yin yang dried off, blood stasis, phlegm.Conclusion: CHF traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Syndrome Differentiation of the objective law, for the further development of CHF TCM diagnostic criteria and evaluation criteria provides efficacy and references.%目的:对慢性心力衰竭(CHF)辨证分型的文献报道进行了整理和分析,探讨CHF中医辨证分型的客观规律.方法:收集近10年CHF辨证分型的文献报道,采用灰色系统理论计算证型数据序列的灰色绝对关联度并进行聚类.结果:将得到的13个证型,聚类为心气阴两虚,阳虚水泛,阴竭阳脱,血瘀,痰阻.结论:探讨CHF中医辨证分型的客观规律,为进一步制定CHF中医证候诊断标准和疗效评价标准提供了参考和依据.

  4. On Niggard Image in Both Chinese and Foreign Literature%论中外文学中的吝啬鬼形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成良臣

    2001-01-01

    在世界文学发展的历史长河中,莎士比亚笔下的夏洛克、莫里哀笔下的阿巴公、巴尔扎克笔下的葛朗台、果戈理笔下的泼留稀金以及吴敬梓笔下的严监生,堪称吝啬鬼的著名典型。他们生长在不同国度、时代和社会环境中,既有突出的共性,也有鲜明的个性。为此,本文进行了深入的比较论析。%In the long process of world literature, the misers Shylock, Hartagon, Eugenie Grandet, Chichikov and Yan Jiansheng depicted by W.Shakespeare, Moliere, A.D.Balzac, H.A.тотоль and Wu Jingzi respectively are good enough to serve as model personalities. Although they lived in different countries, times and social settings, these characters share many similarities of which the present paper is to make a contrast study.

  5. Aesthetic Surprise of Artistic Expression in Chinese Ancient Literature%审美惊奇在中国古代文学中的艺术表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇云

    2015-01-01

    Aesthetic surprise is an appreciation of wonder beauty of literature, art and natural beauty. It is related with ideological content of expression, prefers to the artistic form and artistic expression, but also closely related with the aesthetic psychology and aesthetic experience. With the main identifications as aesthetic psychological effects which appeared as "surprising" "astonishing""touched"and so on, its reason can be roughly analyzed from four aspects:imagery, artistic conception, rhetoric and language.%审美惊奇是对具有奇异之美的文学艺术甚至奇特自然美的一种激赏,它和表现的思想内容有关,偏重于艺术形式、艺术表现,也和审美心理和审美经验密不可分,其主要标识为审美心理效果,体现为“惊人”“惊心动魄”“动心惊耳”等,其原因大致可以从四个方面来分析:语言、修辞、意象、意境。

  6. 膝关节骨性关节炎熏洗方用药规律文献研究%Literature Studies on Medication Regularities of Chinese Medical Fumigation for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春娥; 董建文; 王文波

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To collect clinical research literatures relevant to treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) by Chinese medical fumigation to analyze its characteristics and medicating rules. Methods: The effects, natures, tastes and channel distributions were sorted through and concluded through retrieving clinical literatures of Chinese medical fumigation in the treatment of KOA in recent 15 years. Results:Totally 174 effective references were select-ed, involving 221 herbs;the cumulative frequency of wind-dampness dispelling drugs, blood-activating and stasis-re-moving drugs as well as deficiency tonifying drugs was 80.60%;the highest frequencies of drugs application were Chuanwu, Caowu, Danggui, Honghua and Shenjincao;the cumulative frequency of drugs with warm, flat and cold natures among four properties in TCM was up to 95.48%, and that of pungent, bitter and sweet drugs came to 94.12%;the drug's channel distributions were mainly liver, spleen and kidney. Conclusion:The main medicines for KOA treatment by Chinese medical fumigation are wind-dampness dispelling drugs as well as blood-activating and stasis-removing drugs;treatment mainly focuses on removing pathogenic factors from the perspective of dispelling wind and dampness and dredging collaterals, activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis as well as ex-pelling cold and stopping pain. Meanwhile, the flexible modification of the drugs can be implemented in clinic ac-cording to the syndromes.%目的:收集中药熏洗治疗膝关节骨性关节炎(KOA)的临床研究文献,分析其用药特点和规律。方法:检索近15年中药熏洗治疗KOA的临床文献,对药物及功效、性味及归经进行整理、归纳和分析。结果:有效文献共174篇,涉及221味中药;祛风湿药、活血化瘀药、补虚药的累计频率达到80.60%;药物应用频次以川乌、草乌、当归、红花、伸筋草为最高;四气中温、平、寒类药物的累计频率达到95.48%,

  7. An Exploration of "Copywriter and Planer" Specialty in the Major of Chinese Language and Literatur%汉语言文学专业开设“文案策划”方向的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文武; 刘远军

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the social needs for employees with practical ability, setting up "Copywriter and Planer" in Chinese language and literature is an urgent need for this traditional major. The new specialty focuses on graduates with humanism, creativity and adaptability. The course system should strengthen students' writing ability and add some practical courses.%适应社会对应周性人才的需求,基于汉语言文学专业开设文案策划方向,是这一传统专业改革的出路之一。文案策划方向应重在培养具有较高人文素质的、有一定创意能力的、具有广泛适应性的应用写作人才。文案策划方向的课程体系要突出对学生应用写作能力的培养,同时还要面向社会实际需求增开体现专业方向的特色课程。

  8. 高校汉语言文学专业开设“专业导论课”刍议%Discussion of"Specialized-Course Introduction"to the Specialty of Chinese Language and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜吉刚

    2016-01-01

    汉语言文学专业导论课是我国高等院校近年来新开设的一门课程,也是一门实验性、创新性课程。其教学目标一是对学生进行专业启蒙;二是强化学生的专业整体观念。与此相应,其教学内容也主要包括两个基本的方面:专业启蒙性质的内容与强化专业整体性的内容。为了完成教学任务,该门课程宜于采用的基本教学方式主要有课堂讲述、专题讲座与专业见习。%Introduction to specialties of Chinese Language and Literature is a newly developed course in resent years in China's col-leges and universities, and is also considered experimental and innovative. The goal of this course is to give students professional enlightenment and strengthen the overall concept of the specialty. Accordingly, the teaching contents may include relevant contents to the above two aspects. In order to complete the teaching tasks, the following teaching methods are suggested:lecturing, seminars, and professional training.

  9. On the Teaching of Selected English and American Literature of Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language%对外汉语专业的英美文学选读课教学初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑晓林

    2011-01-01

    英美文学选读课有助于对外汉语专业的学生全面掌握语言文字的魅力,领略不同文化的精神内涵,肩负起自身的文化使命.笔者通过两年多的教学实践,以教学活动过程为背景,从预热、选材、学习、反思四个阶段,总结出了几点经验.%The course of selected English and American literature can help students whose major are teaching Chinese as a second language to grasp the charm of languages, to know spiritual connotations from different culture,and bear the cultural mission of their own consciously. Through two years' teaching practice, the author summarized several experiences from the whole teaching activities which including preparing materials, choosing textbooks, studying the knowledge, and collecting feedback information from students.

  10. 基于中文文献的反恐情报研究分析%Analysis on Counter-terrorism Intelligence Research in China Based on Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘武英; 张薇; 李本先; 白燕琼

    2015-01-01

    目前我国面临着严峻的反恐形势,面对恐怖主义的威胁,反恐方必须加强情报在反恐中的应用。基于文献分析的视角,采用定性分析的方法,对我国反恐情报相关研究的现状进行了分析,总结概括了国内反恐情报研究的相关基础理论、关键要素及情报保障等内容,并对目前的研究现状给予了简要的评析,为我国反恐情报的进一步研究提供借鉴和参考。%China is facing a severe situation of counter-terrorism at present. The application of intelligence in the counter-terrorism must be strengthened. Using qualitative analysis methods, this paper reviews the current situations of the study of terrorism and counter-terror-ism based on the Chinese literature with emphases being put on key issues of counterterrorism intelligence such as its definition and role, key elements and intelligence security. It provides a reference for further research on counter-terrorism intelligence.

  11. “行动研究”在大学语文教学中的运用%Application of Action research Theory in Teaching College Chinese Language and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林瑞艳

    2014-01-01

    Kurt Lewin,the famous psychologist advocated in his theory of Action-research that people should find out questions in the practice of teaching,bring up relevant solutions and put them into effect.This paper aims to discuss the teaching effect of College Chinese Language and Literature through information-col-lecting and scheme-designing by using Action-research Theory.%由勒温提出的“行动研究”教学理论提倡在教学实践中发现问题,提出解决问题的方案并付诸实施。将这一理论应用于大学语文的教学实践中,通过收集信息、设计方案,在教学中取得了良好的效果。进一步的反思将在将来不断进行。

  12. China's experimental pragmatics of "Scientific development" in wind power: Algorithmic struggles over software in wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study on the development of China's wind power market. As China's wind industry has experienced a quality crisis, the Chinese government has intervened to steer the industry towards a turn to quality, indicating a pragmatist and experimental mode of market development....... This increased focus on quality, to ensure the sustainable and scientific development of China's wind energy market, requires improved indigenous Chinese innovation capabilities in wind turbine technology. To shed light on how the turn to quality impacts upon the industry and global competition, this study...... unfold over issues associated with intellectual property rights (IPRs), certification and standardisation of software algorithms. The article concludes that the use of this STS lens makes a fresh contribution to the often path-dependent, structuralist and hierarchical China literature, offering instead...

  13. Scientific citations in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Finn Aarup

    2007-01-01

    The Internet-based encyclopaedia Wikipedia has grown to become one of the most visited web-sites on the Internet. However, critics have questioned the quality of entries, and an empirical study has shown Wikipedia to contain errors in a 2005 sample of science entries. Biased coverage and lack of sources are among the "Wikipedia risks". The present work describes a simple assessment of these aspects by examining the outbound links from Wikipedia articles to articles in scientific journals with a comparison against journal statistics from Journal Citation Reports such as impact factors. The results show an increasing use of structured citation markup and good agreement with the citation pattern seen in the scientific literature though with a slight tendency to cite articles in high-impact journals such as Nature and Science. These results increase confidence in Wikipedia as an good information organizer for science in general.

  14. Scientific Auditing Firms

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal P

    2016-01-01

    The "crisis of reproducibility" has been a significant source of controversy, heated debate, and calls for reform to institutional science in recent years. As a long-term solution to address both the present crisis and future obstacles, I propose the creation of a new form of research organization whose purpose would be to conduct random audits of the scientific literature. I suggest that data analytics of a digitized scientific corpus may play a critical role in allowing broadly educated scientists to identify linchpin results to investigate in further detail across all disciplines. I argue that a simple "mock" trial run of a simplified auditing firm consisting of several researchers over a short time period would provide valuable insight into the feasibility of this proposal.

  15. 2006 Top 10 China RE Scientific News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Note:Hosted by China Rare Earth Information Center and National RE Information Net and sponsored by Chinese RE Society Information Specialty Committee,China RE Society Technology εt Economy Specialty Committee,Northern RE Industry Productivity Promotion Center,and principal medias in China RE industry such as publications "China RE Information" and "Chinese Rare Earths" and China RE Website,2006 Top 10 China Rare Earth Scientific News,which were selected from 100 pieces of candidate rare earth scientific news nationwide,were announced recently.

  16. 从国家科技进步奖获奖看我军医药卫生科技创新发展态势%Scientific and technological innovations in projects that won National Science and Technology Progress Award in medical and health field of Chinese PLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 刘伟; 王德刚; 吴曙霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the projects that won the National Science and Technology Progress Award in medical and health field of Chinese PLA.Methods The number of projects that won the National Science and Technology Progress Award in medical and health field of Chinese PLA from 2007 to 2012 was calculated.Results The number, class and award-won rate of projects that won the National Science and Technology Progress Award in medical and health field of Chinese PLA from 2007 to 2012 increased .The award-won achievements focused on the public health safety, difficult and complicated disease prevention and treatment.Conclusion The Scientific research contingent in medical and health field of Chinese PLA is an important force in the national scientific and technological innovation system.Clinical work combined with scientific research has become an important innovation model in medical and health field of Chinese PLA.Policy and finance should keep their favor upon the projects of public health safety.%目的:了解国家科技进步奖中军队医药卫生获奖情况。方法:利用类比法统计了2007-2012年我军医药卫生获取国家科技进步奖的情况。结果:2007-2012年我军医药卫生科技获得的国家科技进步奖的数量、等级和获奖率均呈上升趋势,获奖项目主要集中在公共卫生安全、疑难病症防治和新药研发这3个领域。结论:军队医药卫生领域科研队伍是国家科技创新体系的一支重要力量,临床与科研相结合成为我军医药卫生科技创新的一种重要模式,对公共卫生安全的科研项目应给予更大的政策和经费倾斜。

  17. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lu Bay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.

  18. 彰显中国气派才能讲好中国抗战故事--兼论《牛全德与红萝卜》在抗战文学史上的开创性%To Tell Good Chinese Anti-Japanese War Stories by Revealing Chinese Grandure:Also on the Creativity of Niu Quande & Radish in the History of Anti-Japanese War Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏爱风; 刘淑萍

    2016-01-01

    In the history of Chinese Anti-Japanese War literature, there are a number of works that borrow experience and writing techniques from foreign novels, while only a section has and reveals the Chinese grandeur. Niu Quande & Radish, a novel produced at the beginning of the Anti-Japanese War, is one of those early successful novels. Yao Xueyin, the author, consciously and actively pursue the national aesthetic style with Chinese style and Chinese grandeur, and has attributed in a favorable way to the nationalization and popularization of the art of Anti-Japanese War.%在我国抗战文学史上,学习国外小说创作经验、写作手法完成的作品不少,土生土长全靠自我摸索,形成中国作风、体现中国气派的作品不多,抗战初期的小说《牛全德与红萝卜》是较早取得成功的一部作品。作者姚雪垠有意识地自觉追求具有中国作风和中国气派的民族美学风格,在抗战小说艺术的民族化、大众化方面,作出了有益的探讨。

  19. 中国文学中的两大文学变革运动--古文运动与“五四”新文学运动之比较%The Two Literature Revolution in Chinese History--Comparation of Classical prose Movement in the Tang and Song Dynasties and the literature Movement of May 4th

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鲲

    2016-01-01

    Tang and Song dynasties' Ancient Prose Movement and the New Literature Movement during the May 4th (1919) are the two largest literature revolution in Chinese history. The two movements were not only a literary phenomenon, but were closely associated with signiifcant social transformation and cultural change.The Ancient Prose Movement was an internal adjustment of Chinese civilization, while the New iterature Movement of May 4th was the result of civilization clashes between modern and tradition, China and West world. The movement of May 4th, seemingly a campain of anti–ancient tradition, was actually connected internally with Ancient Prose Movement closely in the aspects of writing style, linguistics, concept and examination system. The relation between two movements can be described as both rebel and inheritance.%唐宋古文运动和“五四”新文学运动,是中国文学史上最大的两次文学变革运动。这两大文学运动都不是单纯的文学现象,而是与当时大幅度的社会转型、文化变迁息息相关。但古文运动是中国文明、文学的内部调整,而“五四”新文学运动则是传统与现代、中国与外国文明大碰撞的产物。“五四”新文学运动,表面上主要反叛古文运动以来的雅文学传统,但此两大文学运动却在文体、语言、文风、文学观念,以及考试制度改革等方面存在很多内在的联系。“五四”新文学运动和古文运动之间,可以说是既反叛又继承的复杂关系。

  20. SKILLS TRAINING:AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF LITERATURE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This article identifies some problems Chinese universities have when they offer English litera-ture as a compulsory course to advanced level English majors.One constructive approach is discussed,andsome suggestions on improving literature teaching are put forward.

  1. 收编文类:中国文学史编写的体例问题--从《剑桥中国文学史》谈起%Incorporating the Literary Genres:The Issue of Stylistic Rules Regarding the Writing and Editing of Chinese Literary Histories:On The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋金珅

    2015-01-01

    The writing and editing of Chinese literary histories have since the twentieth century evolved from the orientation by way of literary genres to the axis of times. The tradition of“schools of writing”remains invisible with the modern concept that“each generation has its own literature”with the result that literary genres are included in literary histories focusing on times. The stylistic rules regarding the writing and editing of literary histories in the Republic of China were reconfirmed and solidified after the founding of the People’s Republic of China until The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature was published, which gave rise to a new round of thinking in regard to the stylistic rules about literary histories.%20世纪以来,中国文学史编写经历了由文体导向,转为时代为轴。“文章流别”传统在近代以来“一代有一代文学”的观念下隐匿不现,文体类别被收编在时代为主的文学史中。民国时形成的文学史编写体例在建国后又得到确认和固化,直到《剑桥文学史》出现,又重新引发对文学史体例的新一轮思考。

  2. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qiang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.

  3. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.……

  4. Scientific integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee...... well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited...... to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after...

  5. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  6. Spatial Analysis on the Geographical Information of the Scientific Literatures for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau%青藏高原科研文献地理信息空间分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 李新; 马明国; 张志强

    2012-01-01

    多学科的协同、渗透、交叉已成为当代科学发展的重要趋势,文献计量学和地理信息系统(GIS)技术的集成是拓展GIS应用领域的一个新兴方向。许多与地理空间位置有关的信息包含在大量地学科研文献中。从CNKI文献数据库收录的研究青藏高原的科研文献中提取研究区、样带和采样点等位置相关信息,运用GIS技术进行空间分析和展现。结果显示,青藏高原研究的主要学科领域集中在生态环境及其变化、地质与地球物理特征及其演化、资源及其勘探、地质工程等方面。有关青藏高原的研究在空间分布上存在较大的差异,对青藏高原的研究从西南、西北到东南、东北区域,其受关注的程度逐渐增加。祁连山脉、羌塘高原、青海湖、青藏公路、青藏铁路和川藏公路等是研究的热点区域。沿经度和纬度方向不同区间研究的分布也不同,研究热点区域呈现出从青藏高原中部向东北部转移的趋势。多数采样点和观测点沿交通干线分布,并且随着与交通干线距离的增加数量明显减少。GIS技术在关于青藏高原的文献计量分析中得到了有效应用,有助于挖掘出大量与空间位置相关的信息,从而深入分析青藏高原研究的发展态势。%The multi-disciplinary cooperation and intersection becomes the main development tendency of the modern sciences.It is a new direction to expand the Geographical Information System(GIS) application areas by integrating the GIS technologies with Bibliometrics.A lot of geographic-related information is involved in the literatures concerned with geosciences normally involve some geo-science references.In this paper,the location-related information(e.g.study areas,sampling trips and sampling points) was extracted from the CNKI-indexed scientific literatures for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.These data were spatially analyzed and presented by using the GIS technologies

  7. The spacelab scientific missions: A comprehensive bibliography of scientific publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, Marsha (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    November 1993 represented the 10-year anniversary of the flight of Spacelab 1 mission, with the first precursor mission (OSTA-1) being launched 2 years earlier. Since that time, a total of 27 Shuttle missions has been flown, using the Spacelab system as a facility for conducting scientific research in space. The missions flown to date have allowed a total of approximately 500 Principle Investigator class investigations to be conducted in orbit. These investigations have constituted major scientific efforts in astronomy/astrophysics, atmospheric science, Earth observation, life sciences, microgravity science, and space plasma physics. An initial survey of the scientific products gleaned from Spacelab missions already flown was sent to the Principle Investigators. In that survey, information was gathered from the investigators on the scientific highlights of their investigations and statistical measurements of overall success -- such as papers published. This document is a compilation of the papers that have been published to date in referred literature.

  8. Chinese Students' Satisfaction of the Study Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinggang; Taplin, Ross; Brown, Alistair M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Building upon McLeod and Wainwright's paradigm for rigorous scientific assessment of study abroad programs, this paper aims to use social learning theory to assess mainland Chinese students' satisfaction of the Chinese Curtin Student Accounting Academic Programme. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of mainland Chinese students enrolled…

  9. Arguments on Animal ’s Language and New Tales in Chinese Modern Children’s Literature%中国现代儿童文学中的“鸟言兽语”之争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 罗文军; 石盛芳

    2015-01-01

    Arguments on Animal's Language never stopped along with the spread of tales,but the characters and focus of the arguments have constantly changed.In the 1920s Zhou Zuoren and others had a heated dispute a-bout cat like and dog like national characters and in the 1930s themes of tales turned left.They began to focus on the possible communization of Animal's language to the thought of the young people.Through those arguments,in tales which are the major forms of children's literature,animal's language is the most important form that was deep-ly ingrained in the Chinese society.%“鸟言兽语”之争伴随着童话传入中国的进程始终没有停止,但论争的双方和焦点都在不断变化。1920年代周作人等人与保守派论争的焦点集中在国民性“猫化狗化”上;1930年代童话题材开始左转,论争焦点转移到“鸟言兽语”是否“赤化”青少年思想上。通过这些争辩,童话作为儿童文学的主要形式、“鸟言兽语”作为童话的重要形式,这一观念开始深入人心。

  10. Research on Course Reform in Teaching Basic Writing for Department of Chinese Language and Literature%汉语言文学专业《基础写作》课程教学改革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛静

    2012-01-01

    目前高校《基础写作》课程的教学从理论到理论,处于一种师生双方均不满意的状况。为了改变这一状况,同时为后续写作课程的学习打下良好的基础,哈尔滨德强商务学院汉语言文学专业根据自身特点对《基础写作》课程进行了改革,即明确教学目标、精选教学内容、选用能激发学生兴趣的教学方法,开辟广阔的基础写作第二课堂,目的是提高授课内容和讲授模式的实用性,切实提高学生的写作水平。%At present,the teaching of Basic Writing course in college is in a state of "from theory to theory",which is not satisfied by both teachers and students.In order to change this situation and lay a good foundation for further studying writing course,the basic writing course has been reformed by the teachers of department of Chinese Language and Literature in Harbin Deqiang Institute of Business.The reform mainly includes definitude the teaching aim,selecting the teaching content,using the teaching method which can stimulate student's interest,and opening up the broad second classroom of basic writing course. The aim is to improve the practicability of teaching content and teaching mode, and then cogently prove students' writing level.

  11. Choice and Breakthrough--- A Review on Gu Bin’s History of the 20th Century Chinese Literature%选择与突破*--评顾彬《二十世纪中国文学史》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽英

    2015-01-01

    顾彬的《二十世纪中国文学史》在一定层面上打破了以往文学史的书写模式,采用文学史博物馆的经典化书写方式,在历史性前提下偏重文学性,具有浓厚的主观色彩。它弱化了文学史流派分支书写体例,淡化了作家流派意识,更着重于作家作品的内在精神联系,并将20世纪知识分子忧郁的精神质素落到现代性层面来阐释。意在表明解除学术霸权,解放文学史家才能使文学史编写符合文学史本身,从而走向“轻松化”和“多元化”。%To some extent, Gu Bin’ s History of the 20th Century Chinese Literature has gone beyond the tradi-tional writing mode by adopting the classic one of museum of literary history, i.e.highlighting the subjective views by choosing to be more literary while staying faithful to history.This mode shifts attention from schools of differen writing styles and writer groups to the inner connection across schools.Moreover, it attempts to analyze the melancholy quality of the 20th century intellectuals under modern context, contending that only be getting rid of academic hegemony to liberate literary historians can return compilation of literary histories to history itself to make it an enjoyable, diversified job.

  12. 娜拉与中国“五四”文学女性形象比较研究%A Comparison of Nora and Women Figures in the Literature of the Chinese May 4 th Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵如荃

    2014-01-01

    Nora is a woman figure in the play A Doll’s House by Ibsen.When the play was staged in China in 1918,Nora began to be a spiritual model in the Chinese May 4th Movement,for the model stood for a stereotype of a woman rebel.This article discusses different cultural backgrounds and historical contexts, compares and analyses different rebellious women figures in the literature of the May 4 th Movement,and explores the literary phenomenon in China.%“娜拉”形象出自挪威现实主义戏剧大师易卜生的社会问题剧《玩偶之家》。1918年,《玩偶之家》登上了中国舞台,一时间,“娜拉”成为了中国“五四”时期妇女解放的精神楷模,对中国“五四”文学中叛逆女性形象有着原形意义。立足于不同的社会文化背景和历史语境,通过对“五四”时期中国文学作品中叛逆女性形象的代表类型的分析与比较,再次探究与思考了这一经典文学现象。

  13. Fairness in scientific publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philippa C.

    2017-01-01

    Major changes are afoot in the world of academic publishing, exemplified by innovations in publishing platforms, new approaches to metrics, improvements in our approach to peer review, and a focus on developing and encouraging open access to scientific literature and data. The FAIR acronym recommends that authors and publishers should aim to make their output Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. In this opinion article, I explore the parallel view that we should take a collective stance on making the dissemination of scientific data fair in the conventional sense, by being mindful of equity and justice for patients, clinicians, academics, publishers, funders and academic institutions. The views I represent are founded on oral and written dialogue with clinicians, academics and the publishing industry. Further progress is needed to improve collaboration and dialogue between these groups, to reduce misinterpretation of metrics, to minimise inequity that arises as a consequence of geographic setting, to improve economic sustainability, and to broaden the spectrum, scope, and diversity of scientific publication.

  14. The Inspiration of Emerson’s Literary Ethic Thoughts on Chinese Contemporary Literature%爱默生文学伦理思想对中国当代文学的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙云

    2011-01-01

    As the spiritual leader of American Renaissance,Emerson’s thoughts have exerted profound influence on culture and literature in both America and the whole world.Emerson has always been kept intense attention in China.Virtually,besides the propositions of independence and politics,Emerson in his works also insists on the ethicality of literary creation and the convergence of literary truth.He refers particularly to the literary function of the inner introspection and the experience of the spiritual exploration.Emerson’s proposition of meshing humanism with social dimension opens up a new perspective for literary research.Emerson’s literary ethical thoughts provide an approach of literary sociology,which has certain reference meanings in Chinese contemporary literature and promotes the exploration of utilizing literary texts to inaugurate new civilization of the times.%爱默生作为美国文艺复兴时期的精神领袖,其思想对美国文化、文学乃至世界文化和文学都产生了深远的影响。爱默生的作品中除了对自立、政治的倡导外,还主张文本创作的伦理性和文学真理的共通性,特别强调了文本对内心的反省和对灵魂的探索的伦理功能。爱默生提倡人本主义和社会维度相契合的观点为文学研究开辟了新的视角。爱默生的文学伦理思想提供了一种文学社会学的方法,对中国当代文学创作具有一定的启示意义,有助于探寻如何利用文本去开创新的时代文明。

  15. 中国疾病预防控制中心“十一五”期间获得课题与中心科技发展规划比较%Structural comparison of the granted projects at Chinese Center for Desease Control and Prevention with its scientific develonment plan during the 11th 5-year period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 陈亮; 黄辉; 王吉春; 陈超; 张莹; 董小平

    2012-01-01

    2006-2010年中国疾病预防控制中心及直属单位获得国家和省部级课题共381项.本文根据中国疾病预防控制中心科技发展规划中重点发展科目,对课题所属科目进行分析,系统比较了课题在传染病、卫生、慢性病和通用技术平台4大单元共37个科目中的分布情况.结果表明中国疾病预防控制中心制定的重点科技发展科目绝大部分均获得国家财政来源的科技计划项目支持,课题主要集中在传染病和卫生方向.研究结果提示中国疾病预防控制中心科技发展规划制定的重点科目符合我国疾病预防控制的实际需求,准确地把握了重大科学问题和关键技术.同时也反映出中国疾病预防控制中心具有较强的科研竞争能力,但各主要业务单元之间仍存在发展的不均衡性.%From 2006 to 2010,381 national or provincial projects were granted to Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese CDC).According to the development plan of key dsciplines made by Chinese CDC, this study stratified the granted projects and analyzed their distribution in the four units (including 37 subunits),namely,infection disease,health,chronic disease and general technology platform. The results indicated that most of the important topics proposed by our center received financial support from the government,and the supported projects were mostly in the field of infectious disease and health.The results also revealed that the key projects proposed by Chinese CDC meet the practical requirements of disease control,and those projects covered the key scientific topics and key technologies.Meanwhile,the result reflected that Chinese CDC is very competitive as far as scientific research is concerned,but the research structure is not balanced among the 4 units.

  16. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    for asymmetric games when some valuations are zero. In that case we prove that the auctioneer can stabilize the game by placing his own ticket in each basket. On the other hand, when all the valuations are strictly positive, a pure Nash equilibrium is guaranteed to exist, and the equilibrium strategies......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  17. Patent Literature Analysis of α - Glucosidase Inhibitor and Development Progress on Its Chinese Medicinal New Drug%α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂专利文献分析及其中药源新药开发进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚虹

    2012-01-01

    α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂是20世纪70年代后期研究开发的一类新型口服降血糖药物,具有作用温和持久、毒副作用小甚至无毒的优点,是近年来药物治疗糖尿病的研究热点之一.中药是我国特色的药物资源,从中药资源中寻找α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂的研究则是我国新药研究的特色.专利是新药开发产品化过程中标志性的知识产权和技术文献.通过相关中国专利及相关文献分析,综述中药源α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂新药开发的现状.%α-glucosidase inhibitor is a new oral hypoglycemic drug researched and developed in the late 1970s,with mild and persistent effect, little side - effect, even non - toxicity, which is one of the hot points of diabetic pharmacotherapy in recent years. The Chinese herbal medicine as the Chinese characteristics drug resource is becoming the new drug research way,it is our characteristics research to find a - glucosidase inhibitor from Chinese medicine. Patent is the key intellectual property and technical literature in the process of new drug development. By analyzing the relevant Chinese patents and literature, the development status quo of Chinese medicinal new drug of α - glucosidase is reviewed.

  18. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG; Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute( TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences( CATAS) as an example,this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform,analyzed existing problems,and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  19. [Research on our hospital inventory management status quo of traditional Chinese medicine drugs and treatment method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Xu, Wen

    2014-03-01

    Under the background of the new medical reform, a large variety of traditional Chinese medicine from complicated sources, Chinese traditional medicine of actor of true and false of the quality directly affect the drug safety and clinical efficacy, but also relate to the social and economic benefits of hospital. Along with the development of the modern management of medical institutions and drug circulation circulation system reform in our country, the hospital drug inventory, supply and management work is an important topic for the pharmaceutical trading. However, there is always contradiction, dispensary need to supple pharmacy, in order to satisfy the demands of hospital patients with normal diagnosis and treatment work. However, if the drug inventory is too much, not only increases the drug monitoring problem, at the same time, but also causes storage costs rise. Therefore, completing scientific and reasonable storage and management becomes urgent problems at present. Wherefore, our country administration of traditional Chinese medicine in 2007 promulgated the "Chinese traditional medicine yinpian management norms in hospital", aims to standardize management of Chinese traditional medicine quality and improve the safety of drugs. The author through looking up information and visiting survey, to understand the currently existing problems, and summarizes the literature inland and abroad in recent years Chinese medicine drug inventory management work experience, in view of status quo of Chinese medicine inventory management in China, put forward the solution. To guarantee TCM pharmacy management more standardized, more standard, to adapt to the new reform of Chinese traditional medicine industry, improve the management level of hospital, defend the hospital's reputation and the patient's interests.

  20. A Critique of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature of the Use of Diagrams, Graphs, and Other Visual Aids in the Learning of Scientific-Technical Content from Expository Texts and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James; Perla, Rocco J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critical review and analysis of key studies that have been done in science education and other areas on the effects and effectiveness of using diagrams, graphs, photographs, illustrations, and concept maps as "adjunct visual aids" in the learning of scientific-technical content. It also summarizes and reviews those studies…

  1. 宣示与规定:1949年前后延安文艺丛书的编纂刊行丛书的编纂刊行——以“北方文丛”与“中国人民文艺丛书”的编辑出版为例%Declaration and Establishment: A Review on the Compilation and Delivery of Serials of Yan' an Literature and Art around 1949 -Exemplification by Compilation and Publication of Serials of Northern Literature and Serials of Chinese People' s Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣

    2012-01-01

    During the development of the 20th century Chinese literature, numerous serials of Yan' an literature and art compiled and published in the 1940' s not only declared and completed the construct and historical description of Yan' an literature and art but also "established the orientation of literature and art of new China" and national norm of aesthetics and order of literary genres by a combination of political power and ideological goal. Among these Yan' an publications, the Serials of Northern Literature and Serials of Chinese People' s Literature compiled respectively by Zhou Yang and Zhou Erfu typically represented the editorial conception, selective criteria and ideological goal of current serials of Yan' an literature and art. Through deliberate collection and classified description of literary history, these serials of Yan' an literature and art helped construct resources and norm of Yan' an literature and art and "new people' s literature art", and became the leading academic basis and resources of Yan' an literature and art and the 20th century Chinese literature in compiling historical documents of Yah' an literature and art, iedition investigation, text collation and "sub-text" studies.%在20世纪中国文学发展过程中,40年代编辑出版的多种延安文艺丛书,不仅宣示并完成了延安文艺及其艺术传统的建构与历史叙述,同时又通过与政治权力及意识形态目的的结合,“规定了新中国的文艺的方向”及其国家美学规范与文类秩序。其中,1949年前后由周而复和周扬等分别主编的“北方文丛”与“中国人民文艺丛书”,集中体现出了当时的延安文艺丛书编辑理念、选题准则和意识形态目的等历史特征,以及有意识通过丛书汇集及其“经典化”的文学史叙述,建构延安文艺及其“新的人民的文艺”资源与规范等文化实践功能,并在延安文艺

  2. How to Evaluate Yinglian's Influence on Chinese New Literature---A Discussion with Professor Xiao Bairong%如何评价楹联对中国新文学的影响--兼与肖百容先生商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄怀军

    2016-01-01

    As an important genre in traditional Chinese literature, Yinglian or couplets, has an active influence on Chinese New Literature. My suspicion is how to position it. For one hand, Yinglian can not be expanded to Yinglian Culture or Yinglian Tradition optionally so as to overstate its valuation. On the other hand, the influence can not be discussed isolatedly except Metrical poems, Ci Fu and Pianwen in Old Chinese genre. Taking Yinglian's influence on the poemlet after the May 4th Movement as an example could better show how strong it penetrates Chinese New Literature.%作为中国传统的文学体裁之一,楹联的确对中国新文学的形成产生了积极的影响,问题在于如何定位这种影响。既不能将“楹联”随意扩大为“楹联文化”或“楹联传统”,从而夸大楹联对中国新文学的影响;也不能撇开格律诗、词赋和骈文当中的“楹联”式语句,从而孤立地讨论楹联对新文学的影响。以楹联对五四“小诗”的影响为例可更好地说明楹联对中国新文学的影响程度和方式。

  3. Open Access and Civic Scientific Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccala, Alesia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We examine how residents and citizens of The Netherlands perceive open access to acquire preliminary insight into the role it might play in cultivating civic scientific literacy. Open access refers to scientific or scholarly research literature available on the Web to scholars and the general public in free online journals and…

  4. Preventing statistical errors in scientific journals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for a high prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology and other scientific fields. These errors display a systematic preference for statistically significant results, distorting the scientific literature. There are several possible causes for this systematic error pre

  5. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radder, H.

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of interve...

  6. Interpretation, Autonomy, and Transformation: Chinese Pedagogic Discourse in a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zongjie

    2011-01-01

    With the modernization of Chinese society, beginning in the early-20th century, the Chinese language has experienced a fundamental change that has transformed Chinese pedagogic practices. Modern Chinese discourses, whether of social or scientific practices or on China's intellectual heritage, are largely articulated in westernized discourses that…

  7. Promoting Scientific Spirit to Cultivate Scientific Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Scientific culture is an advanced culture that is based on scientific knowledge and supported by the scientific method, with scientific thinking as its core and scientific spirit as its soul. During the process of modernization, it has profound impacts on human society in terms of values, ethics, mode of thinking, lifestyle and code of conduct, offering human civilization an important ideological source, physical foundation, technological tool and effective carrier.

  8. Analysis on Regularity and Features of Using "基于" in Chinese Literature Titles%学术文献题名中"基于"一词的使用规律及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪雪梅; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis of certain words or symbols in the titles of literatures can help to understand the behavior of scientists, diffusion laws and relationships between different disciplines. In view of the widespread use of the word " 基于 " in the titles of Chinese academic literatures, this study analyzed the changing laws of the number and the proportion of literatures which used the word "基于". Four disciplines, automation and computer science, physics, sociology and library and information science were taken as examples. The object words of " 基于 " in library and information science were analyzed. The results shows that the number of the word "基于" grows according to S type logic law. At present, the growth rate is slowing down, but it still grows rapidly. The use of the word "基于" can reflect the speed of the knowledge updating and the capability of learning from other disciplines of a discipline. This study found that automation and computer science "likes" to use "基于" most. The object words of "基于" in library and information science includes ontology, knowledge management, Web. Finally, problems of the use of the word "基于" and the limitation of this study were discussed.%统计分析文献题名中某些词或符号的使用情况,可了解学科间的关系、知识扩散规律及科学家的行为."基于"一词在中文学术文献题名中普遍使用,针对这一现象,统计分析了CNKI中国期刊全文数据库中题名使用"基于"一词的文献数量及所占比例的变化规律;以自动化和计算机技术、物理学、图书馆学情报学、社会学四个学科为例分析了"基于"一词使用的学科差异,并以图书馆学情报学为例统计了文献题名中"基于"的对象词.结果发现"基于"一词的使用呈现S型逻辑增长,目前增速虽有所放缓,但增长仍然迅速;"基于"一词的使用与学科的知识更新速度和对其他学科知识技术的借鉴能力相关,自动化和

  9. A Grey Literature Classification System Based on the Organizational Structure——for Use by Chinese Association for Science and Technology%一种基于组织架构的灰色文献分类体系——中国科协系统文献分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕瑞花; 乔新歌

    2012-01-01

    Grey literature is produced and widely applied in the researches of science and technology, as an important reference source. Developed countries pay great deal of attentions to the collection of the important grey literature. Different departments of Chinese Association for Science and Technology (CAST) have accumulated a great many of academic conference proceedings and working documents, majority of which belong to the category of grey literature. In order to manage better the grey literature produced by Chinese Association for Science and Technology, a grey literature classification system is proposed based on the organizational structure of CAST, which is divided into four levels. The first and second level categories are constructed according to the organizational structure of CAST, with the first category reflecting the three basic sources of CAST literature, that is, from Chinese Association for Science and Technology, from national societies and from local associations of science and technology, and with the second category reflecting subordinate institutions under the first level. The categories of the third and forth levels are constructed according to the publication types and the publication years of literature, respectively. This classification system may better reflect the achievements made by different departments of the CAST, and facilitate the handling of the literature.%灰色文献常应用于科学研究,是重要的参考资料,发达国家非常重视收集重要的灰色文献.中国科协系统的文献包含大量学术会议论文集和管理性文献,这些文献大部分属于灰色文献.针对中国科协系统的灰色文献管理问题,提出了一种基于组织架构的灰色文献分类体系.此分类体系以科协的组织架构为基础,构建一二级类目,并结合文献的出版形式和出版时间构建三四级类目.研究表明,此分类体系可较好地展示中国科协各机构的工作成果.

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treatment of Polyhydramnios:a Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Zhou; Yu-fang Hao; Yan Chen; Tong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tocompare the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (therapy A) or Chinese herbal medicine plus indomethacin (therapy B) with that of indomethacin alone (therapy C) in treating polyhydramnios.MethodsLiteratures published up toApril 2012 were retrieved from PubMed, Embase and Cochranelibrary, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific and Technological Periodical Database (VIP), Wangfang, and Traditional Chinese Medicine online.Two researchers collected data independently.The assessment of methodological quality was based on Cochrane handbook and the materials were analyzed with software RevMan 5.1.2. The outcome measure index was relative risk or difference ofmean value (95% confidence interval). The following outcomes were evaluated: (1) general clinical improvement rate; (2) maximum vertical pocket depth; (3) amniotic fluid index (AFI) value; (4) rate of fetalductus arteriosus constriction; (5) incidence of adverse events.ResultsBased on the search strategy, 5 trails involving 1017 patients were finally included. Comparedwith therapy C, therapy A decreased the rate of fetal ductus arteriosus constriction (P<0.01). Therapy B was more effective than therapy C in general clinical improvement and decrease of AFI for polyhydramnios (P<0.01). No serious adverse events were reported in therapy A and therapy B.ConclusionsCompared with therapy C, therapy A and therapy B may appear to be moreeffective for polyhydramnios. However, the exact effectneeds to beconfirmed with well-designedlarge-scale clinical trials.

  11. [Construction and thinking of data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xia; Jin, Zhong-Zheng; Guo, Gui-Ming; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical pharmacy information, to provide application standards and models of TCM clinical pharmacy for the electronic medical record (EMR). The developed line of work is as follows: initially establish research through four forms: literature analysis, questionnaires, discussion groups, expert advice. The research range from the Chinese herbal medicine research, herbal origin, harvesting, processing, identification of traits, physical and chemical identification, modern research, character, taste, Indications, clinical application, processing, dispensing medicine, Chinese medicine specifications, usage, dosage, caution, efficacy indications to small packaging applications, drug research, management and other related issues, including traditional Chinese medicine theory, application and hospital management information; according to the general and part 16 content of the national "Health Information Data Element Standards", and the basic method of extracting data element to study and develop the data element of TCM clinical pharmacy information from the defining content. Correspondingly propose the ideas and methods of construction of the "Data Element Standard Directory of TCM Clinical Pharmacy Information", sort out medicine clinical information data element standard catalog, divided into basic categories, clinical application class, management class three parts, and set norms and standards of identifying data elements, definitions, allowable value of traditional Chinese medicine clinical information, and discuss the sources and standards of information collection, leaving the interface, standardized and scientific terminology, docking with the existing standards, maintenance and management program and oter issues.

  12. The Influence of Chinese Civilizationon Europe, c. 1000-1400

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Bringing together Chinese and Western materials, this article makesa general survey of the spread of Chinese civilization to Europe in themedieval period and the consequent influences. It mainly retrieves thewestward dissemination of Chinese scientific thoughts, the introductionof Chinese agricultural and transport techniques, and the developmentof Chinese inventions such as papermaking and print, silk and porcelain,stirrup and gunpowder in Europe, and even the impacts of Chinesesilk craftsmen and fine arts on Europe. It concludes that Europeansingested valuable nutrition from Chinese civilization from the 11th to14th centuries, laying the foundation for the fundamental changes withgroundbreaking significance in Europe.

  13. Literature Analysis of Clinic Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine Nursing Technology from 2000 to 2012%2000-2012年国内中医护理技术应用文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩妹; 靳英辉; 李文文; 孟繁洁

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过文献回顾,分析中医护理技术临床应用的现状,拟定干预对策,促进其进一步的推广和发展。方法经计算机检索CNKI、CBM、VIP、万方数据库,收集和整理2000年1月-2012年12月有关中医护理操作类调查文献258篇,根据文献调研结果进行分析。结果根据检索标准对文献进行分析整理,最终纳入调查类文献11篇,分析结果显示:中医护理技术在临床开展百分率超过50%的项目较少,且各医院情况不尽相同;护理人员对中医护理技术的掌握情况也不能与西医护理技术相比;中医护理技术在临床中存在因人力资源紧缺、缺乏相应中医护理操作医嘱、护理人员对其态度积极性较低等诸多问题。结论尽管中医护理技术以其直观安全、收费低廉、创伤小等优点被国内外医患广泛接受,但其目前临床开展情况、护理人员的掌握情况都阻碍了其发展。提示在响应国家号召基础之上,教育培训相关护理人员使其专业化、补充足够的人力完成中医特色护理。%Objective To analyze the present situation of clinical application of TCM nursing technology, to formulate intervention measures and promote its further development. Methods The retrieval was carried out in CNKI , CBM, VIP and Wanfang Database and 258 studies on TCM nursing technology from 2010 to 2012 were collected. Results According to search criteria of literature analysis, finally 11 studies were found and the analysis showed that there were few projects involving clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine nursing technology that amounted to 50% and these projects varied from hospitals to hospitals; nurses ’ grasp of Chinese medicine nursing techniques was not as well as that of western medicine nursing technology. In clinic, shortage of human resources, lack of corresponding nursing operation orders, nurses ’ low motivation were frequently

  14. Promotional literature translation in stylistics perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰雅

    2009-01-01

    A company Call establish a favorable image to promote itself by promotional literature which has vocative and informative functions.In this espy,the Chinese and English promotional literatures will be discussed in detail from the aspect of stylistic features and relevant translation strategies will also be presented.

  15. 政治身体:土改文学中的身体形象分析%Political Body:An Analysis of the Body Image in Chinese Land-reform Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程娟娟

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese land -reform literature, " upturn" means that numerous peasants gained unprecedented liberation of their body, and the country as a sleeping giant was awaking. In perspective of physiological political body, body is under control of external powers. Cloth is an important sign of "upturn" , while over pursuit of comfort and beauty of cloth would be criticized by revolutionary discourse. In perspective of productive political body, the body needs to undergo constant tests of labor works, so body becomes machines for production and tools for work. The bodies are assigned with different value due to the holder's class identity. Body of landlord suffers violence in public demonstration, and body of peasant enjoys sacred homages due to the scar it has suffered.%在土改文学中,翻身意味着无数个体农民的身体获得了前所未有的解放,同时这也象征着中国这个沉睡的巨人即将醒来。从生理政治身体上看,身体必须受到外在权力的控制,衣服是翻身的重要标志,然而过分追求衣服的美观舒适将会受到革命话语的指责。从生产政治身体来看,身体还需不断接受生产劳动的考验,身体成为了生产的机器和劳动的工具。身体因为阶级的划分而具有了不同的价值,地主的身体在示众的场面中遭受暴力,而农民的身体因为伤疤而具有了神圣的价值。

  16. A Historical Review of the Seeking to Scientificity and Humanity in the Writing of Chinese Literature History%中国文学史追求科学性与人文性的历史回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡欢江

    2006-01-01

    在中国文学史书写的历史上,科学性历来都为史家们所看重,但是,建国之后文学书写的科学品格却一度失落;与科学性相比,文学史书写的人文性更是一直未引起史家们的足够重视,只有少数的文学史家们的著作体现出文学史书写的诗性特质,而闻一多、林庚等人是其中的代表.

  17. Parental Beliefs on Children's Play: Comparison among Mainland Chinese, Chinese Immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae

    2016-01-01

    The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…

  18. 间歇期及慢性期痛风中医方药的文献研究%Literature Research of Traditional Chinese Medical Prescriptions of Gout in Intermission and Chronic Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海昌; 温成平; 谢志军; 韩春雯; 汪梅姣

    2013-01-01

    目的:探求痛风间歇期及慢性期的方药特点,为中医临床治疗奠定基础.方法:采用计算机检索和人工检索相结合的方法,对1997年1月-2011年6月国内期刊中相关文献进行回顾性总结.结果:检索出符合要求的文献85[1-82]篇,共涉及痛风间歇期、慢性期及慢性关节炎期患者累计4791例,主要中药(前15味)使用频率结果分别是:牛膝(36.11%)、桑寄生(31.48%)、薏苡仁(30.56%)、土茯苓(26.85%)、苍术(25.93%)、白术(25.93%)、白芥子(25.00%)、当归(24.07%)、黄柏(23.15%)、黄芪(22.22%)、防己(22.22%)、草薢(20.37%)、威灵仙(20.37%)、赤芍(18.52%)、秦艽(16.67%).结论:牛膝、桑寄生、苍白术、薏苡仁及黄芪健脾益肾,泄浊祛湿治病之本;当归、牛膝、苍白术、赤芍、黄柏、白芥子及威灵仙活血化瘀通络,燥湿化痰通痹治病之标.%Objective: To provide a basis for clinical treatment of traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM) by seeking the TCM prescriptions of gout in intermission and chronic phase. Methods: Domestic relevant literatures were summarized retrospectively based on the interaction by computer search and artificial retrieval from January 1997 to June 2011. Results-. Totally 85 literatures were retrieved to meet the requirements, including 4791 cases of intermission, chronic phase and chronic gouty arthritis. The distributions of major TCM prescriptions (the top 15)were achyranthes root(36. 11% ) ,mis-tletoe( 31. 48% ) , coix seed ( 30. 56% ), smilax Glabra ( 26. 85% ), atractylodes ( 25.93% ) , rhizoma atractylodis (25.93%) ,white mustard seed(25.00% ) ,angelica sinensis(24. 07% ) ,cortex phellodendri(23. 15%) ,radix astragali (22.22% ) ,tetrandra root(22.22%) ,yam rhizome(20. 37% ),clematis root(20. 37% ) ,red peony root(18.52%) ,gen-tiana macrophylla ( 16. 67% ). Conclusions :It is the fundamental treatment of gout by invigorating spleen and nourishing kidney therapy for reducing

  19. 言外之意·传播·受众——浅谈中国古典文学及传播中的“言外之意”%On Implication in Chinese Classical Literature and Media Activities: Implication & Communication & Audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚存

    2011-01-01

    Implication exists not only in Chinese classical literature but also in today's media activities. Studying the implication in the literature from the perspective of the audience theory, the unique charm can be found, providing valuable comparative frame of reference for the implication in the media activities. Implication, which is popular in classical Chinese literature, should be used with caution and placed in the appropriate context in news media activities, avoiding negative impact at the same time.%中国古典文学中的“言外之意”同样存在于当今的新闻传播活动中。从传播活动受众的角度去关照文学中的“言外之意”,可以考察“言外之意”的独特魅力,同时又为新闻传播活动中的“言外之意”提供可贵的对比参照系。在中国古典文学创造中大行其道的“言外之意”在新闻传播活动中应谨慎使用,要在规避消极影响的同时将其置于适当的语境之中。

  20. Methods for Obtaining Free Full-text of Scientific Papers in the Literature Search%科学研究中免费科技论文获取方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 李道西

    2011-01-01

    Six methods for obtaining free full-text of scientific papers are introduced,including effective use of public search engines;full use of academic search engines;the collection of common resource sites providing free scientific papers;the concern about the important professional journals' home webs,the authors' academic blogs or the website of the relevant academic research institutions;to friends or forums for help;direct request to the authors and so on.%介绍了6种获取免费科技论文全文的方法,分别是有效利用大众搜索引擎;充分利用学术搜索引擎;收集常用的免费科技论文资源网站;关注本专业重要期刊主页、作者学术博客或相关科研机构网站;向朋友或论坛求助;直接向作者索取等。

  1. A literature review of epidemiological studies on mutation hot spots of Chinese population with non-syndromic hearing loss%非综合征性聋突变热点的流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海波; 李琼; 李红; 陈瑛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the regional mutation hot spots characteristics, and then to establish a regional genetic screening programs. Method; Molecular epidemiological literatures about Chinese deafness gene GJB2,SLC26A4,mitochondrial DNA mutations from 2006 to the first half of 2011 were retrieved in Wanfang and Pubmed literature database. The primary data of these studies including the number of samples, demographic characteristics, mutation frequencies and so on,were analyzed statiscally. Result:Of 46 papers, 42 were included in this study. The patients all had non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss and lived in 20 regions of China. A total of 18094 were counted and the average mutation frequencies were approximately 42.0%. The mutation frequencies of 235 delC were 16. 34%, 299-300 delAT were 4. 75% in GJB2 gene and IVS7-2A>G were 12. 60% , 2168A>G were 2. 32% in SLC26A4 gene and the mutation frequencies of 1555A>G, 1494C>T in mtDNA were 5. 21 %, 1. 11% respectively. The statistical discrepancy was significant among mutation frequencies in different regions by χ2test(P<0. 05). Conclusion:Molecular epidemiological statistics show that the 6 locus are the mutation hot spots in Chinese people with non-syndromic hearing loss and can be used for genetic screening according to the specific regional mutation characteristics.%目的:了解耳聋基因突变热点在中国患者中的分布特征,以建立针对突变热点的区域性基因筛查方案.方法:运用万方和Pubmed等检索2006-2011年上半年国内报道的中国各地区人群耳聋相关基因GJB2、SLC26A4、mtDNA突变流行病学文献,对文献中的样本量、样本特征、地域分布、突变频率等多个因素进行统计分析.结果:检索到相关文献46篇,纳入该统计分析42篇,研究区域涉及中国20个省、市、自治区和直辖市,调查人群均为非综合征型感音神经性聋患者;样本总量18 094例,GJB2 235 delC突变频率为16.34%,GJB2 299-300 del

  2. The embodiment and the effects of native complex in the literature under the background of different culture of Chinese and Western --William Faulkner and Mo Yan for example%中西不同文化背景下乡土情结在文学中的体现与影响--以威廉·福克纳与莫言为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇

    2013-01-01

    乡土情结影响下的中西方文学在世界文学中占据着举足轻重的地位,乡土情结影响下的中西方文学也因而具有共通之处。在西方文学史威廉·福克纳成功地描绘了美国南方传统世界。深受福克纳影响的莫言则通过独特视角透视展现给世人一个独特的环境--高密东北乡。两者既有相同之处也有不同之处,但唯一可以确定的是那浓的化不开的乡土情结成就了他们的辉煌,也深深影响了世界文学的发展。%Chinese and Western literature play decisive role in the world literature under the influence of Western native complex, Chinese and Western literature have in common. In the literature history of Western, William Faulkner successfully depicts the American southern traditional world. Mo Yan influenced by Faulkner through the unique perspective to show any unique environment--Gaomi northeast township. Both of them have similar and different, but the only certainty is that native complex make their brilliance, also deeply influences the development of the literature of the world.

  3. Taijiao:a traditional Chinese approach to enhancing fetal growth through maternal physical and mental health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fung-Kei Cheng

    2016-01-01

    abstract Despite the fact that Taijiao (traditional Chinese eugenics) has been part of the Chinese obstetrical culture over the years, there is insufficient scientific evidence for its effectiveness. This literature review analyzes the discourse on Taijiao associated with physical and psychological maternalefetal symbiosis, together with relevant peripheral research outcomes. Taijiao combines maternal health and external environment for benefits in fetal growth through preventive, indirect, and direct measures. Discussing practical im-plications and future research directions, this review reveals a modernized Taijiao to be a holistic, non-invasive pregnancy management system using a multi-disciplinary approach that enhances infantile life quality, reduces negative consequences of pregnancy deficits and child development, and saves public health expenditure.

  4. Clinical Distribution and Molecular Basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine ZHENG in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM clinical practice, ZHENG (also known as syndrome helps to guide design of individualized treatment strategies. In this study, we investigated the clinical use of ZHENG in TCM-treated cancer patients by systematically analyzing data from all relevant reports in the Chinese-language scientific literature. We aimed to determine the clinical ZHENG distributions in six common cancers (lung, liver, gastric, breast, colorectal, and pancreatic with the expectation of uncovering a theoretical basis for TCM ZHENG as a clinical cancer treatment. In addition, we also reviewed the molecular basis underlying Xue-Yu (blood stasis, Shi-Re (dampness-heat, Yin-Xu (Yin deficiency, and Pi-Xu (spleen deficiency ZHENG that are commonly found in cancer patients. The results from our summary study provide insights into the potential utility of TCM ZHENG and may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of TCM ZHENG in cancer.

  5. Course Objectives" Course Structure" Course Content ——The Implication in the Construction of Teachers Oral Communication Curriculum for the Students of Chinese Language and Literature%课程目标·课程结构·课程内容——汉语言文学专业师范生口语交际课程体系建构的重要内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟建安

    2012-01-01

    在特定的口语交际课程理念支配之下,就要确定与口语交际课程理念相应的课程目标;要结合专业方向优化课程设置,合理布局课程结构;要平衡好课程之间的相互关系,有效处理课程内容之间的同一性与示差性。课程理念、课程结构与课程内容是高校汉语言文学专业师范生口语交际课程体系建构的三个重要根基,因此对之进行探讨将有助于课程体系建构的科学化、合理化和有效化。%Under the concept of the specific oral conamunication curriculum, it is necessary to determine the oral communication curriculum with appropriate curriculum goals. Combined with professional direction, the cur- riculum should be optimized, the course structure should be rationally distributed, and the relationship between the courses should be well balanced, thus the identity and difference between the course content can be effective- ly handled. The philosophy of the courses, course structure and course content are the three important founda- tions for the construction of the oral communication curriculum system for the Chinese Language and Literature teachers. Therefore, the exploration will contribute to a scientific, rational and effective Curriculum Construction.

  6. 陕西省土地利用/覆盖变化以及驱动机制分析——基于遥感信息与文献集成研究%Analysis of Land Use and Coverage Change (LUCC) and Its Driving Mechanisms in Shaanxi Province: Integrating Remotely Sensed Information and the Scientific Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡文慧

    2011-01-01

    地理结论的可靠性一直以来是地理学家关注的焦点问题。本研究建立了基于高分辨率遥感信息获取的土地利用/覆盖变化数据和参考文献集成与再分析方法。以陕西省为例,通过土地利用/覆盖变化动态数据分析结果与研究区40篇参考文献分析结果进行相互验证,提炼土地利用/覆盖变化以及驱动机制的知识规律。结论表明,基于土地利用/覆盖变化数据的分析结果与参考文献集成分析的结果基本一致。1990年-2005年陕西省耕地总面积减少,耕地呈先增加后减少的趋势;林地和草地面积逐渐增加;建设用地快速增长。人口、经济、政策与城市化是该省土地利用%Geographical conclusion reliability has been an important topic for geographers. This study proposed a new technique to integrate data on land use/land cover change, remotely sensed information, as well as the scientific literature. First, the project team constructed the global land information platform (GLIP), including the global land use/land cover the electrical scientific literature base and multi-scale LUCC data. Global Land Use Scientific Literature Base (GLUSLB) has more than 5000 references on land use and land cover. We reclassified the scientific literature into 6 classes, including application, technology, methodology, review, model, and data. Furthermore, the scientific literature on application and data with definite location is located in the specific geo-ecological region. Second, compared with land use and land cover change areas from between LUCC data and 40 references, spatial and temporal characteristics and their driving mechanisms were analyzed. Results indicate that the conclusions are generally consistent with both of them, especially the land use change characteristics from different administrative systems. From 1990 to 2005, the total area of cultivated land in Shaanxi Province generally decreased, but increased during

  7. 新课改背景下高师古代文学课程与教学改革刍议%On Reform of Chinese Ancient Literature Course and Teaching in Normal Colleges under the Background of New Curriculum Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦丹

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the new curriculum reform puts forward a series of requirements for teaching of Chinese ancient literature in normM colleges such as the teaching aim, teaching content, teaching concepts and teaching methods. These requirements, however, are not met in the teaching of Chinese ancient literature in normal colle- ges. Under the background of new curriculum reform, to explore the approach for the reform of the Chinese ancient literature in normal colleges, it is suggested to reestablish course system, improve teaching objectives, strengthen literary theory and culture history teaching, change the teaching concept, teaching method, attach importance not only to basic teaching, but also to academic research ability training. Only in this way, earl Chinese ancient literature teaching in normal colleges radiates new vitality to meet the the requirement of new curriculum reform and to realize the training objectives of normal colleges and universities.%新课改的推行对高师古代文学教学提出了教学目标、教材内容、教师教学观念及教学方法上的一系列要求。面对这些要求,高师古代文学教学却无法对接,其现状不尽如人意。因而要在新课改背景下寻求高师古代文学的改革路径,可重新设置课程体系、改进教学目标、增强文论、文化史等内容的教学,改变教学观念、教学方法,既要重视基础教学,也要重视学术研究能力的培养。只有这样,才能使高师古代文学教学焕发新的生机,适应新课改的需求,实现高师院校的培养目标。

  8. 大数据时代中国大学生科技创新思维新内涵思考%The New Connotation about the Scientific Innovative Thinking of Chinese University Students in the Era of Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discusses deep change of scientific innovative thinking in three aspects of knowledge structure, thought object and thought mode under the background of big data. Questionnaire and interview are employed to in-vestigate the status quo of university student's scientific innovative thinking. It shows that they have vague knowl-edge of big data and they still follow traditional thought habit and research method in scientific innovation activities. They don't realize big data's important purpose and meaning towards scientific innovation. It leads to insufficiency of their scientific innovation ability. So this thesis proposes new connotation for university student's scientific innova-tive thought, which is grasp of big data technology's basic knowledge, development of big data sense and possession of relevant thought mode demanded by this era.%论述了在大数据背景下,科技创新思维在知识结构、思维对象和思维方式三个方面发生的深刻变革。并通过问卷调查和访谈方法,调研了当前大学生的科技创新思维现状,发现大数据的认识很模糊,在科技创新活动中仍然沿用传统的思维习惯和研究方法,没有认识到大数据对于科技创新的重要作用和意义,导致其科技创新能力仍显不足。因此,对大学生科技创新思维提出了新的内涵,即掌握大数据技术的基本知识、养成大数据意识,具有这个时代所要求的相关性思维方式。

  9. Structures and dynamics of scientific knowledge networks:An empirical analysis based on a co-word network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiaoguang; JIANG; Tingting; LI; Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Co-word networks are constructed with author-provided keywords in academic publications and their relations of co-occurrence.As special form of scientific knowledge networks,they represent the cognitive structure of scientific literature.This paper analyzes the complex structure of a co-word network based on 8,190 author-provided keywords extracted from 3,651 papers in five Chinese core journals in the field of management science.Small-world and scale-free phenomena are found in this network.A large-scale co-word network graph,which consists of one major giant component and many small isolated components,has been generated with the GUESS software.The dynamic growth of keywords and keyword co-occurrence relationships are described with four new informetrics measures.The results indicate that existing concepts always serve as the intellectual base of new ideas as represented by keywords.

  10. Clinical and genetic features of Schwartz-Jampel syndrome in a Chinese child: case report and literature review%儿童Schwartz-Jampel综合征一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代丽芳; 方方; 黄昱; 程华; 任长红

    2015-01-01

    儿童Schwartz-Jampel综合征患者.%Objective To investigate the clinical and genetic features of a Chinese girl with Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (SJS).Method To analyze the clinical and genetic data of a girl with SchwartzJampel syndrome who was sent to neurology outpatient department of Beijing Children's Hospital in Auguest of 2010.Reports on Schwartz-Jampel syndrome published until July of 2015 were searched and the clinical and genetic characteristics of reported cases were summarized.Result At 8 months after birth, the girl showed myotonia;at 1 year old when she was walking alone she had myotonia of lower limbs, both feet evaginated, walked slowly and was prone to fall.At 2 years of age, she could not climb up stairs, at 3 years she could not jump continuously.At 3 years and 7 months of age when the girl was taken to neurology outpatient department, on examination, she had a dull facial expression, rigid lips and could not fully open her mouth, a micromandible, low-set and prominent ears, systemic muscle rigidity, there were muscular nodes formation on the limbs and gait stiffness.She had high level of creatine kinase and atlanto-axial joint subluxation on cervical CT reconstruction.She also had spontaneous myotonia-like discharges on needle electromyography (NEMG).X-ray of limbs showed metaphyseal dysplasia.The patient was treated with neurologic rehabilitation and carbamazepine.The myotonia at the last follow-up at her 8 years of age was the same as at the onset.On her HSPG2 gene, two novel heterozygous mutations c.10776delT on exon 78 and c.5702-5G > A on intron 45 were found, c.10776delT resulted in the amino acid change on p.Ala3592fsX6 and c.5702-5G > A maybe changed protein splicing.No reports were found among Chinese journals, while 7 reports were found in English literature.The total 34 mutations were known in reviewed reports, which included eleven deletion or insertion, twelve splice site, eight missense, and three nonsense mutations.Four patients had a single mutation.No definite genotype

  11. 干燥综合征中医证候分类临床文献研究%Syndromes clinical literature study of the traditional Chinese medicine to Sjogren's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马武开; 唐芳; 王莹; 姚血明; 钟琴; 安阳; 黄颖; 刘正奇

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Discussing syndrome distribution character of Sjogren syndrome in TCM. Methods: The pertinent articles in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Databases(CNKI), VIP Chinese science and technology periodical full papers library and Wanfang database collection of TCM from January 1991 to June 2011 were retrieved. 16 literatures with syndrome differentiation treatment of Sjogren syndrome clinical research were screened out. Results: 16 of a total of 1 316 cases, with deficiency syndrome 671 tases(50.99%), fullness syndrome 215 cases( 16.34%), and the inclusions in 430 cases(32.67%). There were 32 types of syndromes, the frequency was highest in the qi and yin deficiency syndrome 11 times(68.75%), fluid deficiency blood stasis 7 times(43.75%), yin deficiency syndrome of liver and kidney 6 times(37.50%) and internal heat due to yin deficiency 4 times(25.00%). According to the number of patients, qi and yin deficiency 244 cases( 18.54%), fluid deficiency blood stasis 200 cases(15.20%), yin deficient 125 cases(9.50%). Conclusion: Yin deficiency and yin deficiency with fullness were main syndromes in Sjogren syndrome. Yin deficiency was the main syndrome, blood stasis was the pathogenesis. Yin deficiency and blood stasis might be the underlying pathogenesis of Sjogren syndrome.%目的:探讨干燥综合征的中医证候分布特征.方法:对1991年1月-2011年6月中国知网全文数据库(CNKI)、维普中国科技期刊全数文据库(VIP)和万方数据库收集的中医辨证分型治疗干燥综合征的临床研究文献进行检索,筛选出符合研究标准的16篇文献进行证候分布研究.结果:16篇文献共1316例,虚证671例(占50.99%),实证215例(占16.34%),虚实夹杂430例(占32.67%).共有证候类型32种,出现频次最高的是气阴两虚证,11次(68.75%),其次是津亏血瘀7次(43.75%)、肝肾阴虚6次(37.50%)、阴虚内热4次(25.00%).按病例数排列,气阴两虚证244例(18.54%),津亏血瘀证200

  12. Network effects on scientific collaborations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahadat Uddin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analysis of co-authorship network aims at exploring the impact of network structure on the outcome of scientific collaborations and research publications. However, little is known about what network properties are associated with authors who have increased number of joint publications and are being cited highly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Measures of social network analysis, for example network centrality and tie strength, have been utilized extensively in current co-authorship literature to explore different behavioural patterns of co-authorship networks. Using three SNA measures (i.e., degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality, we explore scientific collaboration networks to understand factors influencing performance (i.e., citation count and formation (tie strength between authors of such networks. A citation count is the number of times an article is cited by other articles. We use co-authorship dataset of the research field of 'steel structure' for the year 2005 to 2009. To measure the strength of scientific collaboration between two authors, we consider the number of articles co-authored by them. In this study, we examine how citation count of a scientific publication is influenced by different centrality measures of its co-author(s in a co-authorship network. We further analyze the impact of the network positions of authors on the strength of their scientific collaborations. We use both correlation and regression methods for data analysis leading to statistical validation. We identify that citation count of a research article is positively correlated with the degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of its co-author(s. Also, we reveal that degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of authors in a co-authorship network are positively correlated with the strength of their scientific collaborations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Authors' network positions in co

  13. 略论“东方情调化翻译”在中医文献英语翻译中的应用%Discussion on Application of "Oriental Translation" in the Chinese Literature in English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 贾成祥

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨“东方情调化翻译”在中医文献英语翻译(中医英译)中的应用.方法:以赛里尔·勃尔撤(Cyril Birch)所译的《牡丹亭》为例,展现出东方情调化翻译方法的作用与效果,继而引出此种方法在中医英译当中的应用.结果:东方情调化翻译方法在近些年的应用中已逐渐被人们所接受与采纳.结论:东方情调化翻译是将中医推向全世界的一种重要的途径.%Objective:To study the application in the English translation of "traditional Chinses medicine of oriental language translation". Methods:To Cyril Birch translation of "peony pavilion" as an example,show the role and effect of oriental language translation, the english translation of traditional chinese medicine extraction method in the applivation of the english translation of traditional chinese medicine. Results:Oriental language translation method in recent years,the application has gradually been accepted and adopted. Conclusion: This is an important way to chinese medicine to the world of traditional chinese medicine of oriental language translation.

  14. The Connotation and Content Construction of the Chinese Language and Literature Specialty Students’ Core Competence of Employment in Local Universities%地方高校汉语言文学专业学生就业核心能力的内涵及内容构建--以玉林师范学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海英

    2015-01-01

    大学生的就业核心能力是大学生求职就业获胜的竞争资本,立足于地方高校汉语言文学专业大学生的就业现状,对地方高校汉语言文学专业大学生就业核心能力的内涵及内容构成进行分析和界定,从培养目标的确立、课程体系的构建、实践能力的训练等方面探讨就业核心能力提高的策略。%Chinese Language and Literature Specialty students’ core competence of employment is an asset for them to compete with other candidates in job hunting. The present paper, based on the current employment situation of the Chinese Language and Literature Specialty students, analyzes and defines the connotation and contents of the core competence of employment; then, proposes the strategies for enhancing the core competence of employment from aspects like establishing training goal, constructing the curriculum system and training the practical ability, etc.

  15. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, E. D.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  16. A literature review of idea management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is primarily to conduct a state-of-the-art literature review of Idea Management and secondary to point out unanswered questions which are left behind in the reviewed literature. Scientific knowledge is primarily represented in innovation management literature but also...... considerably in literature on software and IT. On the background of the literature review, there are some weaknesses in the literature to be considered. These weaknesses concern the understanding of how people interact with idea management in their daily work practices and how different types of ideas...

  17. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence and nature of misconceptions in physics amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many misconceptions, there is little evidence as to whether the prevalence of such common misconceptions varies from culture to culture. Purpose:To undertake a preliminary examination of the prevalence and reasons for some previously studied scientific misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students so as to ascertain whether there is any evidence of cultural difference. Such a finding could help to identify teaching approaches in either country that are more effective in reducing the prevalence of common student misconceptions. Sample:The study involved a convenience sample of 40 undergraduate students - 20 English and 20 Chinese drawn equally from two universities in the North of England - whose formal science education ended at ages 16 and 15 respectively. Design and methods:The study employed semi-structured interview schedule containing eight questions. Results:Whilst similar misconceptions existed amongst both English and Chinese undergraduates, their prevalence was significantly higher amongst the English students (Overall mean score for scientifically correct answers amongst Chinese students was 27.7% higher, p English and Chinese undergraduates had similar misconceptions, they tended to explain these by drawing upon very similar erroneous analogies and these appear to be only nominally culturally independent in that they are based on globally shared everyday experiences. Conclusion:Differences in the prevalence of misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduates appear to arise from differences in the way in which specific areas of physics are taught in both countries. It might be possible to reduce the

  18. A Review of the 14th International Symposium on Ancient Chinese Novel-Drama Literature and Digitalization%第十四届中国古代小说戏曲文献暨数字化国际研讨会综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王满新; 燕亢生

    2015-01-01

    The 14th International Symposium on Ancient Chinese Novel-Opera Literature and Digitalization was held on August 21 to 22, 2015. More than fifty experts and scholars from all over the country, together with those from Japan, Korea, and Malaysia, carried out full discussion and exchange around three aspects:ancient vernacular fiction, classical Chinese novels, and dramas. Many issues were involved, such as versions, origins, authors, digitalization, thematic interpretation, communication, etc. The conference will play a more significant role in promoting further study of ancient Chinese novels, dramas and digitalization, and will be critically important for the study of ancient Chinese novels and subject construction and development of drama.%2015年8月21日至22日,第十四届中国古代小说戏曲文献暨数字化国际研讨会在廊坊成功召开.来自全国各地和日本、韩国、马来西亚的专家学者五十余人,围绕古代白话小说、文言小说、戏曲三个方面进行了充分的讨论与交流,内容涉及版本辨证、故事考源、作者探溯、数字化研究、主题诠解、传播考探等诸多问题.此次会议对今后古代小说戏曲文献暨数字化研究将会起到较大的促进作用,对推动中国古代小说研究、戏曲学科建设和发展也具有重要的意义.

  19. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  20. Teaching Material Culture and Chinese Gardens at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.

  1. Chinese kang as a domestic heating system in rural northern China - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Zhi [Building Environment and New Energy Resource Laboratory, School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Li, Yuguo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Chen, Bin [Building Environment and New Energy Resource Laboratory, School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Guo, Jiye [Rural Energy Office, Liaoning Province, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The Chinese kang is an ancient integrated home system for cooking, sleeping, domestic heating and ventilation. It is still widely used today in nearly 85% of rural homes in northern China. In 2004, there were 67 million kangs used by 175 million people. Existing kang designs are mostly based on the intuition and accumulation of craftsman experience. There is a trend that Chinese kang is gradually replaced by bed and coal-burning radiators, domestic heating stoves, etc. using commercial energy. As rural building heating constitutes 25% of total building energy consumption in China, we consider that the transition and new technologies for rural home heating in northern China is crucial for managing future building energy consumption in China. This paper reviews the basic heat transfer and airflow principles of Chinese kang, as well as describing the traditional grounded kang and the relatively new elevated kang. The thermal performance of the kang is shown by data from literature and field surveys. The future of Chinese kang and research needs is also briefly discussed. There is also a need for scientific study in addition to experience accumulation, to form basis for engineering design. (author)

  2. Problems and Countermeasures in the Construction of Scientific Research Team in Chinese Universities%我国高校科研团队建设问题及对策探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 张润芝(编辑)

    2012-01-01

    The scientific research in universities is a vital aspect concerning the development of the universities and the technological innovation as well as to the development of social economy and teachers and students in universities.Currently, there are some problems in the construction of the scientific research team in universities in China.The paper explores to enforce the construction from team member selection,management, awarding system,brand awareness,cooperation between universities and enterprises or local government, etc.%高校科研是关系我国高校发展及科技创新的重要方面,对于社会经济发展及高校师生都有重要意义。目前,我国的高校科研团队建设还存在一些问题。对此,从团队成员选取、管理、奖励机制、品牌意识及校企、校地合作等方面进行探究,以加强科研团队的建设。

  3. Scientific Utopia: An agenda for improving scientific communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, B.

    2013-12-01

    The scientist's primary incentive is publication. In the present culture, open practices do not increase chances of publication, and they often require additional work. Practicing the abstract scientific values of openness and reproducibility thus requires behaviors in addition to those relevant for the primary, concrete rewards. When in conflict, concrete rewards are likely to dominate over abstract ones. As a consequence, the reward structure for scientists does not encourage openness and reproducibility. This can be changed by nudging incentives to align scientific practices with scientific values. Science will benefit by creating and connecting technologies that nudge incentives while supporting and improving the scientific workflow. For example, it should be as easy to search the research literature for my topic as it is to search the Internet to find hilarious videos of cats falling off of furniture. I will introduce the Center for Open Science (http://centerforopenscience.org/) and efforts to improve openness and reproducibility such as http://openscienceframework.org/. There will be no cats.

  4. Governance,Communication and Mood Projection---On the Dialectical Relationship Between Literary Works and History in Chinese Ancient Literature Teaching%统摄沟通观照--古代文学教学中“文”与“史”关系的辩证思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓苇

    2016-01-01

    The in-class teaching of ancient Chinese literature has gradually shifted its focus back on lit-erary works analysis,which doesn't mean literary history will be rejected or abolished. The essence of litera-ture education draws the concentration of ancient literature teaching on literary works comprehension and appreciation,while literary history and its methodological significance on teaching and learning should never be underestimated in works-centered teaching activities. In the macroscopic aspect,teaching literature with literary history construction may help students systematically take in literary knowledge. In microscopic as-pect,studying writers and their works under the complex history background may help deepen students' com-prehension and extend their reflection. Only by balancing and integrating literary works and history in ancient literature teaching activity may allow students to grasp the essence and beauty of Chinese ancient literature.%如今高校的中国古代文学教学逐渐向讲授文学作品回归,但并不意味着对文学史的摒弃以至于取消。文学教育的性质,决定了古代文学课程的教学理当立足于文学作品的阅读与理解,但以文学作品为中心的教学活动,亦不可看轻文学史对于文学作品的教与学所具有的方法论上的价值意义。从宏观层面上,教学内容需要有文学史的统摄,便于学生将所学知识条理化、系统化;从微观层面上,将作家作品放在文学纵横交错的历史坐标轴上加以考察,有助于学生理解的深化与融会,延伸与拓展其思考。既重“文”亦不忽视“史”,唯有二者的交相融合,才能使学生真正把握住中国古代文学的思想精髓与艺术特质。

  5. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    Chinese scientific output has increased dramatically in recent years, but its internal spatial structure has received scant attention. Estimated gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass...... and distance effects. Intercity coauthorships involving Beijing are more common than Beijing's output volume and location would imply, and this Beijing bias is increasing over time. The second type of spatial political bias is greater intraprovincial collaboration than is accounted for by size and distance...

  6. Chinese biobanks: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Le; Shi, Chuan; Wang, Xian; Li, Qiyuan; Wan, Qian; Yan, Zhixiang; Zhang, Yong

    2013-12-01

    As the demands of scientific research and application for specimens increase rapidly, biobanks in China have been springing up over the recent years. This paper summarizes Chinese biobanks through investigation and survey on operative, managerial, ethical conditions and challenges of biobanks. At present, hospitals and research institutes in China set up and operate most of the biobanks, collecting human specimens to support clinical and scientific research. With the development of bio-industry and arrival of the big data era, biobanks need not only collect and store human and non-human specimens but also to manage the big data associated with these specimens.

  7. 构建创新型中药产业集群——贯彻科学发展观%Construction of Innovative Industry Cluster for Traditional Chinese Medicine——Implement Scientific Concept of Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 李剑; 何倩灵; 张定堃

    2011-01-01

    中药产业是我国民族产业的代表,随着中药现代化的推进,中药产业发展迅速,集群化趋势口渐显明.作者概述了中药产业的现状,结合产业集群的相关概念和内涵,分析并提出了构建创新型中药产业集群,同时根据相关概念对我国中药产业集群进行了定位.论述了构建创新型中药产业集群的思路以及相关措施,为中药产业的发展提供了建设性的意见.%The industry of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the representative of our national industry. With the advance of modern medicine,TCM industry has developed rapidly,with an obvious tendency of clustering. Combined with the related industrial concept and content,the article summarizes the status of the TCM industry and proposes to build innovative industrial cluster of TCM. According to related concepts, the industry cluster of TCM can be categorized. Ideas and related measures are also suggested for the construction of the innovative industry cluster. Above all,this article provides some relevant ideas for future development of TCM Industry.

  8. The Problems of and Solutions to Chinese Education for Marketing Communication at Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in Indonesia, more people realize the importance of using Chinese language. Therefore, at Binus University, Mandarin is taught not only in Chinese Literature Department, but also in non-Chinese Literature Department. Because the curriculum is still relatively new, students who have never studied Chinese language find some difficulties. The author through observations in the classroom found some problems that arise during the teaching and learning session. Through this paper, the author hopes to help to solve existing problems, to increase the level of Chinese language knowledge, and help to increase students interest in Chinese language.

  9. Examination of Chinese Gambling Problems through a Socio-Historical-Cultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are ...

  10. Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  11. Literature Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of literature circles, a student-led reading and discussion method that encourages students to see stories in various ways. Explains the student selection of titles, roles of group members, and collaborative projects that complete the activity. (LRW)

  12. Literature Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  13. Burden of road traffic injuries and related risk factors in low and middle-income Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic review of the scientific literature (TRIP 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Josephine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pacific Island countries and territories, the burden of road traffic injuries and their attendant risks are considered significant but are poorly quantified. As with other low and middle-income countries, understanding the epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Pacific countries is critical to informing sustainable research and policy initiatives aimed at reducing this burden. Methods We undertook a systematic review and critical appraisal of the relevant epidemiological literature between January 1980 and December 2010, using key search strings for incidence and aetiological studies focusing on RTIs in less resourced Pacific countries. Results Nineteen studies were identified. The majority were descriptive and were unable to provide population-based estimates of the burden of road crash injury, or reliable information on risk factors using well-designed aetiological research methods. All studies were published more than 10 years ago, and all but three reported on data from Papua New Guinea, thereby limiting the generalisability of findings to the current status in the region. Studies undertaken in Papua New Guinea suggested that RTIs were more frequent among young males, with head injuries the most common cause of death or hospital admission. Two thirds of fatalities occurred at the crash site or soon after admission. Most road crash victims were passengers or pedestrians. Factors postulated to influence the risk of RTIs were travel in open-back utility vehicles, utility vehicle overcrowding, and alcohol. Conclusions This review suggests that, despite increasing awareness of the importance of addressing road safety among stakeholders in less resourced Pacific Island countries, road traffic injuries have not been a research priority with little relevant current evidence from the region to inform policy. Robust epidemiological research that can assess the magnitude and key determinants of road traffic injuries in these

  14. Instructions for Authors by Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology (ISSN 1008-7125), founded in June, 1996, is a national academic journal being designed to present the latest basic scientific and clinical researches of gastroenterology in China.

  15. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  16. Bulgarian Scientific Periodicals: Actual Problems [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A few Bulgarian scientific periodicals are presented in secondary science litera-ture. Then all the other Bulgarian journals themselves should be considered as situated in marginal publishing field. Hence, reduce the visibility of the scien-tific articles that appear in these magazines has resulted to lost the world scien-tific recognition of authors of those papers. With changes in science policy this unfavorable situation can be improved. Necessary measures and mistakes in science policy in Bulgaria are described in this article.

  17. Educational interventions to advance children's scientific thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, David; Zimmerman, Corinne; Jirout, Jamie

    2011-08-19

    The goal of science education interventions is to nurture, enrich, and sustain children's natural and spontaneous interest in scientific knowledge and procedures. We present taxonomy for classifying different types of research on scientific thinking from the perspective of cognitive development and associated attempts to teach science. We summarize the literature on the early--unschooled--development of scientific thinking, and then focus on recent research on how best to teach science to children from preschool to middle school. We summarize some of the current disagreements in the field of science education and offer some suggestions on ways to continue to advance the science of science instruction.

  18. Common Mistakes in Writing Astronomy Literature in English

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2010-01-01

    We have collected and corrected some common mistakes made by Chinese students in writing astronomy literature in English. Brief explanations of these mistakes are given in Chinese. We plan to update this collection periodically. Comments, suggestions and criticisms are all welcome.

  19. Literature Review(2003 - 2013)on Traditional Chinese Medicine in Syn-drome Differentiation and Treatment of Tinnitus%基于2003年-2013年期刊文献中药治疗耳鸣的辨证分型及用药规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱旭东; 马瑞鸿; 丁明辉; 叶晶琳; 赵艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析2003年至2013年中药治疗耳鸣的期刊文献,探讨其辨证分型及用药规律。方法检索中国生物医学文献数据库、中文期刊全文数据库、万方数据库、维普数据库中内服中药复方治疗耳鸣的临床研究文献,将收集到的359篇耳鸣中药治疗文献录入到 Microsoft Access 2010数据库中,运用 Microsoft Excel 2010数据表对其中的辨证分型及用药规律进行统计分析。结果纳入文献共计359篇,其涉及证候类型的文献共计354篇。其中耳鸣最常见的8种证型频次从高到低依为肾精亏虚证,气滞血瘀证,肝火上炎证,肝肾亏虚证,中气不足、清阳不升证,风热上扰证,痰热上扰证,气血不足证。对上述8种证型的常用中药进行分析,结果显示无论何种证型,石菖蒲均为中药治疗耳鸣最常用的药物。结论本研究说明中医对于耳鸣的治疗中有辨病用药的趋势,但关于耳鸣的辨病治疗、耳鸣治疗的专药文献研究仍有待深入的研究探讨。%Objective To explore the differentiation and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine on tinnitus by analyzing the literature published during 2003 - 2013. Methods The author collected 359 clinical research literature of tinnitus treatment in TCM from Chinese biomedical literature database,Chinese journal full text database,Wanfang database,VIP database,recorded in Microsoft Access 2010 database,and studied the regular pattern of TCM syndrome differentiation and drug use using Microsoft Excel 2010 data ta-ble. Results 359 papers were involved in this study where 354 involve the discussion of TCM syndrome type of tinnitus. Among them,the most common 8 kinds of TCM syndromes(frequency from high to low)are re-spectively kidney essence deficiency(86),qi stagnation and blood stasis(64),syndrome of liver fire flaring up(62),liver and kidney deficiency syndrome(56),the gas shortage,Qing Yang does not rise certificate (50

  20. Research on the Scientific System Construction of the Chinese Books Copyright Trade%中国图书版权贸易的科学化体系建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾曼

    2015-01-01

    With the quickening of the economic globalization,China's book publishing industry also gradually connect with the world and began to face the fierce market competition.In recent years,the number of China's import of books has reached tens of thousands of species,but the proportion of import and export of domestic library faces serious imbalance.In terms of book copyright export,the number of Chinese books and the import of books have a great gap between the number of book copyright import and export of unbalanced,which shall causes our full attention,we should analyze the reasons by powerful means to nar-row the book rights deficit,so as to promote the development of book copyright trade in our country.%随着经济全球化进程的日益加快,中国的图书出版行业也逐渐开始与世界接轨,并且开始面临着激烈的市场竞争。近些年来,我国进口图书的数量已经达到了几万种,但是我国图书进出口的比例严重失调。在图书版权出口方面,中国图书的数量与进口图书的数量之间具有较大的差距,图书版权进出口的不平衡应当引起我们充分的重视,我们要分析其中原因,通过有力的手段来缩小图书版权的逆差,从而促进我国图书版权行业的发展。