WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese scientific literature

  1. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tippi K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  2. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  3. Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingjin

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature" Yingjin Zhang revisits the challenge of mapping Chinese literature as world literature in three steps: 1) he delineates of positions of view as proposed by Western scholars who engaged in rethinking world literature(s) in the age of globalization, 2) evaluates consequences of such a new mapping for Chinese literature and tests a different set of "technologies of recognition" (Shih) in the context of Chinese versus Sinophone studi...

  4. Scientific publications on systematic review and meta-analysis from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the English literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiping; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2012-03-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are playing an increasingly important role in clinical research and practice. This study aimed to measure the scientific production of systematic review and meta-analysis from the three major regions of China: the Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). English articles on systematic review and meta-analysis from ML, HK, and TW from 2001 to 2010 were retrieved from the PubMed database. The total number of articles, impact factors (IF), and articles published in high-impact journals were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons among the three regions. There were 1 587 published articles from ML (1 292), HK (203), and TW (92) during the past ten years. The annual total numbers of articles in the three regions increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 (from 13 to 677). The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from TW since 2001, and surpassed that from HK in 2003. The accumulated IF of articles from ML (3 488.24) was higher than those from HK (493.16) and TW (216.39). HK had the highest average IF of 3.31, followed by ML of 2.90 and TW of 2.85. Researchers from HK published a larger proportion of papers in high-impact journals than those from ML and TW. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was the most popular journal in China. Chinese authors have been very active to enhance the systematic review and meta-analysis research over the past ten years, especially in ML. The gap between ML and the other two regions has been narrowed. But there is still considerable room for Chinese authors to improve their studies on systematic review and meta-analysis.

  5. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  6. Access to the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarède, Francis

    The Public Library of Science Open Letter (http://www.publiclibraryofscience.org) is a very generous initiative, but, as most similar initiatives since the advent of electronic publishing, it misses the critical aspects of electronic publishing.Ten years ago, a Publisher would be in charge of running a system called a “scientific journal.” In such a system, the presence of an Editor and peer Reviewers secures the strength of the science and the rigor of writing; the Publisher guarantees the professional quality of printing, efficient dissemination, and long-term archiving. Publishing used to be in everyone's best interest, or nearly everyone. The Publisher, because he/she is financially motivated, ensures widespread dissemination of the journal amongst libraries and individual subscribers. The interest of the Author is that the system guarantees a broad potential readership. The interest of the Reader is that a line is drawn between professionally edited literature, presumably of better quality, and gray literature or home publishing, so that he/she does not waste time going through ‘low yield’ ungraded information. The Publisher could either be a private company, an academic institution, or a scholarly society. My experience is that, when page charges and subscription rates are compounded, journals published by scholarly societies are not necessarily cheaper. The difference between these cases is not the cost of running an office with rents, wages, printing, postage, advertisement, and archiving, but that a private Publisher pays shareholders. Shareholders have the bad habit of minding their own business and, therefore, they may interfere negatively with scientific publishing. Nevertheless, while the stranglehold imposed by private Publishers on our libraries over the last 10 years by increasing subscription rates may in part be due to shareholders' greed, this is true only in part. The increases are also a consequence of the booming number of pages being

  7. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  8. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong

    2015-10-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on. PMID:26677664

  9. [Scientific Positioning of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-ming

    2016-03-01

    Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement.

  10. Access to the scientific literature in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gaulé, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an evidence-based approach to assess the difficulties faced by developing country scientists in accessing the scientific literature. I compare backward citations patterns of Swiss and Indian scientists in a database of 43'150 scientific papers published by scientists from either country in 2007. Controlling for fields and quality with citing journal fixed effects, I find that Indian scientists (1) have shorter references lists (2) are more likely to cite articles from open acc...

  11. ENGLISH LITERATURE TEACHING IN CHINESE CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ignorance of English literature hinders Chinese studentsfrom improving their English reading and writing abilities.Aneffective solution is to introduce a little English literature toChinese students in their English class.Three tactics ofintroduction of English literature—fragmented quotations,comparison and guided reading—are recommended andillustrated in details in this article.Though most Chinese students spend as long as eight yearson English study,few of them get to see English literature.It isabsurd that of the hundreds of articles in English textbooks forChinese students(who do not major in English)available,notone is a passage of English literary works,and none of themintroduce English writers or recommend English poets.Resultedly,Chinese students know very little about Englishliterature and their knowledge of English culture and traditionsis also limited.This hinders them from improving their readingand writing abilities.Trying for years to introduce a little English literature toChinese students in my English class,I find the effect has beenunexpectedly inspiring,not only making my lectures morevivid,but also enriching my students’English knowledge andarousing their enthusiasm for further study of Englishliterautre.My methods are as follows.

  12. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus oral Chinese patent medicine literature metrology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tong-hua; Li, Yuan-yuan

    2012-09-01

    The CBM, CNKI database 1979-2012 included oral Chinese patent medicine treatment diabetes literature, and the literature published time, periodical distribution, sources of literature and statistical analysis, to explore the treatment of type 2 diabetes medicine clinical literature distribution law and development trend, as in diabetes research related to the clinical and scientific research personnel to provide reference. PMID:23236770

  13. On Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Scientific Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范智鹏

    2013-01-01

    Scientific socialism provides proletarian with ideological weapon, which is used to lead and organize the masses to pursue socialism. The formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the product of scientific socialism in China, which is the latest achievement combining scientific socialism and Chinese national conditions.

  14. Against besieged literature: fictions, obsessions and globalisations of Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Prado-Fonts

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese literature in the 20th century has seen how the combination between, on one hand, the canon established by Socialist realism in China and, on the other, the approaches of Area Studies in the West imposed a limited vision and a partial and slanted assessment of its complexity. The article defends the fact that it is essential to recover the literariness of the literary text, appealing to the sophistication and critical capacity of readers, as a basic strategy for liberating Chinese literature from the interpretive siege that constrains it. The article analyses the interrelation of various aspects -such as the confusion between reality and fiction, the obsessions for interpretations of a national allegorical nature or other mechanisms of globalisation and self-Orientalism- that, in an interrelated way, determine the production and circulation of modern and contemporary Chinese literature in the global literary system. The novel Fortress Besieged by the writer Qian Zhongshu is a paradigmatic example of this situation.

  15. Extraction of transcript diversity from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcript diversity generated by alternative splicing and associated mechanisms contributes heavily to the functional complexity of biological systems. The numerous examples of the mechanisms and functional implications of these events are scattered throughout the scientific literature. Thus, it is crucial to have a tool that can automatically extract the relevant facts and collect them in a knowledge base that can aid the interpretation of data from high-throughput methods. We have developed and applied a composite text-mining method for extracting information on transcript diversity from the entire MEDLINE database in order to create a database of genes with alternative transcripts. It contains information on tissue specificity, number of isoforms, causative mechanisms, functional implications, and experimental methods used for detection. We have mined this resource to identify 959 instances of tissue-specific splicing. Our results in combination with those from EST-based methods suggest that alternative splicing is the preferred mechanism for generating transcript diversity in the nervous system. We provide new annotations for 1,860 genes with the potential for generating transcript diversity. We assign the MeSH term "alternative splicing" to 1,536 additional abstracts in the MEDLINE database and suggest new MeSH terms for other events. We have successfully extracted information about transcript diversity and semiautomatically generated a database, LSAT, that can provide a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms behind tissue-specific gene expression. LSAT (Literature Support for Alternative Transcripts is publicly available at http://www.bork.embl.de/LSAT/.

  16. Renovation and Involution-Paradox of Chinese Literature in Modernity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-bin

    2013-01-01

    With a special matter, Chinese literature has differences with traditional theories from western countries in essence, so that Chinese literature demonstrates its renovation and involution. The main reason is its trends of modernity. The transformation from oversea exchange is very important. This paper mainly explains the specific content of paradox of Chinese literature in mo-dernity, and explores the reasons for differences between China and western countries.

  17. Mapping scientific literature. Structuring scientific communities through scientometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Riviera,

    2013-01-01

    A sociologically integrated approach suggesting an interpretation of bibliometric indicators and maps is developed in this work. The programmatic element of the thesis is the integration of the constructivist perspective relating to the re-production of scientific community with the metric program in Bibliometrics. The accomplishment of the main purposes introduced above is realised through the following goals, which can be listed according to the level of generality. First of all, this work ...

  18. Reading Ng Kim Chew: Malaysian-Chineseness and memory in contemporary Malaysian Chinese literature in taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Paoliello, Antonio; Prado Fonts, Carles

    2008-01-01

    The idea of Chineseness as a geographic, cultural-specific and ethnically-charged concept, and the pivotal role assumed by memory linger throughout the writings of most authors hailing from Chinese community in Southeast Asia. Among these communities, being the Malaysian Chinese the more prolific in terms of number of writers and pieces of literature produced, this paper deals specifically with it. Its focus is put on the literature produced by Malaysian Chinese authors residing in Taiwan, wh...

  19. Extraction of Transcript Diversity from Scientific Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Parantu K Shah; Jensen, Lars J.; Stéphanie Boué; Peer Bork

    2005-01-01

    Synopsis Given the functional complexity of higher eukaryotes, the relatively small number of genes in the human and other mammalian genomes came as a surprise to the scientific community. Later it was discovered that the majority of genes are subject to alternative splicing (“cutting and pasting”) or associated mechanisms that ultimately increase the diversity of transcripts that code for proteins. Studies exploring transcript diversity are currently dominated by high-throughput experiments ...

  20. THAI LITERATURES REFLECTING CHINESE IDENTITY IN THAI SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchawadee Kesmanee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures present the picture of people’s lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authors’ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content and context were related to the Chinese residing in Thailand. Data collected had been inspected, classified, analyzed and composed. It was found that the Thai literatures could possibly represent Chinese identity in Thai society in the areas of the relationship of the family members from being a male-dominated family to a female-accepted one, the conservation of Chinese language to represent the unity of the Chinese community, the importance of the Chinese opera and its struggle to survive in recent times and the existence of Chinese culture and tradition, which are acculturated and assimilated to the Thai culture. From the study of Chinese identity in Thai literature in four aspects: (1 family relationships, system of relatives and surnames; (2 Chinese Language; (3 Performing Arts and (4 Culture and tradition, it was found that no matter how strict the first generations are to the traditions, they cannot resist the cultural assimilation in the next generations, who are descendants of Chinese overseas in Thailand. Since these new generations were born and grew up in Thai culture, which is different from the one of their ancestors, their versions of Chinese traditions were affected by the Thai society, economy and political situations which led to the changes of the old Chinese tradition and even result in the loss of some tradition.

  1. Mining skeletal phenotype descriptions from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available Phenotype descriptions are important for our understanding of genetics, as they enable the computation and analysis of a varied range of issues related to the genetic and developmental bases of correlated characters. The literature contains a wealth of such phenotype descriptions, usually reported as free-text entries, similar to typical clinical summaries. In this paper, we focus on creating and making available an annotated corpus of skeletal phenotype descriptions. In addition, we present and evaluate a hybrid Machine Learning approach for mining phenotype descriptions from free text. Our hybrid approach uses an ensemble of four classifiers and experiments with several aggregation techniques. The best scoring technique achieves an F-1 score of 71.52%, which is close to the state-of-the-art in other domains, where training data exists in abundance. Finally, we discuss the influence of the features chosen for the model on the overall performance of the method.

  2. Chinese duo fired for scientific fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li

    2010-02-01

    A major case of academic fraud in China has led to calls for the country to adopt a new system of academic evaluation that steers away from heavily supporting scientists who publish the most papers. The calls have been made after some 70 papers published by Chinese scientists in Acta Crystallographica Section E were retracted from the journal late last year. The authors acknowledged that their analysis had been fabricated.

  3. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Fankhauser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.

  4. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Sarah C; Lijek, Rebeccah S

    2016-03-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.

  5. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Sarah C; Lijek, Rebeccah S

    2016-03-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public. PMID:27047607

  6. Using Crowdsourcing to Evaluate Published Scientific Literature: Methods and Example

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew W Brown; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Systematically evaluating scientific literature is a time consuming endeavor that requires hours of coding and rating. Here, we describe a method to distribute these tasks across a large group through online crowdsourcing. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, crowdsourced workers (microworkers) completed four groups of tasks to evaluate the question, “Do nutrition-obesity studies with conclusions concordant with popular opinion receive more attention in the scientific community than do those that ...

  7. Chinese Graduate Students' Experiences with Writing a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun; Krugly-Smolska, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Based on interview data, this study investigated four Chinese graduate students' experiences with writing a literature review at a medium-sized university in Canada. These students, from four subject areas, held varying perceptions of a literature review, but all saw the writing challenges that they encountered mainly as linguistic problems,…

  8. Acquisition of Scientific Literature in Developing Countries. 2: Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Rosna

    1989-01-01

    Describes the acquisition of scientific literature by academic libraries in Malaysia. The discussion covers the impact of government policies, library acquisition policies, the selection process, acquisition of special materials, the role of gifts and exchanges, and problems with customs clearance and censorship. Progress in cooperative…

  9. Electronic Scientific Data & Literature Aggregation: A Review for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoff, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The advent of large-scale digital repositories, along with the need for sharing useful data world-wide, demands change to the current information structure. The merging of digital scientific data with scholarly literature has the potential to fulfill the Semantic Web design principles. This paper will identify factors leading to integration of…

  10. Learning across Borders--Chinese Migrant Literature and Intercultural Chinese Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongyang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…

  11. Local literature bias in genetic epidemiology: an empirical evaluation of the Chinese literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglun Pan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postulated epidemiological associations are subject to several biases. We evaluated whether the Chinese literature on human genome epidemiology may offer insights on the operation of selective reporting and language biases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We targeted 13 gene-disease associations, each already assessed by meta-analyses, including at least 15 non-Chinese studies. We searched the Chinese Journal Full-Text Database for additional Chinese studies on the same topics. We identified 161 Chinese studies on 12 of these gene-disease associations; only 20 were PubMed-indexed (seven English full-text. Many studies (14-35 per topic were available for six topics, covering diseases common in China. With one exception, the first Chinese study appeared with a time lag (2-21 y after the first non-Chinese study on the topic. Chinese studies showed significantly more prominent genetic effects than non-Chinese studies, and 48% were statistically significant per se, despite their smaller sample size (median sample size 146 versus 268, p < 0.001. The largest genetic effects were often seen in PubMed-indexed Chinese studies (65% statistically significant per se. Non-Chinese studies of Asian-descent populations (27% significant per se also tended to show somewhat more prominent genetic effects than studies of non-Asian descent (17% significant per se. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence for the interplay of selective reporting and language biases in human genome epidemiology. These biases may not be limited to the Chinese literature and point to the need for a global, transparent, comprehensive outlook in molecular population genetics and epidemiologic studies in general.

  12. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, C; Feller, A; Arlt, K; Balthasar, H; Bauer, S -M; González, N Bello; Berkefeld, T; Caligari, P; Collados, M; Fischer, A; Granzer, T; Hahn, T; Halbgewachs, C; Heidecke, F; Hofmann, A; Kentischer, T; Klvaňa, M; Kneer, F; Lagg, A; Nicklas, H; Popow, E; Puschmann, K G; Rendtel, J; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Sobotka, M; Solanki, S K; Soltau, D; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Volkmer, R; Waldmann, T; Wiehr, E; Wittmann, A D; Woche, M

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the "historical" context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.

  13. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  14. Nobel Prize winners for literature as palliative for scientific English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi

    2003-02-01

    Plagiarism causes a serious concern in scientific literature. I distinguish two types of plagiarism. What is routinely highlighted and discussed is the reprehensible type of stealing another author's ideas and words. This type I categorize as "heterotrophic" plagiarism. A more prevalent and less-discussed type of plagiarism is the verbatim use of same sentences repetitively by authors in their publications. This I categorize as "autotrophic" plagiarism. Though harmless per se, autotrophic plagiarism is equally taxing on the readers. The occurrence of autotrophic plagiarism is mainly caused by the lack of proficiency in the current lingua franca of science, ie, English. The writings of 22 Nobel literature laureates who wrote in English, especially their travelogues, essays, and letters to the press can be used for benefit of improving one's own vocabulary and writing skills and style. I suggest the writings of three literati--Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell, and Ernest Hemingway--as palliatives for autotrophic plagiarism in scientific publishing. PMID:12590423

  15. Nanotoxicology: characterizing the scientific literature, 2000–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrowski, Alexis D.; Martin, Tyronne; Conti, Joseph; Hurt, Indy; Harthorn, Barbara Herr

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials and nano-enabled products is important for human and environmental health and safety as well as public acceptance. Assessing the state of knowledge about nanotoxicology is an important step in promoting comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental implications of these new materials. To this end, we employed bibliometric techniques to characterize the prevalence and distribution of the current scientific literature. We found that the ...

  16. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education†

    OpenAIRE

    Fankhauser, Sarah C.; Lijek, Rebeccah S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed a...

  17. Training students to appraise the quality of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Sebastian P; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Implementing evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) into clinical practice requires not only the ability to retrieve, interpret, and apply the results of published scientific studies, but also the ability to critically evaluate the quality of the literature. These skills, however, are not widely taught in the veterinary curriculum. The objective of this study was to test a literature evaluation form (LEF) designed to assist veterinary students in appraising the quality of literature on animal reproduction and to compare their ability to do so with that of students who were provided with a control form (CF). The 68 participants were in their fifth year of study and attended a clinical rotation at the Clinic for Animal Reproduction. Students in the LEF group determined the quality of two scientific papers, considering statements about study design, information content, and objectivity, and determined rating points to obtain an overall score. Participants using the CF ranked the quality of the article without the assistance of the quality assessment form. The LEF group was able to more correctly assess the quality of the literature and the variability of the chosen evidence levels was higher in the CF group. The questionnaire was found to be a useful tool for the systematic assessment of the quality of publications within a reasonable period of time. Seventy-eight per cent of the participants agreed that the LEF helps them evaluate the quality and validity of biomedical scientific information. We conclude that courses that introduce EBVM should be taught in the first semesters of the veterinary curriculum so that students can develop competence in defining a clinical problem, retrieving information from the literature, and developing independent critical thinking.

  18. [Investigation methodology and application on scientific and technological personnel of traditional Chinese medical resources based on data from Chinese scientific research paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-yan; Li, Yuan-hai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fang-zhou; Wang, Jing; Tian, Ye; Yang, Ce; Liu, Yang; Li, Meng; Sun Li-ying

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the present status of the scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resource science. Based on the data from Chinese scientific research paper, an investigation regarding the number of the personnel, the distribution, their output of paper, their scientific research teams, high-yield authors and high-cited authors was conducted. The study covers seven subfields of traditional Chinese medicine identification, quality standard, Chinese medicine cultivation, harvest processing of TCM, market development and resource protection and resource management, as well as 82 widely used Chinese medicine species, such as Ginseng and Radix Astragali. One hundred and fifteen domain authority experts were selected based on the data of high-yield authors and high-cited authors. The database system platform "Skilled Scientific and Technological Personnel in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resource Science-Chinese papers" was established. This platform successfully provided the retrieval result of the personnel, output of paper, and their core research team by input the study field, year, and Chinese medicine species. The investigation provides basic data of scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine resource science for administrative agencies and also evidence for the selection of scientific and technological personnel and construction of scientific research teams.

  19. [Investigation methodology and application on scientific and technological personnel of traditional Chinese medical resources based on data from Chinese scientific research paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-yan; Li, Yuan-hai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fang-zhou; Wang, Jing; Tian, Ye; Yang, Ce; Liu, Yang; Li, Meng; Sun Li-ying

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the present status of the scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resource science. Based on the data from Chinese scientific research paper, an investigation regarding the number of the personnel, the distribution, their output of paper, their scientific research teams, high-yield authors and high-cited authors was conducted. The study covers seven subfields of traditional Chinese medicine identification, quality standard, Chinese medicine cultivation, harvest processing of TCM, market development and resource protection and resource management, as well as 82 widely used Chinese medicine species, such as Ginseng and Radix Astragali. One hundred and fifteen domain authority experts were selected based on the data of high-yield authors and high-cited authors. The database system platform "Skilled Scientific and Technological Personnel in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resource Science-Chinese papers" was established. This platform successfully provided the retrieval result of the personnel, output of paper, and their core research team by input the study field, year, and Chinese medicine species. The investigation provides basic data of scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine resource science for administrative agencies and also evidence for the selection of scientific and technological personnel and construction of scientific research teams. PMID:27141686

  20. Nanotoxicology: characterizing the scientific literature, 2000-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials and nano-enabled products is important for human and environmental health and safety as well as public acceptance. Assessing the state of knowledge about nanotoxicology is an important step in promoting comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental implications of these new materials. To this end, we employed bibliometric techniques to characterize the prevalence and distribution of the current scientific literature. We found that the nano-toxicological literature is dispersed across a range of disciplines and sub-fields; focused on in vitro testing; often does not specify an exposure pathway; and tends to emphasize acute toxicity and mortality rather than chronic exposure and morbidity. Finally, there is very little research on consumer products, particularly on their environmental fate, and most research is on the toxicity of basic nanomaterials. The implications for toxicologists, regulators and social scientists studying nanotechnology and society are discussed.

  1. Nanotoxicology: characterizing the scientific literature, 2000-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, Alexis D.; Martin, Tyronne; Conti, Joseph; Hurt, Indy; Harthorn, Barbara Herr, E-mail: harthorn@cns.ucsb.ed [University of California, NSF Center for Nanotechnology in Society (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials and nano-enabled products is important for human and environmental health and safety as well as public acceptance. Assessing the state of knowledge about nanotoxicology is an important step in promoting comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental implications of these new materials. To this end, we employed bibliometric techniques to characterize the prevalence and distribution of the current scientific literature. We found that the nano-toxicological literature is dispersed across a range of disciplines and sub-fields; focused on in vitro testing; often does not specify an exposure pathway; and tends to emphasize acute toxicity and mortality rather than chronic exposure and morbidity. Finally, there is very little research on consumer products, particularly on their environmental fate, and most research is on the toxicity of basic nanomaterials. The implications for toxicologists, regulators and social scientists studying nanotechnology and society are discussed.

  2. 76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the Diagnosis... scientific and medical literature and information concerning the use of non-standardized allergenic extracts... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

  3. Open access to the scientific journal literature: situation 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Christer Björk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Internet has recently made possible the free global availability of scientific journal articles. Open Access (OA can occur either via OA scientific journals, or via authors posting manuscripts of articles published in subscription journals in open web repositories. So far there have been few systematic studies showing how big the extent of OA is, in particular studies covering all fields of science. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The proportion of peer reviewed scholarly journal articles, which are available openly in full text on the web, was studied using a random sample of 1837 titles and a web search engine. Of articles published in 2008, 8.5% were freely available at the publishers' sites. For an additional 11.9% free manuscript versions could be found using search engines, making the overall OA percentage 20.4%. Chemistry (13% had the lowest overall share of OA, Earth Sciences (33% the highest. In medicine, biochemistry and chemistry publishing in OA journals was more common. In all other fields author-posted manuscript copies dominated the picture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that OA already has a significant positive impact on the availability of the scientific journal literature and that there are big differences between scientific disciplines in the uptake. Due to the lack of awareness of OA-publishing among scientists in most fields outside physics, the results should be of general interest to all scholars. The results should also interest academic publishers, who need to take into account OA in their business strategies and copyright policies, as well as research funders, who like the NIH are starting to require OA availability of results from research projects they fund. The method and search tools developed also offer a good basis for more in-depth studies as well as longitudinal studies.

  4. The scientific building blocks for business coaching: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flip Schutte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Business coaching is a relatively new approach to leadership development. It is also slowly growing as an academic discipline with only a small number of active researchers and a dearth of published literature reviews.Research purpose: This article is an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to business coaching by means of a systematic literature review.Motivation of the study: Previous literature reviews summarised the available published articles. In order to contribute to establishing business coaching as an independent academic discipline, the building blocks for science in the phenomenon under investigation have to be scientifically not only summarised, but also synthesised and explored to ground this new discipline as an academic field of research.Research design, approach and method: A methodological framework has been developed to analyse the information. The data were synthesised according to the following building blocks for science: concepts, definitions, typologies, models, theories and paradigms.Main findings: A total of 84 articles were accessed by the specified search strategy and 36 were analysed according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. Although coaching has not been sufficiently developed as an academic discipline, it is possible to develop a comprehensive definition of coaching, as well as to identify the main models and theories that apply to this field.Practical/managerial implications: This literature review has synthesised and summarised the available data in such a way that it will contribute to the conceptualisation and foundation of business coaching as an academic discipline.Contribution: The building blocks for business coaching as a relatively new and emerging science within the field of business leadership have been defined. This will contribute to the articulation of concepts within this discipline by future researchers and practitioners.

  5. Using crowdsourcing to evaluate published scientific literature: methods and example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Brown

    Full Text Available Systematically evaluating scientific literature is a time consuming endeavor that requires hours of coding and rating. Here, we describe a method to distribute these tasks across a large group through online crowdsourcing. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, crowdsourced workers (microworkers completed four groups of tasks to evaluate the question, "Do nutrition-obesity studies with conclusions concordant with popular opinion receive more attention in the scientific community than do those that are discordant?" 1 Microworkers who passed a qualification test (19% passed evaluated abstracts to determine if they were about human studies investigating nutrition and obesity. Agreement between the first two raters' conclusions was moderate (κ = 0.586, with consensus being reached in 96% of abstracts. 2 Microworkers iteratively synthesized free-text answers describing the studied foods into one coherent term. Approximately 84% of foods were agreed upon, with only 4 and 8% of ratings failing manual review in different steps. 3 Microworkers were asked to rate the perceived obesogenicity of the synthesized food terms. Over 99% of responses were complete and usable, and opinions of the microworkers qualitatively matched the authors' expert expectations (e.g., sugar-sweetened beverages were thought to cause obesity and fruits and vegetables were thought to prevent obesity. 4 Microworkers extracted citation counts for each paper through Google Scholar. Microworkers reached consensus or unanimous agreement for all successful searches. To answer the example question, data were aggregated and analyzed, and showed no significant association between popular opinion and attention the paper received as measured by Scimago Journal Rank and citation counts. Direct microworker costs totaled $221.75, (estimated cost at minimum wage: $312.61. We discuss important points to consider to ensure good quality control and appropriate pay for microworkers. With good

  6. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Kulesz, James J [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  7. National scientific literature on nursing ethics: a systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Nicéia D’Aquino Oliveira Teixeira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most prevalent nursing ethical issues published in scientific Brazilian journals. Methods: A systematic literature review with the following inclusion criteria: (1 articles on Nursing Ethics written in Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish; (2 published in Brazilian journals; (3 in the period from January 1997 to February 2009. The search was carried out in four databases BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO. The key-words were ethics AND nursing. The selected studies were classified into categories. The content of the articles were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse. The categories generated discourses by organizing the main excerpts from the abstracts of the selected studies, which are the “key expressions”. Results: A hundred and thirty three articles that met the inclusion criteria were classified into eight categories: 1. Nursing Care; 2. Dilemmas and Controversies; 3. Education; 4. Legal Aspects; 5. Research; 6. Management; 7. Values and Beliefs; 8. Perspectives and Health Policies. The category “Nursing Care” prevailed in 36% of the selected articles, and it was classified into six subcategories. “Dilemmas and Controversies” was the second most prevalent category (15%. Conclusion: The number of theoretical papers on ethical issues is high, but there is little research on the ethical experiences in nursing practice.

  8. Red Science: China's Scientific Capital and the Future of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Salazar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS produces the scientific and technological breakthroughs that place China among the major players in scientific innovation. However, the control that the Chinese government exerts over the Academy and the tradition of guanxi among its members prevent the CAS from take-off and securing a free environment to conduct original research. The article assesses the economic logic of scientific control and its effects within the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The paper’s aim is to derive to what extent the CAS will remain as China’s main provider of scientific innovation. The “national innovation systems” approach and the cultural traditions rooted in Confucianism are revised in detail to provide an accurate perspective. The paper concludes that the CAS’ international reputation as a center of scientific and technological innovation might be at stake unless the Chinese government makes some critical reforms.

  9. Recent Fluids in Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, L.; Sun, Q.; Zhan, X.; Tang, L.; He, H.; Rao, Z.

    2004-12-01

    The fluids and their origins in continental scientific drilling programs have widely been applied to the studies of crustal extension, fluid transportation paths and tectonization processes. The rare gases are good indicators of mantle fluids. The isotopes of carbon and hydrogen and the relationships between them can be used in revealing the fluid sources. And C/3He can provide more ambiguous distinguish between sources. The recent fluids in Chinese continental scientific drilling project (CCSD) have been analyzed and profiles were obtained. He, CO2, Ar, N2, O2, H2 and C1-C4 were determined by two on-line units, a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph. Cations and anions in mud samples were analyzed by an on-site high performance liquid chromatograph. Rare earth elements and other inorganic components were measured by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in our laboratory in Beijing. The isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and rare gases, especially helium, were analyzed by mass spectrometers in different laboratories. One key in studying the recent fluids in CCSD project is to identify whether the recent fluids were from the deep earth or not, even when their concentrations were higher than normal levels. Many disturbance components would usually be produced during drilling process. Such the disturbance includes many artifact gases from mud ferment, organic additive decomposition, bit erosion, etc. The analytical data of recent fluids could not be used in the investigation before removing the artifact components. It was found that the high contents of elements were related to the special rocks and minerals, such as sulfide and radiation ores. Carbon dioxide was related with carbonate. The high contents of gases were often found when the cracks or fissures occurred. The distribution of rare earth elements changed with the recent fluids. In some cases, a certain amount of helium gas was found with a high intensity of radiation detected. The high content of methane was once

  10. Analysis on Pathogenesis Theory of Coronary Heart Disease in Modern Chinese Medicine---Literatures Based on National and Ministerial and Provincial Scientific Researches above Second Prize%冠心病中医病因病机学说分析--基于省部级二等奖以上科技成果的文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红蓉

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the coronary heart disease pathogenesis theories in modern Chinese medicine,the author researched the lit-eratures on national science and technology progress winning provincial and ministerial scientific research achievement above the second prize in diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese before 2012.The results showed 33 scientific research achievement and 149 related papers.Coronary heart disease pathogenesis theory had a bigger development with representative views of blood stasis,blood stasis and toxin,phlegm and blood stasis,phlegm and blood stasis of spleen,spleen and stomach relation,collateral disease,blood stasis included Qi deficiency and blood stasis,Yang deficiency and blood stasis,Qi stagna-tion and blood stasis,phlegm and stasis of different types.Pathogenesis of various theories had different focus on asthenia of healthy qi, or asthenia of pathogenic factors,but their essence were consistent,and stressed coronary heart disease was asthenia healthy qi and as-thenia pathogenic factor syndrome.%作者为总结现代以来中医诊治冠心病的基本规律和各家特点,提炼和阐明中医诊治冠心病的基本理论框架,开展中医诊治冠心病的学术调研。作为调研内容之一,首先就2012年以前,在中医理论指导下诊治冠心病并获得国家科技进步奖或省部级二等奖以上的科技成果进行文献调研。文献调研的初步结果表明:有相关科技成果33项,期刊论文149篇。关于冠心病的病因病机,代表性学说有血瘀说、瘀毒从化说、痰瘀互结说、心脾痰瘀相关说、脾胃相关说、络病说等。其中,血瘀说又有气虚血瘀、阳虚血瘀、气滞血瘀、痰阻血瘀等不同类型。上述病机学说,有侧重正虚、邪实的差异,共同点是均强调冠心病为本虚标实之证,并据此开展了不同角度的临床和基础研究。

  11. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using

  12. Building Student Proficiency with Scientific Literature Using the Zotero Reference Manager Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    While mastery of the scientific literature is a strongly desirable trait for undergraduate students, the sheer volume of the current literature has complicated the challenge of teaching scientific literacy. Part of the response to this ever-increasing volume of resources includes formal instruction in the use of reference manager software while…

  13. Imparting Cultural Values to Chinese Children through Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyi; Morrison, Johnetta W.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the occurrence of modernization and globalization in Chinese society over the last few decades, the content of 145 stories, published in the most popular Chinese children's story magazine from the 1980s to the present, were examined for the representation of cultural values. The presence of Chinese, Western and social-moral values in…

  14. Depicting Chinese parenting during the early years : a systematic review of the English language literature

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Luyao; 梁露堯

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parenting has received considerable attention from researchers around the globe. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the scholarly literature on Chinese parenting to determine how it has been conceptualized in the English language literature. A search of relevant keywords in electronic databases and reference lists of publications was conducted, followed by a narrative synthesis of the findings. Results show that the existing literature focused on the following...

  15. Chinese Scientific and Technical Information Institutions: Development and Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanning, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The collection, storage, processing, and dissemination of scientific and technical information make an important basis for economic and social development as well as for scientific development. A nation has to develop the right mechanisms and modalities to collect, store, process, and disseminate scientific and technical information tailored to…

  16. The Using Condition of Interactive Reading Strategy in Reading Scientif-ic and Technological English Literature of Postgraduates of Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hong; CUI Xiao-ling

    2014-01-01

    In the reading process and after reading of the scientific and technological English literature for postgraduates of engi-neering, there are several barriers like the understanding of the vocabulary, the analyzing the complex sentences and the grasping the whole texts. This paper tries to investigate the using condition of interactive reading strategy in reading scientific and techno-logical English literature of postgraduates of engineering. The study reveals that postgraduates of engineering frequently using some of strategies of the interactive reading strategy, but the overall using condition is only in the average level, and is not so flexi-ble.

  17. [Treatment of senile diseases should prescribe Chinese patent medicine scientifically].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Xiang

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of senile diseases by Chinese patent medicine should prescribe according to physiological and pathological specialty of the aged. It's necessary for treatment according to syndrome differentiation associating with the disease,reasonable combination of drugs avoiding adverse reactions,gentle medicine character but not fierce,small medicine quantity but not great, the use of Chinese patent medicine mild and tonic used properly but not excessively. PMID:24812911

  18. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.

  19. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xianwen; Xu, Shenmeng; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness ...

  20. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness centrality. Moreover, the series of polices implemented by the Chinese government to recruit oversea experts seems to contribute a lot to China-US scientific collaboration.

  1. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for secondary education, but none of these strategies focused specifically on scientific argumentation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a strategy for teaching pre-university students to read unadapted primary scientific literature, translated into students' native language, based on a new argumentation analysis framework. This framework encompasses seven types of argumentative elements: motive, objective, main conclusion, implication, support, counterargument and refutation. During the intervention, students studied two research articles. We monitored students' reading comprehension and their opinion on the articles and activities. After the intervention, we measured students' ability to identify the argumentative elements in a third unadapted and translated research article. The presented framework enabled students to analyse the article by identifying the motive, objective, main conclusion and implication and part of the supports. Students stated that they found these activities useful. Most students understood the text on paragraph level and were able to read the article with some help for its vocabulary. We suggest that primary scientific literature has the potential to show students important aspects of the scientific process and to learn scientific vocabulary in an authentic context.

  2. Searching for a Common Ground--A Literature Review of Empirical Research on Scientific Inquiry Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnebeck, Silke; Bernholt, Sascha; Ropohl, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of scientific inquiry in science education, researchers and educators disagree considerably regarding what features define this instructional approach. While a large body of literature addresses theoretical considerations, numerous empirical studies investigate scientific inquiry on quite different levels of detail and also…

  3. The Effects of Electronic Access to Scientific Literature in the Consortium of Turkish University Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Kırlıdoğ, Melih; Bayır, Didar

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To provide some insight to the sharp increase in the scientific publications originating from Turkish academic and research institutions in the last few years. The underlying reasons, widespread access to literature through electronic databases being the most important, are also investigated. Design/methodology/approach: Although it is difficult to gauge national scientific productivity, number of publications in electronic databases which index thousands of scientific journals ca...

  4. Marginalization Inside-Out : thoughts on Contemporary Chinese and Sinophone Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Prado Fonts, Carles

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that contemporary Chinese and Sinophone literature are in a position of double marginalization: exogenous and endogenous. On the one hand, they remain marginalized vis-à-vis the global literary system. On the other hand, specific works of Chinese and Sinophone literature are also repressed by the internal dynamics of the field. After having briefly explored these two conditions, the article presents a few (Utopian) tactics of intervention in order to modify this situation-...

  5. Sustainable Development: The Role of Scientific Literature in Dutch Municipal Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, Lucas; van Straalen, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show how Dutch municipalities use scientific literature about sustainable development in their spatial planning policies and processes. The approach to this research is twofold. First, we conducted a literature review that summarized the most important discourses

  6. Scholarly literature and the press: scientific impact and social perception of physics computing

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia; Bell, Zane W; Dressendorfer, Paul V

    2014-01-01

    The broad coverage of the search for the Higgs boson in the mainstream media is a relative novelty for high energy physics (HEP) research, whose achievements have traditionally been limited to scholarly literature. This paper illustrates the results of a scientometric analysis of HEP computing in scientific literature, institutional media and the press, and a comparative overview of similar metrics concerning representative particle physics measurements. The picture emerging from these scientometric data documents the scientific impact and social perception of HEP computing. The results of this analysis suggest that improved communication of the scientific and social role of HEP computing would be beneficial to the high energy physics community.

  7. Cardiac protection of new compounds from scientific Chinese medicine (SCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yi-zhun

    2008-01-01

    Objective Purification and Standardization of Chinese herbal extracts became a hot topic since last decade. Though traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used as a mixture from several herbs for centuries, it has been drawn much attention for studying the standardized Chinese herbs using modern technology. Methods Recently, we compared purified Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (PSME) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, Rarnipril, in in vitro experiments and also in vivo using animal model of myocardial infarction. Results PSME was found to have a significantly higher trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity which indicated a great capacity for scavenging free radicals. PSME could also prevent pyrogalto red bleaching and DNA damage. After 2 weeks treatment with PSME or Ramipril, survival rates of rats with experimental myocardial infarction were marginally increased (68.2% and 71.4%) compared with saline (61.5%). In another recent study, we evaluated the cardioprotective effects of PSME on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts and in hypoxic vascular smooth muscle calls. We found that PSME treated hearts showed significant postischemic contractile function recovery (develop pressure recovered to 44.2±4.9 % versus 17.1±5.7 %, P<0.05; maximum contraction recovered to 57.2±5.9 % versus 15.1±6.3%, P<0. 001; maximum relaxation restored to 69.3±7.3% versus 15.4±6.3%, P<0.001 in PSME and control group respectively). Conclusions Significant elevated in end-diastolic pressure, which indicated LV stiffening in PSME hearts might be resulted by exceed dose of PSME used. Purified and standardized Chinese herb could provide an alternative regimen for the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  8. Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

  9. MememxGATE: Unearthing Latent Content Features for Improved Search and Relevancy Ranking Across Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; McGibbney, L. J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Joyce, M.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying scientific relevancy is of increasing importance to NASA and the research community. Scientific relevancy may be defined by mapping the impacts of a particular NASA mission, instrument, and/or retrieved variables to disciplines such as climate predictions, natural hazards detection and mitigation processes, education, and scientific discoveries. Related to relevancy, is the ability to expose data with similar attributes. This in turn depends upon the ability for us to extract latent, implicit document features from scientific data and resources and make them explicit, accessible and useable for search activities amongst others. This paper presents MemexGATE; a server side application, command line interface and computing environment for running large scale metadata extraction, general architecture text engineering, document classification and indexing tasks over document resources such as social media streams, scientific literature archives, legal documentation, etc. This work builds on existing experiences using MemexGATE (funded, developed and validated through the DARPA Memex Progrjam PI Mattmann) for extracting and leveraging latent content features from document resources within the Materials Research domain. We extend the software functionality capability to the domain of scientific literature with emphasis on the expansion of gazetteer lists, named entity rules, natural language construct labeling (e.g. synonym, antonym, hyponym, etc.) efforts to enable extraction of latent content features from data hosted by wide variety of scientific literature vendors (AGU Meeting Abstract Database, Springer, Wiley Online, Elsevier, etc.) hosting earth science literature. Such literature makes both implicit and explicit references to NASA datasets and relationships between such concepts stored across EOSDIS DAAC's hence we envisage that a significant part of this effort will also include development and understanding of relevancy signals which can ultimately

  10. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina. PMID:27282076

  11. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina.

  12. Treatment of cholecystitis with Chinese herbal medicines: A systematic review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Dong; Guan-Liang Wang; Xing Liu; Jia Liu; De-Zeng Zhu; Chang-Quan Ling

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the literature on the use of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of cholecystitis.METHODS:The literature on treatment of cholecystitis with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) was analyzed based on the principles and methods described by evidence-based medicine (EBM).Eight databases including MEDLINE,EMbase,Cochrane Central (CCTR),four Chinese databases (China Biological Medicine Database,Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Database of Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals,Database of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology) and Chinese Clinical Registry Center,were searched.Full text articles or abstracts concerning TCM treatment of cholecystitis were selected,categorized according to study design,the strength of evidence,the first author's hospital type,and analyzed statistically.RESULTS:A search of the literature published from 1977 through 2009 yielded 1468 articles in Chinese and 9 in other languages; and 93.92% of the articles focused on clinical studies.No article was of level I evidence,and 9.26% were of level Ⅱ evidence.The literature cited by Science Citation Index (SCI),MEDLINE and core Chinese medical journals accounted for 0.41%,0.68% and 7.29%,respectively.Typically,the articles featured in case reports of illness,examined from the perspective of EBM,were weak in both quality and evidence level,which inconsistently conflicted with the fact that most of the papers were by authors from Level-3 hospitals,the highest possible level evaluated based on their comprehensive quality and academic authenticity in China.CONCLUSION:The published literature on TCM treatment of cholecystitis is of low quality and based on low evidence,and cognitive medicine may functions as a useful supplementary framework for the evaluation.

  13. On The Prehistory Of Chinese-Western Comparative Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓彤; 曹薇

    2010-01-01

    @@ The earlist prehistory of western comparative literature can be traced back to the Ancient Rome, as the literature of that period (in ancient Latin) intentionally imitated the Ancient Greek literature(in ancient Greek), like the Virgil's Aeneid was an imitation of Homeric epic, so the writers and theorists of Ancient Rome always compare the differences and similarities of the two periods、 nationalities and languages that reflected in literature.

  14. Writing on Boundaries: The Split Subject in Chinese Canadian Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaobo

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual grasp of the corpus of work produced by Chinese Canadian writers and a framework for analysing its tropes and interpreting their political resonance. It defines the Chinese Canadian work as a three-phase counterhegemonic discourse: Writing back into a forbidden past; negotiating into the present; writing on boundaries. For the ambivalent, split diasporic subject to negotiate into the present from the forbidden past is to reinscribe itself as a locus of crisis, a non-identity, a doubling, a third term. Writing on boundaries can be read as a strategy of decolonization deployed by the subaltern in striving for self-vindication and self-fulfilment.

  15. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 1. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract with all parenchymatous abdominal organs. In addition to the clinical and scientific further development of abdominal radiology, the education of radiologists within this core discipline of radiology is one of the major aims. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. This manuscript focuses on the most recent literature on the diagnosis of the stomach, small bowel, colon and rectum. The review with a focus on the most recent studies published by German radiologists concludes with a synopsis of mesenterial bleeding and ischemia followed by a critical appraisal of the current literature on conventional abdominal radiography.

  16. Scholarly literature and the press: scientific impact and social perception of physics computing

    OpenAIRE

    Pia, Maria Grazia; Basaglia, Tullio; Bell, Zane W.; Dressendorfer, Paul. V.

    2013-01-01

    The broad coverage of the search for the Higgs boson in the mainstream media is a relative novelty for high energy physics (HEP) research, whose achievements have traditionally been limited to scholarly literature. This paper illustrates the results of a scientometric analysis of HEP computing in scientific literature, institutional media and the press, and a comparative overview of similar metrics concerning representative particle physics measurements. The picture emerging from these scient...

  17. 76 FR 71045 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... treatment of allergic disease that appeared in the Federal Register of September 26, 2011 (76 FR 59407). In... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of September 26, 2011 (76 FR 59407), FDA published a notice... Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the...

  18. Scholarly literature and the press: scientific impact and social perception of physics computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad coverage of the search for the Higgs boson in the mainstream media is a relative novelty for high energy physics (HEP) research, whose achievements have traditionally been limited to scholarly literature. This paper illustrates the results of a scientometric analysis of HEP computing in scientific literature, institutional media and the press, and a comparative overview of similar metrics concerning representative particle physics measurements. The picture emerging from these scientometric data documents the relationship between the scientific impact and the social perception of HEP physics research versus that of HEP computing. The results of this analysis suggest that improved communication of the scientific and social role of HEP computing via press releases from the major HEP laboratories would be beneficial to the high energy physics community.

  19. TASER® conducted electrical weapons: misconceptions in the scientific/medical and other literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James R

    2015-03-01

    TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have become an important law-enforcement tool. Controversial questions are often raised during discussion of some incidents in which the devices have been used. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some misconceptions about CEWs that have been published in the scientific/medical and other literature. This is a narrative review, using a multidisciplinary approach of analyzing reports from scientific/medical and other literature sources. In previous reports, durations of incapacitating effects and possible associations of CEWs with deaths-in-custody have often been overstated or exaggerated. Comparisons of CEW effects with "electrocution" are misleading. Clarification of these misconceptions may be important during policymaker decisions, practitioner operations, expert witness testimonies, and court proceedings. Despite misconceptions in the literature, CEWs can still be a valuable tool for law enforcement activities. Scientists, medical professionals, legal advisors, and investigators of police tactics should be aware of these misconceptions. PMID:25549958

  20. CREATE cornerstone: introduction to scientific thinking, a new course for STEM-interested freshmen, demystifies scientific thinking through analysis of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Alan J; Hoskins, Sally G

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students' critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE also supports maturation of undergraduates' epistemological beliefs about science. This approach, originally tested with upper-level students, has been adapted in Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a new course for freshmen. Results from this course's initial semesters indicate that freshmen in a one-semester introductory course that uses a narrowly focused set of readings to promote development of analytical skills made significant gains in critical-thinking and experimental design abilities. Students also reported significant gains in their ability to think scientifically and understand primary literature. Their perceptions and understanding of science improved, and multiple aspects of their epistemological beliefs about science gained sophistication. The course has no laboratory component, is relatively inexpensive to run, and could be adapted to any area of scientific study. PMID:23463229

  1. Literature Review of the Reasons of Chinese Master Students ’Language Choices in UK Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qian

    2016-01-01

    As one of the challenges that international students face during their study in a foreign country, language has been more and more of concern. The aim of this literature review is to know the reasons of Chinese master students’language choices in UK universities. In this paper the reasons of language choices, and the gaps between previous and present research are discussed.

  2. "Migratory Literature": A "Third Place" for Intercultural Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Trevor; Wang, Yongyang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, drawing upon multidisciplinary studies such as critical and cultural studies, literary criticism, intercultural communication and second language acquisition, suggests a specific literary genre--"migratory literature"--to support intercultural competence for learners of Chinese. We begin by elucidating key terms--"migratory,"…

  3. Update on XplorMed: a web server for exploring scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Iratxeta, C.; Perez, A. J.; Bork, P.; Andrade-Navarro, M A

    2003-01-01

    As scientific literature databases like MEDLINE increase in size, so does the time required to search them. Scientists must frequently inspect long lists of references manually, often just reading the titles. XplorMed is a web tool that aids MEDLINE searching by summarizing the subjects contained in the results, thus allowing users to focus on subjects of interest. Here we describe new features added to XplorMed during the last 2 years (http://www.bork.embl-heidelberg.de/xplormed/).

  4. Contribution of Indian Pediatric Dentists to Scientific Literature During 2002–2012: a Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur; Namrata C Gill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bibliometric analysis of publications is necessary to enable clinicians to make evidence based sound clinical decisions. It will also help policy makers & institutions to frame their decisions and policies so as to improve the quality of dental research in India. AIM: The purpose of this study is to identify publication output as well as descriptively and quantitatively characterize the contribution of Indian pediatric dentists to scientific literature through publication trend ...

  5. Activities of the Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information in the field of Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Duskova, Marta (CVTISR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2014-01-01

    In this year Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information (CVTI SR) celebrates the 75th anniversary of its establishment. In course of its existence our institution went through various organizational changes and we can say that today it is not only a library but also an information centre supporting science in Slovakia, participating in many national and international projects. The main objective of paper is to inform the international grey literature community about the mission,...

  6. Scientific Literature on the Reliability and Validity of the Manchester Triage System (MTS Protocol: A Integrative Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Chaves de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific production about the validity and reliability of the Manchester Triage System (MTS protocol. METHOD A descriptive study of an integrative literature review. Articles on the validity and reliability of the MTS developed with children and adults published between 1999 and 2013 were included. RESULTS 14 articles were selected from a total of 8438, nine of validity and five of reliability. The reliability of the MTS ranged from moderate to almost perfect, with higher intra-evaluation. Regarding validity, the results seem to point to equivalent and satisfactory sensibility and specificity levels of the MTS. The instrument proved to be a good predictor of the need for hospitalization and of hospital mortality. CONCLUSION The reliability and validity of the MTS obtained in the studies is varied. It is recommended that new studies indicate necessary modifications to the MTS so that it is more safely used by nurses.

  7. A global scientific literature of research on water quality indices: trends, biases and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Ribeiro Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Water quality has been the subject of many recent studies, moreover, the physical, chemical and biological parameters of water are used to investigate water quality and can be combined into a single index, the Water Quality Index (WQI, for use by water resource managers and the general public. The aim of this study was to use scientometrics to evaluate how water quality has been addressed in the international scientific literature. METHOD: For the quantitative analysis of the publications on WQI, we used the search database SCOPUS (http://www.scopus.com. The search was performed using the words "QUALIT* WATER* INDEX*" in papers published in all databases (through 2011. RESULTS: We found 554 articles that dealt with the use of WQI the number of publications has increased significantly over the last 20 years. India had the most studies, with 177 articles, followed by China, Brazil and the United States. These four countries together published 57% of studies on WQI. We generated 15 linear models to explain the number of publication by study sit (country. According to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, the best model to explain the number of publications by country was the model that combined Sanitation and Public Supply. CONCLUSION: Finally, this paper presents the state of scientific literature on WQI and demonstrates the growing interest of the scientific community in this issue, which is certainly due to the importance of the quantity and quality of water for human supply, economics, health and the conservation of water resources.

  8. An Eminent Specialist in Both Chinese Literature and Comparative Literature—An Interview with Prof.Stephen Owen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Interviewee:Stephen Owen,James Bryant Conant University Professor and a member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences(1991-),is working at Harvard University as Professor of Comparative Literature in the Dept.of Comparative Literature and Professor of Chinese Literature in the Dept.of Asian Studies.

  9. The classics of ancient Chinese literature%中国古代文学的经典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承学

    2007-01-01

    This essay discusses the ancient Chinese literary classics by borrowingthe prospective of "canon" from the studies of Western literature.Studying thecentral issues of establishment,quality,type,and influence of ancient classics,the authors attempt to present their ancient history,decadent practices,and theircentral position in ancient literature and literary criticism.Moreover,from abroader perspective of modem theory,this essay argues that ancient classics arepart of the important resources to release the tension between the traditional andthe modem world.

  10. The ICDP Information Network and the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conze, R.; Su, D.

    2002-12-01

    ICDP is an international program investigating the 'System Earth' in multidisciplinary co-operation. Funded drilling projects are characterized by detailed fieldwork at world-class geological sites on the continents and by the global scope of research objectives. During project work, partnering researchers from all over the world work together at remote drill sites and in laboratories at their institutions. Researchers apply a range of highly diverse scientific methodologies, thereby acquiring huge data sets. Multinational co-operation and increasing amounts of scientific data require completely new concepts and practices for scientific work, and place heavy demands on information and communications management. This is achieved by means of the ICDP Information Network. Scientists working on ICDP related data need a central long-term data archive with powerful tools for navigation, data modeling and analysis. The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD is a national key scientific and engineering project of the PR China supported by ICDP. The current drill site of CCSD is located in Donghai, Jiangsu Province, the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, which possesses global geological significance. From the spud on June 25, 2001 to April 6, 2002, the 2000m pilot hole was finished with a total core recovery of 88.7% and an average inclination angle of 3-4 degrees. The pilot hole has been transformed to the main hole by hole opening. Deepening and coring of the CCSD-1 main hole is currently in progress. Most of the basic scientific documentation and measurements are done in a large field laboratory directly beside the drill rig, which was set up using the standard of the former German Continental Scientific Drilling (KTB). It includes a powerful infrastructure for computing and electronic communication as well as a comprehensive twofold data and information management: 1. The CCSD-DMIS is a special Data Management Information System for the chinese

  11. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Vulink, Nienke C; van der Wal, Sija J; Nakamae, Takashi; Tan, Zhonglin; Derks, Eske M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy associated with the disorder, perhaps even more so in Asian countries. PMID:27366074

  12. Searching for Animal Sentience: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia R. Cornish

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of animal sentience is fundamental to many disciplines and imperative to the animal welfare movement. In this review, we examined what is being explored and discussed, regarding animal sentience, within the scientific literature. Rather than attempting to extract meaning from the many complex and abstract definitions of animal sentience, we searched over two decades of scientific literature using a peer-reviewed list of 174 keywords. The list consisted of human emotions, terminology associated with animal sentience, and traits often thought to be indicative of subjective states. We discovered that very little was actually being explored, and instead there was already much agreement about what animals can feel. Why then is there so much scepticism surrounding the science of animal sentience? Sentience refers to the subjective states of animals, and so is often thought to be impossible to measure objectively. However, when we consider that much of the research found to accept and utilise animal sentience is performed for the development of human drugs and treatment, it appears that measuring sentience is, after all, not quite as impossible as was previously thought. In this paper, we explored what has been published on animal sentience in the scientific literature and where the gaps in research lie. We drew conclusions on the implications for animal welfare science and argued for the importance of addressing these gaps in our knowledge. We found that there is a need for more research on positive emotional states in animals, and that there is still much to learn about taxa such as invertebrates. Such information will not only be useful in supporting and initiating legislative amendments but will help to increase understanding, and potentially positive actions and attitudes towards animals.

  13. Visual Analysis and Dissemination of Scientific Literature Collections with SurVis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Fabian; Koch, Sebastian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bibliographic data such as collections of scientific articles and citation networks have been studied extensively in information visualization and visual analytics research. Powerful systems have been built to support various types of bibliographic analysis, but they require some training and cannot be used to disseminate the insights gained. In contrast, we focused on developing a more accessible visual analytics system, called SurVis, that is ready to disseminate a carefully surveyed literature collection. The authors of a survey may use our Web-based system to structure and analyze their literature database. Later, readers of the survey can obtain an overview, quickly retrieve specific publications, and reproduce or extend the original bibliographic analysis. Our system employs a set of selectors that enable users to filter and browse the literature collection as well as to control interactive visualizations. The versatile selector concept includes selectors for textual search, filtering by keywords and meta-information, selection and clustering of similar publications, and following citation links. Agreement to the selector is represented by word-sized sparkline visualizations seamlessly integrated into the user interface. Based on an analysis of the analytical reasoning process, we derived requirements for the system. We developed the system in a formative way involving other researchers writing literature surveys. A questionnaire study with 14 visual analytics experts confirms that SurVis meets the initially formulated requirements. PMID:26529698

  14. The Emergence of Modern Chinese Literature%中国现代文学的发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆东

    2015-01-01

    何谓“现代”?何谓“现代性”?回顾中国现代文学,我们应该思考这些问题。世界各国进入“现代”的时间和方式都是不同的,这与工业文明的兴起、理性启蒙的普及、人类愈来愈组织化的生活模式都有着密切的关联。所以,我们必须在“人类现代文明”的总体框架之下来看待和学习中国现代文学,才能比较准确地把握中国现代文学的发生和发展,从而进一步去探索中国现代文学以致当代文学的演变规律。中国现代文学究竟是什么时候“发生”和怎样“发生”的,现代文学的许多重要作家、理论家、文学史家都给出了不同的回答。%What is “Modern”?What is “Modernity”?Looking back on Modern Chinese Litera‐ture ,we should think about these issues .The time and way of getting into modernity in different na‐tions in our world are different ,which have a very close relationship with the rise of industrial civiliza‐tion ,the popularization of rational enlightenment ,and the more systematic life style .So we have to study Modern Chinese Literature from the overall framework of the modern civilization of human be‐ings .Only in this way ,we are able to accurately grasp the rise and development of Modern Chinese Literature ,then to further explore its rule of evolvement of the Modern and even the Contemporary Chinese Literature .When and how did the Modern Chinese Literature emerge?Some very significant writers ,theorists ,historians of literature all gave their different answers and responses .

  15. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  16. Exploring access to scientific literature using content-based image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    The number of articles published in the scientific medical literature is continuously increasing, and Web access to the journals is becoming common. Databases such as SPIE Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, indices such as PubMed, and search engines such as Google provide the user with sophisticated full-text search capabilities. However, information in images and graphs within these articles is entirely disregarded. In this paper, we quantify the potential impact of using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) to access this non-text data. Based on the Journal Citations Report (JCR), the journal Radiology was selected for this study. In 2005, 734 articles were published electronically in this journal. This included 2,587 figures, which yields a rate of 3.52 figures per article. Furthermore, 56.4% of these figures are composed of several individual panels, i.e. the figure combines different images and/or graphs. According to the Image Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (ImageCLEF), the error rate of automatic identification of medical images is about 15%. Therefore, it is expected that, by applying ImageCLEF-like techniques, already 95.5% of articles could be retrieved by means of CBIR. The challenge for CBIR in scientific literature, however, is the use of local texture properties to analyze individual image panels in composite illustrations. Using local features for content-based image representation, 8.81 images per article are available, and the predicted correctness rate may increase to 98.3%. From this study, we conclude that CBIR may have a high impact in medical literature research and suggest that additional research in this area is warranted.

  17. Literature review and analysis of the application of health outcome assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Pei-wu Li; Qian-wen Li; Nelson Xie; Jing-wei Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:To evaluate the application of health assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:According to a pre-defined search strategy,a comprehensive literature search for all articles published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted.The resulting articles that met the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for analysis.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine have been used in fundamental and theoretical research,and 14 of these were also used in 29 clinical trials that were randomized controlled trials,or descriptive or cross-sectional studies.In 2 152 Chinese medicine-based studies that used instruments in their methodology,more than 150 questionnaires were identified.Among the identified questionnaires,51 were used in more than 10 articles (0.5%).Most of these instruments were developed in Western countries and few studies (4%) used the instrument as the primary evidence for their conclusions.CONCLUSION:Usage of instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,current limitations include selection rationale,result interpretation and standardization,which must be addressed accordingly.

  18. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  19. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2006-11-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of economical, political and social macrostructural factors. In this paper, we report the number of scientific studies published between 2000 and 2004 about the main causes of maternal death, as identified by WHO, and compare the proportion of papers on each cause with the corresponding burden of each cause. Secondly, we systematically review the characteristics and quality of the papers on the macrostructural determinants of maternal mortality. In view of their burden, obstructed labour, unsafe abortion and haemorrhage are proportionally underrepresented in the scientific literature. In our review, most studies analysed were cross-sectional, and were carried out by developed countries without the participation of researchers in the developing countries where maternal mortality was studied. The main macrostructural factors mentioned were socioeconomic variables. Overall, there is a lack of published information about the cultural and political determinants of maternal mortality. We believe that a high-quality scientific approach must be taken in studies of maternal mortality in order to obtain robust comparative data and that study design should be improved to allow causality between macrostructural determinants and maternal mortality to be shown.

  20. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 1. Gastrointestinal tract; Aktuelle Schwerpunkte und Literatur der Abdominalradiologie im deutschsprachigen Raum. T. 1. Gastrointestinaltrakt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Clinic for Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technical University Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Konietzke, P. [University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Grenacher, L. [Diagnostic Muenchen - Diagnostic Imaging Center, Munich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract with all parenchymatous abdominal organs. In addition to the clinical and scientific further development of abdominal radiology, the education of radiologists within this core discipline of radiology is one of the major aims. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. This manuscript focuses on the most recent literature on the diagnosis of the stomach, small bowel, colon and rectum. The review with a focus on the most recent studies published by German radiologists concludes with a synopsis of mesenterial bleeding and ischemia followed by a critical appraisal of the current literature on conventional abdominal radiography.

  1. A critical revision of the empirical literature on Chinese outward investment: A new proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on China’s role in the globalization of economic activity focuses mainly on its involvement in trade and on its competitiveness as a manufacturing location for foreign investors. However, since the mid-1990s China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI has become an important part of its integration into the global economy. This dimension is poorly understood, and few empirical studies about the drivers behind Chinese OFDI have been published thus far. After reviewing critically the empirical literature, which provides ambiguous results about the explanatory power of some of the large list of determinants put forward, we aim to provide a more accurate description of the motives behind Chinese OFDI. Using a panel data approach for the period 1995 to 2009 and for a large host country sample, we identify some key drivers. We find that host market size, natural resources and FDI openness are of paramount relevance. However, the asset seeking hypothesis is not confirmed.

  2. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism.

  3. What is the Role of Chinese Medical Theory in Modern Scientific Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Johannes GRETEN

    2008-01-01

    经典中医诊断,例如根据中医的海德堡模型进行诊断,研究结果很大程度依赖于经典的诊断标准.未来中医的研究质量会受到很多因素的影响,如将经典的中医诊断作为纳入标准;用客观指标作为衡量研究结果的标准;采用双盲对照研究.因此,有必要对传统中医学诊断和功能性标准可测参数达成一致,同时也需要对其功能性术语及基本理论达成共识.本文指出经典中医学理论对现代研究具有重要指导意义,在现代研究中应正确理解并恰当应用.%Defining the classical Chinese diagnosis such as by the Heidelberg model of TCM has shown that outcome of studies is largely dependent on classical diagnostic criteria.The quality of future studies in TCM will largely depend on a variety of factors,such as(1)the classical Chinese diagnosis as an inclusion criterion,(2) objectively measurable parameters as the main criterion of outcome,(3)double blinding of controls.A common understanding of the diagnosis and functional criteria of TCM is therefore necessary,as well as a common understanding of the functional terminology and rationally accessible theory. This undedines the necessity of classical Chinese medical theory for modern scientific research,its proper definition and application in studies.

  4. Good practices for a literature survey are not followed by authors while preparing scientific manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, D R; Oliveira, O N; Costa, L da F

    2010-01-01

    The number of citations received by authors in scientific journals has become a major parameter to assess individual researchers and the journals themselves through the impact factor. A fair assessment therefore requires that the criteria for selecting references in a given manuscript should be unbiased with respect to the authors or the journals cited. In this paper, we advocate that authors should follow two mandatory principles to select papers (later reflected in the list of references) while studying the literature for a given research: i) consider similarity of content with the topics investigated, lest very related work should be reproduced or ignored; ii) perform a systematic search over the network of citations including seminal or very related papers. We use formalisms of complex networks for two datasets of papers from the arXiv repository to show that neither of these two criteria is fulfilled in practice.

  5. Fishes and other aquatic species in the Byzantine literature. Classification, terminology and scientific names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CHRONE-VAKALOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishes and other aquatic species were substantial food in the every day life of Byzantine people. The predomination of Christianity contributed to the increased consumption of fishes and other seafood compared to the meat of land animals and chicken. More than a hundred ten names of fishes and about thirty names of other aquatic organisms are found in the sources of the Byzantine literature. Most frequent references are found in the medical texts of the Byzantine doctors, where, fishes are classified in categories depending on their physiology and origin, because, according to the writers, these are determining factors for the evaluation of the nutritional value of each species.The purpose of this study is to present the terminology of the fishes and the various aquatic species that are found in the Byzantine sources and to identify, in parallel, each species with its current scientific name.  

  6. Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhim, Evan A; Hon, Carol; Xia, Bo; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods. PMID:27367706

  7. Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhim, Evan A.; Hon, Carol; Xia, Bo; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods. PMID:27367706

  8. [Maternal mortality in Brazil: what has the scientific literature shown in the last 30 years?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Marcia Lait; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Barbosa, Mariane Doelinger; Calil, Manuele Bonatto; Eyer, Fernanda Pinella Carvalhal

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze maternal mortality in Brazil in the last 30 years, by means of a literature review. The authors performed an electronic search of scientific articles from 1980 to 2010 in LILACS and MEDLINE and found 486 abstracts, of which 50 articles were selected. Studies showed a decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), although varying across regions of the country. A few articles evaluated maternal mortality factors, identifying social inequalities associated with skin color and schooling. There was persistent underreporting of maternal deaths and inadequate completion of death certificates. Direct obstetric causes were the most frequent, mainly hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. Analysis of avoidability revealed deficiencies in prenatal and childbirth care. Despite the relevance of maternal mortality in Brazil, there are few studies on the subject. Although MMR has decreased, it is still above the desired levels. Improvements are thus needed in the quality of prenatal and perinatal care.

  9. Pharmacological and analytical aspects of withaferin A:A concise report of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanika Patel; Ravi B Singh; Dinesh K Patel

    2013-01-01

    Withaferin A is an important phytoconstituents of Withania somnifera (W. Somnifera) belonging to the category of withanolides, that are a group of naturally occurring C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids. Withaferin A has been used in the traditional and indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various disorders. In view of its unique therapeutic potential, it has gained much attention in the modern science. In the couple of the years, Withaferin A has been scientifically validated for different pharmacological activities including anti-cancer, adaptogenic, anti-stress, anti-convulsant, immunomodulatory, neurological, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective activities. Pharmacological and analytical aspects of Withaferin A were highlighted in the present article. From the literature review it was found that Withaferin A has a very impressive pharmacological profile especially against cancer and could be useful for the development of the new drug in the future for the treatment of cancer and other metabolic disorders.

  10. Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhim, Evan A; Hon, Carol; Xia, Bo; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods.

  11. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas:A review of 553 cases in Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To sum up the clinical and pathological characte- ristics of solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) and the experience with it.METHODS: A total of 553 SPT patients reported in Chinese literature between January 1996 and January 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the 553 SPT patients included in this review was 27.2 years, and the male to female ratio was 1:8.37. Their symptoms were non-specific, and nearly one third of the patients were asymptomatic. Computed tomography...

  12. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang LL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LiLi Zhang,1 JiTao Li,2–4 YanJie Zhao,5 Yun’Ai Su,2–4 Tianmei Si2–4 1Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, 3Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 5National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, has been introduced as a novel atypical antipsychotic agent in many countries. It is available both as an oral extended-release (ER formulation and as a long-acting injection (paliperidone palmitate, PP, which have been approved for treating schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China since 2009 and 2012, respectively. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on the databases covering international and Chinese core journals, published from January 1, 2008, to May 22, 2015. Results: A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53, nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP

  13. Safety assessment of GM plants: An updated review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2016-09-01

    In a wide revision of the literature conducted in 2000, I noted that the information in scientific journals on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods in general, and GM plants in particular, was scarce. Of course, it was not sufficient to guarantee that the consumption of these products should not mean risks for the health of the consumers. Because of the scientific interest in GM organisms (GMOs), as well as the great concern that the consumption of GM foods/plants has raised in a number of countries, I conducted two subsequent revisions (2007 and 2011) on the adverse/toxic effects of GM plants. In the present review, I have updated the information on the potential adverse health effects of GM plants consumed as food and/or feed. With only a few exceptions, the reported studies in the last six years show rather similar conclusions; that is to say, the assessed GM soybeans, rice, corn/maize and wheat would be as safe as the parental species of these plants. However, in spite of the notable increase in the available information, studies on the long-term health effects of GM plants, including tests of mutagenicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity seem to be still clearly necessary.

  14. Safety assessment of GM plants: An updated review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2016-09-01

    In a wide revision of the literature conducted in 2000, I noted that the information in scientific journals on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods in general, and GM plants in particular, was scarce. Of course, it was not sufficient to guarantee that the consumption of these products should not mean risks for the health of the consumers. Because of the scientific interest in GM organisms (GMOs), as well as the great concern that the consumption of GM foods/plants has raised in a number of countries, I conducted two subsequent revisions (2007 and 2011) on the adverse/toxic effects of GM plants. In the present review, I have updated the information on the potential adverse health effects of GM plants consumed as food and/or feed. With only a few exceptions, the reported studies in the last six years show rather similar conclusions; that is to say, the assessed GM soybeans, rice, corn/maize and wheat would be as safe as the parental species of these plants. However, in spite of the notable increase in the available information, studies on the long-term health effects of GM plants, including tests of mutagenicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity seem to be still clearly necessary. PMID:27317828

  15. Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the evolution of the scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming (AGW) in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, examining 11 944 climate abstracts from 1991–2011 matching the topics ‘global climate change’ or ‘global warming’. We find that 66.4% of abstracts expressed no position on AGW, 32.6% endorsed AGW, 0.7% rejected AGW and 0.3% were uncertain about the cause of global warming. Among abstracts expressing a position on AGW, 97.1% endorsed the consensus position that humans are causing global warming. In a second phase of this study, we invited authors to rate their own papers. Compared to abstract ratings, a smaller percentage of self-rated papers expressed no position on AGW (35.5%). Among self-rated papers expressing a position on AGW, 97.2% endorsed the consensus. For both abstract ratings and authors’ self-ratings, the percentage of endorsements among papers expressing a position on AGW marginally increased over time. Our analysis indicates that the number of papers rejecting the consensus on AGW is a vanishingly small proportion of the published research. (letter)

  16. Cholesterol lowering effect of a commercial margarine in hypercholesterolemic adults: a review of the scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bernácer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the hypercholesterolemia is a growing problem, responsible of one fifth of coronary events in Spain. It is considered that plant sterols (PS could play an important role in their treatment.Objective: we review the role of a range of functional foods with added PS (including specific studies using Flora pro•activ in adults with hypercholesterolemia.Methods: we performed a review of the literature in the PubMed database to locate human studies that have evaluated the role of Flora pro•activ or PS fortified foods with a similar composition. We also have been consulted the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA database.Results: Flora pro•activ demonstrated in rigorous scientific studies to lower cholesterol in adults with hypercholesterolemia. Two servings of Flora pro•activ (1.5 g PS are needed to observe this effect. Lowering cholesterol with Flora pro•activ (2 servings / day oscillate as EFSA notes, between 7 and 10%. This effect is observed after 2-3 weeks. Its composition allows to make health claims about lowering cholesterol as is described for the European Union. The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of PS enriched foods that are not margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressings or dairy products is under-researched. With few exceptions, the use of fortified foods with PS is safe.Conclusions: the current scientific evidence justify the promotion of the use of PS to lower LDL cholesterol in adults with hypercholesterolemia.

  17. The scientific literature on Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) from 1982 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fabiana G

    2014-09-01

    Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) is a freshwater bivalve native to Southeast Asia, but is becoming an invasive species in several aquatic ecosystems in the world. In this study, a scientometric analysis was performed to identify the patterns, trends and gaps of knowledge for this invasive species. A survey of the published literature was conducted using the database of the Thomson Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). A total of 107 papers were surveyed that were published between 1982 and 2012 in 60 journals. The number of papers on L. fortunei over the years has increased, especially within the last eight years of the study period. Argentina, Brazil, and Japan are the countries that contributed the most papers to the literature on invasive bivalve. The majority of papers were field-observational studies. Among some important gaps that need to be addressed are the relatively small number and/or lack of studies conducted in the native countries and in countries invaded by L. fortunei, the lack of internationally collaborative publications in these countries, as well as a low number of internationally collaborative studies.

  18. Trends and biases in global scientific literature about ecological niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, U L; Cunha, H F; Nabout, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, ecological niche models have been employed to investigate the potential geographical distribution of species. However, it is necessary to analyze the vast number of publications on this topic to understand the trends and biases of research using ecological niche models (ENMs). Therefore, this study aims to investigate trends in the scientific literature regarding studies on ENMs. For the quantitative analysis of the literature on ENMs, we performed a search in the Thomson ISI (Web of Science) database between 1991 and 2013. The search identified 3042 papers containing preselected keywords in either the title or abstract. The results showed that the number of papers has increased over the years (r=0.77, Pplants (402 papers, or 28.36% of the total). There was no relationship between the modeling method used and the taxonomic group studied (χ2=4.8, P=0.15). Finally, the wide availability of biological, environmental and computational resources has elicited the broad use of tools for ENMs. Despite the conceptual discussions of the ENMs, this method is currently the most effective way to evaluate the potential geographical distribution of species, and to predict the distribution under different environmental conditions (i.e., future or past scenarios).

  19. Risk factors and control of hospital acquired infections: a comparison between Wikipedia and scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Maggi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: nowadays Wikipedia is one of the main on-line sources of general information. It contains several items about nosocomial infections and their prevention, together of items on virtually every scientific topic.This study aims to assess whether Wikipedia can be considered a reliable source for professional updating, concerning Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI.Methods: Wikipedia has been searched in order to gather items on HAI. 387 items were found with a search string. The field of research was reduced at those articles (27 items containing exhaustive information in relation to prevention of HAI. The messages contained in those articles were than compared with the recommendations of a selected guideline (NICE 2003, completed by a literature search, with the aim of testing their reliability and exhaustivity.Results: 15 Wiki items were found and 51 messages selected. NICE guidelines contained 119 recommendations and 52 more recommendations has been found in a further literature search. 45.1% of Wikipedia’s messages were even found in the guidelines. On this percentage, 21.6% completely agreed with the messages of the guidelines, 15.7% partially agreed, 3.9% disagreed and 3.9% showed different level of evidence in different articles. Moreover, 54.9% of Wikipedia’s messages were not included in the guidelines and 84.2% of the recommendations contained in the guidelines were not present in Wikipedia.Conclusions: Wikipedia should not be considered as a reliable source for professional updating on HAI.

  20. On-line processing of searching scientific informations and literatures on atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information processing using computers has been carried out in the field of atomic energy science internationally since early period, and CINDA and NEUDADA, which are the accumulation of the nuclear data on neutrons, and INIS for the search of literatures are the examples. In Japan, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has functioned as the center for collecting, evaluating and distributing the international informations on atomic energy. In universities, various researcher groups have endeavored to make and utilize the data bases with the advance of functions of large computer centers. In the future plan of the Kyoto University Reactor Research Institute, the establishment of Atomic Energy Science Information Center is planned. In order to discuss the concept for this and refer to the state of activities in other fields, the short period study meeting was helt in 1979, and the special study meeting on the on-line processing of searching the scientific informations and literatures on atomic energy was established in 1980. This report summarizes the results of studies and investigations published in this special study meeting. The abstracts of five papers on various data bases are given. (Kako, I.)

  1. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  2. Literature review and analysis of the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Zheng-zheng Zhang; Di Xie; Nelson Xie; Hong Thach Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:A comprehensive literature search for all published articles in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Chongqing VIP Database and WANFANG Data was conducted.The studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to extract information according to a predesigned assessment instrument.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine were identified.Of these questionnaires,7 were generic,12 were condition-specific and 78 were disease-specific.All instruments were suitable for adults,children,and both men and women.These instruments aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life,signs and symptoms as well as patient satisfaction and doctor-reported outcome.However,the descriptions were poorly constructed for some of the most basic parameters,such as the domains and items,administrative mode,response options,memory recall periods,burden evaluation,format,copyright,content validity,and other properties.CONCLUSION:The instrument development for health outcomes assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,there are many limitations in current methodologies and standards,and further studies are needed.

  3. A review of the Chinese literature on cognitive remediation in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuping; Liu, Dengtang

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating data have shown that cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has moderate to strong effects on improving cognitive function in patients with psychosis, especially in schizophrenia. In recent years, a number of studies about CRT or computerized CRT (CCRT) have been published; unfortunately, since most of them are written in Chinese, they are not accessible to non-Chinese readers. This review aims to introduce and discuss the research and clinical practice of CRT and CCRT in China. The present review includes eight original papers, six published in Chinese journals and two in English journals. Six papers investigated the clinical effect of CRT or CCRT utilizing a randomized controlled study design. The other two papers explored brain function or structural change after CRT or CCRT treatment. All eight papers reported some beneficial effects of CRT and CCRT on cognitive functions, with three of them showing benefits on social functions. One functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study showed some change of neural activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after CRT therapy. In addition to reviewing the published literature, we also discuss the current state of clinical practice of CRT and CCRT in China. PMID:27520913

  4. Assessment of Student Skills for Critiquing Published Primary Scientific Literature Using a Primary Trait Analysis Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Varela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Instructor evaluation of progressive student skills in the analysis of primary literature is critical for the development of these skills in young scientists. Students in a senior or graduate-level one-semester course in Immunology at a Masters-level comprehensive university were assessed for abilities (primary traits to recognize and evaluate the following elements of a scientific paper: Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, Results, Critical Thinking and Analysis, and Conclusions. We tested the hypotheses that average recognition scores vary among elements and that scores change with time differently by trait. Recognition scores (scaled 1 to 5, and differences in scores were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA, regression, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA (n = 10 papers over 103 days. By multiple comparisons testing, we found that recognition scores statistically fell into two groups: high scores (for Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, and Conclusions and low scores (for Results and Critical Thinking and Analysis. Recognition scores only significantly changed with time (increased for Hypothesis and Rationale and Results. ANCOVA showed that changes in recognition scores for these elements were not significantly different in slope (F1,16 = 0.254, P = 0.621 but the Results trait was significantly lower in elevation (F1,17 = 12.456, P = 0.003. Thus, students improved with similar trajectories, but starting and ending with lower Results scores. We conclude that students have greatest difficulty evaluating Results and critically evaluating scientific validity. Our findings show extant student skills, and the significant increase in some traits shows learning. This study demonstrates that students start with variable recognition skills and that student skills may be learned at differential rates. Faculty can use these findings or the primary trait analysis scoring scale to focus on specific paper elements for which

  5. Literature review of the encourage scientific and technological personnel Innovation in universities%高校激励科技人员创新创业文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虎; 周斌

    2014-01-01

    国内外学者对激励科技人员创新创业机制进行大量研究,文章通过研究文献发现,国外的研究主要从科技人员激励因素、激励机制、激励方法进行了研究,研究的方法主要采用市政的方法。国内学者对高校创新、科技人员激励机制和高校科技人员的激励机制进行了研究。%Scientific and technical personnel and foreign scholars have done a lot of research on incentive mechanisms for innovation and entrepreneurship. Through the research literature found. Study abroad mainly from the scientific and technical personnel incentive factors, incentives, incentive methods was studied. Study abroad mainly from the scientific and technical personnel incentive factors, incentives, incentive methods was studied. Research methods were used by the main method of using municipal approach. Chinese scholars have do studies about university innovation, technology personnel and university scientists’ incentives.

  6. Russian Literature and Chinese Literature in 20th Century%俄苏文学与20世纪中国文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊星

    2001-01-01

    本文通过对20世纪中国作家接受俄苏文学影响的历程的 勾勒,揭示了俄苏文学的道德感、抒情风格在塑造中国文学现代品格中发挥的重要作用。同 时,论证了中国作家在兼收并蓄世界文学丰富成就的过程中显示出的超越性,并指出了中国 文学与俄苏文学的差距。%The paper shows that the Russian literature greatly influences the Chinese write rs in the 20th century and plays an important part in shaping the modern Chinese literatu re with its sense of morality and lyric style. It also reveals that Chinese lite ratur has overpassed Russian literature in the course of taking in the rich achi evements of world literature and points out the distance between C hinese literature and Russian literature.

  7. Nordic interdisciplinary reviews of the scientific literature concerning the relationsiip between indoor environmental factors and health, Nordworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, C.-G.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between indoor air environments and health is, however, a truly interdisciplinary area involving numerous disciplines. Scientific work is primarily "within disciplinary", often resulting in conclusions that would not stand in an interdisciplinary context. Results are mostly...... today, a number of interdisciplinary scientific groups have been created within the Nordic countries with the aim at reviewing the scientific literature within specific areas, and creating an interdisciplinary consensus on the present state of the art. Results from four so-called NORD-groups (NORDVOC...

  8. Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan A. Nadhim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, falls from height (FFH are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75 articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods.

  9. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies. PMID:26087568

  10. 中医科学性的再思考%Reconsideration of the Scientific Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏睦新; 胡平

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the debates among traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine have never stopped, some people put forward abolishing traditional Chinese medicine or just leaving along Chinese herbs. However tides of opposition had never destroyed traditional Chinese medicine. There must been reasons in it. The deepest reason why traditional Chi-nese medicine can live along lles in its scientific characteristics. So how to develop traditional Chinese medicine should been the point people focus on.%东西方医学的争论近年来从未停止过,有人以"中医不科学"为由,提出废除中医药,或者"废医存药",但一波又一波的反对浪潮从未能摧毁中医,中医之所以能生存下来,必然有其理由.究其内因在于中医是具有科学性的,因此如何发展中医应该是人们重视及研究的焦点.

  11. Common Agricultural Policy Reform and its Impact on Biodiversity and Livelihoods in Developing Countries - A review of scientific literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.M.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of scientific literature on the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and its impacts on biodiversity in developing countries. The review was requested by Europe External Policy Advisors (EEPA) and Tilburg University to validate the findings of the study by Van Reise

  12. Pneumonia Incidence and Mortality in Mainland China: Systematic Review of Chinese and English Literature, 1985–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xuhua; Silk, Benjamin J.; Li, Wenkai; Fleischauer, Aaron T.; Xing, Xuesen; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Hongjie; Sonja J Olsen; Cohen, Adam L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a leading infectious disease killer worldwide, yet the burden in China is not well understood as much of the data is published in the non-English literature. Methodology/Principal Findings We systematically reviewed the Chinese- and English-language literature for studies with primary data on pneumonia incidence and mortality in mainland China. Between 1985 and 2008, 37 studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was highly variable. For children

  13. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  14. Representing Divorce, Reforming Interiority: Narratives of Gender, Class and Family in Post-Reform Chinese Literature and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This project stands at the juncture of modern Chinese literature, post-socialist studies, cultural history of divorce, and critical studies about global middle-class cultures. Employing analytical tools mainly from literary studies, cultural studies and feminist theories, I examine stories, novels, films and TV dramas about divorce produced…

  15. Bacteria Community in the Terrestrial Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research of the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Xia, Y.; Dong, H.; Dong, X.; Yang, K.; Dong, Z.; Huang, L.

    2005-12-01

    Microbial communities in the deep drill cores from the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling were analyzed with culture-independent and dependent techniques. Genomic DNA was extracted from two metamorphic rocks: S1 from 430 and S13 from 1033 meters below the ground surface. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. The total cell number was counted using the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and biomass of two specific bacteria were quantified using real-time PCR. Enrichment was set up for a rock from 3911 meters below the surface in medium for authotrophic methanogens (i.e., CO2 + H2). The total cell number in S13 was 1.0 × 104 cells per gram of rock. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that low G + C Gram positive sequences were dominant (50 percent of all 54 clone sequenced) followed by the alpha-, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria. Within the low G + C Gram positive bacteria, most clone sequences were similar to species of Bacillus from various natural environments (deserts, rivers etc.). Within the Proteobacteria, our clone sequences were similar to species of Acinetobacter, Acidovorax, and Aeromonas. The RT-RCP results showed that biomass of two particular clone sequences (CCSD1305, similar to Aeromonas caviae and CCSD1307, similar to Acidovorax facilis) was 95 and 1258 cells/g, respectively. A bacterial isolate was obtained from the 3911-m rock in methanogenic medium. It was Gram negative with no flagella, immobile, and facultative anaerobic, and grows optimally at 65oC. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the genus of Bacillus. Physiological tests further revealed that it was a strain of Bacillus caldotenax.

  16. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-05-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published article on a mathematical model of the spread of the West Nile virus in North America. The prototype is available as a web-based resource that includes supplemental pedagogical units. Preliminary feedback from use of the prototype in two classrooms is described and a sketch of an ongoing formal evaluation is provided.

  17. Molluscicidal efficacies of different formulations of niclosamide: result of meta-analysis of Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo-Jing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The control efforts on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, cannot be easily excluded from the integrated approach of schistosomiasis control in China. Application of chemical compounds, molluscicides, in snail habitats is a common method for snail control in addition to environmental modification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the molluscicidal effects of the currently recommended 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder and a new 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder developed by Chinese researchers. Literature was searched from three Chinese databases, i.e. Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Database and Wanfang Database, on field mollusciciding trials of niclosamide in China (from January 1, 1990 to April 1, 2010. Molluscicidal effects on reduction of snail population of the 50% or 4% niclosamide formulations in field trial were evaluated 3 days, 7 days or 15 days post-application. Out of 90 publications, 20 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity tests indicated that no publication bias existed but heterogeneity between studies was present. Meta-analysis in a random effect model showed that the snail mortality of 3, 7 and 15 days after spraying the 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were 77% [95%CI: 0.68-0.86], 83% [95%CI: 0.77-0.89], and 88% [95%CI: 0.82-0.92], respectively. For the 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder, the snail mortality after 3, 7 and 15 days were 81% [95%CI: 0.65-0.93], 90% [95%CI: 0.83-0.95] and 94% [95%CI: 0.91-0.97], respectively. Both are good enough to be used as molluscicides integrated with a schistosomiasis control programme. The 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder can be applied in the field without water supply as the surrogate of the current widely used 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder. However, to consolidate the schistosomiasis control

  18. Molluscicidal efficacies of different formulations of niclosamide: result of meta-analysis of Chinese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Li, Wei; Sun, Le-Ping; Wu, Feng; Yang, Kun; Huang, Yi-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-09-07

    The control efforts on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, cannot be easily excluded from the integrated approach of schistosomiasis control in China. Application of chemical compounds, molluscicides, in snail habitats is a common method for snail control in addition to environmental modification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the molluscicidal effects of the currently recommended 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder and a new 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder developed by Chinese researchers. Literature was searched from three Chinese databases, i.e. Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Database and Wanfang Database, on field mollusciciding trials of niclosamide in China (from January 1, 1990 to April 1, 2010). Molluscicidal effects on reduction of snail population of the 50% or 4% niclosamide formulations in field trial were evaluated 3 days, 7 days or 15 days post-application. Out of 90 publications, 20 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity tests indicated that no publication bias existed but heterogeneity between studies was present. Meta-analysis in a random effect model showed that the snail mortality of 3, 7 and 15 days after spraying the 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were 77% [95%CI: 0.68-0.86], 83% [95%CI: 0.77-0.89], and 88% [95%CI: 0.82-0.92], respectively. For the 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder, the snail mortality after 3, 7 and 15 days were 81% [95%CI: 0.65-0.93], 90% [95%CI: 0.83-0.95] and 94% [95%CI: 0.91-0.97], respectively. Both are good enough to be used as molluscicides integrated with a schistosomiasis control programme. The 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder can be applied in the field without water supply as the surrogate of the current widely used 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder. However, to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievement gained, it is

  19. A Combination of influence from Confucianism and Taoism upon Chinese culture and literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英华

    2008-01-01

    @@ Preface The mixture of various cultures including those deep rooted in Chinese history and those imported in the ancient time has led to the profoundness,uniqueness and colorfulness of Chinese culture,among which the combination of two of them---Confucianism and Taoism has fundamental influence in the way Chinese think and behave.

  20. Promoting integrative medicine by computerization of traditional Chinese medicine for scientific research and clinical practice: The SuiteTCM Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur de Sá Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Chinese and contemporary Western medical practices evolved on different cultures and historical contexts and,therefore,their medical knowledge represents this cultural divergence.Computerization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is being used to promote the integrative medicine to manage,process and integrate the knowledge related to TCM anatomy,physiology,semiology,pathophysiology,and therapy.METHODS:We proposed the development of the SuiteTCM software,a collection of integrated computational models mainly derived from epidemiology and statistical sciences for computerization of Chinese medicine scientific research and clinical practice in all levels of prevention.The software includes components for data management (DataTCM),simulation of cases (SimTCM),analyses and validation of datasets (SciTCM),clinical examination and pattern differentiation (DiagTCM,Tongue TCM,and Pulse TCM),intervention selection (AcuTCM,HerbsTCM,and DietTCM),management of medical records (ProntTCM),epidemiologic investigation of sampled data (ResearchTCM),and medical education,training,and assessment (StudentTCM).DISCUSSION:The SuiteTCM project is expected to contribute to the ongoing development of integrative medicine and the applicability of TCM in worldwide scientific research and health care.The SuiteTCM 1.0 runs on Windows XP or later and is freely available for download as an executable application.

  1. Academic Writing in Reflexive Professional Writing: Citations of Scientific Literature in Supervised Pre-Service Training Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Chaves de Melo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate citation practices of scientific literature in reflexive writing from the genre of supervised pre-service training report produced by pre-service teachers enrolled in the mandatory pre-service training subject of English Language Teaching, at an undergraduate language teaching course. The aim of this research is to analyze how these pre-services teacher represent themselves based on citation practices of scientific literature, and characterize some of the functions deployed by the citations in the reflexive writing emerging in the academic sphere. We use the dialogic approach to language from Bakhtinian studies as a theoretical base, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions regarding types of sequences and of discourse proposed by Adam and Bronckart. The results of this research show that the practice of citation of scientific literature is an invocation of authority as a form of erudition, amplification and ornamentation of the discourse produced. This practice can also guide pedagogical action developed by pre-service teachers in their supervised training.

  2. Accessing grey literature in an integrated environment of scientific research information

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Elly; Baars, Chris; Hogenaar, Arjan (KNAW Research Information); van Meel, Marga; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2007-01-01

    The DARE programme was initiated in the Netherlands by the SURF Foundation, the Dutch universities, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The objective of the programme was to enable digital access to research results of all the Dutch scientific institutions. Since the DARE programme (2003 - 2006), all the institutes involved have had their own repositories. The DAREnet portal website (www.darenet.nl/en) give...

  3. Library consortia and funding scientific literature and databases in Slovenia in the year 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Južnič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic ways of scientific communication is publishing in scientific journals which play a key role in the evaluation of scientific excellence and as such represent an indispensable part of scientific infrastructure. Their relevance is reflected in the high use rate. The article presents experiences in consortium purchases of scientific journals in the Republic of Slovenia within the management of the Central Technological Library at the University of Ljubljana (CTK. In 2009, the number of successful full-text article requests amounted to 829,576 EUR, an increase of 33% compared to the year 2008 and 178% more requests than in 2006. The Slovenian Research Agency (SRA supports libraries in consortium purchasing and is responsible for co-financing foreign scientific library resources in the Republic of Slovenia. In 2009, the amount of EUR 3,520,000 was given to libraries, of which the consortium received EUR 1,421,458,an increase of 419% compared to the previous year. Consequently eight new members joined the consortium in 2010, now involving 22 institutions. The article also presents the benefits of additional financial means given to the consortium.

  4. Using HeLa cell stress response to introduce first year students to the scientific method, laboratory techniques, primary literature, and scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, Karen K

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular biology course that couples inquiry-based experimental design with extensive scientific writing was designed at Westminster College to expose first year students to these concepts early in their undergraduate career. In the module students used scientific literature to design and then implement an experiment on the effect of cellular stress on protein expression in HeLa cells. In parallel the students developed a research paper in the style of the undergraduate journal BIOS to report their results. HeLa cells were used to integrate the research experience with the Westminster College "Next Chapter" first year program, in which the students explored the historical relevance of HeLa cells from a sociological perspective through reading The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. In this report I detail the design, delivery, student learning outcomes, and assessment of this module, and while this exercise was designed for an introductory course at a small primarily undergraduate institution, suggestions for modifications at larger universities or for upper division courses are included. Finally, based on student outcomes suggestions are provided for improving the module to enhance the link between teaching students skills in experimental design and execution with developing student skills in information literacy and writing.

  5. 汉语成语的文史信息%Literature and History Information in Chinese Idiom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    汉语成语是中国语言的一大特色,汉语成语源远流长,蕴含大量的古代文史信息。本文通过汉语成语的出处的分析研究,以数据说话,揭示了中国古代文化发展和文化名人辈出的历史规律。%Chinese idiom is one of the features of Chinese language. It has a long history, which contains a large number of ancient literature and history information. This article through analysis and study of the origin of Chinese idiom, with a lot of data, reveals the historical law of Chinese ancient culture development and cul-tural celebrity men.

  6. A Review of Literature Regarding Scientific Controversies Surrounding the Psychometric Properties of the Rorschach Inkblot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kevin Neil

    2009-01-01

    The Rorschach Inkblot Test has been the focus of intense controversy, significantly impacting clinicians who currently rely on Exner's Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) in clinical and forensic settings. This paper evaluates recent empirical CS research to determine whether or not it reveals lack of scientific merit as some skeptics have…

  7. Trends in Scientific Literature on Atypical Antipsychotics in South Korea: A Bibliometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Shen, Winston W.; Pae, Chi-un; Moreno, Raquel; Rubio, Gabriel; Molina, Juan D.; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel A.; Huelves, Lorena; Álamo, Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have carried out a bibliometric study on the scientific publications in relation to atypical or second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in South Korea. Methods With the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, we selected those publications made in South Korea whose title included the descriptors atypic* (atypical*) antipsychotic*, second-generation antipsychotic*, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, quetiapine, sertindole, aripiprazole, paliperidone, amisulpride, zotepine...

  8. An Evaluation of Text Mining Tools as Applied to Selected Scientific and Engineering Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.; Wyllys, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses an approach to the discovery of scientific knowledge through an examination of data mining and text mining techniques. Presents the results of experiments that investigated knowledge acquisition from a selected set of technical documents by domain experts. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/LRW)

  9. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 2. Abdominal parenchymal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenacher, L. [Diagnostik Muenchen-Diagnostic Imaging Centre (Germany); Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regenburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-03-15

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the parenchymal abdominal organs. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. The working group experts cover the most recent relevant studies concerning liver-specific contrast media with an emphasis on a new classification system for liver adenomas. Additionally studies regarding selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) are reviewed. For the pancreas the most important tumors are described followed by an introduction to the most recently introduced functional imaging techniques. The manuscript concludes with some remarks on recent studies and concerning chronic pancreatitis as well as autoimmune pancreatitis.

  10. Evaluation of forestry strategies for climate change mitigation in continental France. Scientific literature and main actors' positioning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work contributes to the current scientific debate regarding the optimization of the forest sector's contribution to mitigating climate change. A scientific literature review has pointed out some uncertainties on the contribution to emission reduction objectives in the short to medium-term of an increasing harvest of forest resources for wood construction and energy generation. Timing of mitigation benefits for a managed forest depends on forestry upstream characteristics(forest and soil type and silviculture method) and downstream characteristics (transport distance, use of wood, efficiency of wood based energy production, fossil-fuel based reference system that is substituted,etc). A survey conducted among national forest experts points out debates concerning optimal silviculture practices to mitigating climate change. These discussions are due to the trades-off between sequestering carbon in forest ecosystems and climatic benefits obtained by sustainable forest harvesting and use of wood products to displace fossil emissions. (author)

  11. Toward Sublime:the Comparison of Sea Poems in Chinese and English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单健; 翟静

    2014-01-01

    This essay briefly discusses different reflections of western and Chinese philosophy towards sea in poems. By the com-parison of the evaluation of sea in Chinese and English poems, this essay reaches the conclusion that both cultures have sublime understanding towards sea.

  12. The Science-Technology-Society Framework for Achieving Scientific Literacy: An Overview of the Existing Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autieri, Steven M.; Amirshokoohi, Aidin; Kazempour, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    This literature review intends to highlight some of the critical research that has been synthesized on the perspectives of both teachers and students and their attitudes to teaching and learning in an STS-themed learning environment. The first portion draws on the perspectives of elementary and secondary school teachers both locally and abroad.…

  13. Fishes and other aquatic species in the Byzantine literature. Classification, terminology and scientific names.

    OpenAIRE

    CHRONE-VAKALOPOULOS, Maria; Angelos VAKALOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Fishes and other aquatic species were substantial food in the every day life of Byzantine people. The predomination of Christianity contributed to the increased consumption of fishes and other seafood compared to the meat of land animals and chicken. More than a hundred ten names of fishes and about thirty names of other aquatic organisms are found in the sources of the Byzantine literature. Most frequent references are found in the medical texts of the Byzantine doctors, where, fishes are cl...

  14. Chinese Contemporary Literature and Nobel Prize in Literature%中国当代文学与诺贝尔文学奖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊贤

    2012-01-01

    特定的生存环境促成中国当代文学独自的运行轨道与风貌。这是一个由文学的被动走向主动的过程,是一个文学觉醒的过程,是一个文学不断走向成熟的过程。这个发展过程的实质是,真、善、美的运行机制由非良性状态向良性的转化与调整。中国当代文学向诺贝尔文学奖冲刺,在于在一个新的层面上对真、善、美进行整合,都在于对世界文学潮流的认同与超越。创作模式的革新发生在历史、时代、作家与读者这四维审美情感的交汇区。文学大家应该是大哲学家、美学家与艺术家集于一身者,还要善于集中与加工群众的审美智慧。批评家、理论家既要学者化,又要作家化;既有脱俗的审美能力,又要有不同凡响的哲学修养,时代也要求理论大师的登台。%The specific social environment forms the unique orbit of Chinese contemporary literature.The developing process of Chinese contemporary literature is one from passive to active,one of literary wakening,and one to literary mature.The essence of the process is the transformation and adjustment from a non-benign status to the benign status.The sprint of Chinese contemporary literature to Nobel prize in literature will have to take a new integration of the true,the good and the beautiful on a high level towards the global literary trend.Composing mode should be innovated and should be adapted to history,new era,author's taste and readers' appreciation.Literary masters are supposed to be philosophers,aestheticians,and artists at the same time and critics,theorists should both be scholarized and authorized.The era needs more complex masters.

  15. 20世纪中国文学中的 "风水" 叙事%The Feng Shui Narration in the 20 th Century Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旋波

    2015-01-01

    近代以来, 作为中国传统文化一脉的风水观因其缺乏 "真确的知识" 而受到摒弃和批判, 五四以来风水一直受到科学理性、 唯物主义主导的文学思潮的攻伐. 随后, 20世纪中国社会及文化思潮发生了巨大的变迁,风水在文学中的境遇也因时而易, 这不但反映了时代思潮的嬗变, 还纠结着20世纪纷繁复杂的政治、 哲学及美学取向. 尤其是随着90年代中国文化语境的变迁, 风水文化逐渐浮现出其反思现代性的 "复魅" 特质.%In modern times, Feng Shui, which has been inherent to traditional Chinese culture, has been denounced and defamed as lack of scientific and truthful knowledge, and has long been criticized by the rational and materialistic school of literature since the May Fourth Movement. In the 20th century, as the Chinese society and ideology is undergoing dramatic changes, Feng Shui varies from time to time in literature, which reflects not only the transformation of ideology but also the complication of politics, philosophy and aesthetics. Particularly in the 1990s, as the cultural environment in China has greatly changed, the culture of Feng Shui tends to be charged with the nature of "revitalizing the enchantment of the world", i. e. reflections upon modernism.

  16. 中国文学的历史星空%Historical Starry Sky in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The paper explains that Chinese literature has developed the trends during the four thousand years to from the Chinese cultural context. The ancient articles, Spring and Autumn period writings, Han Fu—the arti-cles in Han Dynasty, Pian Yong—the articles in Wei and Jin Dynasty, the poems in Tang and Song Dynasty, Yuan verse and traditional opera in Yuan Dynasty, novels in the Ming and Qing Dynasty, and with many litera-ti and masterpieces together make up various bright stars Chinese literature history.%阐明中华文学经四千年的演变潮流,形成中国文脉。上古文存、春秋笔墨、两汉散赋、魏晋骈咏、唐宋诗词、元曲杂剧、明清小说,历代文人佳作汇集,构成了中国文学历史上,繁星满天,璀璨夺目。

  17. Déjà vu: a database of highly similar citations in the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; Long, Tara C.; George, Angela C.; Garner, Harold R.

    2009-01-01

    In the scientific research community, plagiarism and covert multiple publications of the same data are considered unacceptable because they undermine the public confidence in the scientific integrity. Yet, little has been done to help authors and editors to identify highly similar citations, which sometimes may represent cases of unethical duplication. For this reason, we have made available Déjà vu, a publicly available database of highly similar Medline citations identified by the text similarity search engine eTBLAST. Following manual verification, highly similar citation pairs are classified into various categories ranging from duplicates with different authors to sanctioned duplicates. Déjà vu records also contain user-provided commentary and supporting information to substantiate each document's categorization. Déjà vu and eTBLAST are available to authors, editors, reviewers, ethicists and sociologists to study, intercept, annotate and deter questionable publication practices. These tools are part of a sustained effort to enhance the quality of Medline as ‘the’ biomedical corpus. The Déjà vu database is freely accessible at http://spore.swmed.edu/dejavu. The tool eTBLAST is also freely available at http://etblast.org. PMID:18757888

  18. Deja vu: a database of highly similar citations in the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; Long, Tara C; George, Angela C; Garner, Harold R

    2009-01-01

    In the scientific research community, plagiarism and covert multiple publications of the same data are considered unacceptable because they undermine the public confidence in the scientific integrity. Yet, little has been done to help authors and editors to identify highly similar citations, which sometimes may represent cases of unethical duplication. For this reason, we have made available Déjà vu, a publicly available database of highly similar Medline citations identified by the text similarity search engine eTBLAST. Following manual verification, highly similar citation pairs are classified into various categories ranging from duplicates with different authors to sanctioned duplicates. Déjà vu records also contain user-provided commentary and supporting information to substantiate each document's categorization. Déjà vu and eTBLAST are available to authors, editors, reviewers, ethicists and sociologists to study, intercept, annotate and deter questionable publication practices. These tools are part of a sustained effort to enhance the quality of Medline as 'the' biomedical corpus. The Déjà vu database is freely accessible at http://spore.swmed.edu/dejavu. The tool eTBLAST is also freely available at http://etblast.org.

  19. A Journey Across Rivers and Lakes: a Look at the Untranslatable 'Jianghu' in Chinese Culture and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Helena Yuen Wai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to explore the possibility as well as the impossibility of representing a seemingly untranslatable term: jianghu (江湖, which literally means “rivers and lakes” in the Chinese language. The paper discusses how the term evolves almost like an organic entity of its own, stretching from Chinese literature, cinema to the everyday use of the term as slangs and idioms. By looking at how the term is translated from one language to another, from an ancient context to a (postmodern context, and further away from one generation to another, this paper attempts to study the process of adaptation and translation beyond a linguistic scope, but towards a broader field of literary, cultural and film studies. The paper also examines how the process of translating, adapting and imagining jianghu can be deemed a manifestation of the Derridian concept of “supplementarity”.

  20. Dreaming scientists and scientific dreamers: Freud as a reader of French dream literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroy, Jacqueline

    2006-03-01

    The argument of this paper is to situate The Interpretation of Dreams within an historical context. It is, therefore, impossible to believe Freud entirely when he staged himself in his letters to Fliess as a mere discoverer. In reality Freud also felt he belonged to a learned community of dream specialists, whom I call "dreaming scientists" and "scientific dreamers." Instead of speaking, as Ellenberger does, in terms of influence, I will be offering as an example a portrait of Freud as a reader of two French authors, Maury, and indirectly, Hervey de Saint-Denys. I will analyze how Freud staged himself as replacing Maury and dreaming sometimes like Hervey de Saint-Denys. My premise in this work is that we must forget Freud, in order to adventure into a learned dream culture peculiar to the nineteenth century. Only afterwards can we come back to Freud and place him in this context as a creative heir.

  1. Scientific literature addressing brain glioma in the Web of Science A 10-year bibliometric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaihua Xu; Tao Tang; Dongsheng Pan; Di Fan; Zhenquan Song; Hongli Xue

    2011-01-01

    Brain glioma is a hot topic in recent years; however, brain glioma remains poorly understood.A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index (SCI) published by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) was performed to identify the global research and to improve the understanding of research trends in the brain glioma field from 2001 to 2010.During 2001 to 2010, there were 8 413 papers addressing brain glioma added to the SCI, and this trend is increasing annually.Of these reports, 6 945 papers are written in English.Journals published in the United States had the most papers, including ten core source titles.The Journal of Neuro-Oncology published the most articles followed by Cancer Research.Furthermore, the University of California, San Francisco, is the most productive institution for publishing articles in the brain glioma field.Finally, this study highlights the topics in brain glioma research that are being published around the world.

  2. 东南亚华文文学与澳美欧华文文学比较%A Comparative Study of the Southeast Asian Chinese Literature and the Australian, American and European Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄伟杰[澳

    2012-01-01

    There seems no people to go in for the comparative analysis of the Southeast Asian Chinese literature with the Australian, American and European Chinese literature generally placed on the specific Chinese ecology. Although they are comparable in many aspects, the real research on them is difficult but of reasonable value. If we study them from the historical and cultural background and geographical factors, from the sense of writers' identity and their knowledge structure and from their works, we can see there are many thought-provoking topics between them, because the Southeast Asian literature in the Asian context developed and grew in the "coconut wind and banana rain", while the Australian, American and Euro- pean Chinese literature in the western context have their free development in "the western culture and civilization".%把东南亚华文文学与澳美欧华文文学这两者笼统地放置于特定的华文生态中进行比较分析,似乎尚无人涉及。尽管两者之间确实存在着许多可比性,但真正梳理谈论起来却有相当的难度。当然这种比较对照自有其一定的合理性因素和探讨价值。如果我们从历史文化背景和地缘因素,从作家身份意识与知识结构、从地域经验与文本书写形态等方面来加以观察,便可发现两者之间潜藏着诸多耐人寻味的话题。因为东南亚华文文学在亚洲语境中,即在“蕉风椰雨”中发展壮大,而澳美欧华文文学是在西方语境下,即在“欧风美雨”中自由生长。

  3. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-fen Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  4. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  5. On the Chinese Version of the Term "Chinese American Literature" and Its Definition%论Chinese American Literature的中文译名及其界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王理行; 郭英剑

    2001-01-01

    本文论述了Chinese American Literature的中文译名及其界定问题,认为,其中文译名应为"美国华裔文学",对它的界定是:"有中国血统的美国公民用英语创作的文学作品".

  6. Prostate cancer, treatment modalities and complications: an evaluation of the scientific literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: santos-filho@uer.br; Missailids, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences

    2008-12-15

    Prostate (PR) cancer (CA) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in men all over the world. In general, if prostate cancer (PC) is detected early, treatment usually involves either surgical removal of the prostate or radiotherapy (RT). Hormone Therapy (HT) or chemotherapy (CH) is the preferred treatment for more advanced cases of PC or if CA spreads beyond the PT. A number of complications, such as urinary incontinence (IU) or erectile dysfunction (ED), can be associated with some modalities of treatment of the PC. The aim of this work is to evaluate, in PubMed, the number of publications related with prostate cancer and the main modalities of treatment, as well as some clinical complications. The searches were performed in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi) in the period 1950 to 2008 using the words: CA, CA and PR or penis or testis, CA and PR and RT, CA and PR and surgery (SU), CA and PR and CH and, CA and PR and HT and CA and PR and RT and IU or ED, CA and PR and SU and IU or ED, CA and PR and CH and IU or ED and, CA and PR and HT and CH and IU or ED, and (V) PC and the same modalities of treatment. The data was obtained on July 20th, 2008. PC, as expected has been cited extensively and surgery has been identified as the most widely referenced modality of treatment. Furthermore, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction are important complications that have attracted significant scientific interest. In conclusion, these findings have shown the relevance of the PubMed to analyze quantitatively the publications in cancer and this information could be worthwhile in aiding the comprehension of some clinical aspects related with PC, as well as the development of preventative actions. The analysis of the scientific interest, considering the number of publications in the PubMed, reveals research trends in the field and demonstrates the importance of the surgical procedures in the treatment of the prostate cancer. Moreover, this finding is

  7. Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Prasad SK; Hemalatha S

    2011-01-01

    Substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual behavior and satisfaction in humans and animals are called ‘aphrodisiac’. Uses of plant material to treat sexual disorder is a long back history in the different system of medicine and it was practiced by different type of vaidyas and traditional healer in almost all the countries in the world, like China, India, Egypt, Rome and Greek. Even though there was an unavailability of the scientific data, these substances have been used as aphrodisiac. During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria,Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans, Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo and in vitro model. Even though the study showed positive response to a particular substance, there is always a need to run the clinical trial before administering the tested drug in human being. The present review article summarizes the plant material which has been tested for its aphrodisiac activity in different experimental model (in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in human clinical trials) and comply its claim in the different system of medicine. A brief overview about the data of percentage study in the last eighteen years duration on aphrodisiac activity of plant material was done on the basis of the CAB abstract database.

  8. Scientific publications in anesthesiology journals from East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The scientific publications in anesthesiology research from East Asian authors have not been reported yet. The present study was designed to analyze the contribution of articles from East Asia to anesthesiology research. Articles published in 17 journals in anesthesiology originating from Japan, China, and South Korea from 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Web of Science. From 2000 to 2009, there were 3,076 articles published from East Asia. During this period, there were a notable decrease in publications from Japan and modest increases in publications from both China and South Korea. The average 5-year impact factor of the published articles was similar among the three regions, and China had the highest average number of citations to each article. Anesthesia & Analgesia published more articles than any other journal from all three regions. Our analysis showed that Japan was the most productive region in East Asia, but there was a notable decrease in publications from Japan in 2000-2009. The impact factor of the articles suggests similar levels of scholarship. Anesthesia & Analgesia was the most popular journal in East Asia.

  9. Resource Disambiguator for the Web: Extracting Biomedical Resources and Their Citations from the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Ibrahim Burak; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Martone, Maryann E; Bandrowski, Anita E

    2016-01-01

    The NIF Registry developed and maintained by the Neuroscience Information Framework is a cooperative project aimed at cataloging research resources, e.g., software tools, databases and tissue banks, funded largely by governments and available as tools to research scientists. Although originally conceived for neuroscience, the NIF Registry has over the years broadened in the scope to include research resources of general relevance to biomedical research. The current number of research resources listed by the Registry numbers over 13K. The broadening in scope to biomedical science led us to re-christen the NIF Registry platform as SciCrunch. The NIF/SciCrunch Registry has been cataloging the resource landscape since 2006; as such, it serves as a valuable dataset for tracking the breadth, fate and utilization of these resources. Our experience shows research resources like databases are dynamic objects, that can change location and scope over time. Although each record is entered manually and human-curated, the current size of the registry requires tools that can aid in curation efforts to keep content up to date, including when and where such resources are used. To address this challenge, we have developed an open source tool suite, collectively termed RDW: Resource Disambiguator for the (Web). RDW is designed to help in the upkeep and curation of the registry as well as in enhancing the content of the registry by automated extraction of resource candidates from the literature. The RDW toolkit includes a URL extractor from papers, resource candidate screen, resource URL change tracker, resource content change tracker. Curators access these tools via a web based user interface. Several strategies are used to optimize these tools, including supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms as well as statistical text analysis. The complete tool suite is used to enhance and maintain the resource registry as well as track the usage of individual resources through an

  10. Chinese Doctors Connecting to the English Publishing World: Literature Access, Editorial Services, and Training in Publication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyan Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on academic publishing, little attention has been paid to the needs and concerns of non-English-speaking researchers in professional contexts. This paper addresses the gap in that literature by providing insights into the situation with medical doctors in China. Following an overview of the broad picture, I will report a case study, which was conducted at a major hospital in East China and which aimed at exploring how a group of orthopedic surgeons access the English medical literature and to what extent they seek the support of editorial services and training in academic writing/publication skills. The results of the study show that the participant doctors tend to rely on their students or overseas personal connections for access to full-text medical literature, and they have generally had limited experience with language editorial services and academic writing/publication skills seminars. The paper ends by discussing some challenges while proposing recommendations for enhancing Chinese doctors’ access to the full-text medical literature, as well as their understanding of the kind of support that can be provided by editorial services and training in publication skills.

  11. 技术竞争情报融入科技查新服务的实施%Adding technical competitive intelligence analysis into scientific literature novelty assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张筱菁; 刘伟; 吴曙霞

    2015-01-01

    After a description of research contents and methods in scientific literature novelty assessment and tech-nical competitive intelligence , the necessity and feasibility to add technical competitive intelligence analysis into scientific literature novelty assessment were analyzed , followed by an elaboration on adding technical competitive in-telligence analysis into scientific literature novelty assessment in aspects of the contents , types and report of scientific literature novelty assessment in combination with case analysis , which showed that technical competitive intelligence analysis is an effective method for searching literature and writing scientific literature novelty assessment report .%介绍了科技查新与技术竞争情报在研究内容、研究方法的融合,分析了将技术竞争情报融入科技查新的必要性与可行性,从科技查新服务内容、服务形式和查新报告三方面,并结合案例分析,论述了技术竞争情报融入科技查新服务的实施过程,在文献检索及撰写查新报告中融入技术竞争情报的分析是二者融合的有效途径。

  12. 科技查新工作质量的影响因素分析%Factors influencing the assessment of scientific literature novelty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕淑云

    2016-01-01

    After a discussion of how to abstract and summarize the literature novelty points, how to use the retrieval words and how to write the conclusion in assessment of scientific literature novelty, the major factors influencing the assessment of scientific literature novelty were analyzed with suggestions put forward for improving the assessment of scientific literature novelty.%探讨了科技查新过程中查新点的提炼与归纳、查新检索用词及查新结论的撰写,分析了影响查新质量的主要因素,并提出了提高查新工作质量的建议。

  13. Female Cross-Dressing in Chinese Literature Classics and their English Versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Bo Tso Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-dressing, as a cultural practice, suggests gender ambiguity and allows freedom of self expression. Yet, it may also serve to reaffirm ideological stereotypes and the binary distinctions between male and female, masculine and feminine, homosexual and heterosexual. To explore the nature and function of cross-dressing in Chinese and Western cultures, this paper analyzes the portrayals of cross-dressing heroines in two Chinese stories: The Ballad of Mulan (500-600 A.D., and The Butterfly Lovers (850-880 A.D.. Distorted representations in the English translated texts are also explored..

  14. Green areas and health outcomes: a systematic review of the scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Nardo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Growing medical evidence shows that access to the natural environment improves health and wellbeing, prevents disease and helps people recover from illness. Experiencing nature in the outdoors can help tackle obesity and coronary heart disease. Green areas exert their benefits on both physical and mental health, promoting physical activity and strengthening the sense of community thus positively influencing social interaction. Urbanization poses problems through effects such as environmental pollution, accidents, heat island effects, climate change and a consequent demand for urban green areas.

    Material and methods: We performed literature searches of electronic journal databases for studies and reviews that focused on the relationship between green spaces and health. We looked at the effects on physical health, mental health, social health, physical activity and well-being in its broadest sense and then we categorically organized our findings.

    Results: We found many contradictory and unexpected results. However, the reported findings were generally consistent and supported the current view that urban design and the availability of urban green spaces are key elements of prosperity and individual/collective comfort, so as to influence both the perceived health and the objective physical conditions in a measurable way. A weak relationship between physical activity levels and green space availability is observed.

    Conclusions: The occasionally contradictory results that emerged in this study suggest that a opulation’s esponse to urban design interventions is often unpredictable. Further research is needed to quantify the trength of relation between green spaces and urban health, but also to investigate the social and behavioural spects which are more difficult to measure and understand.

  15. Quantitative analysis and relevant features of the scientific literature related to SAXS and SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present and discuss here numerical information derived from a systematic searching of scientific papers related to SAXS and SANS published in indexed journals - from 1945 until nowadays - recorded by the Web of Science Data Bank (WoS). We have detected interesting features regarding the time dependence of the number of papers/year, N(t), indicating the existence of three well-defined periods of historical evolution with rather well-defined boundaries. All three periods exhibit a positive and approximately linear variation of N(t) but, at the two transitions between periods, the rate of growth exhibits clear and strong increases. Differences of the historical evolutions in the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS were established. The different behaviours regarding the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS and the existence of three different and well defined periods for N(t) can be qualitatively understood as a consequence of the progressive and increasing availability along the last three decades of very brilliant synchrotrons, last generation commercial X-ray sources, new neutron facilities, powerful computers and novel theoretical approaches for SAS data analysis. The rates of growth in the number of papers/year published by authors from a set of different countries are approximately constant along the last two decades. For other countries we have detected a slowing down effect in the number of papers/year while a clear acceleration could be noticed for the production of SAS papers by authors from several emerging countries. These opposite trends compensate in such a way that the number of SAS (SAXS+SAXS) articles published per year all around the world maintained a vigorous linear growth - during more than 20 years - at a constant rate of 60 papers/year, without any indication of eventual saturation. The observed distribution of articles among different journals indicates that a very high fraction of the volume of SAS research is

  16. Molecular mechanisms of cryptorchidism development: update of the database, disease comorbidity, and initiative for standardization of reporting in scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urh, K; Kunej, T

    2016-09-01

    Cryptorchidism is a frequent urogenital abnormality that may be present at birth (congenital form) or develop later in life (acquired form). It represents 2-4% full-term male births. It has a potential effect on health; defects in testes descent usually cause impaired spermatogenesis resulting in reduced fertility and increased rates of testicular neoplasia, and testicular torsion. In our previous study, we developed a cryptorchidism gene database which consists of 217 genomic variations associated with development of cryptorchidism in seven mammalian species. The number of studies and study approaches in this field are increasing; therefore, update of the database was needed. The search of multi-omics data was performed and the updated database includes 280 genomic variations associated with cryptorchidism in seven species. The catalog has been complemented with additional data including: number of participants (patients/controls), race/ethnicity, clinical data (age period at diagnosis), congenital/acquired cryptorchidism, unilateral (left/right)/bilateral cryptorchidism, disease comorbidity, and disease ontology. Collected data revealed that cryptorchidism has been reported to be co-present with 150 comorbid conditions, including several syndromes, reproductive, cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, dermatologic, mental, and bone disorders, deafness, and cancer. However, updating the database is time-consuming because of the heterogeneity of results and methodology in scientific literature. The field lacks a standardized format for reporting associations between genotype and phenotype which would enable faster development of the database, data integration, sharing, and facilitate biomarker development. Therefore, in this study, we updated a database of cryptorchidism genes and suggested a first step toward standardization of the format for reporting results of original as well as review studies which we suggest implementing into the scientific literature that reports

  17. Prostate cancer, treatment modalities and complications: an evaluation of the scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião David Santos-Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate (PR cancer (CA is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in men all over the world. In general, if prostate cancer (PC is detected early, treatment usually involves either surgical removal of the prostate or radiotherapy (RT. Hormone Therapy (HT or chemotherapy (CH is the preferred treatment for more advanced cases of PC or if CA spreads beyond the PT. A number of complications, such as urinary incontinence (IU or erectile dysfunction (ED, can be associated with some modalities of treatment of the PC. The aim of this work is to evaluate, in PubMed, the number of publications related with prostate cancer and the main modalities of treatment, as well as some clinical complications. The searches were performed in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi in the period 1950 to 2008 using the words: (i CA, (ii CA and PR or penis or testis, (iii CA and PR and RT, CA and PR and surgery (SU, CA and PR and CH and, CA and PR and HT and (iv CA and PR and RT and IU or ED, CA and PR and SU and IU or ED, CA and PR and CH and IU or ED and, CA and PR and HT and CH and IU or ED, and (V PC and the same modalities of treatment. The data was obtained on July 20th, 2008. PC, as expected has been cited extensively and surgery has been identified as the most widely referenced modality of treatment. Furthermore, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction are important complications that have attracted significant scientific interest. In conclusion, these findings have shown the relevance of the PubMed to analyze quantitatively the publications in cancer and this information could be worthwhile in aiding the comprehension of some clinical aspects related with PC, as well as the development of preventative actions. The analysis of the scientific interest, considering the number of publications in the PubMed, reveals research trends in the field and demonstrates the importance of the surgical procedures in the treatment of the prostate cancer

  18. Applying a text mining framework to the extraction of numerical parameters from scientific literature in the biotechnology domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anália LOURENÇO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications are the main vehicle to disseminate information in the field of biotechnology for wastewater treatment. Indeed, the new research paradigms and the application of high-throughput technologies have increased the rate of publication considerably. The problem is that manual curation becomes harder, prone-to-errors and time-consuming, leading to a probable loss of information and inefficient knowledge acquisition. As a result, research outputs are hardly reaching engineers, hampering the calibration of mathematical models used to optimize the stability and performance of biotechnological systems. In this context, we have developed a data curation workflow, based on text mining techniques, to extract numerical parameters from scientific literature, and applied it to the biotechnology domain. A workflow was built to process wastewater-related articles with the main goal of identifying physico-chemical parameters mentioned in the text. This work describes the implementation of the workflow, identifies achievements and current limitations in the overall process, and presents the results obtained for a corpus of 50 full-text documents.

  19. Applying a text mining framework to the extraction of numerical parameters from scientific literature in the biotechnology domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André SANTOS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications are the main vehicle to disseminate information in the field of biotechnology for wastewater treatment. Indeed, the new research paradigms and the application of high-throughput technologies have increased the rate of publication considerably. The problem is that manual curation becomes harder, prone-to-errors and time-consuming, leading to a probable loss of information and inefficient knowledge acquisition. As a result, research outputs are hardly reaching engineers, hampering the calibration of mathematical models used to optimize the stability and performance of biotechnological systems. In this context, we have developed a data curation workflow, based on text mining techniques, to extract numerical parameters from scientific literature, and applied it to the biotechnology domain. A workflow was built to process wastewater-related articles with the main goal of identifying physico-chemical parameters mentioned in the text. This work describes the implementation of the workflow, identifies achievements and current limitations in the overall process, and presents the results obtained for a corpus of 50 full-text documents.

  20. [The applicability of the ecology of knowledge in health and environment and its permeability in the scientific literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Leandro Luiz; Landin, Rubens; de Toledo, Renata Ferraz

    2014-10-01

    A new epistemology makes it imperative for different knowledge to be incorporated in order to understand and interact with the complex problems that affect humanity, especially those associated with health and the environment. The study aims to explore the applicability of the ecology of knowledge in the midst of traditional scientific literature, focusing on participatory approaches to questions of health and the environment. The methodology involved a bibliographic review of an international scientific database, with the inclusion of 170 papers that were classified by their participatory approaches as: timely; multi-tool; and ongoing/cyclic. Although timely and multi-tool approaches may be effective in terms of aggregating popular knowledge, which is systematically marginalized by traditional science, it is in the ongoing/cyclic approaches that a higher level of potential dialogue is achieved, since it is possible to identify aspects inherent to more symmetric participation processes, with the prospect of empowerment of the social actors and legitimate incorporation of subjectivity and diversity. This corresponds to the premise that promoting global cognitive justice is indispensable for achieving global social justice. PMID:25272118

  1. Violence against women: systematic review of the Brazilian scientific literature within the period from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lídia Ester Lopes da; Oliveira, Maria Liz Cunha de

    2015-11-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide issue, and the number of publications addressing it tends to increase, due to its magnitude. This article analyzes the scientific literature on the issue, within the period from 2009 to 2013. This is a systematic review of articles indexed in the Virtual Health Library (VHL). It included studies freely available online and published in Brazil, in full text, in Portuguese. It excluded articles without a scientific standard, those published abroad, and government information. The studies were assessed regarding methodological aspects and those related to violence, and data underwent statistical analysis in the softwares SPSS and Excel. Most of the 148 texts were qualitative, published in 2011, by up to 3 authors, and the victims were individuals mainly assessed through Content Analysis. The violence types identified were physical, sexual, and psychological, with overlapping forms related to mental and physical consequences. The findings converge with the current trend to address violence in a qualitative way, in order to provide an in-depth analysis of the victims' experiences. It is expected that this study contributes to raising awareness as for the need to approach the issue, with a view to promote women's health. PMID:26602729

  2. VARIABLE APPROACH TO CHOOSING THE WAYS OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL LITERATURE INTERPRETATION IN THE CONTEXT OF A PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskvitin A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article touches the current issue of variable approach to choosing the variant of scientific and technical translation. Development of Linguistics and the sciences, studying a man and his activities, and increasing the flow of information due to the rapid development of the areas of science require another approach to the development of mechanisms for the translation process. This article discusses and analyzes multidimensional models of translation, their versatility with the dynamics of the translation process. The authors consider the translation as a specific component of communication using two languages in which the problems of philosophy, psychology, physiology, sociology and linguistics are accumulated. Particular attention is paid to the problem of interpretation of the concept of "invariant", which allows the translation of scientific and technical literature to achieve adequacy of the translated text with the original one, saving the message content and statements shades that is the style of the original text. This article details the various methods of translation, their effectiveness, and the authors estimate each type of translation in terms of use for practical purposes and in view of reducing the rate of a man work and reducing the complexity of his operations

  3. Analysis of the production of scientific literature in clinical research areas in Physiotherapy between 2005 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Narváez Martha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: characterize the behavior of clinical research in Physiotherapy, through the analysis of theproduction of scientific literature in a period of five years in order to identify areas of concentrationand dispersion, collaborative research and types of clinical studies have conducted. Methods andmaterials: descriptive study on the papers in Medline/PubMed from 2005-2009. Were considereda total 404 publications, clinical trials and epidemiological studies side, analyzed according to thepercentage distribution of articles by clinical area, year of publication, and institutional affiliation ofresearchers. Results: It found a greater number of trials (93% systematic reviews represented thegreatest number of epidemiological studies side. The clinical areas pulmonary and cardiovascularaccount for 65% of scientific publications in the studies analyzed. The year with highest numberof publications was 2008. Half of the clinical research produced in this five-year have affiliationwith academic institutions, and secondly, studies conducted in hospitals. Conclusions: the clinicalresearch publications in Physiotherapy in Medline/PubMed registered show sustained activity ofscientific production in the pulmonary and cardiovascular areas, consistent with the major healthconcerns in the world. The findings suggest that the ability of physiotherapists to develop qualityresearch, use and transfer of results into clinical practice should achieve greater development.

  4. College Chinese language and literature:from Theory to Practice%大学语文:从理论到实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蔚; 何二元

    2014-01-01

    This paper first reviews the whole process of Chinese language and literature from conducting research, writing the monograph, compiling textbooks to classroom teaching. The author explores the theory of College Chinese Language and Literature from the perspective of higher education of mother language and proposes that the compiling of College Chinese Language and Literature textbooks should be based on theories and the textbooks must be tested through teaching practice. This paper presents a summary of the experiences and achievements of College Chinese Language and Literature in the form of both theory and practice, hoping to offer references for the national Chinese Language and Literature teachers.%本文回顾了作者课题研究、撰写专著、教材编写、课堂实践的完整过程,从母语高等教育的高度探讨了大学语文学科理论,提出大学语文教材编写必须有理论开路、实践检验的观点,全面总结了大学语文从理论到实践所取得的经验与成果,希望能给全国大学语文同行们提供参考。

  5. Scientific Investigation of the Materials in a Chinese Ming Dynasty Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuya Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the cooperation project Rescue and Conserve the Endangered Wall Paintings in the Museums of China, systematic investigations concerning the materials and techniques used in the wall paintings detached from a Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 temple, Dazhao Temple in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia of China, as well as the previous conservation intervention materials have been carried out. X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX were used for the identification of inorganic materials in the wall paintings, while Pyrolysis in combination of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS was applied for the characterization of organic materials. Pigments including cinnabar, lead white, atacamite/para-atacamite, orpiment, ochre, minium, carbon black and smalt were identified. The binding medium in the painting was determined as animal glue. Alkyd is an uncommon consolidant in the conservation of Chinese wall paintings, but it could be determined in this object, where conservation treatments were performed in the 1950s.

  6. Cyborgs In Scientific Literature

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Rajguru

    2012-01-01

    Cyborgs were introduced into feminist discourse in Donna Haraway's“Manifesto for Cyborgs”, published in the Socialist Review1985. In this “Manifesto”,Haraway brought together the contextual arguments of the postmodern philosopherswith awidespread, deepening disillusionment with the mainstream political feminism ofthe1960s and 70s. Haraway argued for the Cyborg's usefulness as “a fiction mappingour social and bodily reality and as an imaginative resource suggesting some veryfruitful couplings....

  7. Current Situations of Competitive Scientific Research Projects for Agri-scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO; Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    This paper collected and arranged competitive scientific research projects undertaken by Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences in 2003-2014. Through statistical analysis on quantity of projects,funded amount,age of person responsible,professional title of person responsible,academic degree of person responsible,research object,it discussed relevant characteristics and rules. Finally,it came up with pertinent measures and recommendations,in the hope of providing services for decision-making and scientific and technological management.

  8. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Chen, Gang; Wu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá), made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn) of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation) causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research. PMID:24872929

  9. Writers' Chronicle of Modern Chinese Literature%中国现代文学作家表谱文献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏绪

    2015-01-01

    Tables, chronicles and biographies are generally used in studying the lives of modern Chinese literary writers, and have become an important genre in this field. The chronological table is mainly adopted for listing the writers' activities, publications, translations and literary events. In summary, there is no strict difference between tables and chronicles in studies of documents of modern Chinese literature.%表、谱、传在中国现代文学史的作家生平研究中,被普遍采用,成为中国现代文学文献的重要类型.中国现代文学文献对于表这一历史体裁的采用,主要是年经事纬体的年表,用以编写作家个人的生平活动年表,著译系年和整个现代文学史大事年表等.中国现代文学文献学中的年谱与年表之间并无严格的区别.

  10. Non-surgical spinal decompression therapy: does the scientific literature support efficacy claims made in the advertising media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dwain M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traction therapy has been utilized in the treatment of low back pain for decades. The most recent incarnation of traction therapy is non-surgical spinal decompression therapy which can cost over $100,000. This form of therapy has been heavily marketed to manual therapy professions and subsequently to the consumer. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a debate pertaining to the relationship between marketing claims and the scientific literature on non-surgical spinal decompression. Discussion Only one small randomized controlled trial and several lower level efficacy studies have been performed on spinal decompression therapy. In general the quality of these studies is questionable. Many of the studies were performed using the VAX-D® unit which places the patient in a prone position. Often companies utilize this research for their marketing although their units place the patient in the supine position. Summary Only limited evidence is available to warrant the routine use of non-surgical spinal decompression, particularly when many other well investigated, less expensive alternatives are available.

  11. Definition of a process standardization framework for a scientific journal based on a literature review and its performance objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Campos Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study that aimed to establish a framework to standardize the process of a scientific journal. It has a team that performs operational routines regulated by standards (external and patterns (internal and external. The high turnover rate of the supportive team has generated information loss and increased service variability. The research started from the assumption that the process standardization (which includes the formalization could be a way to reduce this secondary effect. Standardization techniques were identified through a literature review of the main national and international databases of journals and congresses. The identified standardization techniques were analyzed considering the number of times they appeared in the papers analyzed and performance objectives proposed by Slack et al. (2009. As result of this research, a framework was obtained for the standardization of processes adapted to the needs of the journal studied. The model is feasible to be used more widely, given its structural similarity to the one proposed by Campos (2004, a Brazilian model that is a reference in the field.

  12. Portal venous gas and thrombosis in a Chinese patient with fulminant Crohn's colitis: A case report with literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Siu-Man Ng; Raymond Ying-Chang Yiu; Janet Fung-Yee Lee; Jimmy Chak-Man Li; Ka-Lau Leung

    2006-01-01

    Ever since its earliest reports, portal venous gas (PVG)has been associated with numerous intraabdominal catastrophes and has served as an indication for urgent surgical exploration. It is traditionally regarded to be an ominous finding of impending death, with highest mortality reported in patients with underlying bowel ischemia. Today, computed tomography has demonstrated a wider range of clinical conditions associated with PVG, some of which are 'benign' and do not necessarily require surgery, unless when there are signs of intraabdominal catastrophe or systemic toxicity. One of these 'benign' conditions is Crohn's disease. The present report describes a 19-year-old Chinese boy with Crohn's pancolitis who presented with septic shock associated with PVG and portal vein thrombosis, and was successfully managed surgically. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PVG and portal vein thrombosis associated with Crohn's disease in a Chinese patient. In addition, we have also reviewed the reports of another 18 Crohn's patients with PVG previously described in the English literature. Specific predisposing factors for PVG were identified in 8 patients, including barium enema,colonoscopy, blunt abdominal trauma, and enterovenous fistula. The patients who developed PVG following barium enema and blunt trauma were all asymptomatic and no specific treatment was necessary. Eleven patients (58%)who presented with signs of intraabdominal catastrophe or systemic toxicity required either immediate or eventual surgery. The overall mortality rate among the 19 patients was only 11%. The present literature review has shown that the finding of PVG associated with Crohn's disease does not always mandate surgical intervention. It is the clinical features and the related complications that ultimately determine the treatment approaches. The overall outcome of PVG associated with Crohn's disease has been favourable.

  13. Seeking Accurate Cultural Representation: Mahjong, World War II, and Ethnic Chinese in Multicultural Youth Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjie

    2009-01-01

    The sheer amount of American children's and young adult literature, boasting an outpouring of 5,000 titles every year, often amazes a person who is new to this field. Not only is a large proportion of these books of high printing and binding quality, but, at a quick glance, among them is also a pleasant diversity of genre, format, targeted age…

  14. On Nationality of Chinese and——Western MythologIcal Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤涛; 童玥

    2015-01-01

    Mythology, which explains how the world comes into being, is formed at the early times of human being, when human being knows nothing about their origin; Knowing national characteristics of mythological literature of both China and the western world and their root causes, it can not only benefit our research on literary works, but also does good for our understanding their natinal traits.

  15. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  16. Similarities and Dissimilarities in Coauthorship Networks: Gestalt Theory as Explanation for Well-Ordered Collaboration Structures and Production of Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Hildrun

    2002-01-01

    Based on Gestalt theory, the author assumes the existence of a field-force equilibrium to explain how, according to the conciseness principle, mathematically precise gestalts could exist in coauthorship networks. Develops a mathematical function to describe these gestalts in scientific literature and discusses structural characteristics of…

  17. Progress in laparoscopic anatomy research: A review of the Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic surgery has generated the new field of study, laparoscopic anatomy. This article reviews the reported literature on laparoscopic anatomy and explores how it has evolved along with advances in abdominal surgery. In addition, the principal concerns in current laparoscopic anatomy research are discussed, including: (1) types of special adjacent anatomical structures; and (2) special surgical planes and anatomical landmarks. Understanding of systematic laparoscopic anatomy can pr...

  18. The 2nd Convention of Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics & International Symposium on Literatures in English(June 15-16,2013)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to further promote literary scholarship and international academic exchange,the University of Pennsylvania-based Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics(CAAP)will collaborate with the School of Foreign Languages and School of Humanities of Central China Normal University, Foreign Literature Studies,

  19. Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…

  20. 从中国文化资源重新定义文学%Redefine Literature through Chinese Culture: On the Development of Chinese Literature and World Literature in the A~e of Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张法

    2012-01-01

    西方对文学的定义是:文学是虚构,是与现实不同的艺术,体现为诗歌、小说、剧本。这一定义由西方向全球扩张而成为世界性的定义;同时,又在全球化的电子主潮中让文学被边缘化了。但在全球化时代不同文化汇通中,文学实际上最能显示一个文化的特质。如何让文学走出边缘化,而把文化的特质显示出来,就成为一个重要课题。在这一点上,中国古代文化关于文学的定义具有重要的意义。中国古代资源把文学定义为语言之美。任何文体,只要有语言之美,就可以成为文学。这一定义不但让人们重新思考文学和文学的各种类型,以扩大文学的类型,而且使人们有一种新的眼光去理解文学与文化的关系。更重要的是,让文学的品质在全球化时代的各种互动中得到提升。%The definition of literature in the West is that literature is fictive which is different from the reality but a kind of art, and which embodies in three forms, poetry, fiction and drama. This definition become a general thought with the process of expansion of Western culture aroud the world. When e-culture gets its main position in the age of globalization, literature is been peripherized. However literature can presents charateristic of culture in the age of globalization when the various different cultures communicate togather, so it is important to make literature give play to strong points. At this point, the definition of literature from ancient China is able to play its role. It defines literature as the beauty of language. Any form maken from words has light of beauty, it can be called literature. This definition makes us rethink literature, rethink what kind of form can be called literature and geves us a new vision to understand the relation between literature and culture. Impotantly the role of literature will be promoted into a carract position.

  1. Current status of pediatric kidney transplantation in China: data analysis of Chinese Scientific Registry of Kidney Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Longshan; Zhang Huanxi; Fu Qian; Chen Liping; Sun Chuanhou; Xiong Yunyi; Shi Bingyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation (KTx) is the primary therapy for children with renal failure.Unlike KTx in adult patients,it is commonly agreed that pediatric KTx in China is far behind that of America.There has been no systematic analysis of Chinese pediatric KTx reported.This study aimed to demonstrate the current status of pediatric KTx in China.Methods Registry data of pediatric KTx (1983-2012) from Chinese Scientific Registry of Kidney Transplantation (CSRKT) were retrospectively analyzed.Results There were 851 pediatric KTx from 102 transplant units.The recipients were (15.4±2.5) years of age,93.9% of who were over 10 years old.Chronic glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis accounted for 75.6% of recognized primary diseases.Allografts were from deceased donors (72.2%) or living donation (27.7%).The patient survival for 1,3,5,and 10 years was 96.9%,94.2%,92.3%,and 92.3% and the graft survival was 94.6%,91.4%,86.3%,and 79.2%,respectively.The majority of post-transplant complications were acute rejection and infections.Annual transplant reached the peak in 2008 (n=114),and decreased sharply in 2006 (n=41) and 2010 (n=57).The percentage of pediatric KTx in total KTx was highest in 2007 (1.95%) and decreased to trough level in 2010 (1.0%).Living donation increased by 32.5-folds from 2004 to 2008 and then decreased by 86.6% till 2010.The percentage of living donation in pediatric or total KTx dynamically changed in a similar manner,while living donation ratio in pediatric KTx was much higher.Conclusions Kidney transplant can provide long-term benefits to pediatric recipients.Rejection and infections are worthy of concern during follow-up.Pediatric kidney transplant in China is very much lagging behind that in developed countries.Living donation played an important role in its development in the past decades.New strategies for implementation are encouraged to increase the priority of uremic children in organ allocation so as to

  2. 中国当代文学中的记忆伦理%Ethics of Memory in Chinese Contemporary Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张均

    2015-01-01

    “文革”以后,中国当代文学有关革命的记忆,集中表现为对旧、新精英苦难的责问,并产生了彻底否定革命、重建“中国”的伦理效应。当代文学记忆所以能完成此类伦理建构,与其“可以叙述之事”与“不可叙述之事”相互适配的故事策略,与其通过短线叙述、封闭叙述等技术手段以保证“(革命)施难/(个体)受难”因果机制的解释霸权皆有密切关系。而知识分子本位的思维缺陷,也导致了当代文学记忆中下层利益缺位和革命被客体化解读的隐形之痛。其“深刻的片面”的伦理诉求,一定程度上埋下中国社会未来改革的不安与风险。%After the“Cultural Revolution”, the memories of revolution in Chinese contemporary literature mostly comprise the responsibility for the sufferings of the elites of different age, resulting in the wholesale repudiation of revolution and the reconstruction of Chinese ethical effect. Memories of contemporary literature built up the ethical structure, combining the narrative stories with non-narrative stories, and revealing the causal mechanism of “(revolutionary) causing sufferings and (individual) sufferers”through brief account, closed account, and other ways of narrations. The thinking defects of intellectuals also gave rise to the loss of interests for the lower classes in the memories of contemporary literature and misinterpretation of revolution. The partial ethical demands tend to be the factors of instability and risks in social reform for future China.

  3. 治疗2型糖尿病口服中成药的文献计量学分析%Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus oral Chinese patent medicine literature metrology analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔桐华; 黎元元

    2012-01-01

    The CBM, CNKI database 1979-2012 included oral Chinese patent medicine treatment diabetes literature, and the literature published time, periodical distribution, sources of literature and statistical analysis, to explore the treatment of type 2 diabetes medicine clinical literature distribution law and development trend, as in diabetes research related to the clinical and scientific research personnel to provide reference.%利用CBM,CNKI数据库检索1979年-2012年收录的口服中成药治疗糖尿病的文献,并对文献发表年代、期刊分布、文献来源等进行统计分析,以探讨治疗2型糖尿病中成药的临床文献的分布规律和发展趋势,为从事糖尿病相关研究的临床及科研人员提供参考.

  4. 1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

  5. Using HeLa Cell Stress Response to Introduce First Year Students to the Scientific Method, Laboratory Techniques, Primary Literature, and Scientific Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular…

  6. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009-2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions.

  7. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B. C.

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009–2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions. PMID:27096432

  8. 世界语境中的中国文学——“中国文学海外传播”国际学术研讨会顾彬访谈录%Development of Chinese Literature in Global Contexts —— An Interview with GU Bing at International Conference on Chinese Literature in Global Contexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菲英; 顾彬

    2011-01-01

    自“五四”以来,中国文学一方面在破旧立新中企图重新定位自己,同时又不可避免地卷入世界文学的大潮当中去,因此从世界语境中解读中国文学以及从中国文学中寻找世界性成为文学批评的一个重头戏。汉学家顾彬教授在访谈中认为,批评家应该将中国文学纳入世界语境中予以观照,而中国作家在保持自己特色的同时也应该多吸收外来营养以丰富自己的创作,而实现这种转变最有效的方式就是翻译。%Since "May 4th Movement" in 1919, during which Chinese literature has found its own way and meanwhile unavoidably influenced by world literature. Thus, interpreting Chinese literature in the world context and seeking for global characteristics in the context of Chinese literature has become a major concern in literary criticism. Professor GU Bing, an expert on Chinese literature claimed that while appreciating Chinese literature, critics should put it in the world' s context. At the same time, Chinese writers need to adopt new techniques from other countries while keeping their own styles so that their works can be refreshed, and translation is an effective way to achieve this goal.

  9. Exercise recommendations after total joint replacement: a review of the current literature and proposal of scientifically based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Markus S

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a literature review of the current recommendations regarding sports after total joint replacement and also suggests scientifically based guidelines. Patients should be encouraged to remain physically active for general health and also for the quality of their bone. There is evidence that increased bone quality will improve prosthesis fixation and decrease the incidence of early loosening. To recommend a certain activity after total knee or hip replacement, factors such as wear, joint load, intensity and the type of prosthesis must be taken into account for each patient and sport. It has been shown that the reduction of wear is one of the main factors in improving long-term results after total joint replacement. Wear is dependent on the load, the number of steps and the material properties of total joint replacements. The most important question is, whether a specific activity is performed for exercise to obtain and maintain physical fitness or whether an activity is recreational only. To maintain physical fitness an endurance activity will be performed several times per week with high intensity. Since load will influence the amount of wear exponentially, only activities with low joint loads such as swimming, cycling or possibly power walking should be recommended. If an activity is carried out on a low intensity and therefore recreational base, activities with higher joint loads such as skiing or hiking can also be performed. It is unwise to start technically demanding activities after total joint replacement, as the joint loads and the risk for injuries are generally higher for these activities in unskilled individuals. Finally, it is important to distinguish between suitable activities following total knee and total hip replacement. To recommend suitable physical activities after total knee replacement, it is important to consider both the load and the knee flexion angle of the peak load, while for total hip replacement, which involves a

  10. Terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency ablation of tumors in the scientific literature: Systematic review of compliance with reporting standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for

  11. IgE Myeloma: the First Report of Chinese Case and a Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOUJian; JIANGHua; HUHuixian; HEJin

    2004-01-01

    To report a case of IgE myeloma and to compare its clinical features with those reported in the literature. Methods: M-component in serum and urine was determined using celluloseacetate membrane electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis and quantification of immunoglobulins. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of IgE and its light chain. Results: A monoclonal peak was detected by cellulose-acetate membrane electrophoresis. The monoclonal band showed on immunofixation electrophoresis the following reactive patterns: positive for A antisera and negative for κ, IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD antisera. The serum immunoglobulin concentrations were: IgG 21.6 g/L, IgA1.2 g/L, IgM 2.64 g/L, κ 7.49 g/L, λ 16.0 g/L, κ/A 0.47. The results of immunohistochemistry showed cytoplasmic expression of IgE immunoglobulin and A light chain in the tumor tissue. Conclusion: This is the first case of IgE multiple myeloma reported in China.

  12. 水芹的本草考证%Textual study on Oenanthe javanica documented in ancient Chinese medicinal literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正明; 杨新波; 曹文斌

    2001-01-01

    Object To obtain a deeper understanding of the origin andvarieties of Oenanthe javanica (Bl.) DC. for therapeutic use. Methods Literatures documented through generations of practical experiences were retrieved with simultaneous field study and laboratory identification of chemical constituents and pharmacological actions for comparison. Results The growth pattern and its therapeutic efficacy in different indications as recorded in the ancient literatures were found to be basically identical to that obtained by modern scientific research. Conclusion Only Oenanthe javanica (BL.) DC. of the Umbelliferae family can be considered as the orthodox product for therapeutic use.%目的 通过对水芹的本草学研究,考证其基源及药用品种。方法 查阅有关历代文献,实地考察和应用现代科学技术对水芹的化学成分和药理作用等进行研究。结果 表明历代本草文献中所记载水芹的生长特征及其功能主治与现代研究结果基本一致。结论 水芹基源仅伞形科水芹属植物水芹Oenanthejavanica(B1.)DC.为药用正品。

  13. Rethinking on the Scientific Property and the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine%中医科学性及其发展问题的再思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张稚鲲; 张宗明

    2012-01-01

    The scientific property of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) is a long debating topic and the result is still uncertain. This paper states that along with the deeper understanding of the concept of science, the scientific property of TCM should not be doubted. The problems of westernized TCM, the integrative medicine etc. , are not only challenges but also opportunities. The key point is to attach importance to the characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, solve problems specifically, so as to seize the opportunities and create bright future for Traditional Chinese Medicine.%中医的科学属性是长期争论的焦点,目前仍无统一的认识.随着人们对“科学”的认识的不断深入,中医的科学性不应再被怀疑,目前面临的中医西化、中西医结合等问题,是挑战,也是机遇,关键是统一认识、脚踏实地,在当前环境下重视中医特色,解决具体问题,以抓住机遇、创造未来.

  14. A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Price, Jordan V; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Most scientists agree that comprehension of primary scientific papers and communication of scientific concepts are two of the most important skills that we can teach, but few undergraduate biology courses make these explicit course goals. We designed an undergraduate neuroimmunology course that uses a writing-intensive format. Using a mixture of primary literature, writing assignments directed toward a layperson and scientist audience, and in-class discussions, we aimed to improve the ability of students to 1) comprehend primary scientific papers, 2) communicate science to a scientific audience, and 3) communicate science to a layperson audience. We offered the course for three consecutive years and evaluated its impact on student perception and confidence using a combination of pre- and postcourse survey questions and coded open-ended responses. Students showed gains in both the perception of their understanding of primary scientific papers and of their abilities to communicate science to scientific and layperson audiences. These results indicate that this unique format can teach both communication skills and basic science to undergraduate biology students. We urge others to adopt a similar format for undergraduate biology courses to teach process skills in addition to content, thus broadening and strengthening the impact of undergraduate courses. PMID:23471252

  15. A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Price, Jordan V; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Most scientists agree that comprehension of primary scientific papers and communication of scientific concepts are two of the most important skills that we can teach, but few undergraduate biology courses make these explicit course goals. We designed an undergraduate neuroimmunology course that uses a writing-intensive format. Using a mixture of primary literature, writing assignments directed toward a layperson and scientist audience, and in-class discussions, we aimed to improve the ability of students to 1) comprehend primary scientific papers, 2) communicate science to a scientific audience, and 3) communicate science to a layperson audience. We offered the course for three consecutive years and evaluated its impact on student perception and confidence using a combination of pre- and postcourse survey questions and coded open-ended responses. Students showed gains in both the perception of their understanding of primary scientific papers and of their abilities to communicate science to scientific and layperson audiences. These results indicate that this unique format can teach both communication skills and basic science to undergraduate biology students. We urge others to adopt a similar format for undergraduate biology courses to teach process skills in addition to content, thus broadening and strengthening the impact of undergraduate courses.

  16. Characteristics and use of grey literature in scientific journals articles of Algerian researchers: Case study of University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene (Physics, Chemistry and computer sciences)

    OpenAIRE

    Chalabi, Lydia (CERIST); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines grey literature in research articles of Algerian teachers-researchers across the STM(Physics, Chemistry & Computer science) sciences at Algerian University of Science and Technology "USTHB". Each of these disciplines is respectively high ranked according to the report of Algerian general directorate of scientific research and technological development about Top emerged disciplines in Algeria. The purpose of the study is to reports the important and use of electronic resour...

  17. 俄苏文学对中国哈萨克现当代文学的影响%The Influence of Russian-Soviet Literature on the Modern Literature of Chinese Kazakh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁晓冰; 齐雪艳

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Chinese Kazakh Modern Literature is under the influence of foreign literatures,of which the greatest effect is from the Russian-Soviet literature.Because of the geographic position,ethnicity,the effect of national literature sources,the internal exchanging laws,the cultural context and similar history and reality,the Russian-Soviet had a significant influence on the Chinese Kazakh literature development,creative principle,the aesthetic criteria and so on.%中国哈萨克现当代文学是在外来文化的影响下发生、发展的,其中影响最大的要数俄苏文学。由于地缘、族源以及国别文学彼此影响、交流的内在规律以及历史与现实文化语境相似等因素,俄苏文学对中国哈萨克现当代文学的发生、发展以及创作原则、审美规范等均产生了较大影响。

  18. 论科技文与文学作品的翻译风格%Discussion on the Style Between Scientific Translation and Literature Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋蓉

    2014-01-01

    本文主要对科技文和文学作品的翻译风格进行了比较讨论。首先介绍了科技文和文学作品的特点和内容,然后主要从言语风格、文体风格和作品风格三个方面对科技翻译和文学翻译的风格进行了讨论,最后,对翻译风格的分析进行了总结。以上翻译风格的分析和讨论对更加准确的进行科技文和文学作品的翻译具有重要意义。%This paper mainly discusses the translation style of scientific article and literature by comparison. First, the contents and features were introduced, and then, the translation style of scientific article and literature was discussed on speech feature, stylistic feature and writing feature. Last, a summary was made on the analysis of translation style. The analysis of translation style is of great significance on how to translate more accurate scientific article and literature.

  19. Research on the Programmed Translation of the Abstracts of Chinese Scientific Papers%例谈中文科技论文摘要的翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛瑞红

    2012-01-01

    The Abstract writing of Chinese scientific papers follows the format of its own;meanwhile,the Abstract language has its own fixed expressions.Accordingly,the translation of the Abstract can be formulaic or programmed.By referring to the Abstracts of scientific papers in the field of petroleum,this paper explores the sentence patterns and expressions commonly used in the Abstracts of Chinese scientific papers and then introduces the translation of those Abstracts.%中文科技论文摘要的撰写有其固定的格式,同时摘要的语言也有其固定的表达方式。因此,中文科技论文摘要的翻译可以程式化。结合石油科技论文摘要探讨了中文科技论文摘要常用的句式和词语,并介绍了这些句式和词语的翻译。

  20. Trends in scientific literature on addiction to the internet, video games, and cell phones from 2006 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Carbonell

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5 th Edition could change the publication trends in the technological addiction area and underline the relevance of this upcoming disorder in dissatisfaction with life in general.

  1. Scientific publications in nephrology and urology journals from Chinese authors in East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diseases of the kidneys and genitourinary tract are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we compared the quantity and quality of nephrological and urological articles published in international journals from the three major regions of China: the mainland (ML, Hong Kong (HK, and Taiwan (TW. METHODS: Nephrological and urological articles originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published in 61 journals from 1999-2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the numbers of total articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, case reports, impact factors (IF, citations, and articles published in the leading general-medicine journals. We used these data to compare the quantity and quality of publication output from the three regions. RESULTS: The total number of articles increased significantly from 1999 to 2008 in the three regions. The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from HK since 2004, and surpassed that from TW in 2008. Publications from TW had the highest accumulated IF, total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading general-medicine journals. However, HK publications had the highest average IF. Although ML produced the largest quantity of articles, it exhibited the lowest quality among the three regions. CONCLUSION: The number of nephrological and urological publications originating from the three major regions of China increased significantly from 1999 to 2008. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK was higher than that from ML.

  2. The spreading of Chinese Language and Literature in the network environment%汉语言文学在网络环境下的传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华坚

    2016-01-01

    With thedevelopment of the Internet, It has led to read and study habits change,you can use the network to improve the dissemination of results of Chinese language and literature.This paper analyzes the significance and ways of using the Internet spread Chinese language and literature.%随着互联网的发展,导致人们的阅读和学习习惯发生改变,运用网络可以提高汉语言文学的传播效果。本文主要分析利用网络传播汉语言文学的意义及途径。

  3. 20世纪90年代马华报纸与文学的互动、互塑%The Interaction between the Chinese Newspaper and Chinese Literature in Malaysia in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王列耀

    2015-01-01

    The obvious characteristics of the 1990s'Chinese literary world in Malaysian is the limited literature space and the important role of the newspaper supplement. The Chinese newspaper was not only a publishing space,but also a living room and a development surrounding. But the development of Chinese literature didn't absolutely rely on the Chinese newspaper;the real relation of them was interaction with a common goal.%20世纪90年代马来西亚华文文坛的显著特征是文学园地稀少、报纸副刊作用极为重要.华文报纸不仅提供了华文文学的发表园地,也提供了华文文学的生长园地及发展氛围;但马华文学与报纸的真正关系是共谋中的互动,而不是依附之.

  4. Bibliometric analysis of Chinese literatures about hemophilia care research%血友病护理研究中文文献计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 段志光

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To know about the research status of Chinese literatures in the field of hemophilia care,so as to provide references for targetedly improving hemophilia care research in China.Methods:Chinese literatures about hemophilia care research were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI),China ac-ademic journal network publication database and Wanfang Data knowledge service platform,and were analyzed in statistical methods.Results:422 researchers published 207 papers totally,31.401% by sole authors.Coopera-tive research was limited in the same organization,lack of cross regional and interdisciplinary integration.Most researchers and institutions were from provincial hemophilia treatment centers,and six institutions of Hemo-philia Treatment Centers Collaborative Network of China were the main research forces.5.314% of the papers had been funded primarily by provincial、civic and school foundations.Nursing research had been published on 43 kinds of journals,44.186% of them were nursing journals.Research hotspots focused on the field of “bleeding”,“comprehensive care”and “home care”.Conclusion:The overall strength of domestic hemophilia care research was weaker and should increase investment in policy support and scientific research of hemophilia care research, strengthen domestic and international exchanges and cooperation,promote interdisciplinary research,and accel-erate the setting of hemophilia nurse positions in our country.%[目的]了解血友病护理领域中文文献的研究状况,为有针对性地提高我国血友病护理研究提供参考依据。[方法]采用文献计量学方法,检索中国知网(CNKI)和万方数据知识服务平台,对国内血友病护理研究中文文献进行统计分析。[结果]422名研究人员共发文207篇,31.401%为独著,合作研究局限在同一机构,缺乏跨地区及学科间的交叉融合;血友病护理研究人员及机构多来自省级血友病诊疗中心,以中

  5. 高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业应用型人才培养研究%Research on Fostering the Applied Talents Majoring in Chinese Language and Literature Education in Normal University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜刚

    2012-01-01

    The applied talents majoring in Chinese language and literature education are expected to be with noble character, rich knowledge on Chinese language and literature, skillful technique and strong practice abilities. None- theless,while fostering these talents, universities do have some issues such as inaccurate orientation of teaching,irra- tional course structure and imperfect evaluation system and so on. The new reform requires these talents to have an admirable appreciation of literature and a strong ability of expression, reading, writing, and teaching. Thus, we should lay our efforts on constructing a scientific curriculum system and a teaching staff with both and vocational qualifications. In the meanwhile, we should perfect the scientific evaluation practice links. These are effective methods to put emphasis on fostering the applied talents literature education in normal university, and achieve the goal of cultivating the talented guage for the basic education stage.%高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业应用型人才具有人格高尚、文化底蕴深厚、技能高超、实践能力强等内涵与特征。目前该专业人才培养中存在办学定位不准确、课程结构不合理、评价体系不完善等主要问题。新的改革要求高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业培养的人才应具有较强的文学鉴赏、语言表达、阅读、写作、教学实践等能力。因此,应该采取建立科学的课程体系、建设双师型的教师队伍、构建科学的评价体系、强化实践环节等有效路径,着力加强高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业应用型人才的培养,从而达到为基础教育阶段输送高素质优秀语文教师的目的。

  6. From women's literature to feminist literature : the debate on the term nüxing wenxue in Chinese literary media in the 1990s.

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Since the May 4th Movement on in 1919, in China, and especially after the Cultural Revolution, the term nüxing wenxue (women s literature) has been used about anything that had to do with women and literature, no matter if it has been literature written for women, by women, about women, feminist approaches etc. And in most peoples minds in Modern China: All literature written by women has been interpreted as women s literature. This thesis looks into some of the key articles published in ...

  7. Review on "BBS Are Our Kids Tough Enough: Chinese Schools" Based on History, Literature and Personal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiran

    2015-01-01

    The aim behind this article is to clear up some misunderstandings about British and Chinese education approaches in the popular BBC documentary "Are our kids tough enough: Chinese Schools". The article evaluates the differences in academic performance, class disciplines and education values of two education practices that have caused…

  8. Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia: A New Branch of Chinese Overseas Literature%海外华人文学的新支:东南亚回族华人文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建军

    2016-01-01

    Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia is literature branch active in Singapore and Malaysia , which has not yet attracted researchers attention .From 1950s to date, it could be divided into three stages .The formation of the Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia is related to the Chinese Hui Muslims ' migration and the develop-ment of the Chinese literature .Studying on it will be helpful for comprehending the relations between Chinese Overseas lit -erature and Islamic culture , which mainly covered the themes crossing with Zhenghe , female and authors ' creativeness .%东南亚回族华人文学是海外华人文学中尚未引起研究者重视的一支. 东南亚回族华人文学活跃于新加坡和马来西亚,从20世纪50年代至今,大致可分为三个发展阶段,出现了戴小华等一批作家. 东南亚回族华人文学的形成与回族华人的移民活动和东南亚华人文学的发展有关,对其进行研究,有助于学界思考东南亚华人文学与伊斯兰文化的关系. 东南亚回族华人文学的特色在于郑和题材创作、女性题材创作,以及作家创作的跨越性.

  9. Literature Study on Relationship between Cold-Heat Nature of Plant-Based Chinese Herbs and Inorganic Elements%植物类中药寒热药性与无机元素相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 王振国

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between inorganic element kinds and contents of plant-based Chinese herbs and cold-heat nature of Chinese herbs through philological method, seek substantial base of cold-heat nature of Chinese herbs to provide feasible means for scientific theory of Chinese herbal property. METHOD Information from existing literatures and data analyzed by various analytic statistics method (rank sum test, Fisher discriminatory analysis, Bayes discriminatory analysis, support vector machine and so on)were applied to research the relationship between cold-heat nature of plant-based Chinese herbs and inorganic elements. RESULT Kinds and contents of inorganic elements were closely related to cold-heat nature of Chinese herbs. The correct rate of using Fisher discriminatory analysis, Bayes discriminatory analysis as well as support vector machine to analyze relationship between cold-heat nature of Chinese herbs and inorganic elements were 60.00 %, 78.75 % and 95.00 % respectively. CONCLUSION Cold-heat nature of plant-based Chinese herbs is closely related to inorganic elements in them, which suggests the feasibility that inorganic elements can characterize cold-heat nature of Chinese herbs.%目的 利用文献学的方法,研究植物类中药无机元素种类及含量与中药寒热药性的相关性,探寻中药寒热药性的无机物质基础,为科学表征中药药性理论提供可行性途径.方法 利用现有文献提供的信息资料,运用秩和检验、Fisher判别分析、Bayes判别分析、支持向量机等多种数据统计分析与挖掘方法分析数据,研究中药寒热药性与无机元素的相关性.结果 研究结果表明,无机元素的种类及含量与中药寒热药性密切相关.运用Fisher判别分析方法和Bayes判别分析方法对药物寒热药性进行判别,正确率分别为60.00%和78.75%;利用支持向量机判别药物寒热药性,正确率为95.00%.结论 植物类中药寒热药性与所

  10. Thought on Scientificity and Future Trend of Traditional Chinese Medicine%对中医的科学性与未来走向的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄利兴

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the implication of science and the development history of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM), the author drew the conclusion that Chinese medical theoretical system didn't meet with the requirements of scientific spirit, but at the same time Chinese medicine generalized the conclusions which were in accord with objective laws during the long period of medical practice. Therefore, with the traditional theory gradually abandoned, the future trend of TCM is getting a new interpretation of law and relation of TCM by modern cognitive method, in order to make the objective laws of TCM integrate into modern medicine.%通过对“科学”的含义及中医发展历史的分析,发现中医理论体系不符合科学精神的基本要求,但中医通过长期的实践发现了很多符合客观规律的结论.因此,中医传统理论的逐渐抛弃,用现代的认知方法重新对中医发现的规律与联系进行诠释,使中医发现的客观规律最终融入现代医学体系,是中医未来的必然走向.

  11. Marxismand Chinese New Literature and Art%马克思主义与中国新文艺(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炯

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between Marxism and the development oi Chinese new literature and art. By reviewing the historical and cultural changes brought about by the Communist Party of China through putting Marxism into practice in three "thirty years" after "May Fourth", and exploring the interaction between theory and practice of literature and art, as well as related controversy in the process of historical development, this paper analyzes the basic understanding of contemporary Chinese Marxist literary theory on the basic law of literature and art and the law of socialist literature and art._%马克思主义与中国新文艺的发展有密切的关系,回顾“五四“后三个30年我国在中国共产党的领导下运用马克思主义于实践所导致的历史和文艺的变化,以及在历史发展过程中文艺理论与文艺实践的互动和有关争论,应深刻总结了90年来中国马克思主义文艺理论所达到的关于文艺基本规律和社会主义文艺规律的认识。

  12. Marxism and Chinese New Literature and Art%马克思主义与中国新文艺(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炯

    2011-01-01

    马克思主义与中国新文艺的发展有密切的关系,回顾“五四”后三个30年我国文艺界在中国共产党的领导下运用马克思主义于实践所导致的历史和文艺的变化,以及在历史发展过程中文艺理论与文艺实践的互动和有关争论,应深刻总结90年来中国马克思主义文艺理论所达到的关于文艺基本规律和社会主义文艺规律的认识。%This article discusses the relationship between Marxism and the development of Chinese new literature and art. By reviewing the historical and cultural changes brought about by the Communist Party of China through putting Marxism into practice in three "thirty years" after "May Fourth", and exploring the interaction between theory and practice of literature and art, as well as related controversy in the process of historical development, this paper analyzes the basic understanding of contemporary Chinese Marxist literary theory on the basic law of literature and art and the law of socialist literature and art.

  13. Deciphering Primary and Popular Literature: An Interactive Approach for Promoting Students’ Development of Scientific, Digital, and Information Literacy in Post-Secondary Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy M. Cleveland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In an era of unprecedented scientific and technological advancement, it is imperative that individuals possess the ability to interpret and make meaning of current scientific phenomena, including those of both national and global importance.  Despite this necessity, research suggests that less than 30% of Americans are able to understand the science section of the New York Times or other popular media resources.  In this paper, we present an interactive approach utilizing primary and popular literature that is designed to: a enhance students’ understanding of science content; b promote students’ ability to make use of evidence to support or reject claims regarding controversial science topics; and c improve students’ oral and written communication skills.  Applications for use in post-secondary classrooms are discussed.

  14. Liyue Culture and the Evolution of Chinese Verse Literature%礼乐文化与中国韵文学的嬗变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安裴智

    2015-01-01

    “礼乐文化”是中华文化一大特点,是“礼教”、“乐教”、“诗教”的三位一体,以“乐”致“礼”、以“诗”传“教”的特点,促成了中国韵文学的发达。“诗”与“乐”是调节文人心态、让其回归“明德”高境界、从而养成君子人格的重要媒介,通过“乐”的艺术形式,达至“礼”的道德境界,这是古代“礼乐文化”长盛不衰的原因,也是中国韵文学在世界文坛独标一帜之内因。韵文学是理境情趣与格律声调和谐相融、带有音乐属性、可以吟唱的文学。中国韵文学最主要的文体形式是诗、词、曲。而长期的韵文学研究,片面地将“曲”肢解为散曲(清曲),而将以元杂剧、明清传奇为代表的剧曲排斥在曲体文学之外,从而割裂了中国韵文学的完整性。作为昆曲文学脚本的明清传奇,不仅是中国曲体文学的最后一次辉煌,也是曲体文学发展的最高范式,是中国古代韵文学的晚期杰作。%“(rites-music) Culture”, comprising of “( propriety education )”, “( music education )”, and“(poetry education)”, is a major characteristic of Chinese culture. With“yue (music)”to advocate “ (propriety)”, and with “(poetry)” to spread “(Confucian teaching) ”, “Culture”contributed to the boom of Chinese verse literature. “ ” and “ ” are the important medium for literary individuals to adjust their state of mind to bring it back to“mingde (original state of human mind) ”, and nurture the gentleman personality. People attempted to get to the ideal moral state of “li” through the artistic form of“ ”, which kept the ancient “Culture” prosperous, and was also the internal reason that made Chinese verse literature a unique literary form worldwide. The verse literature, a perfect blend of content (ideas, scenes, emotion, taste, etc.) and rhythmic qualities of language (like

  15. Search of the Russian scientific literature for the descriptions of the medical consequences of the Kyshtym accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, F.L.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes a study concerning the nuclear waste accident at Kyshtym in the Soviet Urals in 1958. Soviet medical literature, interviews with potentially knowledgeable people, and the Samizdat Writing (underground documents smuggled to the West and/or surreptitiously circulated in the Soviet Union), were studied to attempt to determine what injuries or deaths, if any, occurred as a result of the event. All of the cases of radiation exposure discussed in the various literature searched seemed to be typical occupational or therapy overdoses. No allusion to the massive numbers reportedly irradiated in the accident appears in the literature searched. Evidently, these data are classified and not discussed in the open literature. This study also resulted in a modification of our understanding of the accident's cause; i.e., perhaps there was no single cause. At present, the best supposition is that there were many releases of wastes to the river system over time, plus an explosion in the fuel reprocessing plant, and that would help to explain the widespread distribution of nuclides. The lack of short-half-lived nuclides relative to long-lived ones can also be explained by the release over an extended period and the time between the accident and the beginning of the studies.

  16. Mining Learning and Crafting Scientific Experiments: A Literature Review on the Use of Minecraft in Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Steve; Schneider, Sascha; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Since the field of educational videogames or serious games is not limited to games that are specifically designed for educational purposes, videogames such as Minecraft have aroused the attention of teachers and researchers alike. To gain insights into the applicability of Minecraft, we reviewed the literature on use of the game in education and…

  17. Trends in scientific literature on addiction to the internet, video games, and cell phones from 2006 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Carbonell; Elena Guardiola; Héctor Fuster; Frederic Gil; Tayana Panova

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and...

  18. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Carbonell; Elena Guardiola; Héctor Fuster; Frederic Gil; Tayana Panova

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and...

  19. 刘若愚《中国文学理论》的技巧观%On the Skills View of Liu Ruoyu's Chinese Literature Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺根民

    2012-01-01

    In view of western culture and the world literature, Liu Ruoyu's Chinese Literature Theories explored the systematized thoughts of the art of Chinese poetry. The skills of bearing the meaning in the speech reveal the Taoism of the human social law. The thought of Liu's poetic skills increased Chinese influence on the field of the world literary.%参以西学文化,立足世界文学视野来探究中国诗学的技巧观,刘若愚《中国文学理论》发掘了中国诗学的系统化思想。以言语为意义承载的技巧,跃升为揭示人类社会规律的道,刘若愚中国诗学的技巧之思,加重了世界文论领域的中国声音。

  20. Contemporary Chinese Ecological Politics under the Guidance of Scientific Outlook%科学发展观指导下的当代中国生态政治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颜艳

    2012-01-01

    At present,the ecological environment endangers the human survival and development and the ecological problems have become a political problem.The ecological politics has become a sustainable developing strategy for Chinese economy.The scientific outlook,as the guidance for Chinese political ecology,guides the development of Chinese ecological politics.The contents of ecological politics and its guiding thought are analyzed from the evolving process of human and nature relation.The future of Chinese ecological politics is also analyzed through the analysis of the challenge faced by the ecological politics.%当生态环境问题危及人类生存发展时,生态问题实质上就上升为一个重大的政治问题。当前生态政治化已成为我国经济社会可持续发展战略的一个重要因素。科学发展观作为当代中国生态政治的指导思想,它的提出、贯彻、落实引领着当代中国生态政治不断向前发展。笔者从人与自然关系的演变历程入手,详细阐述了生态政治的内容,并论述了当代中国生态政治的指导思想,最后通过分析当代中国生态政治面临的机遇和挑战,对未来中国生态政治做了展望。

  1. Chinese Patent Medicine Tongxinluo Capsule for Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Xingjiang Xiong; Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We in...

  2. CONTEMPORARYFOREIGN LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence Bue; Marshall Brown; Alfred Hornung; James Phelan; Elizabeth Schultz; David Attwell

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Foreign Literature ( CFL,CN32-1087/I,ISSN 1001-1757 ),originated in 1980,is a journal of articles and reviews on contemporary literature except that of China.Peer-reviewed and published quarterly,in January,April,July and October,by the Institute of Foreign Literature,Nanjing University and the Yilin Press,CFL is indexed in the Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index (CSSCI).

  3. Terminology and Reporting Criteria for Radiofrequency Ablation of Tumors in the Scientific Literature: Systematic Review of Compliance with Reporting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Materials and Methods Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure ...

  4. “中国精神”研究综述%Literature Review about the"Chinese Spirit"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李励

    2016-01-01

    自习近平总书记提出中国精神以来,国内学者纷纷对中国精神展开研究。本文从中国精神的概念、组成部分、中国精神与中国梦的关系、中国精神的弘扬与培育这四个方面进行归纳和整理,有利于知晓当前的研究现状,发现其中存在问题,为日后中国精神的研究提供方向。%Since Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of China, put forward the Chinese spirit, academic scholars have researched it from different views. This article summarizes the current research situation of the Chinese spirit from the concept, the com-ponent, the relationship between the Chinese spirit and Chinese dream, and how to carry forward and cultivate the Chinese spirit. This article finds some problems that can provide direction to the research of Chinese spirit in the future.

  5. The influence of culture on the oral health-related beliefs and behaviours of elderly chinese immigrants: a meta-synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, André; MacEntee, Michael I; Beattie, B Lynn; Brondani, Mario; Bryant, Ross; Graf, Peter; Hornby, Kathryn; Kobayashi, Karen; Wong, Sabrina T

    2013-03-01

    Neglect of the mouth can lead to impairment, disability, and discomfort; as a result, it can have a negative impact on quality of life in old age. Some minority groups in North America shoulder a disproportionate burden of dental impairment compared to people of European origins, possibly because of different cultural beliefs and a distrust of Western oral healthcare. This paper explores these factors in elderly Chinese immigrants through a meta-synthesis of selected literature that reveals a dynamic interplay of traditional Chinese beliefs about oral health, immigration, and structural factors mediating access to Western dentistry. It also identifies several conceptual issues and gaps in knowledge, offers avenues of research including the cross-cultural application of two recent models of oral health, and discusses various strategies for improving access to dental services for minority populations.

  6. Chinese American Literature Viewed with Space Theory%空间理论视阈下的美国华人文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓惠

    2014-01-01

    兴起于20世纪末的空间理论吸收了地理、社会、建筑、文化等多领域的理论资源,为空间理论切入美国华人文学提供了多种可能和丰富的阐释空间文本中的地志空间成为作家身份认同诉求的表征方式;华裔的唐人街书写具有浓烈的政治文化内涵,成为华裔美国人构建族裔属性的社会文化资源和身份能指;美国华人文本在叙事结构上做出多种空间性探索;“第三空间”成为美国华人文学的书写策略和身份认同策略。%Originated in the late 20 century and taking up the theoretical resources from geography, sociology, architecture, culture and some other fields, Space Theory finds the possible ways to explore and interpret the Chinese American literature. In this article, geological space is used as a tool to reveal the authors' identity. The writings of Chinatown style by Chinese Americans possess the strong political and cultural implications, helping the Chinese Americans to constitute the social cultural resources and identity of the ethnic group. The writings of the Chinese Americans have tried some new ways in narrative structure, and "Third Space" becomes the writing strategy and cultural identification of the Chinese Americans.

  7. On Training of Scientific Literature Education to the Scientific Literacy of Young Children%论科学文艺教育对幼儿科学素质的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于敏

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, under the influence of"education"strategy and the"Science education should start with children"under the slogan of the past twenty years time, science education has become the new darling of nursery education. The scientific quality of foster children became the slogan of many of the media, has become the choice of many parents. The scien-tific literature in which its unique charm is attracting young children, science and arts education to enhance the scientific quality of foster children has an important role, is an important way to promote the scientific development of children.%改革开放以来,在“科教兴国”战略的影响下以及“科学教育要从娃娃抓起”口号下,短短二十几年的时间,科学教育成为幼儿园教育的新宠。培养幼儿的科学素质成为了众多媒体的口号,也成为了众多家长的选择。而在这其中科学文艺以其独特的魅力正吸引着年幼的孩子,科学文艺教育对幼儿科学素质的提升与培养具有重要的作用,是促进幼儿科学素质养成的重要方式。

  8. Rethinking of Sima Changfeng's History of New Chinese Literature%司马长风《中国新文学史》再探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 韦群芳

    2011-01-01

    After the Cultural Revolution,a new pattern in the writing of history of modern Chinese literature was gradually formed under the great influence of Sima Changfeng's History of New Chinese Literature,especially its unique framework,timeline setting and criteria for value judgment.Even today,we can still learn from its distinctive and enthusiastic modes of narration,as well as its exuberant language.At the watershed in the writing of history of modern Chinese literature,reviewing and analyzing this masterpiece may reveal the nature of the past and enlighten the present.%司马长风的《中国新文学史》对中国现代文学史的编写产生了较大的影响,其独特的编写体例、分期方式及价值评判方式直接或间接地促进"文革"后中国现代文学史编写新格局的形成。《中国新文学史》充满活力的写史语言、富于个性和激情的叙述方式时至今日仍有较大的借鉴价值。在当前中国现代文学史编写面临转向的关头,回顾与梳理这部史著意在正本清源、启示当前。

  9. 中国古代医药文献对外传播及其影响%International Communication and Influence of Chinese Medical Literature in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔卓瑶; 张宗明

    2015-01-01

    文献是人类文明的基本载体。在中医药对外交流的历程中,医药文献传播的重要意义自不待言。医药文献不仅是中医药文化历时传承的重要途径,也是中医药文化共时交流的重要方式。鉴古启今,梳理中医药跨文化传播史,发现凭借着丰富的中医药典籍、先进的造纸术和印刷术、开放的对外政策、发达的海陆交通,通过官方和民间两种途径,中国古代医药文献大量地输出,远播亚洲、欧洲,对汉方医学、韩医学等输入国的传统医学产生了深远的影响。%Literature is the basic carrier of human civilization . In the multi‐cultural exchanges of T raditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ,there is no need to underscore the fact that the spread of medical literature is significant .Medical literature is not only the key channel to the inheritance of TCM culture ,but also an important way for the communication of TCM culture .It is enlightening to systematically review the intercultural communication history of TCM .The study found that a great deal of Chinese medical classics ,the invention of papermaking and printing ,the open policy and the developed transportation ,plenty Chinese medical classics spread abroad to Asia and Europe by the folk and governmental ways .It exerted profound influence on the traditional medicine of importing countries ,such as Kampo Medicine and Korean M edicine .

  10. Literatura científica brasileira sobre transtornos do espectro autista Brazilian scientific literature about autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo refere-se a uma revisão sistemática, cujo objetivo foi conduzir uma análise da produção científica de autores brasileiros sobre Transtornos do espectro autista (TEA, no período de 2002 a 2009. MÉTODOS: A busca bibliográfica foi realizada nas bases de dados: PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS e portal CAPES, incluindo diversos descritores, tais como autismo e transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento. RESULTADOS: Um total de 93 artigos foi identificado, tendo sido publicados, sobretudo por autores da região Sudeste e de universidades públicas. Aproximadamente um terço dos artigos foi publicado em revistas com algum fator de impacto variando entre 0,441 e 3,211; sendo a maioria dos artigos baseada em amostras pequenas. Foram identificadas 140 dissertações e teses; 82,1% eram dissertações de mestrado. O principal tema de pesquisa abordado neste material relacionou-se a programas de intervenção para TEA. CONCLUSÃO: Esta revisão mostra o interesse de pesquisadores brasileiros na temática dos TEA, entretanto, uma parte considerável dessa produção científica se concentra em dissertações/teses e a minoria em artigos científicos publicados em revistas com elevado fator de impacto. Os resultados desta revisão sistemática mostram a necessidade de novos estudos com amostras maiores que levariam a um maior impacto e visibilidade da produção científica brasileira relativa aos TEA.OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic review aiming to conduct a general analysis of the scientific production covering publications of Brazilian authors about ASD in the period from 2002 to 2009. METHODS: The bibliographic search was conducted in the following scientific databases: PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS and portal CAPES, by using keywords such as autism and pervasive developmental disorders. RESULTS: A total of 93 papers were identified mainly produced by authors from tSoutheast Brazil and from public universities. Approximately one

  11. 论中国古典文学中的正义叙事%Narrative of Justice in Classical Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑双

    2015-01-01

    关于文学的社会功能,中国古代文论有“诗缘情”和“诗言志”两种传统,其中,“诗言志”生发叙事传统,赋予文学以载道的使命,体现了对正义价值的追求,并使得中国古典文学具有正义叙事的脉络。该正义叙事具有鲜明的民族特征:受“诗缘情”诗歌传统影响,正义叙事和诗性叙事呈交叉和弥合状态;受儒家礼制渗透,中国古典文学具有鲜明的道德教化功用,正义叙事背后是内在伦理秩序的构建;正义叙事反映了我们民族特有的审美文化和独特的语境,中国的阴阳二元思想与起源于结构主义的现代叙事理论有某些相似处。解读正义叙事对理解我们民族的哲学思想和文学叙事理论有重要的方法论意义。%As to the social function of literature, there are two kinds of poetry in classical Chinese lit-erature:Shiyuanqing 诗缘情 ( poetry expressing emotions) and Shiyanzhi 诗言志 ( poetry expressing lofty aspirations) . The latter, from which our narrative tradition originated, endows literature with the mission to convey truth and introduces narrative of justice into classical Chinese literature, revealing our pursuit of justice. Justice narrative shows distinctive national characteristics. Under the influence of Shiyuanqing, it is closely connected with poetic justice. Due to Confucian ritual theory, the func-tion of moralization is greatly emphasized in classical Chinese literature. Hence, what is behind justice narrative is the construction of our internal ethical order. Also, justice narrative reflects our unique aesthetic taste and cultural context. Chinese yin-yang theory is kind of similar to modern narrative the-ory originating from structuralism. Interpreting justice narrative is of methodological significance for understanding our philosophy and theory of literary narrative.

  12. Aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: a critical review of the evidence and its dissemination into the scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole, a second-generation antipsychotic medication, has been increasingly used in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this indication in 2005. Given its widespread use, we sought to critically review the evidence supporting the use of aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and examine how that evidence has been disseminated in the scientific literature. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched multiple databases to identify double-blind, randomized controlled trials of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder while excluding other types of studies, such as open-label, acute, and adjunctive studies. We then used a citation search to identify articles that cited these trials and rated the quality of their citations. Our evidence search protocol identified only two publications, both describing the results of a single trial conducted by Keck et al., which met criteria for inclusion in this review. We describe four issues that limit the interpretation of that trial as supporting the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance: (1 insufficient duration to demonstrate maintenance efficacy; (2 limited generalizability due to its enriched sample; (3 possible conflation of iatrogenic adverse effects of abrupt medication discontinuation with beneficial effects of treatment; and (4 a low overall completion rate. Our citation search protocol yielded 80 publications that cited the Keck et al. trial in discussing the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance. Of these, only 24 (30% mentioned adverse events reported and four (5% mentioned study limitations. CONCLUSIONS: A single trial by Keck et al. represents the entirety of the literature on the use of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Although careful review identifies four critical limitations to the trial's interpretation

  13. An Analysis of Difficulties Facing Chinese Scientists’ Holding Posts in International Scientific Organizations and Its Suggestions%我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题及建议探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军平; 秦久怡

    2016-01-01

    Based on some literatures and cases, the paper analyzes some difficulties facing Chinese scientists’ holding posts in international scientific organizations, where some suggestions are put forward in this regard: increase training efforts to make knowledge structure of Chinese scientists diversified both in width and depth; formulate policies and regulations to attract some headquarters for international scientific organizations to be located in China; and issue policies to set up talent reserve pools for the training of preparatory teams and talents for holding posts in international scientific organizations.%结合有关文献材料和案例,本文分析了我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题,尝试提出以下建议:加大培训,使科学家的知识结构更趋多元化;制定政策,支持和吸引国际科技组织总部落户中国;出台政策,建立人才储备库,培养国际科技组织任职预备队伍。

  14. 中国传统文学在园林中的应用%Application of Chinese Traditional Literature in Landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖雍琴

    2011-01-01

    After the analysis of landscape and literature, the application of literature in landscape had been illustrated from the perspective of landscape manifestation forms, major landscaping techniques and tourists' appreciation angles based on the relationship between landscape construction and Chinese traditional literature. In terms of manifestation forms, "tangible ' and "intangible" literature in Chinese classical gardens had been explained. In terms of landscaping techniques, it had highlighted the application of literature in borrowed scenery, obstructive scenery, inscription scenery and spot scenery. In terms of tourists' appreciation angles, it had analyzed the literature about tourists' "observing", "tasting" and "comprehending". Finally, it pointed out that landscape design should explore local historical and cultural connotations and emphasize landscape characteristics ; emphasized that landscapes of different themes should demonstrate different literature charms; and highlighted that literature connotation of landscape should be reflected according to tourists' psychology. It was of certain guidance significances to landscape design in the future.%解析了园林与文学的概念,从园林建设与中国传统文学的关系出发,通过园林表现形式、园林景观的主要造景手法以及游人赏景角度分析了文学在园林中的应用.在表现形式方面解析了中国古典园林中的“有形”文学和“无形”文学;在造景手法方面突出了文学在借景、抑景、题景、点景中的应用;分析了游人赏景中的“观”、“品”、“悟”的文学,指出园林设计应挖掘地方历史文化内涵,突出园林特色;强调不同主题的园林景观应突出不同的文学韵味;根据游客心理,体现园林景现的文学内涵.以期对今后的园林设计有一定的指导意义.

  15. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine:A concise report of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanika Patel; Ravi B Singh; Dinesh K Patel

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins.Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on aC27 cholestane skeleton.Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system.Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques.Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  16. APPLICATION OF PARAMETER CONTINUATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR. PROBLEM STATE. SHORT SURVEY OF WORLD SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bazhenov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their works study vibroimpact system dynamic behaviour by numerical parametric continuation technique combined with shooting and Newton-Raphson’s methods. The technique is adapted to two-mass two-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact system under periodic excitation. Impact is simulated by nonlinear contact interaction force based on Hertz’s contact theory. Stability or instability of obtained periodic solutions is determined by monodromy matrix eigenvalues (multipliers based on Floquet’s theory. In the present paper we describe the state of problem of parameter continuation method using for nonlinear tasks solution. Also we give the short survey of numerous contemporary literature in English and Russian about parameter continuation method application for nonlinear problems. This method is applied for vibroimpact problem solving more rarely because of the difficulties connected with repeated impacts.

  17. A Study on the Classification and Well-Logging Identification of Eclogite in the Main Hole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jian'en; Wei Wenbo; Jin Sheng; Ye Gaofeng; Deng Ming

    2007-01-01

    Eclogite, one of the important lithologies in the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project, exists above the depth of 3 245 m and has distinctive responses of gamma-ray, compensating density and neutron well-logging, and so on. In this study, according to the diversities of minerals and chemical components and well-logging responses, eclogites are classified from three aspects of origin, content of oxygen, and sub-mineral. We studied the logging identification method for eclogite sub-classes based on multi-element statistics and reconstructed 11 kinds of eclogite.As a result, eclogites can be divided into 6 types using well logs. In the light of this recognition, the eclogite in the main hole is divided into 20 sections, and the distribution characters of all sub-classes of eclogite are analyzed, which will provide important data for geological research of CCSD.

  18. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study.

  19. Origin of Chinese Sorrow Emotion Literature%情往会悲,文来引泣:中国哀感文学溯源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓红

    2014-01-01

    As a unique literary genre, the earliest source of lament in the history of Chinese literature is the text from Yellow Bird in the Book of Songs. There are many sad performances in Book of Songs, such as dy⁃ing young, the death of parents, grief for country perishes and expeditions, injuries and parting, feeling lonely, worried or frustrated etc. So the Book of Songs is the source of Chinese sorrow emotion literature. Its contents and methods of performance have forever accumulated in Chinese culture, becoming the eternal themes of the traditional literary creation.%作为一种独特的文学体裁,中国文学史上哀辞的最早源头是《诗经·秦风·黄鸟》篇,它具有后代哀辞的基本特征。由哀伤夭折人到哀悼父母亡,再到悲哀国破家亡,感伤繁重徭役、征战、苦难生活,伤离别、叹孤苦,忧心失意婚恋以及感时伤怀等等,人生一切不如意事尽在诗人笔下,《诗经》因此成为中国哀感文学的源头。它采用赋比兴手法所描写和表达的悼者的哀悯、忧国者的感伤、征夫的悲苦、恋人的离愁以及弃妇的哀怨之情,永远积淀在中国文化之中,成为中国传统诗文创作中的永恒的题材。

  20. Improve the scientific and nutritional analysis of Chinese cooking%提高中国烹饪的科学营养化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄忠

    2015-01-01

    随着社会的不断进步和发展,中国烹饪逐渐形成、发展、成熟为具有代表性的饮食文化,在国内外久负盛名。然而在中国烹饪的发展过程中也存在很多需要完善之处。例如中国烹饪更重视对色、香、味的追求,而忽视其科学搭配、营养价值的关注。在这种新的时代背景下,政府部门首先加强对烹饪营养条例的制定和实施,烹饪教育加强对烹饪工作者培养理念及教育观念的创新与改革显得尤为重要。本文笔者将从中国烹饪的科学营养角度出发,在简要分析当前我国烹饪科学营养化存在问题的基础上,为加强中国烹饪营养化、科学化的步伐提出具体策略,旨在为促进中国烹饪的成熟健康发展提供充足的理论依据和实践借鉴。%Along with society's unceasing progress and development, Chinese cuisine has gradually formed, development, maturity for diet culture with representative, long enjoyed a good reputation both at home and abroad. But in the development of Chinese cuisine, there are also many needs to improve. For example, Chinese cooking pays more attention to the color, smell, taste, and the pursuit of the neglect of its scientific collocation, nutritional value of attention. In this new era background, the government departments to strengthen the formulation and implementation of the regulations of the cooking, cooking education to strengthen the cultivation of the concept and the concept of education and reform of the concept of education is particularly important. In this paper, the author will start from the perspective of science and technology of China, and analyze the existing problems of China's Culinary Science, and put forward specific strategies to strengthen the nutrition and scientiifc development of Chinese cooking.

  1. 加拿大少数族裔英语文学研究在中国:1980~2010%An overview of Chinese scholarship on Canadian ethnic', literature in English: 1980 ~ 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦亮

    2012-01-01

    As an important component of Canadian literature, Canadian ethnic literature in English is an im- portant subject of Chinese scholarship on Canadian literature. The accomplishments of Chinese scholarship on Ca- nadian ethnic literature in English are largely embodied in its focus on Chinese Canadian literature, South Asian Canadian literature, Jewish Canadian literature and Russian Canadian literature. It fails to pay due attention to oth- er ethnic literatures and the study of some important ethnic writers is skin-deep. As a whole, Chinese scholarship on Canadian ethnic literature in English suffers from a lack of scope, which is, to a large extent, caused by the scarcity of the translation of Canadian ethnic literature in English%加拿大少数族裔英语文学是加拿大文学的重要组成部分,也是我国加拿大文学研究的重点关注对象。我国在华裔、南亚裔、犹太裔和俄裔加拿大英语文学研究方面取得了一定成绩,但对其他少数族裔英语文学的关注度还不够,对一些重要少数族裔作家的研究还不够深入和全面,研究面相对狭窄,尚未形成研究规模。文学作品译介方面的匮乏是造成我国加拿大少数族裔文学研究相对滞后的一个重要原因。

  2. The Beautiful Flowers Bloom in the Way of Thorns --Current Status of Chinese Popular Literature%在荆棘路上繁花盛开——中国通俗文学现状初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚丽

    2012-01-01

    Popular literature is an important part of Chinese literature, has a certain status in the literary history. This article is divided into two parts, describes the history and current status of Chinese popular literature. At first give an account of Chinese Popular literature beginning with Ancient Mythology,then Fable of Qin Dynasty, Yuefu poetry of han, ghost novels of the northern - southern dynasties, legends of The tang dynasty , sanyan erpaies of the song and yuan dynasty, and drama of yuan dynasty, Novel began of Ming and qing dynasties , novels of Yuanyang hudie and so on. Now, Chinese popular literature both in the writer, the work or readers, etc. , have very big development , this benefits from social progress and technology development and its own characteristics. Popular literature development also appear vulgar commercialism issues, but in general say opportunities and crisis coexist.%通俗文学是中国文学重要的组成部分,在文学史上具有一定地位。当下通俗文学的发展得益于社会进步、科技发展和其自身的特点,另外通俗文学发展也存在庸俗化商业化等问题,但总体上说是机遇与危机并存。

  3. 论世界语理想与弱小民族文学%The ideal of Esperanto and the translation of the literatures of minor nationalities into Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炳辉

    2007-01-01

    Esperanto movement presents a specific language and cultural phenomenon in the history of intercultural communication,which once exerted an extensive influence on modern Chinese culture.As an artificial intemational auxiliary language with a tinge of idealism,Esperanto has displayed complex cultural functions of translingual practices.In the 20th century,Esperanto was used in China as a medium to translate foreign literatures.mostly those from minor nationalities in central and eastern Europe.in which the contradiction between the cosmopolitism and antagonism of minor nationalities is reflected,and the inherent tension of modemity of the Chinese literature is exposed,which is worth noting for those engaged in the studies of the relations between Chinese and foreign literatures.

  4. Notes on Collation of Lu Xun’ s Outline of the History of Chinese Literature%鲁迅《汉文学史纲要》校勘札记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣抚生

    2016-01-01

    对人民文学出版社2005年版《鲁迅全集》中的《汉文学史纲要》注释和文字错误进行辨正,共指出并纠正存在的事实、文字错误20余处。%Twenty errors regarding the facts or Chinese characters have been collated in Outline of the History of Chinese Literature collected in the 2005 edition of The Complete Works of Lu Xun published by the People’ s Literature Publishing House.

  5. 我国花样滑冰运动员的科学选材%Scientific Talent Identification of Chinese Figure Skaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岩

    2011-01-01

    自从2010年温哥华冬奥会获得巨大成功以来,花样滑冰项目,尤其是双人滑项目已成为我国的优势项目,为了更好地巩固和发展项目优势,后备人才的选拔也成我们关注的重点。根据花样滑冰项目的技术特点,以及运动员在身体形态、机能、素质、心理等方面为应具备的基本能力,提出我国花样滑冰项目运动员在身体形态、运动素质和心理素质等方面相关的科学选材依据,为该项目运动员的选材与训练工作奠定基础。%Since the great success achieved at 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics,the competition of figure skating,especially its pairs event has become Chinese advantaged event.In order to better consolidate and develop its advantage,the identification of reserved talents is also a key.According to the technical speciality of figure skating and skaters' basic required abilities of body shape,function,quality and mentality,to form the foundation for the talent identification and training task,the paper suggests some correlative references of scientific talent identification,which relate to Chinese skaters' body shape,athletic condition and psychological quality.

  6. 中国古代文学编辑活动的特点%The Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Literature Editing Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达科

    2012-01-01

    中国古代文学编辑活动的特点十分突出。它在编、刊、售三位一体的格局中起着重要的主导作用,与收藏、访书、宣传、娱情互为因果、多元一体,与文学风气乃至文化思潮关联互动、相互呼应。这些特点为当今信息化社会的文学活动提供了许多启迪性因素和可资借鉴的文化资源。%The characteristics of Chinese ancient literature editing activities was very outstanding. It played an important leading role in the trinity situation of of edition, printing and saling, and became cause each other and pluralism with collection, visiting books, propaganda, entertainment, association interactions and mutual e- cho with Literature ethos even cultural ideological trend. These characteristics provided many enlightenment sexual factors and culture resources that can be referenced for the literature activities in the current information society.

  7. 民族医药古籍保护性研究意义及现状%Significance and Present Status of Conservation Research on Ancient Literatures of Chinese Ethnic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 冯岭

    2015-01-01

    -of-mouth might face the danger of failure in finding an eligible heir to inherit them.Therefore,it is urgent and necessary for the whole society to gather strength to carry out emergent investigations of various versions of those ancient literatures of ethnic medicine and afterward specialized and scientific protection,arrangement and research work.Take the protective research of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures for example,with the special attention and financial aids of all different levels of government departments such as the Ministry of Science and Technology,a nationwide project of the survey,collection and arrangement of Ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was carried out for the first time.After more than five yearswork,a catalogue was published for the first time by the re-search team as an approach to protect the cultural property right of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures.It was the first time for the catalogue to be translated into Tibetan,Chinese,English and Latin according to international standards as a research result for promotional purposes.It was also the first time for the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures to be permanently preserved,protected and spread in digital form-by way of building an information platform.Besides,the intellectual property right of ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was also protected through registering patents and copyrights,etc.The work experience and scientific research model that the research team gained laid a solid foundation for the scientific protection,inheritance and development of the ancient literatures of ethnic medicine in China;it also established a mature,scientific orientation for further research.

  8. A Literature Review on Acculturation of Chinese Immigrants%中国移民的文化适应研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 祝春兰; 马亮; 张利

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing number of literature researches on the acculturation of Chinese immigrant groups in the last decad. The existent researches involve parent-child relationship and parenting styles, identity and satisfaction, physical and mental health, view of values and acculturation, as well as the interactions of mental mechanism. The author, therefore, concludes that further researches are needed in the areas of Chinese cultural history and views of values to profoundly indicate the Chinese immigrants’ acculturated characteristics.%近十几年来,对中国移民群体文化适应的研究在数量上呈现出明显增长的趋势。已有的与中国移民文化适应有关的研究涉及到与亲子关系和教养方式、身份认同与满意感、身心健康水平、价值观念等因素与文化适应的关系,也对文化适应与这些因素相互作用的心理机制进行了探讨。今后的研究应进一步从中国文化历史和价值观的大背景下分析中国移民文化适应的特点,将这一研究主题推向深入。

  9. 现代中国文学研究“去政治化”管窥%Glimpse into De-politicization of Modern Chinese Literature Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德发

    2014-01-01

    20世纪80年代通过“拨乱反正”的除弊祛邪,将现代中国文学研究从极左政治化模式中拯救出来。然而,这种“去政治化”在带来正能量的同时,亦产生了值得关注的负效应,这主要体现在:文学史书写淡化或舍弃政治背景,或不写少写文学思想论争,或贬抑左翼文学与革命文学,或冷落现代文学的宏大叙事,或过分抬高与大时代无关或疏离主流政治的作家作品等。为纠正此偏颇,必须辩证地认识现代中国文学与各种政治形态的双层关系,即宏观上窥察政治生态或政治背景与现代中国多元文学系统形成和演变的因果关系,微观上透析不同政治意识与不同样态审美文本构成的深微关系。%Through“Putting wrongs to rights”during the 1980s,modern Chinese literature research was finally rescued from the ultra -left political pattern. However,while the“de -politicization”brought positive energy,notable negative effects were given birth to at the same time. And this is mainly embod-ied in:weakening or abandoning political background in the writing literary history;not writing or writing less ideological disputes in literature;depreciating the Left -wing and revolutionary literature,cold -shouldering the grand narrative of modern literature;or speaking too highly those writers and works which have nothing to do with this great era or alienate themselves from mainstream politics,and others. To rec-tify the bias,we must dialectically understand the double relationship between modern Chinese literature and all kinds of political forms,That is to say,we must understand,on a macro level,the causal rela-tionship between political ecology or background and the formation and evolution of the pluralistic systems on modern Chinese literature;and we must have an insight into the subtle relationship between different political ideologies and the texts of different aesthetic forms on a micro

  10. 读丁帆先生《文学的玄览》%A Review on the Survey of Chinese Contemporary Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小明

    2001-01-01

    The Survey of Chinese Contemporary Literature is a collection of parts of Ding Fan's articles after 1979. As an active critic, with his deep thoughts in literary criticism and his talent in aesthetic judgement, Ding Fan has presented to the readers a new literary world.%丁帆先生《文学的玄览》是自1979年以来部分论文的合集。作为活跃的批评家,作者以强烈的思想锋芒和审美才气,与作家作品共同构筑、显现了一个敞开的文学世界。

  11. Literature Analysis on Distribution Regularity of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes in Wilson's Disease%Wilson病中医证候文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王共强; 王伟; 薛本春; 胡文彬; 胡纪源; 韩咏竹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution regularity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes in an attempt to provide a basis for the standardization of TCM syndromes in Wilson’s disease (WD). Methods The TCM literatures about WD were collected from Chinese Biomedical Literature online Database, Chinese Journal Full Text Database, and Chinese Technology Journal Database from 1979 to 2010. The 736 cases from 21 literatures in line with inclusion criteria were analyzed by frequency analysis and cluster analysis using SPSS 19. 0 software. Results There was 13 TCM syndrome types in WD, the top four types included liver-gallbladder damp-heat, liver-kidney yin deficiency, liver-wind stirring, and phlegm-damp accumulation in collaterals. Cluster analysis results were slightly different from the frequencies of TCM syndromes in literatures. Among syndrome factors, viscera factors included liver, kidney, bile and spleen, successively; nature factors included damp-heat, yin deficiency, endogenous wind, and phlegmdamp, successively. Conclusion Liver-gallbladder damp-heat, liver-kidney yin deficiency, liver-wind stirring, and phlegm-damp accumulation in collaterals were the common TCM syndrome types of WD, especially liver-gallbladder damp-heat. Excess syndrome factors were mainly characterized as damp-heat, and phlegm-turbid; deficiency syndrome factors were mainly characterized as yin deficiency and endogenous wind.%目的 探讨Wilson病(Wilson's disease,WD)中医证候分布规律,为WD中医证候规范化研究提供依据.方法 从中国生物医学文献网络版数据库、中国期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊数据库中检索1979-2010年间有关WD的中医药文献,对符合纳入标准的21篇文献中736例患者证候分布情况运用SPSS 19.0软件进行频数分析和聚类分析.结果 WD共出现13个中医证型,频数前4位依次为肝胆湿热、肝肾阴虚、肝风内动、痰湿阻络.聚类分析结果与中医证型频数分

  12. 浅议苏轼文论中的“枯”%On the Chinese Word‘Ku’ Used in SuShi’ s Theory of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石浩; 刘顺

    2014-01-01

    苏轼,是宋代影响最大的文学家之一,同时也是一个自觉进行理论探索的多面手。当宋朝文人争言“平淡”时,唯独苏轼提出了“枯淡”,显得独特而引人注目。试揭示作为中国文论术语“枯”的出现过程,并以此去观照苏轼文论中“枯”的含义,揭示其对之前文论中“枯”的继承性和创新性。%Sushi was one of the great writers in the Song dynasty , and at the same time he was also a person who made a theo-retical exploration of the literary art .When most of people talked about the Chinese word ‘Pingdan’, of which Sushi presented his idea .So this paper tries to illustrate the features of word ‘Ku’ in the Theories of the Chinese Literature , and contrast the nature of word with that of Sushi ’ s interpretation to discover the inheritance and innovation of this idea .

  13. One «Both» Sex«es»: Observations, suppositions, and airy speculations on fetal sex anatomy in British scientific literature, 1794-1871.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The hegemony of the two-sex paradigm in the European scientific imagination and wider culture did not automatically equate to the hegemony of two discrete genders. In fact, two sexes facilitated a variety of gender choices: two singular and a number of double or otherwise intersexed (most commonly referred to as "hermaphrodite" or "bisexual" in its anatomical sense). This article explores some key British medical and allied scientific texts, with reference to associated Continental literature, as a means of illustrating the complexity of the two-sex paradigm and the unexpected transformation of gender possibilities that it helped produce through the early and middle decades of the nineteenth century. Discourses surrounding the first direct observations of the earliest development of fetal urinogenital anatomy were pivotal. The prevailing view that the incipient embryo was sexually undifferentiated (a paragon of the one-sex paradigm) was challenged by the Edinburgh anatomist Robert Knox, initially as he sought to bolster his professional reputation at the height of the Burke and Hare "body-snatching" scandal. Knox suggested that every embryo began life in an essentially dual-sexed state, an individual's sex anatomy depending on the greater or lesser development of component female and male structures. Greater clarification on the contested status of the homology-hermaphrodite distinction was achieved with the discovery of the early co-existence of the excretory duct of the Wolffian body (mesonephric duct) and the Müllerian duct (paramesonephric duct), an observation that made anatomical bisexuality difficult to ignore. The nineteenth-century's greatest champion of primordial hermaphroditism was Charles Darwin who was pivotal in phylogenizing the principle and establishing the premise that (in his own words) "Every man & woman is hermaphrodite," a foundation stone of late-nineteenth-century sexology. PMID:24150887

  14. 科技汉语动词谓语否定的英译转移%Transferred Translation of Predicate Negations in Chinese Scientific Writings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方洪民

    2012-01-01

    Predicate negations in Chinese scientific writings seldom act as general negation, and are frequently translated into.l) special negation, including subject, verbal-object and prepositional-object negation; 2) im- plicit negation, by means of negative affix and word, phrase or construction of negative implication~ 3) positive sentence, non-negative in both construction and implication. Special negation and implicit negation make ob- jective statements, whereas general negation tends to involve subjective evaluation or attitude, which is incon- sistent with objectivity for scientific writing. Proper inter-lingual conversion may be achieved by referring to the semantic nature of predicate negation construction.%科技汉语的动词谓语否定,很少表达为一般否定句,谓语否定常英译为否定主语、宾语或介词宾语的特指否定句,译为单词、短语或句型结构隐含否定意义的含蓄否定句,或反面着笔译为肯定句。英语特指否定句和含蓄否定句,言者意向陈述,否定意义客观,而英语一般否定句倾向于有主观意义的评价或表态,与科技语言客观陈述事实的主旨不符。从语义内容分析汉语谓语否定结构,应把握否定结构的深层含义,才能顺利实现语际转换。

  15. 20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型阐释%20th Century Chinese Literature Gun Yu Archetypical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙胜杰

    2014-01-01

    Gun Yu myth as a prototype in the literature as a hero mythology, it is perhaps the epitome of human to the hero worship, accumulate at the bottom of the pioneers of the original consciousness. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype is not simply repeat the Gun Yu myth, not just confined to a single, forever hero model, but with the development of history and the cultural background of the different age is rich, the constantly changing, constantly displacement deformation, from hero to ordinary mortals. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype become forces so as to express its own cultural codes, not only reflects the profound connotation of culture and history of the works, but also let us in the same original thinking mode of the experience of different cultures, and more direct, more profound understanding prototype this is both abstract and concrete, is both varied and genetic stability of human culture and literature.%鲧禹神话作为原型在文学中被塑造成英雄神话,它凝结了人类对英雄的崇拜,积淀在原始先民的意识底层。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型并不是对鲧禹神话的简单重复,也不仅局限在单一的、永远不变的英雄模式,而是随着历史发展和不同时代文化背景被不断丰富、变化,不断置换变形,从英雄走向普通凡人。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型成为各种力量借以表达自身的文化符码,既体现出了作品的深厚的文化底蕴和历史内涵,又能让我们在相同的原始思维的模式下体验不同的文化,也能更直接、更深刻地认识原型这一既抽象又具体,既多变又稳定的人类文化与文学基因。

  16. 商科院校中国现当代文学教学的新视域%The New Horizon of Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature Teaching in Business Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文忠; 杨虹

    2015-01-01

    To include business literature in Chinese modern and contemporary literature teaching practice, break the teaching rule, play to the commercial literature's unique role actively in talent training business, and establish their own position through the dialogue with business will help the Chinese modern and contemporary literature teaching business to coruscate new vitality.%将商业文学纳入到中国现当代文学的教学实践中,打破教学陈规,积极发挥商业文学在商科院校人才培养中的独特作用,并在与商业的对话中重新确立自己的地位,有助于商科院校中国现当代文学课程教学重新焕发出勃勃生机.

  17. Interethnic Dialogue between Malaysian Chinese Literature and Malay Literature in Allegory Writing%马华文学与马来文学的跨族对话:从国族寓言的角度探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽丽

    2015-01-01

    马来西亚的华文文学以及马来文学是同一国家属性但不同语种的文学系统. 它们之间不仅跨民族跨语言,而且有各自特殊的文化历史背景. 从国族寓言切入,探讨马华文学与马来文学两个系统之间的跨文化对话,有助于考察双方文本如何结构多元背景的族群关系、文化属性以及其间的张力.%The multi-culture in Malaysia provides an environment for the co-existence of different literary systems. These differ-ent literary systems not only cross ethnic and language, but also have their special cultural and historical backgrounds. A study on the interethnic dialogue between Malaysian Chinese literature and Malay literature from the perspective of allegorical writing is expected to show us a full picture of the ethic structure, cultural affiliation and tension between two ethic groups in the context of multi culture.

  18. The first step in the development of text mining technology for cancer risk assessment: identifying and organizing scientific evidence in risk assessment literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most neglected areas of biomedical Text Mining (TM is the development of systems based on carefully assessed user needs. We have recently investigated the user needs of an important task yet to be tackled by TM -- Cancer Risk Assessment (CRA. Here we take the first step towards the development of TM technology for the task: identifying and organizing the scientific evidence required for CRA in a taxonomy which is capable of supporting extensive data gathering from biomedical literature. Results The taxonomy is based on expert annotation of 1297 abstracts downloaded from relevant PubMed journals. It classifies 1742 unique keywords found in the corpus to 48 classes which specify core evidence required for CRA. We report promising results with inter-annotator agreement tests and automatic classification of PubMed abstracts to taxonomy classes. A simple user test is also reported in a near real-world CRA scenario which demonstrates along with other evaluation that the resources we have built are well-defined, accurate, and applicable in practice. Conclusion We present our annotation guidelines and a tool which we have designed for expert annotation of PubMed abstracts. A corpus annotated for keywords and document relevance is also presented, along with the taxonomy which organizes the keywords into classes defining core evidence for CRA. As demonstrated by the evaluation, the materials we have constructed provide a good basis for classification of CRA literature along multiple dimensions. They can support current manual CRA as well as facilitate the development of an approach based on TM. We discuss extending the taxonomy further via manual and machine learning approaches and the subsequent steps required to develop TM technology for the needs of CRA.

  19. Fluid inclusions associated with exsolution quartz needles in omphacite of UHP eclogites from the main hole of Chinese continental scientific drilling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Shen, K.; Liou, J.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Abundant primary fluid inclusions are recognized in omphacite of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogites from the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD), located at the southern Sulu orogenic belt. The eclogites consist of garnet, omphacite, coesite and rutile. Mineral and fluid inclusions are distributed alternatively and parallel to each other. The solid inclusions occur as needles with a length of 10~100 m and a width of 1~10 m whereas the fluid inclusions occur as tubes with the size varying from less then 3~5 m to greater then 50 m. The mineral inclusions were identified as quartz. Most fluid inclusions contain a gas bubble, a liquid phase and one to several solids. The liquid and gas phases are determined as H2O. The solid phases include halite, quartz and calcite, as well as opaque and unknown minerals. Some small thin-tubed fluid inclusions contain little or no solid and even without gas bubble; they contain dominantly water. The inclusion fluid was estimated to contain components in the system of NaCl-CaCl2-CO2-H2O-SiO2 with possibly trace Fe and Mg. We suggest that these fluid inclusions were conventional primary ones, and trapped during omphacite crystallization; upon decompression they acted as nucleation site for the crystallographically controlled precipitation of quartz from the omphacite matrix. Therefore the omphacite is considered to be one of the major fluid carriers during subduction of continental crust to mantle depths.

  20. The "Chinese" Image in German Expressionism Literature%德国表现主义文学中的“中国人”形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2012-01-01

    Imagology explores the ways different nations observe and express each other through the study on literature.The "image" in imagology not only refers to foreign characters and sceneries,but also refers to the feelings,notions and statements about other countries in the literature works.In China,more and more attention of comparative culture researchers is being drawn by this emerging subject.In recent years,researches on expression of "Chinese" image in foreign countries have been gradually on the rise in China.With the help of imagology theories,this essay takes some noted Chinese novels by German expressionist writers Alfred Dblin,Albert Ehrenstein and Franz Kafka as examples,conducts an analysis and interpretation of the "Chinese" image.%形象学(Imagologie)通过对文学的研究来了解民族与民族之间是怎样互相观察、互相表述的。形象学中的"形象",不仅仅指异国的人物、景物,也可以指作品中关于异国的情感、观念和言辞。这一新兴学科正越来越多地吸引着我国比较文化研究者的目光。近年来,国内关于"中国形象"的异域表述的研究也逐渐兴起。选取德国表现主义作家阿尔弗雷德.德布林(Alfred D?blin,1878———1957)、阿尔伯特.埃伦施泰因(Albert Eh-renstein,1886-1950)、弗兰茨.卡夫卡(Franz Kafka,1883-1924)的著名中国小说为例,借助形象学的理论,进行"中国人"形象的分析和阐释。

  1. Literature re-evaluation on antipyretic effect of Chinese heat-clearing herbs%清热药解热作用的文献再评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涓; 李晓会; 马丽娜; 张恩户

    2014-01-01

    Literally re-evaluate the antipyretic effect of heat-clearing herbs. Choose 20 taste heat-clearing herbs from the Chinese Medicine materials(China press of traditional Chinese medicine,2009)as evaluation objects,through the consulting,induction,sorting the literatures about heat-clearing herbs antipyretic effect published before 2013. According to repeating and integrating evaluation prin-ciples,Chinese medicine antipyretic role of assessment standard is self-made. Literally re-evaluate the heat-clearing herbs of antipyretic role in order to determine its reliability. The functions of radix scutellariae,bupleurum,artemisia annua,radix isatidis,honeysuckle,and forsythia are exact. Experiments on the basis of Rhizoma coptidis,barbed skullcap herb,cortex lycii radicis,honeysuckle,radix scrophu-lariae,gypsum,folium isatidis,cortex moutan and gardenia are inadequate. Cortex phellodendri doesn’t have antipyretic effect. There is no related research literature of rhizoma anemarrhenae,sophora,dandelion,radix rehmanniae,and radix paeoniae rubra.%对清热药药理作用中的解热作用进行文献再评价。选择《中药学》(中国中医药出版社,2009)教材中20味清热药作为评价对象,通过查阅、归纳、整理2013年以前公开发表的有关清热药解热作用的研究文献,根据重复和综合评价等原则,自拟中药解热作用的评定标准,对清热药的解热作用进行文献再评价,以确定其可靠性。黄芩、柴胡、青蒿、板蓝根、金银花、连翘作用确切;黄连、半枝莲、地骨皮、忍冬、玄参、石膏、大青叶、牡丹皮、栀子实验依据不足;黄柏无解热作用;知母、苦参、蒲公英、生地黄、赤芍未见相关研究文献。

  2. [Floods and public health: a review of the recent scientific literature on the causes, consequences and responses to prevention and mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli

    2012-06-01

    Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1) causes; 2) consequences; 3) responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention and/or mitigation of the risks and impacts of flooding. Tables for each of the items selected were organized in order to systematize and synthesize the results for causes (attributed to natural and human activities); environmental, infrastructure and services, and health consequences (injuries and diseases classified according to chapters of ICD-10); prevention and mitigation responses and actions. It was concluded that given the scenarios of increased frequency and severity of these events, the challenges facing public health for disaster risk reduction require integrated responses with broad policies for sustainable development. PMID:22699650

  3. 从阳虚论治失眠中医文献评析%Literature Analysis on Treatment of Insomnia Based on Yang Deficiency in Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春华; 陈建斌; 黄鹂; 杨小波; 杨志敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To research the syndrome identification and treatment administration of insomnia with yang deficiency syndrome in Chinese medicine journals. Methods Literature on treating insomnia from yang deficiency in Chinese medicine journals was searched from VIP database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and China National Knowledge In-ternet (CNKI) from March 1979 to February 2010. The syndrome identification and treatment administration of insomnia with yang deficiency syndrome was analyzed with content analysis method from treating ideas, treating basis, treating rule and com-monly used prescriptions. Results Sixty articles were selected according to the standard. The main treating ideas of insomnia from yang deficiency were disease identification (27 articles) and disease identification combined with syndrome identification (25 articles). The treating basis was symptoms of yang deficiency, tongue image and pulse (39 articles) and damage to yang and qi (14 articles). The commonly used treating rule was wanning yang and quieting the spirit (32 articles) and warming yang and supplementing (22 articles). The commonly used prescriptions were Guizhi Decoction (Cinnamon Twig Decoction, 17 arti-cles) and self-made formulas (11 articles), Sini Decoction (Decoction for Resuscitation, 9 articles), and Shenqi Wan (Pill for Tonifying Kidney-qi, 7 articles). Conclusion Chinese medicine has theoretical knowledge and practical experience in treating insomnia with yang deficiency. However, it is lake of overall knowledge from the literature amount.%目的 通过中医期刊文献了解中医对阳虚失眠的辨治认识. 方法 检索1979年3月至2010年2月维普全文数据库、中国生物医学文献数据库和中国学术期刊全文数据库,收集中医期刊中从阳虚论治失眠的文献,应用内容分析法分别从辨治思路、辨治依据、治疗法则、常用方剂等方面分析文献对阳虚失眠的论治.结果

  4. On Chinese Contemporary Literature Creation Limitations from Snail House%从《蜗居》看中国当代文学创作的局限性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛涛

    2011-01-01

    The Snail House TV version is very faithful to the original novel. The banning of TV series Snail House not only reflects the non - ecological characteristic of the contemporary cultural context, but also exposes the structural lack of the whole contemporary literary creation : 1. realism makes Snail House follow the emotional logic and life logic character on the characterization and plot structure , not like the contemporary urban novels which write the urban marginal group with civilization disease on the modernism or post - modernism cultural position ; the Snail House reflects that contemporary literature has forgotten the" May 4"literature realism ; 2. the tragic of Snail House grips the ordinary people in the real life, which is different from "17 years" literature and the post - cuhural revolution literature which is the historicization of tragedy ; it is also different from the pioneer literature , feminism literature, root- searching literature which culturalzed and philosophized tragedy ; Snail House makes tragedy reflect the universality of Scheler sense , also breaks the ideology myth that the contemporary Chinese literature does not have real tragedy. 3. the strong practical critical spirit of the Snail House reflects the predicament in the Chinese realistic contemporary literature creation, and realism has been an ideological strategies, and makes the" real life" in the contemporary literature lost. Therefore, the development of Chinese contemporary literature does not have the ecological significance of the "bush style", and more like a beautiful and pale "penning art".%《蜗居》的电视版非常忠实于小说原作。电视剧《蜗居》的被禁不仅折射出了当代文化语境的非生态性,更暴露了整个当代文学创作的结构性匮乏:一是,写实性使《蜗居》在塑造人物、构置情节上遵循人物的情感逻辑和生活逻辑,而非当代都市小说那样在现代主义或后现代

  5. Strengthening students’ reading comprehension ability (both Chinese and English) through developing children’s literature equiz bank on the cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, WWY; Chu, SKW; Chan, H.; Wong, J.; Tse, SK; Tavares, N; Mok, SWS

    2014-01-01

    Reading proficiency is closely related to students’ academic performance. The online e-quiz bank “Reading Battle” aims at enhancing students’ reading interest and developing their reading habits. After reading children’s literature borrowed from school libraries, students may take quizzes on the e-quiz bank to evaluate their reading comprehension ablility. First launched in Hong Kong, the e-quiz bank assists students in enhancing their reading interest and abilities by motivating, scaffolding...

  6. 中国现代文学教学中的“史实”与“史识”教育问题%Education Problems of Historical Facts and Knowledge of History in Teaching of Modern Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白海君; 关洪梅

    2012-01-01

    Due to changes of social reality and the traditional teaching habits, teaching of Modem Chinese Literature needs reform strongly. According to observation and analysis in my teaching practice of Modem Chinese Literature, I think the teaching of Modem Chinese Literature of Chinese Department should handle the relationship of literary historical facts, awareness and knowledge of literary history and literature art as a special kind of aesthetic presence.%中国现代文学教学因社会现实变迁和传统教学习惯的养成有着强烈的教学改革要求。根据笔者在具体的现代文学教学实践过程中的观察和分析,认为现在大学中文系中国现代文学教学中应该处理好文学史实事件、文学史识意识及作为一种特殊的审美存在的文学艺术之间的关系。

  7. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study. PMID:26813321

  8. Review on Researches in Pre-modern Chinese Narrative Literature in the Perspective of Narration%叙事学视域下中国近世叙事文学研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明贵

    2012-01-01

    叙事学为中国古典叙事文学研究提供了全新的视角。借鉴西方叙事学理论和方法解析中国近世叙事文本,是促成中国近世叙事文学文本意义再生的有效手段。本文结合研究者的理论愿景与操作手段,对叙事学视域下中国近世叙事文学的研究成果作了初步梳理,并认为在叙事学视域下开展中国近世叙事文学研究必须坚持两个原则,一是尊重中国近世叙事文学在文化思维和话语表述方面的特殊性,二是确保叙事学理论对文本的“有效介入”。%The narratology provides a new perspective for Chinese classical narrative literature study. Learn from Western narrative theory and methods to resolve the pre-modem Chinese narrative text, is an effective means to contribute the meaning regeneration of the Pre-modern Chinese narrative text. In this paper, the writer according to the researcher's theoretical vision and operational means, accomplished a preliminary neaten for research result in pre-modem Chinese narrative literature study under the narrative perspective, and believes pre-modem Chinese narrative literature study under the Narrative perspective must stick to two principles, one is value the particularity of pre-modern Chinese narrative literature's cultural thought pattern and language expressing, the other is to ensure the effective intervention between narrative theory and text.

  9. 中国美学文献整理的方法论原则新探%A New Exploration on the Methodology of Literature Arrangement in Chinese Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建疆

    2014-01-01

    Aesthetic literature are the documents related to aesthetics. Some achievements have been made in literature arrangement in Chinese aesthetics while some problems, such as the ignorance of Chi-nese aesthetic characteristics and Chinese aesthetic state, the lack of theoretical research in literature ar-rangement, the lack of generalization of documents and lack of integrity, still exist. Thus, literature ar-rangement in Chinese aesthetics should not only improve the theoretical research, set up the overall thinking of aesthetic literature arrangement, and enhance the overall state of Chinese aesthetics, but also stick to the principles of original ecology, nationalities, hermeneutics, ideology and big data and cloud computing.%美学文献是在众多文献中被挑选、提炼、概括和冠名的与美学相关的文献。中国美学文献整理取得了一定的成就,但也存在着忽视中国美学特点和中国审美形态,缺乏文献整理的理论研究、缺乏对文献的概括提炼、缺乏完整性等诸方面的问题。因此,中国美学文献整理不仅要加强美学文献理论认识、树立美学文献整理的大局观、加大中国美学审美形态范畴的整理等对策研究,还要坚持原生态原则、民族性原则、阐释学原则、思想性原则和大数据云计算原则。

  10. 中国古典文学中的女侠故事及女性研究综述%A LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE IM AGE OF CHIVALROUS W OM EN AND THE FEM ALE IN CHINESE CLASSICAL LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧芳

    2014-01-01

    女侠故事在中国古代文学史中占有独特的一席之地,无论是传奇、话本还是戏曲,女侠在各类文体中都有着经典形象和文本故事。从20世纪初以来,对于女侠故事的研究,基本上从女侠形象、性格及对后世文学的影响等角度展开,以古典文学常见的研究方法和研究视角切入,论述女侠形象及其文本意义、历史意义。而女性研究要想在前人基础上不断开拓,要从三个方面急需探索:一是打通分类和既有的研究范式;二是引入新资料、新证据,在史料、文献、文学作品中挖掘新内容,以及依托考古新成果及最新出土文献;三是理论的创新、提炼与总结。%The image of chivalrous women played a distinct role in ancient Chinese literary history. The chivalrous women, either in legends, scripts for story-telling or traditional Chinese opera, were characterized by classic images and stories in various genres. Since the beginning of the 20th century, studies on the image of chivalrous women have mainly developed fromthe perspectives such as their image, personality and their influence on literature of the future generations, exploring fromthe research techniques and research perspectives commonly seen in classical literature and discussing the image of chivalrous women as well as the textual significance and historical significance therein. H owever, if we want to get more achievements in female research, three aspects should be studied:one is to sort out previous research findings;the other is to innovate, refine and summarize the theory.

  11. 蚕业科学研究现状浅析——基于SCI文献的分析研究%A Brief Analysis on Present Situation of Sericultural Scientific Research: An Investigation Based on SCI-indexed Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦俭; 袁联伟; 向仲怀

    2011-01-01

    , metamorphosis and development, immunization and other hot topics. Of these articles, 94.40% were from 5 countries, namely Japan, China, India, USA and South Korea. Among the institutions and authors of which number of published articles ranked the top 10, 6 came from Japan and 4 came from China. The average cited frequency was 7.87 and the top 3 countries were USA, Japan,and China, respectively. It should be noted that the number of articles published by Chinese authors has risen from 7 in 2000 to 110 in 2010 (ranking No. 1 of the year), being the country with the greatest increase. The article "A draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm ( Bombyx mori) ", written by Chinese authors, has been listed as an article with the highest citation rate in the filed of molecular biology and genetics by Science Watch's "Featured Emerging Research Fronts", closely reflecting the rising of China in the research field of sericulture. MAI index of Chinese sericultural articles increased to 100 for the firsttime in 2007, which meant that China's sericultural research had begun to enter the center of the world's sericultural research. And it reached 173.7 in 2010, indicating that the intensity of Chinese sericultural research has greatly exceeded the average level of the world. But looking from the angle of H-index, China needs to publish more papers of high level.According to the hot topics of the sericultural literature indexed in SCI, it is foreseeable that, after 2010, resolving the key technological problems in silk industry, promoting the development of novel silkworm- and mulberry-based bio-industries,and strengthening studies with silkworm as model organism will be the major orientations for sericultural scientific research. Studies in these fields will be promoted more deeply and comprehensively.

  12. Ancient literature research on Chinese medicine formulae of diabetic nephropathy%基于古代文献的糖尿病肾病方药研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 刘旭生

    2012-01-01

    This research was to comb ancient Chinese medicine formulae on diabetic nephropathy by using Chinese Medical Tantras, and analyzing ancient literature. 87 ancient formulae were retrieved, which were recorded begin from the tang dynasty to the republic of China. Pill of Six Ingredients with Rehmannia, Shenqi-pill, Poria Alba Pill and Decoction of Four Drugs were recorded more frequency. However, only a handful of prescription has set up a file in the modern clinical application. It was discovered that two principles could help modem physicians using ancient formulae, that was syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation. But how to guide the clinical application of ancient formulae in modern clinic is still worth further explored.%本研究采用《中华医典》第四版为检索工具,通过检索糖尿病肾病相关古代文献,对其治疗方药进行梳理.共检索到方药87首,方药记载古籍年限起自唐朝止于民国.其中六味地黄丸、加减肾气丸、白茯苓丸、加减四物汤被记载引用较多.然而仅少数方药目前在临床推广应用.初步研究认为,现代医家可根据辨证论治和辨病论治两大原则应用古籍方药,但是如何让古籍方药更好的在现代临床应用仍值得进一步探究.

  13. 中国传统药膳文化科学发展问题的思考%Scientific Perspective on Development of Chinese Traditional Medicated Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏明; 管婧婧

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the relationship between Chinese traditional medicated food science and modern nutriology, identify the developmental direction of modern medicated food culture, and propose suggestions for the scientific development of medicated food culture. [Method] Based on the previous studies, the comparative research was conducted to analyze the difference between and similarity of medicated food science and modern nutriology in terms of the theory system and research expertise. [Result] The scientific and objective recognition of the effects of medicated food could promote the development of medicated food culture. For the academic research, the advantages of traditional medicated food culture and weakness of modern nutriology need to be understood. For the practice, the experience of modern nutriology can be learned to help the innovation of medicated food science's research methods and regulation of usage. [Conclusion] The development of medicated food culture not only needs to inherit the tradition, but also needs to learn from the modern nutriology and pharmacology, and assimilates the achievements from modern western science civilization.%[目的]探究中国传统药膳学与现代食品营养学的关系,明确当代药膳文化发展的方向,提出药膳文化科学发展的对策。[方法]以相关文献为基础,采用比较研究法对药膳学与食品营养学就两者的理论体系和研究专长进行相似性和差异性分析。[结果]要实现药膳文化的科学发展,对药膳的功效要有科学、客观的认识。理论研究上要看到传统药膳学的宏观远见以及现代食品营养学的不足,积极发掘整理药膳文献;在实践上要吸收现代食品营养学研究的一些经验,创新药膳的研究方法,为药膳的使用制定规范。[结论]在继承传统的同时,借鉴现代营养学和药理学的理论,吸收现代西方科技文明的优秀成果,可以实现药膳文化的科学发展。

  14. Scientific Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest grain consumers,food security has always been a major concern for the Chinese nation.China must confront the challenge of feeding a fifth of the world's population with less than 9 percent of the planet's arable land.In 2011,China's grain output recorded growth for the eighth successive year,and total production reached an all-time high of 571million tons.In terms of food security,China's goal is to maintain a self-sufficiency rate of above 95 percent.However,an annual net population growth of 7.39 million and the effective decline of the area of farmland in the country,as a result of urbanization,make achieving such selfsufficiency a serious challenge.Given the heavy burden placed on Chinese agriculture,constantly raising productivity by relying on scientific and technological progress has become a priority for China's agricultural sector.The Ministry of Agriculture,for example,has worked to raise China's annual grain yield per-unit area by 1 percent,on average,over the past decade.Last year,the contributory rate of scientific and technological development to China's agriculture reached 52 percent,surpassing the contribution made by land,labor and other production factors for the first time in history.

  15. Alice in the multicultural-land: the reading/writing and writing/oracy connection to enhance Chinese competence in literature education

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, WM; Chan, SWY; Wong, WY

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foreign language anxiety (FLA)(Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986) has often been reported by Chinese language teachers among ethnic minority (EM) students. Second language performance seems negatively correlated with higher levels of FLA, and FLA is typically highest for speaking. Not only do EM students need to learn Chinese as a second language to enhance Chinese competence and promote social inclusion, local students with Chinese as their native language would also add dimensions t...

  16. 当代文学史的“完成”与“未完成”——论洪子诚《中国当代文学概说》的文学史研究方法与问题%'Accomplished' and ' Unaccomplished' in Contemporary Chinese Literature History --On Literature History Research Methods and Problems in A Summary of Contemporary Chinese Literature by HONG Zi -cheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宁

    2012-01-01

    《中国当代文学概说》以“小书”的外形将洪子诚厚重的文学史观包含其中。《概说》是洪子诚历史整体意识、历史还原方法、不露声色的叙述语言风格和治史智慧的结晶。它实现了多重维度上的当代文学史的“完成”,但它在史的“完成”之外依然回荡着史的“未完成”话外音。它在当代文学史的研究、处理方法等方面,还有值得商榷的空间。洪子诚独特的文学史研究姿态,使《概说》呈现出具有特色的文学史写作风貌。%A Summary of Contemporary Chinese Literature is a 'little book' , but it contains the HONG Zi - cheng' s massive literature history notion. The book reflects the writer' s overall sense of history, historical reduction method, unemotional language style, and his wisdom in history narra- tive. The book has achieved unusual innovation in literature history in multiple dimensions; howev- er, it still leaves some room for further discussion and exploration, especially in its research methods and handling approach. The writer studies the contemporary Chinese literature history in a special way, which has made his book present a writing style different from the others.

  17. Aggression of Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia:A systematic literature review%我国住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为的文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼妮; 周建松

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review and analyze literature on episodes of aggression in psychiatric wards and to determine the coping and preventive strategies employed to deal with aggression of patients with schizophrenia.Methods: We used the key words such as "schizophrenia" and "aggression" to collect literature citations, which were published between July 1997 and November 2011, by searching databases such as the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD). The literature reports of aggression by patients with schizophrenia were surveyed by computer-assisted searches, scanning of reference lists, and manual search of relevant journals. We analyzed the reports of episodes of aggression in psychiatric wards.Results: Prevalence of aggression in psychiatric wards was reported to range from 9.1% (95% CI: 6.3 to 11.9) to 49.6% (95% CI: 41.1 to 58.1), with most reports in the range of 20% to 40% (mean 28.0%). The aggressive behavior often occurred in special groups and typically bore a close relationship with the patient's personal qualities, social environment, or psychiatric symptoms. The aggressive behaviors can be attributed to a lack of standardized assessments and intervention instruments.Conclusion: There is a high risk of aggression in Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia, and it is urgent to establish the scientific, standardized, operational systems for assessing and treating the aggression of these patients.%目的:分析我国住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为发生情况,探讨应对和预防精神分裂症患者攻击行为的策略.方法:以精神分裂症和攻击行为等为主题词,运用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库等国内主要文献数据库(1997年1月至2011年11月),同时辅以手工检索,并从参考文献中筛选收集有关精神分裂症患者攻击行为的文献.对符合要求的文献进行分析,总结既往对住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为的研究情况.结果:住院精神分裂症患者攻击

  18. 深化文艺美学研究弘扬中华美学精神%Deepening the Researches Of Aesthetics Of Literature and Art and PrOmOting the Chinese Aesthetic Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶水平

    2015-01-01

    美学不仅是一门学问、一门学术,更是一种精神、一种智慧。当代美学研究要实现从知识和学问向精神和智慧的提升,传承与弘扬中华美学精神是必由之路。中华美学是世界上最重视生命价值与精神追求的美学形态,传承与弘扬中华美学精神是当代美学研究的一个重要理论课题,文艺美学理论工作者责无旁贷。“兴”是中华古典文艺美学中最重要最具民族特色的基元性范畴,“兴”论美学是中华古典艺术和美学的文化原型,也是中华美学精神最生动的集中体现,“兴”论美学研究对于彰显中华美学精神具有重要意义。立足文艺美学研究角度,以中华古典兴论美学为例,探讨如何深化文艺美学研究,实现兴论美学的现代转化,使之成为中国当代文艺美学的重要理论基础,从而传承与弘扬中华美学精神。%aesthetics is not just a branch of knowLedge and academic study,but it is more than often a spirit and inteLLigence. inheriting and promoting the Chinese aesthetic spirit is the surest way for the contemporary aesthetics studies to achieve the eLevation from just a branch of knowLedge and aca-demic study to a spirit and inteLLigence. Chinese aesthetics,attaching greatest importance in Life vaLue and spirituaL pursuit,is the most significant theoreticaL research project in inheriting and promoting the Chinese aesthetic spirit. accordingLy,there is no shirking the responsibiLity for theorists of aes-thetics of Literature and art.“Xing”is a fundamentaL aesthetic category of traditionaL Chinese aes-thetics of Literature and art that onLy beLongs to Chinese nationaLity. The aesthetics research on the theory of“Xing”is not onLy the cuLturaL archetype of cLassicaL Chinese art and aesthetics but aLso vividLy concentrated refLection of the Chinese aesthetic spirit. accordingLy,it is of primaL significance in shaping and dispLaying the Chinese

  19. Research on Formation Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Scientific Literature Download Behavior%科技文献下载行为形成机理及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 何洁; 王曰芬

    2013-01-01

      以信息用户科技文献下载行为为研究对象,在文献研究的基础上,提出包含科技文献下载行为的构成、要素之间相互作用的下载行为决策概念模型,并运用PLS方法对概念模型进行实证验证,给出各影响量因素对科技文献下载行为的影响关系。结果表明:下载动机、认知和能力因素对行为主体科技文献下载决策有直接的正向影响;人格情绪、信息需求、外在因素和经验对行为主体科技文献下载决策存在间接的正向影响。%Taking scientific literature download behavior as the research object, on the basis of the literature at home and abroad, this pa-per builds a scientific literature download behavior conceptual model, makes a systematic research on the forming elements of the behavior and the elements interactions by PLS method, and gives the impact weights of each elements. Conclusions are given as: download mo-tives, cognition and ability have direct effect on scientific literature download behavior; while personality emotions, information needs, external factors and experience have indirect effect on scientific literature download behavior

  20. 宗教文学·中国宗教文学史·魏晋南北朝道教文学史——关于“中国宗教文学史”的理论思考与实践构想%Religious Literature,History of Chinese Religious Literature and the History of Daoist Literature of Wei,Jin,Northern and Southern Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵益

    2012-01-01

    In modern Chinese humane studies,from the concepts,theories to practices,there are many problems in the studies on religious literature.The most important one is that most scholars concentrated efforts on the relations between religion and literature by instead of the religious literature itself.Both Chinese religion and religious literature have their special properties which the study of history of Chinese religious literature must devote its mind to.As one typical problem,the history of Daoist literature of Wei,Jin,Northern and Southern Dynasties could embody the important principles and meanings of the studies on the history of Chinese religious literature.%在中国现当代学术语境中,"宗教文学"的研究从概念、问题、理论到具体实践都存在较多的问题,最主要的表现是研究者往往致力于宗教与文学关系的探讨,而忽视了宗教文学本身的研究。中国宗教和宗教文学都具有独特的自性,"中国宗教文学史"的建构必须符合这种对象属性,而"宗教性"的内涵标准和"大文学"的文体观念,正是构建民族本位宗教文学研究的重要原则之一。作为中国宗教文学史重要阶段的"魏晋南北朝道教文学史",尤其可以体现此一原则的价值和意义。

  1. Research on Current Textbooks of the Course of Chinese Language and Literature in Universities%大学语文教材编撰现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑剑平; 李澜澜

    2012-01-01

      This paper studies on the current situation of concrete textbooks on the basic of structure model, selection of table of contents and content of courses,and then analyzes the characteristics of current textbooks of the course of Chinese language and literature in universities: diversification of works,paying attention to culturing of quality and ability,humanity,aesthetic character and edification of ethics. This Paper analyzes and considerates of these characteristics.%  本文以具体教材为基础,从结构模式(教材编排情况)、篇目选择情况、具体教学内容几方面出发,分析研究大学语文教材编撰现状,提出当代大学语文教材有作品选择多元化,注重素质与能力培养以及侧重人文性、审美性与道德熏陶的特点。文章针对这些特点,进行了比较与思考

  2. Introspection of ancient Chinese literature research in the 20th century%中国古代文学研究百年反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄霖

    2008-01-01

    在反思近百年来中国古代文学研究的基础上,就当前学界认识颇有分歧而重要的一些问题,诸如研究的价值取向、基本理论、课题选择、理论指导、基本方法、对象界定、主要视点、视域覆盖及立场追求等提出了自己的看法,希望能有助于21世纪中国古代文学研究健康地展开.%This paper aims at an introspection of the ancient Chinese literature research in the past hundred years.Then the author put forward his opinions about some impoant divergences of the present research,such as the value tropism of the research,the basic methods for study,the choice of research topics,the theory guidelines of the research,the basic methodologies for research,defining the research objects,the major viewpoints,the areas of research and the viewpoints of the scholars.

  3. A Writing-Intensive Course Improves Biology Undergraduates' Perception and Confidence of Their Abilities to Read Scientific Literature and Communicate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Price, Jordan V.; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Most scientists agree that comprehension of primary scientific papers and communication of scientific concepts are two of the most important skills that we can teach, but few undergraduate biology courses make these explicit course goals. We designed an undergraduate neuroimmunology course that uses a writing-intensive format. Using a mixture of…

  4. Soviet Russian Impacts to the Marxist Literature Critique with Chinese Ideology%苏俄对中国马克思主义文学批评的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉能

    2011-01-01

    The Marxist literature critique with Chinese ideology produced and made progress under the direct impact of the Soviet Russian Marxist literarure critique.There are three stages experienced with the Soviet Russian Marxist literature critique.The first period from 1930' to 1950' the Chinese counterparts accepted the impact of the literaure critique from the Soviet Russians;The second period from 1950' to 1970' the Chinese literature circle divorced from the Soviet Russian counterparts.And the third period from 1980' the Chinese counterparts of the literature circle conducted the introspection of the Soviet Russian literature critique.After the three stages passed the Marxist literature critique gradually formed the Chinese own basic features: there are the parts of reflection,politicalization,popular nature and combination of the revolutionary realism and romaticism.%中国形态的马克思主义文学批评是在俄苏马克思主义文学批评直接影响下产生和发展起来的。它与俄苏马克思主义文学批评的关系大致经历了三个阶段。20世纪20、30年代到50年代是第一个阶段,主要是接受俄苏马克思主义文学批评的影响;第二个阶段是50年代中期到70年代,主要是与俄苏马克思主义文学批评的疏离;80年代以后是第三个阶段,主要是对俄苏马克思主义文学批评的反思。在经过"接受——疏离——反思"的历程后,马克思主义文学批评中国形态逐步形成了自己的基本特点:反映论、政治化、人民性、革命现实主义和革命浪漫主义相结合。

  5. The Significance of Thematology to Methodological Innovation of Research on Chinese Narrative Literature%主题学对中国叙事文学研究方法创新的借鉴意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2011-01-01

    Thematology, originated from the mid-19th century, has maintained a close relationship with Chinese narrative literature. Great results have been achieved in the application of thematology to Chinese narrative literature research since the 20th century. The introduction of thematology has important impact upon the perspective and horizon of Chinese narrative literature research in terms of document collation and cultural analysis.%源于19世纪中叶的主题学产生不久便和中国叙事文学研究结下了不解之缘,20世纪以来主题学应用于中国叙事文学研究取得的丰硕的成果。主题学的引入,在研究角度、研究视域等方面对中国叙事文学产生了重要的意义。主题学对中国叙事文学在文献整理和文化分析等方面都产生了方法论层面的影响。

  6. 从中文文学期刊的特色谈其风格演变及发展变化%On the Style Changing and Development from Analyzing the Characters on Chinese Literature Periodicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振津

    2012-01-01

    在图书馆的藏书中,中文期刊占有很大比重,其中中文文学期刊又占据期刊榜首。探究其发展规律,为到馆的读者更好服务有着很深的意义。中文文学期刊在动乱结束后,曾迎来繁荣发展的大时代,满足了当时人们对其的渴望,中文文学期刊在当时为数不多的大众文化产品的中占有相当的地位。而今社会是信息产业的多样化,数字化,视觉化的多元时代,中文文学期刊受到不小冲击,为了寻求出路,必须走出低谷。从自身改变中寻求新的发展.探求发展变化中的规律,这些发展主要表现在多元化的包装,文学期刊与影视互动。为影视作品提供创作蓝本等等.为中文文学期刊适应当今社会发展奠定了基础。%Of the library storage, Chinese journal has a large proportion, while, Chinese literature periodicals is the top of the list. Studying its developing trend will significantly help service readers. After ten years of turmoil, Chinese lit journal faced an era of growing fruitfully, satisfying people's desire. Among the few public cultural products, Chinese lit journal played an important role. However, nowadays, there is an era of information industry with diversified, digital and visualized characters, Chinese lit journal suffers strikes, in order to find way out of trouble, literature periodicals must explore the developing trend and look for new development from self-changing. The new developments includes diversified package, interaction between literature periodicals and movie and providing chief source to films and television programs, making basis for Chinese literature periodicals adapting to social development today.

  7. A Mountain Held in a Mustard Seed: Preface to A Brief History of Chinese Literature%敢纳须弥芥子中——《中国文学简史》前言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑞峰

    2011-01-01

    Looking back on the history of Chinese literature, one cannot help being amazed at its distinctive Chinese colors and the many great works that marked its progress: the features reflected by the works made up the literary heritage, which in turn made the history of Chinese literature. A review of Chinese literary historiography commits us to the expectation that the writing of the "macro history of literature" in the future should be based not only on independent personality, original conception and distinctive horizon of academic research, but also on a wider and more comprehensive new system of research. This means it is neces- sary to carry out the study in two ways : the "vertical" way which probes into the historical evolution of Chinese literature, and the "horizontal" way which addresses the correlation between Chinese literature and that of other countries.%追溯中国文学的历史流程,不能不瞩目于其鲜明的民族特色和千汇万状的优秀作品:作品映现出特色,特色凝固成传统,传统又沉淀为历史。追溯中国文学史的编写进程,则不能不期望:未来的“大文学史”除了应当兼有独立的学术品格、独特的学术构想和独到的学术视野外,还应当具备涵盖面更广、包容性更强的全新体系。这就必须从纵横两方面加以拓展——“纵”能思贯古今,勾勒出文学兴衰因革的轨迹;“横”能视通中外,映现出文学源流正变的脉络。

  8. The Recognition of the Features of Ancient Chinese Literature%中国古代文学的特征再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董相升

    2011-01-01

    Ten features of ancient Chinese literature are generalized in the aspects of historical and cultural background,the ideological connotation,the literacy forms,genres and writing techniques:(1)developing with the national convergence;(2) changing with the cultural backgrounds;(3) bearing a sign of times;(4) highlighting ideological connotation;(5) presenting national character;(6) stressing the public and giving prominence to the individual;(7) advocating poetry and prose writing,multy types of poetry coexisting;(8) sentiment being the tratidion;(9)focusing on beauty of rhythsm and beauty of language;(10) realism and romanticism taking the lead.%从发展变化的历史文化大背景的"外因",从思想精神内涵的"内容",从体裁、样式、创作方法的"形式"等多方面探索研究,概括了中国古代文学的十大特征:随民族融合的历史发展而发展;受大文化环境的影响发展变化;具有时代特征;重视思想性;重视民族精神;重视群体又个性鲜明;诗词为正宗、散文为大宗,多种体裁互促互进;具有抒情传统;具有音乐美、语言美;具有现实主义、浪漫主义两种主要创作倾向。

  9. 立足本土提升科技期刊国际影响力%Enhancement of international impact of scientific journals in Chinese based on native language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秀菊; 王柳; 刘丽英; 赵爱琴; 朱明

    2014-01-01

    In order to inherit and disseminate Chinese culture, and enhance international collaboration in science and technology, international impact of scientific journals in Chinese should be enhanced. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of CSAE) was coved by authority indexes such as EI Compendex, CAB Abstracts and ACSESS Digital Library. Transactions of CSAE was ranked No.10 in journals in Chinese by Google scholar for its high citation in 2014. Transactions of CSAE was given the honor of the 2013 most influential Chinese academic journals in the world (Top 5). All of these honors should mainly owe to a series of measure carried by of Transactions of CSAE to enhance international impact of scientific journals in Chinese based on native language. Practice demonstrate that scientific journals in Chinese could enhance their international impact by in-creasing the amount of English information in papers and improving the quality of English, by hiring editors who have studied abroad and hiring associate editors who were in abroad, by developing English website, by exhibiting journals on more international digital platform, The experience is a reference for journals in Chinese enhancing international impact.%为了传承和传播中华文化,加强对外的科技交流,增强中国的软实力,除了扶持中国英文科技期刊外,还需立足本土,提升中文科技期刊的国际影响力。《农业工程学报》在被国际工程权威数据库EI(美国工程索引)、国际农业权威数据库CAB Abstracts等收录的基础上被美国农学、环境、土壤学会联合会数字图书馆(ACSESS Digital Library)收录;2014年位列国际学术搜索引擎Google学术搜索高被引中文期刊第10名;2013年入选(Top 5)“2013中国最具国际影响力学术期刊”,这些都得益于采取的一系列的立足本土提升中文科技期刊影响力的措施。实践证明中文科技期刊

  10. 试论美国华裔文学中的中国传统文化现象%On Chinese Traditional Culture Phenomenon in Chinese-American Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2011-01-01

    Chinese traditional culture influences Chinese-American writers deeply.Chinese traditional culture phenomenon is everywhere in Chinese literary works.Chinese-American writers concern about Chinese culture.Through the use of Chinese myth and folklore,the description of food culture and customs,Chinese-American writers know the culture of their ancestors more,understand their parents more and show the difficult process of cultural belonging.%华裔作家受中国传统文化的影响很深,其文学作品中体现了中国传统文化现象,通过对中国神话和民间传说的运用,饮食文化和风俗习惯的描写,美国华裔作家更加了解祖先的文化,更能理解父母,从而展示了他们寻找文化归属感的艰难历程。

  11. Statistical Analysis on the Scientific Literature of Tea Economics%茶经济类科技文献的统计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永兴; 姜爱芹

    2012-01-01

    1449 Chinese literatures with tea economic themes were collected and filtered. With these articles statistical analysis on bibliometrics and keywords analysis were carried out. Results showed that during the latest 10 years the number of tea economic articles developed as a path of increasing curve with a low valley; these articles were published on 461 journals, among which the top 3 journals published more than 50 articles in each; and also there are 64.2% journals only published 1 article in each. There are 1 152 first authors in these 1 449 articles, among which there are 12 first authors who published more than 5 articles in each. These first authors affiliate to 803 institutions, which mainly belong to high education field and agriculture field, and fewer belong to research and economic institutions. The keyword analysis results showed that there are totally 3 642 keywords in 1 449 tea economic articles with total frequency of 8 595. The keywords with highest frequencies as follows: "tea industry", "industrialization", "development", "countermeasure", "brand", "famous tea", "organic tea", "Pu-erh tea", "sustainable development", "economic effect", "trade", "market", etc. In different years there are different high frequency keywords. In recent years, it occurrences some new keywords, in which the most important ones are "dark tea", "market construction", "tea industry association", "distract brand", "brand marketing", "industrial structure", etc. In the latest 10 years, the conceptions of tea brand, tea culture were gotten more attentions. Whereas, the attention to the tea export concept was dropped down for several years, but recovered in some degree in recent 3 years.%搜集、整理了中文茶经济类科技文献1 449篇,从文献统计和关键词分析的角度对其进行综述.文献统计显示,该类文献的数量在最近10年中呈现出具一定下凹度的曲线向上的增长趋势;共有461种期刊刊登茶经济类文献,其中发表50

  12. The Bent Branches---Chinese Online Literature Viewed from Nationalist Angle%“压弯的树枝”--民族主义视野下的中国网络文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡疆锋

    2014-01-01

    In the process of much mentioned historical context and globalization, Chinese online literature nurtures a complicated and rich mindset of a powerful nation, concerning Chinese territory, national sovereignty, national dignity, cultural identity, foreign policy, and other heated topics, which results in the cause-and-effect relationship with the new nationalism. Online literature reveals the difficult problems in Chinese society and tries to solve them, and clearly depicts the Chinese youth's search for their identity with complicated national consciousness, rational, feverish, nihilistic, cynical, and so on. The negative and harmful trends of contemporary nationalism manifested in online literature should be pointed out and discarded.%在架空的历史语境和全球化境遇中,中国网络文学建构出了复杂而丰富的大国想象,涉及中国领土、国家地位、民族尊严、文化认同、外交政策等热点问题,与新一轮的民族主义形成了互为因果的关系。网络文学揭示出并试图“解决”中国社会中许多尚未解决的难题,清晰勾勒出了当代中国青年在理性、狂热、虚无、犬儒等复杂的民族意识中寻找认同之路的印迹。网络文学中所体现出的当代民族主义中的一些不良倾向应该引起警惕并加以摒弃。

  13. 基本药物中成药的循证文献特征研究%Research into Evidence-based Literatures on the Chinese Patent Medicines on the National Essential Medicine List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮润; 耿向楠; 信枭雄; 陈哲; 施阳; 肖鲁; 史录文

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究我国2009年版《国家基本药物目录》中成药临床循证文献特征,为构建中成药针对证的循证药学评价方法奠定基础.方法 通过中成药循证文献类别划分,分析13个中成药循证文献分布结构、治疗疾病集中度和时间变化特点,结合药品注册管理办法,探讨中成药循证文献的差异.结果 部分中成药循证文献的组间对照试验比例较高,近年数量增加较快,治疗疾病的集中度较高,另一部分中成药循证文献的前后对照试验和经验介绍比例较高,治疗疾病集中度较分散.结论 中成药可以分为两类,现代中成药可部分按以病为导向的循证评价方法评价,传统中成药的循证文献不宜用以病为导向的循证评价方法评价.为体现中成药的特点,必须建立以中医的证为导向的循证评价方法.%OBJECTIVE To examine the characteristics of the evidence-based clinical literatures regarding the Chinese patent medicines on the National Essential Medicine List of China (2009 Edition) so as to lay a foundation for the establishment of an evidence-based pharmaceutical review system for the Chinese patent medicines oriented at treating TCM-syndromes. METHODS The evidence-based literatures on Chinese patent medicines were categorized,and their characteristics were analyzed concerning the distribution of the literatures according to the five levels of evidence,the concentration of the diseases under treatment,and chronological changes; in accordance with the Drug Registration Regulation,the differences among these literatures were explored. RESULTS With regard to the literatures on some Chinese patent medicines,there were a large proportion of randomized controlled trials ( RCTs),with a rapid increase in the number of the literatures in recent years and a clear focus on certain diseases. By contrast,some other Chinese patent medicines had a high proportion of before-after studies and empirical introductions

  14. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  15. A Comparative Study of Western and Chinese Precaution of Dishonesty in Scientific Research and the Enlightenment%防范科研不端行为的制度借鉴与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张效英; 李强; 姚跃传; 陈卫平

    2011-01-01

    近些年来,科研不端现象呈现出新的发展趋势,科研活动中的行为规范问题日益显现出其重要性。西方发达国家在科研不端行为的界定、认定、防范与治理等方面进行了大量的研究与实践,并且从法规及制度上不断地完善对科研不端行为的约束,积累了较为丰富的经验。这些有益经验对于加强我国学术道德建设,建立适合我国国情的科研活动管理规范体系具有重要的借鉴意义。%In recent years,the increasing spread of dishonesty in scientific research has been witnessed,making the issue of setting code of conduct highly urgent.In western countries,the studies on dishonesty in scientific research have been conducted in the aspects of definition,affirmation,precaution and solution to enhance the sanctioning effect through legislation-drafting and regulation improvement.These rich experience is valuable for us to develop the scientific ethic and establish the management system of scientific research with Chinese characteristics.

  16. Rapid Collaborative Scientific and Technical Literature Push Mechanism Based on Intelligent Agent%一种基于智能Agent的科技文献快速协作推送机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小龙; 赵昌耀; 耿卫健; 程春玲

    2011-01-01

    The current scientific and technical literature network-sharing platforms have a mass of papers, which is difficult for users to get what they really need. We presented a new Rapid collaborative scientific and technical literature push model based on intelligent Agent. This model adopts Intelligent Agent technology to build the User Agent, Data Transfer Agent, Information Evaluation Agent, Information Analysis Agent, Server Monitor Agent and Data Mining Agent, to establish an effective collaborative relationship between clients and servers, provide scientific and technical literatures jointly for each users meeting their needs perfectly. We also proposed a Literature-Readers Matching Assessment Algorithm(LRMAA) ,which is to comprehensively consider the subscription information provided by user initiatively,the user's reading history, the objective assessment of literature as well as the literature publishing time, to get the matching vector, resulting in a true and accurate access to the user's research interests and focuses in time to provide users with the most valuable, suitable and high-quality scientific and technical literature information. This paper first analyzed the current network Information Pull and Push methods, and then introduced the Intelligent Agent-based rapid collaborative scientific and technical literature push model, at last, discussed LRMAA in detail about all parameters computing of the vector.%针对目前网络科技文献共享平台上汇聚的海量的科技文献,提出了一种新的基于智能Agent的科技文献快速协作推送模型,通过引入由智能Agent技术构建的用户Agent、数据传递Agent、信息评估Agent、信息分析Agent、服务器监控Agent和数据挖掘Agent,在客户机和服务器之间建立一种有效的协作关系,联合为每个用户主动提供最符合其需求的科技文献.提出了一种新的文献一读者契合度评估算法,算法综合考虑用户主动提供的订阅信息、

  17. Exploration and Conceptions on the Teaching Reform of Chinese Literature Curriculum in Colleges and Universities%关于高校中国文学史课程教学改革的探索与构思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婉霞

    2014-01-01

    History of Chinese Literature is a main course for students majoring in Chinese language and literature in institutions of higher education,and is one of the important approaches to im-prove students'overall humanities.In terms of his own experience of teaching practice over the years,the author believes teaching reform of History of Chinese Literature can be put into effect in three aspects.Firstly,students are required to read and even recite the ancient classic literature, so as to improve the students'humanities;Secondly,in order to mobilize and motivate the students 'study enthusiasm,interaction should be strengthened between teacher and students;Thirdly,e-valuating mechanism should be improved so that students'learning can be promoted.%《中国文学史》是为高等院校汉语言文学专业学生开设的一门专业主干课,是提高学生整体人文素养的重要途径。笔者结合做自己多年的教学实践之体会,认为中国文学史教学改革可以从三个方面努力:强化学生对古代经典文学作品的阅读与背诵,以提高学生的人文素养;加强教学活动中教与学的互动,以调动和激发学生的学习积极性;改进考核评价机制,以促进学生的学习。

  18. 米兰·昆德拉的存在哲思对中国当代文学的影响%The Influence of Milan Kundera's Philosophical Thoughts of Existence on Chinese Contemporary literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张容

    2011-01-01

    The Czech-born French writer, Milan Kundera, is one of the foreign writers, who was much focused in China during the late twentieth century,and his works have an extensive influence on Chinese contemporary litera- ture.Milan Kundera's philosophical thinking of existence affects the history narrates, the performance and the theme of Chinese contemporary literature,and provides some new enlightenments for Chinese contemporary literature.%法籍捷克裔作家米兰·昆德拉是二十世纪后期备受中国关注的外国作家之一,其创作广泛地影响了中国当代文学的实践。昆德拉对存在的思考与探询对中国当代文学的史学叙事、表现深度和题材广度都产生了深远的影响,为中国当代文学的发展提供了有益的借鉴。

  19. Development Methods Analysis of Scientific and Technological Literature Service in Big Data Era%大数据时代科技文献服务发展路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏峰; 张敏; 段炼

    2015-01-01

    大数据是继云计算、物联网之后IT产业又一次颠覆性的技术革命,大数据挖掘和应用可创造出超万亿美元的价值。大数据时代的来临对文献服务也提出了更高的要求。本文从科技文献服务面临的困境、大数据时代的机遇与挑战、科技文献服务转型与升级三个方面来阐述。%Big data is a disruptive technology revolution after the cloud computing and Internet of things in IT industry. The exploitation and application of big data can create a value of super trillion dollars. The coming of big data era also puts forward higher requirements on literature service. This article interprets from three perspectives of difficulties faced by scientific and technological literature service, opportunities and challenges in big data era, and the transformation and upgrading of scientific and technological literature service.

  20. Insight of Anthropology and Writing of the History of Chinese Literature --An Interpretation on "Redrawing the Map of Chinese Literature" Advocated by Yang Yi%人类学眼光与中国文学史的书写——对杨义“重绘中国文学地图”的一种解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏永前

    2011-01-01

    In the theory and practice of "redrawing the map of Chinese literature", Yang Yi's review of the relationship between the native and the west, the periphery and the center, as well as the writing and the oral, has a rich connotation of anthropology. It is both an awareness of the defects in the studies on Chinese literature and a response to the trend of literary anthropology, which has a huge influence on the writing of the history of Chinese literature. The integrated literature concept advocated by Yang Yi makes it possible for the researches of Chinese literature to return to the native paradigm.%在“重绘中国文学地图”的命题与实践中,杨义对“本土与西方”、“边缘与中心”、“书写与口传”、“汉族文学与少数民族文学”等多重关系的重新审视,显示出丰富的人类学内涵。这既是对当下中国文学研究中诸种缺失的自觉省察,也是对方兴未艾的文学人类学思潮的一种回应,在今后的中国文学史写作中具有重要的示范意义。杨义所倡导的“大文学观”,使得中国文学研究在经历了百年“失语”之后,有了回归本土范式的可能。

  1. 《剑桥中国文学史》分期浅论%On the Division of Stages in The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希明

    2014-01-01

    The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature was published mainly for non -specialist readers and tried to be a best-selling book.The Special division of stages is not only to avoid the traditional method of Sinology to divide the field into genres, but to meet the needs for the market and potential readers.In fact, the purpose claimed by the editors to create a history of literary culture had not been thoroughly implemented.Due to the different features of each period of history, and every editor’ s different academic expertise and the style, thus the methods for division is inconsistent, which makes the book is a little bit messy.Even so, this book with a different perspective from overseas academia is still of enlightening significance to the domestic academic circles.%《剑桥中国文学史》的定位是非学术性的面向普通读者的畅销书,其独特的分期方法固然是对欧美汉学传统上以文类为分类依据的反拨,更是对市场及潜在读者的迎合。从其实际的操作看,主编所宣称的文学文化史的观念,在具体的分期中并没有得到彻底贯彻。由于各个时段的不同特点,也由于参编者各自的学术专长及风格不同,因而分期方式也各不相同,这使得全书颇为杂乱。即使如此,这部来自域外的著作以其不同的视角对学界仍旧有启发意义。

  2. Investigation on the Influencing Factors of the Scientific and Innovative Elites:With a National Key Laboratory's Scientific Researcher of Chinese Academic of Sciences as the Research Object%科技拔尖创新人才影响因素研究--以中科院某院级重点实验室的科研人员为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 李冰

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a national key laboratory's scientific re-searcher of Chinese academic of sciences is set as a research ob-ject. The sample scientists are analyzed, counted in macro and micro aspects. By exploring the progress along the meritocratic path, valid suggestions are put forward for cultivating the scien-tific and innovative talent.%  本文选取了中国科学院某院级重点实验室的科研人员作为考察对象,从宏观和微观方面对选取的科学家样本进行各种分析、统计,分析他们的创新成才之路,从而对培养我国的科技创新拔尖人才提出合理化建议。

  3. Investigation on the Influencing Factors of the Scientific and Innovative Elites:With a National Key Laboratory's Scientific Researcher of Chinese Academic of Sciences as the Research Object%科技拔尖创新人才影响因素研究--以中科院某院级重点实验室的科研人员为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 李冰

    2013-01-01

      本文选取了中国科学院某院级重点实验室的科研人员作为考察对象,从宏观和微观方面对选取的科学家样本进行各种分析、统计,分析他们的创新成才之路,从而对培养我国的科技创新拔尖人才提出合理化建议。%In this article, a national key laboratory's scientific re-searcher of Chinese academic of sciences is set as a research ob-ject. The sample scientists are analyzed, counted in macro and micro aspects. By exploring the progress along the meritocratic path, valid suggestions are put forward for cultivating the scien-tific and innovative talent.

  4. Strategy Study on Chinese Classical Literature Teaching Reform%中国古典文学作品教学改革策略探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍伟

    2015-01-01

    古典文学作品在大学语文课程教学中存在着与市场经济环境格格不入、教学方式有待改进、学生的学习态度有待矫正三个问题,提出了寻找古典文学作品与现实的契合点、革新教学方式、端正学生学习态度等三种改革策略,以期在教学实践中增强古典文学作品的教学效果,提升大学生的人文素养。%This paper introduce three problems in teaching classical Chinese literary works of college Chinese education. Firstly,the contradiction between classical Chinese literary works and the market economy;secondly,the irrational teaching methods of classical Chinese literary works; finally,the students' learning classical Chinese literary works attitude should be corrected. In order to resolve these questions,I provide three solutions. Doing more to marry classical Chinese literary works with realistic demand; Reforming the teaching methods; let the students have a good learning attitude. These strategies in order to enhance the teaching effect in teaching practice and improve college students' Humanistic qualities.

  5. Social scientific environmental research in Finland. An overview on the research fields and literature; Yhteiskuntatieteellinen ympaeristoetutkimus Suomessa. Katsaus tutkimusaloihin ja kirjallisuuteen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viinikainen, T. [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents an overview on Finnish social scientific research on the environment. This research field studies the interaction between man and nature, as well as the causes, solutions and effects of environmental problems, in their social context. Research activities in the field have increased in Finland in the 1990`s. In the resort the following research areas are shortly described: environmental history, environmental philosophy and theology, environmental sociology, environmental research in communication studies, research on environmental politics, economics, geography and urban planning, environmental education, environmental law, and forestry. In each research field the latest projects in different research institutions are also listed. In addition to this, the report contains a bibliography on Finnish social scientific research on the environment between the years 1990 and 1996. (orig.) 98 refs.

  6. A case report of collagenous gastritis in a young Chinese woman and literatures review%胶原性胃炎一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贺军; 金珠; 林三仁; 丁士刚; 白鹏; 崔荣丽; 韩亚京; 张颖; 尚惠茹

    2010-01-01

    Objective Collagenous gastritis is a rare entity, characterized by the deposition of a subepithelial collagen band with an inflammatory infiltrate in the mucosa.This report describes the first case of collagenous gastritis occurring in a young Chinese woman and reviews the literatures.Methods The patient underwent the gastroscopy screening, and the biopsy specimens were treated with HE staining, Masson staining, Congo red staining and Warthin-Starry staining.Patients' clinical data was discussed and followed up.Results A twenty-year-old girl had intermittent epigastric pain for 4 years, abdominal distention, hiccup and weight loss for two months.The gastric endoscopy revealed diffuse white nodular appearance of the mucosa in angular incisure and antrum.Pathologic examination of the gastric biopsies from the antrum and angular showed a subepithelial collagen deposition with moderate infiltrates of lymphoplasma cells and eosinophils of the lamina propria.The collagen band measured up to 120.3 μm (mean 43.8 μm).Prednisone 20 mg/d for 4 weeks led to clinical remission and weight gain.Conclusion There are about 40 cases in literatures to date, and the cause and pathogenesis of collagenous gastritis remain unknown.According to the clinical and pathological characteristics, the patient in this article is the subtype of collagenous gastritis that occurring in children and young adults.Specific therapy has not been established, the gluten-free diet and glucocorticosteroid may be helpful to relieve symptoms in collagenous gastritis patients.%目的 胶原性胃炎(coHagenous gastritis,CG)临床少见,现报道一例CG并进行文献复习.方法 患者行胃镜检查,活检组织切片分别行HE染色、Masson染色、刚果红染色及Warthin-Starry染色;分析病例临床资料并进行随访.结果 1例20岁女性患者主因无规律上腹痛4年,伴腹胀、呃逆、体重明显下降2个月就诊.胃镜检查于角切迹及窦部可见白色结节(活检).病理

  7. 应用型本科院校汉语言文学专业毕业论文(设计)改革研究——以重庆文理学院为例%A Research on the Reformation of Graduation Thesis and Design of Specialty of Chinese Language and Literature in Applied Undergraduate Colleges——Taking Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长武

    2012-01-01

    The reformation of graduation thesis design of specialty of Chinese language and literature should target on the goal of cultivating of professional talent,and construct a reform model of graduation thesis,which respectively constructs a reform model with scientific research innovation ability,literary creation ability,oral expression ability,professional practice ability as the core of evaluation index of graduation thesis.We should promote the graduation thesis(design) work in the entire process of Chinese literature professional talent training,so as to improve the quality of application talents quality.%汉语言文学专业毕业论文(设计)改革应该从分析专业人才培养目标着手,构建以科研创新能力、文学创作能力、口语表达能力、实践教学能力为核心评价指标的毕业论文(设计)模式,将毕业论文(设计)工作贯穿于汉语言文学专业人才培养的全过程,这样才能达到提高应用型人才培养质量的目的。

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  9. Chinese Characters in Korean Modern Literature:Take Potato and Farmer for Example%韩国现代文学中的华人形象:以《土豆》和《农民》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林大根

    2012-01-01

    金东仁的《土豆》(1925)和李泰俊的《农民》(1939)是韩国现代文学中描绘华人形象的代表作品。《土豆》中的“王掌柜”是首次出现在韩国现代文学作品中的华人形象,也是当时朝鲜社会剧增的华人的典型代表。然而,该形象被描写成非道德的、反社会的人物,而促使这一形象生成的中心媒介就是“金钱”。透过该人物形象,可以窥视到20世纪二十年代中期朝鲜社会对华人的看法。《农民》中的华人形象是聚集韩中矛盾焦点的主人公。但是,评价以万宝山事件为背景出现的这些华人形象时,需要了解当时韩中之间的民族矛盾是由日本的殖民政策和舆论炒作所造成的,只有对这些深层次的原因进行分析,才能以正确的逻辑进行思考。但是,以万宝山事件为背景进行叙述的小说《农民》并没有抓住这点,只以朝鲜人取得水路开垦的胜利而收尾,并把与朝鲜人对峙的华人集团塑造成暴力团体,可以说,这是创作过于疏懒的结果。这种试图将超越意识形态的问题集中在民族层面的文学形象化,对后来朝鲜对华(人)的认识产生了不小的影响。因此,有必要从批判的视角来解读这部作品。%This paper aims to analyze Potato(1925) by Kim Dong In and Farmer(1939) by Lee Tae Jun as the representatives of describing Chinese characters in Korean modern literature. "Wangseobang" in Potato is a representative of Chinese, who had sharply increased in number at that time of Joseon society and also the first Chinese figure in Korean modern literature. This mod- el of Chinese was often described as being immoral as well as antisocial, and the money is the root of the character. We can see the public perception of Chinese from 1920 to the middle of 1930 through the character. The Chinese figures in Farmer intensively show conflicts between Korean and Chinese. However

  10. Darwinism:Variation of Propagation and Misreading in Modern Chinese Literature History%进化论:传播的“变异”与现代文学史编写中的“误读”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2012-01-01

      Yan Fu ignored the complexity of evolutionary process ,paid little attention to "alienation"and "degradation"and mistranslated Darwinism ,which provides ideological weapon for literary revolution and contributes to the transformation of Chinese literature in 20th century .The theory of evolution is not a value judgment standard so using the theory of evolution to judge the development of Chinese literature in the 20th century is a mistake that .To rational cognitive development and change of modern Chinese litera-ture ,misreading must be gotten rid of .%  严复对进化论的“误译”忽略了进化过程的复杂性,漠视了“异化”、“退化”等现象的存在。进化论为“文学革命”提供了思想武器和方法支撑,促成了中国文学在20世纪之交的转型。进化论不是一种价值评判标准,以之评判20世纪中国文学的发展是写史走入的误区。只有摆脱“误读”的影响,疏离“新”、“旧”二字价值判断上的应用,才能合理认知中国现代文学的发展与变革。

  11. 文本与国别文学边界--由赛珍珠和中国现代文学的关系谈起%Text and country-specific boundary of literature:A study of the relationship between Pearl S.Buck and modern Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪婷婷

    2014-01-01

    赛珍珠《大地》等小说具有明显的中西文化双重属性,表明了作者的中国体验对其写作的重要影响。除了作者经历被多元作用的实际情形,文本是否反映中国式的情感意绪、价值观念及其程度、方式,应是研究者优先也是重点考量的因素,它直接关系到中国文学边界的划分。赛珍珠与中国文学的关系,提示了对不同身份作家的中国叙事进行文化意义辨识的必要性。作为主流现代汉语文学以外的形态,一些充分反映了作者中国现代性建构和想象的外语创作,拓展了中国现代文学的边界,在多元文化日益交汇的当下,尤其值得正视。%Pearl S.Buck's The Good Earth and other novels have obvious dual attributes of Chinese and western cultures,which reveals a significant impact of the author's experience in China on her writing.In addition to the actual circumstances of the diverse experiences of the author,factors like whether the text is intended to reflect the Chinese-style feelings and threads of emotions,the values and the style should be researchers'priorities and focus of consideration,since they are directly related to the characterization of the boundaries of Chinese literature.Pearl S.Buck's relationship with Chi-nese literature reveals the need for the identification of cultural significance of the narratives about China from authors of different identities.As a form outside the mainstream of modern Chinese litera-ture,some works in foreign languages that fully reflect the authors'construction and imagination of China's modernism,expand the boundaries of modern Chinese literature.They are particularly worth serious attention,especially at the present moment when diverse cultures tend to fuse.

  12. A Brief Analysis of Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature Writers and Their Works in Chinese Textbooks for Primary School Published by Beijing Normal University Press%简析北师大版小学语文教科书中的中国现当代文学作家作品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沛然

    2014-01-01

    小学语文教科书中的选文是构成语文教科书系统的主体部分,教科书在文本选取的过程中会涉及许多中国现当代文学作家的作品。本研究选取北京师范大学版小学语文教科书为研究对象:首先,对教科书中的中国现当代文学作家和作品予以统计;然后,选出具有代表性的选文并分析其文体特点和选编依据;最后,总结该版小学语文教科书的选文特点,以期为教师在运用该版本教科书时提供相应的帮助。%Texts constitute the main part of Chinese textbooks for the primary schools ,and in the process of texts selection ,it will involve many modern and contemporary Chinese literature writers and works .This paper takes the Chinese textbooks for primary school published by Beijing Normal U‐niversity Press as the study object :firstly ,to add up modern and contemporary Chinese literature writers and works in these textbooks ;secondly ,to elect some representative texts and analyze their stylistic features and the reason why to choose them ;finally ,to summarize the characteristics of the texts in this edition of primary school Chinese textbook .This paper tries to provide some help when teachers use this textbook .

  13. [Spray for self-defense against subjects with aggressive behavior: review of the scientific literature on the use of oleoresin capsicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Pelettii, Gianfranco; Veneroni, Laura; de Micheli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In several countries oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray is being used as non lethal weapon in recent years. In 2009 in Italy a Security Act has established that self-defence spray devices can lawfully be purchased and possessed by citizens; at the same time corps of local police started to adopt these devices for self defence and aid in arresting aggressive individuals. This article analizes the multidisciplinar literature about the efficacy and possible acute and long-term health risks of pepper spray for exposed individuals and police or civilians users. The paper also reports updated considerations about correct use of this devices. PMID:22888725

  14. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  15. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  16. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  17. Application of Text Mining Technology in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature Research%文本挖掘技术在中医药文献研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪涛

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨文本挖掘技术在中医药文献研究中的应用成果.方法:对近年来文本挖掘技术应用于中医药研究的文献进行综述,总结文本挖掘技术在中医药中的应用成果.结果:文本挖掘技术能以线性和非线性方式解析数据,且能进行高层次的知识整合,又善于处理模糊和非量化数据.未来文本挖掘有可能整合中医药数据、蛋白质及代谢组学数据,分析组合中药活性成分,为新药发现和组合药物形成构建研发平台.结论:利用文本挖掘技术对中医药进行研究分析是一种很有前景的方法.%Objective:To investigate the application progress of text mining technology on traditional Chinese medicine literature research.Methods:Achievements of the application of text mining technology in TCM were summarized through literature review of the application of text mining technology in traditional chinese medicine in recent years.Results:Text mining technology can parse the data in the linear and nonlinear manner,with a high level of integration of knowledge.It is also good at dealing with fuzzy and not quantitative data.Text mining technology is likely to integrate traditional Chinese medicine data,protein and metabolomics data,analysis of combination traditional Chinese medicine active ingredients,which builds development platform for the new drug discovery and the form of combination drugs.Conclusion:Using text mining technology for research and analysis of traditional Chinese medicine is a promising method

  18. 中国特色社会主义理论体系:科学而有用的理论%Theoretical System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics:Scientific and Useful Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽华

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is scientific and useful theory,which reflects on following aspects:proceeding from Chinese reality,it solves actual problems,working out problems of"brain"and"pocket";having abundant contents and precise logic,with series of standpoints,it reflects Party's new standard of recognition of governing law of CPC,construction rule of socialism and development discipline of human society;promoting success and changing pattern of world,it creates miracle of China and provides new development pattern for other countries.%中国特色社会主义理论体系是一种科学而有用的理论,主要体现为:面向中国问题,破解现实难题,从中国实际出发,解决了"脑袋"问题和"口袋"问题;内容丰富,逻辑严谨,用一系列重大理论观点体现了我们党对共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律的认识把握的新水平;促进中国成功、改变世界格局,不仅创造了中国奇迹,也为其他国家提供了新的发展模式.

  19. 浅析我国当代科技人员的社会分层结构%Research on Social Stratification Structure about Chinese Contemporary Scientific and Technical Personnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玲; 尚智丛

    2012-01-01

    探讨的是我国当代科技人员社会分层的标准与结构,借鉴一般人类社会的分层理论和科学共同体社会分层的研究成果,提出了两种资源(组织资源和文化资源)和三元标准(专业技术职称、行政职务和社会/学术声望)的分层模式,把我国当代科技人员分为高中低三大类八层级的结构.希望通过该研究丰富我国科学共同体社会分层的理论,同时为科技管理者有的放矢地制定科技管理政策提供借鉴.%The paper explores social stratification standard and structure about Chinese contemporary scientific and technical personnel. According to general human social stratification theory and the research results of social stratification in science, the paper puts forward two resources (organization and cultural resources) and ternary standards (professional and technical titles, administrative rank and social/academic prestige) as stratified mode, divides Chinese contemporary S&T personnel into three types and eight levels. Then it analyzes the features of every types and levels. The purpose of this research is to enrich the theory of social stratification in scientific community, as well to provide reference for S&T managers.

  20. Changes of the usage of"motivation" and related concepts within Chinese literature of human resources for health%卫生人力资源研究中"激励"及相关基本概念的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明吉; 侯志远; 严非

    2015-01-01

    After introduction into Chinese academy, and in the application in health care domain, the usage of"motivation" and related concepts has been changed. The changes were partly due to pragmatic utility, and caused confusion in the application of motivation theory in Chinese human resource for health. Both English and Chinese lit-erature was reviewed and systematic literature review was applied. We analyzed the different definitions of "motiva-tion" in English, and how they were used and understand in Chinese academia in history. "Motivation" was divided into three Chinese concepts, representing the process of motivation, inner driver of motivation and psychological state of being motivated. The other usage changes include willful exchange of"incentive" and"motivation";"motivation"being used more as a means to motivate than a motivational process;the result of motivation as an aroused psychologi-cal state not seriously defined. Systematic literature review revealed the distribution of various motivation topics in Chinese literature and supported the abovementioned arguments. These changes of usage could cause barriers to re-search of human resource for health in China. It is recommended that usage of"motivation" should be clarified in ac-ademia in China and the process of motivation rather than motivation as a managerial means deserves more attention.%中文激励理论在卫生服务领域的应用过程中,中文激励理论的基本概念与英文原有理论的概念用法有所变化. 这些基本概念的变化有其应用方面的适宜性,但也造成了对卫生人力资源管理应用和未来理论发展的困扰. 本文使用了理论分析、文献评阅的方法,探讨了英文motivation的多个概念、中文激励理论的历史文本,系统评阅了2000年以来卫生服务领域的中文激励相关文献. 结果发现,英文motivation的三种定义分化为激励、动机、积极性三个中文词汇. 存在的概念变异是:刺激( incentive )

  1. 汉语国际教育专业文学课的教学探索与实践%The Exploration and Practice of Literature Teaching to Chinese International Education Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李然

    2015-01-01

    汉语国际教育专业文学课是在全球化文化交流的背景下创设的,旨在培养跨文化交际人才的汉语文学、文化与跨文化交际的基本素质。为克服教学内容丰富而课时量少的矛盾,在教学内容的安排上应跨学科、讲重点、重语用,强化读、写、说等基本能力的训练。%Literature course of international Chinese education is opened under the background of globalization and cultural exchanges, aiming at cultivating the intercultural communication talent with basic quality of Chinese literature, culture and inter-cultural communication. However, there is not enough class time for so much teaching contents. Therefore, teaching arrangement should focus on language usage and training of reading, writing and speaking.

  2. The 21st Century Chinese Contemporary Literature Research in South Korea:Taking Journals as an Example%21世纪中国当代文学研究在韩国--以相关期刊杂志为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉英[韩

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, researchers in South Korea have broadened their horizons in their studies of contemporary Chinese literature, and their research projects are advancing with the times, moving a single research mode to diverse angles, and breaking through the limitations of other foreign scholars. All these have helped contemporary Chinese literature study in South Korea go international and become localized.%21世纪,韩国研究者对中国当代文学研究的视野逐渐开阔,所研究的课题也在与时俱进,从单一的研究模式扩大到“多元化”的角度发展,也突破了外国学者的局限。这些研究范围的扩展使“韩国的中国当代文学研究”更能实现“国际化”和“本土化”,同时也推进了中国当代文学在世界文化交流的发展。

  3. Corelation Analysis between Digital Media and Reasonable Transition of Chinese Literature%数字媒介与中国文学合理转型相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer network ,digital media have resulted in the transition of Chinese litera‐ture ,changing the aesthetic constituentes ,space-time concept as well as the expressing system on a large scale .However ,it may at the same time exert negative effect on traditional literature ,or even alienate traditional culture .In the new context , proper control and guidence must be conducted in order to convert the challenges that digital media have brought into opportu‐nities for development of Chinese literature ,ensuring its continuous prosperity .%随着计算机网络的飞速发展,数字媒介引发了中国文学的转型,新媒介使得中国文学的审美构成、时空观念、表意体制等发生了极大的改变,这也对传统文学带来一定的破坏,甚至异化了传统文化。在新环境下,必须对中国文学主体进行合理地调控和引导,将数字媒介对中国文学的挑战转变为中国文学发展的契机,从而为中国文学的持续发展提供保障。

  4. 数字媒体时代下的中国儿童文学发展面向省思%Reflections on the Development of Chinese Children ’ s Literature in the Age of Digital Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿羽

    2015-01-01

    中国儿童文学兴起于五四新文化运动时期,伴随着中国现代社会的进步一路而行,其先后经历了多种社会思潮的影响并发生了有别于西方儿童文学的本土化转变。基于计算机技术的数字媒体改变了人类生活的整体面貌,一涌而出的视觉符号在深刻影响中国儿童文学发展环境的同时,也改变了儿童的阅读习惯。我国目前正处于经济转型期,有关儿童的社会问题日益明显,这些状况无疑是数字媒体时代下中国儿童文学理论思考的一个重要面向所在。%Chinese children ’ s literature originated from the New Culture Movement , developing along with the pro-gress of modern society .It has undergone the influence of many social thoughts before being localized .Computer-based digital media technology has changed the whole situation of human life .Artificial visual symbols and sounds are overwhelming Chinese children’s literature, which has profoundly changed children ’s reading habits.China is currently in a period of economic transition .Social problems about children have become increasingly prominent . Research on this situation is not only the direction of Chinese children ’ s literary theory,but also the destiny of this discipline in the digital media age .

  5. Classics Reading and Experience of Chinese Language and Literature in the Network Age%网络时代汉语言文学的经典阅读与体验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小林

    2014-01-01

    The development of network technology has enriched people's knowledge and also changed people's reading habit. The number of people reading through the network is increasing year by year, and the traditional way of reading is in gradually fade. The change of the traditional reading method makes the literary works pure consumption of fast food culture, which has violated the cultural value of pleasure and spiritual impact of literary works. So under the background of network age, how to realize the fusion of network and the Chinese language and literature and let people feel the classical reading, realize the cultural value of Chinese language and literature is the main problem facing Chinese language workers.%网络技术的发展,丰富了人们的阅读知识,同时也改变了人们的阅读习惯,通过网络阅读人数在逐年递增,而传统的阅读方式却在逐渐淡化,传统阅读方式的改变使文学作品被单纯的消费为快餐文化,违背了文学作品的精神愉悦和心灵冲击的文化价值,因此在网络时代背景下,如何实现网络与汉语言文学的融合,让人们感受经典阅读,实现汉语言文学的文化价值是当前汉语言工作者需要面临的主要问题。

  6. On citing the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, A. Charles

    1980-01-01

    Some outlandish examples are used to support the argument that literature citations should be treated as references to documents and not references to individuals. Different consequences for scientific behavior are implicit in the alternative usages.

  7. 得失参半的创新之作--《剑桥中国文学史》评议%Success Equals Failure in an Innovated Book-A Review about The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泽宝

    2015-01-01

    《剑桥中国文学史》旨在打破以往文学史写作中的习惯性范畴,开创新的文学史范式。其中最引人注目的是它特殊的“文学文化史”的书写姿态,立足于在文化史的背景下考察中国文学的发展进程。这种书写策略为我们认识文学史提供了新的视角与方法,但并没有在全书中得到全面的贯彻。《剑桥中国文学史》的文学史分期方式也引人注目,某些基于文学文化史立场的分期方式显得新颖别致。全书的文学史分期方式并没有统一的标准,也存在着按世纪、朝代为文学史分期的现象。由于全书的编者热衷于探求“过去的文学”原貌,在实践中往往对某些重要作家作品叙述较少,而对次要的文学现象评价过高。这种迥异于时流的评价可新人耳目,但有些评价是出于臆测,并没有坚实的依据。%The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History aims at creating a new pattern about the writing of Chinese literature history by removing familiar categories in the field.The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History is famous for its special view of the history of literature culture.The writ-ers believe that the real original appearance of literature is clear when we research literature by the hand of whole history of culture.Some problems in literature could be removed with the view of cul-ture,which is not reflected completely in the whole book.The divisions of literature history are also eye-attracting,some are reasonable based the view of culture history.Other kinds of division of histo-ry carry on changeless criterion as before.The book aims to seek the original appearance of literature happened as announced.Some famous writers in history are not take high while common ones are over praised.So,some evaluations in the book are not valid.

  8. 中国现当代文学的发展现状与发展方向分析%Present situation and the development direction of Chinese contemporary literature development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬梅

    2015-01-01

    With the progress of the society, people's concept of emotion and transformation has more far-reaching influence on the development of modern and contemporary literature, combined with the global links more closely, more convenient communication, Chinese modern and contemporary literature has been the impact of foreign culture, caused the wide attention of scholars in related fields, to a certain extent, changed the traditional literary phenomenon, closed, prompted China's modern and contemporary literature in both expression and ideological content has more age characteristic, can meet the demand of people's literature.%随着社会的进步,人们情感和意识观念的转变,对于现当代文学发展产生了较为深远的影响,加之全球之间联系的愈加密切,信息交流更为便捷,我国现当代文学受到了国外文化的冲击,引起了相关领域学者的广泛关注,在一定程度上改变了传统文学封闭现象,促使我国的现当代文学无论是在表达方式还是思想内容上都有了更多的时代特色,符合人们的文学需求。

  9. A review of scientific literature examining the mining history, geology, mineralogy, and amphibole asbestos health effects of the Rainy Creek igneous complex, Libby, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandli, Bryan R; Gunter, Mickey E

    2006-11-01

    This article reviews the past 90 yr of scientific research directed on multiple aspects of the unique geology and environmental health issues surrounding the vermiculite deposit found at Libby, MT. Hydrothermal alteration and extensive weathering of the ultramafic units resulted in the formation of a rich deposit of vermiculite that was mined for 67 yr and used in numerous consumer products in its expanded form. Later intrusions of alkaline units caused hydrothermal alteration of the pyroxenes, resulting in formation of amphiboles. Some of these amphiboles occur in the asbestiform habit and have been associated with pulmonary disease in former miners and mill workers. Identification of these amphibole asbestos minerals has received little attention in the past, but recent work shows that the majority of the amphibole mineral species present may not be any of the amphibole species currently regulated by government agencies. Epidemiological studies on former miners have, nevertheless, shown that the amphibole asbestos from the Rainy Creek igneous complex is harmful; also, a recent study by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry shows that residents of Libby who had not been employed in the vermiculite mining or milling operations also appear to have developed asbestos-related pulmonary diseases at a higher rate than the general public elsewhere. Since November 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been involved in the cleanup of asbestos-contaminated sites in and around Libby associated with the mining and processing of vermiculite. PMID:16920668

  10. Non-hematopoietic essential functions of bone marrow cells: a review of scientific and clinical literature and rationale for treating bone defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Harrell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis as the only essential function of bone marrow cells has been challenged for several decades through basic science (in vitro and in vivo and clinical data. Such work has shed light on two other essential functions of bone marrow cells: osteopoiesis and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis. Clinical utility of autologous concentrated bone marrow aspirate (CBMA has demonstrated both safety and efficacy in treating bone defects. Moreover, CBMA has been shown to be comparable to the gold standard of iliac crest bone graft (ICBG, or autograft, with regard to being osteogenic and osteoinductive. ICBG is not considered an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP, but CBMA may become regulated as an ATMP. The European Medicines Agency Committee for Advanced Therapies (EMA:CAT has issued a reflection paper (20 June 2014 in which reversal of the 2013 ruling that CBMA is a non-ATMP has been proposed. We review bone marrow cell involvement in osteopoiesis and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis to examine EMA:CAT 2013 decision to use CBMA for treatment of osteonecrosis (e.g, of the femoral head should be considered a non-ATMP. This paper is intended to provide discussion on the 20 June 2014 reflection paper by reviewing two non-hematopoietic essential functions of bone marrow cells. Additionally, we provide clinical and scientific rationale for treating osteonecrosis with CBMA.

  11. 中国内观疗法文献分析(1988-2015年)%Analysis of Chinese Naikan Therapy Literature during 1 988 and 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭睿; 毛富强; 靳秀; 苏阳雪

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To summarize and analyze development dynamics and features of Naikan therapy in 27 years. Methods:Taking “Naikan”and “therapy”as search terms.Making topic,keywords and title/keywords search at CNKI,Wanfang medical network and VIP.The literature was between June,1 988 and Septemper,201 5.Screening the literature and making statistic analysis subject to bibliometrics principle.Results:China journal published a total of Naikan therapy and 222 literatures,the research and application of 147 articles(66.2%).Tianjin Medical University (59,26.6%),Soochow University(1 6,7.2%),the mental health center of Shanghai(13,5.9%)was one of the top three author;Mao Fuqiang(42,18.9%),Wang Zucheng(8,3.6%),Huang Xinyin(8,3.6%)was one of the top three communications the author China;the second session of the conference of Naikan therapy(34,1 5.3%),the master degree thesis of Tianjin Medical University(1 6,7.2%),Shanghai Journal of Psychiatry(1 1,5%),China Journal of Health Psychology(10,4.5%),Chinese Journal of behavioral medicine and Brain Science(9,4.1%)was the top five sources;mental health education(28,1 9.1%),schizophrenia(28,1 9.1%),Internet addiction(1 1,7.5%),depression (10,6.8%),alcohol dependence(10,6.8%)was used as one of the top five Field.Conclusion:Naikan therapy in show-ing the number of step growth;Naikan training base in Tianjin,Shanghai and other is published the main force;Graduate Dissertations and scientific journal conference proceedings,research is the primary literature sources;Nai-kan therapy is mainly used in mental health education and mental disorders treatment fields;in the future,we should further expand the core author groups,according to the national conditions to improve the methods,expand the ap-plication field of study,continuously improve the quality of the paper.%目的::总结和分析内观疗法在中国27年的发展动态和特点。方法:以“内观”&“疗法”为搜索词,分别对中国知网(CNKI)、万方医

  12. A Study for Literature Value of Chinese Myth%我国神话的儿童文学价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕进锋

    2012-01-01

    神话是文化的载体,神话作为一种文学样式有其独特的儿童文学价值,本文将围绕神话与儿童文学的共通点是什么,神话的文学价值体现在哪里,可以如何开发利用神话的文学价值这三个方面进行阐述。%Myth is the carrier of cuiture.Myth is a kind of literature, having literature value. This paper will expound three questions: This first, the applicable to both or all point between myth and children's literature; the second, what is the myth's literature value; the last, how to develop and make use of the myth's literature value.

  13. Scientific literature on monosialoganglioside in the Science Citation Index-Expanded bibliometric analysis of articles from 1942 to 2011 by each decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Xu; Miaojing Li; Zhijun Liu; Ruichun Liu; Jianzhong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The monosialoganglioside (GM1) is a popular topic of research but the bibliometric analysis of GM1 over the decades in Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) remains poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To identify the global research and to improve the understanding of research trends in the GM1 field from 1942 to 2011. DESIGN: A bibliometric study. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis based on the SCI-E published by the Institute of Scientific Information. INCLUSIVE CRITERIA: Articles closely related to GM1 were included. Exclusive criteria: (1) Articles related to gangliosidosis, disialo-ganglioside, trisialo-ganglioside or ganglioside GQIb. (2) Document types such as meeting abstracts, reviews, proceedings papers, notes, and letters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Type of publication output; (2) number of author outputs; (3) distribution of output in subject categories; (4) publication distribution of countries; (5) distribution of output in journals, and (6) distribution of citations in each decade.RESULTS: During 1942 to 2011, there were 10 126 papers on GM1 that were added to the SCI. Articles (8 004) were the most frequently used document type comprising 79.0%, followed by meeting abstracts, reviews and proceedings papers. Research on GM1 could be found in the SCI from 1942, it was developed in the 1970s, greatly increased in the 1980s, and reached a peak in the 1990s, and it was slightly decreased in 2000. The distribution of subject categories showed that GM1 research covered both clinical and basic science research. The USA, Japan, and Germany were the three most productive countries, and the publication numbers in the USA were highest in all decades. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Neurochemistry and Biochemistry were core subject journals in GM1 studies in each decade. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the topics in GM1 research that are being published around the world.

  14. 美国《临床化学杂志》栏目和版面设置对中文期刊的启示%Difference of column setting between Chinese medical scientific journals and Clinical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武昱; 顾佳; 游苏宁

    2013-01-01

    Column setting shows the categories and range of the information a journal carries. Columns in medical scientific journals play an important role in helping audiences reading and retrieving more efficiently. It may also contribute to submitting papers for authors. Medical journals often seem similar to each other, lacking unique features. This article compares column setting between Chinese medical scientific journals and Clinical Chemistry, and lists the advantages of Clinical Chemistry in hope of helping local scientific journals make better benefit.%期刊设置栏目能体现出期刊内容的大致轮廓及传播信息的类别和范围,为读者的检索和阅读提供方便,是期刊总体设计的一个重要的组成部分.医学期刊栏目的科学设置不仅能够起到导读的作用,而且能够吸引优秀稿件,帮助作者在投稿时对文章进行准确定位.国内期刊常设的栏目大同小异,缺少个性和特色.本文介绍美国《临床化学杂志》栏目设置的特点,总结该刊值得借鉴之处,希望能对扩大国内科技期刊读者群体和提高期刊的社会效益和经济效益有所帮助.

  15. 分子配伍理论科学内涵及在现代中药研发中的应用%Scientific Connotation of Molecule Compatibility and Role in Research and Development of Modern Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑玲; 谢恬; 李铖璐; 曾昭武; 孙云廷; 王秋岩; 王安明; 殷晓浦

    2013-01-01

    提出分子配伍理论,为现代中药研究提供理论指导.阐述分子配伍理论产生的背景、必然性和科学内涵,及分子配伍理论的特征.论述分子配伍理论指导下的现代中药(成分中药)的特征.结果显示分子配伍理论具有3个特征:①分子配伍理论体现了中西医的有机结合;②分子配伍理论系统思维与分析还原法的有机结合;③坚持中医药理论的整体观.现代中药具有5个特征:①方中所有成分化学结构、分子式、分子量均清楚;②分子配伍符合方剂学君臣佐使的原则;③作用机制清楚、疗效确切、剂型先进、质量稳定可控;④多通道、多途径、多层次、多靶点对患病机体产生网络药理作用;⑤对复杂性、系统性疾病疗效明显,副作用小.中药现代化的关键是中医药理论现代化.分子配伍理论的提出,是时代发展的必然产物,必将促进中医药事业的繁荣昌盛.%Molecular Compatibility theory was put forward to provide theoretical guidance for modern Chinese medicine ( molecular Chinese medicine ) . They were expounded to the background, scientific connotation, necessity, features of Molecular Compatibility theory and characteristics of modem Chinese medicine. Molecular compatibility theory had three features. ①It reflected the concept of organic combination of Chinese and western medicine. ② Systematic thinking combined with analysis reduction method organically. ③The overall concept of TCM theory was adhered to; Characteristics of modern Chinese medicine by molecular compatibility theory was three. ① They were clear of the chemical structure, molecular formula, molecular weight of all ingredients in prescription. ②The principle of dunchenzuoshi was followed. ③It had clear mechanism, definite effect, advanced dosage forms, stable quality control. ④ Multichannel, multi-evel and multi-channel network pharmacological effects were produced in sick body.

  16. Citation Analysis for Literature Researches in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang-Hua Chen

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates Literature Researches in Taiwan in a viewpoint of outside researcher. The methodology of Informetrics will be used to analyze citations of Chinese Literature and ForeignLiterature’s research papers which had been published in Taiwan from 1996 to 2006. The citation types, citation disciplines, citation languages and citing half-life are examined. On average, the number of citations of each research paper of Foreign Literature is 22.72; the number of Chinese Literature i...

  17. Quantitative Analysis on Scientific and Technical Literature of Polygonatum Mill. in the llth 5-Year-Plan Period in China%“十一五”我国黄精属科技文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡一民; 姜程曦

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the literature regarding research on Polygonatum between 2006 and 2010 was retrieved with CNKI (China National Knowledge Internet) and statistical analysis was made on the date distribution, journal distribution, authors as well as the medical materials and resources, cultivation physiology, pest and disease control, processing, chemical composition, pharmacology,clinical applications and other related research. The scientific research on Polygonatum in the lhh 5-year-plan period in China was analyzed according to the statistical results aimed to provide reference for further scientific research on Polygonatum.%利用《中国知网》检索2006年-2010年有关黄精研究的文献,对其年代分布、期刊分布、作者及有关药材与资源、栽培生理及病虫害、加工与炮制、化学成分、药理、临床以及其他有关方面研究情况进行统计分析,根据统计结果对我国“十一五”期间黄精科研情况进行分析,意在为进一步开展黄精的科学研究工作提供参考。

  18. 归化与执守--美国华人文学中的“金山”意象解读%Naturalisation and Maintainguard:Image Interpretation of “Golden Hill”in American Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚丹; 张文东

    2016-01-01

    A century of “golden hill”heterogeneity culture has attracted further research of chinese-born Ameri-can writers. The writers have used record of actual events and imagine two writing ways to construct the metaphorical regional culture image, and presents the ethnic Chinese in foreign life and psycholog-ical emotional truth. The policy to China of different periods not only affected the pursuit of subjective of Chinese community, also influenced the construction of text space of Chinese writers, through con-structing text space the writers expressed their value judgment were naturalisation or maintainguard by linking with the “golden hill”regional space. This paper selected the “golden hill”city image as the thinking object, through studying the geography and culture of “golden hill”, extracted the connotation of “golden hill” image in American Chinese literature. The state power, diplomatic relations and na-tional identity were the important factors to dominate writers thinking and judgment.%一个世纪以来,“金山”的异质性文化吸引着美国华人作家不断深入探查。在叙事上,作家以纪实和想象两种书写方式来建构带有隐喻性的地域文化意象,并以此呈现华人族裔在异邦生存期间的生活、心理情感真相。而不同时期的对华政策不仅影响着华人群体的主体诉求,也影响着华人作家对文本空间的建构。作家意图通过建构文本空间,来表达出自己与“金山”地域空间的联系是归化还是执守的价值判断。选取“金山”城市意象作为研究对象,通过对“金山”的地理、文化能指内容的考察,提炼出美国华人文学中“金山”意象的所指内涵。而政治上的国家权力、外交关系和文化上的民族认同,是支配作家思考和判断的重要因素。

  19. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Fung Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publicatio...

  20. Network Characteristics of Chinese Scientific and Technical Vocabulary System%汉语科技词系统网络特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡长爱; 朱礼军

    2011-01-01

    传统的知识组织系统评价方式存在缺乏宏观测度,时滞过长,不能动态揭示等缺陷.本文结合复杂网络理论,从基本特性、动态特性和鲁棒性三个角度着手,对汉语科技词系统网络特性进行分析.基本特性的分析表明,汉语科技词系统同时具有小世界特性和无尺度特性,连通性良好,但是存在错误建设和重复建设的问题;动态特性的分析则表明,汉语科技词系统的小世界特性越来越显著,同时网络的性能有待进一步提高;鲁棒性的分析表明,汉语科技词系统网络面对随机删除时,具有良好的鲁棒性,面对蓄意攻击时,表现出较强的脆弱性.建议在以后的建设过程中采用有导向的建设,在系统管理和维护的过程中要注重词汇间相互关系,保证系统的连通性.%The evaluation of the traditional knowledge organization systems lacks of macroeconomic measure , works out very late, and cann't reveal dynamic process. Based on complex network theory, this paper has analyzed the network properties of the Chinese science and technology vocahulary system from the aspects of basic characteristics, dynamic characteristics and robustness. The analysis of basic characteristics shows that the Chinese science and technology vocabulary system is a small-world and scale-free network , and it has good connexity. But there are errors and multiplicity ;The analysis of dynamic property shows that the system is much more small-world , while the network's performance should be further improved. The analysis of robustness shows that the systerm is much robust. So that the suggestion has been advanced that the vocabulary system should be constructed under the direction,and the importance should be attached to each and every vocabulary to ensure the connectivity of the system.

  1. Los costos de la enfermedad laboral: revisión de literatura / Cost of occupational diseases: a review of scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha I. Riaño-Casallas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: identificar el estado de desarrollo de la investigación sobre los costos de la enfermedad laboral que ha sido publicada en la literatura durante la última década en el mundo. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de literatura, altamente sensible, con el objetivo de identificar publicaciones que se adaptaran a los criterios de inclusión predefinidos por los autores. Se consultaron bases de datos como Pubmed, Ebsco, Lilacs, Online Wiley, Embase y Springer. El periodo de tiempo consultado fue 2000-2013. Resultados: Se incluyeron 54 artículos, de los cuales el mayor porcentaje están escritos en inglés, la mayoría fue producto de investigaciones realizadas en Estados Unidos. La metodología utilizada principalmente por los autores de los artículos fue del tipo de estudios de carga y costos de la enfermedad. Los costos incluidos en estas publicaciones fueron directos e indirectos en su mayoría y la perspectiva predominante fue la de tipo social. Conclusiones: Las economías más avanzadas del mundo son las que en su mayoría realizan este tipo de investigaciones, balance que resalta la importancia de realizar estos estudios para economías de países en desarrollo. Con respecto al lenguaje de publicación solamente se encontraron publicaciones en español realizadas en España, de ahí que sea necesario adelantar más estudios de este tipo en Latinoamérica. / Abstract Objective: look the development of research about the work related illness published in the literature in different years, countries and economic activities and knows about the point of view to calculate the cost. Methodology: it was performance a systematic search, highly sensivity with the purpose of identify publications that could be accomplishment with inclusion criteria predefined by the authors. Databases such as PubMed, Ebsco, Lilacs, Online Wiley, Springer and Embase were consulted. The consultation period was from 2000 to 2013

  2. Bibliometric Analysis of Research Literature on Bemisia tabaci in the Chinese Journal Full-text Database%重大外来入侵害虫烟粉虱核心期刊研究文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新周; 韩群鑫

    2011-01-01

    以《中国期刊全文数据库》作为数据来源,采用文献计量学方法对1990 -2010年烟粉虱研究文献的年份、核心期刊、文献主要产出单位、核心作者群分布情况进行统计分析,在总文献量534篇、第一作者343人中,确定了9位核心作者和8种核心期刊.%The paper took Chinese Journal Full-text Database as the data source, the bibliometric analysis was made on the research literatures of B. Tabaci with bibliometrics method during 1990 - 2010,including the literature number,distribution of publishing years,core authors,research groups and regional distribution. In 534 literatures and 343 first authors, 9 core authors and 8 kinds of core journals were determined.

  3. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhiqiang Wang,1 Lei Yuan,1 Yongchuan Wang,2 Baizhi Yang,1 Xiaohong Dong,1 Zhaowang Gao3 1Department of Urology, Shouguang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shouguang, 2Department of Urology, Weifang Traditional Chinese Hospital, Weifang, 3Department of Urology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for chronic prostatitis (CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes.Methods: An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software.Results: Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001 and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: -1.08, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.81, P<0.00001. Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of -1.39 (95% CI: -1.87 to -0.92, P<0.00001. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: -0.23, 95% CI: -0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06. The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34 and less than that

  4. The heterozygous A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in a Chinese Han patient with Parkinson disease: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei-Xi; Sun, Yi-Min; Guan, Rong-Yuan; Luo, Su-Shan; Chen, Chen; An, Yu; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jian-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The missense mutation A53T of alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) was reported to be a rare but definite cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD). It seemed to be restricted geographically in Greece and Italy. We aimed to identify the SNCA mutations in a Chinese PD cohort. Ninety-one early onset PD patients or familial PD probands were collected consecutively for the screening of PD-related genes. The genetic analysis was carried out by target sequencing of the exons and the corresponding flanking regions of the PD-related genes using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dosage mutations of exons in these genes were carried out by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Among the 91 patients, we found only one heterozygous mutation of SNCA A53T, in a 23-year-old male patient with negative family history. The [(11)C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropan (CFT) PET and PD-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRP) via [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucos (FDG) PET confirmed a typical pattern of PD. After examining his parents, we found his mother was an asymptomatic carrier, with declined hand dexterity detected by quantitative motor tests. Reduced dopamine transporter uptake of his mother was identified by CFT PET, and abnormal PDRP pattern was found by FDG PET. Our investigation expanded the clinical and genetic spectrum of Chinese PD patients, and we suggested SNCA mutations to be screened in familial and early onset Chinese PD patients. PMID:27393118

  5. The heterozygous A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in a Chinese Han patient with Parkinson disease: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei-Xi; Sun, Yi-Min; Guan, Rong-Yuan; Luo, Su-Shan; Chen, Chen; An, Yu; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jian-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The missense mutation A53T of alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) was reported to be a rare but definite cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD). It seemed to be restricted geographically in Greece and Italy. We aimed to identify the SNCA mutations in a Chinese PD cohort. Ninety-one early onset PD patients or familial PD probands were collected consecutively for the screening of PD-related genes. The genetic analysis was carried out by target sequencing of the exons and the corresponding flanking regions of the PD-related genes using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dosage mutations of exons in these genes were carried out by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Among the 91 patients, we found only one heterozygous mutation of SNCA A53T, in a 23-year-old male patient with negative family history. The [(11)C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropan (CFT) PET and PD-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRP) via [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucos (FDG) PET confirmed a typical pattern of PD. After examining his parents, we found his mother was an asymptomatic carrier, with declined hand dexterity detected by quantitative motor tests. Reduced dopamine transporter uptake of his mother was identified by CFT PET, and abnormal PDRP pattern was found by FDG PET. Our investigation expanded the clinical and genetic spectrum of Chinese PD patients, and we suggested SNCA mutations to be screened in familial and early onset Chinese PD patients.

  6. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  7. 国内20年中医药治疗脑梗死的文献计量分析%Literature metrology Analysis on Domestic Studies on Chinese Medicine in Treating Cerebral Infarction in the Past Twenty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷亚玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:综合评价国内20年中医药治疗脑梗死的临床研究文献发表数量及内容的研究现状,总结规律,指导临床。方法采用文献计量学整理文献年度发表量、发表趋势,总结此领域的治疗方法、分期论治、辨证分型、治则治法及中药运用情况等。结果该领域文献发表数较多且逐年增加,临床随机对照研究文献数呈上升趋势,非随机对照研究文献数呈下降趋势;脑梗死急性期研究最多,且各期辨证用药及干预措施各有侧重;气虚血瘀证、痰瘀阻络证贯穿病程始终,为脑梗死的基本病机;中医药治疗脑梗死方法多样,中药运用细致周到。结论中医药治疗脑梗死的临床研究发展迅速且日趋成熟,治疗中体现出辨证论治的中医特色;但还需进一步提高研究水平,扩大该领域研究范围。%Objective To comprehensively evaluate the quantity,and content of research status, summary of regulation,clinical instruction of the domestic clinical trials on Chinese medicine in treating cere-bral infarction in the past 20 years. Methods Literature metrology was used to analyze the annual publishing amount,publishing trends,so as to summarize treatment methods,stage of governance,syndrome differentia-tion,therapeutic principle and application of traditional Chinese medicine and so on in this area. Results ①Clinical trials published in past20 years on the TCM treatment of cerebral infarction increased and the total number of randomized controlled trials showed increasing trend year by year;the number of randomized con-trolled clinical trials literature on the rise,the number of non -randomized controlled trial literature de-creased;②Acute cerebral infarction took account of the most studies and TCM drugs and interventions were used;③QDBS ,phlegm and blood stasis syndrome had always been throughout the course of cerebral infarc-tion,and ischemic stroke′s basic pathogenesis

  8. 论中西喜剧意识的审美特征%On the Aesthetic Characteristics of the Comedic Sense in Chinese and Western Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小朝

    2014-01-01

    Because of the difference in aesthetic nature, the Chinese and Western comedic sense has different aesthetic characteristics. In general, the Western comedic sense mainly shows the scenes from beginning to end and the shortcomings in social life, while the Chinese comedic sense is mainly characterized by the transformation of plot from sadness to joy and by virtues in social life.%中西喜剧意识因为具有不同的审美本质,所以也具有不同的审美特征。西方喜剧意识的审美特征主要表现为前后一贯的情景画面、社会生活中的缺陷揭示;中国喜剧意识的审美特征主要表现为从悲往喜的故事情节、社会生活中的美德礼赞。

  9. 中国学者冲突话语研究综述%A Literature Review of Chinese Scholars’Research on Conflict Talk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季海龙

    2014-01-01

    Conflict talk, which is an important issues in discourse analysis, has been studied by western Scholars from different per-spectives. Chinese scholars also probes into conflict talk from the perspective of memetics, relevance theory adoption theory, Rap-port Management Model. By investigating Chinese scholars’study on conflict talk, this paper summers the achievement achieved as well as the gap that needs to be filled.%冲突话语研究是话语分析研究的一个重要课题,国外学者已从各个角度对冲突话语作了研究。国内学者也从模因论、关联理论、顺应理论、和谐理论等角度对冲突话语作了研究。本研究对国内冲突话语研究作了一番梳理,指出了所取得的成就以及需要加强研究的相关侧重点。

  10. Exploring the Mode of Training Chinese Linguistic and Literature Majored Students under the Context of Applied University%应用型本科院校汉语言文学专业人才培养规格探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨增宏

    2011-01-01

    Based on the actuality of "talent-output" in new situation,the graduate cultivated in Chinese and literature program in applied university should possess the following qualities: solid professional abilities,occupational core competence and comprehensive humanity quality as well as reasonable knowledge structure.The curriculum reform and construction is the core of talent cultivation.%基于新形势下就业"出口"的现状,应用型本科院校汉语言文学专业人才应具有坚实的专业能力及职业核心能力、完善的人文素质和合理的知识结构,而课程改革建设是落实汉语言文学专业人才培养的关键。

  11. 中国文献所载清初中俄军事冲突和战役%Military Conflicts and Battles between China and Russia in Early Qing Dynasty Recorded in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文深

    2014-01-01

    In the first half of 17th century, China and Russia began a direct contact from the region of Heilongjiang. It was in the early Qing Dynasty when the military conflict happened. Russian invasion of Heilongjiang and the anti-invasion of Chinese army in Qing Dynasty were recorded in the official literature of Qing Dynasty and in the books by Chinese people.%17世纪前半期,随着俄国势力向我国黑龙江地区侵扰,中俄两国开始直接交往。中俄直接的交往是清初,在军事冲突的血与火中揭开了序幕。有关俄国哥萨克侵扰我国黑龙江地区和中国清政府抗击俄国入侵军事行动的历史,在清初官方文献及清代中国人的著述中均有记载。

  12. On the Scientific Development Concept’s Guiding Role in Scientific Development of Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Yanmin Ren

    2010-01-01

    The scientific development concept reveals the essential demands by the development of Chinese socialist modernization cause and reflects Marxism values as well as scientific outlook of world and history. Providing the answer to a series of basic issues including the purpose, direction, path and strength of development in an overall, systematic and scientific way, the scientific development concept serves as an important ideological weapon to guide the scientific development of China’s higher...

  13. 中国俄罗斯侨民文学中儒释道文化研究%Study on Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism Culture in Chinese Russian Immigrant Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳菊; 苗慧

    2012-01-01

    中国俄罗斯侨民文学是伴随着俄罗斯侨民在中国的定居而产生的。顾名思义,中国俄罗斯侨民文学是俄罗斯的作家以中国社会环境为背景而创作出来的文学作品。泱泱五千年的中华文明史,将博大精深的儒释道文化融于一身,形成了具有独特意蕴的中国传统文化。它不仅影响着整个中华民族的意识形态,同时也对生活在中国半个世纪之久的俄侨作家产生了一定的影响。文章以文本分析形式解读、梳理中国俄侨作品中的中国儒释道文化。%Russian immigrant literature came into being with the settlement of exiled Russians in China. Thus, the so - called Russian immigrant literature in China refers to the literary works written by Russian writers set in the Chinese society. Based on the immemion of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism culture, China with 5,000 years of civilization has developed its own peeullar and profound traditional culture, which not only affects the ideology of the whole Chinese nation, but makes a certain impact on the Russian writers living in China for more than half a century. The paper delves into the Confueianism t Buddhism, and Tanism euhure in the Russian immigrant literary works in China by using text analysis techniques.

  14. The Canonization of Lu Xun’ s Image by Chinese Literature (English Version)%《中国文学》(英文版)对鲁迅形象的经典化重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹培会; 滕梅

    2016-01-01

    Translations occur in concrete political, historical and cultural contexts. Influenced by the context in which the translation is produced, the translated image tends to deviate from that of source text to some degree. Chinese Literature ( English version) re-writes the source texts so as to be in line with the main ideology, thus building a multi-facet image of Lu Xun. Targeted at the image-rebuilding of Lu Xun by Chinese Literature ( English version) , the present paper analyzes the five main images of Lu Xun portrayed by this magazine:a communist, an anti-revisionist hero, a Confucius-criticizing pioneer, a critic of“the Gang of Four” and a man of letters.%翻译是在具体的政治、历史和文化环境下进行。受译文产生环境的影响,译文形象也会在一定程度上与原作产生偏离。《中国文学》(英文版)从源语文化出发,按照主流意识形态的需求对译作进行改写,从而塑造出了多重的鲁迅形象。以《中国文学》(英文版)对鲁迅形象的重构为着眼点,详细分析后可知其塑造的五个重点的鲁迅形象:共产主义者、反修战士、批孔先锋、“四人帮”批判者、作家。

  15. A Double-edged Sword---Benefits and Confinements of Confucian Classics on Chinese Literature%经学是一把双刃剑--论经学对文学的沾溉与拘囿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇刚

    2015-01-01

    经学是中国传统文化的核心,占统治地位的意识形态。经学是一把双刃剑:一方面,经学是士大夫安身立命之本,赋予作者强烈的入世精神和担当意识,自觉以文学干预政治,通经致用,讥切时政,有补于世道人心;另一方面,经学重术轻学,注重秩序和群体的规范,压抑个性,严重阻碍着人性的解放。在经学的拘囿下,文以载道,温柔敦厚,文学沦为政治的工具,造成了文学审美品格的沉降。%Study of Confucian classics is the core of Chinese traditional culture, dominating the Chinese ideology for thousands of years. However, study of Confucian classics is a double-edged sword: on one hand, it is the pursuit of physical and mental world for the scholar-officials in feudal society, encourage them to make contributions to the society and to shoulder the social responsibility, and intending to influence politics with literature by applying it to political affairs; on the other hand, it emphasizes applications rather than theories, stresses social order and norms, represses individualities, and hinder the emancipation of humanity to a greater extent. Confined by study of Confucian classics, literary appreciation tends to be degraded when literature becomes political tools, with the ideas such as writings are ways of conveying truth.

  16. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  17. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  18. 从莫言获奖反思新时期以来中国文学的经典化问题%Reflection on the Canonization of Chinese Literature in the New Era from Mo Yan’s Nobel Prize for Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2014-01-01

    The winning of the Nobel Prize for literature is not only the approval of Mo Yan’s liter-ary creation,but also the recognition of Chineseliterary achievement.Literary works could not become classics without the involvement and promotion of various authorities.In order to reflect on the canon-ization of Chinese literature in the new era,it is necessary to be aware of the characters of the classics and factors of its canonization.Being responsible to the canonization of the Chinese literature,atten-tion from the literary circle and the media may be needed.%2012年诺贝尔文学奖花落中国既是对莫言创作的认可,更是对新时期以来中国文学取得成就的肯定,促使思考其经典化的问题。文学经典的出现不是自发形成的,离不开各种权力话语的参与建构。合理认知经典的特征与生成因素有利于深入思考新时期以来中国文学经典化的诉求。在命名经典责任的驱使下,通过语文学和传播媒介等层面的关注,有助于新时期以来中国文学经典化的落实。

  19. Study on the Translation of Religious Culture in Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣

    2015-01-01

    The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries.Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.

  20. Study on the Translation of Religious Culture in Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣

    2015-01-01

    The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries. Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.

  1. A biologia em obras infantis de Monteiro Lobato: modulações literárias, científicas e culturais The Biology into monteiro lobato's child and teenage literature: literary, scientific and cultural modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Aparecida de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    between literature and biology and the intensity of the narrations that bring the beliefs, values and political interests in the scientific speech and that are brought into the literature in hybrid and nomad direction.

  2. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  3. 膝关节骨性关节炎内服中药使用情况文献分析%Literature Study on the Application of Orally Taken Chinese Medicinal for Knee Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 李具宝; 曾炎; 屈尚可; 李晓媛; 吕航; 陈泰玻; 李帆冰; 王琦

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过近10年文献初步探讨膝关节骨性关节炎(KOA)内服中药的用药规律.方法 检索2002至2012年收录于维普中文科技期刊数据库、中国期刊全文数据库、万方数据库的中药内服治疗KOA的临床文献,筛选符合标准的文献,采用频数统计的方法统计中药内服治疗KOA的总体用药频次、药对频次.结果 纳入研究文献共491篇,包括572味中药、23个药对,药物总使用频次为5120次,使用频次最高的前10位依次为牛膝、当归、白芍、甘草、熟地黄、杜仲、川芎、独活、威灵仙、黄芪;药对总使用频次为891次,使用频次最高的前10位依次为牛膝和杜仲、黄芪和当归、桃仁和红花、独活和桑寄生、川乌和草乌、牛膝和当归、白芍和甘草、麻黄和桂枝、乳香和没药、黄柏和苍术.结论 近10年治疗KOA内服方的药物组成以补肝脾肾、祛风寒湿为主;药对以补益肝肾、强筋壮骨以及益气活血为主.%Objective To research the application laws of orally taken Chinese medicinal for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) according to the related literature in recent 10 years. Methods The clinical literature on KOA treated with orally taken Chinese medicinal was searched in VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, China Academic Journal and Wanfang Database from 2002 to 2012. The standards-compliant articles were included and the total medication frequency and medicinal pair frequency were analyzed with frequency statistics. Results There were 491 articles, 572 Chinese medicinals and 23 medicinal pairs included. The total medication frequency was 5 120 and the top 10 medicinals were: Niuxi (Radix Achyranthis bidenta-tae), Danggui (Radix Angelicae sinensis) , Baishao (Radix Paeoniae alba), Gancao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) , Shudihuang (Radix Rehmanniae praeparata), Duzhong (Cortex Eucommiae) , Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Chuanxiong) , Duhuo (Radix Angelicae pubescentis

  4. Empirical study based on scientific research output and research efficiency of chinese universities%中国高校科研产出和科研效率经验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇鹏

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated scientific research output and research efficiency of Chinese universities through the 2005-2010 years of China′s 31 provinces and cities .In this paper , we empirically tests the rela-tionship between input and output of scientific research , the results show that there is positive relationship be-tween the number of papers published in foreign countries and the funding for basic research ; The number of published books on science&technology and basic research and experience research funding has positive correla -tion, and the number of scientific personnel did not correlate significantly , and there is positive relationship be-tween patent number and funding for basic research and applied research fund .Then , we examines relationship between efficiency of scientific research and scientific research investment , the result shows the significant invert-ed U type relationship between the per capita number of papers published in foreign countries , the per capita number of applications for invention patents and the number of scientific personnel .%通过2005-2010年我国31个省市的统计数据实证考察了我国高校的科研产出与科研效率。本文首先实证检验了科研投入与科研产出之间的关系,结果显示:我国高校在国外发表的论文数量与研究人员数量、基础研究经费显著正相关;出版的科技著作数量与基础研究和经验研究经费正相关,与科研人员数量的关系不显著;发明专利数量与科研人员数量、基础研究经费和应用研究经费显著正相关。继而,考察了科研效率与科研投入之间的关系,结果显示我国高校人均在国外发表的论文数量和人均发明专利申请数量与投入的科研人员数量间呈现出了显著的倒U型关系。经验研究结果表明我国高校应强化试验发展研究并加强高校内涵建设,提高科研人员的科研能力、提升高校科研效率。

  5. 基于语义模式和引用分布的科技文献信息抽取%Scientific literature information extraction based on semantic pattern and reference distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中国; 李洪奇; 朱丽萍; 刘蔷

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific and technology literature,the review of previous research results,analysis of existing prob-lems,propose solutions and other language fragment are part of the innovation of this information.The logical thinking pattern of problem analysis information in the paper and the discourse relation were analyzed.A utilization of reference distribution,discourse relation characteristics,negative emotional characteristics was made to construct universal seman-tic pattern of information extraction.The problem analysis information was extracted from the original text by matching the defined semantic pattern.At the same time,the guide words feature and semantic similarity were used to extract the mainly work information from papers.Focusing on the science and technology literature of the data mining field,the proposed method was evaluated by contrasting with the artificial extraction results.The results show that this method can accurately extract the corresponding information,provide the basic data source for clustering of scientific papers and the paper recommends.%科技文献中回顾前人研究成果、分析存在的问题、提出解决方法等语言片段是论文创新性信息的构成部分。分析论文写作过程中问题分析信息的逻辑思维以及在文章中呈现的篇章关系,综合利用引用分布特征、篇章关系特征、否定情感特征构建具有普适性的信息抽取语义模式。从论文原始文本中通过匹配定义好的语义模式抽取出问题分析信息。同时,利用引导词特征、语义相似度计算从论文文本中抽取出论文的主要工作信息。以数据挖掘领域科技文献为例,对比人工抽取结果对提出的方法进行评价,结果表明该方法能较准确抽取相应信息,为科技论文聚类、论文推荐提供基础数据来源。

  6. The future of the electronic scientific literature

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    For electronic publishing to go forward, standards need to be developed but there also needs to be experimentation and flexibility in types of approach, to exploit the digital world to the full (2 pages).

  7. Scientific literature addressing detection of monosialoganglioside

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yanli,; Li, Miaojing; Liu, Zhijun; Xi, Aiping; Zhao, Chaoxian; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess the research on detection of monosialoganglioside from 2002 to 2011. DATA RETRIEVAL: A bibliometric analysis based on the publications on Web of Science was performed using key words such as “monosialoganglioside”, “colloidal gold”, “high performance liquid chromatography” and “detection”. SELECTION CRITERIA: (1) Research articles on the detection of monosialoganglioside; (2) researches on human an...

  8. 2000-2014年CNKI中关于光催化研究的文献分析%Bibliometric Analysis of Literature on the Research of Photocatalysis from 2000 to 2014 in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贝贝; 徐航

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalysis, an excellent pollutant disposal technology, shows great promise for future use. Base on the principle and method of bibliometric analysis of literature, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastruture ( CNKI) database with the theme of “photocatalysis” from 2000 to 2014 was searched. Making a detail analysis, such as the growth, the fund, the areas of literature, and so on, the research of photocatalysis technology and the general situation were revealed, along with its future trend.%光催化是一种非常有应用前景的污染物处理技术。基于文献分析计量学的原理与方法,以“光催化”为检索词,年限从2000-2014年期间,对CNKI数据库国内公开发表的有关光催化的研究文章进行检索。针对文献增长情况、文献基金、文献地区等方面进行了详细的分析,揭示出该项技术的研究概况和未来发展趋势。

  9. Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  10. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  11. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trail research literature of traditional Chinese medicine for cancer telated fatigue%补气中药治疗癌性疲劳随机对照临床研究文献 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琦; 唐文富; 张颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:运用 Meta 分析的方法,评价中医药补气药治疗癌性疲劳的临床疗效。为癌性疲劳的中医药治疗提供科学依据。方法以“癌性疲劳”相关词汇,“中药”、“中医药”、“草本植物”、“替代治疗”、“姑息治疗”等为关键词,在 PubMed、Cochrane 图书馆、中国知网、维普中文科技期刊数据库、万方数据库、中国生物医学文摘进行1994-2014年间相关的随机对照试验(RCT)文献搜索。文献资料按 Cochrane 推荐的 Cochrane 风险偏倚评估工具进行评估。并运用 RevMan5.3统计软件进行Meta 分析。结果共纳入文献19篇。英文文献4篇,中文文献15篇,共1904例患者。Meta 分析结果显示:试验组和对照组在治疗有效率[RR =1.72,95%CI(1.55,1.92)]、BFI 量表评分[RR =1.92,95%CI(1.61,2.29)]、中医症状评分[RR =1.59,95%CI(1.27,1.99)]方面的差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论现有证据表明,中药补气药在改善癌性疲劳患者疲乏状态及生活质量、中医症状方面具有统计学意义。但尚需大规模、多中心、随机对照试验进一步验证。%Objective According meta-anlysis to asses tonic medicine in the treatment of cancer related fatigue(CRF).To provide the scientific basis for Chinese medicine treatment of CRF.Methods “cancer related fatigue”,“Chinese herb”,“traditional Chinese medicine”,“botanicals”,“complementary medicine”,“palliative medicine”as keywords,We searched PubMed,the Co-chrane library,Cnki,Vip,Wanfang med online,Chinese biomedical literature on disc(CBM)of relevant randomized controlled trail (RCT)literature in 1994 -2014.The quality of RCT was assessed according to “the cochrane collaboration′s tool for assessing risk of bias”,which recommended by the cochrane library.Meta-anlysis were conducted with the cochrane collaboration′s RevMan 5

  12. Dialogue Between the History and Present:Thinking about How to Teach Chinese Ancient Literature%历史与现代的对话——中国古代文学教学断想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萍

    2012-01-01

    Chinese ancient literature has both diachronic and synchronic.It is necessary to think about from two aspects in teaching the ancient literature:on the one hand,the literature should be returned to the historical environment and the original ancient culture in order to interpret its true meaning as much as possible.On the other hand,from the perspective of humanistic care and spirit,we should look for meeting point between the ancient civilization and modern life,helping us build ideal personality.The previous aspect is basis and the latter aspect is goal.If we have cognized of the significance of ancient literature,our national spirit can be carried forward.%古代文学既具有历时性,又具有共时性,因此必须从这两个层面去构建其教学:一方面把文学还原在历史的场境中去解读,尽可能还原古代文学以本来面目,解读其真情真意。另一方面从人文关怀的角度,从中寻找古代文明与现代人生的契合点,力求为当代大学生的人格构建提供可资借鉴的东西。前一个层面是基础,后一个层面是目的,在认知古代文学的基础上,架通历史与现代的桥梁,让历史与现代对话,以古鉴今,弘扬民族精神。

  13. 浅论中国文学中的渔父形象%On the Images of Fishermen in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慎春燕

    2009-01-01

    In Chinese literary world, the frequent emergence of the images of fishermen is a unique scenery phenomenon. The fishermen described by ancient writers were not only the anchorite who were broad-minded, indifferent to fames and relaxed in nature, the anglers who had talent left to rust and bitterly waited for the opportunity for the greatest success, but also great warriors who held their own faith and integrity and were in the pursuit of an ideal life. Many images of fishermen implied many intellectuals' dreams. Through our deeply analysis we can better know the inward world of ancient intellectuals.%频繁出现的渔父意象,是中国文学世界一道独特的风景线.古代文人笔下的渔父纷繁复杂,既有超脱旷达、恬淡自适、乐山爱水的隐逸者,又有怀才不遇、苦等时机、期待一飞冲天的垂钓者,还有坚守人格信念、追求至情至性的侠义者.林林总总的渔父意象,寄寓着无数文人的梦想,勾勒出古代文人复杂矛盾的内心世界.

  14. Discussion on the postgraduate education of Chinese and western integrative medicine based on the major scientific research projects%基于重大科研项目探讨中西医结合医学研究生的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池晓玲; 萧焕明; 谢玉宝; 施梅姐

    2015-01-01

    The high quality of Chinese and western integrative medicine talents is the premise of the integrated Chinese and Western medicine to the world. Postgraduate education is directly related to the development of Chinese and Western medicine. The Second Clinical Medical College of Guang-zhou University of Chinese Medicine integrated the declaration and organization and implementation of the national major scientific research projects with Chinese and Western Medicine. By building ech-elon team model and establishing a platform for the exchange of research and communication platform, which covers the academic, technical, scientific and technological innovation, and so on, it cultivated high-level, complex and integrated Chinese and Western Medicine talents from knowledge and skills, innovation ability, interpersonal ability, and comprehensive management ability, etc.%高素质的中西医结合医学人才是中西医结合医学走向世界的前提,中西医结合医学研究生教育直接关系到我国中西医结合医学事业的发展。广州中医药大学第二临床医学院将国家重大科研项目的申报及组织实施与中西医结合医学研究生教育相融合,通过构建梯队式导师团队,建立涵盖学术、技术、科研创新等立体化多渠道的研究生交流平台,从知识与技能、创新能力、人际能力、综合管理能力等方面培养高层次、复合型的中西医结合医学人才。

  15. [Challenge in scientific publication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gilson Luiz; de Freitas, Eliane Gonçalves

    2003-05-01

    We discuss the main problems which make a scientific text difficult to find, to be read or to be accepted by readers. A scientific text is considered a logical argument. Therefore, methods, results and data from literature are premises supporting the conclusions of the work; and in the "Introduction" session, the justification corroborates the objective of the study. This conception makes the text a hermetically coherent structure where only the necessary data should be included (some controversy is still pertinent). In a second step, we show formal mistakes in scientific writing which make texts less attractive. Thus, we give examples of errors or inadequacy of formal aspects of presenting titles, abstracts, results (figures and tables), and grammar mistakes in Portuguese (but also valid for English grammar). After that, we emphasize the need for writing in international language (English) and for publication in periodicals with international impact on the scientific community. Finally, considerations to improve the Brazilian periodicals in the biological area are presented.

  16. Investigation of Chinese Scientific Researchers' Understanding of Journal Evaluation%我国科研人员对期刊评价认识的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿海英; 苏金燕

    2016-01-01

    references are more accurate, more standard. And almost the same tendency is demonstrated by the relation between the impact power of academic journals and their use of foreign language literature.

  17. 在文化语境中阐释中国古代文学%Interpretation of Ancient Chinese Literature in Cultural Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽红

    2015-01-01

    提出把古代文学作品还原到文化语境中,才能真正阐明其意义和价值,从而突破传统的讲解模式。可以在各时代的文化语境中把握作品的主题,在各种文化信息中阐释作品的内涵,突破传统的雅俗文化界限,在民间文化的立场上解读民间特色鲜明的作品。%In the present ancient literature teaching and research, teachers often concentrate on the review of literature history and the analysis of literary works. To break through such tradi-tional interpretation mode, teachers should restore the works to their cultural contexts and inter-pret every profound meaning of the works in a larger cultural context so as to clarify their signifi-cance and value. Therefore, teachers should take the cultural contexts of different eras into con-sideration for the correct understanding of the theme of literary works, make full use of pictures for the better understanding of literary works, and break the boundary between elegance and vul-garity in culture and interpret the strikingly unique folk literary works from the standpoint of folk culture.

  18. Hypothesis Evaluation and Testing:"Scientific Tests, Pre-Mortem and Post-Mortem Evaluation", Leading Chinese Medicine Hypothesis into the Scientific Hypothesis---Series of Studies on the Modern Basic Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Part 2-Ⅳ)%假说评价与检验:“科学检验,验前与验后评价”,引领中医学假说进入科学假说*--现代中医基础理论系列研究(中篇Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔明琦; 高冬梅; 魏盛; 王晓茹; 李霞

    2014-01-01

    围绕假说如何评价和检验这一核心问题,从假说与科学假说的概念入手,借鉴国内外新近研究进展认识,对科学假说的类型、检验方式与验前和验后评价标准进行深入分析,树立起该研究的“科学视野”和“学科标尺”,探查中医学假说认识水平,指出存在问题和差距。藉此,分析论证现代中基“脑调控五脏整体观念”科学假说,证明其属于“科学理论假说”,将会引领中医学假说由传统描述迈向本质阐明的理论变革。%Around the core issue how to evaluate and test hypothesis, starting from the concept of hypothesis and scientific hypothesis, learning form recent progress and understanding at home and abroad, we have analyzed the type of scientific hypothesis, test methods and pre-mortem and post-mortem evaluation criteria in depth, established "scientific vision" and "discipline ruler", explored the awareness level of the Chinese medicine hypothesis, pointed out the problems and gaps. Whereby, we have analyzed and demonstrated "brain regulating five internal organs concept of wholism" scientific hypothesis, and proven it belongs to the "scientific hypothesis". We were confident that these works mentioned above would lead the theoretical reform changing Chinese medicine hypothesis from traditional description to the nature clarification.

  19. Incomplete Modernity---Additional on the Aesthetic Modernity of the 20th Century Chinese Literature%未竟的现代性--兼论20世纪中国文学的审美现代性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红艳

    2014-01-01

    现代性是来自欧洲启蒙运动并迅速全球化的哲学理想,现代化是其社会图景。20世纪的中国,经历了初期的启蒙救亡、中期的政治遽变、“文革”后的经济建设,至今仍在现代化过程中努力前进。然而中西之间不同的文化传统和社会形态,决定了现代性进入中国后的曲折与变形。20世纪的中国文学被捆绑在现代化之路上,其审美特质与自主精神都必然受到特定时期历史社会的影响。%Modernity is the global idea of philosophy from the European Enlightenment, and modernization is the social vision. In 20th century, China has three stages, national salvation and enlightenment, unstable political situation and economic construction after the Cultural Revolution. Today, China is still making great efforts to the modernization. However, because of many cultural and social differences between Chinese and Western, the entry of modernity into China faced many twists and variations. The Chinese literature was tied up in the way of modernization in 20th century, thus, its aesthetic characteristics and independent spirit were destined to be influenced by the specific historical society.

  20. 中国现代文学教学与学生能力培养%On the Teaching of Modern Chinese Literature and the Cultivation of College Students' Professional Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建玲; 丁东粮

    2011-01-01

    大学教育应该加强对大学生实际能力的培养,这已成为近年来社会的共识。具体到中国现代文学大学课程的教学,最重要的任务就是要培养学生的文学感受能力和分析、理解作品的能力。为实现此目标,教师必须根据低年级大学生的思维特点和知识层次,根据现代文学学科特性和教学内容,寻找行之有效的途径和方法。第一要转变学生的学习心理和学习习惯,让学生走出应试教育思维定式;第二要纠正"文学无用"偏见,肯定文学及文学学习的价值,唤起学生研读文学的热情;第三也是最重要的一点就是通过大量文本阅读和文本鉴赏分析活动,把提高学生素质和能力落到实处;第四强化训练,以练促读、促思,促进综合能力的提高。%University education should focus on the cultivation of students' practical competence,a consensus reached by the public in recent years.In terms of the instruction of modern Chinese literature courses,the most important task lies in fostering the students' ability of literary perception and the ability to analyze and appreciate literary works.Teachers must explore every avenue to accomplish that task in light of the characteristics of thinking and knowledge structure of lower-level college students while taking into account the curriculum features and content of instruction of modern Chinese literature courses.Efforts should be made to 1) transform the students' learning psychology and learning habits and let them break through the exam-oriented stereotype;2) put right the prejudiced conception of "futility of literature",reinstate the value of literature and literature learning,and stimulate the students' enthusiasm for literature learning;3) enhance the students' overall competence and professional quality through enormous amounts of text reading and text appreciation activities;and 4) intensify training activities to give students

  1. 基于CBM的中医药治疗高血压文献计量分析%Bibliometric Analysis of Literature on Hypertension Treatment by Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on CBM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梓宁; 佟琳; 唐丹丽; 张华敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:基于中国生物医学文献数据库(China Biology Medicine disc, CBM)中的文献,对中医药治疗高血压领域的研究现状、研究热点进行分析,为开展相关研究提供参考依据。方法以CBM数据库中收录的有关中医药治疗高血压文献为数据来源,利用Excel和Spss19.0软件对文献进行统计分析。结果共获取文献3488篇,文献的研究热点集中在从血瘀、痰湿等角度阐释左心室肥厚与高血压之间的病理生理关系,天麻、钩藤等中药治疗肝阳上亢型高血压的疗效,以及葛根在调节血浆中内皮血管肽类、一氧化氮等物质水平。结论目前中医药治疗高血压的研究主要集中在对药物疗效和药理机制方面的研究。主要的研究药物为天麻、钩藤、葛根等;天麻钩藤饮为是治疗高血压的主要方剂之一。%Objectives This article statistically analyzed the current research situation and research hotspots of hypertension treatment by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and provided a reference for relative researches. Methods Applying literature about TCM hypertension treatment in CBM as data source, the authors analyzed the literature by Excelland Spss19.0 software. Results The total number of the literature for analyzing was 3 488. The research hotpots focused on the explanation of pathological and physiological relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension from the aspects of stasis and phlegm, the treatment effects of gastrodia, uncaria and other traditional Chinese medicines in hypertension caused by liver-yang hyperactivity, and the efficacy of kudzu in the regulation of plasma and vascular peptide endothelin, nitric oxide and other substances level. Conclusion The current researches about hypertension treatment by Chinese medicine treatment focused on the drug efficacy and pharmacological mechanism. The main studies were on gastrodia, uncaria, kudzu etc. Gastrodia and

  2. Symbolic Meanings of Daffodils in Chinese and English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤文绍

    2007-01-01

    Daffodils are popular among people around the world. The daffodil is made the top ten in flowers in China In English and Chinese literature, it is a popular theme glorified by poets and writers. This essay is to present different symbolic images of daffodils in Chinese and English poems so as to help Chinese readers understand the meaning of daffodils in English literature.

  3. 恩格斯的“最高标准”与中国现代文学课程教学%"THE HIGHEST STANDARD" OF ENGELS AND THE TEACHING OF CHINESE MODERN LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭正生

    2013-01-01

    In the articles of commenting Karl Grun and Ferdinand Lassalle's works, Engels proposed the basic principle, name-ly the highest standard of praising historical figures and literary works, which is dialectical unity of aesthetic viewpoint and his-torical viewpoint. According to the highest standard, in literary criticism, we should not only pay close attention to the works it-self by taking the aesthetic value(inner element) as standard, but consider the times of the works by taking the historical value (outer element)as standard as well. The core contents of the teaching in Chinese modern literature are the analysis of works, the narration of its history, and the criticism of historical narration. As an important theory of artistic criticism, the highest stan-dard of Engels is very instructive in the teaching of Chinese modern literature history undoubtedly%恩格斯在评价卡尔。格律恩和斐迪南。拉萨尔著作的文章里提出评价历史人物和文艺作品的“最高标准”,即“美学”和“历史”观点的辩证统一。依据“最高标准”,在进行文学批评时,既要关注文艺作品本身,以美学价值(内部因素)为评价尺度;又要考虑文学作品的具体时代,以历史价值(外部因素)为评价标准。中国现代文学课程教学的核心内容是现代作家作品分析、文学史叙事以及现代文学史学史批评。作为文艺批评的重要理论之一,恩格斯的“最高标准”无疑对中国现代文学课程教学具有指导和方法论意义。

  4. Awakening at the End of the Century -Internal Consciousness of Chinese New Period Theory of Literature and Art%世纪末的觉醒——中国新时期文论的内在自觉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王确

    2001-01-01

    Chinese theory of literature revies of this century has undergone three stages; the stage of contending freely, falling to politics and self-awakening, and formed such two theoretic concepts as caring aesthetic value and stressing social aim. The New Periodtheory of literary review inheritages the traditions, and implementing the situation consciousness , individuality consciousness , meaning consciousness and expanding the metaphorical connotation of literature, and in self- construction, so as to admit and improve the form and flourishing of pluralistic phase.These above achievements of New Period theory of literary review are not isolated phenonema but the results of the liberation of Chinese culture and ideology since 1980s', constructed on the base of people's recognition of the nature of Man's independent existence.%本世纪中国文论走过了自由争鸣、归属政治和自我觉醒三个时期,形成了关切审美价值和强调社会目的两个理论观念。新时期文论继承了传统,尤其是关切审美价值的文论传统,不断地实现着处境的自觉,即自觉地选择着自身在整个社会文化中的位置;个性自觉,即积极面对传统,形成自己的特色;意义自觉,即认识到了文论的价值在于揭示和拓展文学的隐喻性内涵,在于建构自身,因而就会承认并促进多元局面的形成和繁荣。新时期文论的这三个自觉,并非是孤立的现象,而是80年代以来中国文化思想解放的结果,是在人充分认识到了人的独立存在本性的基础之上建构起来的。

  5. 中国古代通俗文学的多元化研究--赵晓寰教授专访%A Multi-perspective Research on Ancient Chinese Popular Literature---an Interview with Professor ZHAO Xiao-huan of Sydney University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正娟; 赵晓寰

    2016-01-01

    跨学科、多元化思考是中国古代通俗文学研究的重要路径。在中国古典小说和戏剧的理论研究、古典小说与文学传统之关系、中日戏剧比较等问题上,受访者赵晓寰教授的观点是:参照普洛普形态学理论,中国古典志怪小说与戏剧可进行叙事特征与结构功能模式等分析;由“原型”、“图式”、“程序”等构建的小说理论框架有助于阐释中国文学传统的形成;中日戏剧在脚色类型、表现方式等方面关系密切。%Interdisciplinary and multi-perspective research is a major approach of the study of ancient Chinese popular literature. The interviewed Prof. ZHAO Xiao-huan touched upon many issues in Chinese literature study, such as the theoretical research on classical Chinese novels and drama, the relationship between classical novels and literary tradition, and comparison between Chinese and Japanese drama. His viewpoints are summarized as follows: with reference to Propp’s morphological theory, analysis can be made of the narrative features and structural function models of classical Chinese supernatural fictions and drama; the theoretical framework of fictions comprised of “prototype”, “schema”, and “procedure” helps explain the formation of Chinese literary tradition; Chinese and Japanese dramas are closely related in many ways such as role types and expressions.

  6. Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chengjun; Ma, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    In their article "Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture" Chengjun Wang and Junhong Ma discuss three main channels of the "traveling" of Chinese culture to the outside world. Focusing on the situation of bilingualism (i.e., Chinese and English) and the need of spreading Chinese literature and culture especially in the English-speaking world, Wang and Ma argue for "localization and globalization." Further, Wang and Ma argue that in order to narrow the gap of the cultural di...

  7. 格林童话与中国现代儿童文学的诞生——纪念格林兄弟《儿童与家庭童话集》出版二百周年%Grimms' Fairy Tales and the Emergence of Modern Chinese Children's Literature: In Commemoration of the Bicentennial Anniversary of the Publication of Grimms' Fairy Tales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜荣

    2012-01-01

    More than one hundred years has passed since the first Chinese translation and introduction of Grimms' Fairy Tales, the very classic of western children's literature. This period also witnesses the emerging and development of Chinese children's literature. During the time period from "Eastward Dissemination of Western Learning" in the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the early Chinese translations of Grimms' Fairy Tales motivate the formation of the modern concept of children and children's literature in China, and embody the rich folkloristic and pedagogical value of the original work. The Grimm brothers' work of fairy tales' collecting inspires Chinese writers of children's litera- ture. Grimms' Fairy Tales becomes the maior source of modern Chinese children's literature.%西方儿童文学经典名著格林童话自20世纪初被译介到中国已有一百多年的历史,这一历程也伴随着中国儿童文学的发生与发展。在晚清“西学东渐”至20世纪初期这一时间段中,格林童话的早期汉译对中国现代儿童观和儿童文学观的建立具有历史促进作用,充分体现其丰富的民俗学和教育学价值,格林兄弟的童话收集工作对中国作家的童话收集和创作活动具有启发意义,格林童话成为中国现代儿童文学的重要渊源。

  8. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...... integrity.This task involves not only a discussion of these norms is content, but also a discussion of the theoreticalconditions for their development. Thus, a number of normative assumptions of the modern debate onvalues in science (values in science debate) is being discussed.The thesis concludes...... that this debate implicitly contains a number of insufficiently exposed normativeassumptions...

  9. Scientific news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1994-01-01

    The Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus acquired funds through NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) to participate in a 7-year interdisciplinary cooperative programme of Indonesian and Dutch scientific institutions aiming at research in Irian Jaya, Cenderawasih province (the Bird’s Hea

  10. A Study of System of Geisha in Chinese Ancient Literatures%中国文学中的乐妓及其制度考略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立

    2011-01-01

    乐妓自古有之,根据其人身归属情况大致可分为宫妓、官妓、家妓、市井妓等;根据其所操技艺又可分为歌妓、舞妓等。乐妓几成唐宋宴饮活动之必需,与唐宋文人生活、文学创作密切相关,大量的文学作品中有其身影,一些作品甚至是专为她们而作。因此,了解乐妓的相关制度在把握乐妓境况、乐妓情态、乐妓与文人的关系、进而理解文学作品大有裨益。文章阐述了乐妓的发展史、各朝代的制度史,并研究了乐妓生活与文学作品的相关事例以及对文学的影响。%Not late than the end of Xia Dynasty,geisha(yue-ji) had appeared in China.During three thousand years,the geisha had lasted continuously.According to their personal subordinate relationship,they can be classified into si-ji(proprietary trading geisha),jia-ji(domestics geisha),guan-ji(official geisha),gong-ji(court geisha),shijing-ji(registered geisha),and they could be divided into ge-ji(singing-girl) and wu-ji(dancing-girl) with their skills.Geisha's appearance was must factor of banquets in Tang and Song Dynasties,and they closely connected with literati's life and works.They were leading actress in a sum of literatures works,which were even to be written for them.Therefore,studying on related system is useful to understand situations and realities of geisha,relationships between geisha and literati,which could help to get to know literature works better.This article reviews the development and management histories in different dynasties,and gives some typical examples.

  11. 《中国新文学大系(1917—1927)》的文化表达——民族文化结构改造之伦理道德革命%Cultural Expression of "Series of Chinese New Literature (1917 -1927 )" --Revolution of Ethics & Morality of Transforming Cultural Structure of Chinese Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婧

    2012-01-01

    近代中国在经历了器物变革、制度变革之后,新文化者们掀起了以思想革命为核心、以政治救亡为最终目的、以文化批判为基本内容的新文化运动,表达了他们对民族文化结构改造的迫切愿望。《中国新文学大系(1917—1927)》是新文化的缔造者们对新文学的首次集体回顾,而小说集、戏剧集的入选篇目集中体现了新文化者们对民族文化结构改造的具象性表达内容。中国封建伦理道德是构成国民性和“家国同构”政治体制的核心,而伦理道德革命是救亡图存和思想解放的先决条件,所以在新文化者们对民族文化结构进行批判改造的核心内容中,伦理道德革命首当其冲。%In the modem China, after experiencing the material change and the institutional change, the new culture advocates set off a new culture revolution which centered at the ideological revolution, aimed at the political salvation, and took cultural criticism as the basic content. It expressed their urgent desire to reform the national cultural structure. "The Series of Chinese New Literature (1917-1927)" was the first retrospection of Chinese new literature history; while, its collection of short stories and collection of dramas expressed the concrete content that the new culture advocates would reform the national cultural structure. The Chinese feudal ethic was the core of the national character and the political system, while ethical revolution was the prerequisite for the salvation and ideological emancipation, therefore, the ethical revolution took the first position in the central content of the criticism and reform of the national culture structure.

  12. Legal Aspects of Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim; Lipinski, Tomas A

    2012-01-01

    International audience The paper provides insight into legal issues of grey literature. Based on a short overview of recent studies on grey literature and intellectual property, it suggests a typology of copyright protection for grey literature, in particular for PhD and Master's theses, reports, conference papers, working papers, datasets and preprints. New trends in copyright and scientific communication are mentioned in so far as grey literature is concerned: digital rights, creative co...

  13. 扩大中国文学版图 建构中国佛教诗学——《中国佛教文学史》编撰刍议%Modest Proposal on the Compilation of A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光正

    2012-01-01

    中国佛教文学史就是中国佛教徒创作的文学的历史,就是佛教实践即佛教修持与佛教弘传过程中产生的文学的历史,就是用汉语、西域胡语、藏语、蒙古语、傣语等语种写成的大中华佛教文学的历史。"中国佛教文学史"的书写应该禀持民族本位立场和教派史视野,全面清理中国佛教文学的历史进程,并进而提炼民族精神、建构宗教诗学。"中国佛教文学史"的书写特别要关注印度佛教在中国各民族地区的本土化进程以及汉语佛教在东北亚、东南亚地区的本土化进程,在民族互动和国际交流中探讨宗教实践对社会和谐、文明演进的重大贡献。%The history of Chinese Buddhist literature is the history when Chinese Buddhists produce literary works, the history when in the procedure of Buddhism practice and dissemination Chinese Buddhists produce literary accomplishments, and is the history of the Great China Buddhist literature written by Chinese, " Hu language of western region, Tibetan, Mongolian, Dai and other branches of languages. The position of national culture and the sight of sects ought to be kept when writing A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature, and meanwhile the historical course of Buddhist literature is to be straightened all sidedly, helping to extract the national spirit and to construct religious poetics. When writing A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature, two points should be paid close attention that the localization of Indian Buddhism in all localities and all ethnic groups of China and the localization of Buddhism written in Chinese in northeastern Asia, and also that the sig- nificant contribution to the social harmony and the progress in the civilization achievedby, Southeasten Asia, ethnic interaction and international communication investigating religious practices.

  14. On Niggard Image in Both Chinese and Foreign Literature%论中外文学中的吝啬鬼形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成良臣

    2001-01-01

    在世界文学发展的历史长河中,莎士比亚笔下的夏洛克、莫里哀笔下的阿巴公、巴尔扎克笔下的葛朗台、果戈理笔下的泼留稀金以及吴敬梓笔下的严监生,堪称吝啬鬼的著名典型。他们生长在不同国度、时代和社会环境中,既有突出的共性,也有鲜明的个性。为此,本文进行了深入的比较论析。%In the long process of world literature, the misers Shylock, Hartagon, Eugenie Grandet, Chichikov and Yan Jiansheng depicted by W.Shakespeare, Moliere, A.D.Balzac, H.A.тотоль and Wu Jingzi respectively are good enough to serve as model personalities. Although they lived in different countries, times and social settings, these characters share many similarities of which the present paper is to make a contrast study.

  15. 基于灰色聚类方法的慢性心力衰竭中医证型文献分析%Grey Clustering Method Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature of Chronic Heart Failure Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宾; 王付; 黄明宜

    2011-01-01

    Objective:CHF syndrome differentiation of the literature was collated and analyzed to explore the CHF syndrome differentiation type of objective laws.Method: Over the past 10 years, CHF Syndromes of literature,theoretical calculations using gray card type data series on gray and clustering.Result: 13 permits will be based,clustering is: Heart Qi and Yin deficiency, yang deficiency of water pan, yin yang dried off, blood stasis, phlegm.Conclusion: CHF traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Syndrome Differentiation of the objective law, for the further development of CHF TCM diagnostic criteria and evaluation criteria provides efficacy and references.%目的:对慢性心力衰竭(CHF)辨证分型的文献报道进行了整理和分析,探讨CHF中医辨证分型的客观规律.方法:收集近10年CHF辨证分型的文献报道,采用灰色系统理论计算证型数据序列的灰色绝对关联度并进行聚类.结果:将得到的13个证型,聚类为心气阴两虚,阳虚水泛,阴竭阳脱,血瘀,痰阻.结论:探讨CHF中医辨证分型的客观规律,为进一步制定CHF中医证候诊断标准和疗效评价标准提供了参考和依据.

  16. Chinese Contemporary Writers' Imagination:Analysis Based on the Works of 8th Mao Dun Literature Prize%从想象力因素看第八届茅盾文学奖获奖作品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余梦

    2015-01-01

    想象力是文学存在的永恒命题,其重要性不言而喻. 第八届茅盾文学奖获奖作品所蕴含的想象力存在明显的再现倾向:想象的时间总是指向过去,背景偏爱世俗的社会情境,内容写实且内在情理感性色彩偏浓.进一步体现在:形象性过于写实,超越性深受限制,美感中道德意味相对凝重,同时存在"平实性叙事""滞留性再现",导致行文虽细腻感人但缺乏应有的异化和跳跃. 针对当代作家想象力的现状,蕴藉性表达、多元时空叙述不失为提升当代作家想象力的有益参考.%Imagination is an eternal component of literature and is essential for its existence. Analysis of the imaginativeness of the works awarded the 8th Mao Dun Literature Prize reveals the strong tendency of representation: the framework of imaginativeness is based on historical facts with the secular social circumstances as the background, and the content is more likely to be realistic and the inner emotions are intense. A further investigation reveals that the description is too realistic with very limited transcendence, the sense of beauty is relatively shown in moral aspect,and at the same time,it also has the feature such as "plain narration" and"retentive representation",which lead to exquisite and couching descriptions deficient of alienation and skipping. Finally, suggestions are put forward on ways to improve the imaginativeness of Chinese contemporary writers.

  17. 从想象力因素看第八届茅盾文学奖获奖作品%Chinese Contemporary Writers' Imagination:Analysis Based on the Works of 8th Mao Dun Literature Prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余梦

    2015-01-01

    Imagination is an eternal component of literature and is essential for its existence. Analysis of the imaginativeness of the works awarded the 8th Mao Dun Literature Prize reveals the strong tendency of representation: the framework of imaginativeness is based on historical facts with the secular social circumstances as the background, and the content is more likely to be realistic and the inner emotions are intense. A further investigation reveals that the description is too realistic with very limited transcendence, the sense of beauty is relatively shown in moral aspect,and at the same time,it also has the feature such as "plain narration" and"retentive representation",which lead to exquisite and couching descriptions deficient of alienation and skipping. Finally, suggestions are put forward on ways to improve the imaginativeness of Chinese contemporary writers.%想象力是文学存在的永恒命题,其重要性不言而喻. 第八届茅盾文学奖获奖作品所蕴含的想象力存在明显的再现倾向:想象的时间总是指向过去,背景偏爱世俗的社会情境,内容写实且内在情理感性色彩偏浓.进一步体现在:形象性过于写实,超越性深受限制,美感中道德意味相对凝重,同时存在"平实性叙事""滞留性再现",导致行文虽细腻感人但缺乏应有的异化和跳跃. 针对当代作家想象力的现状,蕴藉性表达、多元时空叙述不失为提升当代作家想象力的有益参考.

  18. Metrological Analysis on Literature in Chinese Agricultural Science Field Based on ESI Database%基于ESI数据库中国农业科学领域文献计量分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁花侠; 白君礼

    2013-01-01

    Based on United States ESI literature metrological analysis database, the paper metro logically analyzes the global agricultural and China agricultural science literatures in ten years from 2001 to 2011.By analysising the indicators, such as countries and regions, research institutions, journals, scientists, high cited papers, hot papers, the top articles, research frontier, the baseline and etc, the paper is thought to be able to provide important refrence for our country agricultural scientific research.%利用美国ESI文献计量分析数据库对2001年~ 2011年10年来全球农业科学领域和中国农业科学领域的文献进行了计量分析.通过对国家和地区、研究机构、期刊、科学家、高被引论文、热点论文、顶级论文、研究前沿、基线等各项指标统计分析,为我国农业科学研究提供重要参考.

  19. 基于中文文献的反恐情报研究分析%Analysis on Counter-terrorism Intelligence Research in China Based on Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘武英; 张薇; 李本先; 白燕琼

    2015-01-01

    目前我国面临着严峻的反恐形势,面对恐怖主义的威胁,反恐方必须加强情报在反恐中的应用。基于文献分析的视角,采用定性分析的方法,对我国反恐情报相关研究的现状进行了分析,总结概括了国内反恐情报研究的相关基础理论、关键要素及情报保障等内容,并对目前的研究现状给予了简要的评析,为我国反恐情报的进一步研究提供借鉴和参考。%China is facing a severe situation of counter-terrorism at present. The application of intelligence in the counter-terrorism must be strengthened. Using qualitative analysis methods, this paper reviews the current situations of the study of terrorism and counter-terror-ism based on the Chinese literature with emphases being put on key issues of counterterrorism intelligence such as its definition and role, key elements and intelligence security. It provides a reference for further research on counter-terrorism intelligence.

  20. 汉语言文学教育专业核心能力的培养策略%Foster Strategy of Core Competence of Chinese Language and Literature Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣英

    2012-01-01

    Core Competence of Chinese Language and Literature Education is very important. "Efficient reading, competent writing, qualify teaching", as core abilities, have plenty intension, and needs a long time training. The major curriculum and practice training should be focused in the course of fostering so as to achieve integration with curriculum teaching and professional training.%语文基础教育课改推行多年,与之相协调的汉语言文学教育专业,加强专业核心能力的研究尤为重要。“善读、能写、会教”,作为汉语言文学教育专业的核心能力,有着丰富的内涵,也需要经历长期的训练积淀过程。应在专业核心能力课程体系、实践训练上下功夫,实现课程教学与实践训练一体化。

  1. The Mechanism of MeSH Subheading Automatic Attachment for Chinese Biomedical Literatures%中文生物医学文献主题标引中副主题词自动组配机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军莲; 李丹亚; 孙海霞; 冀玉静; 李芳

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍当前国内外副主题词自动组配的研究现状,提出适用于中文生物医学文献处理的基于拼图一统计学习相结合的副主题词自动组配实现方法,详细阐述分析该混合策略方法的实现机制及实现效果,并指出后续的改进建议。%This paper briefly introduces the current research status of automatic MeSH subheading attachment both home and abroad. After systematic research, a "Jigsaw puzzle" - statistical method combined approach is proposed, which is suitable for dealing with Chinese biomedical literature. Moreover, the realization mechanism of this integrated method is analyzed in details and the corresponding results are evaluated. In addition, suggestions expected to improve the practical value of main heading/subheading pair recommendation are further raised.

  2. The Spread Mode and Dispersal History of Chinese Citrus Fly by Literature Research%柑桔大实蝇的扩散方式及扩散历史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文寿; 李传仁; 兰杰; 安红柳

    2013-01-01

      Based on the literatures of the Chinese citrus fly (Bactrocera minax) in China, it was inferred that the main spread mode to platy dispersal with long-distance spread by its larva in damaged fruits along stream and river and short-distance spread by its adult flying among the orange orchards. On the premise of platy dispersal with consideration of the occurring history, the dispersal path of Bactrocera minax in different distribution areas was analyzed respectively.%  在回顾柑桔大实蝇(Bactrocera minax)发生文献基础上,提出被害果随河谷远距离扩散和以成虫近距离蔓延导致的片状扩散为柑桔大实蝇的主要扩散方式。以片状扩散方式为前提,以发生区的发生历史为佐证,分别考证了柑桔大实蝇在各发生区的扩散路径。

  3. 消渴郁证的中医文献研究%Literature research about diabetes and depression in traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 景玉霞; 李晓娟; 白晓晖; 刘群; 刘玥芸; 金钟晔; 刘燕; 陈家旭

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and depression are recorded in ancient literature, and its pathogenesis can be classified into “depression due to dis-ease”and “disease due to depression”. Depression is closely related to diabetes, so the treatment should put the emphasis on relieving liver for smoothing Qi. To pursuit the optimal treatment, and the program can be conducted by five steps, including syndrome differentia-tion, method, formula, herbs and guiding. Regulation of mood is good for the control of diabetes, while a good control of diabetes is good for relieving liver Qi, which can reduce insulin resistance due to bad mood, control blood glucose effectively, as well as increase patients’ life quality.%中国自古就有消渴郁证的文献记载,其发病机制可分为“因病而郁”和“因郁而病”两个方面。而临床上消渴郁证的症状体征具有多样性,临床漏诊率高达40%~50%。从辨证分型来说,消渴郁证一般分为4种分型,即肝气郁滞、痰气交阻、肝肾阴虚、阴阳两虚,其中肝气郁滞所占比例最高。因情志不遂与消渴郁证密切相关,所以从肝论治,疏肝理气应是其主要治疗方法,并在论证、立法、处方、用药、开导5个环节寻求最佳方案进行治疗。情绪的调节有益于消渴病的控制,而消渴的调控也有疏肝解郁之效,降低患者因负性情绪所致的胰岛素抵抗,及时有效地控制血糖,提高患者的生存质量。

  4. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica. PMID:26978977

  5. INVESTIGACIÓN CLÍNICA EN FONOAUDIOLOGÍA: ANÁLISIS DE LA LITERATURA CIENTÍFICA 2005-2009 Research in language therapy: an analysis of scientific literature 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Hernández-Jaramillo

    2010-07-01

    .Background. There are few scientometric studies in speech pathology and audiology and therefore there is no evidence of the focus areas of research, as well as trends and behavior over time. Objective. Analyze the scientific production of clinical research in audiology, between 2005 and 2009, to characterize the bibliometric production and identify trends and growth in clinical research; to study the dispersion of the scientific literature and identify research cooperation. Material and methods. We analyzed the production of scientific literature clinical research in audiology areas, registered in PubMed-MEDLINE from the years 2005 to 2009. Results. We considered a total of 4127 publications. The analysis showed a higher number of publications for language and language disorders area, followed by hearing and hearing disorders and papers related to the swallowing and its disorders, in contrast to the fields stuttering and aural rehabilitation yielded the lowest values. No significant differences were comparatively in the number of publications between years. We noted an increased production of secondary epidemiological studies compared to clinical studies, however, clinical studies accounted for 42% of total publications and of these 42,4% were consistent with randomized trials. Most of the researchers were faculties affiliated, followed by health institutions and cooperation between both. Independent researchers and unconsolidated research networks presented the lower percentage of publications. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the capacity of audiologists to develop quality research, use, and transfer its results into clinical practice should achieve greater development

  6. 中国文学中的两大文学变革运动--古文运动与“五四”新文学运动之比较%The Two Literature Revolution in Chinese History--Comparation of Classical prose Movement in the Tang and Song Dynasties and the literature Movement of May 4th

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鲲

    2016-01-01

    Tang and Song dynasties' Ancient Prose Movement and the New Literature Movement during the May 4th (1919) are the two largest literature revolution in Chinese history. The two movements were not only a literary phenomenon, but were closely associated with signiifcant social transformation and cultural change.The Ancient Prose Movement was an internal adjustment of Chinese civilization, while the New iterature Movement of May 4th was the result of civilization clashes between modern and tradition, China and West world. The movement of May 4th, seemingly a campain of anti–ancient tradition, was actually connected internally with Ancient Prose Movement closely in the aspects of writing style, linguistics, concept and examination system. The relation between two movements can be described as both rebel and inheritance.%唐宋古文运动和“五四”新文学运动,是中国文学史上最大的两次文学变革运动。这两大文学运动都不是单纯的文学现象,而是与当时大幅度的社会转型、文化变迁息息相关。但古文运动是中国文明、文学的内部调整,而“五四”新文学运动则是传统与现代、中国与外国文明大碰撞的产物。“五四”新文学运动,表面上主要反叛古文运动以来的雅文学传统,但此两大文学运动却在文体、语言、文风、文学观念,以及考试制度改革等方面存在很多内在的联系。“五四”新文学运动和古文运动之间,可以说是既反叛又继承的复杂关系。

  7. 彰显中国气派才能讲好中国抗战故事--兼论《牛全德与红萝卜》在抗战文学史上的开创性%To Tell Good Chinese Anti-Japanese War Stories by Revealing Chinese Grandure:Also on the Creativity of Niu Quande & Radish in the History of Anti-Japanese War Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏爱风; 刘淑萍

    2016-01-01

    In the history of Chinese Anti-Japanese War literature, there are a number of works that borrow experience and writing techniques from foreign novels, while only a section has and reveals the Chinese grandeur. Niu Quande & Radish, a novel produced at the beginning of the Anti-Japanese War, is one of those early successful novels. Yao Xueyin, the author, consciously and actively pursue the national aesthetic style with Chinese style and Chinese grandeur, and has attributed in a favorable way to the nationalization and popularization of the art of Anti-Japanese War.%在我国抗战文学史上,学习国外小说创作经验、写作手法完成的作品不少,土生土长全靠自我摸索,形成中国作风、体现中国气派的作品不多,抗战初期的小说《牛全德与红萝卜》是较早取得成功的一部作品。作者姚雪垠有意识地自觉追求具有中国作风和中国气派的民族美学风格,在抗战小说艺术的民族化、大众化方面,作出了有益的探讨。

  8. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lu Bay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.

  9. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  10. 收编文类:中国文学史编写的体例问题--从《剑桥中国文学史》谈起%Incorporating the Literary Genres:The Issue of Stylistic Rules Regarding the Writing and Editing of Chinese Literary Histories:On The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋金珅

    2015-01-01

    The writing and editing of Chinese literary histories have since the twentieth century evolved from the orientation by way of literary genres to the axis of times. The tradition of“schools of writing”remains invisible with the modern concept that“each generation has its own literature”with the result that literary genres are included in literary histories focusing on times. The stylistic rules regarding the writing and editing of literary histories in the Republic of China were reconfirmed and solidified after the founding of the People’s Republic of China until The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature was published, which gave rise to a new round of thinking in regard to the stylistic rules about literary histories.%20世纪以来,中国文学史编写经历了由文体导向,转为时代为轴。“文章流别”传统在近代以来“一代有一代文学”的观念下隐匿不现,文体类别被收编在时代为主的文学史中。民国时形成的文学史编写体例在建国后又得到确认和固化,直到《剑桥文学史》出现,又重新引发对文学史体例的新一轮思考。

  11. SKILLS TRAINING:AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF LITERATURE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This article identifies some problems Chinese universities have when they offer English litera-ture as a compulsory course to advanced level English majors.One constructive approach is discussed,andsome suggestions on improving literature teaching are put forward.

  12. 基于科技文献引用关系扩展的信念网络模型%Extended belief network model based on reference relationship of scientific literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建民; 王丹青; 谢朋林

    2013-01-01

    The belief network retrieval model which provides a framework for combining different evidences is advantageous to improve retrieval effectiveness.The reference relationship between scientific literatures is a kind of valuable information.This reference relationship was quantified as attention and value in this paper, and it was the evidence for extending the belief network model.Consider the affections of the document content, attention and value were different for the sort of query results, we introduced two coefficients and to adjust the role of the three kinds of evidence for the sort.In our experiments, we determined the optimal value of and through certain sample training, testified the effectiveness of our extending model, and we also analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the evidences combined by and and or.%信念网络信息检索模型提供了一个可以组合不同证据的基本框架,通过组合证据可有效提高检索效果.科技文献之间的引用关系是一种有价值的信息.本文把这种引用关系量化为文献关注度和文献价值度,并将其作为证据扩展基本信念网络模型.考虑到文档内容证据、关注度和价值度对查询结果排序的影响不同,引入了2个系数α和β来调整3种证据在排序中的作用大小.实验通过样本训练确定了α和β的最优值,验证了扩展模型的有效性,并分析了扩展模型用and和or方式组合证据的优劣.

  13. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  14. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  15. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions :A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lizhen; Zheng, Yu; Luo, Haiyan; Yao, Qingqun

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute (TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS) as an example, this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform, analyzed existing problems, and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  16. 地方政府竞争:中国的经验--一种学术文献的研究进路%The Competition among China’s Local Governments:Chinese Experience---A Literature Based Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋永甫; 唐宇婷

    2014-01-01

    自分权化改革特别是分税制改革以后,伴随着地方政府成为一个相对独立的经济实体和财政实体而来的是地方政府间的广泛竞争。以西方学界关于地方政府竞争作为参照,以近十年来的学术文献作为研究对象,从地方政府竞争的初始条件、地方政府竞争的诱因和形式、地方政府竞争的效应,以及地方政府竞争秩序的治理四个维度探讨地方政府竞争的中国经验。研究发现,中国地方政府竞争具有与西方国家不同的初始条件,中国地方政府竞争诱因主要是经济利益和政治晋升博弈,地方政府竞争的主要形式是制度竞争和政策竞争。地方政府竞争的效应具有双重性,如何克服地方政府竞争的消极效应,学者们也提出了相应的对策。通过梳理文献,把握有关国内学术界对地方政府竞争的研究现状,并寻找进一步研究的创新空间。%Since the political decentralization and the tax system reform ,the Chinese local governments have become relatively independent in both economy activities and public finance ,thereby leading to great com-petition among them .Refering to the mainstream theories proposed by the western scholars ,this paper comprehensively analyzes the literature of local governments’competition published in the past decade .It argues that the competition of Chinese local government can be understood from the following four as-pects :the initial conditions for the competition ,the causes and patterns of the competition ,the efficiency in the competition ,and the governance of the competition .It reveals that :the initial conditions for the competition in China are different from those in the western world ;the competition is mainly caused by lo-cal governments’ pursuit of economic benefits and politcal games ;and the competition concentrates on in-stitution design and policy formulation .Since the competition has both positive and

  17. HIV/AIDS in China: a bibliometric analysis based on Chinese Biomedical Literature Database%基于中国生物医学文献数据库的艾滋病文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵湘; 苏迎盈

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用文献计量学的研究方法,揭示我国艾滋病研究现状.方法 利用中国生物医学文献数据库(CBMDisc)检索中国1981-2011年发表的所有艾滋病文献,利用noteexpress软件处理数据,对发表年代、作者、机构、基金、发表期刊及主题分布进行分析.结果 共检索到34 529篇文献,文献最早开始于1983年并逐年增多,早期文献以译文及综述为主.基金资助论文占总论文的比例逐年增加.艾滋病研究涉及的学科广泛,合作化趋势强.发文机构以疾病预防控制中心、综合性医院、高校为主.从主要主题词分析中,艾滋病研究主要围绕流行病、治疗以及实验室研究三大领域展开.结论 我国艾滋病研究开始较早,艾滋病研究经历了一个萌芽、快速发展、成熟等3个阶段,现研究进入一个相对平稳的阶段.随着社会的不断发展,艾滋病研究在我国越来越受到重视,并已达到一个较高的水平.%Objective To analyze the trends of HIV/AIDS researches in China from 1981 to 2011 using bibliometric analysis. Method A bibliometric analysis regarding China HIV/AIDS researches was conducted by using the Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBMDisc) Database for the period of 1981 to 2011. By using the noteexpress software; an attempt was made to identify the patterns of the growth in HIV/AIDS literature, as well as type of authorship, institutional affiliations of authors, foundation, documents published and subject content. Results A total of 34 529 records of articles indexed to HIV/AIDS were identified. Chinese publications on HIV/AIDS increased from five articles in 1983 to 2 796 in 2011 and early publications were mainly reviews and translations. Publications supported by special funds were increased year after year. HIV/AIDS research covered various subjects and a high proportion of co-authorship was found. Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC), universities and hospitals were the

  18. Research on Course Reform in Teaching Basic Writing for Department of Chinese Language and Literature%汉语言文学专业《基础写作》课程教学改革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛静

    2012-01-01

    目前高校《基础写作》课程的教学从理论到理论,处于一种师生双方均不满意的状况。为了改变这一状况,同时为后续写作课程的学习打下良好的基础,哈尔滨德强商务学院汉语言文学专业根据自身特点对《基础写作》课程进行了改革,即明确教学目标、精选教学内容、选用能激发学生兴趣的教学方法,开辟广阔的基础写作第二课堂,目的是提高授课内容和讲授模式的实用性,切实提高学生的写作水平。%At present,the teaching of Basic Writing course in college is in a state of "from theory to theory",which is not satisfied by both teachers and students.In order to change this situation and lay a good foundation for further studying writing course,the basic writing course has been reformed by the teachers of department of Chinese Language and Literature in Harbin Deqiang Institute of Business.The reform mainly includes definitude the teaching aim,selecting the teaching content,using the teaching method which can stimulate student's interest,and opening up the broad second classroom of basic writing course. The aim is to improve the practicability of teaching content and teaching mode, and then cogently prove students' writing level.

  19. Arguments on Animal ’s Language and New Tales in Chinese Modern Children’s Literature%中国现代儿童文学中的“鸟言兽语”之争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 罗文军; 石盛芳

    2015-01-01

    Arguments on Animal's Language never stopped along with the spread of tales,but the characters and focus of the arguments have constantly changed.In the 1920s Zhou Zuoren and others had a heated dispute a-bout cat like and dog like national characters and in the 1930s themes of tales turned left.They began to focus on the possible communization of Animal's language to the thought of the young people.Through those arguments,in tales which are the major forms of children's literature,animal's language is the most important form that was deep-ly ingrained in the Chinese society.%“鸟言兽语”之争伴随着童话传入中国的进程始终没有停止,但论争的双方和焦点都在不断变化。1920年代周作人等人与保守派论争的焦点集中在国民性“猫化狗化”上;1930年代童话题材开始左转,论争焦点转移到“鸟言兽语”是否“赤化”青少年思想上。通过这些争辩,童话作为儿童文学的主要形式、“鸟言兽语”作为童话的重要形式,这一观念开始深入人心。

  20. Choice and Breakthrough--- A Review on Gu Bin’s History of the 20th Century Chinese Literature%选择与突破*--评顾彬《二十世纪中国文学史》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽英

    2015-01-01

    顾彬的《二十世纪中国文学史》在一定层面上打破了以往文学史的书写模式,采用文学史博物馆的经典化书写方式,在历史性前提下偏重文学性,具有浓厚的主观色彩。它弱化了文学史流派分支书写体例,淡化了作家流派意识,更着重于作家作品的内在精神联系,并将20世纪知识分子忧郁的精神质素落到现代性层面来阐释。意在表明解除学术霸权,解放文学史家才能使文学史编写符合文学史本身,从而走向“轻松化”和“多元化”。%To some extent, Gu Bin’ s History of the 20th Century Chinese Literature has gone beyond the tradi-tional writing mode by adopting the classic one of museum of literary history, i.e.highlighting the subjective views by choosing to be more literary while staying faithful to history.This mode shifts attention from schools of differen writing styles and writer groups to the inner connection across schools.Moreover, it attempts to analyze the melancholy quality of the 20th century intellectuals under modern context, contending that only be getting rid of academic hegemony to liberate literary historians can return compilation of literary histories to history itself to make it an enjoyable, diversified job.

  1. 中医治疗脑梗塞文献研究热点分析%Analysis on the Research Highlights of the Literature about the Treatment of Cerebral Infarction with TCM(Traditional Chinese Medicine)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江建忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the TCM treatment of cerebral infarction at home in recent years. Methods:The bibliometric information co-occurrence mining system (BICOMS) and co-word biclustering analysis are used to carry out the co-word clustering analysis on the high-frequency keywords of the related literature collected in CNKI database in the period of 2010—2014 and to describe the clustering relationship diagram. Results:A total of 3 534 related literature about TCM treatment of cerebral infarction are retrieved with 58 high frequency keywords, that are clustered into 7 categories through the co-word clustering analysis. Conclusions: Recently,the research highlights of TCM treatment of cerebral infarction are mainly concentrated in 7 fields including the integrated treatment of Chinese and western medicine,nursing, treatment of vascular dementia,rehabilitation training. acupuncture treatment, and TCM treatment of blood stasis removing.%目的:对近年来国内中医治疗脑梗塞文献研究热点进行分析。方法:采用书目信息共现挖掘系统(BICOMS)和共词双聚类分析,对2010—2014年CNKI数据库收录的相关文献的高频关键词进行了共词聚类分析并描绘聚类关系图。结果:共检出中医治疗脑梗塞相关文献3534篇,相关高频关键词共58个,共词聚类分析发现高频关键词聚类为7个类别。结论:近年中医治疗脑梗塞的研究热点主要集中在中西医结合治疗、护理、血管性痴呆治疗、康复训练、针灸治疗、中药活血祛淤的治疗7个研究领域。

  2. 间歇期及慢性期痛风中医证候的文献研究%Literature research of Chinese medical syndromes of gout in intermission and chronic phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海昌; 温成平; 谢志军; 韩春雯; 汪梅姣; 吕惠卿

    2012-01-01

    目的:探求痛风间歇期及慢性期的证候特点,为中医临床治疗奠定基础.方法:采用计算机检索和人工检索相结合的方法,对1997年1月1日至2011年6月1日国内期刊中相关文献进行回顾性总结.结果:检索出符合要求的文献48篇,共涉及痛风间歇期、慢性期及慢性关节炎期患者1 566例,主要证候(前8位)是:痰瘀痹阻证(35.06%),痰浊阻滞证(14.88%),肝肾阴虚证(12.96%),久痹正虚证(7.92%),脾虚湿蕴证(7.47%),痰热蕴结证(5.36%),湿热蕴结证(3.83%),肝肾亏虚证(3.13%).结论:痰瘀痹阻证、痰浊阻滞证、肝肾阴虚证为痛风间歇期及慢性期主要证候.%Objective: To provide a basis for traditional Chinese medical (TCM) treatment of Gout by seeking the TCM syndrome features of intermission and chronic phase of gout. Methods: Combined the computer search and the artificial retrieval methods to retrospectively summarize domestic journals related literature from January 1, 1997 to June 1, 2011. Results: 48 literatures met the requirements, including total 1 566 cases of TCM syndromes of intermission and chronic phase of gout. The distributions of major TCM syndromes(the top 8th)were phlegm-blood stasis syndrome(35.06%), phlegm stasis syndrome (14.88%), deficiency syndrome of both liver and kidney yin(12.96%), syndrome of long blockage to weakened body resistance(7.92%), syndrome of dampness-retention due to spleen deficiency(7.47%), retention of sputum-heat(5.36%), retention of damp- heat(3.83%), syndrome of deficiency of the liver and kidney(3.13%). Conclusion: The major TCM syndrome types of gout are syndrome of blockade of phlegm stasis, syndrome of blockade of turbid phlegm, yin deficiency syndrome of liver and kidney.

  3. 近20年中国古代文学报恩母题研究综述%An Overview of Studies on the Gratitude Motif in Chinese Ancient Literature in Recent 20 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立; 王莉莉

    2016-01-01

    The literary works of gratitude themes in Chinese ancient literature are very abundant, which have attracted more and more academic attention in recent 20years. In the research contents,it changed and developed from the research of structure types to the cultural connotation of the story, the source and the research of gratitude way;In the research themes,it showed a research trend of gradual transplantation from folklore literature study to literati literature and popular literature;In the research object,it gradually expanded from“animal gratitude type”research to plant gratitude,fe-male gratitude,monsters gratitude,ghosts gratitude,beggar gratitude and many other types. It revealed a profound impact of Buddhist culture,local grace gratitude ethics,as well as the ideal and pursuit of writer literati’s gratitude practice of literary history. The approach of folklore and sociological in grat-itude theme often obscured using more theoretical approach,and losing in the simplification and com-planation. As a motif of highly interdisciplinary nature,its comprehensive,integrated research is still relatively weak.%中国古代文学中的报恩题材十分丰富,近20年中国古代文学报恩母题日益引起学界的关注。研究内容上,从报恩故事的结构类型研究向报恩故事的文化内涵、来源及报恩方式研究纵深拓展;研究领域上,呈现出由民间文学逐渐向文人文学、通俗文学研究移植的趋势;研究对象上,由民间故事的“动物报恩型”研究逐渐扩展到植物报恩、女性报恩、精怪报恩、鬼魂报恩、乞丐报恩等多个类型,注意揭示佛教文化、本土恩报伦理等深刻影响,以及作家文人的理想追求的报恩文学史实践。报恩主题的民俗学、社会学方法往往遮蔽了更多理论方法的运用,失之于简单化与平面化。作为一个跨学科性质很强的母题,其全面的、综合性的研究仍相对薄弱。

  4. International Scientific Collaboration of China: Collaborating Countries, Institutions and Individuals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Wang, Zhi; Peng, Lian; Wang, Chuanli

    2014-01-01

    Using bibliometric methods, we investigate China's international scientific collaboration from 3 levels of collaborating countries, institutions and individuals. We design a database in SQL Server, and make analysis of Chinese SCI papers based on the corresponding author field. We find that China's international scientific collaboration is focused on a handful of countries. Nearly 95% international co-authored papers are collaborated with only 20 countries, among which the USA account for more than 40% of all. Results also show that Chinese lineage in the international co-authorship is obvious, which means Chinese immigrant scientists are playing an important role in China's international scientific collaboration, especially in English-speaking countries.

  5. Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Scientific inquiry reflects how scientists come to understand the natural world, and it is at the heart of how students learn. From a very early age, children interact with their environment, ask questions, and seek ways to answer those questions. Understanding science content is significantly enhanced when ideas are anchored to inquiry…

  6. ENGLISH ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT CHINESE MEDICAL LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Excimer laser in situ keratomileusis for severe ametropia after penetrating keratoplasty LU Wenxiu, LI Zhihui, QI Ying, et al.Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital,Beijiing 100730, ChinaChin J Ophthalmol 2001; 37: 94-97. Objective To evaluate the effects of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis in correcting severe myopia and astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty.Methods Excimer laser in situ keratomileusis was performed on ten eyes of ten patients to correct high ametropia in cases having previously undergone penetrating

  7. 2006 Top 10 China RE Scientific News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Note:Hosted by China Rare Earth Information Center and National RE Information Net and sponsored by Chinese RE Society Information Specialty Committee,China RE Society Technology εt Economy Specialty Committee,Northern RE Industry Productivity Promotion Center,and principal medias in China RE industry such as publications "China RE Information" and "Chinese Rare Earths" and China RE Website,2006 Top 10 China Rare Earth Scientific News,which were selected from 100 pieces of candidate rare earth scientific news nationwide,were announced recently.

  8. [Research on our hospital inventory management status quo of traditional Chinese medicine drugs and treatment method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Xu, Wen

    2014-03-01

    Under the background of the new medical reform, a large variety of traditional Chinese medicine from complicated sources, Chinese traditional medicine of actor of true and false of the quality directly affect the drug safety and clinical efficacy, but also relate to the social and economic benefits of hospital. Along with the development of the modern management of medical institutions and drug circulation circulation system reform in our country, the hospital drug inventory, supply and management work is an important topic for the pharmaceutical trading. However, there is always contradiction, dispensary need to supple pharmacy, in order to satisfy the demands of hospital patients with normal diagnosis and treatment work. However, if the drug inventory is too much, not only increases the drug monitoring problem, at the same time, but also causes storage costs rise. Therefore, completing scientific and reasonable storage and management becomes urgent problems at present. Wherefore, our country administration of traditional Chinese medicine in 2007 promulgated the "Chinese traditional medicine yinpian management norms in hospital", aims to standardize management of Chinese traditional medicine quality and improve the safety of drugs. The author through looking up information and visiting survey, to understand the currently existing problems, and summarizes the literature inland and abroad in recent years Chinese medicine drug inventory management work experience, in view of status quo of Chinese medicine inventory management in China, put forward the solution. To guarantee TCM pharmacy management more standardized, more standard, to adapt to the new reform of Chinese traditional medicine industry, improve the management level of hospital, defend the hospital's reputation and the patient's interests.

  9. Scientific citations in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Finn Aarup

    2007-01-01

    The Internet-based encyclopaedia Wikipedia has grown to become one of the most visited web-sites on the Internet. However, critics have questioned the quality of entries, and an empirical study has shown Wikipedia to contain errors in a 2005 sample of science entries. Biased coverage and lack of sources are among the "Wikipedia risks". The present work describes a simple assessment of these aspects by examining the outbound links from Wikipedia articles to articles in scientific journals with a comparison against journal statistics from Journal Citation Reports such as impact factors. The results show an increasing use of structured citation markup and good agreement with the citation pattern seen in the scientific literature though with a slight tendency to cite articles in high-impact journals such as Nature and Science. These results increase confidence in Wikipedia as an good information organizer for science in general.

  10. Scientific Auditing Firms

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal P

    2016-01-01

    The "crisis of reproducibility" has been a significant source of controversy, heated debate, and calls for reform to institutional science in recent years. As a long-term solution to address both the present crisis and future obstacles, I propose the creation of a new form of research organization whose purpose would be to conduct random audits of the scientific literature. I suggest that data analytics of a digitized scientific corpus may play a critical role in allowing broadly educated scientists to identify linchpin results to investigate in further detail across all disciplines. I argue that a simple "mock" trial run of a simplified auditing firm consisting of several researchers over a short time period would provide valuable insight into the feasibility of this proposal.

  11. Literature Analysis of Clinic Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine Nursing Technology from 2000 to 2012%2000-2012年国内中医护理技术应用文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩妹; 靳英辉; 李文文; 孟繁洁

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过文献回顾,分析中医护理技术临床应用的现状,拟定干预对策,促进其进一步的推广和发展。方法经计算机检索CNKI、CBM、VIP、万方数据库,收集和整理2000年1月-2012年12月有关中医护理操作类调查文献258篇,根据文献调研结果进行分析。结果根据检索标准对文献进行分析整理,最终纳入调查类文献11篇,分析结果显示:中医护理技术在临床开展百分率超过50%的项目较少,且各医院情况不尽相同;护理人员对中医护理技术的掌握情况也不能与西医护理技术相比;中医护理技术在临床中存在因人力资源紧缺、缺乏相应中医护理操作医嘱、护理人员对其态度积极性较低等诸多问题。结论尽管中医护理技术以其直观安全、收费低廉、创伤小等优点被国内外医患广泛接受,但其目前临床开展情况、护理人员的掌握情况都阻碍了其发展。提示在响应国家号召基础之上,教育培训相关护理人员使其专业化、补充足够的人力完成中医特色护理。%Objective To analyze the present situation of clinical application of TCM nursing technology, to formulate intervention measures and promote its further development. Methods The retrieval was carried out in CNKI , CBM, VIP and Wanfang Database and 258 studies on TCM nursing technology from 2010 to 2012 were collected. Results According to search criteria of literature analysis, finally 11 studies were found and the analysis showed that there were few projects involving clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine nursing technology that amounted to 50% and these projects varied from hospitals to hospitals; nurses ’ grasp of Chinese medicine nursing techniques was not as well as that of western medicine nursing technology. In clinic, shortage of human resources, lack of corresponding nursing operation orders, nurses ’ low motivation were frequently

  12. 从清初中算家对三角学的会通看科学精神之兴起%To Study the Scientific Spirit in the Early Qing Dynasty From the Trigonometry Communication of the Chinese Mathematicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董杰; 张伟

    2011-01-01

    明末《崇祯历书》将西方三角学知识传入中国,但其偏重应用和计算而缺乏论证.清初中算家在接受、学习的同时,逐一补证了缺少证明的公式、定理,逐步精简公式的证明与应用,并努力用适合的方法重构西方三角学.通过对中算家会通三角学过程的考察,发现清初中算家以会通中西为目的,以探寻数学内在原理、融合中西数学为己任,彰显出求真务实的科学精神.%In the late Ming Dynasty* the West trigonometry was brought into China through Chong Zhen Li Shu, but it was emphasized on the application and calculation with lack of proofs. In the early Qing Dynasty,the Chinese mathematicians accepted and learned the West trigonometric knowledge,meanwhile, they complemented the trigonometric formulas and principles which were short of proofs one by one. They simplified the proofs and application of the trigonometric formulas step by step. Also, the Chinese mathematicians tried their best to use the proper methods for the reconstruction of the western trigonometry. Based on the study of communication process of the Chinese mathematicians on the trigonometry in the early Qing dynasty,it is found out that Chinese mathematicians was to have the communication between Chinese and western mathematics as their goal, to explore the inherent principles of mathematics and to combine Chinese with western mathematics as their responsibility. Their work has manifested realistic and pragmatic Spirits.

  13. Dental erosion - literature update

    OpenAIRE

    PICOS, ALINA M.; Andrea M. Chisnoiu; Jean F. Lasserre; Aurelia Spinei; Radu M.Chisnoiu; Andrei Picos

    2013-01-01

    Tooth wear is a complex, pluri-factorial process that must be taken into account in clinical practice. The main mechanisms typically related to dental wear are: abrasion, attrition, erosion and wear by fatigue. The dramatic increase in the frequency of erosive lesions, especially in younger age groups determined us to give a synthesis of the most recent scientific literature on the specific problem of erosion. Attention is drawn to the excessive consumption of acidic beverages in chi...

  14. Promotional literature translation in stylistics perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰雅

    2009-01-01

    A company Call establish a favorable image to promote itself by promotional literature which has vocative and informative functions.In this espy,the Chinese and English promotional literatures will be discussed in detail from the aspect of stylistic features and relevant translation strategies will also be presented.

  15. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qiang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.

  16. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.……

  17. Breakthrough in the Study of Chinese Ancient Music Literature——On Du Xingmei and Du Yuntong’s“Commentary on Chinese Ancient Musical Literature Elite”%中国古代音乐文学研究的新突破——评杜兴梅、杜运通《中国古代音乐文学精品评注》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富鹏

    2012-01-01

      In Professor Du Xingmei and Du Yuntong’s“Commentary on Chinese Ancient Musical Litera⁃ture Elite” there is a selection of 418 representative music literature from the early Qin Dynasty to the late Qing Dynasty. One by one from the two sides of music and literature, detailed comments and review are made. The book is rich in content, subject distinctive, combination of commentary, refined and popular tastes, and strongy informative, interesting and readable. It provides a new unknown reader, on ancient Chinese music lit⁃erature, is undoubtedly an innovation and breakthrough.%  杜兴梅、杜运通教授的《中国古代音乐文学精品评注》精选了从先秦到清末有代表性的音乐文学作品418首(篇),从音乐与文学两个侧面逐一作了较为详尽的注释与评介。该书内容丰富、主旨鲜明、评注结合、雅俗共赏,具有较强的知识性、趣味性和可读性。它提供了该领域前所未有的一种新读本,对中国古代音乐文学研究无疑是一次创新与突破。

  18. The literature analysis of adverse reactions of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine in Influenza-like Nonprescription Medicine%感冒非处方中成药之中西复方制剂不良反应的文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璞; 王聿成; 成磊; 张冰

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过检索常用的感冒类非处方中成药不良反应发生情况,为安全使用感冒类非处方中成药提供参考.方法 规定中成药范围包括:中西药复方制剂.采用回顾性研究方法,通过检索药物不良反应杂志和CNKI中文数据库,收集常用的感冒类非处方中成药的不良反应的相关文献,对资料进行整理和分析.结果 检索用于治疗感冒的非处方中成药89种,经上述数据库报道,有不良反应发生情况的中成药2种,分别为维C银翘片和新复方大青叶片.涉及病例14例.结论 虽然非处方药的特点是药效确定、相对安全、使用方便、毒副作用小,不良反应发生几率低,但药物安全性不容忽视,也需要考虑其不良反应并合理使用.%Objective To provide a reference for the safe use of nonprescription Chinese medicine using in influenza, the study retrieve the incidence of adverse reactions of influenza-like Nonprescription Chinese medicine. Methods The scope of Chinese medicine was set in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine. Used by the research methods of regression, retrieved in Adverse Drug Reactions Journal and Chinese Journal Full Database, the related literatures which reflect the adverse reactions of influenza-like Nonprescription Chinese medicine was collected, and the data was organized and analyzed. Results Reported by above database, there were 2 pieces of Influenza-like Nonprescription Chinese Medicine adverse reaction occurred among the 89 pieces of Influenza-like Nonprescription Chinese Medicine retrieved, including Vitamin C Yinqiao Tablets and New Fufang Daqingye Tablets, and involving 14 cases. Conclusion Nonprescription drugs are characterized by clear efficacy, relative safe, convenient, low toxicity and low probability of adverse events, but we cannot ignore the safety of drugs and also need to consider its adverse reactions and to use it rationally.

  19. Intelligentsia Writing in the" Cultural Revolution" University Narratives of Contemporary Chinese Literature%新时期“文革”大学叙事中的知识分子书写

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪华

    2016-01-01

    新时期“文革”大学叙事书写了特殊年代学院知识分子的生存境遇和精神危机。老一辈学人由昔日启蒙大众的“精神导师”转而成为大众批判的“反动学术权威”,激进政治运动瓦解了他们曾经建构人生自信的基础。青年一代在建国后的政治文化语境中成长,其知识背景具有浓厚的意识形态色彩,“文革”对“十七年教育黑线”的批判动摇了他们曾经的理想信念。工农兵学员虽然肩负着“上、管、改”的政治使命,但在前辈知识分子面前,既普遍缺乏知识自信,又盲目充满“革命”乐观,表现出身份错位的矛盾与焦虑。%The " Cultural Revolution" university narratives in contemporary Chinese literature depict the survival dilemma and spiritual crisis of academic intelligentsia in those particular years. The older intelligentsia was thrown down from enlightening " spiritual tutors" to " reactionary academic forces"under mass critique, with the basis for their once life confidence undermined. The younger generation grew in the political and cultural context of People's Republic and was educated with strong ideology, but their ideals and beliefs were shocked by the " Cultural Revolution" critique of " bad education thoughts in the seventeen years" . The students selected from soldiers, peasants and workers carried out the political missions of supervision and management, but they are messed with the identity anxiety between in-confidence against older generations and the blind" Revolutionary" optimism.

  20. 政治身体:土改文学中的身体形象分析%Political Body:An Analysis of the Body Image in Chinese Land-reform Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程娟娟

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese land -reform literature, " upturn" means that numerous peasants gained unprecedented liberation of their body, and the country as a sleeping giant was awaking. In perspective of physiological political body, body is under control of external powers. Cloth is an important sign of "upturn" , while over pursuit of comfort and beauty of cloth would be criticized by revolutionary discourse. In perspective of productive political body, the body needs to undergo constant tests of labor works, so body becomes machines for production and tools for work. The bodies are assigned with different value due to the holder's class identity. Body of landlord suffers violence in public demonstration, and body of peasant enjoys sacred homages due to the scar it has suffered.%在土改文学中,翻身意味着无数个体农民的身体获得了前所未有的解放,同时这也象征着中国这个沉睡的巨人即将醒来。从生理政治身体上看,身体必须受到外在权力的控制,衣服是翻身的重要标志,然而过分追求衣服的美观舒适将会受到革命话语的指责。从生产政治身体来看,身体还需不断接受生产劳动的考验,身体成为了生产的机器和劳动的工具。身体因为阶级的划分而具有了不同的价值,地主的身体在示众的场面中遭受暴力,而农民的身体因为伤疤而具有了神圣的价值。

  1. Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treatment of Polyhydramnios:a Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Zhou; Yu-fang Hao; Yan Chen; Tong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tocompare the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (therapy A) or Chinese herbal medicine plus indomethacin (therapy B) with that of indomethacin alone (therapy C) in treating polyhydramnios.MethodsLiteratures published up toApril 2012 were retrieved from PubMed, Embase and Cochranelibrary, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific and Technological Periodical Database (VIP), Wangfang, and Traditional Chinese Medicine online.Two researchers collected data independently.The assessment of methodological quality was based on Cochrane handbook and the materials were analyzed with software RevMan 5.1.2. The outcome measure index was relative risk or difference ofmean value (95% confidence interval). The following outcomes were evaluated: (1) general clinical improvement rate; (2) maximum vertical pocket depth; (3) amniotic fluid index (AFI) value; (4) rate of fetalductus arteriosus constriction; (5) incidence of adverse events.ResultsBased on the search strategy, 5 trails involving 1017 patients were finally included. Comparedwith therapy C, therapy A decreased the rate of fetal ductus arteriosus constriction (P<0.01). Therapy B was more effective than therapy C in general clinical improvement and decrease of AFI for polyhydramnios (P<0.01). No serious adverse events were reported in therapy A and therapy B.ConclusionsCompared with therapy C, therapy A and therapy B may appear to be moreeffective for polyhydramnios. However, the exact effectneeds to beconfirmed with well-designedlarge-scale clinical trials.

  2. The Influence of Chinese Civilizationon Europe, c. 1000-1400

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Bringing together Chinese and Western materials, this article makesa general survey of the spread of Chinese civilization to Europe in themedieval period and the consequent influences. It mainly retrieves thewestward dissemination of Chinese scientific thoughts, the introductionof Chinese agricultural and transport techniques, and the developmentof Chinese inventions such as papermaking and print, silk and porcelain,stirrup and gunpowder in Europe, and even the impacts of Chinesesilk craftsmen and fine arts on Europe. It concludes that Europeansingested valuable nutrition from Chinese civilization from the 11th to14th centuries, laying the foundation for the fundamental changes withgroundbreaking significance in Europe.

  3. Modular Curriculum: English/Social Studies, Chinese Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeritt, Robert W.

    This university independent course of study of Chinese civilization uses a non-disciplinary approach for the purpose of catching a glimpse of what the preponderant body of Chinese have thought and valued throughout the ages. The literature is approached from a Chinese point of view. The course consists of nine lessons: (1) Mencius, (2)Confucius,…

  4. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG; Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute( TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences( CATAS) as an example,this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform,analyzed existing problems,and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  5. 中国特色社会主义制度的科学内涵及重大意义%The Scientific Connotation and Great Significance of Socialist System with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄书进

    2012-01-01

    中国特色社会主义制度是社会制度和制度体制的辩证统一,法律体系是社会制度和制度体制自身公共性、权威性和秩序性特点的外在表现,是法治社会的重要标志。中国特色社会主义制度,集中体现了中国特色社会主义的特点和优势,是当代中国发展进步的根本制度保障,标志着中国特色社会主义进入依法治国时期。%The socialist system with Chinese characteristics is the dialectic unification of social institution and institutional regime. The legal system is the external embodiment of the publicity, authority and order properties of social institution and institutional regime, being an important symbol of society under the rule of law. The socialist system with Chinese characteristics intensively embodies the traits and advantages of socialism with Chinese characteristics, being the radical institutional guarantee for the development and advancement of contemporary China, indicating socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new period of genuine rule of law.

  6. A Critique of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature of the Use of Diagrams, Graphs, and Other Visual Aids in the Learning of Scientific-Technical Content from Expository Texts and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James; Perla, Rocco J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critical review and analysis of key studies that have been done in science education and other areas on the effects and effectiveness of using diagrams, graphs, photographs, illustrations, and concept maps as "adjunct visual aids" in the learning of scientific-technical content. It also summarizes and reviews those studies…

  7. 间歇期及慢性期痛风中医方药的文献研究%Literature Research of Traditional Chinese Medical Prescriptions of Gout in Intermission and Chronic Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海昌; 温成平; 谢志军; 韩春雯; 汪梅姣

    2013-01-01

    目的:探求痛风间歇期及慢性期的方药特点,为中医临床治疗奠定基础.方法:采用计算机检索和人工检索相结合的方法,对1997年1月-2011年6月国内期刊中相关文献进行回顾性总结.结果:检索出符合要求的文献85[1-82]篇,共涉及痛风间歇期、慢性期及慢性关节炎期患者累计4791例,主要中药(前15味)使用频率结果分别是:牛膝(36.11%)、桑寄生(31.48%)、薏苡仁(30.56%)、土茯苓(26.85%)、苍术(25.93%)、白术(25.93%)、白芥子(25.00%)、当归(24.07%)、黄柏(23.15%)、黄芪(22.22%)、防己(22.22%)、草薢(20.37%)、威灵仙(20.37%)、赤芍(18.52%)、秦艽(16.67%).结论:牛膝、桑寄生、苍白术、薏苡仁及黄芪健脾益肾,泄浊祛湿治病之本;当归、牛膝、苍白术、赤芍、黄柏、白芥子及威灵仙活血化瘀通络,燥湿化痰通痹治病之标.%Objective: To provide a basis for clinical treatment of traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM) by seeking the TCM prescriptions of gout in intermission and chronic phase. Methods: Domestic relevant literatures were summarized retrospectively based on the interaction by computer search and artificial retrieval from January 1997 to June 2011. Results-. Totally 85 literatures were retrieved to meet the requirements, including 4791 cases of intermission, chronic phase and chronic gouty arthritis. The distributions of major TCM prescriptions (the top 15)were achyranthes root(36. 11% ) ,mis-tletoe( 31. 48% ) , coix seed ( 30. 56% ), smilax Glabra ( 26. 85% ), atractylodes ( 25.93% ) , rhizoma atractylodis (25.93%) ,white mustard seed(25.00% ) ,angelica sinensis(24. 07% ) ,cortex phellodendri(23. 15%) ,radix astragali (22.22% ) ,tetrandra root(22.22%) ,yam rhizome(20. 37% ),clematis root(20. 37% ) ,red peony root(18.52%) ,gen-tiana macrophylla ( 16. 67% ). Conclusions :It is the fundamental treatment of gout by invigorating spleen and nourishing kidney therapy for reducing

  8. Parental Beliefs on Children's Play: Comparison among Mainland Chinese, Chinese Immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae

    2016-01-01

    The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…

  9. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  10. The embodiment and the effects of native complex in the literature under the background of different culture of Chinese and Western --William Faulkner and Mo Yan for example%中西不同文化背景下乡土情结在文学中的体现与影响--以威廉·福克纳与莫言为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇

    2013-01-01

    乡土情结影响下的中西方文学在世界文学中占据着举足轻重的地位,乡土情结影响下的中西方文学也因而具有共通之处。在西方文学史威廉·福克纳成功地描绘了美国南方传统世界。深受福克纳影响的莫言则通过独特视角透视展现给世人一个独特的环境--高密东北乡。两者既有相同之处也有不同之处,但唯一可以确定的是那浓的化不开的乡土情结成就了他们的辉煌,也深深影响了世界文学的发展。%Chinese and Western literature play decisive role in the world literature under the influence of Western native complex, Chinese and Western literature have in common. In the literature history of Western, William Faulkner successfully depicts the American southern traditional world. Mo Yan influenced by Faulkner through the unique perspective to show any unique environment--Gaomi northeast township. Both of them have similar and different, but the only certainty is that native complex make their brilliance, also deeply influences the development of the literature of the world.

  11. The spacelab scientific missions: A comprehensive bibliography of scientific publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, Marsha (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    November 1993 represented the 10-year anniversary of the flight of Spacelab 1 mission, with the first precursor mission (OSTA-1) being launched 2 years earlier. Since that time, a total of 27 Shuttle missions has been flown, using the Spacelab system as a facility for conducting scientific research in space. The missions flown to date have allowed a total of approximately 500 Principle Investigator class investigations to be conducted in orbit. These investigations have constituted major scientific efforts in astronomy/astrophysics, atmospheric science, Earth observation, life sciences, microgravity science, and space plasma physics. An initial survey of the scientific products gleaned from Spacelab missions already flown was sent to the Principle Investigators. In that survey, information was gathered from the investigators on the scientific highlights of their investigations and statistical measurements of overall success -- such as papers published. This document is a compilation of the papers that have been published to date in referred literature.

  12. The Scientific Research Analysis of Extenics Influence Based on Literature Measure%基于文献计量的可拓学科研影响力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蔚丽

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the scientific impact of Extenics by using the analysis method of the database platform to search and screen the relevant articles about the Extenics,and carries out a comprehensive analysis from multiple perspec-tives to search results from three aspects including the scientific impact of domestic research papers ,the scientific impact of domestic natural fund and the scientific impact of domestic patents. The analysis illustrates that nowadays the study of Extenics maintains a steady development at home but without much international influence. This theory still needs further basic and application research.%利用多个数据库对可拓学相关文献进行检索和数据筛选,并对筛选后的结果从国内科研论文的科研影响力、国内自然科学基金的科研影响力和国内专利的科研影响力三个方面进行了多角度、全面的分析。分析显示现国内学者对于可拓学的研究保持着一种稳步发展的状态,如果得到国家科研管理部门更进一步的支持,这个由中国人原创的学科必将更快地走向世界。

  13. 新课改背景下高师古代文学课程与教学改革刍议%On Reform of Chinese Ancient Literature Course and Teaching in Normal Colleges under the Background of New Curriculum Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦丹

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the new curriculum reform puts forward a series of requirements for teaching of Chinese ancient literature in normM colleges such as the teaching aim, teaching content, teaching concepts and teaching methods. These requirements, however, are not met in the teaching of Chinese ancient literature in normal colle- ges. Under the background of new curriculum reform, to explore the approach for the reform of the Chinese ancient literature in normal colleges, it is suggested to reestablish course system, improve teaching objectives, strengthen literary theory and culture history teaching, change the teaching concept, teaching method, attach importance not only to basic teaching, but also to academic research ability training. Only in this way, earl Chinese ancient literature teaching in normal colleges radiates new vitality to meet the the requirement of new curriculum reform and to realize the training objectives of normal colleges and universities.%新课改的推行对高师古代文学教学提出了教学目标、教材内容、教师教学观念及教学方法上的一系列要求。面对这些要求,高师古代文学教学却无法对接,其现状不尽如人意。因而要在新课改背景下寻求高师古代文学的改革路径,可重新设置课程体系、改进教学目标、增强文论、文化史等内容的教学,改变教学观念、教学方法,既要重视基础教学,也要重视学术研究能力的培养。只有这样,才能使高师古代文学教学焕发新的生机,适应新课改的需求,实现高师院校的培养目标。

  14. 鲁迅的文艺思想与中国马克思主义文艺理论的早期形态%Lu Xun's Literary Theory and the Early Phase of Chinese Marxism Theory of Literature and Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江

    2012-01-01

    Lu Xun' s literary theory represented Chinese Marxism theory of literature and art in the early stage. It reflected the characteristics of the theory construction and the historical development from the formation, basic viewpoint and theory form.%鲁迅的文艺思想是中国马克思主义文艺理论的早期代表。从形成方式、基本观点、理论形式上,体现了中国马克思主义文艺理论的理论建构特点和历史发展特点。

  15. A Historical Review of the Seeking to Scientificity and Humanity in the Writing of Chinese Literature History%中国文学史追求科学性与人文性的历史回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡欢江

    2006-01-01

    在中国文学史书写的历史上,科学性历来都为史家们所看重,但是,建国之后文学书写的科学品格却一度失落;与科学性相比,文学史书写的人文性更是一直未引起史家们的足够重视,只有少数的文学史家们的著作体现出文学史书写的诗性特质,而闻一多、林庚等人是其中的代表.

  16. Chinese Literature Realism Interlocked with Scientific Knowledge and Humanistic Understanding%科学认知与人文理解交错中的中国文学写实主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞兆平; 陈思和

    2006-01-01

    现实主义理论包含着科学认知与人文理解这一对矛盾."写实"意味着遵循自然科学的认知原则,对客体对象精确、逼真的反映与复制;而"文学"却是一个虚构、想象性的人文世界,渗透着作家主体的精神意愿与价值取向,即作家对人生、世界的"理解",而且还负载着对读者道德的教喻与训诫的功能.这一悖论式的两极趋向,在中国文学对西方写实主义的接受进程中始终交错、纠合在一起.中国文学界对西方"写实主义"的接受,有着从早期的向科学认知原则倾斜的写实主义(真即是美),到中期的科学认知与人文理解交错的写实主义(不脱离现实的真善合体),再到后期的向以意识形态为核心的人文理解倾斜的写实主义(善即是真,善中之真方为美)的进程.在这一进程中,写实主义的概念始终处在动态的、不断的调整之中.

  17. A Review of Formalistic Studies of Chinese American Women Literature:Amy Tan and Maxine Hong Kingston as examples%美国华裔女性文学形式研究综述--以汤亭亭和谭恩美为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史丽娜; 原一川

    2013-01-01

    Among circles of literary critics in China recently, studies of Chinese American women writers come into being and grow quickly into a bright star. American literature is mainly made up of literary works written by Chinese American women writers, which is the main voice given by scholars of American studies, and which is a combination under the influence of Chinese-American multi-cultures. Studies of Asian American literature start from 1982. Until now, Chinese American literature has not been marginalized any longer and come into the spring time of its life. In recent thirty years, scholars at home make studies of the literary works written by Chinese American women writers from a variety of ways and approaches. This paper is a domestic literature review of the studies made on literary works of Chinese American women writers from the perspective of linguistics, narrative techniques and stylistics. The purpose is to give some suggestions and a prospect of studies. There is still much room in the studies of works by Chinese American women writers and the future is quite promising.%在当今的中国评论界,美国华裔女性文学研究异军突起,成为美国文学研究中的一朵奇葩。美国华裔女性文学是美国文学的重要组成部分,也是国内学者美国文学研究话语体系中的一个主流声音,还是中美多元文化相互影响和结合的产物。美国亚裔文学的学术性研究始于1982年,直至今天,美国华裔女性文学已成功的走出边缘地位,迎来了美好的春天。三十年以来,国内学者应用了多元和多维度的研究方法和研究角度对美国华裔女性文学作品进行了研究和解读,研究呈现出一片繁荣的景象。由此以汤亭亭和谭恩美为例,对国内美国华裔女性文学作品中的语言学研究、叙事学研究和文体学研究作一个总体回顾,并提出建议和展望。美国华裔女性文学作品的形式研究具有很大的空

  18. Auditing Chinese Higher Education? The Perspectives of Returnee Scholars in an Elite University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon fieldwork conducted in an elite Chinese university and English language literature of audit culture in higher education against the backdrop of Chinese higher education in transition, this paper has discovered that Chinese higher education is undergoing an auditing process. However, this Chinese audit regime is not only guarded by a…

  19. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful...... for understanding this. Instead, it is argued that in order to understand why the RBV is an instance of scientific progress, we should begin from the notion that reduction is at the heart of progress in science, and that many scientists implicitly or explicitly hold this view. The RBV is a case of scientific...... progress because it identified theoretical mechanisms at levels lower than those that were usually investigated in strategy research prior to the RBV. Unfortunately, the micro-emphasis of the RBV gave way during the 1990s to more aggregative modes of theorizing (i.e., the capabilities approach). Thus...

  20. Open Access and Civic Scientific Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccala, Alesia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We examine how residents and citizens of The Netherlands perceive open access to acquire preliminary insight into the role it might play in cultivating civic scientific literacy. Open access refers to scientific or scholarly research literature available on the Web to scholars and the general public in free online journals and…

  1. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radder, H.

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of interve...

  2. 干燥综合征中医证候分类临床文献研究%Syndromes clinical literature study of the traditional Chinese medicine to Sjogren's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马武开; 唐芳; 王莹; 姚血明; 钟琴; 安阳; 黄颖; 刘正奇

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Discussing syndrome distribution character of Sjogren syndrome in TCM. Methods: The pertinent articles in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Databases(CNKI), VIP Chinese science and technology periodical full papers library and Wanfang database collection of TCM from January 1991 to June 2011 were retrieved. 16 literatures with syndrome differentiation treatment of Sjogren syndrome clinical research were screened out. Results: 16 of a total of 1 316 cases, with deficiency syndrome 671 tases(50.99%), fullness syndrome 215 cases( 16.34%), and the inclusions in 430 cases(32.67%). There were 32 types of syndromes, the frequency was highest in the qi and yin deficiency syndrome 11 times(68.75%), fluid deficiency blood stasis 7 times(43.75%), yin deficiency syndrome of liver and kidney 6 times(37.50%) and internal heat due to yin deficiency 4 times(25.00%). According to the number of patients, qi and yin deficiency 244 cases( 18.54%), fluid deficiency blood stasis 200 cases(15.20%), yin deficient 125 cases(9.50%). Conclusion: Yin deficiency and yin deficiency with fullness were main syndromes in Sjogren syndrome. Yin deficiency was the main syndrome, blood stasis was the pathogenesis. Yin deficiency and blood stasis might be the underlying pathogenesis of Sjogren syndrome.%目的:探讨干燥综合征的中医证候分布特征.方法:对1991年1月-2011年6月中国知网全文数据库(CNKI)、维普中国科技期刊全数文据库(VIP)和万方数据库收集的中医辨证分型治疗干燥综合征的临床研究文献进行检索,筛选出符合研究标准的16篇文献进行证候分布研究.结果:16篇文献共1316例,虚证671例(占50.99%),实证215例(占16.34%),虚实夹杂430例(占32.67%).共有证候类型32种,出现频次最高的是气阴两虚证,11次(68.75%),其次是津亏血瘀7次(43.75%)、肝肾阴虚6次(37.50%)、阴虚内热4次(25.00%).按病例数排列,气阴两虚证244例(18.54%),津亏血瘀证200

  3. China ranks second in scientific publications since 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Zhou; L. Leydesdorff

    2008-01-01

    With the fast development of its economy, China plays an increasingly important role in the world. China's performance in science is also impressive. The exponential growth of Chinese scientific publications provides evidence. However, statistical results about China's world share of scientific publ

  4. 略论“东方情调化翻译”在中医文献英语翻译中的应用%Discussion on Application of "Oriental Translation" in the Chinese Literature in English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 贾成祥

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨“东方情调化翻译”在中医文献英语翻译(中医英译)中的应用.方法:以赛里尔·勃尔撤(Cyril Birch)所译的《牡丹亭》为例,展现出东方情调化翻译方法的作用与效果,继而引出此种方法在中医英译当中的应用.结果:东方情调化翻译方法在近些年的应用中已逐渐被人们所接受与采纳.结论:东方情调化翻译是将中医推向全世界的一种重要的途径.%Objective:To study the application in the English translation of "traditional Chinses medicine of oriental language translation". Methods:To Cyril Birch translation of "peony pavilion" as an example,show the role and effect of oriental language translation, the english translation of traditional chinese medicine extraction method in the applivation of the english translation of traditional chinese medicine. Results:Oriental language translation method in recent years,the application has gradually been accepted and adopted. Conclusion: This is an important way to chinese medicine to the world of traditional chinese medicine of oriental language translation.

  5. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  6. Methods for Obtaining Free Full-text of Scientific Papers in the Literature Search%科学研究中免费科技论文获取方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 李道西

    2011-01-01

    Six methods for obtaining free full-text of scientific papers are introduced,including effective use of public search engines;full use of academic search engines;the collection of common resource sites providing free scientific papers;the concern about the important professional journals' home webs,the authors' academic blogs or the website of the relevant academic research institutions;to friends or forums for help;direct request to the authors and so on.%介绍了6种获取免费科技论文全文的方法,分别是有效利用大众搜索引擎;充分利用学术搜索引擎;收集常用的免费科技论文资源网站;关注本专业重要期刊主页、作者学术博客或相关科研机构网站;向朋友或论坛求助;直接向作者索取等。

  7. Promoting Scientific Spirit to Cultivate Scientific Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Scientific culture is an advanced culture that is based on scientific knowledge and supported by the scientific method, with scientific thinking as its core and scientific spirit as its soul. During the process of modernization, it has profound impacts on human society in terms of values, ethics, mode of thinking, lifestyle and code of conduct, offering human civilization an important ideological source, physical foundation, technological tool and effective carrier.

  8. 不同的悲剧形象相同的悲剧命运--中希弃妇形象比较研究%Different Tragic Images Same Tragic Fates:Comparison of Images of Abandoned Women in Chinese and Greek Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓彬

    2013-01-01

    The literature about abandoned women profoundly reflects the social aspects of reality, with high artistic characteristics. As a specific cultural phenomenon, the problem about abandoned women has always been widespread concerned. Chinese and Western literature are produced in different cultural contexts, but in ancient Greece and the Qin and Han Dynasties there were works which reflect the problem of abandoned women at the same time. This paper tries to have a comprehensive study on the abandoned women in Chinese and Greek cultures and to explain the reasons for the differences.%  弃妇文学深刻地反映了社会的诸方面现实,有着极高的艺术特色。作为特定的文化现象,弃妇问题历来受到广泛关注。中西方文学是在两种不同的文化背景下产生的,但在古希腊和先秦两汉时期却同时出现了反映弃妇问题的作品。本文对中希弃妇形象进行整体对比,并试图阐释这种差异形成的原因。

  9. The Connotation and Content Construction of the Chinese Language and Literature Specialty Students’ Core Competence of Employment in Local Universities%地方高校汉语言文学专业学生就业核心能力的内涵及内容构建--以玉林师范学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海英

    2015-01-01

    大学生的就业核心能力是大学生求职就业获胜的竞争资本,立足于地方高校汉语言文学专业大学生的就业现状,对地方高校汉语言文学专业大学生就业核心能力的内涵及内容构成进行分析和界定,从培养目标的确立、课程体系的构建、实践能力的训练等方面探讨就业核心能力提高的策略。%Chinese Language and Literature Specialty students’ core competence of employment is an asset for them to compete with other candidates in job hunting. The present paper, based on the current employment situation of the Chinese Language and Literature Specialty students, analyzes and defines the connotation and contents of the core competence of employment; then, proposes the strategies for enhancing the core competence of employment from aspects like establishing training goal, constructing the curriculum system and training the practical ability, etc.

  10. 陕西省土地利用/覆盖变化以及驱动机制分析——基于遥感信息与文献集成研究%Analysis of Land Use and Coverage Change (LUCC) and Its Driving Mechanisms in Shaanxi Province: Integrating Remotely Sensed Information and the Scientific Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡文慧

    2011-01-01

    地理结论的可靠性一直以来是地理学家关注的焦点问题。本研究建立了基于高分辨率遥感信息获取的土地利用/覆盖变化数据和参考文献集成与再分析方法。以陕西省为例,通过土地利用/覆盖变化动态数据分析结果与研究区40篇参考文献分析结果进行相互验证,提炼土地利用/覆盖变化以及驱动机制的知识规律。结论表明,基于土地利用/覆盖变化数据的分析结果与参考文献集成分析的结果基本一致。1990年-2005年陕西省耕地总面积减少,耕地呈先增加后减少的趋势;林地和草地面积逐渐增加;建设用地快速增长。人口、经济、政策与城市化是该省土地利用%Geographical conclusion reliability has been an important topic for geographers. This study proposed a new technique to integrate data on land use/land cover change, remotely sensed information, as well as the scientific literature. First, the project team constructed the global land information platform (GLIP), including the global land use/land cover the electrical scientific literature base and multi-scale LUCC data. Global Land Use Scientific Literature Base (GLUSLB) has more than 5000 references on land use and land cover. We reclassified the scientific literature into 6 classes, including application, technology, methodology, review, model, and data. Furthermore, the scientific literature on application and data with definite location is located in the specific geo-ecological region. Second, compared with land use and land cover change areas from between LUCC data and 40 references, spatial and temporal characteristics and their driving mechanisms were analyzed. Results indicate that the conclusions are generally consistent with both of them, especially the land use change characteristics from different administrative systems. From 1990 to 2005, the total area of cultivated land in Shaanxi Province generally decreased, but increased during

  11. A literature review of idea management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is primarily to conduct a state-of-the-art literature review of Idea Management and secondary to point out unanswered questions which are left behind in the reviewed literature. Scientific knowledge is primarily represented in innovation management literature but also...... considerably in literature on software and IT. On the background of the literature review, there are some weaknesses in the literature to be considered. These weaknesses concern the understanding of how people interact with idea management in their daily work practices and how different types of ideas...

  12. Keywords Review of IT Security Literature in Recent 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lidong; Lin, Yan; Qian, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The volume of published scientific literature available on Internet has been increasing exponentially. Some of them reflect the latest achievement of the specific research domain. In recent years, many projects have been funded aiming to online scientific literature mining, especially in biomedical research. Scientific literature covers most of the hot topics in the research field and has a very large domain-specific vocabulary. The exploitation of domain knowledge and specialized vocabulary ...

  13. Teaching Material Culture and Chinese Gardens at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.

  14. Literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size...

  15. Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  16. Literature Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of literature circles, a student-led reading and discussion method that encourages students to see stories in various ways. Explains the student selection of titles, roles of group members, and collaborative projects that complete the activity. (LRW)

  17. Literature Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  18. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  19. Governance,Communication and Mood Projection---On the Dialectical Relationship Between Literary Works and History in Chinese Ancient Literature Teaching%统摄沟通观照--古代文学教学中“文”与“史”关系的辩证思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓苇

    2016-01-01

    The in-class teaching of ancient Chinese literature has gradually shifted its focus back on lit-erary works analysis,which doesn't mean literary history will be rejected or abolished. The essence of litera-ture education draws the concentration of ancient literature teaching on literary works comprehension and appreciation,while literary history and its methodological significance on teaching and learning should never be underestimated in works-centered teaching activities. In the macroscopic aspect,teaching literature with literary history construction may help students systematically take in literary knowledge. In microscopic as-pect,studying writers and their works under the complex history background may help deepen students' com-prehension and extend their reflection. Only by balancing and integrating literary works and history in ancient literature teaching activity may allow students to grasp the essence and beauty of Chinese ancient literature.%如今高校的中国古代文学教学逐渐向讲授文学作品回归,但并不意味着对文学史的摒弃以至于取消。文学教育的性质,决定了古代文学课程的教学理当立足于文学作品的阅读与理解,但以文学作品为中心的教学活动,亦不可看轻文学史对于文学作品的教与学所具有的方法论上的价值意义。从宏观层面上,教学内容需要有文学史的统摄,便于学生将所学知识条理化、系统化;从微观层面上,将作家作品放在文学纵横交错的历史坐标轴上加以考察,有助于学生理解的深化与融会,延伸与拓展其思考。既重“文”亦不忽视“史”,唯有二者的交相融合,才能使学生真正把握住中国古代文学的思想精髓与艺术特质。

  20. 大数据时代中国大学生科技创新思维新内涵思考%The New Connotation about the Scientific Innovative Thinking of Chinese University Students in the Era of Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳

    2015-01-01

    论述了在大数据背景下,科技创新思维在知识结构、思维对象和思维方式三个方面发生的深刻变革。并通过问卷调查和访谈方法,调研了当前大学生的科技创新思维现状,发现大数据的认识很模糊,在科技创新活动中仍然沿用传统的思维习惯和研究方法,没有认识到大数据对于科技创新的重要作用和意义,导致其科技创新能力仍显不足。因此,对大学生科技创新思维提出了新的内涵,即掌握大数据技术的基本知识、养成大数据意识,具有这个时代所要求的相关性思维方式。%This thesis discusses deep change of scientific innovative thinking in three aspects of knowledge structure, thought object and thought mode under the background of big data. Questionnaire and interview are employed to in-vestigate the status quo of university student's scientific innovative thinking. It shows that they have vague knowl-edge of big data and they still follow traditional thought habit and research method in scientific innovation activities. They don't realize big data's important purpose and meaning towards scientific innovation. It leads to insufficiency of their scientific innovation ability. So this thesis proposes new connotation for university student's scientific innova-tive thought, which is grasp of big data technology's basic knowledge, development of big data sense and possession of relevant thought mode demanded by this era.