WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese scientific literature

  1. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tippi K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  2. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  3. Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingjin

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature" Yingjin Zhang revisits the challenge of mapping Chinese literature as world literature in three steps: 1) he delineates of positions of view as proposed by Western scholars who engaged in rethinking world literature(s) in the age of globalization, 2) evaluates consequences of such a new mapping for Chinese literature and tests a different set of "technologies of recognition" (Shih) in the context of Chinese versus Sinophone studi...

  4. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  5. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  6. Access to the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarède, Francis

    The Public Library of Science Open Letter (http://www.publiclibraryofscience.org) is a very generous initiative, but, as most similar initiatives since the advent of electronic publishing, it misses the critical aspects of electronic publishing.Ten years ago, a Publisher would be in charge of running a system called a “scientific journal.” In such a system, the presence of an Editor and peer Reviewers secures the strength of the science and the rigor of writing; the Publisher guarantees the professional quality of printing, efficient dissemination, and long-term archiving. Publishing used to be in everyone's best interest, or nearly everyone. The Publisher, because he/she is financially motivated, ensures widespread dissemination of the journal amongst libraries and individual subscribers. The interest of the Author is that the system guarantees a broad potential readership. The interest of the Reader is that a line is drawn between professionally edited literature, presumably of better quality, and gray literature or home publishing, so that he/she does not waste time going through ‘low yield’ ungraded information. The Publisher could either be a private company, an academic institution, or a scholarly society. My experience is that, when page charges and subscription rates are compounded, journals published by scholarly societies are not necessarily cheaper. The difference between these cases is not the cost of running an office with rents, wages, printing, postage, advertisement, and archiving, but that a private Publisher pays shareholders. Shareholders have the bad habit of minding their own business and, therefore, they may interfere negatively with scientific publishing. Nevertheless, while the stranglehold imposed by private Publishers on our libraries over the last 10 years by increasing subscription rates may in part be due to shareholders' greed, this is true only in part. The increases are also a consequence of the booming number of pages being

  7. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong

    2015-10-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on. PMID:26677664

  8. [Scientific Positioning of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-ming

    2016-03-01

    Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement. PMID:27236880

  9. Geant4 in Scientific Literature

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, M G; Bell, Z W; Dressendorfer, P V

    2009-01-01

    The Geant4 reference paper published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods A in 2003 has become the most cited publication in the whole Nuclear Science and Technology category of Thomson-Reuter's Journal Citation Reports. It is currently the second most cited article among the publications authored by two major research institutes, CERN and INFN. An overview of Geant4 presence (and absence) in scholarly literature is presented; the patterns of Geant4 citations are quantitatively examined and discussed.

  10. ENGLISH LITERATURE TEACHING IN CHINESE CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ignorance of English literature hinders Chinese studentsfrom improving their English reading and writing abilities.Aneffective solution is to introduce a little English literature toChinese students in their English class.Three tactics ofintroduction of English literature—fragmented quotations,comparison and guided reading—are recommended andillustrated in details in this article.Though most Chinese students spend as long as eight yearson English study,few of them get to see English literature.It isabsurd that of the hundreds of articles in English textbooks forChinese students(who do not major in English)available,notone is a passage of English literary works,and none of themintroduce English writers or recommend English poets.Resultedly,Chinese students know very little about Englishliterature and their knowledge of English culture and traditionsis also limited.This hinders them from improving their readingand writing abilities.Trying for years to introduce a little English literature toChinese students in my English class,I find the effect has beenunexpectedly inspiring,not only making my lectures morevivid,but also enriching my students’English knowledge andarousing their enthusiasm for further study of Englishliterautre.My methods are as follows.

  11. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus oral Chinese patent medicine literature metrology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tong-hua; Li, Yuan-yuan

    2012-09-01

    The CBM, CNKI database 1979-2012 included oral Chinese patent medicine treatment diabetes literature, and the literature published time, periodical distribution, sources of literature and statistical analysis, to explore the treatment of type 2 diabetes medicine clinical literature distribution law and development trend, as in diabetes research related to the clinical and scientific research personnel to provide reference. PMID:23236770

  12. Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Logging Database System

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan Fang; Heping Pan

    2013-01-01

    A lot of logging information (logging and logging interpretation results) have been acquired in borehole of Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling (CCSD). The general management method about these logging information are not satisfied with the need of CCSD logging engineering. In order to manage efficiently, insert and inquiry rapidly, and use efficiently logging information, logging database of CCSD will need be specially established and it’s management software system will need be made. We i...

  13. Access to the scientific literature in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gaulé, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an evidence-based approach to assess the difficulties faced by developing country scientists in accessing the scientific literature. I compare backward citations patterns of Swiss and Indian scientists in a database of 43'150 scientific papers published by scientists from either country in 2007. Controlling for fields and quality with citing journal fixed effects, I find that Indian scientists (1) have shorter references lists (2) are more likely to cite articles from open acc...

  14. On Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Scientific Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范智鹏

    2013-01-01

    Scientific socialism provides proletarian with ideological weapon, which is used to lead and organize the masses to pursue socialism. The formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the product of scientific socialism in China, which is the latest achievement combining scientific socialism and Chinese national conditions.

  15. Extraction of transcript diversity from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcript diversity generated by alternative splicing and associated mechanisms contributes heavily to the functional complexity of biological systems. The numerous examples of the mechanisms and functional implications of these events are scattered throughout the scientific literature. Thus, it is crucial to have a tool that can automatically extract the relevant facts and collect them in a knowledge base that can aid the interpretation of data from high-throughput methods. We have developed and applied a composite text-mining method for extracting information on transcript diversity from the entire MEDLINE database in order to create a database of genes with alternative transcripts. It contains information on tissue specificity, number of isoforms, causative mechanisms, functional implications, and experimental methods used for detection. We have mined this resource to identify 959 instances of tissue-specific splicing. Our results in combination with those from EST-based methods suggest that alternative splicing is the preferred mechanism for generating transcript diversity in the nervous system. We provide new annotations for 1,860 genes with the potential for generating transcript diversity. We assign the MeSH term "alternative splicing" to 1,536 additional abstracts in the MEDLINE database and suggest new MeSH terms for other events. We have successfully extracted information about transcript diversity and semiautomatically generated a database, LSAT, that can provide a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms behind tissue-specific gene expression. LSAT (Literature Support for Alternative Transcripts is publicly available at http://www.bork.embl.de/LSAT/.

  16. Chinese graduate students and U.S. scientific productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaulé, Patrick; Piacentini, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2013), s. 698-701. ISSN 0034-6535 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : graduate students * Chinese immigrants * scientific output Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2013

  17. Reading Ng Kim Chew: Malaysian-Chineseness and memory in contemporary Malaysian Chinese literature in taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Paoliello, Antonio; Prado Fonts, Carles

    2008-01-01

    The idea of Chineseness as a geographic, cultural-specific and ethnically-charged concept, and the pivotal role assumed by memory linger throughout the writings of most authors hailing from Chinese community in Southeast Asia. Among these communities, being the Malaysian Chinese the more prolific in terms of number of writers and pieces of literature produced, this paper deals specifically with it. Its focus is put on the literature produced by Malaysian Chinese authors residing in Taiwan, wh...

  18. THAI LITERATURES REFLECTING CHINESE IDENTITY IN THAI SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchawadee Kesmanee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures present the picture of people’s lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authors’ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content and context were related to the Chinese residing in Thailand. Data collected had been inspected, classified, analyzed and composed. It was found that the Thai literatures could possibly represent Chinese identity in Thai society in the areas of the relationship of the family members from being a male-dominated family to a female-accepted one, the conservation of Chinese language to represent the unity of the Chinese community, the importance of the Chinese opera and its struggle to survive in recent times and the existence of Chinese culture and tradition, which are acculturated and assimilated to the Thai culture. From the study of Chinese identity in Thai literature in four aspects: (1 family relationships, system of relatives and surnames; (2 Chinese Language; (3 Performing Arts and (4 Culture and tradition, it was found that no matter how strict the first generations are to the traditions, they cannot resist the cultural assimilation in the next generations, who are descendants of Chinese overseas in Thailand. Since these new generations were born and grew up in Thai culture, which is different from the one of their ancestors, their versions of Chinese traditions were affected by the Thai society, economy and political situations which led to the changes of the old Chinese tradition and even result in the loss of some tradition.

  19. Mapping scientific literature. Structuring scientific communities through scientometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Riviera,

    2013-01-01

    A sociologically integrated approach suggesting an interpretation of bibliometric indicators and maps is developed in this work. The programmatic element of the thesis is the integration of the constructivist perspective relating to the re-production of scientific community with the metric program in Bibliometrics. The accomplishment of the main purposes introduced above is realised through the following goals, which can be listed according to the level of generality. First of all, this work ...

  20. Chinese duo fired for scientific fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li

    2010-02-01

    A major case of academic fraud in China has led to calls for the country to adopt a new system of academic evaluation that steers away from heavily supporting scientists who publish the most papers. The calls have been made after some 70 papers published by Chinese scientists in Acta Crystallographica Section E were retracted from the journal late last year. The authors acknowledged that their analysis had been fabricated.

  1. THAI LITERATURES REFLECTING CHINESE IDENTITY IN THAI SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Suchawadee Kesmanee

    2013-01-01

    Literatures present the picture of peopleâs lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authorsâ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content an...

  2. Extraction of Transcript Diversity from Scientific Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Parantu K Shah; Jensen, Lars J.; Stéphanie Boué; Peer Bork

    2005-01-01

    Synopsis Given the functional complexity of higher eukaryotes, the relatively small number of genes in the human and other mammalian genomes came as a surprise to the scientific community. Later it was discovered that the majority of genes are subject to alternative splicing (“cutting and pasting”) or associated mechanisms that ultimately increase the diversity of transcripts that code for proteins. Studies exploring transcript diversity are currently dominated by high-throughput experiments ...

  3. Chinese graduate students and U.S. scientific productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaulé, Patrick; Piacentini, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2013), s. 698-701. ISSN 0034-6535 Grant ostatní: UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : graduate students * Chinese immigrants * scientific output Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2013

  4. Mining skeletal phenotype descriptions from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available Phenotype descriptions are important for our understanding of genetics, as they enable the computation and analysis of a varied range of issues related to the genetic and developmental bases of correlated characters. The literature contains a wealth of such phenotype descriptions, usually reported as free-text entries, similar to typical clinical summaries. In this paper, we focus on creating and making available an annotated corpus of skeletal phenotype descriptions. In addition, we present and evaluate a hybrid Machine Learning approach for mining phenotype descriptions from free text. Our hybrid approach uses an ensemble of four classifiers and experiments with several aggregation techniques. The best scoring technique achieves an F-1 score of 71.52%, which is close to the state-of-the-art in other domains, where training data exists in abundance. Finally, we discuss the influence of the features chosen for the model on the overall performance of the method.

  5. Learning across Borders--Chinese Migrant Literature and Intercultural Chinese Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongyang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…

  6. The Edge of Knowing: Dreams and Realism in Modern Chinese Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Roy Bing

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between discourses of realism and dreaming in modern Chinese literature from the Republican period to the end of the Mao era. It examines how the interplay of oneiric and realist discourses illuminated the way in which the realist mode juggled its professed fidelity to scientific values and historic critique with the utopian desire that propelled the mode's will to embody these empiric attitudes in the first place. Dream discourse constituted an "un...

  7. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Sarah C; Lijek, Rebeccah S

    2016-03-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public. PMID:27047607

  8. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Sarah C.; Lijek, Rebeccah S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public. PMID:27047607

  9. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Fankhauser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.

  10. Local literature bias in genetic epidemiology: an empirical evaluation of the Chinese literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglun Pan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postulated epidemiological associations are subject to several biases. We evaluated whether the Chinese literature on human genome epidemiology may offer insights on the operation of selective reporting and language biases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We targeted 13 gene-disease associations, each already assessed by meta-analyses, including at least 15 non-Chinese studies. We searched the Chinese Journal Full-Text Database for additional Chinese studies on the same topics. We identified 161 Chinese studies on 12 of these gene-disease associations; only 20 were PubMed-indexed (seven English full-text. Many studies (14-35 per topic were available for six topics, covering diseases common in China. With one exception, the first Chinese study appeared with a time lag (2-21 y after the first non-Chinese study on the topic. Chinese studies showed significantly more prominent genetic effects than non-Chinese studies, and 48% were statistically significant per se, despite their smaller sample size (median sample size 146 versus 268, p < 0.001. The largest genetic effects were often seen in PubMed-indexed Chinese studies (65% statistically significant per se. Non-Chinese studies of Asian-descent populations (27% significant per se also tended to show somewhat more prominent genetic effects than studies of non-Asian descent (17% significant per se. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence for the interplay of selective reporting and language biases in human genome epidemiology. These biases may not be limited to the Chinese literature and point to the need for a global, transparent, comprehensive outlook in molecular population genetics and epidemiologic studies in general.

  11. Text mining for metabolic reaction extraction from scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    Risse, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Science relies on data in all its different forms. In molecular biology and bioinformatics in particular large scale data generation has taken centre stage in the form of high-throughput experiments. In line with this exponential increase of experimental data has been the near exponential growth of scientific publications. Yet where classical data mining techniques are still capable of coping with this deluge in structured data (Chapter 2), access of information found in scientific literature...

  12. Using Crowdsourcing to Evaluate Published Scientific Literature: Methods and Example

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew W Brown; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Systematically evaluating scientific literature is a time consuming endeavor that requires hours of coding and rating. Here, we describe a method to distribute these tasks across a large group through online crowdsourcing. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, crowdsourced workers (microworkers) completed four groups of tasks to evaluate the question, “Do nutrition-obesity studies with conclusions concordant with popular opinion receive more attention in the scientific community than do those that ...

  13. Electronic Scientific Data & Literature Aggregation: A Review for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoff, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The advent of large-scale digital repositories, along with the need for sharing useful data world-wide, demands change to the current information structure. The merging of digital scientific data with scholarly literature has the potential to fulfill the Semantic Web design principles. This paper will identify factors leading to integration of…

  14. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, C; Feller, A; Arlt, K; Balthasar, H; Bauer, S -M; González, N Bello; Berkefeld, T; Caligari, P; Collados, M; Fischer, A; Granzer, T; Hahn, T; Halbgewachs, C; Heidecke, F; Hofmann, A; Kentischer, T; Klvaňa, M; Kneer, F; Lagg, A; Nicklas, H; Popow, E; Puschmann, K G; Rendtel, J; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Sobotka, M; Solanki, S K; Soltau, D; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Volkmer, R; Waldmann, T; Wiehr, E; Wittmann, A D; Woche, M

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the "historical" context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.

  15. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  16. Nobel Prize winners for literature as palliative for scientific English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi

    2003-02-01

    Plagiarism causes a serious concern in scientific literature. I distinguish two types of plagiarism. What is routinely highlighted and discussed is the reprehensible type of stealing another author's ideas and words. This type I categorize as "heterotrophic" plagiarism. A more prevalent and less-discussed type of plagiarism is the verbatim use of same sentences repetitively by authors in their publications. This I categorize as "autotrophic" plagiarism. Though harmless per se, autotrophic plagiarism is equally taxing on the readers. The occurrence of autotrophic plagiarism is mainly caused by the lack of proficiency in the current lingua franca of science, ie, English. The writings of 22 Nobel literature laureates who wrote in English, especially their travelogues, essays, and letters to the press can be used for benefit of improving one's own vocabulary and writing skills and style. I suggest the writings of three literati--Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell, and Ernest Hemingway--as palliatives for autotrophic plagiarism in scientific publishing. PMID:12590423

  17. Human and the animal in Victorian gothic scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    McKechnie, Claire Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the role of animals in nineteenth-century science and Victorian Gothic fiction of the latter half of the century. It is interdisciplinary in its exploration of the interrelationship between science writings and literary prose and it seeks to place the Gothic animal body in its cultural and historical setting. This study is interested in the ways in which Gothic literature tests the limits of the human by using scientific ideas about disease, evolution, species co...

  18. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education†

    OpenAIRE

    Fankhauser, Sarah C.; Lijek, Rebeccah S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed a...

  19. Nanotoxicology: characterizing the scientific literature, 2000–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrowski, Alexis D.; Martin, Tyronne; Conti, Joseph; Hurt, Indy; Harthorn, Barbara Herr

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials and nano-enabled products is important for human and environmental health and safety as well as public acceptance. Assessing the state of knowledge about nanotoxicology is an important step in promoting comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental implications of these new materials. To this end, we employed bibliometric techniques to characterize the prevalence and distribution of the current scientific literature. We found that the ...

  20. Nanotoxicology: characterizing the scientific literature, 2000-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials and nano-enabled products is important for human and environmental health and safety as well as public acceptance. Assessing the state of knowledge about nanotoxicology is an important step in promoting comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental implications of these new materials. To this end, we employed bibliometric techniques to characterize the prevalence and distribution of the current scientific literature. We found that the nano-toxicological literature is dispersed across a range of disciplines and sub-fields; focused on in vitro testing; often does not specify an exposure pathway; and tends to emphasize acute toxicity and mortality rather than chronic exposure and morbidity. Finally, there is very little research on consumer products, particularly on their environmental fate, and most research is on the toxicity of basic nanomaterials. The implications for toxicologists, regulators and social scientists studying nanotechnology and society are discussed.

  1. Nanotoxicology: characterizing the scientific literature, 2000-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, Alexis D.; Martin, Tyronne; Conti, Joseph; Hurt, Indy; Harthorn, Barbara Herr, E-mail: harthorn@cns.ucsb.ed [University of California, NSF Center for Nanotechnology in Society (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials and nano-enabled products is important for human and environmental health and safety as well as public acceptance. Assessing the state of knowledge about nanotoxicology is an important step in promoting comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental implications of these new materials. To this end, we employed bibliometric techniques to characterize the prevalence and distribution of the current scientific literature. We found that the nano-toxicological literature is dispersed across a range of disciplines and sub-fields; focused on in vitro testing; often does not specify an exposure pathway; and tends to emphasize acute toxicity and mortality rather than chronic exposure and morbidity. Finally, there is very little research on consumer products, particularly on their environmental fate, and most research is on the toxicity of basic nanomaterials. The implications for toxicologists, regulators and social scientists studying nanotechnology and society are discussed.

  2. Scientific Support of Terrorist Actions by Commercial Grey Area Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication of the Al-Quaida handbook and time and time again notes of the possibility for getting special scientific knowledge from the internet have decreased the attention for an other important source of scientific support for terrorist education and/or actions. This is the commercial available and distributed grey area literature provided by a huge amount of (book) sellers and publishing houses. Most of this literature (hard copies and CDs) with dangerous subject matter is published in the US and may be ordered fast and with low costs using the internet. This kind of support for real and potential terrorists stands strongly in contradiction to the official policy and the 'unconditional' war against terrorism. With the presented poster the above described problem should be a little bit put in the focus of the CBMTS community and so to the authorities, too. By means of selected examples from different branches, such as Narcotics, Explosives, unusual Killing Methods, special Poisons / Toxins and, last not least, CW agents inclusive application methods and devices the highly charged situation is tried to shown. (author)

  3. 76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the Diagnosis... scientific and medical literature and information concerning the use of non-standardized allergenic extracts... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

  4. Open access to the scientific journal literature: situation 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Christer Björk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Internet has recently made possible the free global availability of scientific journal articles. Open Access (OA can occur either via OA scientific journals, or via authors posting manuscripts of articles published in subscription journals in open web repositories. So far there have been few systematic studies showing how big the extent of OA is, in particular studies covering all fields of science. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The proportion of peer reviewed scholarly journal articles, which are available openly in full text on the web, was studied using a random sample of 1837 titles and a web search engine. Of articles published in 2008, 8.5% were freely available at the publishers' sites. For an additional 11.9% free manuscript versions could be found using search engines, making the overall OA percentage 20.4%. Chemistry (13% had the lowest overall share of OA, Earth Sciences (33% the highest. In medicine, biochemistry and chemistry publishing in OA journals was more common. In all other fields author-posted manuscript copies dominated the picture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that OA already has a significant positive impact on the availability of the scientific journal literature and that there are big differences between scientific disciplines in the uptake. Due to the lack of awareness of OA-publishing among scientists in most fields outside physics, the results should be of general interest to all scholars. The results should also interest academic publishers, who need to take into account OA in their business strategies and copyright policies, as well as research funders, who like the NIH are starting to require OA availability of results from research projects they fund. The method and search tools developed also offer a good basis for more in-depth studies as well as longitudinal studies.

  5. The scientific building blocks for business coaching: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flip Schutte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Business coaching is a relatively new approach to leadership development. It is also slowly growing as an academic discipline with only a small number of active researchers and a dearth of published literature reviews.Research purpose: This article is an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to business coaching by means of a systematic literature review.Motivation of the study: Previous literature reviews summarised the available published articles. In order to contribute to establishing business coaching as an independent academic discipline, the building blocks for science in the phenomenon under investigation have to be scientifically not only summarised, but also synthesised and explored to ground this new discipline as an academic field of research.Research design, approach and method: A methodological framework has been developed to analyse the information. The data were synthesised according to the following building blocks for science: concepts, definitions, typologies, models, theories and paradigms.Main findings: A total of 84 articles were accessed by the specified search strategy and 36 were analysed according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. Although coaching has not been sufficiently developed as an academic discipline, it is possible to develop a comprehensive definition of coaching, as well as to identify the main models and theories that apply to this field.Practical/managerial implications: This literature review has synthesised and summarised the available data in such a way that it will contribute to the conceptualisation and foundation of business coaching as an academic discipline.Contribution: The building blocks for business coaching as a relatively new and emerging science within the field of business leadership have been defined. This will contribute to the articulation of concepts within this discipline by future researchers and practitioners.

  6. Using crowdsourcing to evaluate published scientific literature: methods and example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Brown

    Full Text Available Systematically evaluating scientific literature is a time consuming endeavor that requires hours of coding and rating. Here, we describe a method to distribute these tasks across a large group through online crowdsourcing. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, crowdsourced workers (microworkers completed four groups of tasks to evaluate the question, "Do nutrition-obesity studies with conclusions concordant with popular opinion receive more attention in the scientific community than do those that are discordant?" 1 Microworkers who passed a qualification test (19% passed evaluated abstracts to determine if they were about human studies investigating nutrition and obesity. Agreement between the first two raters' conclusions was moderate (κ = 0.586, with consensus being reached in 96% of abstracts. 2 Microworkers iteratively synthesized free-text answers describing the studied foods into one coherent term. Approximately 84% of foods were agreed upon, with only 4 and 8% of ratings failing manual review in different steps. 3 Microworkers were asked to rate the perceived obesogenicity of the synthesized food terms. Over 99% of responses were complete and usable, and opinions of the microworkers qualitatively matched the authors' expert expectations (e.g., sugar-sweetened beverages were thought to cause obesity and fruits and vegetables were thought to prevent obesity. 4 Microworkers extracted citation counts for each paper through Google Scholar. Microworkers reached consensus or unanimous agreement for all successful searches. To answer the example question, data were aggregated and analyzed, and showed no significant association between popular opinion and attention the paper received as measured by Scimago Journal Rank and citation counts. Direct microworker costs totaled $221.75, (estimated cost at minimum wage: $312.61. We discuss important points to consider to ensure good quality control and appropriate pay for microworkers. With good

  7. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Kulesz, James J [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  8. Red Science: China's Scientific Capital and the Future of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Salazar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS produces the scientific and technological breakthroughs that place China among the major players in scientific innovation. However, the control that the Chinese government exerts over the Academy and the tradition of guanxi among its members prevent the CAS from take-off and securing a free environment to conduct original research. The article assesses the economic logic of scientific control and its effects within the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The paper’s aim is to derive to what extent the CAS will remain as China’s main provider of scientific innovation. The “national innovation systems” approach and the cultural traditions rooted in Confucianism are revised in detail to provide an accurate perspective. The paper concludes that the CAS’ international reputation as a center of scientific and technological innovation might be at stake unless the Chinese government makes some critical reforms.

  9. [Chinese medicine adverse reactions' literature statistical analysis in recent five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2011-10-01

    Since the state food and drug administration (SFDA) issued the first edition of adverse drug reaction(ADR) information in November, 2001, it has 32 edition, reported the drug 66 species of adverse reactions, involving the variety of 12 traditional Chinese medicines, it was effectively reminds all social concern of adverse drug reaction. For statistical analysis in recent years reported adverse drug reaction of prepared Chinese medicine, collected 462 literatures from 2005-09 CNKI Chinese journal full-text database of medicine health directory. In all the collections, about 94 literatures are closely related to adverse drug reaction report of prepared Chinese medicine. But there are only 7 references could identify traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine correctly in 72 literatures with the value of statistical analysis. That means only 8.9% of literatures can correctly identify western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. So it proved that TCM workers' knowledge of ADR remains to be greatly improved. PMID:22242443

  10. Scientific Evidence on the Supportive Cancer Care with Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William CS CHO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.

  11. Imparting Cultural Values to Chinese Children through Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyi; Morrison, Johnetta W.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the occurrence of modernization and globalization in Chinese society over the last few decades, the content of 145 stories, published in the most popular Chinese children's story magazine from the 1980s to the present, were examined for the representation of cultural values. The presence of Chinese, Western and social-moral values in…

  12. Depicting Chinese parenting during the early years : a systematic review of the English language literature

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Luyao; 梁露堯

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parenting has received considerable attention from researchers around the globe. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the scholarly literature on Chinese parenting to determine how it has been conceptualized in the English language literature. A search of relevant keywords in electronic databases and reference lists of publications was conducted, followed by a narrative synthesis of the findings. Results show that the existing literature focused on the following...

  13. [Treatment of senile diseases should prescribe Chinese patent medicine scientifically].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Xiang

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of senile diseases by Chinese patent medicine should prescribe according to physiological and pathological specialty of the aged. It's necessary for treatment according to syndrome differentiation associating with the disease,reasonable combination of drugs avoiding adverse reactions,gentle medicine character but not fierce,small medicine quantity but not great, the use of Chinese patent medicine mild and tonic used properly but not excessively. PMID:24812911

  14. Chinese Scientific and Technical Information Institutions: Development and Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanning, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The collection, storage, processing, and dissemination of scientific and technical information make an important basis for economic and social development as well as for scientific development. A nation has to develop the right mechanisms and modalities to collect, store, process, and disseminate scientific and technical information tailored to…

  15. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xianwen; Xu, Shenmeng; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness ...

  16. Building Student Proficiency with Scientific Literature Using the Zotero Reference Manager Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    While mastery of the scientific literature is a strongly desirable trait for undergraduate students, the sheer volume of the current literature has complicated the challenge of teaching scientific literacy. Part of the response to this ever-increasing volume of resources includes formal instruction in the use of reference manager software while…

  17. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using

  18. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness centrality. Moreover, the series of polices implemented by the Chinese government to recruit oversea experts seems to contribute a lot to China-US scientific collaboration.

  19. Marginalization Inside-Out : thoughts on Contemporary Chinese and Sinophone Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Prado Fonts, Carles

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that contemporary Chinese and Sinophone literature are in a position of double marginalization: exogenous and endogenous. On the one hand, they remain marginalized vis-à-vis the global literary system. On the other hand, specific works of Chinese and Sinophone literature are also repressed by the internal dynamics of the field. After having briefly explored these two conditions, the article presents a few (Utopian) tactics of intervention in order to modify this situation-...

  20. Chinese and Western Leadership Models: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Peter King; Zhang Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to examine how models of Western and Chinese leadership are changing and perhaps converging toward a notionally similar and possibly holistic concept of leadership.Methodology: We reviewed and analyzed research on Western and Chinese leadership published over the past sixty years to develop a different perspective from which to consider the future development of leadership concepts.Findings: We suggest that (1) since the middle of the twentieth century, paradigms of...

  1. Cardiac protection of new compounds from scientific Chinese medicine (SCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yi-zhun

    2008-01-01

    Objective Purification and Standardization of Chinese herbal extracts became a hot topic since last decade. Though traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used as a mixture from several herbs for centuries, it has been drawn much attention for studying the standardized Chinese herbs using modern technology. Methods Recently, we compared purified Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (PSME) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, Rarnipril, in in vitro experiments and also in vivo using animal model of myocardial infarction. Results PSME was found to have a significantly higher trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity which indicated a great capacity for scavenging free radicals. PSME could also prevent pyrogalto red bleaching and DNA damage. After 2 weeks treatment with PSME or Ramipril, survival rates of rats with experimental myocardial infarction were marginally increased (68.2% and 71.4%) compared with saline (61.5%). In another recent study, we evaluated the cardioprotective effects of PSME on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts and in hypoxic vascular smooth muscle calls. We found that PSME treated hearts showed significant postischemic contractile function recovery (develop pressure recovered to 44.2±4.9 % versus 17.1±5.7 %, P<0.05; maximum contraction recovered to 57.2±5.9 % versus 15.1±6.3%, P<0. 001; maximum relaxation restored to 69.3±7.3% versus 15.4±6.3%, P<0.001 in PSME and control group respectively). Conclusions Significant elevated in end-diastolic pressure, which indicated LV stiffening in PSME hearts might be resulted by exceed dose of PSME used. Purified and standardized Chinese herb could provide an alternative regimen for the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  2. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.

  3. The Using Condition of Interactive Reading Strategy in Reading Scientif-ic and Technological English Literature of Postgraduates of Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hong; CUI Xiao-ling

    2014-01-01

    In the reading process and after reading of the scientific and technological English literature for postgraduates of engi-neering, there are several barriers like the understanding of the vocabulary, the analyzing the complex sentences and the grasping the whole texts. This paper tries to investigate the using condition of interactive reading strategy in reading scientific and techno-logical English literature of postgraduates of engineering. The study reveals that postgraduates of engineering frequently using some of strategies of the interactive reading strategy, but the overall using condition is only in the average level, and is not so flexi-ble.

  4. Contributing to the scientific literature Citation analysis of CIFOR publications

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Baikuntha; Angelsen, Arild

    2005-01-01

    The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) receives its major funding from governments, international development organizations, private foundations and regional organizations. This study analyzed journal citations of CIFOR publications, using the International Statistical Institute (ISI) web of Science database. CIFOR research and publications have an impact on the scientific ...

  5. Pattern-Based Extraction of Argumentation from the Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Elizabeth K.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of publications in the biomedical field continues its exponential increase, techniques for automatically summarizing information from this body of literature have become more diverse. In addition, the targets of summarization have become more subtle; initial work focused on extracting the factual assertions from full-text papers,…

  6. On The Prehistory Of Chinese-Western Comparative Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓彤; 曹薇

    2010-01-01

    @@ The earlist prehistory of western comparative literature can be traced back to the Ancient Rome, as the literature of that period (in ancient Latin) intentionally imitated the Ancient Greek literature(in ancient Greek), like the Virgil's Aeneid was an imitation of Homeric epic, so the writers and theorists of Ancient Rome always compare the differences and similarities of the two periods、 nationalities and languages that reflected in literature.

  7. Writing on Boundaries: The Split Subject in Chinese Canadian Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaobo

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual grasp of the corpus of work produced by Chinese Canadian writers and a framework for analysing its tropes and interpreting their political resonance. It defines the Chinese Canadian work as a three-phase counterhegemonic discourse: Writing back into a forbidden past; negotiating into the present; writing on boundaries. For the ambivalent, split diasporic subject to negotiate into the present from the forbidden past is to reinscribe itself as a locus of crisis, a non-identity, a doubling, a third term. Writing on boundaries can be read as a strategy of decolonization deployed by the subaltern in striving for self-vindication and self-fulfilment.

  8. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for secondary education, but none of these strategies focused specifically on scientific argumentation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a strategy for teaching pre-university students to read unadapted primary scientific literature, translated into students' native language, based on a new argumentation analysis framework. This framework encompasses seven types of argumentative elements: motive, objective, main conclusion, implication, support, counterargument and refutation. During the intervention, students studied two research articles. We monitored students' reading comprehension and their opinion on the articles and activities. After the intervention, we measured students' ability to identify the argumentative elements in a third unadapted and translated research article. The presented framework enabled students to analyse the article by identifying the motive, objective, main conclusion and implication and part of the supports. Students stated that they found these activities useful. Most students understood the text on paragraph level and were able to read the article with some help for its vocabulary. We suggest that primary scientific literature has the potential to show students important aspects of the scientific process and to learn scientific vocabulary in an authentic context.

  9. The Effects of Electronic Access to Scientific Literature in the Consortium of Turkish University Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Kırlıdoğ, Melih; Bayır, Didar

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To provide some insight to the sharp increase in the scientific publications originating from Turkish academic and research institutions in the last few years. The underlying reasons, widespread access to literature through electronic databases being the most important, are also investigated. Design/methodology/approach: Although it is difficult to gauge national scientific productivity, number of publications in electronic databases which index thousands of scientific journals ca...

  10. Sustainable Development: The Role of Scientific Literature in Dutch Municipal Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, Lucas; van Straalen, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show how Dutch municipalities use scientific literature about sustainable development in their spatial planning policies and processes. The approach to this research is twofold. First, we conducted a literature review that summarized the most important discourses

  11. Scholarly literature and the press: scientific impact and social perception of physics computing

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia; Bell, Zane W; Dressendorfer, Paul V

    2014-01-01

    The broad coverage of the search for the Higgs boson in the mainstream media is a relative novelty for high energy physics (HEP) research, whose achievements have traditionally been limited to scholarly literature. This paper illustrates the results of a scientometric analysis of HEP computing in scientific literature, institutional media and the press, and a comparative overview of similar metrics concerning representative particle physics measurements. The picture emerging from these scientometric data documents the scientific impact and social perception of HEP computing. The results of this analysis suggest that improved communication of the scientific and social role of HEP computing would be beneficial to the high energy physics community.

  12. Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

  13. Migration and gender in the mexican context: scientific literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rebolledo Gámez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Female migration is a phenomenon with socioeducational considerations thar determine their analysis.The prensent article presents a literature review aims to analyze the aspect thar are discussed in relation to the issue of migration and gender in Mexico. Therefore, it has selected more than forty articles from magazines, discussion forums and books in the last decade hace collected reflexions and research on this reality. As a result of this review, it has taken three areas in the contributions published: Human Rights and policy migratory; female migration characteristics; and vulnerability and risk situation. Despite the thematic diversity, appear repeatedly ideas like the idiosyncasies of female migration, vulnerability and risk assumed by women in border transit and the violation of rights of women to political and institutional level.Received: 04/12/2013 / Accepted: 17/01/2014How to reference this articleRebolledo Gámez, T., Rodríguez Casado, M. R. (2014. Migraciones y género en el contexto mexicano: revisión de la literatura científica. Foro de Educación, 12(17, pp. 165-185. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2014.012.017.008

  14. MememxGATE: Unearthing Latent Content Features for Improved Search and Relevancy Ranking Across Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; McGibbney, L. J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Joyce, M.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying scientific relevancy is of increasing importance to NASA and the research community. Scientific relevancy may be defined by mapping the impacts of a particular NASA mission, instrument, and/or retrieved variables to disciplines such as climate predictions, natural hazards detection and mitigation processes, education, and scientific discoveries. Related to relevancy, is the ability to expose data with similar attributes. This in turn depends upon the ability for us to extract latent, implicit document features from scientific data and resources and make them explicit, accessible and useable for search activities amongst others. This paper presents MemexGATE; a server side application, command line interface and computing environment for running large scale metadata extraction, general architecture text engineering, document classification and indexing tasks over document resources such as social media streams, scientific literature archives, legal documentation, etc. This work builds on existing experiences using MemexGATE (funded, developed and validated through the DARPA Memex Progrjam PI Mattmann) for extracting and leveraging latent content features from document resources within the Materials Research domain. We extend the software functionality capability to the domain of scientific literature with emphasis on the expansion of gazetteer lists, named entity rules, natural language construct labeling (e.g. synonym, antonym, hyponym, etc.) efforts to enable extraction of latent content features from data hosted by wide variety of scientific literature vendors (AGU Meeting Abstract Database, Springer, Wiley Online, Elsevier, etc.) hosting earth science literature. Such literature makes both implicit and explicit references to NASA datasets and relationships between such concepts stored across EOSDIS DAAC's hence we envisage that a significant part of this effort will also include development and understanding of relevancy signals which can ultimately

  15. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina. PMID:27282076

  16. The filial piety complex: variations on the Oedipus theme in Chinese literature and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ming Dong

    2006-01-01

    The Oedipus complex is central to Western tradition, but not to Chinese culture. Occurrence of oedipal themes in Chinese literature is almost negligible. This phenomenon seems to support a contra-Freud claim: that a theory of European origin, the Oedipus complex, is not universal to human experience in non-Western cultures. However, this article suggests that powerful moral repression may cause the Oedipus complex to undergo structural transformations in some cultures. Through studying a sample of Chinese literary and film representations, the author argues that the Oedipus complex in Chinese culture has been transformed into a filial piety complex. Some conceptual issues are considered from a cross-cultural perspective. PMID:16482964

  17. Literature Review of the Reasons of Chinese Master Students ’Language Choices in UK Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qian

    2016-01-01

    As one of the challenges that international students face during their study in a foreign country, language has been more and more of concern. The aim of this literature review is to know the reasons of Chinese master students’language choices in UK universities. In this paper the reasons of language choices, and the gaps between previous and present research are discussed.

  18. "Migratory Literature": A "Third Place" for Intercultural Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Trevor; Wang, Yongyang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, drawing upon multidisciplinary studies such as critical and cultural studies, literary criticism, intercultural communication and second language acquisition, suggests a specific literary genre--"migratory literature"--to support intercultural competence for learners of Chinese. We begin by elucidating key terms--"migratory,"…

  19. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 1. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract with all parenchymatous abdominal organs. In addition to the clinical and scientific further development of abdominal radiology, the education of radiologists within this core discipline of radiology is one of the major aims. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. This manuscript focuses on the most recent literature on the diagnosis of the stomach, small bowel, colon and rectum. The review with a focus on the most recent studies published by German radiologists concludes with a synopsis of mesenterial bleeding and ischemia followed by a critical appraisal of the current literature on conventional abdominal radiography.

  20. Traditional chinese medicine and temporomandibular disorders management: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry C.F. Li

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The most common TCM treatment modalities in treating TMDs include acupuncture,moxibustion with or without acupuncture and medicated compress. A review of these TCM treatment modalities showed that possible beneficialeffects existed in TMDs management. Acupuncture seems to be the most evidenced based treatment modality among the three and being investigated the most. However,due to a lack of evidence based studies, more scientific and rigorous randomised controlled clinical trials are needed to further evaluate TCM′s safety,efficacy and effectiveness.

  1. 76 FR 71045 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... treatment of allergic disease that appeared in the Federal Register of September 26, 2011 (76 FR 59407). In... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of September 26, 2011 (76 FR 59407), FDA published a notice... Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the...

  2. Scholarly literature and the press: scientific impact and social perception of physics computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad coverage of the search for the Higgs boson in the mainstream media is a relative novelty for high energy physics (HEP) research, whose achievements have traditionally been limited to scholarly literature. This paper illustrates the results of a scientometric analysis of HEP computing in scientific literature, institutional media and the press, and a comparative overview of similar metrics concerning representative particle physics measurements. The picture emerging from these scientometric data documents the relationship between the scientific impact and the social perception of HEP physics research versus that of HEP computing. The results of this analysis suggest that improved communication of the scientific and social role of HEP computing via press releases from the major HEP laboratories would be beneficial to the high energy physics community.

  3. TASER® conducted electrical weapons: misconceptions in the scientific/medical and other literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James R

    2015-03-01

    TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have become an important law-enforcement tool. Controversial questions are often raised during discussion of some incidents in which the devices have been used. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some misconceptions about CEWs that have been published in the scientific/medical and other literature. This is a narrative review, using a multidisciplinary approach of analyzing reports from scientific/medical and other literature sources. In previous reports, durations of incapacitating effects and possible associations of CEWs with deaths-in-custody have often been overstated or exaggerated. Comparisons of CEW effects with "electrocution" are misleading. Clarification of these misconceptions may be important during policymaker decisions, practitioner operations, expert witness testimonies, and court proceedings. Despite misconceptions in the literature, CEWs can still be a valuable tool for law enforcement activities. Scientists, medical professionals, legal advisors, and investigators of police tactics should be aware of these misconceptions. PMID:25549958

  4. Olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue HBH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hai Bo Haber Xue,1 Li Liu,1 Hena Zhang,2 William Montgomery,3 Tamás Treuer41Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Shanghai Branch, Shanghai, 2China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, Australia; 4Eli Lilly & Co, Budapest, HungaryBackground: Despite the burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Chinese population, country-specific data to guide practitioners regarding antipsychotic therapy are lacking. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine evidence of the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of olanzapine in Chinese populations.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese core journals using search terms related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, specified countries (People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and olanzapine treatment. Following initial screening, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the search results to identify relevant studies from which data were extracted.Results: A total of 489 publications were retrieved and 61 studies were identified for inclusion. Most studies were related to schizophrenia (n=54, with six studies related to bipolar disorder and one study related to both conditions. The quality of study methods and reporting in international journals was noticeably better than in Chinese language journals. Most studies included relatively small patient populations and were of short duration. The efficacy of olanzapine in Chinese populations was confirmed by multiple comparative and noncomparative studies that found statistically significant reductions in symptom measures in studies conducted for ≥6 weeks (schizophrenia or ≥3 weeks (bipolar disorder. Findings related to effectiveness (treatment discontinuation, quality of life, and neurocognitive improvements were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. No new

  5. Conjuring the Masses: The Figure of the Crowd in Modern Chinese Literature and Visual Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rodekohr, Andrew Justin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation argues that the figure of the crowd in literature and visual culture constitutes a crucial component in the emergence and construction of the cultural, political, and historical values of modern China. From Lu Xun’s momentous recollection of the lantern slide that compelled him use literature as a means to heal the souls of the Chinese people to Zhang Yimou’s spectacular staging of the crowd at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, the numerous ways the crowd has been written and ...

  6. The classics of ancient Chinese literature%中国古代文学的经典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承学

    2007-01-01

    This essay discusses the ancient Chinese literary classics by borrowingthe prospective of "canon" from the studies of Western literature.Studying thecentral issues of establishment,quality,type,and influence of ancient classics,the authors attempt to present their ancient history,decadent practices,and theircentral position in ancient literature and literary criticism.Moreover,from abroader perspective of modem theory,this essay argues that ancient classics arepart of the important resources to release the tension between the traditional andthe modem world.

  7. An Eminent Specialist in Both Chinese Literature and Comparative Literature—An Interview with Prof.Stephen Owen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Interviewee:Stephen Owen,James Bryant Conant University Professor and a member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences(1991-),is working at Harvard University as Professor of Comparative Literature in the Dept.of Comparative Literature and Professor of Chinese Literature in the Dept.of Asian Studies.

  8. CREATE cornerstone: introduction to scientific thinking, a new course for STEM-interested freshmen, demystifies scientific thinking through analysis of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Alan J; Hoskins, Sally G

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students' critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE also supports maturation of undergraduates' epistemological beliefs about science. This approach, originally tested with upper-level students, has been adapted in Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a new course for freshmen. Results from this course's initial semesters indicate that freshmen in a one-semester introductory course that uses a narrowly focused set of readings to promote development of analytical skills made significant gains in critical-thinking and experimental design abilities. Students also reported significant gains in their ability to think scientifically and understand primary literature. Their perceptions and understanding of science improved, and multiple aspects of their epistemological beliefs about science gained sophistication. The course has no laboratory component, is relatively inexpensive to run, and could be adapted to any area of scientific study. PMID:23463229

  9. The ICDP Information Network and the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conze, R.; Su, D.

    2002-12-01

    ICDP is an international program investigating the 'System Earth' in multidisciplinary co-operation. Funded drilling projects are characterized by detailed fieldwork at world-class geological sites on the continents and by the global scope of research objectives. During project work, partnering researchers from all over the world work together at remote drill sites and in laboratories at their institutions. Researchers apply a range of highly diverse scientific methodologies, thereby acquiring huge data sets. Multinational co-operation and increasing amounts of scientific data require completely new concepts and practices for scientific work, and place heavy demands on information and communications management. This is achieved by means of the ICDP Information Network. Scientists working on ICDP related data need a central long-term data archive with powerful tools for navigation, data modeling and analysis. The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD is a national key scientific and engineering project of the PR China supported by ICDP. The current drill site of CCSD is located in Donghai, Jiangsu Province, the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, which possesses global geological significance. From the spud on June 25, 2001 to April 6, 2002, the 2000m pilot hole was finished with a total core recovery of 88.7% and an average inclination angle of 3-4 degrees. The pilot hole has been transformed to the main hole by hole opening. Deepening and coring of the CCSD-1 main hole is currently in progress. Most of the basic scientific documentation and measurements are done in a large field laboratory directly beside the drill rig, which was set up using the standard of the former German Continental Scientific Drilling (KTB). It includes a powerful infrastructure for computing and electronic communication as well as a comprehensive twofold data and information management: 1. The CCSD-DMIS is a special Data Management Information System for the chinese

  10. The Emergence of Modern Chinese Literature%中国现代文学的发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆东

    2015-01-01

    何谓“现代”?何谓“现代性”?回顾中国现代文学,我们应该思考这些问题。世界各国进入“现代”的时间和方式都是不同的,这与工业文明的兴起、理性启蒙的普及、人类愈来愈组织化的生活模式都有着密切的关联。所以,我们必须在“人类现代文明”的总体框架之下来看待和学习中国现代文学,才能比较准确地把握中国现代文学的发生和发展,从而进一步去探索中国现代文学以致当代文学的演变规律。中国现代文学究竟是什么时候“发生”和怎样“发生”的,现代文学的许多重要作家、理论家、文学史家都给出了不同的回答。%What is “Modern”?What is “Modernity”?Looking back on Modern Chinese Litera‐ture ,we should think about these issues .The time and way of getting into modernity in different na‐tions in our world are different ,which have a very close relationship with the rise of industrial civiliza‐tion ,the popularization of rational enlightenment ,and the more systematic life style .So we have to study Modern Chinese Literature from the overall framework of the modern civilization of human be‐ings .Only in this way ,we are able to accurately grasp the rise and development of Modern Chinese Literature ,then to further explore its rule of evolvement of the Modern and even the Contemporary Chinese Literature .When and how did the Modern Chinese Literature emerge?Some very significant writers ,theorists ,historians of literature all gave their different answers and responses .

  11. Identification of relations between risk factors and their pathologies or health conditions by mining scientific literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamon, Thierry; Graña, Martin; Raggio, Víctor; Grabar, Natalia; Naya, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors discovery and prevention is an active research field within the biomedical domain. Despite abundant existing information on risk factors, as found in bibliographical databases or on several websites, accessing this information may be difficult. Methods from Natural Language Processing and Information Extraction can be helpful to access it more easily. Specifically, we show a procedure for analyzing massive amounts of scientific literature and for detecting linguistically marked a...

  12. Grey Literature as a segment of the market of scientific and technical Information services in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Karnitis, Edvins (LAL); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1998-01-01

    The Concept of Provision of Scientific and Technical Information has been elaborated for Latvia as a component of the originated National Information Programme. The Concept imagines grey literature as one of the most operative and important kinds of information for Latvia exactly in current transit period. Realization of virtual library strategy, provision of global information search, development of on-line and document delivery services are envisaged to ensure wide access to international s...

  13. Contribution of Indian Pediatric Dentists to Scientific Literature During 2002–2012: a Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur; Namrata C Gill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bibliometric analysis of publications is necessary to enable clinicians to make evidence based sound clinical decisions. It will also help policy makers & institutions to frame their decisions and policies so as to improve the quality of dental research in India. AIM: The purpose of this study is to identify publication output as well as descriptively and quantitatively characterize the contribution of Indian pediatric dentists to scientific literature through publication trend ...

  14. Update on XplorMed: a web server for exploring scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Iratxeta, C.; Perez, A. J.; Bork, P.; Andrade-Navarro, M A

    2003-01-01

    As scientific literature databases like MEDLINE increase in size, so does the time required to search them. Scientists must frequently inspect long lists of references manually, often just reading the titles. XplorMed is a web tool that aids MEDLINE searching by summarizing the subjects contained in the results, thus allowing users to focus on subjects of interest. Here we describe new features added to XplorMed during the last 2 years (http://www.bork.embl-heidelberg.de/xplormed/).

  15. Activities of the Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information in the field of Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Duskova, Marta (CVTISR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2014-01-01

    In this year Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information (CVTI SR) celebrates the 75th anniversary of its establishment. In course of its existence our institution went through various organizational changes and we can say that today it is not only a library but also an information centre supporting science in Slovakia, participating in many national and international projects. The main objective of paper is to inform the international grey literature community about the mission,...

  16. ASAP: an automated system for scientific literature search in pubmed using web agentes

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalhal, Carlos; Sérgio DEUSDADO; Leonel DEUSDADO

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present ASAP - Automated Search with Agents in PubMed, a web-based service aiming to manage and automate scientific literature search in the PubMed database. The system allows the creation and management of web agents, specifically parameterized thematically and functionally, that automatically and periodically crawl the PubMed database, oriented to search and retrieve relevant results according the requirements provided by the user. The results, containing the publications l...

  17. Literature review and analysis of the application of health outcome assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Pei-wu Li; Qian-wen Li; Nelson Xie; Jing-wei Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:To evaluate the application of health assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:According to a pre-defined search strategy,a comprehensive literature search for all articles published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted.The resulting articles that met the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for analysis.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine have been used in fundamental and theoretical research,and 14 of these were also used in 29 clinical trials that were randomized controlled trials,or descriptive or cross-sectional studies.In 2 152 Chinese medicine-based studies that used instruments in their methodology,more than 150 questionnaires were identified.Among the identified questionnaires,51 were used in more than 10 articles (0.5%).Most of these instruments were developed in Western countries and few studies (4%) used the instrument as the primary evidence for their conclusions.CONCLUSION:Usage of instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,current limitations include selection rationale,result interpretation and standardization,which must be addressed accordingly.

  18. A critical revision of the empirical literature on Chinese outward investment: A new proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on China’s role in the globalization of economic activity focuses mainly on its involvement in trade and on its competitiveness as a manufacturing location for foreign investors. However, since the mid-1990s China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI has become an important part of its integration into the global economy. This dimension is poorly understood, and few empirical studies about the drivers behind Chinese OFDI have been published thus far. After reviewing critically the empirical literature, which provides ambiguous results about the explanatory power of some of the large list of determinants put forward, we aim to provide a more accurate description of the motives behind Chinese OFDI. Using a panel data approach for the period 1995 to 2009 and for a large host country sample, we identify some key drivers. We find that host market size, natural resources and FDI openness are of paramount relevance. However, the asset seeking hypothesis is not confirmed.

  19. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. PMID:23433049

  20. A global scientific literature of research on water quality indices: trends, biases and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Ribeiro Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Water quality has been the subject of many recent studies, moreover, the physical, chemical and biological parameters of water are used to investigate water quality and can be combined into a single index, the Water Quality Index (WQI, for use by water resource managers and the general public. The aim of this study was to use scientometrics to evaluate how water quality has been addressed in the international scientific literature. METHOD: For the quantitative analysis of the publications on WQI, we used the search database SCOPUS (http://www.scopus.com. The search was performed using the words "QUALIT* WATER* INDEX*" in papers published in all databases (through 2011. RESULTS: We found 554 articles that dealt with the use of WQI the number of publications has increased significantly over the last 20 years. India had the most studies, with 177 articles, followed by China, Brazil and the United States. These four countries together published 57% of studies on WQI. We generated 15 linear models to explain the number of publication by study sit (country. According to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, the best model to explain the number of publications by country was the model that combined Sanitation and Public Supply. CONCLUSION: Finally, this paper presents the state of scientific literature on WQI and demonstrates the growing interest of the scientific community in this issue, which is certainly due to the importance of the quantity and quality of water for human supply, economics, health and the conservation of water resources.

  1. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang LL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LiLi Zhang,1 JiTao Li,2–4 YanJie Zhao,5 Yun’Ai Su,2–4 Tianmei Si2–4 1Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, 3Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 5National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, has been introduced as a novel atypical antipsychotic agent in many countries. It is available both as an oral extended-release (ER formulation and as a long-acting injection (paliperidone palmitate, PP, which have been approved for treating schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China since 2009 and 2012, respectively. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on the databases covering international and Chinese core journals, published from January 1, 2008, to May 22, 2015. Results: A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53, nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP

  2. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism. PMID:22212356

  3. What is the Role of Chinese Medical Theory in Modern Scientific Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Johannes GRETEN

    2008-01-01

    经典中医诊断,例如根据中医的海德堡模型进行诊断,研究结果很大程度依赖于经典的诊断标准.未来中医的研究质量会受到很多因素的影响,如将经典的中医诊断作为纳入标准;用客观指标作为衡量研究结果的标准;采用双盲对照研究.因此,有必要对传统中医学诊断和功能性标准可测参数达成一致,同时也需要对其功能性术语及基本理论达成共识.本文指出经典中医学理论对现代研究具有重要指导意义,在现代研究中应正确理解并恰当应用.%Defining the classical Chinese diagnosis such as by the Heidelberg model of TCM has shown that outcome of studies is largely dependent on classical diagnostic criteria.The quality of future studies in TCM will largely depend on a variety of factors,such as(1)the classical Chinese diagnosis as an inclusion criterion,(2) objectively measurable parameters as the main criterion of outcome,(3)double blinding of controls.A common understanding of the diagnosis and functional criteria of TCM is therefore necessary,as well as a common understanding of the functional terminology and rationally accessible theory. This undedines the necessity of classical Chinese medical theory for modern scientific research,its proper definition and application in studies.

  4. Searching for Animal Sentience: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia R. Cornish

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of animal sentience is fundamental to many disciplines and imperative to the animal welfare movement. In this review, we examined what is being explored and discussed, regarding animal sentience, within the scientific literature. Rather than attempting to extract meaning from the many complex and abstract definitions of animal sentience, we searched over two decades of scientific literature using a peer-reviewed list of 174 keywords. The list consisted of human emotions, terminology associated with animal sentience, and traits often thought to be indicative of subjective states. We discovered that very little was actually being explored, and instead there was already much agreement about what animals can feel. Why then is there so much scepticism surrounding the science of animal sentience? Sentience refers to the subjective states of animals, and so is often thought to be impossible to measure objectively. However, when we consider that much of the research found to accept and utilise animal sentience is performed for the development of human drugs and treatment, it appears that measuring sentience is, after all, not quite as impossible as was previously thought. In this paper, we explored what has been published on animal sentience in the scientific literature and where the gaps in research lie. We drew conclusions on the implications for animal welfare science and argued for the importance of addressing these gaps in our knowledge. We found that there is a need for more research on positive emotional states in animals, and that there is still much to learn about taxa such as invertebrates. Such information will not only be useful in supporting and initiating legislative amendments but will help to increase understanding, and potentially positive actions and attitudes towards animals.

  5. Literature review and analysis of the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Zheng-zheng Zhang; Di Xie; Nelson Xie; Hong Thach Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:A comprehensive literature search for all published articles in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Chongqing VIP Database and WANFANG Data was conducted.The studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to extract information according to a predesigned assessment instrument.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine were identified.Of these questionnaires,7 were generic,12 were condition-specific and 78 were disease-specific.All instruments were suitable for adults,children,and both men and women.These instruments aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life,signs and symptoms as well as patient satisfaction and doctor-reported outcome.However,the descriptions were poorly constructed for some of the most basic parameters,such as the domains and items,administrative mode,response options,memory recall periods,burden evaluation,format,copyright,content validity,and other properties.CONCLUSION:The instrument development for health outcomes assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,there are many limitations in current methodologies and standards,and further studies are needed.

  6. A review of the Chinese literature on cognitive remediation in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuping; Liu, Dengtang

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating data have shown that cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has moderate to strong effects on improving cognitive function in patients with psychosis, especially in schizophrenia. In recent years, a number of studies about CRT or computerized CRT (CCRT) have been published; unfortunately, since most of them are written in Chinese, they are not accessible to non-Chinese readers. This review aims to introduce and discuss the research and clinical practice of CRT and CCRT in China. The present review includes eight original papers, six published in Chinese journals and two in English journals. Six papers investigated the clinical effect of CRT or CCRT utilizing a randomized controlled study design. The other two papers explored brain function or structural change after CRT or CCRT treatment. All eight papers reported some beneficial effects of CRT and CCRT on cognitive functions, with three of them showing benefits on social functions. One functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study showed some change of neural activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after CRT therapy. In addition to reviewing the published literature, we also discuss the current state of clinical practice of CRT and CCRT in China. PMID:27520913

  7. Visual Analysis and Dissemination of Scientific Literature Collections with SurVis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Fabian; Koch, Sebastian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bibliographic data such as collections of scientific articles and citation networks have been studied extensively in information visualization and visual analytics research. Powerful systems have been built to support various types of bibliographic analysis, but they require some training and cannot be used to disseminate the insights gained. In contrast, we focused on developing a more accessible visual analytics system, called SurVis, that is ready to disseminate a carefully surveyed literature collection. The authors of a survey may use our Web-based system to structure and analyze their literature database. Later, readers of the survey can obtain an overview, quickly retrieve specific publications, and reproduce or extend the original bibliographic analysis. Our system employs a set of selectors that enable users to filter and browse the literature collection as well as to control interactive visualizations. The versatile selector concept includes selectors for textual search, filtering by keywords and meta-information, selection and clustering of similar publications, and following citation links. Agreement to the selector is represented by word-sized sparkline visualizations seamlessly integrated into the user interface. Based on an analysis of the analytical reasoning process, we derived requirements for the system. We developed the system in a formative way involving other researchers writing literature surveys. A questionnaire study with 14 visual analytics experts confirms that SurVis meets the initially formulated requirements. PMID:26529698

  8. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  9. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  10. Learning Common Chinese Chemical Terms and Characters: A Resource for Scientific Research and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsiu-Yi; Churchill, David G.

    2008-01-01

    This article serves as a primer to Mandarin Chinese mainly for chemical practitioners who have no familiarity with the Mandarin Chinese language and who may travel to East Asia during their career or work in collaboration with Chinese-speaking people. Eight vocabulary lists (given in English, written Chinese, and Pinyin romanization) feature…

  11. Academic Writing in Reflexive Professional Writing: Citations of Scientific Literature in Supervised Pre-Service Training Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia Chaves de Melo; Adair Vieira Gonçalves; Wagner Rodrigues Silva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate citation practices of scientific literature in reflexive writing from the genre of supervised pre-service training report produced by pre-service teachers enrolled in the mandatory pre-service training subject of English Language Teaching, at an undergraduate language teaching course. The aim of this research is to analyze how these pre-services teacher represent themselves based on citation practices of scientific literature, and characterize some of the function...

  12. Exploring access to scientific literature using content-based image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    The number of articles published in the scientific medical literature is continuously increasing, and Web access to the journals is becoming common. Databases such as SPIE Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, indices such as PubMed, and search engines such as Google provide the user with sophisticated full-text search capabilities. However, information in images and graphs within these articles is entirely disregarded. In this paper, we quantify the potential impact of using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) to access this non-text data. Based on the Journal Citations Report (JCR), the journal Radiology was selected for this study. In 2005, 734 articles were published electronically in this journal. This included 2,587 figures, which yields a rate of 3.52 figures per article. Furthermore, 56.4% of these figures are composed of several individual panels, i.e. the figure combines different images and/or graphs. According to the Image Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (ImageCLEF), the error rate of automatic identification of medical images is about 15%. Therefore, it is expected that, by applying ImageCLEF-like techniques, already 95.5% of articles could be retrieved by means of CBIR. The challenge for CBIR in scientific literature, however, is the use of local texture properties to analyze individual image panels in composite illustrations. Using local features for content-based image representation, 8.81 images per article are available, and the predicted correctness rate may increase to 98.3%. From this study, we conclude that CBIR may have a high impact in medical literature research and suggest that additional research in this area is warranted.

  13. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  14. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 1. Gastrointestinal tract; Aktuelle Schwerpunkte und Literatur der Abdominalradiologie im deutschsprachigen Raum. T. 1. Gastrointestinaltrakt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Clinic for Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technical University Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Konietzke, P. [University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Grenacher, L. [Diagnostic Muenchen - Diagnostic Imaging Center, Munich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract with all parenchymatous abdominal organs. In addition to the clinical and scientific further development of abdominal radiology, the education of radiologists within this core discipline of radiology is one of the major aims. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. This manuscript focuses on the most recent literature on the diagnosis of the stomach, small bowel, colon and rectum. The review with a focus on the most recent studies published by German radiologists concludes with a synopsis of mesenterial bleeding and ischemia followed by a critical appraisal of the current literature on conventional abdominal radiography.

  15. Russian Literature and Chinese Literature in 20th Century%俄苏文学与20世纪中国文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊星

    2001-01-01

    本文通过对20世纪中国作家接受俄苏文学影响的历程的 勾勒,揭示了俄苏文学的道德感、抒情风格在塑造中国文学现代品格中发挥的重要作用。同 时,论证了中国作家在兼收并蓄世界文学丰富成就的过程中显示出的超越性,并指出了中国 文学与俄苏文学的差距。%The paper shows that the Russian literature greatly influences the Chinese write rs in the 20th century and plays an important part in shaping the modern Chinese literatu re with its sense of morality and lyric style. It also reveals that Chinese lite ratur has overpassed Russian literature in the course of taking in the rich achi evements of world literature and points out the distance between C hinese literature and Russian literature.

  16. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies. PMID:26087568

  17. Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhim, Evan A; Hon, Carol; Xia, Bo; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods. PMID:27367706

  18. Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhim, Evan A.; Hon, Carol; Xia, Bo; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods. PMID:27367706

  19. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  20. Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the evolution of the scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming (AGW) in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, examining 11 944 climate abstracts from 1991–2011 matching the topics ‘global climate change’ or ‘global warming’. We find that 66.4% of abstracts expressed no position on AGW, 32.6% endorsed AGW, 0.7% rejected AGW and 0.3% were uncertain about the cause of global warming. Among abstracts expressing a position on AGW, 97.1% endorsed the consensus position that humans are causing global warming. In a second phase of this study, we invited authors to rate their own papers. Compared to abstract ratings, a smaller percentage of self-rated papers expressed no position on AGW (35.5%). Among self-rated papers expressing a position on AGW, 97.2% endorsed the consensus. For both abstract ratings and authors’ self-ratings, the percentage of endorsements among papers expressing a position on AGW marginally increased over time. Our analysis indicates that the number of papers rejecting the consensus on AGW is a vanishingly small proportion of the published research. (letter)

  1. Safety assessment of GM plants: An updated review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2016-09-01

    In a wide revision of the literature conducted in 2000, I noted that the information in scientific journals on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods in general, and GM plants in particular, was scarce. Of course, it was not sufficient to guarantee that the consumption of these products should not mean risks for the health of the consumers. Because of the scientific interest in GM organisms (GMOs), as well as the great concern that the consumption of GM foods/plants has raised in a number of countries, I conducted two subsequent revisions (2007 and 2011) on the adverse/toxic effects of GM plants. In the present review, I have updated the information on the potential adverse health effects of GM plants consumed as food and/or feed. With only a few exceptions, the reported studies in the last six years show rather similar conclusions; that is to say, the assessed GM soybeans, rice, corn/maize and wheat would be as safe as the parental species of these plants. However, in spite of the notable increase in the available information, studies on the long-term health effects of GM plants, including tests of mutagenicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity seem to be still clearly necessary. PMID:27317828

  2. Risk factors and control of hospital acquired infections: a comparison between Wikipedia and scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Maggi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: nowadays Wikipedia is one of the main on-line sources of general information. It contains several items about nosocomial infections and their prevention, together of items on virtually every scientific topic.This study aims to assess whether Wikipedia can be considered a reliable source for professional updating, concerning Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI.Methods: Wikipedia has been searched in order to gather items on HAI. 387 items were found with a search string. The field of research was reduced at those articles (27 items containing exhaustive information in relation to prevention of HAI. The messages contained in those articles were than compared with the recommendations of a selected guideline (NICE 2003, completed by a literature search, with the aim of testing their reliability and exhaustivity.Results: 15 Wiki items were found and 51 messages selected. NICE guidelines contained 119 recommendations and 52 more recommendations has been found in a further literature search. 45.1% of Wikipedia’s messages were even found in the guidelines. On this percentage, 21.6% completely agreed with the messages of the guidelines, 15.7% partially agreed, 3.9% disagreed and 3.9% showed different level of evidence in different articles. Moreover, 54.9% of Wikipedia’s messages were not included in the guidelines and 84.2% of the recommendations contained in the guidelines were not present in Wikipedia.Conclusions: Wikipedia should not be considered as a reliable source for professional updating on HAI.

  3. On-line processing of searching scientific informations and literatures on atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information processing using computers has been carried out in the field of atomic energy science internationally since early period, and CINDA and NEUDADA, which are the accumulation of the nuclear data on neutrons, and INIS for the search of literatures are the examples. In Japan, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has functioned as the center for collecting, evaluating and distributing the international informations on atomic energy. In universities, various researcher groups have endeavored to make and utilize the data bases with the advance of functions of large computer centers. In the future plan of the Kyoto University Reactor Research Institute, the establishment of Atomic Energy Science Information Center is planned. In order to discuss the concept for this and refer to the state of activities in other fields, the short period study meeting was helt in 1979, and the special study meeting on the on-line processing of searching the scientific informations and literatures on atomic energy was established in 1980. This report summarizes the results of studies and investigations published in this special study meeting. The abstracts of five papers on various data bases are given. (Kako, I.)

  4. Pneumonia Incidence and Mortality in Mainland China: Systematic Review of Chinese and English Literature, 1985–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xuhua; Silk, Benjamin J.; Li, Wenkai; Fleischauer, Aaron T.; Xing, Xuesen; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Hongjie; Sonja J Olsen; Cohen, Adam L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a leading infectious disease killer worldwide, yet the burden in China is not well understood as much of the data is published in the non-English literature. Methodology/Principal Findings We systematically reviewed the Chinese- and English-language literature for studies with primary data on pneumonia incidence and mortality in mainland China. Between 1985 and 2008, 37 studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was highly variable. For children

  5. Representing Divorce, Reforming Interiority: Narratives of Gender, Class and Family in Post-Reform Chinese Literature and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This project stands at the juncture of modern Chinese literature, post-socialist studies, cultural history of divorce, and critical studies about global middle-class cultures. Employing analytical tools mainly from literary studies, cultural studies and feminist theories, I examine stories, novels, films and TV dramas about divorce produced…

  6. Literature review of the encourage scientific and technological personnel Innovation in universities%高校激励科技人员创新创业文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虎; 周斌

    2014-01-01

    国内外学者对激励科技人员创新创业机制进行大量研究,文章通过研究文献发现,国外的研究主要从科技人员激励因素、激励机制、激励方法进行了研究,研究的方法主要采用市政的方法。国内学者对高校创新、科技人员激励机制和高校科技人员的激励机制进行了研究。%Scientific and technical personnel and foreign scholars have done a lot of research on incentive mechanisms for innovation and entrepreneurship. Through the research literature found. Study abroad mainly from the scientific and technical personnel incentive factors, incentives, incentive methods was studied. Study abroad mainly from the scientific and technical personnel incentive factors, incentives, incentive methods was studied. Research methods were used by the main method of using municipal approach. Chinese scholars have do studies about university innovation, technology personnel and university scientists’ incentives.

  7. Assessment of Student Skills for Critiquing Published Primary Scientific Literature Using a Primary Trait Analysis Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Varela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Instructor evaluation of progressive student skills in the analysis of primary literature is critical for the development of these skills in young scientists. Students in a senior or graduate-level one-semester course in Immunology at a Masters-level comprehensive university were assessed for abilities (primary traits to recognize and evaluate the following elements of a scientific paper: Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, Results, Critical Thinking and Analysis, and Conclusions. We tested the hypotheses that average recognition scores vary among elements and that scores change with time differently by trait. Recognition scores (scaled 1 to 5, and differences in scores were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA, regression, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA (n = 10 papers over 103 days. By multiple comparisons testing, we found that recognition scores statistically fell into two groups: high scores (for Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, and Conclusions and low scores (for Results and Critical Thinking and Analysis. Recognition scores only significantly changed with time (increased for Hypothesis and Rationale and Results. ANCOVA showed that changes in recognition scores for these elements were not significantly different in slope (F1,16 = 0.254, P = 0.621 but the Results trait was significantly lower in elevation (F1,17 = 12.456, P = 0.003. Thus, students improved with similar trajectories, but starting and ending with lower Results scores. We conclude that students have greatest difficulty evaluating Results and critically evaluating scientific validity. Our findings show extant student skills, and the significant increase in some traits shows learning. This study demonstrates that students start with variable recognition skills and that student skills may be learned at differential rates. Faculty can use these findings or the primary trait analysis scoring scale to focus on specific paper elements for which

  8. A Combination of influence from Confucianism and Taoism upon Chinese culture and literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英华

    2008-01-01

    @@ Preface The mixture of various cultures including those deep rooted in Chinese history and those imported in the ancient time has led to the profoundness,uniqueness and colorfulness of Chinese culture,among which the combination of two of them---Confucianism and Taoism has fundamental influence in the way Chinese think and behave.

  9. Skin disease after occupational dermal exposure to coal tar: a review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Riza, Elena; Linos, Athena

    2015-08-01

    For about a century, coal tar has been used in industry and has been applied in the therapeutic management of several skin diseases. However, in the last decades the benefits of coal tar exploitation for humans could not outweigh its harmful effects on health. The aim of this study is to present the main adverse effects of coal tar on skin, with the emphasis on occupational exposure. The scientific literature indicates that dermal exposure to coal tar and coal tar pitches can be the cause of phototoxic reactions, irritation and burn, allergic dermatitis, folliculitis, occupational acne, atrophy of the epidermis, and hyperpigmentation. Moreover coal tar has been implicated in tumorigenesis, a relationship shown in numerous studies but not confirmed yet as the mechanism has not been fully clarified. A common finding in most studies is that exposure over a long period is the main risk factor for malignancy development, even in low exposure levels. Additional prospective, well-designed studies need to be performed to confirm the validity of the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of coal tar on skin. PMID:26183242

  10. Promoting integrative medicine by computerization of traditional Chinese medicine for scientific research and clinical practice: The SuiteTCM Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur de Sá Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Chinese and contemporary Western medical practices evolved on different cultures and historical contexts and,therefore,their medical knowledge represents this cultural divergence.Computerization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is being used to promote the integrative medicine to manage,process and integrate the knowledge related to TCM anatomy,physiology,semiology,pathophysiology,and therapy.METHODS:We proposed the development of the SuiteTCM software,a collection of integrated computational models mainly derived from epidemiology and statistical sciences for computerization of Chinese medicine scientific research and clinical practice in all levels of prevention.The software includes components for data management (DataTCM),simulation of cases (SimTCM),analyses and validation of datasets (SciTCM),clinical examination and pattern differentiation (DiagTCM,Tongue TCM,and Pulse TCM),intervention selection (AcuTCM,HerbsTCM,and DietTCM),management of medical records (ProntTCM),epidemiologic investigation of sampled data (ResearchTCM),and medical education,training,and assessment (StudentTCM).DISCUSSION:The SuiteTCM project is expected to contribute to the ongoing development of integrative medicine and the applicability of TCM in worldwide scientific research and health care.The SuiteTCM 1.0 runs on Windows XP or later and is freely available for download as an executable application.

  11. 汉语成语的文史信息%Literature and History Information in Chinese Idiom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    汉语成语是中国语言的一大特色,汉语成语源远流长,蕴含大量的古代文史信息。本文通过汉语成语的出处的分析研究,以数据说话,揭示了中国古代文化发展和文化名人辈出的历史规律。%Chinese idiom is one of the features of Chinese language. It has a long history, which contains a large number of ancient literature and history information. This article through analysis and study of the origin of Chinese idiom, with a lot of data, reveals the historical law of Chinese ancient culture development and cul-tural celebrity men.

  12. Toward Sublime:the Comparison of Sea Poems in Chinese and English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单健; 翟静

    2014-01-01

    This essay briefly discusses different reflections of western and Chinese philosophy towards sea in poems. By the com-parison of the evaluation of sea in Chinese and English poems, this essay reaches the conclusion that both cultures have sublime understanding towards sea.

  13. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  14. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-05-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published article on a mathematical model of the spread of the West Nile virus in North America. The prototype is available as a web-based resource that includes supplemental pedagogical units. Preliminary feedback from use of the prototype in two classrooms is described and a sketch of an ongoing formal evaluation is provided.

  15. The “Mendel syndrome” in science: durability of scientific literature and its effects on bibliometric analysis of individual scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Costas, Rodrigo; van Leeuwen, Thed N.; van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2011-01-01

    The obsolescence and “durability” of scientific literature have been important elements of debate during many years, especially regarding the proper calculation of bibliometric indicators. The effects of “delayed recognition” on impact indicators have importance and are of interest not only to bibliometricians but also among research managers and scientists themselves. It has been suggested that the “Mendel syndrome” is a potential drawback when assessing individual researchers through impact...

  16. Academic Writing in Reflexive Professional Writing: Citations of Scientific Literature in Supervised Pre-Service Training Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Chaves de Melo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate citation practices of scientific literature in reflexive writing from the genre of supervised pre-service training report produced by pre-service teachers enrolled in the mandatory pre-service training subject of English Language Teaching, at an undergraduate language teaching course. The aim of this research is to analyze how these pre-services teacher represent themselves based on citation practices of scientific literature, and characterize some of the functions deployed by the citations in the reflexive writing emerging in the academic sphere. We use the dialogic approach to language from Bakhtinian studies as a theoretical base, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions regarding types of sequences and of discourse proposed by Adam and Bronckart. The results of this research show that the practice of citation of scientific literature is an invocation of authority as a form of erudition, amplification and ornamentation of the discourse produced. This practice can also guide pedagogical action developed by pre-service teachers in their supervised training.

  17. 中国文学的历史星空%Historical Starry Sky in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The paper explains that Chinese literature has developed the trends during the four thousand years to from the Chinese cultural context. The ancient articles, Spring and Autumn period writings, Han Fu—the arti-cles in Han Dynasty, Pian Yong—the articles in Wei and Jin Dynasty, the poems in Tang and Song Dynasty, Yuan verse and traditional opera in Yuan Dynasty, novels in the Ming and Qing Dynasty, and with many litera-ti and masterpieces together make up various bright stars Chinese literature history.%阐明中华文学经四千年的演变潮流,形成中国文脉。上古文存、春秋笔墨、两汉散赋、魏晋骈咏、唐宋诗词、元曲杂剧、明清小说,历代文人佳作汇集,构成了中国文学历史上,繁星满天,璀璨夺目。

  18. 20世纪中国文学中的 "风水" 叙事%The Feng Shui Narration in the 20 th Century Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旋波

    2015-01-01

    近代以来, 作为中国传统文化一脉的风水观因其缺乏 "真确的知识" 而受到摒弃和批判, 五四以来风水一直受到科学理性、 唯物主义主导的文学思潮的攻伐. 随后, 20世纪中国社会及文化思潮发生了巨大的变迁,风水在文学中的境遇也因时而易, 这不但反映了时代思潮的嬗变, 还纠结着20世纪纷繁复杂的政治、 哲学及美学取向. 尤其是随着90年代中国文化语境的变迁, 风水文化逐渐浮现出其反思现代性的 "复魅" 特质.%In modern times, Feng Shui, which has been inherent to traditional Chinese culture, has been denounced and defamed as lack of scientific and truthful knowledge, and has long been criticized by the rational and materialistic school of literature since the May Fourth Movement. In the 20th century, as the Chinese society and ideology is undergoing dramatic changes, Feng Shui varies from time to time in literature, which reflects not only the transformation of ideology but also the complication of politics, philosophy and aesthetics. Particularly in the 1990s, as the cultural environment in China has greatly changed, the culture of Feng Shui tends to be charged with the nature of "revitalizing the enchantment of the world", i. e. reflections upon modernism.

  19. Accessing grey literature in an integrated environment of scientific research information

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Elly; Baars, Chris; Hogenaar, Arjan (KNAW Research Information); van Meel, Marga; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2007-01-01

    The DARE programme was initiated in the Netherlands by the SURF Foundation, the Dutch universities, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The objective of the programme was to enable digital access to research results of all the Dutch scientific institutions. Since the DARE programme (2003 - 2006), all the institutes involved have had their own repositories. The DAREnet portal website (www.darenet.nl/en) give...

  20. Déjà vu: a database of highly similar citations in the scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; Long, Tara C.; George, Angela C.; Garner, Harold R.

    2008-01-01

    In the scientific research community, plagiarism and covert multiple publications of the same data are considered unacceptable because they undermine the public confidence in the scientific integrity. Yet, little has been done to help authors and editors to identify highly similar citations, which sometimes may represent cases of unethical duplication. For this reason, we have made available Déjà vu, a publicly available database of highly similar Medline citations identified by the text simi...

  1. Deja vu: a database of highly similar citations in the scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; Long, Tara C.; George, Angela C.; Garner, Harold R.

    2008-01-01

    In the scientific research community, plagiarism and covert multiple publications of the same data are considered unacceptable because they undermine the public confidence in the scientific integrity. Yet, little has been done to help authors and editors to identify highly similar citations, which sometimes may represent cases of unethical duplication. For this reason, we have made available De´ ja` vu, a publicly available database of highly similar Medline citations identified by the text s...

  2. Chinese Contemporary Literature and Nobel Prize in Literature%中国当代文学与诺贝尔文学奖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊贤

    2012-01-01

    特定的生存环境促成中国当代文学独自的运行轨道与风貌。这是一个由文学的被动走向主动的过程,是一个文学觉醒的过程,是一个文学不断走向成熟的过程。这个发展过程的实质是,真、善、美的运行机制由非良性状态向良性的转化与调整。中国当代文学向诺贝尔文学奖冲刺,在于在一个新的层面上对真、善、美进行整合,都在于对世界文学潮流的认同与超越。创作模式的革新发生在历史、时代、作家与读者这四维审美情感的交汇区。文学大家应该是大哲学家、美学家与艺术家集于一身者,还要善于集中与加工群众的审美智慧。批评家、理论家既要学者化,又要作家化;既有脱俗的审美能力,又要有不同凡响的哲学修养,时代也要求理论大师的登台。%The specific social environment forms the unique orbit of Chinese contemporary literature.The developing process of Chinese contemporary literature is one from passive to active,one of literary wakening,and one to literary mature.The essence of the process is the transformation and adjustment from a non-benign status to the benign status.The sprint of Chinese contemporary literature to Nobel prize in literature will have to take a new integration of the true,the good and the beautiful on a high level towards the global literary trend.Composing mode should be innovated and should be adapted to history,new era,author's taste and readers' appreciation.Literary masters are supposed to be philosophers,aestheticians,and artists at the same time and critics,theorists should both be scholarized and authorized.The era needs more complex masters.

  3. 东南亚华文文学与澳美欧华文文学比较%A Comparative Study of the Southeast Asian Chinese Literature and the Australian, American and European Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄伟杰[澳

    2012-01-01

    There seems no people to go in for the comparative analysis of the Southeast Asian Chinese literature with the Australian, American and European Chinese literature generally placed on the specific Chinese ecology. Although they are comparable in many aspects, the real research on them is difficult but of reasonable value. If we study them from the historical and cultural background and geographical factors, from the sense of writers' identity and their knowledge structure and from their works, we can see there are many thought-provoking topics between them, because the Southeast Asian literature in the Asian context developed and grew in the "coconut wind and banana rain", while the Australian, American and Euro- pean Chinese literature in the western context have their free development in "the western culture and civilization".%把东南亚华文文学与澳美欧华文文学这两者笼统地放置于特定的华文生态中进行比较分析,似乎尚无人涉及。尽管两者之间确实存在着许多可比性,但真正梳理谈论起来却有相当的难度。当然这种比较对照自有其一定的合理性因素和探讨价值。如果我们从历史文化背景和地缘因素,从作家身份意识与知识结构、从地域经验与文本书写形态等方面来加以观察,便可发现两者之间潜藏着诸多耐人寻味的话题。因为东南亚华文文学在亚洲语境中,即在“蕉风椰雨”中发展壮大,而澳美欧华文文学是在西方语境下,即在“欧风美雨”中自由生长。

  4. A Review of Literature Regarding Scientific Controversies Surrounding the Psychometric Properties of the Rorschach Inkblot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kevin Neil

    2009-01-01

    The Rorschach Inkblot Test has been the focus of intense controversy, significantly impacting clinicians who currently rely on Exner's Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) in clinical and forensic settings. This paper evaluates recent empirical CS research to determine whether or not it reveals lack of scientific merit as some skeptics have…

  5. An Evaluation of Text Mining Tools as Applied to Selected Scientific and Engineering Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.; Wyllys, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses an approach to the discovery of scientific knowledge through an examination of data mining and text mining techniques. Presents the results of experiments that investigated knowledge acquisition from a selected set of technical documents by domain experts. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/LRW)

  6. Trends in Scientific Literature on Atypical Antipsychotics in South Korea: A Bibliometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Shen, Winston W.; Pae, Chi-un; Moreno, Raquel; Rubio, Gabriel; Molina, Juan D.; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel A.; Huelves, Lorena; Álamo, Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have carried out a bibliometric study on the scientific publications in relation to atypical or second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in South Korea. Methods With the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, we selected those publications made in South Korea whose title included the descriptors atypic* (atypical*) antipsychotic*, second-generation antipsychotic*, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, quetiapine, sertindole, aripiprazole, paliperidone, amisulpride, zotepine...

  7. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-fen Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  8. Chinese Doctors Connecting to the English Publishing World: Literature Access, Editorial Services, and Training in Publication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyan Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on academic publishing, little attention has been paid to the needs and concerns of non-English-speaking researchers in professional contexts. This paper addresses the gap in that literature by providing insights into the situation with medical doctors in China. Following an overview of the broad picture, I will report a case study, which was conducted at a major hospital in East China and which aimed at exploring how a group of orthopedic surgeons access the English medical literature and to what extent they seek the support of editorial services and training in academic writing/publication skills. The results of the study show that the participant doctors tend to rely on their students or overseas personal connections for access to full-text medical literature, and they have generally had limited experience with language editorial services and academic writing/publication skills seminars. The paper ends by discussing some challenges while proposing recommendations for enhancing Chinese doctors’ access to the full-text medical literature, as well as their understanding of the kind of support that can be provided by editorial services and training in publication skills.

  9. Evaluation of forestry strategies for climate change mitigation in continental France. Scientific literature and main actors' positioning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work contributes to the current scientific debate regarding the optimization of the forest sector's contribution to mitigating climate change. A scientific literature review has pointed out some uncertainties on the contribution to emission reduction objectives in the short to medium-term of an increasing harvest of forest resources for wood construction and energy generation. Timing of mitigation benefits for a managed forest depends on forestry upstream characteristics(forest and soil type and silviculture method) and downstream characteristics (transport distance, use of wood, efficiency of wood based energy production, fossil-fuel based reference system that is substituted,etc). A survey conducted among national forest experts points out debates concerning optimal silviculture practices to mitigating climate change. These discussions are due to the trades-off between sequestering carbon in forest ecosystems and climatic benefits obtained by sustainable forest harvesting and use of wood products to displace fossil emissions. (author)

  10. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 2. Abdominal parenchymal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenacher, L. [Diagnostik Muenchen-Diagnostic Imaging Centre (Germany); Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regenburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-03-15

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the parenchymal abdominal organs. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. The working group experts cover the most recent relevant studies concerning liver-specific contrast media with an emphasis on a new classification system for liver adenomas. Additionally studies regarding selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) are reviewed. For the pancreas the most important tumors are described followed by an introduction to the most recently introduced functional imaging techniques. The manuscript concludes with some remarks on recent studies and concerning chronic pancreatitis as well as autoimmune pancreatitis.

  11. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 2. Abdominal parenchymal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the parenchymal abdominal organs. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. The working group experts cover the most recent relevant studies concerning liver-specific contrast media with an emphasis on a new classification system for liver adenomas. Additionally studies regarding selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) are reviewed. For the pancreas the most important tumors are described followed by an introduction to the most recently introduced functional imaging techniques. The manuscript concludes with some remarks on recent studies and concerning chronic pancreatitis as well as autoimmune pancreatitis.

  12. The Science-Technology-Society Framework for Achieving Scientific Literacy: An Overview of the Existing Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autieri, Steven M.; Amirshokoohi, Aidin; Kazempour, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    This literature review intends to highlight some of the critical research that has been synthesized on the perspectives of both teachers and students and their attitudes to teaching and learning in an STS-themed learning environment. The first portion draws on the perspectives of elementary and secondary school teachers both locally and abroad.…

  13. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Fuster, Héctor; Gil, Frederic; Panova, Tayana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and video games. Methods: Articles indexed in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2006 and 2010 related to the pathological use of Internet, cell phones, and video games were retrieved. Search results were reviewed to eliminate articles that were not relevant or were duplicates. Results: Three hundred and thirty valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO from 2006 to 2010. Results were compared with those of 1996–2005. The year with the highest number of articles published was 2008 (n = 96). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were China (n = 67), the United States (n = 56), the United Kingdom (n = 47), and Taiwan (n = 33). The most commonly used language was English (70.3%), followed by Chinese (15.4%). Articles were published in 153 different journals. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology and Behavior (n = 73), followed by Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology (n = 27) and International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (n = 16). Internet was the area most frequently studied, with an increasing interest in other areas such as online video games and cell phones. Conclusions: The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition

  14. College Chinese language and literature:from Theory to Practice%大学语文:从理论到实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蔚; 何二元

    2014-01-01

    This paper first reviews the whole process of Chinese language and literature from conducting research, writing the monograph, compiling textbooks to classroom teaching. The author explores the theory of College Chinese Language and Literature from the perspective of higher education of mother language and proposes that the compiling of College Chinese Language and Literature textbooks should be based on theories and the textbooks must be tested through teaching practice. This paper presents a summary of the experiences and achievements of College Chinese Language and Literature in the form of both theory and practice, hoping to offer references for the national Chinese Language and Literature teachers.%本文回顾了作者课题研究、撰写专著、教材编写、课堂实践的完整过程,从母语高等教育的高度探讨了大学语文学科理论,提出大学语文教材编写必须有理论开路、实践检验的观点,全面总结了大学语文从理论到实践所取得的经验与成果,希望能给全国大学语文同行们提供参考。

  15. Fishes and other aquatic species in the Byzantine literature. Classification, terminology and scientific names.

    OpenAIRE

    CHRONE-VAKALOPOULOS, Maria; Angelos VAKALOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Fishes and other aquatic species were substantial food in the every day life of Byzantine people. The predomination of Christianity contributed to the increased consumption of fishes and other seafood compared to the meat of land animals and chicken. More than a hundred ten names of fishes and about thirty names of other aquatic organisms are found in the sources of the Byzantine literature. Most frequent references are found in the medical texts of the Byzantine doctors, where, fishes are cl...

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Scientific Literature on Methods for Determining Discount Rates in Corporate Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Klára Szűcs Markovics

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the findings of research conducted in eighteen countries and in the Central and Eastern European region, this study seeks to understand how the discount rate is set when capital budgeting practices are involved. According to the reviewed academic literature, the weighted average cost of capital is the most popular method of determining discount rates in a number of countries. Besides this, decision makers often apply the single method of corporate required rate of return regar...

  17. Olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Xue HBH; Liu L; Zhang H; Montgomery W; Treuer T

    2014-01-01

    Hai Bo Haber Xue,1 Li Liu,1 Hena Zhang,2 William Montgomery,3 Tamás Treuer41Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Shanghai Branch, Shanghai, 2China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, Australia; 4Eli Lilly & Co, Budapest, HungaryBackground: Despite the burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Chinese population, country-specific data to guide practitioners regarding antipsychotic therapy are lackin...

  18. Deja vu: a database of highly similar citations in the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; Long, Tara C; George, Angela C; Garner, Harold R

    2009-01-01

    In the scientific research community, plagiarism and covert multiple publications of the same data are considered unacceptable because they undermine the public confidence in the scientific integrity. Yet, little has been done to help authors and editors to identify highly similar citations, which sometimes may represent cases of unethical duplication. For this reason, we have made available Déjà vu, a publicly available database of highly similar Medline citations identified by the text similarity search engine eTBLAST. Following manual verification, highly similar citation pairs are classified into various categories ranging from duplicates with different authors to sanctioned duplicates. Déjà vu records also contain user-provided commentary and supporting information to substantiate each document's categorization. Déjà vu and eTBLAST are available to authors, editors, reviewers, ethicists and sociologists to study, intercept, annotate and deter questionable publication practices. These tools are part of a sustained effort to enhance the quality of Medline as 'the' biomedical corpus. The Déjà vu database is freely accessible at http://spore.swmed.edu/dejavu. The tool eTBLAST is also freely available at http://etblast.org. PMID:18757888

  19. Scientific Investigation of the Materials in a Chinese Ming Dynasty Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuya Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the cooperation project Rescue and Conserve the Endangered Wall Paintings in the Museums of China, systematic investigations concerning the materials and techniques used in the wall paintings detached from a Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 temple, Dazhao Temple in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia of China, as well as the previous conservation intervention materials have been carried out. X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX were used for the identification of inorganic materials in the wall paintings, while Pyrolysis in combination of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS was applied for the characterization of organic materials. Pigments including cinnabar, lead white, atacamite/para-atacamite, orpiment, ochre, minium, carbon black and smalt were identified. The binding medium in the painting was determined as animal glue. Alkyd is an uncommon consolidant in the conservation of Chinese wall paintings, but it could be determined in this object, where conservation treatments were performed in the 1950s.

  20. Art, Spirituality, and the Ethic of Care: Alternative Masculinities in Chinese American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, KK

    2015-01-01

    This chapter advances alternative examples of masculinity in Shawn Wong’s American knees, Li-Young Lee’s Winged Seed, and Russell Leong’s “Phoenix Eyes.” These three works counter the “emasculation” of Asian men without falling into the trap of presenting aggressive or self-denigrating counterexamples. Wong’s novel features a seductive lover whose eloquence and wit is reminiscent of Chinese poet-scholars. Lee’s memoir of his father portrays a spellbinding Christian minister. Leong’s short fic...

  1. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang LL; JT Li; Zhao YJ; Su YA; Si TM

    2016-01-01

    LiLi Zhang,1 JiTao Li,2–4 YanJie Zhao,5 Yun’Ai Su,2–4 Tianmei Si2–4 1Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, 3Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 5National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: ...

  2. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Si, Tianmei

    2016-01-01

    LiLi Zhang,1 JiTao Li,2–4 YanJie Zhao,5 Yun’Ai Su,2–4 Tianmei Si2–4 1Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, 3Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 5National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of...

  3. Prostate cancer, treatment modalities and complications: an evaluation of the scientific literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: santos-filho@uer.br; Missailids, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences

    2008-12-15

    Prostate (PR) cancer (CA) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in men all over the world. In general, if prostate cancer (PC) is detected early, treatment usually involves either surgical removal of the prostate or radiotherapy (RT). Hormone Therapy (HT) or chemotherapy (CH) is the preferred treatment for more advanced cases of PC or if CA spreads beyond the PT. A number of complications, such as urinary incontinence (IU) or erectile dysfunction (ED), can be associated with some modalities of treatment of the PC. The aim of this work is to evaluate, in PubMed, the number of publications related with prostate cancer and the main modalities of treatment, as well as some clinical complications. The searches were performed in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi) in the period 1950 to 2008 using the words: CA, CA and PR or penis or testis, CA and PR and RT, CA and PR and surgery (SU), CA and PR and CH and, CA and PR and HT and CA and PR and RT and IU or ED, CA and PR and SU and IU or ED, CA and PR and CH and IU or ED and, CA and PR and HT and CH and IU or ED, and (V) PC and the same modalities of treatment. The data was obtained on July 20th, 2008. PC, as expected has been cited extensively and surgery has been identified as the most widely referenced modality of treatment. Furthermore, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction are important complications that have attracted significant scientific interest. In conclusion, these findings have shown the relevance of the PubMed to analyze quantitatively the publications in cancer and this information could be worthwhile in aiding the comprehension of some clinical aspects related with PC, as well as the development of preventative actions. The analysis of the scientific interest, considering the number of publications in the PubMed, reveals research trends in the field and demonstrates the importance of the surgical procedures in the treatment of the prostate cancer. Moreover, this finding is

  4. Prostate cancer, treatment modalities and complications: an evaluation of the scientific literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate (PR) cancer (CA) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in men all over the world. In general, if prostate cancer (PC) is detected early, treatment usually involves either surgical removal of the prostate or radiotherapy (RT). Hormone Therapy (HT) or chemotherapy (CH) is the preferred treatment for more advanced cases of PC or if CA spreads beyond the PT. A number of complications, such as urinary incontinence (IU) or erectile dysfunction (ED), can be associated with some modalities of treatment of the PC. The aim of this work is to evaluate, in PubMed, the number of publications related with prostate cancer and the main modalities of treatment, as well as some clinical complications. The searches were performed in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi) in the period 1950 to 2008 using the words: CA, CA and PR or penis or testis, CA and PR and RT, CA and PR and surgery (SU), CA and PR and CH and, CA and PR and HT and CA and PR and RT and IU or ED, CA and PR and SU and IU or ED, CA and PR and CH and IU or ED and, CA and PR and HT and CH and IU or ED, and (V) PC and the same modalities of treatment. The data was obtained on July 20th, 2008. PC, as expected has been cited extensively and surgery has been identified as the most widely referenced modality of treatment. Furthermore, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction are important complications that have attracted significant scientific interest. In conclusion, these findings have shown the relevance of the PubMed to analyze quantitatively the publications in cancer and this information could be worthwhile in aiding the comprehension of some clinical aspects related with PC, as well as the development of preventative actions. The analysis of the scientific interest, considering the number of publications in the PubMed, reveals research trends in the field and demonstrates the importance of the surgical procedures in the treatment of the prostate cancer. Moreover, this finding is

  5. Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Prasad SK; Hemalatha S

    2011-01-01

    Substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual behavior and satisfaction in humans and animals are called ‘aphrodisiac’. Uses of plant material to treat sexual disorder is a long back history in the different system of medicine and it was practiced by different type of vaidyas and traditional healer in almost all the countries in the world, like China, India, Egypt, Rome and Greek. Even though there was an unavailability of the scientific data, these substances have been used as aphrodisiac. During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria,Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans, Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo and in vitro model. Even though the study showed positive response to a particular substance, there is always a need to run the clinical trial before administering the tested drug in human being. The present review article summarizes the plant material which has been tested for its aphrodisiac activity in different experimental model (in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in human clinical trials) and comply its claim in the different system of medicine. A brief overview about the data of percentage study in the last eighteen years duration on aphrodisiac activity of plant material was done on the basis of the CAB abstract database.

  6. Resource Disambiguator for the Web: Extracting Biomedical Resources and Their Citations from the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Ibrahim Burak; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Martone, Maryann E; Bandrowski, Anita E

    2016-01-01

    The NIF Registry developed and maintained by the Neuroscience Information Framework is a cooperative project aimed at cataloging research resources, e.g., software tools, databases and tissue banks, funded largely by governments and available as tools to research scientists. Although originally conceived for neuroscience, the NIF Registry has over the years broadened in the scope to include research resources of general relevance to biomedical research. The current number of research resources listed by the Registry numbers over 13K. The broadening in scope to biomedical science led us to re-christen the NIF Registry platform as SciCrunch. The NIF/SciCrunch Registry has been cataloging the resource landscape since 2006; as such, it serves as a valuable dataset for tracking the breadth, fate and utilization of these resources. Our experience shows research resources like databases are dynamic objects, that can change location and scope over time. Although each record is entered manually and human-curated, the current size of the registry requires tools that can aid in curation efforts to keep content up to date, including when and where such resources are used. To address this challenge, we have developed an open source tool suite, collectively termed RDW: Resource Disambiguator for the (Web). RDW is designed to help in the upkeep and curation of the registry as well as in enhancing the content of the registry by automated extraction of resource candidates from the literature. The RDW toolkit includes a URL extractor from papers, resource candidate screen, resource URL change tracker, resource content change tracker. Curators access these tools via a web based user interface. Several strategies are used to optimize these tools, including supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms as well as statistical text analysis. The complete tool suite is used to enhance and maintain the resource registry as well as track the usage of individual resources through an

  7. 中国现代文学作家表谱文献%Writers' Chronicle of Modern Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏绪

    2015-01-01

    Tables, chronicles and biographies are generally used in studying the lives of modern Chinese literary writers, and have become an important genre in this field. The chronological table is mainly adopted for listing the writers' activities, publications, translations and literary events. In summary, there is no strict difference between tables and chronicles in studies of documents of modern Chinese literature.%表、谱、传在中国现代文学史的作家生平研究中,被普遍采用,成为中国现代文学文献的重要类型.中国现代文学文献对于表这一历史体裁的采用,主要是年经事纬体的年表,用以编写作家个人的生平活动年表,著译系年和整个现代文学史大事年表等.中国现代文学文献学中的年谱与年表之间并无严格的区别.

  8. 技术竞争情报融入科技查新服务的实施%Adding technical competitive intelligence analysis into scientific literature novelty assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张筱菁; 刘伟; 吴曙霞

    2015-01-01

    After a description of research contents and methods in scientific literature novelty assessment and tech-nical competitive intelligence , the necessity and feasibility to add technical competitive intelligence analysis into scientific literature novelty assessment were analyzed , followed by an elaboration on adding technical competitive in-telligence analysis into scientific literature novelty assessment in aspects of the contents , types and report of scientific literature novelty assessment in combination with case analysis , which showed that technical competitive intelligence analysis is an effective method for searching literature and writing scientific literature novelty assessment report .%介绍了科技查新与技术竞争情报在研究内容、研究方法的融合,分析了将技术竞争情报融入科技查新的必要性与可行性,从科技查新服务内容、服务形式和查新报告三方面,并结合案例分析,论述了技术竞争情报融入科技查新服务的实施过程,在文献检索及撰写查新报告中融入技术竞争情报的分析是二者融合的有效途径。

  9. Are Pharmacotherapies Ineffective in Opioid-Dependent Smokers? Reflections on the Scientific Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mollie E; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2015-08-01

    While rates of smoking in the general population have decreased in recent years, dramatic disparities remain among disadvantaged subgroups of smokers, particularly those with concurrent substance abuse. Prevalence rates of smoking among opioid-dependent patients, for example, are fourfold those of the general population. While pharmacotherapies are recommended as a first-line treatment for nicotine dependence, the few studies that have investigated their effectiveness in this population have shown dramatically poorer outcomes compared to the general population. Indeed, these findings have led some researchers to suggest that pharmacotherapies may simply be ineffective in opioid-maintained smokers. In this commentary, we briefly summarize the extant literature on pharmacotherapies in opioid-maintained smokers and contribute new data investigating the contribution of bupropion on smoking outcomes in 81 methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained participants from two randomized trials of financial incentives for smoking cessation. We also discuss several important parameters (ie, timing of the quit attempt, medication adherence, nicotine withdrawal) that may be leveraged to strengthen smoking pharmacotherapy outcomes in opioid-dependent patients. Taken together, an improved understanding of these issues will aid efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in this group of challenging smokers. PMID:26180219

  10. Quantitative analysis and relevant features of the scientific literature related to SAXS and SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present and discuss here numerical information derived from a systematic searching of scientific papers related to SAXS and SANS published in indexed journals - from 1945 until nowadays - recorded by the Web of Science Data Bank (WoS). We have detected interesting features regarding the time dependence of the number of papers/year, N(t), indicating the existence of three well-defined periods of historical evolution with rather well-defined boundaries. All three periods exhibit a positive and approximately linear variation of N(t) but, at the two transitions between periods, the rate of growth exhibits clear and strong increases. Differences of the historical evolutions in the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS were established. The different behaviours regarding the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS and the existence of three different and well defined periods for N(t) can be qualitatively understood as a consequence of the progressive and increasing availability along the last three decades of very brilliant synchrotrons, last generation commercial X-ray sources, new neutron facilities, powerful computers and novel theoretical approaches for SAS data analysis. The rates of growth in the number of papers/year published by authors from a set of different countries are approximately constant along the last two decades. For other countries we have detected a slowing down effect in the number of papers/year while a clear acceleration could be noticed for the production of SAS papers by authors from several emerging countries. These opposite trends compensate in such a way that the number of SAS (SAXS+SAXS) articles published per year all around the world maintained a vigorous linear growth - during more than 20 years - at a constant rate of 60 papers/year, without any indication of eventual saturation. The observed distribution of articles among different journals indicates that a very high fraction of the volume of SAS research is

  11. Quantitative analysis and relevant features of the scientific literature related to SAXS and SANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craievich, Aldo F [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Fischer, Hannes, E-mail: craievich@if.usp.b, E-mail: hannes@jacto.com.b [Jacto Maquinas Agricolas SA, Pompeia-SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    We present and discuss here numerical information derived from a systematic searching of scientific papers related to SAXS and SANS published in indexed journals - from 1945 until nowadays - recorded by the Web of Science Data Bank (WoS). We have detected interesting features regarding the time dependence of the number of papers/year, N(t), indicating the existence of three well-defined periods of historical evolution with rather well-defined boundaries. All three periods exhibit a positive and approximately linear variation of N(t) but, at the two transitions between periods, the rate of growth exhibits clear and strong increases. Differences of the historical evolutions in the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS were established. The different behaviours regarding the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS and the existence of three different and well defined periods for N(t) can be qualitatively understood as a consequence of the progressive and increasing availability along the last three decades of very brilliant synchrotrons, last generation commercial X-ray sources, new neutron facilities, powerful computers and novel theoretical approaches for SAS data analysis. The rates of growth in the number of papers/year published by authors from a set of different countries are approximately constant along the last two decades. For other countries we have detected a slowing down effect in the number of papers/year while a clear acceleration could be noticed for the production of SAS papers by authors from several emerging countries. These opposite trends compensate in such a way that the number of SAS (SAXS+SAXS) articles published per year all around the world maintained a vigorous linear growth - during more than 20 years - at a constant rate of 60 papers/year, without any indication of eventual saturation. The observed distribution of articles among different journals indicates that a very high fraction of the volume of SAS research is

  12. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Chen, Gang; Wu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá), made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn) of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation) causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research. PMID:24872929

  13. Molecular mechanisms of cryptorchidism development: update of the database, disease comorbidity, and initiative for standardization of reporting in scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urh, K; Kunej, T

    2016-09-01

    Cryptorchidism is a frequent urogenital abnormality that may be present at birth (congenital form) or develop later in life (acquired form). It represents 2-4% full-term male births. It has a potential effect on health; defects in testes descent usually cause impaired spermatogenesis resulting in reduced fertility and increased rates of testicular neoplasia, and testicular torsion. In our previous study, we developed a cryptorchidism gene database which consists of 217 genomic variations associated with development of cryptorchidism in seven mammalian species. The number of studies and study approaches in this field are increasing; therefore, update of the database was needed. The search of multi-omics data was performed and the updated database includes 280 genomic variations associated with cryptorchidism in seven species. The catalog has been complemented with additional data including: number of participants (patients/controls), race/ethnicity, clinical data (age period at diagnosis), congenital/acquired cryptorchidism, unilateral (left/right)/bilateral cryptorchidism, disease comorbidity, and disease ontology. Collected data revealed that cryptorchidism has been reported to be co-present with 150 comorbid conditions, including several syndromes, reproductive, cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, dermatologic, mental, and bone disorders, deafness, and cancer. However, updating the database is time-consuming because of the heterogeneity of results and methodology in scientific literature. The field lacks a standardized format for reporting associations between genotype and phenotype which would enable faster development of the database, data integration, sharing, and facilitate biomarker development. Therefore, in this study, we updated a database of cryptorchidism genes and suggested a first step toward standardization of the format for reporting results of original as well as review studies which we suggest implementing into the scientific literature that reports

  14. Current Situations of Competitive Scientific Research Projects for Agri-scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO; Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    This paper collected and arranged competitive scientific research projects undertaken by Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences in 2003-2014. Through statistical analysis on quantity of projects,funded amount,age of person responsible,professional title of person responsible,academic degree of person responsible,research object,it discussed relevant characteristics and rules. Finally,it came up with pertinent measures and recommendations,in the hope of providing services for decision-making and scientific and technological management.

  15. Prostate cancer, treatment modalities and complications: an evaluation of the scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião David Santos-Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate (PR cancer (CA is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in men all over the world. In general, if prostate cancer (PC is detected early, treatment usually involves either surgical removal of the prostate or radiotherapy (RT. Hormone Therapy (HT or chemotherapy (CH is the preferred treatment for more advanced cases of PC or if CA spreads beyond the PT. A number of complications, such as urinary incontinence (IU or erectile dysfunction (ED, can be associated with some modalities of treatment of the PC. The aim of this work is to evaluate, in PubMed, the number of publications related with prostate cancer and the main modalities of treatment, as well as some clinical complications. The searches were performed in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi in the period 1950 to 2008 using the words: (i CA, (ii CA and PR or penis or testis, (iii CA and PR and RT, CA and PR and surgery (SU, CA and PR and CH and, CA and PR and HT and (iv CA and PR and RT and IU or ED, CA and PR and SU and IU or ED, CA and PR and CH and IU or ED and, CA and PR and HT and CH and IU or ED, and (V PC and the same modalities of treatment. The data was obtained on July 20th, 2008. PC, as expected has been cited extensively and surgery has been identified as the most widely referenced modality of treatment. Furthermore, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction are important complications that have attracted significant scientific interest. In conclusion, these findings have shown the relevance of the PubMed to analyze quantitatively the publications in cancer and this information could be worthwhile in aiding the comprehension of some clinical aspects related with PC, as well as the development of preventative actions. The analysis of the scientific interest, considering the number of publications in the PubMed, reveals research trends in the field and demonstrates the importance of the surgical procedures in the treatment of the prostate cancer

  16. Seeking Accurate Cultural Representation: Mahjong, World War II, and Ethnic Chinese in Multicultural Youth Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjie

    2009-01-01

    The sheer amount of American children's and young adult literature, boasting an outpouring of 5,000 titles every year, often amazes a person who is new to this field. Not only is a large proportion of these books of high printing and binding quality, but, at a quick glance, among them is also a pleasant diversity of genre, format, targeted age…

  17. On Nationality of Chinese and——Western MythologIcal Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤涛; 童玥

    2015-01-01

    Mythology, which explains how the world comes into being, is formed at the early times of human being, when human being knows nothing about their origin; Knowing national characteristics of mythological literature of both China and the western world and their root causes, it can not only benefit our research on literary works, but also does good for our understanding their natinal traits.

  18. Analysis of the production of scientific literature in clinical research areas in Physiotherapy between 2005 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Narváez Martha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: characterize the behavior of clinical research in Physiotherapy, through the analysis of theproduction of scientific literature in a period of five years in order to identify areas of concentrationand dispersion, collaborative research and types of clinical studies have conducted. Methods andmaterials: descriptive study on the papers in Medline/PubMed from 2005-2009. Were considereda total 404 publications, clinical trials and epidemiological studies side, analyzed according to thepercentage distribution of articles by clinical area, year of publication, and institutional affiliation ofresearchers. Results: It found a greater number of trials (93% systematic reviews represented thegreatest number of epidemiological studies side. The clinical areas pulmonary and cardiovascularaccount for 65% of scientific publications in the studies analyzed. The year with highest numberof publications was 2008. Half of the clinical research produced in this five-year have affiliationwith academic institutions, and secondly, studies conducted in hospitals. Conclusions: the clinicalresearch publications in Physiotherapy in Medline/PubMed registered show sustained activity ofscientific production in the pulmonary and cardiovascular areas, consistent with the major healthconcerns in the world. The findings suggest that the ability of physiotherapists to develop qualityresearch, use and transfer of results into clinical practice should achieve greater development.

  19. Applying a text mining framework to the extraction of numerical parameters from scientific literature in the biotechnology domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André SANTOS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications are the main vehicle to disseminate information in the field of biotechnology for wastewater treatment. Indeed, the new research paradigms and the application of high-throughput technologies have increased the rate of publication considerably. The problem is that manual curation becomes harder, prone-to-errors and time-consuming, leading to a probable loss of information and inefficient knowledge acquisition. As a result, research outputs are hardly reaching engineers, hampering the calibration of mathematical models used to optimize the stability and performance of biotechnological systems. In this context, we have developed a data curation workflow, based on text mining techniques, to extract numerical parameters from scientific literature, and applied it to the biotechnology domain. A workflow was built to process wastewater-related articles with the main goal of identifying physico-chemical parameters mentioned in the text. This work describes the implementation of the workflow, identifies achievements and current limitations in the overall process, and presents the results obtained for a corpus of 50 full-text documents.

  20. Violence against women: systematic review of the Brazilian scientific literature within the period from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lídia Ester Lopes da; Oliveira, Maria Liz Cunha de

    2015-11-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide issue, and the number of publications addressing it tends to increase, due to its magnitude. This article analyzes the scientific literature on the issue, within the period from 2009 to 2013. This is a systematic review of articles indexed in the Virtual Health Library (VHL). It included studies freely available online and published in Brazil, in full text, in Portuguese. It excluded articles without a scientific standard, those published abroad, and government information. The studies were assessed regarding methodological aspects and those related to violence, and data underwent statistical analysis in the softwares SPSS and Excel. Most of the 148 texts were qualitative, published in 2011, by up to 3 authors, and the victims were individuals mainly assessed through Content Analysis. The violence types identified were physical, sexual, and psychological, with overlapping forms related to mental and physical consequences. The findings converge with the current trend to address violence in a qualitative way, in order to provide an in-depth analysis of the victims' experiences. It is expected that this study contributes to raising awareness as for the need to approach the issue, with a view to promote women's health. PMID:26602729

  1. Applying a text mining framework to the extraction of numerical parameters from scientific literature in the biotechnology domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anália LOURENÇO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications are the main vehicle to disseminate information in the field of biotechnology for wastewater treatment. Indeed, the new research paradigms and the application of high-throughput technologies have increased the rate of publication considerably. The problem is that manual curation becomes harder, prone-to-errors and time-consuming, leading to a probable loss of information and inefficient knowledge acquisition. As a result, research outputs are hardly reaching engineers, hampering the calibration of mathematical models used to optimize the stability and performance of biotechnological systems. In this context, we have developed a data curation workflow, based on text mining techniques, to extract numerical parameters from scientific literature, and applied it to the biotechnology domain. A workflow was built to process wastewater-related articles with the main goal of identifying physico-chemical parameters mentioned in the text. This work describes the implementation of the workflow, identifies achievements and current limitations in the overall process, and presents the results obtained for a corpus of 50 full-text documents.

  2. Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…

  3. Preservation of Chinese Print Astronomical Literature in the Digital and Network Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Shi, W.

    2015-04-01

    Over the last few decades, more and more journals and books have been published in both electronic and print formats. Some journals have been digitized retrospectively going back to the first volume of more than a hundred years ago, which benefits researchers and librarians tremendously. As a result, many librarians subscribe to books and journals in both electronic and print versions when possible. In many cases, because of budget shortfalls and the low usage of print materials, many libraries have started to order electronic only. This trend heralds a potential demise of print literature as major library resources and has implications for the library services associated with them. This paper proposes some opinions on this issue. We believe that the librarians should pay attention to and conserve the published astronomical literature, a precious historical and cultural heritage, so that we could hand it down to future generations, just like our predecessors did for us.

  4. Progress in laparoscopic anatomy research: A review of the Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic surgery has generated the new field of study, laparoscopic anatomy. This article reviews the reported literature on laparoscopic anatomy and explores how it has evolved along with advances in abdominal surgery. In addition, the principal concerns in current laparoscopic anatomy research are discussed, including: (1) types of special adjacent anatomical structures; and (2) special surgical planes and anatomical landmarks. Understanding of systematic laparoscopic anatomy can pr...

  5. 1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

  6. 治疗2型糖尿病口服中成药的文献计量学分析%Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus oral Chinese patent medicine literature metrology analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔桐华; 黎元元

    2012-01-01

    The CBM, CNKI database 1979-2012 included oral Chinese patent medicine treatment diabetes literature, and the literature published time, periodical distribution, sources of literature and statistical analysis, to explore the treatment of type 2 diabetes medicine clinical literature distribution law and development trend, as in diabetes research related to the clinical and scientific research personnel to provide reference.%利用CBM,CNKI数据库检索1979年-2012年收录的口服中成药治疗糖尿病的文献,并对文献发表年代、期刊分布、文献来源等进行统计分析,以探讨治疗2型糖尿病中成药的临床文献的分布规律和发展趋势,为从事糖尿病相关研究的临床及科研人员提供参考.

  7. Cyborgs In Scientific Literature

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Rajguru

    2012-01-01

    Cyborgs were introduced into feminist discourse in Donna Haraway's“Manifesto for Cyborgs”, published in the Socialist Review1985. In this “Manifesto”,Haraway brought together the contextual arguments of the postmodern philosopherswith awidespread, deepening disillusionment with the mainstream political feminism ofthe1960s and 70s. Haraway argued for the Cyborg's usefulness as “a fiction mappingour social and bodily reality and as an imaginative resource suggesting some veryfruitful couplings....

  8. Centrality and Flow Vergence gradient based Path analysis of scientific literature: A case study of Biotechnology for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathabai, Hiran H.; Prabhakaran, Thara; Changat, Manoj

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology, ever since its inception has had a huge impact on the society and its various applications have been intricately woven into the human web of life. Its evolution amidst all the other research realms vital to mankind is remarkable. In this paper, we intend to identify the radical innovations in Biotechnology for Engineering using network analyses. Centrality analysis and Path analysis are used for identifying important works. Existence of Flow Vergence effect in the scientific literature is revealed. Flow Vergence gradient, an arc metric derived from FV model, is utilised for Path analysis which detects pivotal papers of paradigm shift more accurately. A major paradigm shift has been identified in the business models of Biotechnology for Engineering - 'Capability to Connectivity' model. Evidence towards the adoption of business practices in BT firms by nanotechnology start-ups is also identified. The notion of critical divergence is introduced and the exhibition of interdisciplinary interaction in emerging fields due to critical divergence is discussed. Implications of above analyses which target: (i) Science and technology policy makers, (ii) industrialists and investors, (iii) researchers in academia as well as industry, are also discussed.

  9. Non-surgical spinal decompression therapy: does the scientific literature support efficacy claims made in the advertising media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dwain M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traction therapy has been utilized in the treatment of low back pain for decades. The most recent incarnation of traction therapy is non-surgical spinal decompression therapy which can cost over $100,000. This form of therapy has been heavily marketed to manual therapy professions and subsequently to the consumer. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a debate pertaining to the relationship between marketing claims and the scientific literature on non-surgical spinal decompression. Discussion Only one small randomized controlled trial and several lower level efficacy studies have been performed on spinal decompression therapy. In general the quality of these studies is questionable. Many of the studies were performed using the VAX-D® unit which places the patient in a prone position. Often companies utilize this research for their marketing although their units place the patient in the supine position. Summary Only limited evidence is available to warrant the routine use of non-surgical spinal decompression, particularly when many other well investigated, less expensive alternatives are available.

  10. IgE Myeloma: the First Report of Chinese Case and a Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOUJian; JIANGHua; HUHuixian; HEJin

    2004-01-01

    To report a case of IgE myeloma and to compare its clinical features with those reported in the literature. Methods: M-component in serum and urine was determined using celluloseacetate membrane electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis and quantification of immunoglobulins. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of IgE and its light chain. Results: A monoclonal peak was detected by cellulose-acetate membrane electrophoresis. The monoclonal band showed on immunofixation electrophoresis the following reactive patterns: positive for A antisera and negative for κ, IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD antisera. The serum immunoglobulin concentrations were: IgG 21.6 g/L, IgA1.2 g/L, IgM 2.64 g/L, κ 7.49 g/L, λ 16.0 g/L, κ/A 0.47. The results of immunohistochemistry showed cytoplasmic expression of IgE immunoglobulin and A light chain in the tumor tissue. Conclusion: This is the first case of IgE multiple myeloma reported in China.

  11. Similarities and Dissimilarities in Coauthorship Networks: Gestalt Theory as Explanation for Well-Ordered Collaboration Structures and Production of Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Hildrun

    2002-01-01

    Based on Gestalt theory, the author assumes the existence of a field-force equilibrium to explain how, according to the conciseness principle, mathematically precise gestalts could exist in coauthorship networks. Develops a mathematical function to describe these gestalts in scientific literature and discusses structural characteristics of…

  12. The spreading of Chinese Language and Literature in the network environment%汉语言文学在网络环境下的传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华坚

    2016-01-01

    With thedevelopment of the Internet, It has led to read and study habits change,you can use the network to improve the dissemination of results of Chinese language and literature.This paper analyzes the significance and ways of using the Internet spread Chinese language and literature.%随着互联网的发展,导致人们的阅读和学习习惯发生改变,运用网络可以提高汉语言文学的传播效果。本文主要分析利用网络传播汉语言文学的意义及途径。

  13. 俄苏文学对中国哈萨克现当代文学的影响%The Influence of Russian-Soviet Literature on the Modern Literature of Chinese Kazakh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁晓冰; 齐雪艳

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Chinese Kazakh Modern Literature is under the influence of foreign literatures,of which the greatest effect is from the Russian-Soviet literature.Because of the geographic position,ethnicity,the effect of national literature sources,the internal exchanging laws,the cultural context and similar history and reality,the Russian-Soviet had a significant influence on the Chinese Kazakh literature development,creative principle,the aesthetic criteria and so on.%中国哈萨克现当代文学是在外来文化的影响下发生、发展的,其中影响最大的要数俄苏文学。由于地缘、族源以及国别文学彼此影响、交流的内在规律以及历史与现实文化语境相似等因素,俄苏文学对中国哈萨克现当代文学的发生、发展以及创作原则、审美规范等均产生了较大影响。

  14. Terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency ablation of tumors in the scientific literature: Systematic review of compliance with reporting standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for RF tumor ablation has been gaining support according to the recently published scientific reports, especially in the field of radiology

  15. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B. C.

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009–2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions. PMID:27096432

  16. Literature Study on Relationship between Cold-Heat Nature of Plant-Based Chinese Herbs and Inorganic Elements%植物类中药寒热药性与无机元素相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 王振国

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between inorganic element kinds and contents of plant-based Chinese herbs and cold-heat nature of Chinese herbs through philological method, seek substantial base of cold-heat nature of Chinese herbs to provide feasible means for scientific theory of Chinese herbal property. METHOD Information from existing literatures and data analyzed by various analytic statistics method (rank sum test, Fisher discriminatory analysis, Bayes discriminatory analysis, support vector machine and so on)were applied to research the relationship between cold-heat nature of plant-based Chinese herbs and inorganic elements. RESULT Kinds and contents of inorganic elements were closely related to cold-heat nature of Chinese herbs. The correct rate of using Fisher discriminatory analysis, Bayes discriminatory analysis as well as support vector machine to analyze relationship between cold-heat nature of Chinese herbs and inorganic elements were 60.00 %, 78.75 % and 95.00 % respectively. CONCLUSION Cold-heat nature of plant-based Chinese herbs is closely related to inorganic elements in them, which suggests the feasibility that inorganic elements can characterize cold-heat nature of Chinese herbs.%目的 利用文献学的方法,研究植物类中药无机元素种类及含量与中药寒热药性的相关性,探寻中药寒热药性的无机物质基础,为科学表征中药药性理论提供可行性途径.方法 利用现有文献提供的信息资料,运用秩和检验、Fisher判别分析、Bayes判别分析、支持向量机等多种数据统计分析与挖掘方法分析数据,研究中药寒热药性与无机元素的相关性.结果 研究结果表明,无机元素的种类及含量与中药寒热药性密切相关.运用Fisher判别分析方法和Bayes判别分析方法对药物寒热药性进行判别,正确率分别为60.00%和78.75%;利用支持向量机判别药物寒热药性,正确率为95.00%.结论 植物类中药寒热药性与所

  17. Chinese Patent Medicine Tongxinluo Capsule for Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Xingjiang Xiong; Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We in...

  18. Marxismand Chinese New Literature and Art%马克思主义与中国新文艺(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炯

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between Marxism and the development oi Chinese new literature and art. By reviewing the historical and cultural changes brought about by the Communist Party of China through putting Marxism into practice in three "thirty years" after "May Fourth", and exploring the interaction between theory and practice of literature and art, as well as related controversy in the process of historical development, this paper analyzes the basic understanding of contemporary Chinese Marxist literary theory on the basic law of literature and art and the law of socialist literature and art._%马克思主义与中国新文艺的发展有密切的关系,回顾“五四“后三个30年我国在中国共产党的领导下运用马克思主义于实践所导致的历史和文艺的变化,以及在历史发展过程中文艺理论与文艺实践的互动和有关争论,应深刻总结了90年来中国马克思主义文艺理论所达到的关于文艺基本规律和社会主义文艺规律的认识。

  19. Marxism and Chinese New Literature and Art%马克思主义与中国新文艺(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炯

    2011-01-01

    马克思主义与中国新文艺的发展有密切的关系,回顾“五四”后三个30年我国文艺界在中国共产党的领导下运用马克思主义于实践所导致的历史和文艺的变化,以及在历史发展过程中文艺理论与文艺实践的互动和有关争论,应深刻总结90年来中国马克思主义文艺理论所达到的关于文艺基本规律和社会主义文艺规律的认识。%This article discusses the relationship between Marxism and the development of Chinese new literature and art. By reviewing the historical and cultural changes brought about by the Communist Party of China through putting Marxism into practice in three "thirty years" after "May Fourth", and exploring the interaction between theory and practice of literature and art, as well as related controversy in the process of historical development, this paper analyzes the basic understanding of contemporary Chinese Marxist literary theory on the basic law of literature and art and the law of socialist literature and art.

  20. Terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency ablation of tumors in the scientific literature: Systematic review of compliance with reporting standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for

  1. The Contrast of Chinese and English in the Translation of Chinese Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Li

    2009-01-01

    Chinese poetry is the soul of Chinese literature and Chinese culture. A good translation of a Chinese verse can promote the prevalence of Chinese culture. In the translation of Chinese poetry, translators should not only keep the characteristics of Chinese poems, but also embody the English characteristics. This article analyzed some versions of translation and proposed factors affecting the translation of Chinese poetry.

  2. Liyue Culture and the Evolution of Chinese Verse Literature%礼乐文化与中国韵文学的嬗变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安裴智

    2015-01-01

    “礼乐文化”是中华文化一大特点,是“礼教”、“乐教”、“诗教”的三位一体,以“乐”致“礼”、以“诗”传“教”的特点,促成了中国韵文学的发达。“诗”与“乐”是调节文人心态、让其回归“明德”高境界、从而养成君子人格的重要媒介,通过“乐”的艺术形式,达至“礼”的道德境界,这是古代“礼乐文化”长盛不衰的原因,也是中国韵文学在世界文坛独标一帜之内因。韵文学是理境情趣与格律声调和谐相融、带有音乐属性、可以吟唱的文学。中国韵文学最主要的文体形式是诗、词、曲。而长期的韵文学研究,片面地将“曲”肢解为散曲(清曲),而将以元杂剧、明清传奇为代表的剧曲排斥在曲体文学之外,从而割裂了中国韵文学的完整性。作为昆曲文学脚本的明清传奇,不仅是中国曲体文学的最后一次辉煌,也是曲体文学发展的最高范式,是中国古代韵文学的晚期杰作。%“(rites-music) Culture”, comprising of “( propriety education )”, “( music education )”, and“(poetry education)”, is a major characteristic of Chinese culture. With“yue (music)”to advocate “ (propriety)”, and with “(poetry)” to spread “(Confucian teaching) ”, “Culture”contributed to the boom of Chinese verse literature. “ ” and “ ” are the important medium for literary individuals to adjust their state of mind to bring it back to“mingde (original state of human mind) ”, and nurture the gentleman personality. People attempted to get to the ideal moral state of “li” through the artistic form of“ ”, which kept the ancient “Culture” prosperous, and was also the internal reason that made Chinese verse literature a unique literary form worldwide. The verse literature, a perfect blend of content (ideas, scenes, emotion, taste, etc.) and rhythmic qualities of language (like

  3. A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Price, Jordan V; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Most scientists agree that comprehension of primary scientific papers and communication of scientific concepts are two of the most important skills that we can teach, but few undergraduate biology courses make these explicit course goals. We designed an undergraduate neuroimmunology course that uses a writing-intensive format. Using a mixture of primary literature, writing assignments directed toward a layperson and scientist audience, and in-class discussions, we aimed to improve the ability of students to 1) comprehend primary scientific papers, 2) communicate science to a scientific audience, and 3) communicate science to a layperson audience. We offered the course for three consecutive years and evaluated its impact on student perception and confidence using a combination of pre- and postcourse survey questions and coded open-ended responses. Students showed gains in both the perception of their understanding of primary scientific papers and of their abilities to communicate science to scientific and layperson audiences. These results indicate that this unique format can teach both communication skills and basic science to undergraduate biology students. We urge others to adopt a similar format for undergraduate biology courses to teach process skills in addition to content, thus broadening and strengthening the impact of undergraduate courses. PMID:23471252

  4. Characteristics and use of grey literature in scientific journals articles of Algerian researchers: Case study of University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene (Physics, Chemistry and computer sciences)

    OpenAIRE

    Chalabi, Lydia (CERIST); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines grey literature in research articles of Algerian teachers-researchers across the STM(Physics, Chemistry & Computer science) sciences at Algerian University of Science and Technology "USTHB". Each of these disciplines is respectively high ranked according to the report of Algerian general directorate of scientific research and technological development about Top emerged disciplines in Algeria. The purpose of the study is to reports the important and use of electronic resour...

  5. Malmquist Index Analysis of the Dynamic Changes in Scientific Research Productivity of Some Chinese Universities before and after Merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongmei; Liang, Wenyan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamic changes in research productivity of Chinese higher education institutions (HEIs) before and after merger with Malmquist index, and decomposes the total factor productivity change index into catching-up effect, scale effect and frontier-shift effect. The main finding is that technological improvement and innovation…

  6. CT features of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract in Chinese population and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate the CT features in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) of the gastrointestinal tract in the Chinese population. Computed tomography scans of 15 histopathologically proven cases of PTCL involving the gastrointestinal tract were retrospectively reviewed for characteristics such as sites, multiplicity, morphological features, the pattern and degree of contrast enhancement, lymphadenopathy, involvement of other organs and complications such as perforation, intussusceptions, ascites and so on. By reviewing the literature, CT findings of PTCL involving the gastrointestinal tract were compared with that involved by B-cell lymphoma. PTCLs involved the stomach and intestine in six and nine patients, respectively. Multiplicity was seen in seven patients, and solitary involvement was seen in eight. At CT, wall thickening was the predominant finding in all cases with an exception of one intestinal PTCL case presented as polypoid mass. Among the 14 patients, the gastric or bowel wall thickening was mild (<10 mm) in three, moderate (10–20 mm) in 10 and severe (>20 mm) in one. Nine cases demonstrated mild homogeneous enhancement, whereas six showed mild heterogeneous enhancement. Lymphadenopathy was present in eight patients, five of which were non-bulky (diameter <5 cm) and diffuse type and the rest (three) were non-bulky and localised type. Other organs were involved in four patients. Perforation as complication was evident in one gastric and five intestinal lymphomas (55.6%). Among the nine intestinal PTCLs, seven of the patients were male (77.9%) and the rest (two) were female with a median age of 37.1 years old. Intestinal PTCLs predominantly involved colon (n = 5). Other sites of involvement were ileum (n = 1), ileocaecum (n = 1), ileum and ileocaecum (n = 1) and entire bowel segment from distal ileum to transverse colon (n = 1). PTCLs have some distinguishing radiological features from B-cell type gastrointestinal

  7. Trends in scientific literature on addiction to the internet, video games, and cell phones from 2006 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Carbonell

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5 th Edition could change the publication trends in the technological addiction area and underline the relevance of this upcoming disorder in dissatisfaction with life in general.

  8. 中国古代医药文献对外传播及其影响%International Communication and Influence of Chinese Medical Literature in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔卓瑶; 张宗明

    2015-01-01

    文献是人类文明的基本载体。在中医药对外交流的历程中,医药文献传播的重要意义自不待言。医药文献不仅是中医药文化历时传承的重要途径,也是中医药文化共时交流的重要方式。鉴古启今,梳理中医药跨文化传播史,发现凭借着丰富的中医药典籍、先进的造纸术和印刷术、开放的对外政策、发达的海陆交通,通过官方和民间两种途径,中国古代医药文献大量地输出,远播亚洲、欧洲,对汉方医学、韩医学等输入国的传统医学产生了深远的影响。%Literature is the basic carrier of human civilization . In the multi‐cultural exchanges of T raditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ,there is no need to underscore the fact that the spread of medical literature is significant .Medical literature is not only the key channel to the inheritance of TCM culture ,but also an important way for the communication of TCM culture .It is enlightening to systematically review the intercultural communication history of TCM .The study found that a great deal of Chinese medical classics ,the invention of papermaking and printing ,the open policy and the developed transportation ,plenty Chinese medical classics spread abroad to Asia and Europe by the folk and governmental ways .It exerted profound influence on the traditional medicine of importing countries ,such as Kampo Medicine and Korean M edicine .

  9. The guava's Smell and the red sorghum flavor. Magic realism in Latin-American and Chinese literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the author of Hundred Years of Solitude has become a great idol and a constant source of the ???anxiety of influence??? (as phrased by Harold Bloom) for an entire generation of Chinese writers, including Jia Pingwa, Yu Hua, Su Tong, Yan Lianke, Ma Yuan and Mo Yan. The paper proposes a parallel reading between Gabriel Garc??a M??rquez and Mo Yan, the Chinese Nobel laureate, in order to demonstrate that the Latin American magical realism and its adventure in China has formed pa...

  10. Nordic interdisciplinary reviews of the scientific literature concerning the relationsiip between indoor environmental factors and health, Nordworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, C.-G.

    The relationship between indoor air environments and health is, however, a truly interdisciplinary area involving numerous disciplines. Scientific work is primarily "within disciplinary", often resulting in conclusions that would not stand in an interdisciplinary context. Results are mostly......, NORDPET, NORDDAMP, NORDVENT) on VOC/health, pets/allergy, dampness/health and ventilation/health are presented....

  11. An Analysis of Difficulties Facing Chinese Scientists’ Holding Posts in International Scientific Organizations and Its Suggestions%我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题及建议探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军平; 秦久怡

    2016-01-01

    Based on some literatures and cases, the paper analyzes some difficulties facing Chinese scientists’ holding posts in international scientific organizations, where some suggestions are put forward in this regard: increase training efforts to make knowledge structure of Chinese scientists diversified both in width and depth; formulate policies and regulations to attract some headquarters for international scientific organizations to be located in China; and issue policies to set up talent reserve pools for the training of preparatory teams and talents for holding posts in international scientific organizations.%结合有关文献材料和案例,本文分析了我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题,尝试提出以下建议:加大培训,使科学家的知识结构更趋多元化;制定政策,支持和吸引国际科技组织总部落户中国;出台政策,建立人才储备库,培养国际科技组织任职预备队伍。

  12. A Study on the Classification and Well-Logging Identification of Eclogite in the Main Hole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jian'en; Wei Wenbo; Jin Sheng; Ye Gaofeng; Deng Ming

    2007-01-01

    Eclogite, one of the important lithologies in the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project, exists above the depth of 3 245 m and has distinctive responses of gamma-ray, compensating density and neutron well-logging, and so on. In this study, according to the diversities of minerals and chemical components and well-logging responses, eclogites are classified from three aspects of origin, content of oxygen, and sub-mineral. We studied the logging identification method for eclogite sub-classes based on multi-element statistics and reconstructed 11 kinds of eclogite.As a result, eclogites can be divided into 6 types using well logs. In the light of this recognition, the eclogite in the main hole is divided into 20 sections, and the distribution characters of all sub-classes of eclogite are analyzed, which will provide important data for geological research of CCSD.

  13. Deciphering Primary and Popular Literature: An Interactive Approach for Promoting Students’ Development of Scientific, Digital, and Information Literacy in Post-Secondary Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy M. Cleveland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In an era of unprecedented scientific and technological advancement, it is imperative that individuals possess the ability to interpret and make meaning of current scientific phenomena, including those of both national and global importance.  Despite this necessity, research suggests that less than 30% of Americans are able to understand the science section of the New York Times or other popular media resources.  In this paper, we present an interactive approach utilizing primary and popular literature that is designed to: a enhance students’ understanding of science content; b promote students’ ability to make use of evidence to support or reject claims regarding controversial science topics; and c improve students’ oral and written communication skills.  Applications for use in post-secondary classrooms are discussed.

  14. Origin of Chinese Sorrow Emotion Literature%情往会悲,文来引泣:中国哀感文学溯源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓红

    2014-01-01

    As a unique literary genre, the earliest source of lament in the history of Chinese literature is the text from Yellow Bird in the Book of Songs. There are many sad performances in Book of Songs, such as dy⁃ing young, the death of parents, grief for country perishes and expeditions, injuries and parting, feeling lonely, worried or frustrated etc. So the Book of Songs is the source of Chinese sorrow emotion literature. Its contents and methods of performance have forever accumulated in Chinese culture, becoming the eternal themes of the traditional literary creation.%作为一种独特的文学体裁,中国文学史上哀辞的最早源头是《诗经·秦风·黄鸟》篇,它具有后代哀辞的基本特征。由哀伤夭折人到哀悼父母亡,再到悲哀国破家亡,感伤繁重徭役、征战、苦难生活,伤离别、叹孤苦,忧心失意婚恋以及感时伤怀等等,人生一切不如意事尽在诗人笔下,《诗经》因此成为中国哀感文学的源头。它采用赋比兴手法所描写和表达的悼者的哀悯、忧国者的感伤、征夫的悲苦、恋人的离愁以及弃妇的哀怨之情,永远积淀在中国文化之中,成为中国传统诗文创作中的永恒的题材。

  15. Search of the Russian scientific literature for the descriptions of the medical consequences of the Kyshtym accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, F.L.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes a study concerning the nuclear waste accident at Kyshtym in the Soviet Urals in 1958. Soviet medical literature, interviews with potentially knowledgeable people, and the Samizdat Writing (underground documents smuggled to the West and/or surreptitiously circulated in the Soviet Union), were studied to attempt to determine what injuries or deaths, if any, occurred as a result of the event. All of the cases of radiation exposure discussed in the various literature searched seemed to be typical occupational or therapy overdoses. No allusion to the massive numbers reportedly irradiated in the accident appears in the literature searched. Evidently, these data are classified and not discussed in the open literature. This study also resulted in a modification of our understanding of the accident's cause; i.e., perhaps there was no single cause. At present, the best supposition is that there were many releases of wastes to the river system over time, plus an explosion in the fuel reprocessing plant, and that would help to explain the widespread distribution of nuclides. The lack of short-half-lived nuclides relative to long-lived ones can also be explained by the release over an extended period and the time between the accident and the beginning of the studies.

  16. Mining Learning and Crafting Scientific Experiments: A Literature Review on the Use of Minecraft in Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Steve; Schneider, Sascha; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Since the field of educational videogames or serious games is not limited to games that are specifically designed for educational purposes, videogames such as Minecraft have aroused the attention of teachers and researchers alike. To gain insights into the applicability of Minecraft, we reviewed the literature on use of the game in education and…

  17. Trends in scientific literature on addiction to the internet, video games, and cell phones from 2006 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Carbonell; Elena Guardiola; Héctor Fuster; Frederic Gil; Tayana Panova

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and...

  18. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Carbonell; Elena Guardiola; Héctor Fuster; Frederic Gil; Tayana Panova

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and...

  19. Improve the scientific and nutritional analysis of Chinese cooking%提高中国烹饪的科学营养化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄忠

    2015-01-01

    随着社会的不断进步和发展,中国烹饪逐渐形成、发展、成熟为具有代表性的饮食文化,在国内外久负盛名。然而在中国烹饪的发展过程中也存在很多需要完善之处。例如中国烹饪更重视对色、香、味的追求,而忽视其科学搭配、营养价值的关注。在这种新的时代背景下,政府部门首先加强对烹饪营养条例的制定和实施,烹饪教育加强对烹饪工作者培养理念及教育观念的创新与改革显得尤为重要。本文笔者将从中国烹饪的科学营养角度出发,在简要分析当前我国烹饪科学营养化存在问题的基础上,为加强中国烹饪营养化、科学化的步伐提出具体策略,旨在为促进中国烹饪的成熟健康发展提供充足的理论依据和实践借鉴。%Along with society's unceasing progress and development, Chinese cuisine has gradually formed, development, maturity for diet culture with representative, long enjoyed a good reputation both at home and abroad. But in the development of Chinese cuisine, there are also many needs to improve. For example, Chinese cooking pays more attention to the color, smell, taste, and the pursuit of the neglect of its scientific collocation, nutritional value of attention. In this new era background, the government departments to strengthen the formulation and implementation of the regulations of the cooking, cooking education to strengthen the cultivation of the concept and the concept of education and reform of the concept of education is particularly important. In this paper, the author will start from the perspective of science and technology of China, and analyze the existing problems of China's Culinary Science, and put forward specific strategies to strengthen the nutrition and scientiifc development of Chinese cooking.

  20. 加拿大少数族裔英语文学研究在中国:1980~2010%An overview of Chinese scholarship on Canadian ethnic', literature in English: 1980 ~ 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦亮

    2012-01-01

    As an important component of Canadian literature, Canadian ethnic literature in English is an im- portant subject of Chinese scholarship on Canadian literature. The accomplishments of Chinese scholarship on Ca- nadian ethnic literature in English are largely embodied in its focus on Chinese Canadian literature, South Asian Canadian literature, Jewish Canadian literature and Russian Canadian literature. It fails to pay due attention to oth- er ethnic literatures and the study of some important ethnic writers is skin-deep. As a whole, Chinese scholarship on Canadian ethnic literature in English suffers from a lack of scope, which is, to a large extent, caused by the scarcity of the translation of Canadian ethnic literature in English%加拿大少数族裔英语文学是加拿大文学的重要组成部分,也是我国加拿大文学研究的重点关注对象。我国在华裔、南亚裔、犹太裔和俄裔加拿大英语文学研究方面取得了一定成绩,但对其他少数族裔英语文学的关注度还不够,对一些重要少数族裔作家的研究还不够深入和全面,研究面相对狭窄,尚未形成研究规模。文学作品译介方面的匮乏是造成我国加拿大少数族裔文学研究相对滞后的一个重要原因。

  1. Terminology and Reporting Criteria for Radiofrequency Ablation of Tumors in the Scientific Literature: Systematic Review of Compliance with Reporting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Materials and Methods Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure ...

  2. 论世界语理想与弱小民族文学%The ideal of Esperanto and the translation of the literatures of minor nationalities into Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炳辉

    2007-01-01

    Esperanto movement presents a specific language and cultural phenomenon in the history of intercultural communication,which once exerted an extensive influence on modern Chinese culture.As an artificial intemational auxiliary language with a tinge of idealism,Esperanto has displayed complex cultural functions of translingual practices.In the 20th century,Esperanto was used in China as a medium to translate foreign literatures.mostly those from minor nationalities in central and eastern Europe.in which the contradiction between the cosmopolitism and antagonism of minor nationalities is reflected,and the inherent tension of modemity of the Chinese literature is exposed,which is worth noting for those engaged in the studies of the relations between Chinese and foreign literatures.

  3. Notes on Collation of Lu Xun’ s Outline of the History of Chinese Literature%鲁迅《汉文学史纲要》校勘札记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣抚生

    2016-01-01

    对人民文学出版社2005年版《鲁迅全集》中的《汉文学史纲要》注释和文字错误进行辨正,共指出并纠正存在的事实、文字错误20余处。%Twenty errors regarding the facts or Chinese characters have been collated in Outline of the History of Chinese Literature collected in the 2005 edition of The Complete Works of Lu Xun published by the People’ s Literature Publishing House.

  4. Literatura científica brasileira sobre transtornos do espectro autista Brazilian scientific literature about autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo refere-se a uma revisão sistemática, cujo objetivo foi conduzir uma análise da produção científica de autores brasileiros sobre Transtornos do espectro autista (TEA, no período de 2002 a 2009. MÉTODOS: A busca bibliográfica foi realizada nas bases de dados: PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS e portal CAPES, incluindo diversos descritores, tais como autismo e transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento. RESULTADOS: Um total de 93 artigos foi identificado, tendo sido publicados, sobretudo por autores da região Sudeste e de universidades públicas. Aproximadamente um terço dos artigos foi publicado em revistas com algum fator de impacto variando entre 0,441 e 3,211; sendo a maioria dos artigos baseada em amostras pequenas. Foram identificadas 140 dissertações e teses; 82,1% eram dissertações de mestrado. O principal tema de pesquisa abordado neste material relacionou-se a programas de intervenção para TEA. CONCLUSÃO: Esta revisão mostra o interesse de pesquisadores brasileiros na temática dos TEA, entretanto, uma parte considerável dessa produção científica se concentra em dissertações/teses e a minoria em artigos científicos publicados em revistas com elevado fator de impacto. Os resultados desta revisão sistemática mostram a necessidade de novos estudos com amostras maiores que levariam a um maior impacto e visibilidade da produção científica brasileira relativa aos TEA.OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic review aiming to conduct a general analysis of the scientific production covering publications of Brazilian authors about ASD in the period from 2002 to 2009. METHODS: The bibliographic search was conducted in the following scientific databases: PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS and portal CAPES, by using keywords such as autism and pervasive developmental disorders. RESULTS: A total of 93 papers were identified mainly produced by authors from tSoutheast Brazil and from public universities. Approximately one

  5. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine:A concise report of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanika Patel; Ravi B Singh; Dinesh K Patel

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins.Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on aC27 cholestane skeleton.Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system.Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques.Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  6. APPLICATION OF PARAMETER CONTINUATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR. PROBLEM STATE. SHORT SURVEY OF WORLD SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bazhenov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their works study vibroimpact system dynamic behaviour by numerical parametric continuation technique combined with shooting and Newton-Raphson’s methods. The technique is adapted to two-mass two-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact system under periodic excitation. Impact is simulated by nonlinear contact interaction force based on Hertz’s contact theory. Stability or instability of obtained periodic solutions is determined by monodromy matrix eigenvalues (multipliers based on Floquet’s theory. In the present paper we describe the state of problem of parameter continuation method using for nonlinear tasks solution. Also we give the short survey of numerous contemporary literature in English and Russian about parameter continuation method application for nonlinear problems. This method is applied for vibroimpact problem solving more rarely because of the difficulties connected with repeated impacts.

  7. 浅议苏轼文论中的“枯”%On the Chinese Word‘Ku’ Used in SuShi’ s Theory of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石浩; 刘顺

    2014-01-01

    苏轼,是宋代影响最大的文学家之一,同时也是一个自觉进行理论探索的多面手。当宋朝文人争言“平淡”时,唯独苏轼提出了“枯淡”,显得独特而引人注目。试揭示作为中国文论术语“枯”的出现过程,并以此去观照苏轼文论中“枯”的含义,揭示其对之前文论中“枯”的继承性和创新性。%Sushi was one of the great writers in the Song dynasty , and at the same time he was also a person who made a theo-retical exploration of the literary art .When most of people talked about the Chinese word ‘Pingdan’, of which Sushi presented his idea .So this paper tries to illustrate the features of word ‘Ku’ in the Theories of the Chinese Literature , and contrast the nature of word with that of Sushi ’ s interpretation to discover the inheritance and innovation of this idea .

  8. 民族医药古籍保护性研究意义及现状%Significance and Present Status of Conservation Research on Ancient Literatures of Chinese Ethnic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 冯岭

    2015-01-01

    -of-mouth might face the danger of failure in finding an eligible heir to inherit them.Therefore,it is urgent and necessary for the whole society to gather strength to carry out emergent investigations of various versions of those ancient literatures of ethnic medicine and afterward specialized and scientific protection,arrangement and research work.Take the protective research of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures for example,with the special attention and financial aids of all different levels of government departments such as the Ministry of Science and Technology,a nationwide project of the survey,collection and arrangement of Ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was carried out for the first time.After more than five yearswork,a catalogue was published for the first time by the re-search team as an approach to protect the cultural property right of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures.It was the first time for the catalogue to be translated into Tibetan,Chinese,English and Latin according to international standards as a research result for promotional purposes.It was also the first time for the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures to be permanently preserved,protected and spread in digital form-by way of building an information platform.Besides,the intellectual property right of ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was also protected through registering patents and copyrights,etc.The work experience and scientific research model that the research team gained laid a solid foundation for the scientific protection,inheritance and development of the ancient literatures of ethnic medicine in China;it also established a mature,scientific orientation for further research.

  9. 20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型阐释%20th Century Chinese Literature Gun Yu Archetypical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙胜杰

    2014-01-01

    鲧禹神话作为原型在文学中被塑造成英雄神话,它凝结了人类对英雄的崇拜,积淀在原始先民的意识底层。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型并不是对鲧禹神话的简单重复,也不仅局限在单一的、永远不变的英雄模式,而是随着历史发展和不同时代文化背景被不断丰富、变化,不断置换变形,从英雄走向普通凡人。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型成为各种力量借以表达自身的文化符码,既体现出了作品的深厚的文化底蕴和历史内涵,又能让我们在相同的原始思维的模式下体验不同的文化,也能更直接、更深刻地认识原型这一既抽象又具体,既多变又稳定的人类文化与文学基因。%Gun Yu myth as a prototype in the literature as a hero mythology, it is perhaps the epitome of human to the hero worship, accumulate at the bottom of the pioneers of the original consciousness. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype is not simply repeat the Gun Yu myth, not just confined to a single, forever hero model, but with the development of history and the cultural background of the different age is rich, the constantly changing, constantly displacement deformation, from hero to ordinary mortals. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype become forces so as to express its own cultural codes, not only reflects the profound connotation of culture and history of the works, but also let us in the same original thinking mode of the experience of different cultures, and more direct, more profound understanding prototype this is both abstract and concrete, is both varied and genetic stability of human culture and literature.

  10. Research trend analysis of study areas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on the spatial information mining from scientific literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Ma, Mingguo; Li, Xin

    2011-11-01

    The subject intersection becomes one of the hot research topics recently. It is a new direction to integrate the GIS technologies with Bibliometrics. The literatures concerned with geosciences normally involve some spatial related information. In this paper, the spatial information of the study area and sampling or observing points was extracted. Then these data were analyzed and presented by using the GIS technologies. The results indicate that there are big variations of the spatial distribution. For the whole Qinghai-Tibet plateau, the degree of interest increase as follow: southwest, northwest, southeast, and northeast. For the regions, Qilian Mountains, Qiangtang plateau, Qinghai-Tibet Road and Qinghai-Tibet Railway, Qinghai Lake, and Sichuan-Tibet Road are the hotspot regions. There are differences of the distribution characteristics in the different segments along the latitudinal direction and longitudinal direction. There is transfer tendency from middle Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Most of sampling and observing points are close to the traffic lines. The point numbers decrease quickly along with the increasing distance to the traffic lines.

  11. The unusual stability of TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene): A review of the scientific literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, S.F.; Simpson, R.L.

    1990-07-04

    This review is intended as an up-to-date review of the scientific literature on TATB since its discovery as a high explosive. In particular, it focuses on clarifying our current understanding of the relationship between the structure of TATB and its unique thermal stability. We review a large number of different publications by many authors. A small portion of the work on TATB'' presented actually consists of experimental studies on TATB formulated as PBX-9502 or as LX-17. Where relevant, this distinction is indicated. However, inasmuch as this review focuses on thermal response and the relationship of chemical reactivity to the molecular and lattice structure of TATB as a pure material, results from these other formulations may not be directly applicable, and in general we have omitted them. 4 refs.

  12. 从阳虚论治失眠中医文献评析%Literature Analysis on Treatment of Insomnia Based on Yang Deficiency in Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春华; 陈建斌; 黄鹂; 杨小波; 杨志敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To research the syndrome identification and treatment administration of insomnia with yang deficiency syndrome in Chinese medicine journals. Methods Literature on treating insomnia from yang deficiency in Chinese medicine journals was searched from VIP database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and China National Knowledge In-ternet (CNKI) from March 1979 to February 2010. The syndrome identification and treatment administration of insomnia with yang deficiency syndrome was analyzed with content analysis method from treating ideas, treating basis, treating rule and com-monly used prescriptions. Results Sixty articles were selected according to the standard. The main treating ideas of insomnia from yang deficiency were disease identification (27 articles) and disease identification combined with syndrome identification (25 articles). The treating basis was symptoms of yang deficiency, tongue image and pulse (39 articles) and damage to yang and qi (14 articles). The commonly used treating rule was wanning yang and quieting the spirit (32 articles) and warming yang and supplementing (22 articles). The commonly used prescriptions were Guizhi Decoction (Cinnamon Twig Decoction, 17 arti-cles) and self-made formulas (11 articles), Sini Decoction (Decoction for Resuscitation, 9 articles), and Shenqi Wan (Pill for Tonifying Kidney-qi, 7 articles). Conclusion Chinese medicine has theoretical knowledge and practical experience in treating insomnia with yang deficiency. However, it is lake of overall knowledge from the literature amount.%目的 通过中医期刊文献了解中医对阳虚失眠的辨治认识. 方法 检索1979年3月至2010年2月维普全文数据库、中国生物医学文献数据库和中国学术期刊全文数据库,收集中医期刊中从阳虚论治失眠的文献,应用内容分析法分别从辨治思路、辨治依据、治疗法则、常用方剂等方面分析文献对阳虚失眠的论治.结果

  13. On Chinese Contemporary Literature Creation Limitations from Snail House%从《蜗居》看中国当代文学创作的局限性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛涛

    2011-01-01

    The Snail House TV version is very faithful to the original novel. The banning of TV series Snail House not only reflects the non - ecological characteristic of the contemporary cultural context, but also exposes the structural lack of the whole contemporary literary creation : 1. realism makes Snail House follow the emotional logic and life logic character on the characterization and plot structure , not like the contemporary urban novels which write the urban marginal group with civilization disease on the modernism or post - modernism cultural position ; the Snail House reflects that contemporary literature has forgotten the" May 4"literature realism ; 2. the tragic of Snail House grips the ordinary people in the real life, which is different from "17 years" literature and the post - cuhural revolution literature which is the historicization of tragedy ; it is also different from the pioneer literature , feminism literature, root- searching literature which culturalzed and philosophized tragedy ; Snail House makes tragedy reflect the universality of Scheler sense , also breaks the ideology myth that the contemporary Chinese literature does not have real tragedy. 3. the strong practical critical spirit of the Snail House reflects the predicament in the Chinese realistic contemporary literature creation, and realism has been an ideological strategies, and makes the" real life" in the contemporary literature lost. Therefore, the development of Chinese contemporary literature does not have the ecological significance of the "bush style", and more like a beautiful and pale "penning art".%《蜗居》的电视版非常忠实于小说原作。电视剧《蜗居》的被禁不仅折射出了当代文化语境的非生态性,更暴露了整个当代文学创作的结构性匮乏:一是,写实性使《蜗居》在塑造人物、构置情节上遵循人物的情感逻辑和生活逻辑,而非当代都市小说那样在现代主义或后现代

  14. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study. PMID:26813321

  15. Strengthening students’ reading comprehension ability (both Chinese and English) through developing children’s literature equiz bank on the cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, WWY; Chu, SKW; Chan, H.; Wong, J.; Tse, SK; Tavares, N; Mok, SWS

    2014-01-01

    Reading proficiency is closely related to students’ academic performance. The online e-quiz bank “Reading Battle” aims at enhancing students’ reading interest and developing their reading habits. After reading children’s literature borrowed from school libraries, students may take quizzes on the e-quiz bank to evaluate their reading comprehension ablility. First launched in Hong Kong, the e-quiz bank assists students in enhancing their reading interest and abilities by motivating, scaffolding...

  16. Ancient literature research on Chinese medicine formulae of diabetic nephropathy%基于古代文献的糖尿病肾病方药研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 刘旭生

    2012-01-01

    This research was to comb ancient Chinese medicine formulae on diabetic nephropathy by using Chinese Medical Tantras, and analyzing ancient literature. 87 ancient formulae were retrieved, which were recorded begin from the tang dynasty to the republic of China. Pill of Six Ingredients with Rehmannia, Shenqi-pill, Poria Alba Pill and Decoction of Four Drugs were recorded more frequency. However, only a handful of prescription has set up a file in the modern clinical application. It was discovered that two principles could help modem physicians using ancient formulae, that was syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation. But how to guide the clinical application of ancient formulae in modern clinic is still worth further explored.%本研究采用《中华医典》第四版为检索工具,通过检索糖尿病肾病相关古代文献,对其治疗方药进行梳理.共检索到方药87首,方药记载古籍年限起自唐朝止于民国.其中六味地黄丸、加减肾气丸、白茯苓丸、加减四物汤被记载引用较多.然而仅少数方药目前在临床推广应用.初步研究认为,现代医家可根据辨证论治和辨病论治两大原则应用古籍方药,但是如何让古籍方药更好的在现代临床应用仍值得进一步探究.

  17. Alice in the multicultural-land: the reading/writing and writing/oracy connection to enhance Chinese competence in literature education

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, WM; Chan, SWY; Wong, WY

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foreign language anxiety (FLA)(Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986) has often been reported by Chinese language teachers among ethnic minority (EM) students. Second language performance seems negatively correlated with higher levels of FLA, and FLA is typically highest for speaking. Not only do EM students need to learn Chinese as a second language to enhance Chinese competence and promote social inclusion, local students with Chinese as their native language would also add dimensions t...

  18. 中国传统药膳文化科学发展问题的思考%Scientific Perspective on Development of Chinese Traditional Medicated Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏明; 管婧婧

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the relationship between Chinese traditional medicated food science and modern nutriology, identify the developmental direction of modern medicated food culture, and propose suggestions for the scientific development of medicated food culture. [Method] Based on the previous studies, the comparative research was conducted to analyze the difference between and similarity of medicated food science and modern nutriology in terms of the theory system and research expertise. [Result] The scientific and objective recognition of the effects of medicated food could promote the development of medicated food culture. For the academic research, the advantages of traditional medicated food culture and weakness of modern nutriology need to be understood. For the practice, the experience of modern nutriology can be learned to help the innovation of medicated food science's research methods and regulation of usage. [Conclusion] The development of medicated food culture not only needs to inherit the tradition, but also needs to learn from the modern nutriology and pharmacology, and assimilates the achievements from modern western science civilization.%[目的]探究中国传统药膳学与现代食品营养学的关系,明确当代药膳文化发展的方向,提出药膳文化科学发展的对策。[方法]以相关文献为基础,采用比较研究法对药膳学与食品营养学就两者的理论体系和研究专长进行相似性和差异性分析。[结果]要实现药膳文化的科学发展,对药膳的功效要有科学、客观的认识。理论研究上要看到传统药膳学的宏观远见以及现代食品营养学的不足,积极发掘整理药膳文献;在实践上要吸收现代食品营养学研究的一些经验,创新药膳的研究方法,为药膳的使用制定规范。[结论]在继承传统的同时,借鉴现代营养学和药理学的理论,吸收现代西方科技文明的优秀成果,可以实现药膳文化的科学发展。

  19. 深化文艺美学研究弘扬中华美学精神%Deepening the Researches Of Aesthetics Of Literature and Art and PrOmOting the Chinese Aesthetic Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶水平

    2015-01-01

    美学不仅是一门学问、一门学术,更是一种精神、一种智慧。当代美学研究要实现从知识和学问向精神和智慧的提升,传承与弘扬中华美学精神是必由之路。中华美学是世界上最重视生命价值与精神追求的美学形态,传承与弘扬中华美学精神是当代美学研究的一个重要理论课题,文艺美学理论工作者责无旁贷。“兴”是中华古典文艺美学中最重要最具民族特色的基元性范畴,“兴”论美学是中华古典艺术和美学的文化原型,也是中华美学精神最生动的集中体现,“兴”论美学研究对于彰显中华美学精神具有重要意义。立足文艺美学研究角度,以中华古典兴论美学为例,探讨如何深化文艺美学研究,实现兴论美学的现代转化,使之成为中国当代文艺美学的重要理论基础,从而传承与弘扬中华美学精神。%aesthetics is not just a branch of knowLedge and academic study,but it is more than often a spirit and inteLLigence. inheriting and promoting the Chinese aesthetic spirit is the surest way for the contemporary aesthetics studies to achieve the eLevation from just a branch of knowLedge and aca-demic study to a spirit and inteLLigence. Chinese aesthetics,attaching greatest importance in Life vaLue and spirituaL pursuit,is the most significant theoreticaL research project in inheriting and promoting the Chinese aesthetic spirit. accordingLy,there is no shirking the responsibiLity for theorists of aes-thetics of Literature and art.“Xing”is a fundamentaL aesthetic category of traditionaL Chinese aes-thetics of Literature and art that onLy beLongs to Chinese nationaLity. The aesthetics research on the theory of“Xing”is not onLy the cuLturaL archetype of cLassicaL Chinese art and aesthetics but aLso vividLy concentrated refLection of the Chinese aesthetic spirit. accordingLy,it is of primaL significance in shaping and dispLaying the Chinese

  20. One «Both» Sex«es»: Observations, suppositions, and airy speculations on fetal sex anatomy in British scientific literature, 1794-1871.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The hegemony of the two-sex paradigm in the European scientific imagination and wider culture did not automatically equate to the hegemony of two discrete genders. In fact, two sexes facilitated a variety of gender choices: two singular and a number of double or otherwise intersexed (most commonly referred to as "hermaphrodite" or "bisexual" in its anatomical sense). This article explores some key British medical and allied scientific texts, with reference to associated Continental literature, as a means of illustrating the complexity of the two-sex paradigm and the unexpected transformation of gender possibilities that it helped produce through the early and middle decades of the nineteenth century. Discourses surrounding the first direct observations of the earliest development of fetal urinogenital anatomy were pivotal. The prevailing view that the incipient embryo was sexually undifferentiated (a paragon of the one-sex paradigm) was challenged by the Edinburgh anatomist Robert Knox, initially as he sought to bolster his professional reputation at the height of the Burke and Hare "body-snatching" scandal. Knox suggested that every embryo began life in an essentially dual-sexed state, an individual's sex anatomy depending on the greater or lesser development of component female and male structures. Greater clarification on the contested status of the homology-hermaphrodite distinction was achieved with the discovery of the early co-existence of the excretory duct of the Wolffian body (mesonephric duct) and the Müllerian duct (paramesonephric duct), an observation that made anatomical bisexuality difficult to ignore. The nineteenth-century's greatest champion of primordial hermaphroditism was Charles Darwin who was pivotal in phylogenizing the principle and establishing the premise that (in his own words) "Every man & woman is hermaphrodite," a foundation stone of late-nineteenth-century sexology. PMID:24150887

  1. 当代文学史的“完成”与“未完成”——论洪子诚《中国当代文学概说》的文学史研究方法与问题%'Accomplished' and ' Unaccomplished' in Contemporary Chinese Literature History --On Literature History Research Methods and Problems in A Summary of Contemporary Chinese Literature by HONG Zi -cheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宁

    2012-01-01

    《中国当代文学概说》以“小书”的外形将洪子诚厚重的文学史观包含其中。《概说》是洪子诚历史整体意识、历史还原方法、不露声色的叙述语言风格和治史智慧的结晶。它实现了多重维度上的当代文学史的“完成”,但它在史的“完成”之外依然回荡着史的“未完成”话外音。它在当代文学史的研究、处理方法等方面,还有值得商榷的空间。洪子诚独特的文学史研究姿态,使《概说》呈现出具有特色的文学史写作风貌。%A Summary of Contemporary Chinese Literature is a 'little book' , but it contains the HONG Zi - cheng' s massive literature history notion. The book reflects the writer' s overall sense of history, historical reduction method, unemotional language style, and his wisdom in history narra- tive. The book has achieved unusual innovation in literature history in multiple dimensions; howev- er, it still leaves some room for further discussion and exploration, especially in its research methods and handling approach. The writer studies the contemporary Chinese literature history in a special way, which has made his book present a writing style different from the others.

  2. The first step in the development of text mining technology for cancer risk assessment: identifying and organizing scientific evidence in risk assessment literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most neglected areas of biomedical Text Mining (TM is the development of systems based on carefully assessed user needs. We have recently investigated the user needs of an important task yet to be tackled by TM -- Cancer Risk Assessment (CRA. Here we take the first step towards the development of TM technology for the task: identifying and organizing the scientific evidence required for CRA in a taxonomy which is capable of supporting extensive data gathering from biomedical literature. Results The taxonomy is based on expert annotation of 1297 abstracts downloaded from relevant PubMed journals. It classifies 1742 unique keywords found in the corpus to 48 classes which specify core evidence required for CRA. We report promising results with inter-annotator agreement tests and automatic classification of PubMed abstracts to taxonomy classes. A simple user test is also reported in a near real-world CRA scenario which demonstrates along with other evaluation that the resources we have built are well-defined, accurate, and applicable in practice. Conclusion We present our annotation guidelines and a tool which we have designed for expert annotation of PubMed abstracts. A corpus annotated for keywords and document relevance is also presented, along with the taxonomy which organizes the keywords into classes defining core evidence for CRA. As demonstrated by the evaluation, the materials we have constructed provide a good basis for classification of CRA literature along multiple dimensions. They can support current manual CRA as well as facilitate the development of an approach based on TM. We discuss extending the taxonomy further via manual and machine learning approaches and the subsequent steps required to develop TM technology for the needs of CRA.

  3. Aggression of Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia:A systematic literature review%我国住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为的文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼妮; 周建松

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review and analyze literature on episodes of aggression in psychiatric wards and to determine the coping and preventive strategies employed to deal with aggression of patients with schizophrenia.Methods: We used the key words such as "schizophrenia" and "aggression" to collect literature citations, which were published between July 1997 and November 2011, by searching databases such as the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD). The literature reports of aggression by patients with schizophrenia were surveyed by computer-assisted searches, scanning of reference lists, and manual search of relevant journals. We analyzed the reports of episodes of aggression in psychiatric wards.Results: Prevalence of aggression in psychiatric wards was reported to range from 9.1% (95% CI: 6.3 to 11.9) to 49.6% (95% CI: 41.1 to 58.1), with most reports in the range of 20% to 40% (mean 28.0%). The aggressive behavior often occurred in special groups and typically bore a close relationship with the patient's personal qualities, social environment, or psychiatric symptoms. The aggressive behaviors can be attributed to a lack of standardized assessments and intervention instruments.Conclusion: There is a high risk of aggression in Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia, and it is urgent to establish the scientific, standardized, operational systems for assessing and treating the aggression of these patients.%目的:分析我国住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为发生情况,探讨应对和预防精神分裂症患者攻击行为的策略.方法:以精神分裂症和攻击行为等为主题词,运用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库等国内主要文献数据库(1997年1月至2011年11月),同时辅以手工检索,并从参考文献中筛选收集有关精神分裂症患者攻击行为的文献.对符合要求的文献进行分析,总结既往对住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为的研究情况.结果:住院精神分裂症患者攻击

  4. Primary NK/T-cell lymphoma of the larynx: Report of 2 cases and review of the English-, Japanese-, and Chinese-language literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Su-Yu; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Ke; Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Ju-Mei; Lu, Qiong-Hui; Huang, Zai-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer/T (NK/T) -cell lymphoma in the larynx is extremely rare, as only 29 cases have been previously reported in the English-language, Japanese-language, and Chinese-language literature. Its characteristics have never been systematically illustrated. We report 2 new cases of laryngeal NK/T-cell lymphoma, and we discuss the process of the diagnosis of this disease, the choice of treatment, and treatment outcomes. We also summarize all 31 cases reported thus far. Symptoms of laryngeal NK/T-cell lymphoma are difficult to differentiate from those of other laryngeal diseases. The most common laryngeal subsite in the reported cases was the supraglottis, and roughly one-third of these cases involved the cervical lymph nodes. Because of our limited experience with this disease and the difficulties encountered in interpreting the pathologic findings, most patients required multiple biopsies over a few months before their diagnosis was confirmed. The outcome of treatment was generally poor. Radiotherapy, alone or combined with chemotherapy, was superior to chemotherapy alone in treating this disease in its early stages. In view of the frequency of local lymph node metastasis, irradiation fields should cover the entire cervical area. We believe that prompt diagnosis and treatment with radiotherapy are both critical to improving survival for patients with laryngeal NK/T-cell lymphoma. PMID:27140022

  5. Research on Current Textbooks of the Course of Chinese Language and Literature in Universities%大学语文教材编撰现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑剑平; 李澜澜

    2012-01-01

      This paper studies on the current situation of concrete textbooks on the basic of structure model, selection of table of contents and content of courses,and then analyzes the characteristics of current textbooks of the course of Chinese language and literature in universities: diversification of works,paying attention to culturing of quality and ability,humanity,aesthetic character and edification of ethics. This Paper analyzes and considerates of these characteristics.%  本文以具体教材为基础,从结构模式(教材编排情况)、篇目选择情况、具体教学内容几方面出发,分析研究大学语文教材编撰现状,提出当代大学语文教材有作品选择多元化,注重素质与能力培养以及侧重人文性、审美性与道德熏陶的特点。文章针对这些特点,进行了比较与思考

  6. [Floods and public health: a review of the recent scientific literature on the causes, consequences and responses to prevention and mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli

    2012-06-01

    Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1) causes; 2) consequences; 3) responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention and/or mitigation of the risks and impacts of flooding. Tables for each of the items selected were organized in order to systematize and synthesize the results for causes (attributed to natural and human activities); environmental, infrastructure and services, and health consequences (injuries and diseases classified according to chapters of ICD-10); prevention and mitigation responses and actions. It was concluded that given the scenarios of increased frequency and severity of these events, the challenges facing public health for disaster risk reduction require integrated responses with broad policies for sustainable development. PMID:22699650

  7. 蚕业科学研究现状浅析——基于SCI文献的分析研究%A Brief Analysis on Present Situation of Sericultural Scientific Research: An Investigation Based on SCI-indexed Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦俭; 袁联伟; 向仲怀

    2011-01-01

    , metamorphosis and development, immunization and other hot topics. Of these articles, 94.40% were from 5 countries, namely Japan, China, India, USA and South Korea. Among the institutions and authors of which number of published articles ranked the top 10, 6 came from Japan and 4 came from China. The average cited frequency was 7.87 and the top 3 countries were USA, Japan,and China, respectively. It should be noted that the number of articles published by Chinese authors has risen from 7 in 2000 to 110 in 2010 (ranking No. 1 of the year), being the country with the greatest increase. The article "A draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm ( Bombyx mori) ", written by Chinese authors, has been listed as an article with the highest citation rate in the filed of molecular biology and genetics by Science Watch's "Featured Emerging Research Fronts", closely reflecting the rising of China in the research field of sericulture. MAI index of Chinese sericultural articles increased to 100 for the firsttime in 2007, which meant that China's sericultural research had begun to enter the center of the world's sericultural research. And it reached 173.7 in 2010, indicating that the intensity of Chinese sericultural research has greatly exceeded the average level of the world. But looking from the angle of H-index, China needs to publish more papers of high level.According to the hot topics of the sericultural literature indexed in SCI, it is foreseeable that, after 2010, resolving the key technological problems in silk industry, promoting the development of novel silkworm- and mulberry-based bio-industries,and strengthening studies with silkworm as model organism will be the major orientations for sericultural scientific research. Studies in these fields will be promoted more deeply and comprehensively.

  8. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  9. Scientific Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest grain consumers,food security has always been a major concern for the Chinese nation.China must confront the challenge of feeding a fifth of the world's population with less than 9 percent of the planet's arable land.In 2011,China's grain output recorded growth for the eighth successive year,and total production reached an all-time high of 571million tons.In terms of food security,China's goal is to maintain a self-sufficiency rate of above 95 percent.However,an annual net population growth of 7.39 million and the effective decline of the area of farmland in the country,as a result of urbanization,make achieving such selfsufficiency a serious challenge.Given the heavy burden placed on Chinese agriculture,constantly raising productivity by relying on scientific and technological progress has become a priority for China's agricultural sector.The Ministry of Agriculture,for example,has worked to raise China's annual grain yield per-unit area by 1 percent,on average,over the past decade.Last year,the contributory rate of scientific and technological development to China's agriculture reached 52 percent,surpassing the contribution made by land,labor and other production factors for the first time in history.

  10. Soviet Russian Impacts to the Marxist Literature Critique with Chinese Ideology%苏俄对中国马克思主义文学批评的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉能

    2011-01-01

    The Marxist literature critique with Chinese ideology produced and made progress under the direct impact of the Soviet Russian Marxist literarure critique.There are three stages experienced with the Soviet Russian Marxist literature critique.The first period from 1930' to 1950' the Chinese counterparts accepted the impact of the literaure critique from the Soviet Russians;The second period from 1950' to 1970' the Chinese literature circle divorced from the Soviet Russian counterparts.And the third period from 1980' the Chinese counterparts of the literature circle conducted the introspection of the Soviet Russian literature critique.After the three stages passed the Marxist literature critique gradually formed the Chinese own basic features: there are the parts of reflection,politicalization,popular nature and combination of the revolutionary realism and romaticism.%中国形态的马克思主义文学批评是在俄苏马克思主义文学批评直接影响下产生和发展起来的。它与俄苏马克思主义文学批评的关系大致经历了三个阶段。20世纪20、30年代到50年代是第一个阶段,主要是接受俄苏马克思主义文学批评的影响;第二个阶段是50年代中期到70年代,主要是与俄苏马克思主义文学批评的疏离;80年代以后是第三个阶段,主要是对俄苏马克思主义文学批评的反思。在经过"接受——疏离——反思"的历程后,马克思主义文学批评中国形态逐步形成了自己的基本特点:反映论、政治化、人民性、革命现实主义和革命浪漫主义相结合。

  11. 试论美国华裔文学中的中国传统文化现象%On Chinese Traditional Culture Phenomenon in Chinese-American Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2011-01-01

    Chinese traditional culture influences Chinese-American writers deeply.Chinese traditional culture phenomenon is everywhere in Chinese literary works.Chinese-American writers concern about Chinese culture.Through the use of Chinese myth and folklore,the description of food culture and customs,Chinese-American writers know the culture of their ancestors more,understand their parents more and show the difficult process of cultural belonging.%华裔作家受中国传统文化的影响很深,其文学作品中体现了中国传统文化现象,通过对中国神话和民间传说的运用,饮食文化和风俗习惯的描写,美国华裔作家更加了解祖先的文化,更能理解父母,从而展示了他们寻找文化归属感的艰难历程。

  12. 基本药物中成药的循证文献特征研究%Research into Evidence-based Literatures on the Chinese Patent Medicines on the National Essential Medicine List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮润; 耿向楠; 信枭雄; 陈哲; 施阳; 肖鲁; 史录文

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究我国2009年版《国家基本药物目录》中成药临床循证文献特征,为构建中成药针对证的循证药学评价方法奠定基础.方法 通过中成药循证文献类别划分,分析13个中成药循证文献分布结构、治疗疾病集中度和时间变化特点,结合药品注册管理办法,探讨中成药循证文献的差异.结果 部分中成药循证文献的组间对照试验比例较高,近年数量增加较快,治疗疾病的集中度较高,另一部分中成药循证文献的前后对照试验和经验介绍比例较高,治疗疾病集中度较分散.结论 中成药可以分为两类,现代中成药可部分按以病为导向的循证评价方法评价,传统中成药的循证文献不宜用以病为导向的循证评价方法评价.为体现中成药的特点,必须建立以中医的证为导向的循证评价方法.%OBJECTIVE To examine the characteristics of the evidence-based clinical literatures regarding the Chinese patent medicines on the National Essential Medicine List of China (2009 Edition) so as to lay a foundation for the establishment of an evidence-based pharmaceutical review system for the Chinese patent medicines oriented at treating TCM-syndromes. METHODS The evidence-based literatures on Chinese patent medicines were categorized,and their characteristics were analyzed concerning the distribution of the literatures according to the five levels of evidence,the concentration of the diseases under treatment,and chronological changes; in accordance with the Drug Registration Regulation,the differences among these literatures were explored. RESULTS With regard to the literatures on some Chinese patent medicines,there were a large proportion of randomized controlled trials ( RCTs),with a rapid increase in the number of the literatures in recent years and a clear focus on certain diseases. By contrast,some other Chinese patent medicines had a high proportion of before-after studies and empirical introductions

  13. Research on Formation Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Scientific Literature Download Behavior%科技文献下载行为形成机理及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 何洁; 王曰芬

    2013-01-01

      以信息用户科技文献下载行为为研究对象,在文献研究的基础上,提出包含科技文献下载行为的构成、要素之间相互作用的下载行为决策概念模型,并运用PLS方法对概念模型进行实证验证,给出各影响量因素对科技文献下载行为的影响关系。结果表明:下载动机、认知和能力因素对行为主体科技文献下载决策有直接的正向影响;人格情绪、信息需求、外在因素和经验对行为主体科技文献下载决策存在间接的正向影响。%Taking scientific literature download behavior as the research object, on the basis of the literature at home and abroad, this pa-per builds a scientific literature download behavior conceptual model, makes a systematic research on the forming elements of the behavior and the elements interactions by PLS method, and gives the impact weights of each elements. Conclusions are given as: download mo-tives, cognition and ability have direct effect on scientific literature download behavior; while personality emotions, information needs, external factors and experience have indirect effect on scientific literature download behavior

  14. A Writing-Intensive Course Improves Biology Undergraduates' Perception and Confidence of Their Abilities to Read Scientific Literature and Communicate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Price, Jordan V.; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Most scientists agree that comprehension of primary scientific papers and communication of scientific concepts are two of the most important skills that we can teach, but few undergraduate biology courses make these explicit course goals. We designed an undergraduate neuroimmunology course that uses a writing-intensive format. Using a mixture of…

  15. Exploration and Conceptions on the Teaching Reform of Chinese Literature Curriculum in Colleges and Universities%关于高校中国文学史课程教学改革的探索与构思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婉霞

    2014-01-01

    History of Chinese Literature is a main course for students majoring in Chinese language and literature in institutions of higher education,and is one of the important approaches to im-prove students'overall humanities.In terms of his own experience of teaching practice over the years,the author believes teaching reform of History of Chinese Literature can be put into effect in three aspects.Firstly,students are required to read and even recite the ancient classic literature, so as to improve the students'humanities;Secondly,in order to mobilize and motivate the students 'study enthusiasm,interaction should be strengthened between teacher and students;Thirdly,e-valuating mechanism should be improved so that students'learning can be promoted.%《中国文学史》是为高等院校汉语言文学专业学生开设的一门专业主干课,是提高学生整体人文素养的重要途径。笔者结合做自己多年的教学实践之体会,认为中国文学史教学改革可以从三个方面努力:强化学生对古代经典文学作品的阅读与背诵,以提高学生的人文素养;加强教学活动中教与学的互动,以调动和激发学生的学习积极性;改进考核评价机制,以促进学生的学习。

  16. A Comparative Study of Western and Chinese Precaution of Dishonesty in Scientific Research and the Enlightenment%防范科研不端行为的制度借鉴与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张效英; 李强; 姚跃传; 陈卫平

    2011-01-01

    近些年来,科研不端现象呈现出新的发展趋势,科研活动中的行为规范问题日益显现出其重要性。西方发达国家在科研不端行为的界定、认定、防范与治理等方面进行了大量的研究与实践,并且从法规及制度上不断地完善对科研不端行为的约束,积累了较为丰富的经验。这些有益经验对于加强我国学术道德建设,建立适合我国国情的科研活动管理规范体系具有重要的借鉴意义。%In recent years,the increasing spread of dishonesty in scientific research has been witnessed,making the issue of setting code of conduct highly urgent.In western countries,the studies on dishonesty in scientific research have been conducted in the aspects of definition,affirmation,precaution and solution to enhance the sanctioning effect through legislation-drafting and regulation improvement.These rich experience is valuable for us to develop the scientific ethic and establish the management system of scientific research with Chinese characteristics.

  17. Strategy Study on Chinese Classical Literature Teaching Reform%中国古典文学作品教学改革策略探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍伟

    2015-01-01

    古典文学作品在大学语文课程教学中存在着与市场经济环境格格不入、教学方式有待改进、学生的学习态度有待矫正三个问题,提出了寻找古典文学作品与现实的契合点、革新教学方式、端正学生学习态度等三种改革策略,以期在教学实践中增强古典文学作品的教学效果,提升大学生的人文素养。%This paper introduce three problems in teaching classical Chinese literary works of college Chinese education. Firstly,the contradiction between classical Chinese literary works and the market economy;secondly,the irrational teaching methods of classical Chinese literary works; finally,the students' learning classical Chinese literary works attitude should be corrected. In order to resolve these questions,I provide three solutions. Doing more to marry classical Chinese literary works with realistic demand; Reforming the teaching methods; let the students have a good learning attitude. These strategies in order to enhance the teaching effect in teaching practice and improve college students' Humanistic qualities.

  18. Chinese migrants and forced labour in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Based on a literature survey and on an analysis of current Chinese law on trafficking. Examines the development of Chinese businesses in Europe and shows how harsh immigration policies have led to an increase in human trafficking. Investigates forced labour among Chinese migrants and examines Chinese legislation to combat trafficking.

  19. Measurement of scientific literature: a review of methods
    Medição da literatura científica: uma revisão dos métodos

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Richard D.; Alexandre do Espírito Santo

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of scientific literature is here considered a substantial part of the study of interdisciplinarity. It is argued that the determination of interdisciplinarity can be made through the use of scientometrics and bibliometrics. Distinction between these two methods was made. Scientometrics is viewed as the quantitative form of "science of science" and bibliometrics is viewed as the quantitative form of information science. Citation analysis is presented and discussed as the tool most ...

  20. Deciphering Primary and Popular Literature: An Interactive Approach for Promoting Students’ Development of Scientific, Digital, and Information Literacy in Post-Secondary Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy M. Cleveland; Jeffrey T. Olimpo

    2015-01-01

    In an era of unprecedented scientific and technological advancement, it is imperative that individuals possess the ability to interpret and make meaning of current scientific phenomena, including those of both national and global importance.  Despite this necessity, research suggests that less than 30% of Americans are able to understand the science section of the New York Times or other popular media resources.  In this paper, we present an interactive approach utilizing primary and popular ...

  1. Investigation on the Influencing Factors of the Scientific and Innovative Elites:With a National Key Laboratory's Scientific Researcher of Chinese Academic of Sciences as the Research Object%科技拔尖创新人才影响因素研究--以中科院某院级重点实验室的科研人员为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 李冰

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a national key laboratory's scientific re-searcher of Chinese academic of sciences is set as a research ob-ject. The sample scientists are analyzed, counted in macro and micro aspects. By exploring the progress along the meritocratic path, valid suggestions are put forward for cultivating the scien-tific and innovative talent.%  本文选取了中国科学院某院级重点实验室的科研人员作为考察对象,从宏观和微观方面对选取的科学家样本进行各种分析、统计,分析他们的创新成才之路,从而对培养我国的科技创新拔尖人才提出合理化建议。

  2. Investigation on the Influencing Factors of the Scientific and Innovative Elites:With a National Key Laboratory's Scientific Researcher of Chinese Academic of Sciences as the Research Object%科技拔尖创新人才影响因素研究--以中科院某院级重点实验室的科研人员为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 李冰

    2013-01-01

      本文选取了中国科学院某院级重点实验室的科研人员作为考察对象,从宏观和微观方面对选取的科学家样本进行各种分析、统计,分析他们的创新成才之路,从而对培养我国的科技创新拔尖人才提出合理化建议。%In this article, a national key laboratory's scientific re-searcher of Chinese academic of sciences is set as a research ob-ject. The sample scientists are analyzed, counted in macro and micro aspects. By exploring the progress along the meritocratic path, valid suggestions are put forward for cultivating the scien-tific and innovative talent.

  3. Darwinism:Variation of Propagation and Misreading in Modern Chinese Literature History%进化论:传播的“变异”与现代文学史编写中的“误读”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2012-01-01

      Yan Fu ignored the complexity of evolutionary process ,paid little attention to "alienation"and "degradation"and mistranslated Darwinism ,which provides ideological weapon for literary revolution and contributes to the transformation of Chinese literature in 20th century .The theory of evolution is not a value judgment standard so using the theory of evolution to judge the development of Chinese literature in the 20th century is a mistake that .To rational cognitive development and change of modern Chinese litera-ture ,misreading must be gotten rid of .%  严复对进化论的“误译”忽略了进化过程的复杂性,漠视了“异化”、“退化”等现象的存在。进化论为“文学革命”提供了思想武器和方法支撑,促成了中国文学在20世纪之交的转型。进化论不是一种价值评判标准,以之评判20世纪中国文学的发展是写史走入的误区。只有摆脱“误读”的影响,疏离“新”、“旧”二字价值判断上的应用,才能合理认知中国现代文学的发展与变革。

  4. Statistical Analysis on the Scientific Literature of Tea Economics%茶经济类科技文献的统计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永兴; 姜爱芹

    2012-01-01

    1449 Chinese literatures with tea economic themes were collected and filtered. With these articles statistical analysis on bibliometrics and keywords analysis were carried out. Results showed that during the latest 10 years the number of tea economic articles developed as a path of increasing curve with a low valley; these articles were published on 461 journals, among which the top 3 journals published more than 50 articles in each; and also there are 64.2% journals only published 1 article in each. There are 1 152 first authors in these 1 449 articles, among which there are 12 first authors who published more than 5 articles in each. These first authors affiliate to 803 institutions, which mainly belong to high education field and agriculture field, and fewer belong to research and economic institutions. The keyword analysis results showed that there are totally 3 642 keywords in 1 449 tea economic articles with total frequency of 8 595. The keywords with highest frequencies as follows: "tea industry", "industrialization", "development", "countermeasure", "brand", "famous tea", "organic tea", "Pu-erh tea", "sustainable development", "economic effect", "trade", "market", etc. In different years there are different high frequency keywords. In recent years, it occurrences some new keywords, in which the most important ones are "dark tea", "market construction", "tea industry association", "distract brand", "brand marketing", "industrial structure", etc. In the latest 10 years, the conceptions of tea brand, tea culture were gotten more attentions. Whereas, the attention to the tea export concept was dropped down for several years, but recovered in some degree in recent 3 years.%搜集、整理了中文茶经济类科技文献1 449篇,从文献统计和关键词分析的角度对其进行综述.文献统计显示,该类文献的数量在最近10年中呈现出具一定下凹度的曲线向上的增长趋势;共有461种期刊刊登茶经济类文献,其中发表50

  5. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  6. Application of Text Mining Technology in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature Research%文本挖掘技术在中医药文献研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪涛

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨文本挖掘技术在中医药文献研究中的应用成果.方法:对近年来文本挖掘技术应用于中医药研究的文献进行综述,总结文本挖掘技术在中医药中的应用成果.结果:文本挖掘技术能以线性和非线性方式解析数据,且能进行高层次的知识整合,又善于处理模糊和非量化数据.未来文本挖掘有可能整合中医药数据、蛋白质及代谢组学数据,分析组合中药活性成分,为新药发现和组合药物形成构建研发平台.结论:利用文本挖掘技术对中医药进行研究分析是一种很有前景的方法.%Objective:To investigate the application progress of text mining technology on traditional Chinese medicine literature research.Methods:Achievements of the application of text mining technology in TCM were summarized through literature review of the application of text mining technology in traditional chinese medicine in recent years.Results:Text mining technology can parse the data in the linear and nonlinear manner,with a high level of integration of knowledge.It is also good at dealing with fuzzy and not quantitative data.Text mining technology is likely to integrate traditional Chinese medicine data,protein and metabolomics data,analysis of combination traditional Chinese medicine active ingredients,which builds development platform for the new drug discovery and the form of combination drugs.Conclusion:Using text mining technology for research and analysis of traditional Chinese medicine is a promising method

  7. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Fung Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publicatio...

  8. 汉语国际教育专业文学课的教学探索与实践%The Exploration and Practice of Literature Teaching to Chinese International Education Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李然

    2015-01-01

    汉语国际教育专业文学课是在全球化文化交流的背景下创设的,旨在培养跨文化交际人才的汉语文学、文化与跨文化交际的基本素质。为克服教学内容丰富而课时量少的矛盾,在教学内容的安排上应跨学科、讲重点、重语用,强化读、写、说等基本能力的训练。%Literature course of international Chinese education is opened under the background of globalization and cultural exchanges, aiming at cultivating the intercultural communication talent with basic quality of Chinese literature, culture and inter-cultural communication. However, there is not enough class time for so much teaching contents. Therefore, teaching arrangement should focus on language usage and training of reading, writing and speaking.

  9. The 21st Century Chinese Contemporary Literature Research in South Korea:Taking Journals as an Example%21世纪中国当代文学研究在韩国--以相关期刊杂志为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉英[韩

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, researchers in South Korea have broadened their horizons in their studies of contemporary Chinese literature, and their research projects are advancing with the times, moving a single research mode to diverse angles, and breaking through the limitations of other foreign scholars. All these have helped contemporary Chinese literature study in South Korea go international and become localized.%21世纪,韩国研究者对中国当代文学研究的视野逐渐开阔,所研究的课题也在与时俱进,从单一的研究模式扩大到“多元化”的角度发展,也突破了外国学者的局限。这些研究范围的扩展使“韩国的中国当代文学研究”更能实现“国际化”和“本土化”,同时也推进了中国当代文学在世界文化交流的发展。

  10. Corelation Analysis between Digital Media and Reasonable Transition of Chinese Literature%数字媒介与中国文学合理转型相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer network ,digital media have resulted in the transition of Chinese litera‐ture ,changing the aesthetic constituentes ,space-time concept as well as the expressing system on a large scale .However ,it may at the same time exert negative effect on traditional literature ,or even alienate traditional culture .In the new context , proper control and guidence must be conducted in order to convert the challenges that digital media have brought into opportu‐nities for development of Chinese literature ,ensuring its continuous prosperity .%随着计算机网络的飞速发展,数字媒介引发了中国文学的转型,新媒介使得中国文学的审美构成、时空观念、表意体制等发生了极大的改变,这也对传统文学带来一定的破坏,甚至异化了传统文化。在新环境下,必须对中国文学主体进行合理地调控和引导,将数字媒介对中国文学的挑战转变为中国文学发展的契机,从而为中国文学的持续发展提供保障。

  11. 中国特色社会主义理论体系:科学而有用的理论%Theoretical System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics:Scientific and Useful Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽华

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is scientific and useful theory,which reflects on following aspects:proceeding from Chinese reality,it solves actual problems,working out problems of"brain"and"pocket";having abundant contents and precise logic,with series of standpoints,it reflects Party's new standard of recognition of governing law of CPC,construction rule of socialism and development discipline of human society;promoting success and changing pattern of world,it creates miracle of China and provides new development pattern for other countries.%中国特色社会主义理论体系是一种科学而有用的理论,主要体现为:面向中国问题,破解现实难题,从中国实际出发,解决了"脑袋"问题和"口袋"问题;内容丰富,逻辑严谨,用一系列重大理论观点体现了我们党对共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律的认识把握的新水平;促进中国成功、改变世界格局,不仅创造了中国奇迹,也为其他国家提供了新的发展模式.

  12. Russia's scientific legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Many insights of Russian scientists are unknown or long-forgotten outside of Russia. Making the Russian literature accessible to the international scientific community could stimulate new lines of research.

  13. Classics Reading and Experience of Chinese Language and Literature in the Network Age%网络时代汉语言文学的经典阅读与体验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小林

    2014-01-01

    The development of network technology has enriched people's knowledge and also changed people's reading habit. The number of people reading through the network is increasing year by year, and the traditional way of reading is in gradually fade. The change of the traditional reading method makes the literary works pure consumption of fast food culture, which has violated the cultural value of pleasure and spiritual impact of literary works. So under the background of network age, how to realize the fusion of network and the Chinese language and literature and let people feel the classical reading, realize the cultural value of Chinese language and literature is the main problem facing Chinese language workers.%网络技术的发展,丰富了人们的阅读知识,同时也改变了人们的阅读习惯,通过网络阅读人数在逐年递增,而传统的阅读方式却在逐渐淡化,传统阅读方式的改变使文学作品被单纯的消费为快餐文化,违背了文学作品的精神愉悦和心灵冲击的文化价值,因此在网络时代背景下,如何实现网络与汉语言文学的融合,让人们感受经典阅读,实现汉语言文学的文化价值是当前汉语言工作者需要面临的主要问题。

  14. Social scientific environmental research in Finland. An overview on the research fields and literature; Yhteiskuntatieteellinen ympaeristoetutkimus Suomessa. Katsaus tutkimusaloihin ja kirjallisuuteen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viinikainen, T. [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents an overview on Finnish social scientific research on the environment. This research field studies the interaction between man and nature, as well as the causes, solutions and effects of environmental problems, in their social context. Research activities in the field have increased in Finland in the 1990`s. In the resort the following research areas are shortly described: environmental history, environmental philosophy and theology, environmental sociology, environmental research in communication studies, research on environmental politics, economics, geography and urban planning, environmental education, environmental law, and forestry. In each research field the latest projects in different research institutions are also listed. In addition to this, the report contains a bibliography on Finnish social scientific research on the environment between the years 1990 and 1996. (orig.) 98 refs.

  15. 中国内观疗法文献分析(1988-2015年)%Analysis of Chinese Naikan Therapy Literature during 1 988 and 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭睿; 毛富强; 靳秀; 苏阳雪

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To summarize and analyze development dynamics and features of Naikan therapy in 27 years. Methods:Taking “Naikan”and “therapy”as search terms.Making topic,keywords and title/keywords search at CNKI,Wanfang medical network and VIP.The literature was between June,1 988 and Septemper,201 5.Screening the literature and making statistic analysis subject to bibliometrics principle.Results:China journal published a total of Naikan therapy and 222 literatures,the research and application of 147 articles(66.2%).Tianjin Medical University (59,26.6%),Soochow University(1 6,7.2%),the mental health center of Shanghai(13,5.9%)was one of the top three author;Mao Fuqiang(42,18.9%),Wang Zucheng(8,3.6%),Huang Xinyin(8,3.6%)was one of the top three communications the author China;the second session of the conference of Naikan therapy(34,1 5.3%),the master degree thesis of Tianjin Medical University(1 6,7.2%),Shanghai Journal of Psychiatry(1 1,5%),China Journal of Health Psychology(10,4.5%),Chinese Journal of behavioral medicine and Brain Science(9,4.1%)was the top five sources;mental health education(28,1 9.1%),schizophrenia(28,1 9.1%),Internet addiction(1 1,7.5%),depression (10,6.8%),alcohol dependence(10,6.8%)was used as one of the top five Field.Conclusion:Naikan therapy in show-ing the number of step growth;Naikan training base in Tianjin,Shanghai and other is published the main force;Graduate Dissertations and scientific journal conference proceedings,research is the primary literature sources;Nai-kan therapy is mainly used in mental health education and mental disorders treatment fields;in the future,we should further expand the core author groups,according to the national conditions to improve the methods,expand the ap-plication field of study,continuously improve the quality of the paper.%目的::总结和分析内观疗法在中国27年的发展动态和特点。方法:以“内观”&“疗法”为搜索词,分别对中国知网(CNKI)、万方医

  16. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  17. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  18. 分子配伍理论科学内涵及在现代中药研发中的应用%Scientific Connotation of Molecule Compatibility and Role in Research and Development of Modern Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑玲; 谢恬; 李铖璐; 曾昭武; 孙云廷; 王秋岩; 王安明; 殷晓浦

    2013-01-01

    提出分子配伍理论,为现代中药研究提供理论指导.阐述分子配伍理论产生的背景、必然性和科学内涵,及分子配伍理论的特征.论述分子配伍理论指导下的现代中药(成分中药)的特征.结果显示分子配伍理论具有3个特征:①分子配伍理论体现了中西医的有机结合;②分子配伍理论系统思维与分析还原法的有机结合;③坚持中医药理论的整体观.现代中药具有5个特征:①方中所有成分化学结构、分子式、分子量均清楚;②分子配伍符合方剂学君臣佐使的原则;③作用机制清楚、疗效确切、剂型先进、质量稳定可控;④多通道、多途径、多层次、多靶点对患病机体产生网络药理作用;⑤对复杂性、系统性疾病疗效明显,副作用小.中药现代化的关键是中医药理论现代化.分子配伍理论的提出,是时代发展的必然产物,必将促进中医药事业的繁荣昌盛.%Molecular Compatibility theory was put forward to provide theoretical guidance for modern Chinese medicine ( molecular Chinese medicine ) . They were expounded to the background, scientific connotation, necessity, features of Molecular Compatibility theory and characteristics of modem Chinese medicine. Molecular compatibility theory had three features. ①It reflected the concept of organic combination of Chinese and western medicine. ② Systematic thinking combined with analysis reduction method organically. ③The overall concept of TCM theory was adhered to; Characteristics of modern Chinese medicine by molecular compatibility theory was three. ① They were clear of the chemical structure, molecular formula, molecular weight of all ingredients in prescription. ②The principle of dunchenzuoshi was followed. ③It had clear mechanism, definite effect, advanced dosage forms, stable quality control. ④ Multichannel, multi-evel and multi-channel network pharmacological effects were produced in sick body.

  19. 归化与执守--美国华人文学中的“金山”意象解读%Naturalisation and Maintainguard:Image Interpretation of “Golden Hill”in American Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚丹; 张文东

    2016-01-01

    A century of “golden hill”heterogeneity culture has attracted further research of chinese-born Ameri-can writers. The writers have used record of actual events and imagine two writing ways to construct the metaphorical regional culture image, and presents the ethnic Chinese in foreign life and psycholog-ical emotional truth. The policy to China of different periods not only affected the pursuit of subjective of Chinese community, also influenced the construction of text space of Chinese writers, through con-structing text space the writers expressed their value judgment were naturalisation or maintainguard by linking with the “golden hill”regional space. This paper selected the “golden hill”city image as the thinking object, through studying the geography and culture of “golden hill”, extracted the connotation of “golden hill” image in American Chinese literature. The state power, diplomatic relations and na-tional identity were the important factors to dominate writers thinking and judgment.%一个世纪以来,“金山”的异质性文化吸引着美国华人作家不断深入探查。在叙事上,作家以纪实和想象两种书写方式来建构带有隐喻性的地域文化意象,并以此呈现华人族裔在异邦生存期间的生活、心理情感真相。而不同时期的对华政策不仅影响着华人群体的主体诉求,也影响着华人作家对文本空间的建构。作家意图通过建构文本空间,来表达出自己与“金山”地域空间的联系是归化还是执守的价值判断。选取“金山”城市意象作为研究对象,通过对“金山”的地理、文化能指内容的考察,提炼出美国华人文学中“金山”意象的所指内涵。而政治上的国家权力、外交关系和文化上的民族认同,是支配作家思考和判断的重要因素。

  20. 美国《临床化学杂志》栏目和版面设置对中文期刊的启示%Difference of column setting between Chinese medical scientific journals and Clinical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武昱; 顾佳; 游苏宁

    2013-01-01

    Column setting shows the categories and range of the information a journal carries. Columns in medical scientific journals play an important role in helping audiences reading and retrieving more efficiently. It may also contribute to submitting papers for authors. Medical journals often seem similar to each other, lacking unique features. This article compares column setting between Chinese medical scientific journals and Clinical Chemistry, and lists the advantages of Clinical Chemistry in hope of helping local scientific journals make better benefit.%期刊设置栏目能体现出期刊内容的大致轮廓及传播信息的类别和范围,为读者的检索和阅读提供方便,是期刊总体设计的一个重要的组成部分.医学期刊栏目的科学设置不仅能够起到导读的作用,而且能够吸引优秀稿件,帮助作者在投稿时对文章进行准确定位.国内期刊常设的栏目大同小异,缺少个性和特色.本文介绍美国《临床化学杂志》栏目设置的特点,总结该刊值得借鉴之处,希望能对扩大国内科技期刊读者群体和提高期刊的社会效益和经济效益有所帮助.

  1. [Spray for self-defense against subjects with aggressive behavior: review of the scientific literature on the use of oleoresin capsicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Pelettii, Gianfranco; Veneroni, Laura; de Micheli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In several countries oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray is being used as non lethal weapon in recent years. In 2009 in Italy a Security Act has established that self-defence spray devices can lawfully be purchased and possessed by citizens; at the same time corps of local police started to adopt these devices for self defence and aid in arresting aggressive individuals. This article analizes the multidisciplinar literature about the efficacy and possible acute and long-term health risks of pepper spray for exposed individuals and police or civilians users. The paper also reports updated considerations about correct use of this devices. PMID:22888725

  2. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  3. QT Interval Prolongation Associated with Intramuscular Ziprasidone in Chinese Patients: A Case Report and a Comprehensive Literature Review with Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Bin; Tang, Yi-Lang; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Chuan-Yue; de Leon, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular (IM) ziprasidone has been associated with QTc interval prolongations in patients with preexisting risk factors. A 23-year-old male Chinese schizophrenia patient experienced an increase of QTc interval of 83 milliseconds (ms) after receiving 20 mg IM ziprasidone (baseline and increased QT/QTc were, respectively, 384/418 and 450/501). This was rated as a probable adverse drug reaction (ADR) by the Liverpool ADR causality assessment tool. A systematic review including all types of trials reporting the effect of IM ziprasidone on the QTc interval prolongation identified 19 trials with a total of 1428 patients. Mean QTc change from baseline to end of each study was -3.7 to 12.8 ms after IM ziprasidone. Four randomized trials (3 of 4 published in Chinese) were used to calculate a meta-analysis of QTc interval prolongation which showed no significant differences between IM ziprasidone and IM haloperidol groups (risk ratio 0.49 to 4.31, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 19.68, P = 0.06 to 0.41). However, our review included two cases of patients who experienced symptoms probably related to QTc prolongation after IM ziprasidone. Thus, careful screening and close monitoring, including baseline ECG, should be considered in patients receiving IM ziprasidone for the first time. PMID:25530900

  4. 论中西喜剧意识的审美特征%On the Aesthetic Characteristics of the Comedic Sense in Chinese and Western Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小朝

    2014-01-01

    Because of the difference in aesthetic nature, the Chinese and Western comedic sense has different aesthetic characteristics. In general, the Western comedic sense mainly shows the scenes from beginning to end and the shortcomings in social life, while the Chinese comedic sense is mainly characterized by the transformation of plot from sadness to joy and by virtues in social life.%中西喜剧意识因为具有不同的审美本质,所以也具有不同的审美特征。西方喜剧意识的审美特征主要表现为前后一贯的情景画面、社会生活中的缺陷揭示;中国喜剧意识的审美特征主要表现为从悲往喜的故事情节、社会生活中的美德礼赞。

  5. Citation Analysis for Literature Researches in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang-Hua Chen

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates Literature Researches in Taiwan in a viewpoint of outside researcher. The methodology of Informetrics will be used to analyze citations of Chinese Literature and ForeignLiterature’s research papers which had been published in Taiwan from 1996 to 2006. The citation types, citation disciplines, citation languages and citing half-life are examined. On average, the number of citations of each research paper of Foreign Literature is 22.72; the number of Chinese Literature i...

  6. On citing the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, A. Charles

    1980-01-01

    Some outlandish examples are used to support the argument that literature citations should be treated as references to documents and not references to individuals. Different consequences for scientific behavior are implicit in the alternative usages.

  7. Accessing Chinese Resources on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-lan Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet resources on subjects related to the Chinese, both in English and Chinese: discussion groups; news; literature and linguistics; social studies; East Asian Studies programs, departments, and libraries; Chinese computer issues; cultural activities; weather; business; art; and entertainment. Hardware and software requirements…

  8. 中国俄罗斯侨民文学中儒释道文化研究%Study on Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism Culture in Chinese Russian Immigrant Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳菊; 苗慧

    2012-01-01

    中国俄罗斯侨民文学是伴随着俄罗斯侨民在中国的定居而产生的。顾名思义,中国俄罗斯侨民文学是俄罗斯的作家以中国社会环境为背景而创作出来的文学作品。泱泱五千年的中华文明史,将博大精深的儒释道文化融于一身,形成了具有独特意蕴的中国传统文化。它不仅影响着整个中华民族的意识形态,同时也对生活在中国半个世纪之久的俄侨作家产生了一定的影响。文章以文本分析形式解读、梳理中国俄侨作品中的中国儒释道文化。%Russian immigrant literature came into being with the settlement of exiled Russians in China. Thus, the so - called Russian immigrant literature in China refers to the literary works written by Russian writers set in the Chinese society. Based on the immemion of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism culture, China with 5,000 years of civilization has developed its own peeullar and profound traditional culture, which not only affects the ideology of the whole Chinese nation, but makes a certain impact on the Russian writers living in China for more than half a century. The paper delves into the Confueianism t Buddhism, and Tanism euhure in the Russian immigrant literary works in China by using text analysis techniques.

  9. Training in Chinese Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zhejun

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation aims to review the currently predominant literature on the factors influencing the training in small business in the industrialized Western economies and to carry out empirical investigation on the determinants of training in Chinese small business and then analyze whether the Western-based literature is consistent with the practices of training in Chinese small firms. In addition, relevant problems with training in small business are presented and recommendations on how to r...

  10. A review of scientific literature examining the mining history, geology, mineralogy, and amphibole asbestos health effects of the Rainy Creek igneous complex, Libby, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandli, Bryan R; Gunter, Mickey E

    2006-11-01

    This article reviews the past 90 yr of scientific research directed on multiple aspects of the unique geology and environmental health issues surrounding the vermiculite deposit found at Libby, MT. Hydrothermal alteration and extensive weathering of the ultramafic units resulted in the formation of a rich deposit of vermiculite that was mined for 67 yr and used in numerous consumer products in its expanded form. Later intrusions of alkaline units caused hydrothermal alteration of the pyroxenes, resulting in formation of amphiboles. Some of these amphiboles occur in the asbestiform habit and have been associated with pulmonary disease in former miners and mill workers. Identification of these amphibole asbestos minerals has received little attention in the past, but recent work shows that the majority of the amphibole mineral species present may not be any of the amphibole species currently regulated by government agencies. Epidemiological studies on former miners have, nevertheless, shown that the amphibole asbestos from the Rainy Creek igneous complex is harmful; also, a recent study by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry shows that residents of Libby who had not been employed in the vermiculite mining or milling operations also appear to have developed asbestos-related pulmonary diseases at a higher rate than the general public elsewhere. Since November 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been involved in the cleanup of asbestos-contaminated sites in and around Libby associated with the mining and processing of vermiculite. PMID:16920668

  11. 从莫言获奖反思新时期以来中国文学的经典化问题%Reflection on the Canonization of Chinese Literature in the New Era from Mo Yan’s Nobel Prize for Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2014-01-01

    The winning of the Nobel Prize for literature is not only the approval of Mo Yan’s liter-ary creation,but also the recognition of Chineseliterary achievement.Literary works could not become classics without the involvement and promotion of various authorities.In order to reflect on the canon-ization of Chinese literature in the new era,it is necessary to be aware of the characters of the classics and factors of its canonization.Being responsible to the canonization of the Chinese literature,atten-tion from the literary circle and the media may be needed.%2012年诺贝尔文学奖花落中国既是对莫言创作的认可,更是对新时期以来中国文学取得成就的肯定,促使思考其经典化的问题。文学经典的出现不是自发形成的,离不开各种权力话语的参与建构。合理认知经典的特征与生成因素有利于深入思考新时期以来中国文学经典化的诉求。在命名经典责任的驱使下,通过语文学和传播媒介等层面的关注,有助于新时期以来中国文学经典化的落实。

  12. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    . The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  13. Data mining for scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai VLASE

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching scientific literature on the Web is a difficult task because of the large volume and the complex dynamics of the scientific literature and because of the complexity and narrow target of typical queries. The problem is compounded by differences among publication standards and formats used in various fields of knowledge. In this paper we review several specific solutions that apply or adapt data mining techniques to searching scientific publications.

  14. Study on the Translation of Religious Culture in Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣

    2015-01-01

    The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries. Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.

  15. Study on the Translation of Religious Culture in Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣

    2015-01-01

    The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries.Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.

  16. Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chengjun; Ma, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    In their article "Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture" Chengjun Wang and Junhong Ma discuss three main channels of the "traveling" of Chinese culture to the outside world. Focusing on the situation of bilingualism (i.e., Chinese and English) and the need of spreading Chinese literature and culture especially in the English-speaking world, Wang and Ma argue for "localization and globalization." Further, Wang and Ma argue that in order to narrow the gap of the cultural di...

  17. Symbolic Meanings of Daffodils in Chinese and English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤文绍

    2007-01-01

    Daffodils are popular among people around the world. The daffodil is made the top ten in flowers in China In English and Chinese literature, it is a popular theme glorified by poets and writers. This essay is to present different symbolic images of daffodils in Chinese and English poems so as to help Chinese readers understand the meaning of daffodils in English literature.

  18. Quantitative Analysis on Scientific and Technical Literature of Polygonatum Mill. in the llth 5-Year-Plan Period in China%“十一五”我国黄精属科技文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡一民; 姜程曦

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the literature regarding research on Polygonatum between 2006 and 2010 was retrieved with CNKI (China National Knowledge Internet) and statistical analysis was made on the date distribution, journal distribution, authors as well as the medical materials and resources, cultivation physiology, pest and disease control, processing, chemical composition, pharmacology,clinical applications and other related research. The scientific research on Polygonatum in the lhh 5-year-plan period in China was analyzed according to the statistical results aimed to provide reference for further scientific research on Polygonatum.%利用《中国知网》检索2006年-2010年有关黄精研究的文献,对其年代分布、期刊分布、作者及有关药材与资源、栽培生理及病虫害、加工与炮制、化学成分、药理、临床以及其他有关方面研究情况进行统计分析,根据统计结果对我国“十一五”期间黄精科研情况进行分析,意在为进一步开展黄精的科学研究工作提供参考。

  19. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trail research literature of traditional Chinese medicine for cancer telated fatigue%补气中药治疗癌性疲劳随机对照临床研究文献 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琦; 唐文富; 张颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:运用 Meta 分析的方法,评价中医药补气药治疗癌性疲劳的临床疗效。为癌性疲劳的中医药治疗提供科学依据。方法以“癌性疲劳”相关词汇,“中药”、“中医药”、“草本植物”、“替代治疗”、“姑息治疗”等为关键词,在 PubMed、Cochrane 图书馆、中国知网、维普中文科技期刊数据库、万方数据库、中国生物医学文摘进行1994-2014年间相关的随机对照试验(RCT)文献搜索。文献资料按 Cochrane 推荐的 Cochrane 风险偏倚评估工具进行评估。并运用 RevMan5.3统计软件进行Meta 分析。结果共纳入文献19篇。英文文献4篇,中文文献15篇,共1904例患者。Meta 分析结果显示:试验组和对照组在治疗有效率[RR =1.72,95%CI(1.55,1.92)]、BFI 量表评分[RR =1.92,95%CI(1.61,2.29)]、中医症状评分[RR =1.59,95%CI(1.27,1.99)]方面的差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论现有证据表明,中药补气药在改善癌性疲劳患者疲乏状态及生活质量、中医症状方面具有统计学意义。但尚需大规模、多中心、随机对照试验进一步验证。%Objective According meta-anlysis to asses tonic medicine in the treatment of cancer related fatigue(CRF).To provide the scientific basis for Chinese medicine treatment of CRF.Methods “cancer related fatigue”,“Chinese herb”,“traditional Chinese medicine”,“botanicals”,“complementary medicine”,“palliative medicine”as keywords,We searched PubMed,the Co-chrane library,Cnki,Vip,Wanfang med online,Chinese biomedical literature on disc(CBM)of relevant randomized controlled trail (RCT)literature in 1994 -2014.The quality of RCT was assessed according to “the cochrane collaboration′s tool for assessing risk of bias”,which recommended by the cochrane library.Meta-anlysis were conducted with the cochrane collaboration′s RevMan 5

  20. On the Scientific Development Concept’s Guiding Role in Scientific Development of Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Yanmin Ren

    2010-01-01

    The scientific development concept reveals the essential demands by the development of Chinese socialist modernization cause and reflects Marxism values as well as scientific outlook of world and history. Providing the answer to a series of basic issues including the purpose, direction, path and strength of development in an overall, systematic and scientific way, the scientific development concept serves as an important ideological weapon to guide the scientific development of China’s higher...

  1. Discussion on the postgraduate education of Chinese and western integrative medicine based on the major scientific research projects%基于重大科研项目探讨中西医结合医学研究生的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池晓玲; 萧焕明; 谢玉宝; 施梅姐

    2015-01-01

    The high quality of Chinese and western integrative medicine talents is the premise of the integrated Chinese and Western medicine to the world. Postgraduate education is directly related to the development of Chinese and Western medicine. The Second Clinical Medical College of Guang-zhou University of Chinese Medicine integrated the declaration and organization and implementation of the national major scientific research projects with Chinese and Western Medicine. By building ech-elon team model and establishing a platform for the exchange of research and communication platform, which covers the academic, technical, scientific and technological innovation, and so on, it cultivated high-level, complex and integrated Chinese and Western Medicine talents from knowledge and skills, innovation ability, interpersonal ability, and comprehensive management ability, etc.%高素质的中西医结合医学人才是中西医结合医学走向世界的前提,中西医结合医学研究生教育直接关系到我国中西医结合医学事业的发展。广州中医药大学第二临床医学院将国家重大科研项目的申报及组织实施与中西医结合医学研究生教育相融合,通过构建梯队式导师团队,建立涵盖学术、技术、科研创新等立体化多渠道的研究生交流平台,从知识与技能、创新能力、人际能力、综合管理能力等方面培养高层次、复合型的中西医结合医学人才。

  2. 基于CBM的中医药治疗高血压文献计量分析%Bibliometric Analysis of Literature on Hypertension Treatment by Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on CBM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梓宁; 佟琳; 唐丹丽; 张华敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:基于中国生物医学文献数据库(China Biology Medicine disc, CBM)中的文献,对中医药治疗高血压领域的研究现状、研究热点进行分析,为开展相关研究提供参考依据。方法以CBM数据库中收录的有关中医药治疗高血压文献为数据来源,利用Excel和Spss19.0软件对文献进行统计分析。结果共获取文献3488篇,文献的研究热点集中在从血瘀、痰湿等角度阐释左心室肥厚与高血压之间的病理生理关系,天麻、钩藤等中药治疗肝阳上亢型高血压的疗效,以及葛根在调节血浆中内皮血管肽类、一氧化氮等物质水平。结论目前中医药治疗高血压的研究主要集中在对药物疗效和药理机制方面的研究。主要的研究药物为天麻、钩藤、葛根等;天麻钩藤饮为是治疗高血压的主要方剂之一。%Objectives This article statistically analyzed the current research situation and research hotspots of hypertension treatment by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and provided a reference for relative researches. Methods Applying literature about TCM hypertension treatment in CBM as data source, the authors analyzed the literature by Excelland Spss19.0 software. Results The total number of the literature for analyzing was 3 488. The research hotpots focused on the explanation of pathological and physiological relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension from the aspects of stasis and phlegm, the treatment effects of gastrodia, uncaria and other traditional Chinese medicines in hypertension caused by liver-yang hyperactivity, and the efficacy of kudzu in the regulation of plasma and vascular peptide endothelin, nitric oxide and other substances level. Conclusion The current researches about hypertension treatment by Chinese medicine treatment focused on the drug efficacy and pharmacological mechanism. The main studies were on gastrodia, uncaria, kudzu etc. Gastrodia and

  3. 中国古代通俗文学的多元化研究--赵晓寰教授专访%A Multi-perspective Research on Ancient Chinese Popular Literature---an Interview with Professor ZHAO Xiao-huan of Sydney University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正娟; 赵晓寰

    2016-01-01

    跨学科、多元化思考是中国古代通俗文学研究的重要路径。在中国古典小说和戏剧的理论研究、古典小说与文学传统之关系、中日戏剧比较等问题上,受访者赵晓寰教授的观点是:参照普洛普形态学理论,中国古典志怪小说与戏剧可进行叙事特征与结构功能模式等分析;由“原型”、“图式”、“程序”等构建的小说理论框架有助于阐释中国文学传统的形成;中日戏剧在脚色类型、表现方式等方面关系密切。%Interdisciplinary and multi-perspective research is a major approach of the study of ancient Chinese popular literature. The interviewed Prof. ZHAO Xiao-huan touched upon many issues in Chinese literature study, such as the theoretical research on classical Chinese novels and drama, the relationship between classical novels and literary tradition, and comparison between Chinese and Japanese drama. His viewpoints are summarized as follows: with reference to Propp’s morphological theory, analysis can be made of the narrative features and structural function models of classical Chinese supernatural fictions and drama; the theoretical framework of fictions comprised of “prototype”, “schema”, and “procedure” helps explain the formation of Chinese literary tradition; Chinese and Japanese dramas are closely related in many ways such as role types and expressions.

  4. 中国现代文学教学与学生能力培养%On the Teaching of Modern Chinese Literature and the Cultivation of College Students' Professional Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建玲; 丁东粮

    2011-01-01

    大学教育应该加强对大学生实际能力的培养,这已成为近年来社会的共识。具体到中国现代文学大学课程的教学,最重要的任务就是要培养学生的文学感受能力和分析、理解作品的能力。为实现此目标,教师必须根据低年级大学生的思维特点和知识层次,根据现代文学学科特性和教学内容,寻找行之有效的途径和方法。第一要转变学生的学习心理和学习习惯,让学生走出应试教育思维定式;第二要纠正"文学无用"偏见,肯定文学及文学学习的价值,唤起学生研读文学的热情;第三也是最重要的一点就是通过大量文本阅读和文本鉴赏分析活动,把提高学生素质和能力落到实处;第四强化训练,以练促读、促思,促进综合能力的提高。%University education should focus on the cultivation of students' practical competence,a consensus reached by the public in recent years.In terms of the instruction of modern Chinese literature courses,the most important task lies in fostering the students' ability of literary perception and the ability to analyze and appreciate literary works.Teachers must explore every avenue to accomplish that task in light of the characteristics of thinking and knowledge structure of lower-level college students while taking into account the curriculum features and content of instruction of modern Chinese literature courses.Efforts should be made to 1) transform the students' learning psychology and learning habits and let them break through the exam-oriented stereotype;2) put right the prejudiced conception of "futility of literature",reinstate the value of literature and literature learning,and stimulate the students' enthusiasm for literature learning;3) enhance the students' overall competence and professional quality through enormous amounts of text reading and text appreciation activities;and 4) intensify training activities to give students

  5. Awakening at the End of the Century -Internal Consciousness of Chinese New Period Theory of Literature and Art%世纪末的觉醒——中国新时期文论的内在自觉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王确

    2001-01-01

    Chinese theory of literature revies of this century has undergone three stages; the stage of contending freely, falling to politics and self-awakening, and formed such two theoretic concepts as caring aesthetic value and stressing social aim. The New Periodtheory of literary review inheritages the traditions, and implementing the situation consciousness , individuality consciousness , meaning consciousness and expanding the metaphorical connotation of literature, and in self- construction, so as to admit and improve the form and flourishing of pluralistic phase.These above achievements of New Period theory of literary review are not isolated phenonema but the results of the liberation of Chinese culture and ideology since 1980s', constructed on the base of people's recognition of the nature of Man's independent existence.%本世纪中国文论走过了自由争鸣、归属政治和自我觉醒三个时期,形成了关切审美价值和强调社会目的两个理论观念。新时期文论继承了传统,尤其是关切审美价值的文论传统,不断地实现着处境的自觉,即自觉地选择着自身在整个社会文化中的位置;个性自觉,即积极面对传统,形成自己的特色;意义自觉,即认识到了文论的价值在于揭示和拓展文学的隐喻性内涵,在于建构自身,因而就会承认并促进多元局面的形成和繁荣。新时期文论的这三个自觉,并非是孤立的现象,而是80年代以来中国文化思想解放的结果,是在人充分认识到了人的独立存在本性的基础之上建构起来的。

  6. 恩格斯的“最高标准”与中国现代文学课程教学%"THE HIGHEST STANDARD" OF ENGELS AND THE TEACHING OF CHINESE MODERN LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭正生

    2013-01-01

    In the articles of commenting Karl Grun and Ferdinand Lassalle's works, Engels proposed the basic principle, name-ly the highest standard of praising historical figures and literary works, which is dialectical unity of aesthetic viewpoint and his-torical viewpoint. According to the highest standard, in literary criticism, we should not only pay close attention to the works it-self by taking the aesthetic value(inner element) as standard, but consider the times of the works by taking the historical value (outer element)as standard as well. The core contents of the teaching in Chinese modern literature are the analysis of works, the narration of its history, and the criticism of historical narration. As an important theory of artistic criticism, the highest stan-dard of Engels is very instructive in the teaching of Chinese modern literature history undoubtedly%恩格斯在评价卡尔。格律恩和斐迪南。拉萨尔著作的文章里提出评价历史人物和文艺作品的“最高标准”,即“美学”和“历史”观点的辩证统一。依据“最高标准”,在进行文学批评时,既要关注文艺作品本身,以美学价值(内部因素)为评价尺度;又要考虑文学作品的具体时代,以历史价值(外部因素)为评价标准。中国现代文学课程教学的核心内容是现代作家作品分析、文学史叙事以及现代文学史学史批评。作为文艺批评的重要理论之一,恩格斯的“最高标准”无疑对中国现代文学课程教学具有指导和方法论意义。

  7. Self-expandable esophageal stent loaded with 125I seeds for the treatment of esophageal cancer: quality assessment of related Chinese literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of medical documents concerning clinical studies about self-expandable esophageal stent loaded with 125I seeds for esophageal cancers in China. Methods: Medical documents published before June 2010 were collected. According to the standard of evidence-based medicine, the documents were classified. The quality of the academic papers was evaluated by two reviewers separately. The results were assessed with Kappa T-test. Jadad scores of randomized controlled trials (RCT) and CONSORT scores of controlled trials were calculated. Results: A total of 54 therapeutic articles, including description studies (n=39) and RCT/CCT papers (n=15) were enrolled in this study. The Kappa value was 0.815, indicating a good consistency in evaluation. The Jadad score of 2 RCT papers was 1. According to revised CONSORT statement score scale, the average score for the 'title and abstract', the 'introduction', the 'method', the 'result' and the 'discussion' was 0.500, 0.500, 0.325, 0.250 and 0.500, respectively. Accurate criteria of case selection and exclusion were designed in 3 CCT papers (23.8%), and therapeutic effect evaluation was mentioned in 12 CCT papers (92.31%). In 3 CCT papers (23.08%) the number of cases was over 60. The baselines were compared in 12 CCT papers (92.31%). No randomization and blind method were employed in all papers (0%). Follow-up check-up were performed in 13 CCT papers (100%) and lost-in-touch of cases was mentioned in one CCT paper (7.69%). Statistical analysis was conducted in 12 CCT papers (92.31%), and both the statistical significance and the clinical significance were discussed in 11 CCT papers (84.62%). Conclusion: Compared with the standard of evidence-based medicine, the general quality of Chinese medical documents concerning clinical studies about self-expandable esophageal stent loaded with 125I seeds for esophageal cancers is, for the present, not high and poorly credible. (authors)

  8. [The Yin and Yang movement in the cosmology of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Bernardo Diniz; Dulcetti, Pérola Goretti Sichero

    2015-01-01

    After being developed in the East, based on Taoist cosmology, Chinese medicine has been practiced in the West based on scientific foundations and biomedical paradigms. Some traditional elements of this philosophy were abandoned, such as the theory of Yin and Yang, knowledge that is essential for understanding the health-disease process resulting from the circulation of the body's energy flow. This article studies the movement of the dual elements of Yin and Yang in Chinese medical teaching, seeking to understand how this line of thought developed and how it has contributed towards establishing a system of diagnosis and therapy. The methodology employed was to analyze literature on the subject, based on theoretical references to Taoist thought and traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26331645

  9. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica. PMID:26978977

  10. A biologia em obras infantis de Monteiro Lobato: modulações literárias, científicas e culturais The Biology into monteiro lobato's child and teenage literature: literary, scientific and cultural modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Aparecida de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    between literature and biology and the intensity of the narrations that bring the beliefs, values and political interests in the scientific speech and that are brought into the literature in hybrid and nomad direction.

  11. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cancer Care: A Review of Controlled Clinical Studies Published in Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xun; Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xinxue; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jingli; Chang, Jiu; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Guo, Yu; Xu, Yue; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied for cancer care in China. There have been a large number of controlled clinical studies published in Chinese literature, yet no systematic searching and analysis has been done. This study summarizes the current evidence of controlled clinical studies of TCM for cancer. Methods We searched all the controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies for all kinds of cancers published in Chinese in four main Chinese electronic databa...

  12. Chinese Contemporary Writers' Imagination:Analysis Based on the Works of 8th Mao Dun Literature Prize%从想象力因素看第八届茅盾文学奖获奖作品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余梦

    2015-01-01

    想象力是文学存在的永恒命题,其重要性不言而喻. 第八届茅盾文学奖获奖作品所蕴含的想象力存在明显的再现倾向:想象的时间总是指向过去,背景偏爱世俗的社会情境,内容写实且内在情理感性色彩偏浓.进一步体现在:形象性过于写实,超越性深受限制,美感中道德意味相对凝重,同时存在"平实性叙事""滞留性再现",导致行文虽细腻感人但缺乏应有的异化和跳跃. 针对当代作家想象力的现状,蕴藉性表达、多元时空叙述不失为提升当代作家想象力的有益参考.%Imagination is an eternal component of literature and is essential for its existence. Analysis of the imaginativeness of the works awarded the 8th Mao Dun Literature Prize reveals the strong tendency of representation: the framework of imaginativeness is based on historical facts with the secular social circumstances as the background, and the content is more likely to be realistic and the inner emotions are intense. A further investigation reveals that the description is too realistic with very limited transcendence, the sense of beauty is relatively shown in moral aspect,and at the same time,it also has the feature such as "plain narration" and"retentive representation",which lead to exquisite and couching descriptions deficient of alienation and skipping. Finally, suggestions are put forward on ways to improve the imaginativeness of Chinese contemporary writers.

  13. 汉语言文学教育专业核心能力的培养策略%Foster Strategy of Core Competence of Chinese Language and Literature Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣英

    2012-01-01

    Core Competence of Chinese Language and Literature Education is very important. "Efficient reading, competent writing, qualify teaching", as core abilities, have plenty intension, and needs a long time training. The major curriculum and practice training should be focused in the course of fostering so as to achieve integration with curriculum teaching and professional training.%语文基础教育课改推行多年,与之相协调的汉语言文学教育专业,加强专业核心能力的研究尤为重要。“善读、能写、会教”,作为汉语言文学教育专业的核心能力,有着丰富的内涵,也需要经历长期的训练积淀过程。应在专业核心能力课程体系、实践训练上下功夫,实现课程教学与实践训练一体化。

  14. The Spread Mode and Dispersal History of Chinese Citrus Fly by Literature Research%柑桔大实蝇的扩散方式及扩散历史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文寿; 李传仁; 兰杰; 安红柳

    2013-01-01

      Based on the literatures of the Chinese citrus fly (Bactrocera minax) in China, it was inferred that the main spread mode to platy dispersal with long-distance spread by its larva in damaged fruits along stream and river and short-distance spread by its adult flying among the orange orchards. On the premise of platy dispersal with consideration of the occurring history, the dispersal path of Bactrocera minax in different distribution areas was analyzed respectively.%  在回顾柑桔大实蝇(Bactrocera minax)发生文献基础上,提出被害果随河谷远距离扩散和以成虫近距离蔓延导致的片状扩散为柑桔大实蝇的主要扩散方式。以片状扩散方式为前提,以发生区的发生历史为佐证,分别考证了柑桔大实蝇在各发生区的扩散路径。

  15. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lu Bay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.

  16. Scientific literature addressing detection of monosialoganglioside

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yanli,; Li, Miaojing; Liu, Zhijun; Xi, Aiping; Zhao, Chaoxian; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess the research on detection of monosialoganglioside from 2002 to 2011. DATA RETRIEVAL: A bibliometric analysis based on the publications on Web of Science was performed using key words such as “monosialoganglioside”, “colloidal gold”, “high performance liquid chromatography” and “detection”. SELECTION CRITERIA: (1) Research articles on the detection of monosialoganglioside; (2) researches on human an...

  17. The future of the electronic scientific literature

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    For electronic publishing to go forward, standards need to be developed but there also needs to be experimentation and flexibility in types of approach, to exploit the digital world to the full (2 pages).

  18. Management and Organizational Technologies of Chinese Rural Youth Programs. A Scientific Exchange of Rural Youth Programs between the U.S.A. and the People's Republic of China (April 8-30, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    An official delegation of Americans representing the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant colleges visited the People's Republic of China (PRC) to study the management and organization of the Chinese agricultural extension systems and to identify areas for the Chinese authorities to…

  19. Metrological Analysis on Literature in Chinese Agricultural Science Field Based on ESI Database%基于ESI数据库中国农业科学领域文献计量分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁花侠; 白君礼

    2013-01-01

    Based on United States ESI literature metrological analysis database, the paper metro logically analyzes the global agricultural and China agricultural science literatures in ten years from 2001 to 2011.By analysising the indicators, such as countries and regions, research institutions, journals, scientists, high cited papers, hot papers, the top articles, research frontier, the baseline and etc, the paper is thought to be able to provide important refrence for our country agricultural scientific research.%利用美国ESI文献计量分析数据库对2001年~ 2011年10年来全球农业科学领域和中国农业科学领域的文献进行了计量分析.通过对国家和地区、研究机构、期刊、科学家、高被引论文、热点论文、顶级论文、研究前沿、基线等各项指标统计分析,为我国农业科学研究提供重要参考.

  20. Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  1. 消渴郁证的中医文献研究%Literature research about diabetes and depression in traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 景玉霞; 李晓娟; 白晓晖; 刘群; 刘玥芸; 金钟晔; 刘燕; 陈家旭

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and depression are recorded in ancient literature, and its pathogenesis can be classified into “depression due to dis-ease”and “disease due to depression”. Depression is closely related to diabetes, so the treatment should put the emphasis on relieving liver for smoothing Qi. To pursuit the optimal treatment, and the program can be conducted by five steps, including syndrome differentia-tion, method, formula, herbs and guiding. Regulation of mood is good for the control of diabetes, while a good control of diabetes is good for relieving liver Qi, which can reduce insulin resistance due to bad mood, control blood glucose effectively, as well as increase patients’ life quality.%中国自古就有消渴郁证的文献记载,其发病机制可分为“因病而郁”和“因郁而病”两个方面。而临床上消渴郁证的症状体征具有多样性,临床漏诊率高达40%~50%。从辨证分型来说,消渴郁证一般分为4种分型,即肝气郁滞、痰气交阻、肝肾阴虚、阴阳两虚,其中肝气郁滞所占比例最高。因情志不遂与消渴郁证密切相关,所以从肝论治,疏肝理气应是其主要治疗方法,并在论证、立法、处方、用药、开导5个环节寻求最佳方案进行治疗。情绪的调节有益于消渴病的控制,而消渴的调控也有疏肝解郁之效,降低患者因负性情绪所致的胰岛素抵抗,及时有效地控制血糖,提高患者的生存质量。

  2. 收编文类:中国文学史编写的体例问题--从《剑桥中国文学史》谈起%Incorporating the Literary Genres:The Issue of Stylistic Rules Regarding the Writing and Editing of Chinese Literary Histories:On The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋金珅

    2015-01-01

    The writing and editing of Chinese literary histories have since the twentieth century evolved from the orientation by way of literary genres to the axis of times. The tradition of“schools of writing”remains invisible with the modern concept that“each generation has its own literature”with the result that literary genres are included in literary histories focusing on times. The stylistic rules regarding the writing and editing of literary histories in the Republic of China were reconfirmed and solidified after the founding of the People’s Republic of China until The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature was published, which gave rise to a new round of thinking in regard to the stylistic rules about literary histories.%20世纪以来,中国文学史编写经历了由文体导向,转为时代为轴。“文章流别”传统在近代以来“一代有一代文学”的观念下隐匿不现,文体类别被收编在时代为主的文学史中。民国时形成的文学史编写体例在建国后又得到确认和固化,直到《剑桥文学史》出现,又重新引发对文学史体例的新一轮思考。

  3. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  4. 中国文学中的两大文学变革运动--古文运动与“五四”新文学运动之比较%The Two Literature Revolution in Chinese History--Comparation of Classical prose Movement in the Tang and Song Dynasties and the literature Movement of May 4th

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鲲

    2016-01-01

    Tang and Song dynasties' Ancient Prose Movement and the New Literature Movement during the May 4th (1919) are the two largest literature revolution in Chinese history. The two movements were not only a literary phenomenon, but were closely associated with signiifcant social transformation and cultural change.The Ancient Prose Movement was an internal adjustment of Chinese civilization, while the New iterature Movement of May 4th was the result of civilization clashes between modern and tradition, China and West world. The movement of May 4th, seemingly a campain of anti–ancient tradition, was actually connected internally with Ancient Prose Movement closely in the aspects of writing style, linguistics, concept and examination system. The relation between two movements can be described as both rebel and inheritance.%唐宋古文运动和“五四”新文学运动,是中国文学史上最大的两次文学变革运动。这两大文学运动都不是单纯的文学现象,而是与当时大幅度的社会转型、文化变迁息息相关。但古文运动是中国文明、文学的内部调整,而“五四”新文学运动则是传统与现代、中国与外国文明大碰撞的产物。“五四”新文学运动,表面上主要反叛古文运动以来的雅文学传统,但此两大文学运动却在文体、语言、文风、文学观念,以及考试制度改革等方面存在很多内在的联系。“五四”新文学运动和古文运动之间,可以说是既反叛又继承的复杂关系。

  5. Legal Aspects of Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim; Lipinski, Tomas A

    2012-01-01

    International audience The paper provides insight into legal issues of grey literature. Based on a short overview of recent studies on grey literature and intellectual property, it suggests a typology of copyright protection for grey literature, in particular for PhD and Master's theses, reports, conference papers, working papers, datasets and preprints. New trends in copyright and scientific communication are mentioned in so far as grey literature is concerned: digital rights, creative co...

  6. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions :A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lizhen; Zheng, Yu; Luo, Haiyan; Yao, Qingqun

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute (TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS) as an example, this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform, analyzed existing problems, and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  7. Finnish Kullervo and chinese martial arts stories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chapman

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: There are many important Finnish plays but, due to language barrier, Finnish drama is seldom exported, particularly to Hong Kong and China.. Objective: To find out differences in mentality between the Finnish and Chinese peoples by comparing the partially localized Chinese translation of Aleksis Kivi’s tragedy, Kullervo, with genuine Chinese martial arts literature. Methodology: 1. Chapman Chen has translated the Finnish classic, Kullervo, directly from Finnish...

  8. 中医治疗脑梗塞文献研究热点分析%Analysis on the Research Highlights of the Literature about the Treatment of Cerebral Infarction with TCM(Traditional Chinese Medicine)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江建忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the TCM treatment of cerebral infarction at home in recent years. Methods:The bibliometric information co-occurrence mining system (BICOMS) and co-word biclustering analysis are used to carry out the co-word clustering analysis on the high-frequency keywords of the related literature collected in CNKI database in the period of 2010—2014 and to describe the clustering relationship diagram. Results:A total of 3 534 related literature about TCM treatment of cerebral infarction are retrieved with 58 high frequency keywords, that are clustered into 7 categories through the co-word clustering analysis. Conclusions: Recently,the research highlights of TCM treatment of cerebral infarction are mainly concentrated in 7 fields including the integrated treatment of Chinese and western medicine,nursing, treatment of vascular dementia,rehabilitation training. acupuncture treatment, and TCM treatment of blood stasis removing.%目的:对近年来国内中医治疗脑梗塞文献研究热点进行分析。方法:采用书目信息共现挖掘系统(BICOMS)和共词双聚类分析,对2010—2014年CNKI数据库收录的相关文献的高频关键词进行了共词聚类分析并描绘聚类关系图。结果:共检出中医治疗脑梗塞相关文献3534篇,相关高频关键词共58个,共词聚类分析发现高频关键词聚类为7个类别。结论:近年中医治疗脑梗塞的研究热点主要集中在中西医结合治疗、护理、血管性痴呆治疗、康复训练、针灸治疗、中药活血祛淤的治疗7个研究领域。

  9. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...... integrity.This task involves not only a discussion of these norms is content, but also a discussion of the theoreticalconditions for their development. Thus, a number of normative assumptions of the modern debate onvalues in science (values in science debate) is being discussed.The thesis concludes that...

  10. How to write scientific paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces the essence of scientific paper, contents of paper, writing of manuscript, as well as research and analysis and arrangement of reference. It shows conditions of paper, kinds of paper, division and arrangement of content, title, author name, table of contents, abstracts, introduction, experimental materials and methods, results, consideration, conclusion, summary, acknowledgements, references. It also covers draft, quotation, footnotes and references, graphs and pictures, importance of literature research, how to find special literature, and analysis and arrangement of literature.

  11. The Influence of Chinese Civilizationon Europe, c. 1000-1400

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Bringing together Chinese and Western materials, this article makesa general survey of the spread of Chinese civilization to Europe in themedieval period and the consequent influences. It mainly retrieves thewestward dissemination of Chinese scientific thoughts, the introductionof Chinese agricultural and transport techniques, and the developmentof Chinese inventions such as papermaking and print, silk and porcelain,stirrup and gunpowder in Europe, and even the impacts of Chinesesilk craftsmen and fine arts on Europe. It concludes that Europeansingested valuable nutrition from Chinese civilization from the 11th to14th centuries, laying the foundation for the fundamental changes withgroundbreaking significance in Europe.

  12. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  13. Modular Curriculum: English/Social Studies, Chinese Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeritt, Robert W.

    This university independent course of study of Chinese civilization uses a non-disciplinary approach for the purpose of catching a glimpse of what the preponderant body of Chinese have thought and valued throughout the ages. The literature is approached from a Chinese point of view. The course consists of nine lessons: (1) Mencius, (2)Confucius,…

  14. ENGLISH ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT CHINESE MEDICAL LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Excimer laser in situ keratomileusis for severe ametropia after penetrating keratoplasty LU Wenxiu, LI Zhihui, QI Ying, et al.Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital,Beijiing 100730, ChinaChin J Ophthalmol 2001; 37: 94-97. Objective To evaluate the effects of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis in correcting severe myopia and astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty.Methods Excimer laser in situ keratomileusis was performed on ten eyes of ten patients to correct high ametropia in cases having previously undergone penetrating

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treatment of Polyhydramnios:a Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Zhou; Yu-fang Hao; Yan Chen; Tong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tocompare the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (therapy A) or Chinese herbal medicine plus indomethacin (therapy B) with that of indomethacin alone (therapy C) in treating polyhydramnios.MethodsLiteratures published up toApril 2012 were retrieved from PubMed, Embase and Cochranelibrary, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific and Technological Periodical Database (VIP), Wangfang, and Traditional Chinese Medicine online.Two researchers collected data independently.The assessment of methodological quality was based on Cochrane handbook and the materials were analyzed with software RevMan 5.1.2. The outcome measure index was relative risk or difference ofmean value (95% confidence interval). The following outcomes were evaluated: (1) general clinical improvement rate; (2) maximum vertical pocket depth; (3) amniotic fluid index (AFI) value; (4) rate of fetalductus arteriosus constriction; (5) incidence of adverse events.ResultsBased on the search strategy, 5 trails involving 1017 patients were finally included. Comparedwith therapy C, therapy A decreased the rate of fetal ductus arteriosus constriction (P<0.01). Therapy B was more effective than therapy C in general clinical improvement and decrease of AFI for polyhydramnios (P<0.01). No serious adverse events were reported in therapy A and therapy B.ConclusionsCompared with therapy C, therapy A and therapy B may appear to be moreeffective for polyhydramnios. However, the exact effectneeds to beconfirmed with well-designedlarge-scale clinical trials.

  16. Parental Beliefs on Children's Play: Comparison among Mainland Chinese, Chinese Immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae

    2016-01-01

    The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…

  17. International Scientific Collaboration of China: Collaborating Countries, Institutions and Individuals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Wang, Zhi; Peng, Lian; Wang, Chuanli

    2014-01-01

    Using bibliometric methods, we investigate China's international scientific collaboration from 3 levels of collaborating countries, institutions and individuals. We design a database in SQL Server, and make analysis of Chinese SCI papers based on the corresponding author field. We find that China's international scientific collaboration is focused on a handful of countries. Nearly 95% international co-authored papers are collaborated with only 20 countries, among which the USA account for more than 40% of all. Results also show that Chinese lineage in the international co-authorship is obvious, which means Chinese immigrant scientists are playing an important role in China's international scientific collaboration, especially in English-speaking countries.

  18. The literature analysis of adverse reactions of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine in Influenza-like Nonprescription Medicine%感冒非处方中成药之中西复方制剂不良反应的文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璞; 王聿成; 成磊; 张冰

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过检索常用的感冒类非处方中成药不良反应发生情况,为安全使用感冒类非处方中成药提供参考.方法 规定中成药范围包括:中西药复方制剂.采用回顾性研究方法,通过检索药物不良反应杂志和CNKI中文数据库,收集常用的感冒类非处方中成药的不良反应的相关文献,对资料进行整理和分析.结果 检索用于治疗感冒的非处方中成药89种,经上述数据库报道,有不良反应发生情况的中成药2种,分别为维C银翘片和新复方大青叶片.涉及病例14例.结论 虽然非处方药的特点是药效确定、相对安全、使用方便、毒副作用小,不良反应发生几率低,但药物安全性不容忽视,也需要考虑其不良反应并合理使用.%Objective To provide a reference for the safe use of nonprescription Chinese medicine using in influenza, the study retrieve the incidence of adverse reactions of influenza-like Nonprescription Chinese medicine. Methods The scope of Chinese medicine was set in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine. Used by the research methods of regression, retrieved in Adverse Drug Reactions Journal and Chinese Journal Full Database, the related literatures which reflect the adverse reactions of influenza-like Nonprescription Chinese medicine was collected, and the data was organized and analyzed. Results Reported by above database, there were 2 pieces of Influenza-like Nonprescription Chinese Medicine adverse reaction occurred among the 89 pieces of Influenza-like Nonprescription Chinese Medicine retrieved, including Vitamin C Yinqiao Tablets and New Fufang Daqingye Tablets, and involving 14 cases. Conclusion Nonprescription drugs are characterized by clear efficacy, relative safe, convenient, low toxicity and low probability of adverse events, but we cannot ignore the safety of drugs and also need to consider its adverse reactions and to use it rationally.

  19. Breakthrough in the Study of Chinese Ancient Music Literature——On Du Xingmei and Du Yuntong’s“Commentary on Chinese Ancient Musical Literature Elite”%中国古代音乐文学研究的新突破——评杜兴梅、杜运通《中国古代音乐文学精品评注》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富鹏

    2012-01-01

      In Professor Du Xingmei and Du Yuntong’s“Commentary on Chinese Ancient Musical Litera⁃ture Elite” there is a selection of 418 representative music literature from the early Qin Dynasty to the late Qing Dynasty. One by one from the two sides of music and literature, detailed comments and review are made. The book is rich in content, subject distinctive, combination of commentary, refined and popular tastes, and strongy informative, interesting and readable. It provides a new unknown reader, on ancient Chinese music lit⁃erature, is undoubtedly an innovation and breakthrough.%  杜兴梅、杜运通教授的《中国古代音乐文学精品评注》精选了从先秦到清末有代表性的音乐文学作品418首(篇),从音乐与文学两个侧面逐一作了较为详尽的注释与评介。该书内容丰富、主旨鲜明、评注结合、雅俗共赏,具有较强的知识性、趣味性和可读性。它提供了该领域前所未有的一种新读本,对中国古代音乐文学研究无疑是一次创新与突破。

  20. [Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lian-Jun; Xia, Xin-Yi; Shang, Xue-Jun; Huang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Lai

    2006-08-01

    For the first time, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology published an analysis report of Chinese papers indexed in MEDLINE, which indicates that the Chinese government is paying more and more attention to the role of MEDLINE in the evaluation of scientific research. A total of 4 959 journals are listed in the Lists of Journals Indexed in MEDLINE (2006) published by National Library of Medicine, USA (NLM), of which 95 are published in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan) and 2 another Chinese periodicals are published abroad. To familiarize MEDLINE to more medical researchers and to help them contribute to the journals indexed in MEDLINE, this article lists the top 10 Chinese medical institution whose published papers were indexed in MEDLINE in 2004 along with the Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006. And the status of MEDLINE in China is briefly analyzed as well. PMID:16970171

  1. Auditing Chinese Higher Education? The Perspectives of Returnee Scholars in an Elite University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon fieldwork conducted in an elite Chinese university and English language literature of audit culture in higher education against the backdrop of Chinese higher education in transition, this paper has discovered that Chinese higher education is undergoing an auditing process. However, this Chinese audit regime is not only guarded by a…

  2. Chinese Culture in the United States of America; An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alberto R., Comp.

    Materials on the Chinese in the United States are listed and briefly reviewed. Works cited include bibliographies, general literature on the origin of Chinese culture and on the Chinese in the United States, and specialized works dealing with various aspects of Chinese American life. Entries for these specialized works are listed under the…

  3. 政治身体:土改文学中的身体形象分析%Political Body:An Analysis of the Body Image in Chinese Land-reform Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程娟娟

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese land -reform literature, " upturn" means that numerous peasants gained unprecedented liberation of their body, and the country as a sleeping giant was awaking. In perspective of physiological political body, body is under control of external powers. Cloth is an important sign of "upturn" , while over pursuit of comfort and beauty of cloth would be criticized by revolutionary discourse. In perspective of productive political body, the body needs to undergo constant tests of labor works, so body becomes machines for production and tools for work. The bodies are assigned with different value due to the holder's class identity. Body of landlord suffers violence in public demonstration, and body of peasant enjoys sacred homages due to the scar it has suffered.%在土改文学中,翻身意味着无数个体农民的身体获得了前所未有的解放,同时这也象征着中国这个沉睡的巨人即将醒来。从生理政治身体上看,身体必须受到外在权力的控制,衣服是翻身的重要标志,然而过分追求衣服的美观舒适将会受到革命话语的指责。从生产政治身体来看,身体还需不断接受生产劳动的考验,身体成为了生产的机器和劳动的工具。身体因为阶级的划分而具有了不同的价值,地主的身体在示众的场面中遭受暴力,而农民的身体因为伤疤而具有了神圣的价值。

  4. Chinese astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  5. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  6. Use of traditional Chinese medicine during the Red Army period in Chinese history

    OpenAIRE

    Fa-wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors make an analysis of the historical literature during the Red Army period of the agrarian revolution war, dealing with the situation of traditional Chinese medicine in the Red Army. During that time the Red Army had created revolutionary medical hospitals, gathering herbal medicine, growing herbal plants and producing Chinese medicines. At the same time the Red Army paid great attention to enriching Chinese medicine, cultivating practitioners and treating and prevent...

  7. 中国特色社会主义制度的科学内涵及重大意义%The Scientific Connotation and Great Significance of Socialist System with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄书进

    2012-01-01

    中国特色社会主义制度是社会制度和制度体制的辩证统一,法律体系是社会制度和制度体制自身公共性、权威性和秩序性特点的外在表现,是法治社会的重要标志。中国特色社会主义制度,集中体现了中国特色社会主义的特点和优势,是当代中国发展进步的根本制度保障,标志着中国特色社会主义进入依法治国时期。%The socialist system with Chinese characteristics is the dialectic unification of social institution and institutional regime. The legal system is the external embodiment of the publicity, authority and order properties of social institution and institutional regime, being an important symbol of society under the rule of law. The socialist system with Chinese characteristics intensively embodies the traits and advantages of socialism with Chinese characteristics, being the radical institutional guarantee for the development and advancement of contemporary China, indicating socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new period of genuine rule of law.

  8. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG; Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute( TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences( CATAS) as an example,this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform,analyzed existing problems,and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  9. Scientific computer simulation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the results of a scientific computer simulation are used for any purpose, it should be determined if those results can be trusted. Answering that question of trust is the domain of scientific computer simulation review. There is limited literature that focuses on simulation review, and most is specific to the review of a particular type of simulation. This work is intended to provide a foundation for a common understanding of simulation review. This is accomplished through three contributions. First, scientific computer simulation review is formally defined. This definition identifies the scope of simulation review and provides the boundaries of the review process. Second, maturity assessment theory is developed. This development clarifies the concepts of maturity criteria, maturity assessment sets, and maturity assessment frameworks, which are essential for performing simulation review. Finally, simulation review is described as the application of a maturity assessment framework. This is illustrated through evaluating a simulation review performed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In making these contributions, this work provides a means for a more objective assessment of a simulation’s trustworthiness and takes the next step in establishing scientific computer simulation review as its own field. - Highlights: • We define scientific computer simulation review. • We develop maturity assessment theory. • We formally define a maturity assessment framework. • We describe simulation review as the application of a maturity framework. • We provide an example of a simulation review using a maturity framework

  10. 间歇期及慢性期痛风中医方药的文献研究%Literature Research of Traditional Chinese Medical Prescriptions of Gout in Intermission and Chronic Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海昌; 温成平; 谢志军; 韩春雯; 汪梅姣

    2013-01-01

    目的:探求痛风间歇期及慢性期的方药特点,为中医临床治疗奠定基础.方法:采用计算机检索和人工检索相结合的方法,对1997年1月-2011年6月国内期刊中相关文献进行回顾性总结.结果:检索出符合要求的文献85[1-82]篇,共涉及痛风间歇期、慢性期及慢性关节炎期患者累计4791例,主要中药(前15味)使用频率结果分别是:牛膝(36.11%)、桑寄生(31.48%)、薏苡仁(30.56%)、土茯苓(26.85%)、苍术(25.93%)、白术(25.93%)、白芥子(25.00%)、当归(24.07%)、黄柏(23.15%)、黄芪(22.22%)、防己(22.22%)、草薢(20.37%)、威灵仙(20.37%)、赤芍(18.52%)、秦艽(16.67%).结论:牛膝、桑寄生、苍白术、薏苡仁及黄芪健脾益肾,泄浊祛湿治病之本;当归、牛膝、苍白术、赤芍、黄柏、白芥子及威灵仙活血化瘀通络,燥湿化痰通痹治病之标.%Objective: To provide a basis for clinical treatment of traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM) by seeking the TCM prescriptions of gout in intermission and chronic phase. Methods: Domestic relevant literatures were summarized retrospectively based on the interaction by computer search and artificial retrieval from January 1997 to June 2011. Results-. Totally 85 literatures were retrieved to meet the requirements, including 4791 cases of intermission, chronic phase and chronic gouty arthritis. The distributions of major TCM prescriptions (the top 15)were achyranthes root(36. 11% ) ,mis-tletoe( 31. 48% ) , coix seed ( 30. 56% ), smilax Glabra ( 26. 85% ), atractylodes ( 25.93% ) , rhizoma atractylodis (25.93%) ,white mustard seed(25.00% ) ,angelica sinensis(24. 07% ) ,cortex phellodendri(23. 15%) ,radix astragali (22.22% ) ,tetrandra root(22.22%) ,yam rhizome(20. 37% ),clematis root(20. 37% ) ,red peony root(18.52%) ,gen-tiana macrophylla ( 16. 67% ). Conclusions :It is the fundamental treatment of gout by invigorating spleen and nourishing kidney therapy for reducing

  11. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  12. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.……

  13. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qiang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.

  14. Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Scientific inquiry reflects how scientists come to understand the natural world, and it is at the heart of how students learn. From a very early age, children interact with their environment, ask questions, and seek ways to answer those questions. Understanding science content is significantly enhanced when ideas are anchored to inquiry…

  15. Michel Hockx, Internet Literature in China,

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Internet Literature in China is the fruit of Michel Hockx’s work over the last decade. In this volume the author examines the new literary form in the broad context of Chinese “postsocialism,” which he characterises as a “condition of ideological contradiction and uncertainty” (p. 13). His observations are based on his reflections, which combine literary and social questions. He asks how Internet literature brings about innovations in Chinese printed literature, as well as in the electronic l...

  16. 鲁迅的文艺思想与中国马克思主义文艺理论的早期形态%Lu Xun's Literary Theory and the Early Phase of Chinese Marxism Theory of Literature and Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江

    2012-01-01

    Lu Xun' s literary theory represented Chinese Marxism theory of literature and art in the early stage. It reflected the characteristics of the theory construction and the historical development from the formation, basic viewpoint and theory form.%鲁迅的文艺思想是中国马克思主义文艺理论的早期代表。从形成方式、基本观点、理论形式上,体现了中国马克思主义文艺理论的理论建构特点和历史发展特点。

  17. A Review of Formalistic Studies of Chinese American Women Literature:Amy Tan and Maxine Hong Kingston as examples%美国华裔女性文学形式研究综述--以汤亭亭和谭恩美为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史丽娜; 原一川

    2013-01-01

    Among circles of literary critics in China recently, studies of Chinese American women writers come into being and grow quickly into a bright star. American literature is mainly made up of literary works written by Chinese American women writers, which is the main voice given by scholars of American studies, and which is a combination under the influence of Chinese-American multi-cultures. Studies of Asian American literature start from 1982. Until now, Chinese American literature has not been marginalized any longer and come into the spring time of its life. In recent thirty years, scholars at home make studies of the literary works written by Chinese American women writers from a variety of ways and approaches. This paper is a domestic literature review of the studies made on literary works of Chinese American women writers from the perspective of linguistics, narrative techniques and stylistics. The purpose is to give some suggestions and a prospect of studies. There is still much room in the studies of works by Chinese American women writers and the future is quite promising.%在当今的中国评论界,美国华裔女性文学研究异军突起,成为美国文学研究中的一朵奇葩。美国华裔女性文学是美国文学的重要组成部分,也是国内学者美国文学研究话语体系中的一个主流声音,还是中美多元文化相互影响和结合的产物。美国亚裔文学的学术性研究始于1982年,直至今天,美国华裔女性文学已成功的走出边缘地位,迎来了美好的春天。三十年以来,国内学者应用了多元和多维度的研究方法和研究角度对美国华裔女性文学作品进行了研究和解读,研究呈现出一片繁荣的景象。由此以汤亭亭和谭恩美为例,对国内美国华裔女性文学作品中的语言学研究、叙事学研究和文体学研究作一个总体回顾,并提出建议和展望。美国华裔女性文学作品的形式研究具有很大的空

  18. Teaching Material Culture and Chinese Gardens at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.

  19. Dental erosion - literature update

    OpenAIRE

    PICOS, ALINA M.; Andrea M. Chisnoiu; Jean F. Lasserre; Aurelia Spinei; Radu M.Chisnoiu; Andrei Picos

    2013-01-01

    Tooth wear is a complex, pluri-factorial process that must be taken into account in clinical practice. The main mechanisms typically related to dental wear are: abrasion, attrition, erosion and wear by fatigue. The dramatic increase in the frequency of erosive lesions, especially in younger age groups determined us to give a synthesis of the most recent scientific literature on the specific problem of erosion. Attention is drawn to the excessive consumption of acidic beverages in chi...

  20. The Problems of and Solutions to Chinese Education for Marketing Communication at Binus University

    OpenAIRE

    Theresia

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays in Indonesia, more people realize the importance of using Chinese language. Therefore, at Binus University, Mandarin is taught not only in Chinese Literature Department, but also in non-Chinese Literature Department. Because the curriculum is still relatively new, students who have never studied Chinese language find some difficulties. The author through observations in the classroom found some problems that arise during the teaching and learning session. Through this paper, the auth...

  1. Scientific citations in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Finn Aarup

    2007-01-01

    The Internet-based encyclopaedia Wikipedia has grown to become one of the most visited web-sites on the Internet. However, critics have questioned the quality of entries, and an empirical study has shown Wikipedia to contain errors in a 2005 sample of science entries. Biased coverage and lack of sources are among the "Wikipedia risks". The present work describes a simple assessment of these aspects by examining the outbound links from Wikipedia articles to articles in scientific journals with a comparison against journal statistics from Journal Citation Reports such as impact factors. The results show an increasing use of structured citation markup and good agreement with the citation pattern seen in the scientific literature though with a slight tendency to cite articles in high-impact journals such as Nature and Science. These results increase confidence in Wikipedia as an good information organizer for science in general.

  2. Scientific Auditing Firms

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal P

    2016-01-01

    The "crisis of reproducibility" has been a significant source of controversy, heated debate, and calls for reform to institutional science in recent years. As a long-term solution to address both the present crisis and future obstacles, I propose the creation of a new form of research organization whose purpose would be to conduct random audits of the scientific literature. I suggest that data analytics of a digitized scientific corpus may play a critical role in allowing broadly educated scientists to identify linchpin results to investigate in further detail across all disciplines. I argue that a simple "mock" trial run of a simplified auditing firm consisting of several researchers over a short time period would provide valuable insight into the feasibility of this proposal.

  3. Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Kavoussi

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementa...

  4. Chinese Literature Realism Interlocked with Scientific Knowledge and Humanistic Understanding%科学认知与人文理解交错中的中国文学写实主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞兆平; 陈思和

    2006-01-01

    现实主义理论包含着科学认知与人文理解这一对矛盾."写实"意味着遵循自然科学的认知原则,对客体对象精确、逼真的反映与复制;而"文学"却是一个虚构、想象性的人文世界,渗透着作家主体的精神意愿与价值取向,即作家对人生、世界的"理解",而且还负载着对读者道德的教喻与训诫的功能.这一悖论式的两极趋向,在中国文学对西方写实主义的接受进程中始终交错、纠合在一起.中国文学界对西方"写实主义"的接受,有着从早期的向科学认知原则倾斜的写实主义(真即是美),到中期的科学认知与人文理解交错的写实主义(不脱离现实的真善合体),再到后期的向以意识形态为核心的人文理解倾斜的写实主义(善即是真,善中之真方为美)的进程.在这一进程中,写实主义的概念始终处在动态的、不断的调整之中.

  5. Succession and innovation of Chinese traditional surgery: a perspective on the history

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Han-Jun

    2005-01-01

    Facing the challenge of modern medicine, how to develop Chinese traditional surgery is a question. The tremendous heritage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the springhead of the development and innovation of TCM. Succession and innovation is an eternal subject for the development of Chinese traditional surgery. In order to improve Chinese traditional surgery, we should explore traditional medical literature, and carry forward the theories of Chinese traditional surgery

  6. Examination of Chinese Gambling Problems through a Socio-Historical-Cultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Samson Tse; Alex C.H. Yu; Fiona Rossen; Chong-Wen Wang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are ...

  7. 不同的悲剧形象相同的悲剧命运--中希弃妇形象比较研究%Different Tragic Images Same Tragic Fates:Comparison of Images of Abandoned Women in Chinese and Greek Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓彬

    2013-01-01

    The literature about abandoned women profoundly reflects the social aspects of reality, with high artistic characteristics. As a specific cultural phenomenon, the problem about abandoned women has always been widespread concerned. Chinese and Western literature are produced in different cultural contexts, but in ancient Greece and the Qin and Han Dynasties there were works which reflect the problem of abandoned women at the same time. This paper tries to have a comprehensive study on the abandoned women in Chinese and Greek cultures and to explain the reasons for the differences.%  弃妇文学深刻地反映了社会的诸方面现实,有着极高的艺术特色。作为特定的文化现象,弃妇问题历来受到广泛关注。中西方文学是在两种不同的文化背景下产生的,但在古希腊和先秦两汉时期却同时出现了反映弃妇问题的作品。本文对中希弃妇形象进行整体对比,并试图阐释这种差异形成的原因。

  8. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  9. Scientific Fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Balk-Møller, Carl August; Mogensen, Sofia Lin; RAATRÆ LUNDSTEIN, SARAH; Haubroe Larsen, André; Lohse, Mayasarah; Reininger Ardilsø, Lisa; Henrysdóttir, Gu∂run; Sondergaard, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the developments of SSRIs and the presence of them in the market. Dr. Peter Gøtszche’s book “Deadly Medicines and Organized Crime”, claims that scientific fraud is a big part of the pharmaceutical industry and the whole healthcare system in general. Through analyzing Peter Gøtszche’s book and several of his sources, the study aims to create a roadmap in the project, that resembles the process of the antidepressant drugs have to go through, to go from an idea to a patient. ...

  10. A Critique of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature of the Use of Diagrams, Graphs, and Other Visual Aids in the Learning of Scientific-Technical Content from Expository Texts and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James; Perla, Rocco J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critical review and analysis of key studies that have been done in science education and other areas on the effects and effectiveness of using diagrams, graphs, photographs, illustrations, and concept maps as "adjunct visual aids" in the learning of scientific-technical content. It also summarizes and reviews those studies…

  11. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology an...

  12. Semantic Web for data harmonization in Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Scientific studies to investigate Chinese medicine with Western medicine have been generating a large amount of data to be shared preferably under a global data standard. This article provides an overview of Semantic Web and identifies some representative Semantic Web applications in Chinese medicine. Semantic Web is proposed as a standard for representing Chinese medicine data and facilitating their integration with Western medicine data. PMID:20205772

  13. Instructions for Authors by Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology (ISSN 1008-7125), founded in June, 1996, is a national academic journal being designed to present the latest basic scientific and clinical researches of gastroenterology in China.

  14. Inheritance and Transmission of Kaoli Dynasty Poetics of South Korea for Image Criticism of Chinese Literature%韩国高丽朝诗学对意象批评的承传

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成

    2011-01-01

    Poetics of Kaoli Dynasty of South Korea is deeply affected by Chinese poetics.It also inherits and transmits the criticism style of Chinese poetics.The inheritance and transmission of Korean poetics on image criticism fully reflect the aesthetic conscious%韩国高丽朝诗学在诗歌理论观点上深受中国诗学的影响,更承传了中国诗学的批评方式。高丽诗学对意象批评的承传与运用,充分体现了朝鲜民族的审美意识特征,对后世诗学批评以及诗歌创作产生了深远的影响,具有重要的现实价值。

  15. CETA'S Response to Chinese-English Dictionary Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Edwin G., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Chinese-English Translation Assistance Group (CETA), including the development of a dictionary of general terms, and the formation of files of colloquial, scientific, and technical terms. CETA also serves as a clearinghouse for information of interest to students of Chinese. (CLK)

  16. Management Innovation for Chinese Family Business

    OpenAIRE

    Li Liu; Xinde Chen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose ¨Cbased on the complicate and changeable situation in the economic field, Chinese family enterprises should rethink the strategy and innovate continually to achieve the evergreen. The purpose of this paper is to examine the advantage and disadvantage of Chinese family business and deduce several Applicable approaches for Sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach ¨CBased on a review of the relevant literature, Advantages and disadvantages are developed. Case study data are u...

  17. The spacelab scientific missions: A comprehensive bibliography of scientific publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, Marsha (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    November 1993 represented the 10-year anniversary of the flight of Spacelab 1 mission, with the first precursor mission (OSTA-1) being launched 2 years earlier. Since that time, a total of 27 Shuttle missions has been flown, using the Spacelab system as a facility for conducting scientific research in space. The missions flown to date have allowed a total of approximately 500 Principle Investigator class investigations to be conducted in orbit. These investigations have constituted major scientific efforts in astronomy/astrophysics, atmospheric science, Earth observation, life sciences, microgravity science, and space plasma physics. An initial survey of the scientific products gleaned from Spacelab missions already flown was sent to the Principle Investigators. In that survey, information was gathered from the investigators on the scientific highlights of their investigations and statistical measurements of overall success -- such as papers published. This document is a compilation of the papers that have been published to date in referred literature.

  18. China ranks second in scientific publications since 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Zhou; L. Leydesdorff

    2008-01-01

    With the fast development of its economy, China plays an increasingly important role in the world. China's performance in science is also impressive. The exponential growth of Chinese scientific publications provides evidence. However, statistical results about China's world share of scientific publ

  19. The Scientific Research Analysis of Extenics Influence Based on Literature Measure%基于文献计量的可拓学科研影响力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蔚丽

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the scientific impact of Extenics by using the analysis method of the database platform to search and screen the relevant articles about the Extenics,and carries out a comprehensive analysis from multiple perspec-tives to search results from three aspects including the scientific impact of domestic research papers ,the scientific impact of domestic natural fund and the scientific impact of domestic patents. The analysis illustrates that nowadays the study of Extenics maintains a steady development at home but without much international influence. This theory still needs further basic and application research.%利用多个数据库对可拓学相关文献进行检索和数据筛选,并对筛选后的结果从国内科研论文的科研影响力、国内自然科学基金的科研影响力和国内专利的科研影响力三个方面进行了多角度、全面的分析。分析显示现国内学者对于可拓学的研究保持着一种稳步发展的状态,如果得到国家科研管理部门更进一步的支持,这个由中国人原创的学科必将更快地走向世界。

  20. 大数据时代中国大学生科技创新思维新内涵思考%The New Connotation about the Scientific Innovative Thinking of Chinese University Students in the Era of Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳

    2015-01-01

    论述了在大数据背景下,科技创新思维在知识结构、思维对象和思维方式三个方面发生的深刻变革。并通过问卷调查和访谈方法,调研了当前大学生的科技创新思维现状,发现大数据的认识很模糊,在科技创新活动中仍然沿用传统的思维习惯和研究方法,没有认识到大数据对于科技创新的重要作用和意义,导致其科技创新能力仍显不足。因此,对大学生科技创新思维提出了新的内涵,即掌握大数据技术的基本知识、养成大数据意识,具有这个时代所要求的相关性思维方式。%This thesis discusses deep change of scientific innovative thinking in three aspects of knowledge structure, thought object and thought mode under the background of big data. Questionnaire and interview are employed to in-vestigate the status quo of university student's scientific innovative thinking. It shows that they have vague knowl-edge of big data and they still follow traditional thought habit and research method in scientific innovation activities. They don't realize big data's important purpose and meaning towards scientific innovation. It leads to insufficiency of their scientific innovation ability. So this thesis proposes new connotation for university student's scientific innova-tive thought, which is grasp of big data technology's basic knowledge, development of big data sense and possession of relevant thought mode demanded by this era.

  1. 20世纪70年代末至80年代初中国大众文艺里的苏修形象%The Image of Soviet Revisionism in Chinese Popular Literature in the Late 1970s and the Early 1980s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔源

    2012-01-01

    文学艺术中的异国形象表达是跨文化研究中一个有意义的问题,通过它可以了解具体时空中人们看世界的眼光和文化心态。在上世纪70年代末至80年代初的中国大众文化中,一度流行过独特的苏修形象。这个形象既包含了当时政治环境下中国人对苏联的警觉态度,又与五六十年代的中国人对外部世界的认知存在关系,同时还投射了文革结束和开放初期时中国人的某种心态。可以说,苏修形象表现的不仅是苏修,也是特殊时期中国人的侧面写照。%Expression of the images of foreign countries in literature and arts is a significant issue in cross-cultural studies, which enables us to know about how and with what cultural psychology people look at the world at particular space and time. In the late 1970s and the early 1980s, the image of soviet revisionism once became prevalent in Chinese popular culture. The image contains the vigilant attitude the Chinese people held towards Soviet Union within the then political context, relates to the Chinese people's cognition of the outside world during the 1950s and 1960s, and reflects the psychology of the Chinese people during the post-cultural revolution period and the initial period of the reformation and opening. We may well say that what the image of soviet revisionism expresses is not only soviet revisionism but special political period. also a profile of the Chinese people in the

  2. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful for...... understanding this. Instead, it is argued that in order to understand why the RBV is an instance of scientific progress, we should begin from the notion that reduction is at the heart of progress in science, and that many scientists implicitly or explicitly hold this view. The RBV is a case of scientific...... progress because it identified theoretical mechanisms at levels lower than those that were usually investigated in strategy research prior to the RBV. Unfortunately, the micro-emphasis of the RBV gave way during the 1990s to more aggregative modes of theorizing (i.e., the capabilities approach). Thus, the...

  3. Open Access and Civic Scientific Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccala, Alesia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We examine how residents and citizens of The Netherlands perceive open access to acquire preliminary insight into the role it might play in cultivating civic scientific literacy. Open access refers to scientific or scholarly research literature available on the Web to scholars and the general public in free online journals and…

  4. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  5. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  7. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radder, H.

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of interve...

  8. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  9. Military principles of chinese origin to improve competitivenes

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Li; Ling Yean Yng, Florence; Ofori, George; Sui Pheng, Low

    2009-01-01

    an old but still significant topic is that managers need to understand how to improve competitiveness. This paper describes the contributions of the Chinese military principles to enhance firm’s competitiveness. The research method used in this paper is literature review. The contributions obtained through four steps. First is to identify traditional Chinese mili-tary principles. Secondly, Sun Tzu’s Art of War was identified by making a comparison among seven Chinese military principles. Thir...

  10. Methods for Obtaining Free Full-text of Scientific Papers in the Literature Search%科学研究中免费科技论文获取方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 李道西

    2011-01-01

    Six methods for obtaining free full-text of scientific papers are introduced,including effective use of public search engines;full use of academic search engines;the collection of common resource sites providing free scientific papers;the concern about the important professional journals' home webs,the authors' academic blogs or the website of the relevant academic research institutions;to friends or forums for help;direct request to the authors and so on.%介绍了6种获取免费科技论文全文的方法,分别是有效利用大众搜索引擎;充分利用学术搜索引擎;收集常用的免费科技论文资源网站;关注本专业重要期刊主页、作者学术博客或相关科研机构网站;向朋友或论坛求助;直接向作者索取等。

  11. Lexical Features of the Chinese Language in the Early Ming Dynasty: A Corpus-Based Study of the History-Related Popular Literature%明代前期汉语词汇特点分析——基于史部类白话语料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢永革

    2012-01-01

    Most of the study on the lexical features of Chinese language during the Ming dynasty (1368 - 1644) has been based on novels, story-telling scripts and so on, and has failed to make the best of the many data of oral Chinese scattered in historical and/or literary works as well as the materials outside China. This paper, through a corpus-based analysis of the history-related popular literature in the early Ming dynasty, finds that the Chinese language at that time was with distinctive lexieal features, with new words springing up that reflected the then social life, oral and dialectal words constantly entering the standard speech, and dialectal expressions showing certain regional diversity and inter-permeability.%明代词汇研究主要立足于小说、话本等语料,很多散见于史书、文集中的口语语料和境外语料没有得到充分利用。文章通过对明代前期史部白话语料的分析,发现明代前期词汇特点鲜明,词语竞争激烈,出现了一些富有时代特点的新词语,口语和方言词语不断融入通语,方言词语表现出一定的地域差异和渗透性。

  12. On the evolution of word usage of classical Chinese poetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchy of classical Chinese poetry has been broadly acknowledged by a number of studies in Chinese literature. However, quantitative investigations about the evolution of classical Chinese poetry are limited. The primary goal of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of the evolutionary linkages, with emphasis on word usage, among different period genres for classical Chinese poetry. Specifically, various statistical analyses were performed to find and compare the patterns of word usage in the poems of nine period genres, including shi jing, chu ci, Han shi , Jin shi, Tang shi, Song shi, Yuan shi, Ming shi, and Qing shi. The result of analysis indicates that each of nine period genres has unique patterns of word usage, with some Chinese characters being preferably used by the poems of a particular period genre. The analysis on the general pattern of word preference implies a decreasing trend in the use of ancient Chinese characters along the timeline of dynastic types of classical Chinese poetr...

  13. Chinese Scripts:From Oracle Bones to Computer Bytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Last August, a well-prepared exhibition titled "Chinese Scripts: From Oracle Bones to Computer Bytes" opened in Beijing-based Chinese Modern Literature Museum. This exhibition toured Egypt last October as a cultural event in celebration of the opening of China Cultural Center in Egypt. After that, it will be displayed in France, Malta and the Republic of Korea.

  14. Promoting Scientific Spirit to Cultivate Scientific Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Scientific culture is an advanced culture that is based on scientific knowledge and supported by the scientific method, with scientific thinking as its core and scientific spirit as its soul. During the process of modernization, it has profound impacts on human society in terms of values, ethics, mode of thinking, lifestyle and code of conduct, offering human civilization an important ideological source, physical foundation, technological tool and effective carrier.

  15. Structures and dynamics of scientific knowledge networks:An empirical analysis based on a co-word network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiaoguang; JIANG; Tingting; LI; Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Co-word networks are constructed with author-provided keywords in academic publications and their relations of co-occurrence.As special form of scientific knowledge networks,they represent the cognitive structure of scientific literature.This paper analyzes the complex structure of a co-word network based on 8,190 author-provided keywords extracted from 3,651 papers in five Chinese core journals in the field of management science.Small-world and scale-free phenomena are found in this network.A large-scale co-word network graph,which consists of one major giant component and many small isolated components,has been generated with the GUESS software.The dynamic growth of keywords and keyword co-occurrence relationships are described with four new informetrics measures.The results indicate that existing concepts always serve as the intellectual base of new ideas as represented by keywords.

  16. 宇文所安对中国文论的艺术阐释——以《典论·论文》的英译与评论为例%Stephen Owen's Art Interpretation of Chinese Literary Theory: A Case Study of A Discourse on Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲玉

    2012-01-01

    Stephen Owen’s interpretation of Chinese literary theory can be illustrated from the perspective of Friedrich Schleiermacher’s art of interpretation.Readings in Chinese Literary Thought perfectly demonstrates the the core of Friedrich Schleiermacher’s art of interpretation,such as respect for unique features of each text,techniques of flexibility,and employment of both psychological interpretation and grammatical interpretation.The case study of Cao Pi’s A Discourse on Literature makes an excellent example of Stephen’s psychological interpretation,which is an elementary aspect of Friedrich Schleiermacher’s art of interpretation.%从《中国文论:英译与评论》可以看出,宇文所安对中国文论的阐释充分展示了施莱尔马赫艺术阐释的内涵:从文本本身出发,尊重其差异或特色、采用灵活的阐释原则、运用心理学解释和语法解释手段。其中《典论·论文》的荚译与评论,尤其集中体现了对施莱尔马赫心理学解释任务的完成。

  17. Chinese Science Policy: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Maurice N., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Lists the assumptions inherent in a liberal model of science and explains how the Chinese model combines a contemporary challenge to this liberal model with a strong positive valuation of science. Explains the problems and patterns related to scientific development in China and the Soviet Union. (GS)

  18. Chinese culture, social work education and research

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, KL; Chan, CLW

    2005-01-01

    In the development of indigenous social work knowledge in China, the power relationship between teacher and student can act as a barrier to the development of scientific knowledge and practice research. Social work education and practice research in Chinese societies should focus on the empowerment of social work students, methodological pluralism and the development of a culturally specific practice research model.

  19. Co-word Analysis using the Chinese Character Set

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, Chinese texts could not be studied using co-word analysis because the words are not separated by spaces in Chinese (and Japanese). A word can be composed of one or more characters. The online availability of programs that separate Chinese texts makes it possible to analyze them using semantic maps. Chinese characters contain not only information, but also meaning. This may enhance the readability of semantic maps. In this study, we analyze 58 words which occur ten or more times in the 1652 journal titles of the China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database. The word occurrence matrix is visualized and factor-analyzed.

  20. A literature review of idea management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is primarily to conduct a state-of-the-art literature review of Idea Management and secondary to point out unanswered questions which are left behind in the reviewed literature. Scientific knowledge is primarily represented in innovation management literature but also...... considerably in literature on software and IT. On the background of the literature review, there are some weaknesses in the literature to be considered. These weaknesses concern the understanding of how people interact with idea management in their daily work practices and how different types of ideas are...... included or excluded in the idea management processes....

  1. Keywords Review of IT Security Literature in Recent 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lidong; Lin, Yan; Qian, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The volume of published scientific literature available on Internet has been increasing exponentially. Some of them reflect the latest achievement of the specific research domain. In recent years, many projects have been funded aiming to online scientific literature mining, especially in biomedical research. Scientific literature covers most of the hot topics in the research field and has a very large domain-specific vocabulary. The exploitation of domain knowledge and specialized vocabulary ...

  2. Research of Automatic Assignment Topics Indexing Using Chinese Scientific and Technical Vocabulary Systems%汉语科技词系统在文献自动赋词标引中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫莹莹; 许德山; 张运良; 李鹏

    2013-01-01

    文章首先介绍了汉语科技词系统的体系结构和功能,其次设计了自动赋词标引研究的整体思路,完成了自动赋词标引的系统功能实现,包括标引知识库的格式转换、算法实现和系统实现,并收集语料进行测试。最后对自动赋词标引的结果进行了分析,并且总结了该自动赋词标引研究的特点和不足,介绍了未来的工作设想。%The author introduced the system structure and function of Chinese science and technology system firstly, then designed the whole idea of automatic assignment topics indexing, completed the function of automatic assignment topics indexing system, including knowledge base format conversion, algorithm and system implementation, and col ected data to test the result. Final y, author analyzed the result of the automatic assignment topics indexing, summarized the characteristics and the insufficiency of automatic assignment topic indexing, and introduced the future work.

  3. Re-Examining the "Chinese Learner": A Case Study of Mainland Chinese Students' Learning Experiences at British Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Although a great deal of literature contrasts the Chinese learner with Western learning conceptions and practice, a closer look at these studies reveals that many are explored through the lens of cultural knowledge and assumptions. The results of these studies generate a distorted understanding of Chinese students. Moreover, students' learning is…

  4. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  5. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence and nature of misconceptions in physics amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many misconceptions, there is little evidence as to whether the prevalence of such common misconceptions varies from culture to culture. Purpose:To undertake a preliminary examination of the prevalence and reasons for some previously studied scientific misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students so as to ascertain whether there is any evidence of cultural difference. Such a finding could help to identify teaching approaches in either country that are more effective in reducing the prevalence of common student misconceptions. Sample:The study involved a convenience sample of 40 undergraduate students - 20 English and 20 Chinese drawn equally from two universities in the North of England - whose formal science education ended at ages 16 and 15 respectively. Design and methods:The study employed semi-structured interview schedule containing eight questions. Results:Whilst similar misconceptions existed amongst both English and Chinese undergraduates, their prevalence was significantly higher amongst the English students (Overall mean score for scientifically correct answers amongst Chinese students was 27.7% higher, p appear to be only nominally culturally independent in that they are based on globally shared everyday experiences. Conclusion:Differences in the prevalence of misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduates appear to arise from differences in the way in which specific areas of physics are taught in both countries. It might be possible to reduce the prevalence of misconceptions in both countries if a better understanding could be developed of how, and why, undergraduates use certain erroneous

  6. Modernization of Chinese herbal compound and the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-lan; SUN Zhi; DU Juan

    2008-01-01

    Chinese herbal compound is playing an important role on curing human diseases. And it has been a trend that Chinese herbal compound is being used all over the world in 21 century. However, our Chinese herbal compound is facing serious challenge for the lack of canonical system of quality criterion for Chinese herbal compound so it has been a urgent problem to set up the quality control standards and reveal therapeutic basis of Chinese herbal compound. In order to give full play to the advantages of Chinese herbal compound, modern scientific and technological is used to research of Chinese herbal compound, especially the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS), because it is high sensitive, rapid, and obtain more information. It is very necessary that HPLC-MS is uesed to elucidate the effective components of basic substances of Chinese Herbal Compound, and endow traditional Chinese medicine with modern scientific connotation.

  7. An Investigation of the Interaction between Science and Technology from Literatures of Giant Magnetoresistance

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Ho Huang

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the interaction between science and technology of Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) from both scientific literatures and patent documents. The sample data included 1603 nonpatent references (NPRs) from 1030 patents and 160 patent documents cited by 3287 scientific literatures. The result shows that the scientific literature amounts to 10 percent of all references cited by technical documents. On the other hand, only 4 percent of the scientific literature had cited the patent...

  8. New Concepts of Kazakh Literature Periodization

    OpenAIRE

    Sagymbay Zhumagulov; Meiram Zhumabekov; Zhanar Rustemova; Aytbay Zhumagulov

    2013-01-01

    The article attempts to reconsider Kazakh literature periodization from today’s perspective. The researchers define the value of scientific investigation in terms of literary trends and directions, applied in the history of the Kazakh literature and reconsideration of the facts and concepts distorted by ideology. The main goal of the article is to research and study scientific and literary heritage of ingenious literary artists and public figures, whose oeuvres belong to different historical ...

  9. The new “Chinese dream” regards science communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pitrelli Nico

    2005-01-01

    Science and technology: these are the mainstays China wants to concentrate on in order to stabilise its future as an emerging world power. Beijing plans to have the whole, enormous Chinese population literate in the scientific field within a few years. Scientific popularization is the key to what now, due to political influences and deep social disparities, seems remote.

  10. The new “Chinese dream” regards science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitrelli Nico

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology: these are the mainstays China wants to concentrate on in order to stabilise its future as an emerging world power. Beijing plans to have the whole, enormous Chinese population literate in the scientific field within a few years. Scientific popularization is the key to what now, due to political influences and deep social disparities, seems remote.

  11. Analysis on Pharmacologic Action Features of Active Ingredients of Single Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Fatty Liver Based on Literature%基于文献的单味中药有效成分治疗脂肪肝药理作用特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟周; 邓焱坤; 胡志希; 许潜; 赖永金; 云波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze pharmacologic action features of single Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fatty liver based on literature; To provide references for clinical treatment of fatty liver.Methods Animal research literature about single Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fatty liver in CNKI, Wanfang database, and VIP from January 2003 to December 2014 was retrieved by computers. The number of single Chinese herbal medicine and the pharmacologic action features of active ingredients (or extracts) were statistically concluded. Results A total of 279 articles were retrieved, including 67 kinds of single Chinese herbal medicine, among which 8 were used to treat AFLD, 45 were used to treat NAFLD, and 14 were used to treat AFLD and NAFLD simultaneously. Pharmacologic action features of the medicine for AFLD mainly included reducing lipid, protecting liver, antioxidation, and anti-inflammation. Pharmacologic action features of the medicine for NAFLD had the effects of improving insulin resistance additionally.Conclusion Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of AFLD and NAFLD shows significant efficacy, having the features of multiple pathways and liver damage resistance, which provide references for clinical treatment of fatty liver.%目的:基于文献统计分析单味中药有效成分治疗脂肪肝的药理作用特点,为进一步研究及临床治疗脂肪肝提供参考。方法计算机检索中国知识资源总库(CNKI)、万方数据库、中文科技期刊数据库(VIP)2003年1月-2014年12月报道的单味中药治疗脂肪肝动物研究文献,统计治疗脂肪肝的中药味数,归纳单味中药有效成分(提取成分、水煎剂)的药理作用特点。结果检出符合标准文献279篇,共涉及药物67味,其中用于治疗酒精性脂肪肝(AFLD)的药物8味,治疗非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)的药物45味,同时治疗AFLD及NAFLD的药物14味;治疗AFLD药理作用以调节血

  12. The emergence of scientific management in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George Toma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A scientific approach to management was initiated for the first time in America in the late 19th century. Scientific management arose mainly from the need to increase efficiency in America, but other key factors were the spread of big businesses and the expanding application of science in industry. The aims of our paper are to present the emergence of scientific management in America and to emphasize the contribution of some of the most representatives American authors to its development. The methodological approach is literature review. Our paper shows that scientific management was essentially an American achievement that provided useful lessons for the whole human society.

  13. Literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size...... actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed....

  14. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record. PMID:19812080

  15. 英汉语言学学术论文语类结构对比分析——以应用语言学博士论文文献综述语类结构研究为例%Contrastive Analysis of Generic Structure in Academic Papers on English- Chinese Linguistic Study:A Genre Analysis of Literature Reviews in Chinese PhD Dissertations in Applied Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕊娜

    2012-01-01

    Literature Review (LR) as a genre is used to deliberate on prior findings of related topics to establish relations of one's own with the whole academic community by critical evaluation of literatures in order to find out "research gaps" and thus establish one's research territory. With reference to the pioneering study of Kwan (2006) on dissertation LRs, this paper investigates the English LRs of 20 PhD dissertations composed by mainland Chinese student writers, with an aim to reveal their generic structures and move/step configurations. The results show that the Chinese writers largely follow Kwan's structure models and they have an adequate com- mand of discourse conventions and paradigms of international academic communities, as is revealed both in the completeness of three LR components of introduction, body and conclusion; but also in the frequency of occurrence of individual moves and strategies. However, some degree of divergence has been found in the use of move/strategy configurations between Chinese and native scholars, knowing of which will be beneficial for us to be better integrated into the international academic community.%文献综述(LR)主要是详述所研究主题相关的前期成果,通过批判性评价前人研究找出"研究空白",建立自己和整个学术社团的联系,由此构建自己的"研究空间"。该语类在学位论文中必不可少。本文对照Kwan(2006)LR的语类研究,对我国应用语言学20篇博士学位论文LR包含的语步及策略的语类结构和配置模式作了分析。研究结果表明,中国学位论文的LR基本符合Kwan的修辞结构模式,我国学者对于国际学术社团通行的行文惯例掌握较好,不仅表现在LR开头、正文和结尾结构的完整性上,也表现在各语步/策略的分布频率上。但是中西学者在语步/策略配置模式中存在着差异,了解这些有利于我们更好地融入国际学术社团。

  16. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  17. Cultural expectations of thinness in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, F; Lam, S; Sze, S

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the ideal woman's figure among Chinese people in Hong Kong over the past three decades by analyzing the data from the Miss Hong Kong Beauty Pageant from 1975-2000. Results indicate that Miss Hong Kong Pageant winners and Miss Photogenic winners have always been taller and thinner than average women in Hong Kong. The data also suggest that a curvaceous body shape with a narrow waist set against full hips appears to be an important component of feminine beauty among the Chinese. This ideal matches closely to what has been depicted in classical Chinese literature and challenges the commonly held belief that Chinese feminine beauty standards value plumpness. PMID:16864394

  18. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines. PMID:23477130

  19. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

  20. The Positive Influence of Chinese Culture on Employees' Motivation and Retention: the P&G Case

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu

    2008-01-01

    In terms of the effect of Chinese culture on HRM of MNCs in China, a large amount of existing literature focuses on the negative aspects. On the basis of assuming that the advantages of Chinese culture can be integrated into HRM practices. This dissertation explores how some of Chinese traditional values play a positive role on Chinese employees' motivation and retention. These effects may be not possible achieved by classic Western HRM models and theories. The investigation of this study...

  1. Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few prior cohort studies exist in developing countries examining the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) with mortality. We examined the association of particulate air pollution with mortality in a prospective cohort study of 71,431 middle-aged Chinese men. Baseline data were obtained during 1990–1991. The follow-up evaluation was completed in January, 2006. Annual average PM exposure between 1990 and 2005, including TSP and PM10, were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with residential communities. We found significant associations between PM10 and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases; each 10 μg/m3 PM10 was associated with a 1.6% (95%CI: 0.7%, 2.6%), 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8%, 2.9%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3%, 3.2%) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For TSP, we observed significant associations only for cardiovascular morality. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of particulate air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. -- Highlights: • There have been few air pollution cohort studies in developing countries. • PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in 71,431 Chinese men. • PM was not significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. -- PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in a cohort of 71,431 Chinese men

  2. 分子诊断儿童囊性纤维化二例并中国人囊性纤维化文献复习%Molecular diagnosis of two Chinese cystic fibrosis children and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐保平; 王昊; 赵宇红; 刘军; 姚瑶; 冯雪莉; 申昆玲

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨中国人囊性纤维化的临床和分子学特点.方法 对首都医科大学附属北京儿童医院2010年和2015年诊断的2例儿童囊性纤维化病例资料进行总结,并通过关键词“囊性纤维化、中国人”“cystic fibrosis,Chinese”分别检索中国知网(CNKI)、万方和PubMed数据库(1975-2015年)文献报道的中国囊性纤维化患者资料,分析总结其临床和分子学特点.结果 例1女,10岁;例2男,8月龄;均有反复咳嗽、支气管扩张.例1伴有肝硬化和汗液氯离子增高,例2伴生长发育落后和脂肪泻.CFTR基因检查可见c.595C>T、c.2290C>T突变.符合检索条件21篇文献报道36例中国患者,年龄4月龄至28岁,其中男16例、女20例,加上本组2例,一共38例.所有患者均有反复呼吸道感染,71%(27/38)存在营养不良,39%(15/38)有慢性腹泻;另有42%(16/38)有其他消化系统表现,包括黄疸(4例)、肝脏增大(11例)、腹水(2例)、胰腺萎缩(3例).5例有明确家族遗传病史,3例患者父母为近亲结婚.74%(28/38)的患者汗氯水平增高(52 ~ 327 mmol/L).有报道的16例中有8例存在胰腺功能不全,20例中有18例存在支气管扩张.13例(34%)患者死亡.25例患者进行CFTR基因检测,发现29个不同的突变位点,较为多见的突变为c.1766 +5G>T(5例)、c.2083dupG和c.2684G>A(3例).结论 中国人囊性纤维化主要以呼吸道症状为主,绝大多数患者存在支气管扩张症,部分患者存在营养不良和消化道症状,约半数存在胰腺功能不全,CFTR基因突变位点多样,均为少见突变.%Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and molecular features of cystic fibrosis in Chinese children.Method A retrospective analysis of two pediatric cystic fibrosis cases diagnosed by gene test in Beijing Children's Hospital,Capital Medical University from 2010 to 2015,and Chinese cystic fibrosis reported patients searched of " cystic fibrosis,Chinese" on Chinese

  3. Major achievements in relation to dyslexia in Chinese characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gui-feng; JING Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To review the major achievements in dyslexia in Chinese characters,hoping to give some clues for future studies.Data sources Both Chinese and English language literature search using PUBMED,and original articles published in main Chinese and international journals.Study selection After reviewing the literature,54 articles were selected that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results The results of studies about the subtypes,cerebral basis,reading processing model,event-related potential (ERP) and saccadic features between English and Chinese dyslexia are different.Conclusions In the last ten years,great progress has been made in the study of dyslexia in Chinese characters.However,there are still many problems and shortcomings which need to be investigated.

  4. 科技文献副主题词抽取及其在分面检索中的应用1)%Subheading Extraction from Scientific Literature and Its Application in Faceted Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昌平; 林鑫; 陈果

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the automatic indexing of subheadings and their application in faceted search. To implement subheading automatic indexing,this paper proposed a method which uses title as the extraction data source and extracts subheadings based on rules,and an experiment is done on library and information science literature to test its effect.The results show that the extraction method based on rules performs well whose recall and precision both exceed 90%;only using title as the extraction data source results in a low level of the recall ,for only 49.9% of the literatures can be extracted subheadings.To explore subheadings application in faceted search,, this paper constructs a prototype system for library and information science,and it can be concluded that subheading as an independent search point has little value,but with other access points they can express user needs more aptly;as a facet,it plays an important role in helping users complete exploratory search and filter results.The limitation of this study includes only using title as data source of subheadings extraction,which results in low recall;without considering the extraction of corresponding subject headings while extracting subheadings,etc.%本文研究了科技文献副主题词的自动抽取问题,并对其在分面检索中的应用进行了探索。为实现副主题词的自动标引,本文提出了以标题作为抽取数据源、基于规则进行抽取的实现方法,并以图情领域文献进行了实验。结果显示,基于规则的抽取方法在召回率和准确率方面表现良好,均超过了90%;但仅以标题作为抽取数据源会导致召回率偏低,仅有49.9%的文献能抽取出副主题词。为探索副主题词在分面检索中的应用,本文以图情领域文献为例构建了原型系统,从使用效果来,副主题词作为独立的检索点价值不大,但和其他检索点配合使用则可以更贴切地表达用户需求,作为

  5. On the Academic Responsibility and Social Mission of Chinese Postgraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yang; Min Xie

    2014-01-01

    The progress of Chinese society requires scientific development which is the only path to get rid of pre-modernity dilemma and modernity crisis. Under the circumstance of pre-modernity dilemma and modernity crisis, contemporary postgraduates confront many dilemmas and crises both of education and society. Under the guidance of scientific development, the solution is to realize the academic responsibility of postgraduates by scientifically developing, to accomplish the social mission by promot...

  6. Examination of Chinese Gambling Problems through a Socio-Historical-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Tse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions.

  7. Examination of Chinese gambling problems through a socio-historical-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Yu, Alex C H; Rossen, Fiona; Wang, Chong-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions. PMID:20842314

  8. 科学文献数据库中撤销论文分布规律研究--以Web of Science数据库为例%The Distribution of Retracted Articles in Scientific Literature Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of retracted articles, and the standard development of retracted articles label indexed by journal database, as well as the attention to retraction phenomenon from academic community, there are more and more researches about retracted articles. In this paper, we used the data about retracted articles from Web of Science, and summarized laws and characteristics of retracted articles from aspects of year, subject field, national, journal, institution and author. We hope to reveal the characteristics of retracted articles all over the world, and improve the attention to retracted articles and their influence from government institutions, journal publishers, editors and researchers. And help them to establish management mechanisms and regulations to restrain the occurrence of scientific misconduct.%随着撤销论文数量地不断增加,科学文献数据库对撤销论文标注地日益规范以及学术界对撤销论文现象地逐步重视,相关研究越来越多。本文以Web of Science数据库中撤销论文数据为研究对象,从年份、学科、国家、期刊、机构及作者等6个方面对撤销论文的分布规律及特点进行分析总结。以期在揭示国际科学文献数据库中撤销论文分布特点的同时,提高我国科研管理部门、文献数据库商、期刊编辑和科研人员等对撤销论文及其不良影响的关注,进一步规范对撤销论文的标注。促进学术期刊出版机构及科研管理部门建立健全相应的管理机制,制定行之有效的管理措施,遏制我国学术不端行为的发生。

  9. Burden of road traffic injuries and related risk factors in low and middle-income Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic review of the scientific literature (TRIP 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Josephine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pacific Island countries and territories, the burden of road traffic injuries and their attendant risks are considered significant but are poorly quantified. As with other low and middle-income countries, understanding the epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Pacific countries is critical to informing sustainable research and policy initiatives aimed at reducing this burden. Methods We undertook a systematic review and critical appraisal of the relevant epidemiological literature between January 1980 and December 2010, using key search strings for incidence and aetiological studies focusing on RTIs in less resourced Pacific countries. Results Nineteen studies were identified. The majority were descriptive and were unable to provide population-based estimates of the burden of road crash injury, or reliable information on risk factors using well-designed aetiological research methods. All studies were published more than 10 years ago, and all but three reported on data from Papua New Guinea, thereby limiting the generalisability of findings to the current status in the region. Studies undertaken in Papua New Guinea suggested that RTIs were more frequent among young males, with head injuries the most common cause of death or hospital admission. Two thirds of fatalities occurred at the crash site or soon after admission. Most road crash victims were passengers or pedestrians. Factors postulated to influence the risk of RTIs were travel in open-back utility vehicles, utility vehicle overcrowding, and alcohol. Conclusions This review suggests that, despite increasing awareness of the importance of addressing road safety among stakeholders in less resourced Pacific Island countries, road traffic injuries have not been a research priority with little relevant current evidence from the region to inform policy. Robust epidemiological research that can assess the magnitude and key determinants of road traffic injuries in these

  10. Grey literature in France : the GRISELI program

    OpenAIRE

    Comberousse, M. (Ministry of Education, France); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1996-01-01

    The GRISELI Program is a national information system on grey literature which was set up in France in 1994 by the French Research and Higher Education Ministry within its scientific and technical information and libraries directorate. The objective of the programme is to collect, index and disseminate grey literature produced in France via a network of organizations acting as GRISELI centres and each charged with collecting and indexing grey literature in a given field. Notes briefly the plan...

  11. Multiple Images of Venus in Chinese Literature and Art .Also On Ye Shuxian's Goddess of Gaotang and Venus%维纳斯在中国文艺中的多重映像——兼议叶舒宪先生的《高唐神女与维纳斯》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊

    2012-01-01

    关乎中西文化中的爱与美主题,我们就不能不提到叶舒宪先生的著作《高唐神女与维纳斯》。书中认为,中国文化中一直存在着被主流儒家遮蔽了的“维纳斯”,她就是宋玉《高唐赋》中的高唐神女及其衍生出的女性文学形象。尽管如此,本论仍对高唐神女的“爱神”“美神”特征表示质疑。笔者认为维纳斯在中国文化中的同类表现形式不止一种,中国文艺中存在着多重映像的维纳斯。再者维纳斯象征着永恒的爱与美,必定在不同的时代和文化中得到丰富的赋值、定型、描塑和创造。因此与其挖掘维纳斯的“中国版”,不如立足本土推陈出新。本论拟从社会性别、女性自觉意识等性别角度去寻找、分析散落在古代中国的维纳斯。%When talking about the issue of love and beauty in the Oriental and Western culture, we have to mention Ye Shuxian' s Goddess of Gaotang and Venus. In this book, Ye argues that there exists a "Venus" covered by the mainstream Confucians in the Chinese culture, which is the Goddess of Gaotang in Song Yu's Gao Tang Fu and the female image in the later literature. However, this paper calls the character of Goddess as "goddess of love" and "goddess of beauty" in question. The author believes that there is more than one expression form of Venus in the Chinese culture, and there exist multiple images of Venus in Chinese literature and art. Moreover, the eternal love and beauty that Venus symbolizes is un- doubtedly enriched, finalized, depicted and created in different ages and culture. Therefore, rather than excavating the Chinese version of Venus, why not make creative efforts based on local conditions? This paper intends to finds out and analyzes Venus scattering in the ancient China from perspectives of social gender and female awareness.

  12. 植物类中药寒热药性与有机成分化合物次级基团相关性的文献研究%Literature study on the relationship between the cold-heat nature of Chinese medicine and the secondary structure groups of chemical constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 王振国

    2012-01-01

    目的:探寻植物类中药中有机成分化合物次级基团与植物类中药寒热属性的相关性.方法:利用现有文献提供的信息资料,通过文献检索收集植物类中药化学成分信息,利用化学信息学对资料进行整理,运用多种数据统计分析与挖掘方法分析化学信息数据,建立Logistic回归方程,对植物类中药寒热属性进行判别.结果:以有机成分化合物次级基团建立的Logistic回归方程,可以对植物类中药的寒热属性进行判别.结论:植物类中药寒热药性与有机成分具有相关性.%Objectives: Study on the relationship between the cold-heat nature of Chinese medicine and the secondary structure groups of chemical constituents. Methods: Use the information from existing literatures; Collect chemical information of herbal medicine by document retrieval. Then use chemical informatics to collate the data and analyze it. Establish Logistic regression equation based on the secondary structure groups of chemical constituents. Use the regression equation to distinguish cold-heat nature of herbs. Results: The Logistic regression equation could distinguish cold and heat of herbs. Conclusion: There is a correlation between cold-heat nature of Chinese medicine and organic constituents.

  13. Literature study on the relationship between the cold-heat nature of Chinese herbal medicine and the single compound of organic constituents%植物类中药寒热药性与有机成分单一化合物相关性的文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 王振国

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Study on the relationship between the cold-heat nature of Chinese herbal medicine and chemical constituents. Methods: Use the information from existing literatures; Collect chemical information of herbal medicine by document retrieval. Then use chemical informatics to collate the data and analyze it Establish Logistic regression equation based on the single compound of chemical constituents. Use the regression equation to distinguish cold-heat nature of herbs. Result: The Logistic regression equation could distinguish cold and heat natures of herbs. Conclusion: There is a correlation between cold-heat nature of Chinese herbal medicine and organic constituents.%目的:探寻化学成分与中药寒热属性的相关性.方法:利用现有文献提供的信息资料,通过文献检索收集植物药化学成分信息,利用化学信息学对资料进行整理,运用多种数据统计分析与挖掘方法分析化学信息数据,建立Logistic回归方程,对中药寒热属性进行判别.结果:以有机成分单一化合物建立的Logistic回归方程,可以对中药的寒热属性进行判别.结论:植物类中药寒热药性与有机成分有相关性.

  14. Network effects on scientific collaborations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahadat Uddin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analysis of co-authorship network aims at exploring the impact of network structure on the outcome of scientific collaborations and research publications. However, little is known about what network properties are associated with authors who have increased number of joint publications and are being cited highly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Measures of social network analysis, for example network centrality and tie strength, have been utilized extensively in current co-authorship literature to explore different behavioural patterns of co-authorship networks. Using three SNA measures (i.e., degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality, we explore scientific collaboration networks to understand factors influencing performance (i.e., citation count and formation (tie strength between authors of such networks. A citation count is the number of times an article is cited by other articles. We use co-authorship dataset of the research field of 'steel structure' for the year 2005 to 2009. To measure the strength of scientific collaboration between two authors, we consider the number of articles co-authored by them. In this study, we examine how citation count of a scientific publication is influenced by different centrality measures of its co-author(s in a co-authorship network. We further analyze the impact of the network positions of authors on the strength of their scientific collaborations. We use both correlation and regression methods for data analysis leading to statistical validation. We identify that citation count of a research article is positively correlated with the degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of its co-author(s. Also, we reveal that degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of authors in a co-authorship network are positively correlated with the strength of their scientific collaborations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Authors' network positions in co

  15. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL).…

  16. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  17. Development of Chinese Lotus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娇飞

    2013-01-01

    There is a very long history of lotus culture in China. Lotus has a very high medicinal value. Lotus seed is nutritious food. Lotus has anti-aging, prolong the life of the role. Since ancient time, the image of lotus was recorded in various books and literature works. Lotus is a common and tasty food in China. Chinese people like lotus not only because of its useful value, but al⁃so because of its holy spirit. And people even think highly of soul of lotus.

  18. “Creative Learning”Teaching Reform in Creative Course Group of Chinese Language and Literature Major%汉语言文学专业创意学课程群“创造性学习”教改初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敏明; 汪广松

    2014-01-01

    文章阐述了“创造性学习”的内涵,明确了构建汉语言文学专业创意学课程群的背景、目标和课程设置内容。认为:构建“创造性学习”模式需要在教学内容设计上进一步加强学生学习主体性行为;在教学过程中重视学生的过程性学习阶段,发挥学习小组的作用,重视师生和生生交流;建立立体的学生成绩评价体系;在实践中鼓励学生创造贴近生活的原创性作品。反思教学改革,为提高学生创造性能力,培养创新人格提供一定的教学经验和借鉴。%In the educational environment of global focus on the cultivation of creative talents, this paper is a summary and reflection about practice reform of creative course teaching group in Chinese lan-guage and literature major. This paper expounds the connotation of “the Creative Study”, clarifies the background, objectives and curriculum content of creative Chinese language and literature curriculum group. We believe that the construction of “creative learning” model will need further strength when de-signing the teaching content of the students’ subjectivity in learning behavior; also, attention needs to be paid in students’ learning process phase; study group needs to play a more important role, teachers and students communicate more often; a three-dimensional student achievement evaluation system will be set up; students will be encouraged to create original works close to life in practice. The last is the teaching reform reflection, in order to provide some teaching experience and reference to improve the students’ cre-ative ability and innovative personality.

  19. Prognostic factors of laryngeal solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma: a case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Yong; Qiu, Jun; Zhou, Min-Li; ZHOU, SHUI-HONG; Bao, Yang-Yang; Wang, Qin-Ying; Zheng, Zhou-Jun

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of data exists concerning the presentation, natural course and outcome of extramedullary plasmcytoma (EMP). It is difficult to determine the optimal treatment strategy and prognostic factors for EMP. We present an additional case of laryngeal EMP and systemic review relevant reports in the English and Chinese literature. We found, to our knowledge, 147 cases in larynx in the English-language literature and Chinese-literature. The most common treatment modality was radiotherapy alone...

  20. Literatura Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se volta para as vicissitudes do informante nativo como figura na representação literária. A autora trabalha "com uma oposição binária relativamente antiquada entre filosofia e literatura, segundo a qual a primeira concatena argumentos e a segunda concebe o impossível. Para ambas o informante nativo parece inevitável". Ela examina a posição desse informante à luz do que chama de "axiomática do imperialismo" em Jane Eyre, de Brontë, Wide Sargasso Sea, de Rhys, e Frankenstein, de Shelley, para concluir com uma leitura de "Pterodactyl, Puran Sahay and Pirtha", de Mahasweta Devi.This text picks at the vicissitudes of the native informant as figure in literary representation. Its author works "with rather an old-fashioned binary opposition between philosophy and literature; that the first concatenates arguments and the second figures the impossible. For both the native informant seems unavoidable". She examines the position of such informant, in the light of what she calls the "axiomatics of imperialism" in Brontë's Jane Eyre, in Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea, and in Shelley's Frankenstein, to end up with a reading of Mahasweta Devi's "Pterodactyl, Puran Sahay and Pirtha".

  1. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. No relevant papers were found, but approximately 1000 publications were identified in a less specific search for methods of removing uranium from water. Most of the latter publications dealt with the recovery of uranium from ores, industrial and analytical chemistry solutions, or seawater. The conditions under which these studies were performed were usually quite different from those normally occurring in municipal water treatment practice, but some potentially interesting systems of recovery were identified. A few papers addressed the problem of removing uranium from natural fresh waters and established the effectiveness of using adsorbents or coprecipitants, such as aluminum hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, activated carbon, and ion exchangers, under certain conditions. Also, many US manufacturers and users of water treatment equipment and products were contacted regarding recommended methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it is recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water treatment facilities be analyzed to determine their extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures. In addition, laboratory studies are suggested to determine what changes, if any, are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water treatment plants

  2. China ranks second in scientific publications since 2006.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, P

    2008-01-01

    With the fast development of its economy, China plays an increasingly important role in the world. China's performance in science is also impressive. The exponential growth of Chinese scientific publications provides evidence. However, statistical results about China's world share of scientific publications provided by different institutions and researchers have been in disagreement. With the data for 2007 being now available, we provide an update on this issue and conclude that China has bec...

  3. Scientific Utopia: An agenda for improving scientific communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, B.

    2013-12-01

    The scientist's primary incentive is publication. In the present culture, open practices do not increase chances of publication, and they often require additional work. Practicing the abstract scientific values of openness and reproducibility thus requires behaviors in addition to those relevant for the primary, concrete rewards. When in conflict, concrete rewards are likely to dominate over abstract ones. As a consequence, the reward structure for scientists does not encourage openness and reproducibility. This can be changed by nudging incentives to align scientific practices with scientific values. Science will benefit by creating and connecting technologies that nudge incentives while supporting and improving the scientific workflow. For example, it should be as easy to search the research literature for my topic as it is to search the Internet to find hilarious videos of cats falling off of furniture. I will introduce the Center for Open Science (http://centerforopenscience.org/) and efforts to improve openness and reproducibility such as http://openscienceframework.org/. There will be no cats.

  4. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  5. Chinese varkens in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens

  6. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  7. Chinese herbal medicine for treatment of dislipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyun Wu; Jianwei Bei; Jiao Guo

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence of dislipidemia is increasing rapidly in China and there has been a growing interest in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of hyperlipidemia both inside and outside China. In this article, lipids regulating effects of 9 herbs or their extracts and 5 herbal formulae which have been published in English-language literature are reviewed. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of these Chinese herbal medicines, few multi-center large-scale clinical trials have been conducted to confirm the efficacy and evaluate their safety.

  8. Chinese Translation of Coca Cola: Analysis and Enlightenment

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyang Ran

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese translation of Coca Cola is thought to be a well-known good translation, and many people discussed the translation or brand translation with it as an example. A large number of books or articles generally and abstractly conclude that the Chinese translation leaves people a kind of feeling of coolness and cleanness, pleases and attracts consumers’ attention and their favor, however there is not still a book or an article studying systematically and scientifically how good the trans...

  9. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature...

  10. The Folklore - Archetypal Criticism of Feminity : with the Female Image of Southern Yangtze in Chinese Modem Literature as a Critical Example%女性气质的民俗-原型批评论——以现代文学江南女性形象为批评范例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛海莹

    2012-01-01

    The folklore - prototypal criticism of feminity is a native theory on Chinese female literature criticism, originated from feminist prototypal criticism. The paper attempts to analyze the female iamge in Southern Yangtze literature and tries to delineate a trajectory of prototype development from the theme, the figure to the imago in folklore. Under the multiple approaches to mod- em literature, folklore - prototypal criticism of feminity has also taken on more theoretical significance in three aspects : the em- phasis on exploration of universality and totality along with the ecological significance of the inner world development, the empha- sis on individuality and particularity along with the prominance of the author' s inner creative temperament, and the emphasis on the fusion of psychological prototype and literary prototype along with the creation of aesthetic enjoyment. As an original native theoretical approach to Chinese literature, folklore - prototypal criticism of feminity may prove to be of unique significance in building female image and developing female inner world.%从文学人类学的视角研究中国现当代文学,是对传统研究方法的一次突破与创新。女性气质的民俗一原型批评理论是在文学人类学精神关照下诞生的一种本土化的女性文学理论。这一理论的渊源是女性主义原型批评,运用此对现代文学江南作家笔下的女性文学形象进行分析,可以触摸到一条由民俗主题原型、民俗形象原型、民俗意象原型串联起来的“原型”发展轨迹。经过现代文学的多维诠释,女性气质的民俗一原型批评凸显出其理论实质,即注重普遍性与整体性及内部精神生态意义的开拓,注重个体性与特殊性及作家内在创作气质的彰显,注重心理原型与文学原型的融合并创造审美愉悦。女性气质的民俗一原型批评理论是中国文学本土化实践的又一先例,对于女性个体

  11. Medizinhistorische Literatur [Medical history literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 1-2/2012 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is on medical history literature. In six articles special collections and recent projects of medical history libraries in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Vienna and Zurich are presented. The authors in this issue are Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (From Augusta to Klingsor, from Luise to Benjamin – past, present and future of the library of the Institute of the History of Medicine in Berlin, Alexandra Veith (Library of the Institute for History of Medicine and Ethics of Medicine, Heidelberg, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Historic collections of the Medical Library of the University of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and their deacidification, Dagmar Geithner (Library of the Karl Sudhoff Institute for the History of Medicine and Science, Leipzig – a Historical Review, Harald Albrecht, Bruno Bauer & Walter Mentzel (The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna and Monika Huber & Ursula Reis (Library of the Institute and Museum of the History of Medicine Zurich.[german] Schwerpunktthema der aktuellen Ausgabe 1-2/2012von GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information ist medizinhistorische Literatur. In sechs Beiträgen werden Bestände und aktuelle Projekte medizinhistorischer Bibliotheken in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Wien und Zürich vorgestellt. Verfasst wurden die Beiträge der Schwerpunktausgabe von Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (Von August zu Klingsor, von Luise zu Benjamin – Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin in Berlin, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Medizinhistorische Buchbestände am Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und ihre Entsäuerung, Ara Veith (Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin in Heidelberg, Dagmar Geithner

  12. IgE骨髓瘤1例报告及文献复习%IgE Myeloma:the First Report of Chinese Case and a Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯健; HOU Jian; 姜华; JIANG Hua; 胡慧仙; HU Huixian; HE Jin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of IgE myeloma and to compare its clinical features with those reported in the literature. Methods: M-component in serum and urine was determined using celluloseacetate membrane electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis and quantification of immunoglobulins.Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of IgE and its light chain. Results: A monoclonal peak was detected by cellulose-acetate membrane electrophoresis. The monoclonal band showed on immunofixation electrophoresis the following reactive patterns: positive for λ antisera and negative for κ, IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD antisera. The serum immunoglobulin concentrations were: IgG 21.6 g/L, IgA 1.2 g/L, IgM 2.64 g/L, κ 7.49 g/L, λ 16.0 g/L, κ/λ 0.47. The results of immunohistochemistry showed cytoplasmic expression of IgE immunoglobulin and λ light chain in the tumor tissue. Conclusion: This is the first case of IgE multiple myeloma reported in China.

  13. 21世纪政治制度与古代文学研究的新趋向%Studies on Political System and Ancient Chinese Literature in 21 st Century:New Tendencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淑娟

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, the political-system-oriented literary studies has dis-played some favorable tendencies of development in general , including:( 1 ) the deepening of literature-cen-teredness;(2) the vigorous growth of the originally dormant fields and the debut of more other relevant topics , and (3) the blazing of new trails.Meanwhile, some case studies do have problems that need reflections and adjustments , such as undiversified paradigms of study , lack of application of theories , and narrow horizons of research .%21世纪以来,政治制度文学研究的整体发展呈现出良好的态势:一是政治制度与文学研究以文学为本位进一步深化、细化;二是处于潜隐状态的学术萌芽茁壮成长,甚至不断延展、派生出更多的学术专题;三是政治制度文学研究中新的研究领域的拓展。但在一些个案研究中,也反映出诸如研究范式的单一、理论运用的缺失、研究视野的狭迫等问题,需要反思及调整。

  14. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  15. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...

  16. The starting point of Chinese narrative literature: With reference to the art of narration in the Zuozhuan%中国叙事文学的起点与开篇——《左传》叙事艺术论略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童庆炳; Liu Jian,B.A.; Liu Jian,M.A

    2009-01-01

    The Zuozhuan 左传 (Zuo Qiuming's Commentary on The Spring and Autumn Annals)marks the beginning of ancient Chinese narrative literature that involves such factors as plot (what to say), transition (how to say)and view-angle (who says). In fact, this " story plotting " can be traced back to the Zuozhuan in which historical facts are arranged into plots by revealing the cause-effect relationship between them. Such a characteristic tendency is due to the impact from the dao 道 (tao)in either Confucianism or Taoism. For it is expected to expose the developmental process of events in terms of its historical background and plausible causality. That is why the dao of causality and reasonability thematically threads through the process Of the entire plot. Moreover, ancient Chinese narrative literature is affected bv the sense of time sequence as part of agricultural civilization. and thereforc features chronological story-telling. Noticeably in the Zuozhuan. the structure of narration is reflected in the chronological order of specific year, season, month and date. This symbolizes the approach to the minor in view 0f the great peculiar Of Chinese culture. The leading narrator in the Zuozhuan is the Official historian whose standpoint is swinging bet、veen " the real " and " the fictional " . " the outspoken " and " the suggestive. "%是中国叙事文学的起点和开篇.中国古代叙事文学的要素有情节(讲什么)--演进(怎么讲)--视角(谁讲).中国古代叙事文学强调"故事情节化",最早就是从开始的.通过揭示事件之间的因果关系而把史实情节化.中国叙事文学受儒家、道家之"道"的影响,即要说明事件发展过程的来龙去脉、因果关联、来由根据.事件发展过程中的"突转"还是"发现"等,都要有"道理"贯穿其间,都有因果关系使其联系起来,成为一个由主旨贯穿的整体性情节.中国古代叙事文学顺时序的演进多,的叙事按自然时间演进的占了绝对

  17. 准确把握社会主义核心价值体系科学内涵 坚决维护中华民族复兴的精神家园%Grasp Scientific Connotation of Socialist Core Value System, Safeguard Rejuvenation of Chinese Nation's Spiritual Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀华; 魏稳涛

    2011-01-01

    党的十六届六中全会第一次明确提出社会主义核心价值体系,在十七大报告中胡锦涛总书记进一步指出:"社会主义核心价值体系是社会主义意识形态的本质体现。"十七届六中全会通过的《决议》则进一步强调:"社会主义核心价值体系是兴国之魂,是社会主义先进文化的精髓,决定着中国特色社会主义发展方向。"准确把握社会主义核心价值体系的科学内涵,在实践中能更好地宣传和践行,特别是在澄清价值问题方面的一些模糊认识,具有十分重要的意义。%The core value system of socialism was put forward in the Sixth Plenary Session of the Sixteenth Central Commit- tee clearly for the first time,in the report of the 17 th Congress General Secretary Hu Jintao pointed out: "the socialist core value system is the essence of the socialist ideology". Seventeen sessions of six CCP plenary conferences through the "reso- lution" was further stressed: "the core value system of socialism is the soul of a country,advanced socialist culture is the essence of socialism with Chinese characteristics, determines the direction of development." Accurately grasp the scientific connotation of socialist core value system ,which has very important sense in clarifying the value problems of some fuzzy understanding, have very important sense.

  18. Anthropological Turning and Literary Anthropology——A Summary of the Special Meeting of Literary Anthropology at the Tenth Annual Symposium of Chinese Comparative Literature%人类学转向与文学人类学——第十届中国比较文学年会文学人类学专场会议综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨骊

    2012-01-01

    "文学人类学"在中国比较文学第十届学术年会上首次成为专场会议之一。此次专场会议展示了文学人类学研究领域的学术前沿,概括起来有以下三方面:1.关于人类学转向问题的理论研讨;2.对文学人类学元话语和方法论的思考;3.有关文学人类学的个案分析。%"Literary Anthropology" became the special meeting for the first time at the Tenth Annual Symposium of Chinese Comparative Literature.The special meeting showed the academic forefront in the field of literary anthropology study,which could be summed up in the following three aspects:1) the theoretical discussion on anthropological turning;2) Reflections on meta-discourse and methodology of literary anthropology;3) the case analysis on literary anthropology.

  19. 拆迁普店街:二十世纪末中国都市小说中摧毁和复兴主题的含混 (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

  20. On the Provincial Level Teaching Team-building Practice and Exploration ——to Yan'an University of Contemporary Chinese Literature Teaching Team, for Example%论省级教学团队建设的实践与探索——以延安大学中国现当代文学教学团队为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊虎

    2011-01-01

    Disciplines in colleges and universities, teaching team building, personnel training, teaching reform in the possession of an irreplaceable important role. Yan'an University, Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature teacher and curriculum in teaching team building, management, teaching reform, and so a useful to explore and try, Yan' an University, the brand has become a teaching team and the Shaanxi provincial teaching team has a certain role model and radiation.%教学团队在普通高校学科建设、人才培养、教学改革方面占有无法替代的重要作用。延安大学中国现当代文学教学团队在师资与课程建设、教学管理、教学改革等方面进行了有益的探索和尝试,已经成为延安大学的品牌教学团队和陕西省省级教学团队,在同类院校的专业教学团队中具有一定的示范和辐射作用。

  1. Analyses of Paradoxical Embolism Originated from Pulmonary Embolism: Chinese Literature Review and A Case Report%肺栓塞合并矛盾性栓塞国内文献分析:附一例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋德雄; 王廷杰; 王红军; 冉梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To improve the knowledge of paradoxical embolism originated from pulmonary embolism. Methods The medical literature about pulmonary embolism complicated with paradoxical embolism from 1998 to 2011 was searched from " Wanfang medical literature database". Meanwhile 1 case diagnosed in Central Hospital of Dazhou City was reported. Then the clinical characteristics were summarized. Results 51 cases of pulmonary embolism complicated with paradoxical embolism were diagnosed,aged from 23 to 76 years old. There were 27 males and 23 females, and sex was unknown in 1 case. In all cases, the cerebral embolism occurred in 30 cases(58. 8% ) ,lower limb artery embolism in 14 cases(27. 4% ) ,kidney artery embolism in 6 cases(ll. 8% ) ,patent foramen ovale with straddling thrombus in 4 cases(8% ),multiple embolism in 8 cases( 15. 7% ) ,heart ventricle with straddling thrombus in 1 case (1. 96% ) ,coronary artery embolism in 1 case( 1. 96% ) ,aorta embolism in 1 case( 1. 96% ) , and spleen embolism in 1 case (1.96%). There were 35 patients ( 68. 8% ) with patent foramen ovale and 7 cases (13.7%) died. Conclusions Paradoxical embolism waranted more awareness in the cases of pulmonary embolism and/or venous thromboembolism and aggressive screening might avoid misdiagnosis.%目的 综合分析国内肺栓塞合并矛盾栓塞的临床情况,提高对矛盾性栓塞的认识.方法 通过检索“万方医学文献数据库”有关肺栓塞合并矛盾性栓塞或反常栓塞的国内文献,结合达州市中心医院收治的1例病例,汇总分析相关临床资料.结果 国内文献报道肺栓塞合并矛盾性栓塞患者共51例,男27例,女23例,1例性别不详;年龄23 ~ 76岁.发生脑栓塞30例(58.8%),肢体动脉栓塞14例(27.4%),肾动脉栓塞6例(11.8%),卵圆孔血栓骑跨4例(8%),多部位栓塞8例(15.7%),心室骑跨、冠状动脉栓塞、主动脉栓塞及脾栓塞各1例(各1.96%);其中记录卵圆孔开放35例(68.8%),死亡7

  2. 中国文学中地府判官形象演变与文化蕴涵%Image Evolution and Cultural Implication of Judge in Underworld in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵颖涛

    2011-01-01

    研究了地府判官形象的演变,认为它发轫于唐,盛于唐后,随时代递变呈现出文学的演绎特征。唐代文学家模仿人间官职将判官形象移人冥界官制之中,赋予判官佛教化与中土化的双重文化特征,为文学绘就了特殊的人物图谱。随着冥界观念的成熟与世俗信仰的普及,判官形象渗入多种文学体裁中,日益丰富多彩。后代文学中的判官走向神坛,寄托了士庶的人生期望与运势憧憬,体现出神谱化的文学特征。%The image of judge of underworld originated in the Tang Dynasty, and flourished after the Tang Dynasty, with the alternation of times it showed interpretation of the characteristics of literary. Writers of Tang Dynasty created the bureaucracy of the underworld by imitating the bureaucracy of the real world; they gave the judge the dual cultural identity, which is blend of Buddhism and Sinitic culture, and created a special character in literary. With the maturity of the concept of underworld and the popularity of secular religion, the image of judge appeared in a variety of literary genres. The judge was deified in the literature gradually, on which common people placed their hopes of life expectations and fortune; and it reflected the literary features of theogony.

  3. Children's Literature on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, James

    Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.

  4. Chinese ethnomusicology to explore fieldwork methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Lihan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main working approach and scope of the national musicians is the field investigation. The exploration of successful experience of the Chinese national music in the fieldwork is very necessary to effectively organize, carry out and complete the fieldwork of the Chinese music. This paper which is combined with the summary of experience, expert consultation and literature reading tries to verify and promote the effective fieldwork method through field investigation, so as to avoid that the national musicians with curiosity give a hurried and cursory glance at the destination and miss the first-hand resources in the field investigation due to lack of effective working approach, which plays a positive role in the inheritance and development of the Chinese national music.

  5. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2016-01-01

    “Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua’s own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  6. Information Discovery from Complementary Literatures: Categorizing Viruses as Potential Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Don R.; Smalheiser, Neil R.; Bookstein, A.

    2001-01-01

    This project demonstrates how techniques of analyzing complementary literatures might be applied to problems of defense against biological weapons. The article is based solely on the open-source scientific literature, and is oriented on informatics techniques. Findings are intended as a guide to the virus literature to support further studies that…

  7. Gene name errors are widespread in the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Mark; Eren, Yotam; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-01-01

    The spreadsheet software Microsoft Excel, when used with default settings, is known to convert gene names to dates and floating-point numbers. A programmatic scan of leading genomics journals reveals that approximately one-fifth of papers with supplementary Excel gene lists contain erroneous gene name conversions. PMID:27552985

  8. Text mining for metabolic reaction extraction from scientific literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risse, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Science relies on data in all its different forms. In molecular biology and bioinformatics in particular large scale data generation has taken centre stage in the form of high-throughput experiments. In line with this exponential increase of experimental data has been the near exponential growth of

  9. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Denker, C.; von der Lühe, O.; Feller, A.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Klvaňa, Miroslav; Sobotka, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 333, č. 9 (2012), s. 810-815. ISSN 0004-6337 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : adaptive optics * high angular resolution * interferometers Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2012

  10. Chinese Medicines Induce Cell Death: The Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms for Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Xuanbin Wang; Yibin Feng; Ning Wang; Fan Cheung; Hor Yue Tan; Sen Zhong; Charlie Li; Seiichi Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Chinese medicines have long history in treating cancer. With the growing scientific evidence of biomedical researches and clinical trials in cancer therapy, they are increasingly accepted as a complementary and alternative treatment. One of the mechanisms is to induce cancer cell death. Aim. To comprehensively review the publications concerning cancer cell death induced by Chinese medicines in recent years and provide insights on anticancer drug discovery from Chinese medicines. Materials and...

  11. Getting Healthy Scientifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Recently,Zhao Zhixin,a Beijing-based instructor on scientific bodybuilding and public sport,was interviewed by China Youth Daily,sharing his views on how to get healthy scientifically.Edited excerpts follow:

  12. Clinical and genetic analysis of two Chinese patients with isovaleric acidemia and review of literature%异戊酸血症2例患儿的临床研究并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付溪; 高洪杰; 吴婷婷; 张文迪; 廖丽红; 罗小平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical features and treatment of isovaleric academia (IVA) patients,and to gain more comprehensive understanding of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase(IVD) mutation in 2 siblings in order to raise awareness to prevent the occurrence of IVA.Methods The clinical history and laboratory test of 2 cases of children with IVA were carried out.The exons and neighboring introns of IVD gene of the whole family were PCR-amplified for DNA sequencing.The literature review of IVA in China was also conducted.Results Organic acid analysis of urine by GC/MS for both siblings showed extremely elevated concentrations of isovaleric glycine.For the older sibling,an acute episode of IVA caused severe metabolic stress and eventually death in the neonatal period.However,the disease was well-controlled for the younger sibling due to timely treatment and follow-up care for 2 years.The DNA sequencing of the IVD gene in the family revealed a novel c.1016G > A(C339Y) heterozygous mutation in mother and both of the siblings.No IVD mutation was detected in father or in any of the 50 cases of healthy controls.According to literature review,15 cases of IVA were reported in recent 15 years in China,including neonatal onset (11 cases),acute episode (12 cases),odor of sweaty feet (12 cases),pancytopenia (9 cases),hyperammonemia (5 cases),hypocalcemia (6 cases),and 6 cases of death were reported.Additionally,5 cases that received treatment of BCAA-free formula milk showed positive outcome.However,only 2 cases were followed up for more than 2 years.Conclusions Two new IVA patients carrying c.1016G > A(C339Y) mutation were reported in China.The mutation may lead to conformational change and functional deficient of the IVD protein.It is also necessary to point out that using direct DNA sequencing can not identify all patients with IVA due to limitations of this technology,and thus clinicians should be aware of the possibility of genetic misdiagnosis.Moreover,there is a trend of

  13. [Study on path of transforming traditional Chinese medicine research achievement into guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yuwen, Ya

    2014-09-01

    At present, a number of scientific research achievements has been formed. Scientific achievement is the crystallization of great efforts from scientific workers, and it's also the valuable treasure of human civilization. Standardization is an important way to promote the international communication of Chinese medicine, and it's significant in boosting China's scientific and technological progress, improving market competitiveness and promoting international trade. Transformation of scientific research to the guideline is not only beneficial to improving the technology content of the standard, but also to the conversion from scientific research achievements into productivity. Therefore, only by absorbing the advanced scientific and technological achievements, reproducing the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and medical technology in standard form, can make TCM keep pace with the times. This study preliminarily explores for the method to transform scientific research achievements into guideline, in order to provide reference for the future technical specifications, thus to further the development of TCM. PMID:25532407

  14. Dreams and disillusionment in the City of Light : Chinese writers and artists travel to Paris, 1920s-1940s

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Angie Christine

    2012-01-01

    My dissertation on Chinese writers and artists that traveled abroad to Paris from the 1920s to 1940s discusses several intersections between modern Chinese literature and visual art and consists of five chapters. The first chapter, an introduction, provides historical background and contextualization of the study abroad movement in China and the significance of dreaming in literature, as well as a comparison of travel writing in the Western and Chinese traditions. The four subsequent chapters...

  15. What is scientific misconduct?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Selected examples from history are discussed to illustrate the many difficulties in judging scientific behavior. Scientific misconduct is not an a priori given concept but must first be defined. The definitions of scientific misconduct used in the USA and in Denmark are discussed as examples....

  16. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scientific Integrity Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 9, 2009 Scientific Integrity Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of...

  17. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  18. Comparisons Between Swedish and Chinese Students in Computer Science

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xuewen

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents some results concerning similarities and differences between Chinese and Swedish Computer Science students in how they view their studies. The results are drawn from interviews with both Chinese and Swedish students studying Computer Science at Uppsala University, as well as from literature surveys. Of interest have been to study the impact of cultural and educational background, Eastern or Western countries, on their attitudes towards their Computer Science studies. The ...

  19. Understanding Chinese Luxury Fashion Goods Consumption in Present Day China

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The global luxury goods market has grown considerably in the past few decades and continues to do so. However, research literature on the topic, especially on Eastern cultures, is still limited. This study sets out to understand luxury goods consumption in Chinese culture. Ten Chinese students were interviewed to gauge an understanding of how perceptions of ‘luxury’ and what motivates them to purchase it.

  20. How far does scientific community look back?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Mao, Wenli

    2013-01-01

    How is the published scientific literature used by scientific community? Many previous studies make analysis on the static usage data. In this research, we propose the concept of dynamic usage data. Based on the platform of realtime.springer.com, we have monitored and recorded the dynamic usage data of Scientometrics articles round the clock. Our analysis find that papers published in recent 4 years have much more download than papers published before. According to our quantitative calculation, papers downloaded on a whole day has an average lifetime of 1550 days approximately. Usually, classic papers are still being downloaded frequently even many years after their publication. Social media may reboot the attention of old scientific literature in a short time.

  1. Grey literature on bilingualism in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Because of the town Antwerp host of the GL9 conference and because of our own former scientific experience we selected the field of bilingualism for a study on the importance of grey literature in social sciences and humanities. The study is meant to be an additional contribution to comparable scientometric analyses on the distribution of types of publications in different scientific domains. Bilingualism, the learning and use of two or more languages, is a linguistic, social, educational and...

  2. Leadership and working life in Chinese businesses located in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Westenholz, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Very little research – if any – has been done to find out what happens to leadership and working live when Chinese companies settle in Denmark. This paper argues that it is worth investigating this topic, as I assume that the numbers of Chinese companies locating themselves in Denmark will increase in the coming years. The aim of the paper is firstly to give an overview of the literature that deals with the development of Chinese companies going abroad, and it is shown that the direct outward...

  3. Análisis bibliométrico y temático de la producción científica sobre ácidos grasos omega-3 indizada en las bases de datos internacionales sobre ciencias de la salud Bibliometric and thematic analysis of the scientific literature about omega-3 fatty acids indexed in international databases on health sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sanz-Valero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar mediante el análisis bibliométrico y temático la producción científica sobre ácidos grasos omega-3 indizada en las bases de datos internacionales sobre ciencias de la salud, estableciendo a su vez una base comparativa para análisis futuros. Método: Las búsquedas se realizaron, con el Descriptor (MeSH, como Major Topic "Fatty Acids, Omega-3" desde la primera fecha disponible hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2010. Bases de datos consultadas: MEDLINE (via PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, CINAHL y LILACS. Resultados: El artículo original fue la tipología documental más frecuente. La obsolescencia se estableció en 5 años. La distribución geográfica de los autores que aparecen como primer firmante fue estadounidense, estando los artículos escritos predominantemente en inglés. La población a estudio fue el 90,98% (IC95% 89,25-92,71 adultos humanos. Los documentos se clasificaron en 59 áreas temáticas; el tema más estudiado, 16,24% (IC95% 14,4-18,04 relacionado con los ácidos grasos omega-3, fueron las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Conclusión: Este estudio indica que la literatura científica sobre ácidos grasos omega-3 se trata de un área de conocimiento de plena vigencia y actualidad, donde predominan las instituciones anglosajonas y está orientado principalmente al estudio de las enfermedades cardiovasculares.Objective: To evaluate by bibliometric and thematic analysis the scientific literature on omega-3 fatty acids indexed in international databases on health sciences and to establish a comparative base for future analysis. Method: Searches were conducted with the descriptor (MeSH, as Major Topic "Fatty Acids, Omega-3" from the first date available until December 31, 2010. Databases consulted: MEDLINE (via PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, CINAHL and LILACS. Results: The most common type of document was originals articles. Obsolescence was set at 5 years. The geographical distribution of authors who

  4. Children's Literature Grows Up

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Christina Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Children’s Literature Grows Up proposes that there is a revolution occurring in contemporary children’s fiction that challenges the divide that has long existed between literature for children and literature for adults. Children’s literature, though it has long been considered worthy of critical inquiry, has never enjoyed the same kind of extensive intellectual attention as adult literature because children’s literature has not been considered to be serious literature or “high art.” Children...

  5. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  6. Corporate governance of Chinese publicly listed companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Agency theory suggests that problems will arise when there is a separation of ownership and control in firms. According to the literature, the main agency problem under a diffused ownership structure is likely to be the conflict of interests between managers and shareholders, whereas the central agency problem under a concentrated ownership structure is probably the exploitation of minority shareholders' interests by controlling shareholders. In the case of Chinese enterprises, such problems ...

  7. SUCCESS FACTORS OF A CHINESE RESTAURANT

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peipei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The thesis serves two main purposes. First, it aims to find out the factors that make the Chinese restaurant Dragon Sheng succeed. Second, its objective is to know customers’ satisfaction of Dragon Sheng. The comprehensive literature review traces the management in restaurant, brand building, service design, and customer relationship development. The primary data was collected through qualitative research method and personal interview were applied to collect information about...

  8. Structural Changes in Chinese Food Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Gould, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    The article tests for structural food preference change in urban China using province-level panel data from 2002 to 2010. We employ the Generalized Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System to represent consumer preferences and estimate demand for seven food groups in a dynamic setting. This relaxes many of the restrictions on the demand models used in the literature on structural preference change. Our findings suggest that Chinese food preferences are continuing to evolve.

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol...

  10. Literature analysis and research progress of the landscape ecology in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper makes analysis of published articles and books on landscape ecology in the 1990s through literature collection. The analytical results showed that the study of landscape ecology had made a great advance during the past decade in China. By incomplete survey, Chinese researchers at home and abroad published 619 scientific articles and 13 monographs on landscape ecology in the 1990s, and most of them (more than 90%) were published in Chinese with English abstracts. The published articles on basic theory accounted for 39.6% (245 articles), and those concerning application and methods accounted for 36.8% (228) and 23.6% (146), respectively. According to the objects of research, the published articles on landscape ecology were classified into nine catalogues. The urban landscape ranks first in terms of number of published articles, accounting for 13.4% of the total, followed by regional and river basin landscape, cold and arid landscape, forest landscape, habitat and bio-diversity landscape, agricultural landscape, wetlands, suburban landscape, and vegetation landscape. Based on the analysis, some discussions were made on the existing problems and development trend of landscape ecology study in China

  11. Grey Literature in Energy: 5 Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, Deborah E. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2004-01-01

    At GL'99, the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (DOE OSTI) presented a paper titled "Grey Literature in Energy: a Shifting Paradigm". Five years later, the paradigm continues to shift, less radically than the change from paper and microfiche to electronic, but with significant benefit to users worldwide. OSTI's efforts continue this shift, moving even further away from the connotation of "grey" as meaning "hard to get" literature. Along with its domestic an...

  12. A RE-EXAMINING OF THE ROLE OF CHINESE IN ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangWei

    2004-01-01

    The use of mother tongue in English classrooms in China has always been a controversial issue, and English teachers sometimes feel guilt-ridden when they do “slip” back to Chinese. By reviewing the literature concerning the use of mother tongue, the author believes that use of Chinese can be warranted. The key question is when, how and to what extent Chinese should be used.

  13. Primary scientific results of Chang’E-1 lunar mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The strategic plan for the development of the unmanned Chinese Lunar Exploration Program is characterized by three distinct stages: "orbiting around", "landing on" and "returning from" the Moon. The first Chinese lunar probe, Chang’E-1, which was successfully launched on October 24th, 2007 at Xichang Satellite Launch Center, and guided to crash on the Moon on March 1st, 2009, at 52.36°E, 1.50°S, in the north of Mare Fecunditatis, is the first step towards the "orbiting around" stage. The Chang’E-1 mission lasted 495 days, exceeding the expected life-span by about four months. A total of 1.37 TB raw data was received from Chang’E-1. It was then processed into 4 TB scientific data products at various levels. Many scientific results have been obtained by analyzing these data, including especially the "global lunar image from the first Chinese lunar explora- tion mission". All scientific goals of Chang’E-1 have been achieved. It provides much useful materials for further advances of lunar sciences and planetary chemistry. Meanwhile, these results will serve as a firm basis for future Chinese lunar missions.

  14. How to write and read a scientific evaluation paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roel; Heerkens, Hans; Regnell, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Scientific evaluation papers investigate existing problem situations or validate proposed solutions with scientific means, such as by experiment or case study. There is a growing amount of literature about how to report about empirical research in software engineering, but there is still some confus

  15. Scientific Inquiry in Educational Multi-User Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brian C.; Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of research into the problems of implementing authentic scientific inquiry curricula in schools and the emerging use of educational Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) to support interactive scientific inquiry practices. Our analysis of existing literature in this growing area of study reveals three recurrent…

  16. Natural Products from Chinese Medicines with Potential Benefits to Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tao Che

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a progressive, systemic bone disorder characterized by loss of bone mass and microstructure, leading to reduced bone strength and increased risk of fracture. It is often associated with reduced quality of life and other medical complications. The disease is common in the aging population, particularly among postmenopausal women and patients who receive long-term steroidal therapy. Given the rapid growth of the aging population, increasing life expectancy, the prevalence of bone loss, and financial burden to the healthcare system and individuals, demand for new therapeutic agents and nutritional supplements for the management and promotion of bone health is pressing. With the advent of global interest in complementary and alternative medicine and natural products, Chinese medicine serves as a viable source to offer benefits for the improvement and maintenance of bone health. This review summarizes the scientific information obtained from recent literatures on the chemical ingredients of Chinese medicinal plants that have been reported to possess osteoprotective and related properties in cell-based and/or animal models. Some of these natural products (or their derivatives may become promising leads for development into dietary supplements or therapeutic drugs.

  17. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  18. Effects of Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine on Essential Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database, were searched from their inception to August 2014 for relevant studies that compared one TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs alone. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The primary outcome measures were mortality or progression to severe complications and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures were blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QOL). Seventy-three trials, which included 8138 patients, on 17 TCPMs were included. In general, the methodological quality was low. Two trials evaluated the effects of TCPMs on mortality and the progression to severe complications after treatment, and no significant difference was identified compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No severe adverse events were reported. Thirteen TCPMs used in complementary therapy significantly decreased systolic BP by 3.94 to 13.50 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.28 to 11.25 mmHg. QOL was significantly improved by TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. This systematic review provided the first classification of clinical evidence for the effectiveness of TCPM for EH. The usage of TCPMs for EH was supported by evidence of class level III. As a result of the methodological drawbacks of the included studies, more rigorously designed randomized

  19. Evaluating a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Whitton, Mary C.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.

    2003-01-01

    process of scientific work completed by 20 pairs of participants (upper level undergraduate science students) working face-to-face and remotely. We collected scientific outcomes (graded lab reports) to investigate the quality of scientific work, post-questionnaire data to measure the adoptability of the......The evaluation of scientific collaboratories has lagged behind their development. Do the capabilities afforded by collaboratories outweigh their disadvantages? To evaluate a scientific collaboratory system, we conducted a repeated-measures controlled experiment that compared the outcomes and...... of collaborating remotely. While the data analysis produced null results, considered as a whole, the analysis leads us to conclude there is positive potential for the development and adoption of scientific collaboratory systems....

  20. Scientific Journalism in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, the problems of scientific journalism and activities of Armenian science journalists are presented. Scientific journalism in the world, forms of its activities, Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) press-releases and their subjects, ArAS website "Mass Media News" section, annual and monthly calendars of astronomical events, and "Astghagitak" online journal are described. Most interesting astronomical subjects involved in scientific journalism, reasons for non-satisfactory science outreach and possible solutions are discussed.