ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ
Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the
Huang, Lu-Qi; Su, Gang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Lan-Ping; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian
To build a well-off society in an all-round way, eliminate poverty, improve people's livelihood and improve the level of social and economic development in poverty-stricken areas is the frontier issues of the government and science and technology workers at all levels. Chinese herbal medicine is the strategic resource of the people's livelihood, Chinese herbal medicine cultivation is an important part of China's rural poor population income. As most of the production of Chinese herbal medicine by the biological characteristics of their own and the interaction of natural ecological environment factors, showing a strong regional character.the Ministry of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the State Council Poverty Alleviation Office and other five departments jointly issued the "China Herbal Industry Poverty Alleviation Action Plan (2017-2020)", according to local conditions of guidance and planning of Chinese herbal medicine production practice, promote Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation related work In this paper, based on the relevant data of poverty-stricken areas, this paper divides the areas with priority to the poverty alleviation conditions of Chinese herbal medicine industry, and analyzes and catalogs the list of Chinese herbal medicines grown in poverty-stricken areas at the macro level. The results show that there are at least 10% of the poor counties in the counties where the poverty-stricken counties and the concentrated areas are concentrated in the poverty-stricken areas. There is already a good base of Chinese herbal medicine industry, which is the key priority area for poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry. Poverty-stricken counties, with a certain degree of development of Chinese medicine industry poverty alleviation conditions, the need to strengthen the relevant work to expand the foundation and capacity of Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation; 37% of poor counties to develop Chinese medicine
Zen, X X; Yuan, Y; Liu, Y; Wu, T X; Han, S
Hyperthyroidism is a disease in which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones circulate in the blood. Patients, among other things suffer from tachycardia, warm moist skin and raised body temperature. The treatment of hyperthyroidism includes symptom relief and therapy with antithyroid medications, radioiodine and thyroidectomy. Medicinal herbs are used alone or in combination with antithyroid agents to treat hyperthyroidism in China and some other countries. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines for treating hyperthyroidism. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database. Randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of Chinese herbal medicines alone with Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine or both. Three authors interviewed authors of all potentially relevant studies by telephone to verify randomisation procedures. One author entered data into a data extraction form and another author verified the results of this procedure. Thirteen relevant trials with 1770 participants were included. All of them were of low quality. Fifty-two studies still need to be assessed because the original authors could not be interviewed. None of these trials analysed mortality, health related quality of life, economic outcomes or compliance. Compared to antithyroid drugs alone the results showed that Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs may offer benefits in lowering relapse rates, reducing the incidence of adverse effects, relieving symptoms, improving thyroid antibody status and thyroid function. Two trials investigated Chinese herbal medicine versus radioiodine and reported improvements in anxiety, tachycardia and heat intolerance. However, thyroid function - with the exception of restored thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - was not significantly altered. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicines added to other routine
Wang, Jingli; Zhou, Chaofan
The adverse reactions caused by Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are reported increased in recent years, among which the acute liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine accounts for 21.5% of total liver injuries. Despite the misuse of traditional Chinese medicine not in accordance with differentiation of symptoms and signs, the adverse reaction of Chinese herbal medicine itself can't be little to these adverse events. The paper summarizes the most common categories of traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury, the mechanism, pathological characteristics, clinical symptom of liver injury, the reasons of the reaction and how to prevent. The research aims to enhance the clinical physician recognition of liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine, in order to ensure the safe and rational usage of traditional Chinese medicine.
Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping
Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction
Yang, Bo; Xie, Yun; Guo, Maojuan; Rosner, Mitchell H; Yang, Hongtao; Ronco, Claudio
Chinese herbal medicine has been practiced for the prevention, treatment, and cure of diseases for thousands of years. Herbal medicine involves the use of natural compounds, which have relatively complex active ingredients with varying degrees of side effects. Some of these herbal medicines are known to cause nephrotoxicity, which can be overlooked by physicians and patients due to the belief that herbal medications are innocuous. Some of the nephrotoxic components from herbs are aristolochic acids and other plant alkaloids. In addition, anthraquinones, flavonoids, and glycosides from herbs also are known to cause kidney toxicity. The kidney manifestations of nephrotoxicity associated with herbal medicine include acute kidney injury, CKD, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis, Fanconi syndrome, and urothelial carcinoma. Several factors contribute to the nephrotoxicity of herbal medicines, including the intrinsic toxicity of herbs, incorrect processing or storage, adulteration, contamination by heavy metals, incorrect dosing, and interactions between herbal medicines and medications. The exact incidence of kidney injury due to nephrotoxic herbal medicine is not known. However, clinicians should consider herbal medicine use in patients with unexplained AKI or progressive CKD. In addition, exposure to herbal medicine containing aristolochic acid may increase risk for future uroepithelial cancers, and patients require appropriate postexposure screening. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong
To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Feng, Xue; Fang, Sai-Nan; Gao, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei
To provide the basis for the future research on the nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine through systematic and comprehensive summary of all the Chinese herbal medicines which may lead to nephrotoxicity. Foreign resources included PubMed and Cochrane library， and domestic research resources was China Food and Drug Administration(CDFA) Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center database. The databases were searched from establishment to January 1， 2017. There was no limitation on research type. 28 English studies were found， including 97 Chinese herbs or prescriptions with the risk of nephrotoxicity. The following six Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity had a large number of studies： aristolochic acid(5 studies)， Tripterygium wilfordii(4 studies)， Erycibe obtusifolia(2 studies)， Rheum palmatum(2 studies)， Ephedra sinica(2 studies)， and Atractylodes lances(2 studies). The remaining 91 Chinese medicines were reported with risk of nephrotoxicity in only 1 study respectively. CDFA reported 16 Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity， including Ganmaoqing Pian(capsule)， Zhenju Jiangya Pian， T. wilfordii preparation， Vc-Yinqiao Pian， Chuanhuning injection， Shuanghuanglian injection， Qingkailing injection， Lianbizhi injection， herbal decoction containing Aristolochiae Radix， Guanxin Suhe Wan， Shugan Liqi Wan， Ershiwuwei Songshi Wan， herbal decoction containing Aristolochia Fangchi， herbal granules containing root of Kaempfer Dutchmanspipe， Ganmaotong(tablets)， and Longdan Xiegan Wan. Currently， in addition to aristolochic acids， the most reported Chinese herbal medicine with the risk of nephrotoxicity is T. wilfordii preparation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People’s Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine.
Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi
To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....
This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.
Ma, Li; Chen, Shuangjie; Yang, Yongguang
To analyze the bacteriostatic effect of Chinese traditional herbal medicines on E. coli, total 35 different preparations (decoction, volatile oil and distillate) of Chinese traditional herbal medicines were tested using plate culture method. The results showed that 18 preparations of traditional Chinese herbal medicines have different inhibition effect on E. coli in vitro. The results also revealed that different process and combination affect the bacteriostatic effect and different medicines...
Full Text Available Due to increasing safety concerns regarding human consumption of fish products, an increasing number of medicinal chemicals are prohibited from use in aquaculture. As a result, Chinese herbal medicines are being increasingly used, coining the use of the term “green medicine.” Research shows that Chinese herbal medicines have many beneficial effects on fish, including growth promotion, enhancement of disease resistance, and improvement in meat quality. Many effective ingredients have been discovered in Chinese herbal medicines, which function to promote feed intake, improve meat flavor, and increase digestive enzyme activity. They also regulate and participate in processes that improve the specific and non-specific immunity of fish; however, the composition of Chinese herbal medicines is very complex and it is often difficult to identify the effective ingredients. This article reviews the latest research and application progress in Chinese herbal medicines regarding growth and feed utilization, immunity and disease resistance, and the meat quality of cultured fish. It also discusses research on the chemical constituents of classical Chinese medicinal herbs and problems with the application of Chinese herbal medicines in fish culture. This article concludes by proposing that future studies on Chinese herbal medicines should focus on how to cheaply refine and extract the effective ingredients in classical Chinese medicinal herbs, as well as how to use them efficiently in aquaculture.
Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Dan; Kang, Li-Ping; He, Ya-Li; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Yun
Pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicine has attracted widespread attention at home and abroad. This paper analyzed the pollution present situation and existing problems of pesticide residue for Chinese herbal medicines, explicited the analytical methods of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines. Meanwhile, the commonly used pesticide residue degradation and application in Chinese herbal medicines were discussed. Moreover, on the basis of analysis of pesticide residue standards, this paper proposed the necessity and urgency of the limit standard of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines, and provided a scientific references for deepening research and developing safe, green medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Yinan; Huang, Yingjie; Lu, Lin
This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence. Alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) appear to have positive effects on methamphetamine and ketamine addiction. Both Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Radix Pueraiae (Gegen) have beneficial inhibitory effects on alcohol intake. Sinomenine has been shown to have preventive and curative effects on opioid dependence. l-Stepholidine, an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia (Rulan), attenuated the acquisition, maintenance, and reacquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and antagonized the heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines may be used to complement current treatments for drug addiction, including withdrawal and relapse. As the molecular mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese herbal medicines are elucidated, further advances in their use for the treatment of drug addiction are promising. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu
Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Objective: This study investigated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and prednisone onCD4+FoxP3+ T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells in the MRL/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: MRL/lpr mice were treated with herbal medicine (yin-nourishing and heat-clearing therapy), prednisone, and a ...
Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin
In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction.
Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.
Su, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Li-Qiong; Grant, Suzanne J; Liu, Jian-Ping
To assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. We systematically searched seven electronic databases and two trial registries for randomized clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. A total of 10 trials involving 751 participants with cancer-related fatigue were identified and the methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Chinese herbal medicine used alone or in combination with chemotherapy or supportive care showed significant relief in cancer-related fatigue compared to placebo, chemotherapy or supportive care based on single trials. Chinese herbal medicine plus chemotherapy or supportive care was superior to chemotherapy or supportive care in improving quality of life. Data from one trial demonstrated Chinese herbal medicine exerted a greater beneficial effect on relieving anxiety but no difference in alleviating depression. Seven trials reported adverse events and no severe adverse effects were found in Chinese herbal medicine groups. The findings from limited number of trials suggest that Chinese herbal medicine seems to be effective and safe in the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. However, the current evidence is insufficient to draw a confirmative conclusion due to the poor methodological quality of included trials. Thus, conducting rigorously designed trials on potential Chinese herbal medicine is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction.
Yao, Yao; Chen, Ting; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei
Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat a wide variety of neurological disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism behind the effectiveness remains unclear. Recently, molecular imaging technology has been applied for this purpose, since it can assess the cellular or molecular function in a living subject by using specific imaging probes and/or radioactive tracers, which enable efficient analysis and monitoring the therapeutic response repetitively. This chapter reviews the in vivo functional and metabolic changes after administration of Chinese herbal medicine in various neurological disorders and provides perspectives on the future evaluations of therapeutic response of Chinese herbal medicine. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jin, Yong-Xiang; Wu, Peng; Mao, Yi-Fan; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Jia-Feng; Chen, Wen-Liang; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Xiao-Lin
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in the elderly population. Several studies have suggested that Chinese herbal medicine has antiosteoporotic activities that might be beneficial for osteoporosis. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in osteoporosis patients. We comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (until December 2016) that compared Chinese herbal medicine with Western medicine in adults with osteoporosis and reported bone mineral densities (BMDs). A total of 10 randomized controlled trials were included. The pooled results suggested that the increased spine BMD was lower but not significant in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the Western drug group (standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.62 to 0.39, p > 0.05). In the subgroup analysis, in postmenopausal women, Chinese herbal medicine also showed a insignificantly higher increment in BMD than the control group (SMD = 0.22, 95% CI: -0.00 to 0.43, p = 0.05). For different treatment durations, subgroups over 6 mo (SMD = 0.09, 95% CI: -0.24 to 0.41, p > 0.05) and less than 6 mo (SMD = -0.25, 95% CI: -1.14 to 0.64, p > 0.05) showed comparable BMDs between the 2 therapies. Our study demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine alone did not significantly increase lumbar spine BMD. Further studies with better adherence to the intervention are needed to confirm the results of this meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Han, Shi-You; Hong, Zhi-You; Xie, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Yong; Xu, Xiao
Stroke is a condition with high morbidity and mortality, and 75% of stroke survivors lose their ability to work. Stroke is a burden to the family and society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese herbal patent medicines in the treatment of patients after the acute phase of a stroke. We searched the following databases through August 2016: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), China Science Periodical Database (CSPD), and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) for studies that evaluated Chinese herbal patent medicines for post stroke recovery. A random-effect model was used to pool therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal patent medicines on stroke recovery. Network meta-analysis was used to rank the treatment for each Chinese herbal patent medicine. In our meta-analysis, we evaluated 28 trials that included 2780 patients. Chinese herbal patent medicines were effective in promoting recovery after stroke (OR, 3.03; 95% CI: 2.53-3.64; P herbal patent medicines significantly improved neurological function defect scores when compared with the controls (standard mean difference [SMD], -0.89; 95% CI, -1.44 to -0.35; P = .001). Chinese herbal patent medicines significantly improved the Barthel index (SMD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-0.94; P herbal medicines most likely to improve stroke recovery when combined with acupuncture. Our research suggests that the Chinese herbal patent medicines were effective for stroke recovery. The most effective treatments for stroke recovery were MLC601, Shuxuetong, and BuchangNaoxintong. However, to clarify the specific effective ingredients of Chinese herbal medicines, a well-designed study is warranted.
Chen Qiyong; Chang Chunyan; Xiao Yabing; Wu Ruoxin
In order to put forward new method and basis to remove pesticide residues in Chinese herbs, the influence factors such as irradiation doses and water content of electron beam irradiation on degradation efficiency of carbamate and organophosphorous pesticides in ginseng are investigated. Additionally, the irradiation degradation of two pesticides treated with the same dose in several traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Baifuling is also studied. The irradiation can effectively degrade these pesticide residues in herbal medicines; the efficiency of lower doses are inferior to higher doses. The degradation rate rises when dose increases, and varies among 4 ∼ 10 kGy in different Chinese herbal medicines. The degradation efficiency of organophosphorous pesticides is better than those of carbamate pesticides. (authors)
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease, the cause of the disease is still unclear. So far conventional treatments to Parkinson's are symptomatic relief and focused mainly on motor symptoms. Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat many conditions in China, Korea, Japan, and many Southeast Asian countries for 1000 years. During past a few decades, Chinese herbal medicine has gained wider and increasing acceptance within both public and medical profession due to its effectiveness on many conditions in western countries. In this chapter, mechanisms of action of many Chinese herbal compounds/extracts and Chinese herb formulas on the models of Parkinson's were reviewed. Further, reports of effectiveness of Chinese herb formulas on patients with Parkinson's were summarized. It was shown that both Chinese herbal compounds/extracts and herb formulas have either specific target mechanisms of action or multitargets mechanisms of action, as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptosis agents. Clinical studies showed that Chinese herb formulas as an adjunct improved both motor and nonmotor symptoms, and reduced dose of dopaminergic drugs and occurrence of dyskinesia. The evidence from the studies suggests that Chinese herb medicine has potential, acting as neuroprotective to slow down the progression of Parkinson's, and it is able to simultaneously treat both motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's. More studies are needed to explore the new compounds/extracts derived from Chinese herbs, in particular, their mechanisms of action. It is hopeful that new drugs developed from Chinese herb compounds/extracts and Chinese herb formulas will lead to better and complimentary therapy to PD. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tejedor-García, Noelia; García-Pastor, Coral; Benito-Martínez, Selma; de Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco Javier
The growing use of purchase online via Internet retailers favours the access to potentially toxic natural products. It also contributes to the quick dissemination of the claims made by the retailers on efficacy and safety, these claims being not always based upon reliable information. Here, we have conducted an online search to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and we have analysed them for the quality of product information and the potential health risks. i) Online search in Google España to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine in which we analysed both the claims regarding possible health benefits and adequate safe use indications ii) Identification of potentially toxic herbs in the websites iii) Quantification of Chinese herbal medicines withdrawn by the Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS). 1) Only one third of the 30 Spanish-language retail websites found which sell Chinese herbal medicine observe the law, given that the other websites include illegal Western disease claims as marketing tools, 2) Five websites provide some safety information, 3) Two websites offer potentially toxic herbs and 4) Chinese herbal medicine adulterated with sibutramine, silfenafil or their analogues make a considerable percentage of the total products withdrawn by the AEMPS. Online health seekers should be warned about misinformation on retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and directed to a Spanish government Web site for guidance in safely navigating the Internet for buying Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi
Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes.
An AES method has been proposed for micro elements analysis in Chinese herbal medicine and the pretreatments of samples are discussed in detail. The method is proved accurate by analyzing peach leaves with the level of the national standard substance and by comparing results using different methods: the data obtained are accurate and reliable and the method can be used for determination 10 kinds of micro elements in Chinese herbal medicine
Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie
Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research.
Zhao, Hui; Mao, Mingsan
Schisandra is the dried and ripe fruit of Chinese magnoliavine, which has the functions of protecting the liver and gallbladder, lowering blood sugar, antibacterial and antiaging. Schisandra contains biological activity is very high. As a commonly used blind Chinese herbal medicine, Schisandra often appear in the treatment of vertigo, palpitations, insomnia in the proprietary Chinese medicine, play a nourishing liver and kidney, nourishing the nerves and so on. Chinese Pharmacopoeia contains a total of 102 kinds of Chinese medicine containing Schisandra, according to the dosage form will contain Schisandra proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into pills, tablets, granules and other 8 categories, according to the compatibility of Schisandra application, will contain Schisandra proprietary Chinese medicine functional Class 9. In this paper, the main clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicines containing Schisandra chinensis was analyzed by analyzing the classification and functional treatment of Chinese medicinal constituents containing Schisandra in pharmacopoeia, and then providing the basis for the analysis of Schisandra in proprietary Chinese medicine and The study is conducted to give guidance.
Trinh, Kien; Cui, Xuejun; Wang, Yong-Jun
Systematic review. To assess the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines in treating chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms. Chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms is a common condition. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. We electronically searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED (up to 2009), the Chinese Biomedical Database and related herbal medicine databases in Japan and South Korea (up to 2007). We also contacted content experts and hand searched a number of journals published in China.We included randomized controlled trials with adults with a clinical diagnosis of cervical degenerative disc disease, cervical radiculopathy, or myelopathy supported by appropriate radiologic findings. The interventions were Chinese herbal medicines. The primary outcome was pain relief, measured with a visual analogue scale, numerical scale, or other validated tool. All 4 included studies were in Chinese; 2 of which were unpublished. Effect sizes were not clinically relevant and there was low quality evidence for all outcomes due to study limitations and sparse data (single studies). Two trials (680 participants) found that Compound Qishe Tablets relieved pain better in the short-term than either placebo or Jingfukang; one trial (60 participants) found than an oral herbal formula of Huangqi relieved pain better than Mobicox or Methycobal, and another trial (360 participants) showed that a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, relieved pain better than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel. There is low quality evidence that an oral herbal medication, Compound Qishe Tablet, reduced pain more than placebo or Jingfukang and a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, reduced pain more than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel. Further research is very likely to change both the effect size and our confidence in the results.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilised complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of Chinese herbal medicine, misconceptions about synergy, methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengthen and weakness of these models in the context of Chinese herbal medicine and summarise the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.
Zhang, Wan; Li, Bolin; Sun, Jianhui; Wang, Zhikun; Zhang, Nana; Shi, Fang; Pei, Lin
To compare the differences in the clinical therapeutic effects on reflux esophagitis among the combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction (the decoction for resolving the turbid, detoxification and reducing the pathologic upward qi in short) and acupuncture, omeprazole and Chinese herbal medicine. Ninety patients were randomized into 3 groups, 4 cases of them were dropped off. Finally, there were 29 cases in the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, 29 cases in the western medication group and 28 cases in the Chinese herbal medicine group in the statistical analysis. In the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, the decoction was prescribed recurrence rate. The therapeutic effects are better than the simple application of either Chinese herbal medicine or omeprazole. for oral administration. Additionally, acupuncture was applied to Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Zhongwan (CV 12), Ganshu (BL 18), Danshu (BL 19) and Taichong (LR 3). The decoction was applied one dose a day and acupuncture was once a day. In the western medication group, omeprazole capsules, 20 mg were prescribed for oral administration, twice a day. In the Chinese herbal medicine group, the decoction was simply applied. The treatment was 8 weeks in the 3 groups and the follow-up visit was 6 months. The score of reflux disorder questionnaire (RDQ) and the changes in esophageal mucosa under gastroscope were observed before and after treatment; the clinical therapeutic effects and recurrence rate were evaluated in the 3 groups. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, RDQ scores in the 3 groups were all reduced as compared with those before treatment (all P herbal medicine was lower than that in the western medication group ( P herbal medicine was lower than those in the western medication group and the Chinese herbal medicine group (both P herbal medicine group (all P <0.05). The combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction and acupuncture achieve the
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women hence Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been chosen by many clinicians and patients as alternative treatment for PCOS. The present study was to explore the effects of CHM in alleviating hyperandrogenism of PCOS ...
Yu, Zhao-Yun; Zhang, Bao-de; Ning, Jun-ya; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yuan, Wen-ying
Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunity cellular parasite, related to the infection of various animals and human beings and severely impairing agriculture and human health. Because of the complexity of T. gondii life cycle, its different biological characteristics, and multifarious pathogenesis, there are no specific treatment and preventive medicines at present. Chinese herbal medicine can balance "yin-yang" and regulate the immunity and its side-effect is slight. Now, it has been a hot topic of the research on effective and secure medicines in anti-toxoplasmosis. This paper summarizes and analyzes the curative effect and mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine, such as Scutellaria baicalensis, Inontus obliquus polysaccharide, Radix glycyrrhizae, pumpkin seeds, and Semen arecae.
Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. W...
Full Text Available Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.
Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan
Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin.
Background: Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) must be processed before being prescribed to patients. During the processing, some CHMs became brown and as such 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) generated. Increasing attention is being paid to the safety and effectiveness of HMF. Methods: This paper summarized ...
Wu, Wenxun; Yin, Detao; Yang, Weimin; Kan, Quancheng; Liu, Zhangsuo; Ren, Xiaoyan; Zhai, Chenguang; Zhang, Shengjun
A thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion within the thyroid gland that might be palpable and is ultrasonographically distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Thyroid nodules are more common as age increases and occur more frequently in women. Benign thyroid nodules often cause pressure symptoms and cosmetic complaints. In China and many other countries, doctors use Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) to treat thyroid nodules. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules in adults. Review authors searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP information (a Chinese database), WANFANG Data (a Chinese database), the Chinese Conference Papers Database and the Chinese Dissertation Database (all searched up to April 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing CHM or CHM plus levothyroxine versus levothyroxine, placebo or no treatment in adults with benign thyroid nodules. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and evaluated overall study quality according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation), with differences resolved by consensus. We included one randomised trial involving 152 participants with a randomisation ratio of 2:1 (CHM vs no treatment). The trial applied adequate sequence generation; however, allocation concealment was unclear. Duration of treatment was three months, and follow-up six months. Our a priori defined outcomes of interest (i.e. nodule volume reduction ≥ 50%; pressure symptoms, cosmetic complaints or both; health-related quality of life; all-cause mortality; cancer occurrence; changes in number and size of thyroid nodules; changes in thyroid volume; and socioeconomic effects) were not investigated in the included study. Thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and tri
Full Text Available With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.
Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng
With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.
Jian, Wen-Jia; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jin-Zhou; Ni, Jing-Nian
Chinese herbal medicine has been extensively used in the treatment of vascular dementia (VaD), but lacked systematic review on its efficacy and safety. So we conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine in treating VaD. CNKI, CBM, PubMed, and Wiley Online Library were retrieved for randomized trials (RCTs) on Chinese herbal medicine treating VaD patients. Randomized parallel control trials by taking Chinese herbal medicine as one treatment method and placebos/cholinesterase inhibitors/Memantine hydrochloride as the control were included. Quality rating and data extraction were performed. RevMan5.2.0 Software was used for meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to indicate effect indicators of results. Seven RCTs met the inclusive criteria. Totally 677 VaD patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group. Descriptive analyses were performed in inclusive trials. The cognitive function was assessed in all trials. Results showed Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) score was better in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the placebo group, but with no significant difference when compared with the donepezil group (P > 0.05). Adverse reactions were mainly manifested as gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain in the Chinese herbal medicine group. But they occurred more in the donepezil group than in the Chinese herbal medicine group. The methodological quality of included trials was poor with less samples. Results of different trials were lack of consistency. Present evidence is not sufficient to prove or disapprove the role of Chinese herbal medicine in improving clinical symptoms and outcome indicators of VaD patients. Their clinical efficacy and safety need to be supported by more higher quality RCTs.
Meng, Hui; Peng, Nan; Yu, Mingwei; Sun, Xu; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Guowang; Wang, Xiaomin
Abstract Introduction: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is featured with the biological properties of strong aggressive behaviors, rapid disease progression, high risk of recurrence and metastasis, and low disease free survival. Patients with this tumor are insensitive to the endocrine therapy and target treatment for HER-2; therefore, chemotherapy is often used as routine treatment in clinical. Because of the fact that a considerable number of patients seek for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment after operation and chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy, it is thus need to evaluate the correlation between Chinese herbal medicine treatment and prognosis. Methods and analysis: This is a multicenter, prospective cohort study started in March 2016 in Beijing. A simple of 220 participants diagnosed with TNBC were recruited from nine hospitals and are followed up every 3 to 6 months till March 2020. Detailed information of participants includes personal information, history of cancer, quality of life, symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine and fatigue status is taken face-to-face at baseline. Ethics and dissemination: The study has received ethical approval from the Research Ethical Committee of Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University (No.2016BL-014-01). Articles summarizing the primary results and ancillary analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-OOC-16008246. PMID:29095272
Xinke, Zhao; Yingdong, Li; Mingxia, Feng; Kai, Liu; Kaibing, Chen; Yuqing, Lu; Shaobo, Sun; Peng, Song; Bin, Liu
Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat hypertension in China and East Asia since centuries. In this study, we conduct an overview of systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension to 1) summarize the conclusions of these reviews, 2) evaluate the methodological quality of these reviews, and 3) rate the confidence in the effect on each outcome. We comprehensively searched six databases to retrieve systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension from inception to December 31, 2015. We used AMSTAR to evaluate the methodological quality of included reviews, and we classified the quality of evidence for each outcome in included reviews using the GRADE approach. A total of 12 systematic reviews with 31 outcomes were included, among which 11 systematic reviews focus on the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional medicine or simple Chinese herbal medicine versus simple conventional medicine. Among the 11 items of AMSTAR, the lowest quality was "providing a priori design" item, none review conformed to this item, the next was "stating the conflict of interest" item, only three reviews conformed to this item. Five reviews scored less than seven in AMSTAR, which means that the overall methodological quality was fairly poor. For GRADE, of the 31 outcomes, the quality of evidence was high in none (0 %), moderate in three (10 %), low in 19 (61 %), and very low in nine (29 %). Of the five downgrading factors, risk of bias (100 %) was the most common downgrading factor in the included reviews, followed by imprecision (42 %), inconsistency (39 %), publication bias (39 %), and indirectness (0 %). The methodological quality of systematic reviews about Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension is fairly poor, and the quality of evidence level is low. Physicians should be cautious when applying the interventions in these reviews for primary hypertension patients in
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria.
Sun, M.; Wijk, R. van; Wijk, E. van; Wang, M.; Wietmarschen, H. van; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der
In Chinese medicine, raw herbal materials are used in processed and unprocessed forms aiming to meet the different requirements of clinical practice. To assure the chemical quality and therapeutic properties of the herbs, fast and integrated systematic assays are required. So far, such assays have
Liu, Jian-Xun; Ren, Jian-Xun; Lin, Cheng-Ren
The efficacy not only is summarized by clinical effect of Chinese herbal compound on theory of traditional Chinese medicine, but also is manifested to clinical effect by interaction of many intricate chemical substances. The efficacy of Chinese herbal compound is current research focus in field of traditional Chinese medicine. By currently knowing in different aspects which included the progression in efficacy of Chinese herbal compound, symptomatic efficacy of Chinese herbal compound, the relationship between the efficacy and pharmacologic effect of Chinese herbal compound, the efficacy related pharmacodynamic substance and the evaluation of efficacy, it had been summarized mainly problems and methods in research and development process of the efficacy of Chinese herbal compound in this paper. Paper also elucidated problems that need to pay attention in research of efficacy in order to provide references for clinical and experimental studies of efficacy in Chinese herbal compound, boost research and development level of new traditional Chinese drug and facilitate modernization of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Background: The aims of this study are to evaluate and summarize the scientific production in the field of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A systematic bibliometric search was performed based on the PubMed database covering relative publications between January 1, ...
LI, Xiu; CHEN, Mengxuan; SONG, Xiaoli
Combining current situations of Chinese herbal medicine planting industry in Shandong, in line with existing problems of Chinese herbal medicine planting industry, this paper analyzed development prospect of tourist commodity industry in Shandong Province, and came up with actual selection and recommendations for integrated development of Chinese herbal medicine planting and tourist commodities.
In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...
Huan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029, China. *For correspondence: Email: email@example.com; Tel: (+86) 10-6428-6307; Fax: (+86) 10-6422-0858 ... pharmacopoeia, accounting for 57.14 % (32/56). The top three factors influencing dose ... herbal combination, property of Chinese herbs, quality of medicinal, have a strong ...
In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...
Chuang, Chao-Hua; Chang, Pei-Jen; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Tsai, Yih-Jian; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chen, Pau-Chung
Using Chinese herbal medicines during pregnancy and postpartum is common in the Chinese community. The purpose of this current study is to explore the use of Chinese herbal medicines by women during pregnancy and postpartum in Taiwan. It is an on-going prospective longitudinal study design. We used multistage stratified systematic sampling to recruit 24,200 pairs, postpartum women and newborns, from the Taiwan national birth register in 2005. Subjects underwent a home interview 6 months after their deliveries between June 2005 and July 2006. A structured questionnaire was successfully administered to 87.8% of the sampled population. At least one Chinese herbal medicine was used by 33.6% and 87.7% of the interviewed subjects during pregnancy and the postpartum period, respectively. An-Tai-Yin, Pearl powder, and Huanglian were the most commonly used during pregnancy, while Shen-Hua-Tang and Suz-Wu-Tang were the most commonly used by postpartum women. Pregnant women aged 20-34, with high education, threatened abortion, chronic disease, and primipara appeared to use more Chinese herbal medicines than others in the sample. Postpartum women with high education, primipara, normal spontaneous delivery, and breastfeeding were found to use more Chinese herbal medicines; but women with pregnancy-related illness used less. Chinese herbal medicines are frequently used by women during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Taiwan and those with high education and primipara used more such herbs. Due to limited safety information on these herbs, we would advise caution regarding their use either during pregnancy or postpartum breastfeeding period. Moreover, it is important for nurses/midwifes enquiring about such habits, and providing the adequate education to women during prenatal and postpartum care to prevent potential side effects.
This paper introduces regulatory pathways and characteristic quality requirements for marketing authorization of herbal medicinal products in the European Union（EU）, and the legal status and applications of "European Union list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations" and "European Union herbal monographs". Also introduced are Chinese herbs that have been granted the EU list entry, those with EU herbal monographs, and registered EU traditional herbal medicinal products with Chinese herbs as active ingredients. Special attention is paid to the technical details of three authorized EU herbal medicinal products (Veregen, Sativex and Episalvan) in comparison with Andrographis paniculata extract HMPL-004 that failed the phase Ⅲ clinical trial for ulcerative colitis. The paper further emphasizes the importance of enriching active fractions of herbal extracts and taking regulatory and quality considerations into account in early stage of botanical drug development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Shuo Gu; Jianfeng Pei
With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regula...
Chen, Fang-Pey; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Yu-Chun; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used in treating liver diseases in Asian countries. To conduct a large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study and evaluate the frequency and pattern of CHM prescriptions in treating chronic hepatitis. We obtained the database of traditional Chinese medicine outpatient claims from the national health insurance in Taiwan for the whole 2002. Patients with chronic hepatitis were identified by the corresponding diagnosis of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and association rule were applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM in treating chronic hepatitis. Among the 91,080 subjects treated by CHM for chronic hepatitis, the peak age was in the 40 s, followed by 30 s and 50 s. Male/female ratio was 2.07:1. Long-dan-xie-gan-tang and Saliva miltiorrhiza (Dan-shen) were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herbal drug, respectively. The most common two-drug prescription was Jia-wei-xia-yao-san plus Saliva miltiorrhiza, and the most common three-drug prescription was Jia-wei-xia-yao-san plus Saliva miltiorrhiza and Artemisia capillaries (Yin-chen-hao). This study showed the utilization pattern of Chinese herbal drugs or formulae in treating chronic hepatitis. Further researches and clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these Chinese herbs or its ingredients in treating chronic hepatitis.
Zou, Wenjun; Qu, Liping; Ye, Zuguang; Ji, Jianxin; Li, Bogang
This article discusses the characteristics of cmmunity herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products and its establishment procedure. It also reviews the new development of cmmunity traditional herbal monographs. The purpose is to clarify the relationship between cmmunity herbal monographs and simplified registration for traditional herbal medicinal product in European Union and provide reference to the registration of taditional Chinese mdicinal products in Europe.
Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal polyps and chronic gastritis: A case report. ... Background: The rate of gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, often regarded as precancerous lesions, developing into cancer is 40 – 70 %. Endoscopic resection has been the preferred method ...
Full Text Available In present study I used the data from CHM-DATA, the interactive database of 1127 Chinese herbal medicines with 78 medicinal functions (attributes. The relational network for medicinal functions of Chinese herbal medicines was constructed using my earlier data and methods. Results of network analysis showed that the network is a scale-free complex network at the significance level of alpha=0.01. It was demonstrated that Clear away heat, Detoxification, Remove lung-heat or nourish lung, Promote secretion of saliva or body, Relieve pain, Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, Nourish or warm spleen / stomach / Qi, and Dispel endogenous wind, are the most influential medicinal functions. Seven main modules, corresponding links and module functions were identified and three of them were (Clear away heat, Detoxification, Relieve pain, Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, (Loosen the bowels, Moisten dryness, Tonify blood, Nourish essential fluid (Yin, Inhibit or break energy flow (Qi, and (Relieve external syndrome, Induce perspiration, Relieve muscular spasm, Expose exthanthema or promote eruption. PCA of 78 medicinal functions demonstrated that the medicinal functions 1-50 accounted for 79% of the total variance. There were not absolutely significant components and medicinal functions. The 78 components from PCA were substantially 78 independent and comprehensive medicinal functions. Major medicinal functions for every component can be simply determined by their importance and contribution coefficients in the component. New medicinal definition for some the most important principal components were given. Category characteristics of medicinal functions were described. At a certain level, for example, the medicinal functions -Consolidate or warm kidney, -Whet the appetite or reinforce stomach, Cool blood, -Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, -Nourish or warm spleen / stomach / Qi, Clear away heat, Detoxification, and Dispel endogenous cold, are the
Xiao, Bin; Tao, Ou; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
Functional analysis concisely summarizes and concentrates on the therapeutic characteristics and features of Chinese herbal medicine. Standardization of the terms for Chinese herbal functions not only plays a key role in modern research and development of Chinese herbal medicine, but also has far-reaching clinical applications. In this paper, a new method for standardizing the terms for Chinese herbal function was proposed. Firstly, functional targets were collected. Secondly, the pathological conditions and the mode of action of every functional target were determined by analyzing the references. Thirdly, the relationships between the pathological condition and the mode of action were determined based on Chinese medicine theory and data. This three-step approach allows for standardization of the terms for Chinese herbal functions. Promoting the standardization of Chinese medicine terms will benefit the overall clinical application of Chinese herbal medicine.
Chen, Lih-Chi; Wang, Bi-Ru; Chen, I-Chin; Shao, Chun-Hui
To assess the patterns of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used by women in Taiwan to treat menopausal symptoms. A retrospective review of the records of women who received CHM therapies for menopausal symptoms at the Traditional Medicine Center, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, between January 2003 and December 2006. The average number of therapies per prescription, dosage, and duration of the prescription were recorded. The most commonly prescribed herbs and formulae were also recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The records of 3432 women who were administered a total of 19370 CHMs to treat symptoms of the menopause were reviewed. The average number of drugs per prescription was 5.64. Most of the prescriptions (97.1%) were prescribed to be taken 3 times a day. The most commonly prescribed Chinese herb was Leonurus heterophyllus. Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. CHM is commonly used in Taiwan for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. The efficacy and safety of CHM drugs used for the management of menopausal symptoms require further study. Copyright 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barlow, D J; Buriani, A; Ehrman, T; Bosisio, E; Eberini, I; Hylands, P J
The available databases that catalogue information on traditional Chinese medicines are reviewed in terms of their content and utility for in-silico research on Chinese herbal medicines, as too are the various protein database resources, and the software available for use in such studies. The software available for bioinformatics and 'omics studies of Chinese herbal medicines are summarised, and a critical evaluation given of the various in-silico methods applied in screening Chinese herbal medicines, including classification trees, neural networks, support vector machines, docking and inverse docking algorithms. Recommendations are made regarding any future in-silico studies of Chinese herbal medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Yingxin; Ma, Qiu-Yan; Yang, Yue; He, Yu-Peng; Ma, Chao-Ting; Li, Qiang; Jin, Ming; Chen, Wei
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic, progressive optic neuropathy. The aim was to develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for POAG with focus on Chinese medicine pattern differentiation and treatment as well as approved herbal proprietary medicine. The guideline development group involved in various pieces of expertise in contents and methods. Authors searched electronic databases include CNKI, VIP, Sino-Med, Wanfang data, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, as well as checked China State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) from the inception of these databases to June 30, 2015. Systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine treating adults with POAG were evaluated. Risk of bias tool in the Cochrane Handbook and evidence strength developed by the GRADE group were applied for the evaluation, and recommendations were based on the findings incorporating evidence strength. After several rounds of Expert consensus, the final guideline was endorsed by relevant professional committees. CHM treatment principle and formulae based on pattern differentiation together with approved patent herbal medicines are the main treatments for POAG, and the diagnosis and treatment focusing on blood related patterns is the major domain. CHM therapy alone or combined with other conventional treatment reported in clinical studies together with Expert consensus were recommended for clinical practice.
Zha, Lin-Hua; He, Li-Sha; Lian, Feng-Mei; Zhen, Zhong; Ji, Hang-Yu; Xu, Li-Peng; Tong, Xiao-Lin
The clinical therapeutics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complicated process which involves theory, diagnosis, and formula prescription with specific herbal dosage. Zhang Zhong-Jing's classic work, Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, has been influencing TCM practice for almost 2000 years. However, during this extended period of time in Chinese history, the Chinese weight measurement system experienced noticeable changes. This change in the weight measurement system inevitably, and perhaps even negatively, affected TCM herbal dosage determination and treatment outcome. Thus, in modern society, a full understanding of the accuracy of herbal dose selection has a critical importance in the TCM daily practice of delivering the best treatment to the patients suffering from different illnesses. In the 973 Project of the Chinese National Basic Research Program, expert consensus on classic TCM formula dose conversion has been reached based on extensive literature review and discussion on the dose-effect relationship of classic TCM formulas. One "liang" in classic TCM formulas is equivalent to 13.8 g. However, based on many TCM basic and clinical studies of variable herbal formula prescriptions and herbal drug preparations, the rule of one liang equals 13.8 g should be adjusted according to different disease conditions. Recommended by the committee on TCM formula dose-effect relationship of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, the following expert consensus has been reached: (i) One liang converts to 6-9 g for the severely and critically ill patients. (ii) One liang converts to 3-6 g for the patients suffering from chronic diseases. (iii) One liang converts to 1-3 g in preventive medicine. The above conversions should be used as a future TCM practice guideline. Using this recommended guideline should enhance the effectiveness of daily TCM practice.
Ong, Madeleine; Peng, Jie; Jin, Xingliang; Qu, Xianqin
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder characterized by androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction; it is now known to be closely linked to metabolic syndrome. Recent research suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS which may lead to the excessive production of androgens by ovarian theca cells. Currently there is no single drug that can treat both the reproductive and metabolic complications of the disorder. Existing pharmaceutical agents such as hormonal therapies have been associated with side effects and are not appropriate for PCOS women with infertility. Additionally, insulin sensitizing agents useful for treating the metabolic abnormalities in PCOS have limited efficacy for treating reproductive aspects of the disorder. Chinese herbal medicines have a long history of treating gynaecological problems and infertility and therefore may be a novel approach to the treatment of PCOS. Current research demonstrates that the compounds isolated from herbs have shown beneficial effects for PCOS and when combined in an herbal formula can target both reproductive and metabolic defects simultaneously. Therefore, further investigation into Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of PCOS is warranted.
Singh, Amrinder; Zhao, Kaicun
Insomnia is a condition with sleep problems and many people suffered from it. Chronic insomnia can last for long time and it will severely affect people's health and the quality of life. In conventional medicine, the most commonly used the medicine is benzodiazepine. It is effective but also has significant side effects. Patients try to use some kinds of alternative medicines. Chinese medicinal herbs and formulas have been used in the treatment of insomnia for more than 2000 years in China. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in the Western countries. Many clinical studies including randomized controlled clinical trials and research on pharmacological action mechanisms of the herbs for treatment of insomnia have been conducted. It is very important and very helpful to review the published research papers to gather the available information for a critical analysis. This chapter evaluated the data from both of clinical studies and pharmacological researches on the therapeutic formulas and on some key herbs used in the treatment of insomnia. Clinical studies showed a very wide spectrum of herbs that were used in clinical treatment of insomnia. This was due to different syndrome patterns happened with insomnia. This brought complexity and difficulties to identify which are the essential key herbs or formulas. It was found Suanzaoren decoction (Ziziphus spinose decoction ) is the most frequently used formula for the treatment of insomnia. Based on the clinical data, several herbs were identified as most frequently used sedative and hypnotic herbs in Chinese herbal medicine including Suanzaoren (Ziziphus spinose ), Fuling (Poria cocos ), and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis ). The underlying pharmacological action mechanisms discovered in the studies on some key herbs used in the treatment of insomnia were evaluated. The major pharmacological action mechanisms shared by most of the sedative herbs are to act through the neurotransmitter gamma
Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen
Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing.
Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes
Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap
Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes
Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the
Dou, Xiao-bing; Wo, Xing-de; Fan, Chun-lei
Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is the No.1 risk factor for patients with atherosclerosis (AS) and is directly related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, prevention and treatment of AS is of great importance and of practical significance in controlling the incidence and mortality of CAD. With its peculiar syndrome-dependent therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated abundant practical experiences in this field and good clinical effects have been achieved. Chinese herbal medicine, with its particularly unique advantages and high potentials yet to be tapped, displays its huge strength in HLP prevention and treatment. The progress of studies concerning prevention and treatment of HLP by Chinese herbal medicines, in the form of monomers or compound recipes, is reviewed in this paper.
Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to assess the current clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched until January 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing Chinese herbal medicine against placebo, no drugs, Western drugs, or a combination of routine treatment drugs against routine treatment drugs. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results. Nine randomized trials were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as low. Two trials compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with Western drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −2.23 [−3.98, −0.49], P=0.01. Only one trial compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with no drugs. A meta-analysis showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −6.00 [−6.45, −5.55], P<0.00001. Four trials compared Chinese formula used alone with placebo. A meta-analysis also showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −1.10 [−1.64, −0.55], P<0.0001. Two trials compared the combination of Chinese formula plus routine treatment drugs with routine treatment drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −5.99 [−11.11, −0.86], P=0.02. Conclusions. No firm conclusion on the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS can be made. More rigorous high-quality trials are required to generate a high level of evidence and to confirm the results.
Yang, Xue-Mei; Lin, Duan-Yi; Lai, Xin-Mei; Chen, Mei-Mei; Huang, Lu-Qi
In order to provide theoretical clues and data support for the use of Chinese medicine clinical drug, experimental study of Chinese materia medica and development of new resources of Chinese materia medica, the four properties as the core, the relationships of property, flavor, channel tropism and toxicity in nature data of Chinese materia medica were analyzed. The spearman rank correlation method was employed to analyze 8 356 Chinese drugs with characteristic of four properties from " Chinese Herbal Medicine" based on data level coding. It was discovered that four properties showed significant positive correlations with tastes of "pungent and sweet" , channels of "spleen" , "stomach" , "kidney" and "toxicity" , but also showed significant negative correlations with tastes of "bitter" and "light" and six channels such as "large intestine" , "heart", "bladder" , "gallbladder" , "small intestine" and "lung" (in descending order of correlation ) (P <0. 01). It was indicated that the more hot the Chinese medicine nature, the more possible it contained "toxicity" , tastes of "pungent" and "sweet" , and the more possible it was belong to channels of "spleen" , "stomach" and "kidney". As well, the more cold the Chinese medicine nature, the more possible it contained tastes of "bitter" and "light", and the more possible it was belong to six channels such as "large intestine", etc.
Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D
In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Maw-Shiou Jong; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Yu-Chun Chen; Tzeng-Ji Chen; Fun-Jou Chen; Fang-Pey Chen
Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of use and prescriptive patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treating constipation by analyzing the claims data of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. Methods: The computerized claims dataset of the TCM office visits and the corresponding prescription files in 2004 compiled by the NHI Research Institute in Taiwan were l...
Meng, Hui; Peng, Nan; Yu, Mingwei; Sun, Xu; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Guowang; Wang, Xiaomin
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is featured with the biological properties of strong aggressive behaviors, rapid disease progression, high risk of recurrence and metastasis, and low disease free survival. Patients with this tumor are insensitive to the endocrine therapy and target treatment for HER-2; therefore, chemotherapy is often used as routine treatment in clinical. Because of the fact that a considerable number of patients seek for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment after operation and chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy, it is thus need to evaluate the correlation between Chinese herbal medicine treatment and prognosis. This is a multicenter, prospective cohort study started in March 2016 in Beijing. A simple of 220 participants diagnosed with TNBC were recruited from nine hospitals and are followed up every 3 to 6 months till March 2020. Detailed information of participants includes personal information, history of cancer, quality of life, symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine and fatigue status is taken face-to-face at baseline. The study has received ethical approval from the Research Ethical Committee of Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University (No.2016BL-014-01). Articles summarizing the primary results and ancillary analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-OOC-16008246.
Zhao, Hui; Feng, Yu; Mao, Mingsan
Objective: Explore the application characteristics of proprietary Chinese medicine prescriptions containing toxic herbs in pharmacopoeia. Methods: In this paper, according to the clinical application of pharmacopoeia proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into table agent, Qushu agent, diarrhea agent, heat agent, Wen Li agent, cough and asthma agents, resuscitation agent, Gutian agent, Fuzheng agent, Anshen agent, hemostatic agent, The traditional Chinese medicine prescription and the clinical application of the Chinese herbal medicine containing the toxic Chinese medicine were analyzed and sorted out., Summed up the compatibility of toxic herbs and application characteristics. Results: Toxic Chinese herbal medicine in the cure of traditional Chinese medicine to play a long-standing role, through the overall thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking of toxic Chinese medicine in the analysis of Chinese medicine that , toxic Chinese medicine in the application of proprietary Chinese medicine can not lack. Conclusion: Pharmacopoeia included proprietary Chinese medicine not only in the clinical treatment of good, but also the application of its toxic traditional Chinese medicine and its understanding of the enrichment of the toxic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and treatment-related disease pathology between the points of contact for patients with clinical applications Based on and theoretical guidance of Chinese medicine .
Chang, J.; Jäger, Anna; Heinrich, M.
Diverse pharmacological activities and reliable clinical performances of Chinese herbal medicines have attracted worldwide attention in terms of its modernization. Here, a hexa-herbal Chinese formula (HHCF) for treating eczema topically has been studied from both chemical and biological perspective....... It consists of roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Gerogi, Rheum officinale Baill., Sophora flavescens Aiton; root's bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz.; bark of Phellodendron chinense C.K. Schnied and fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schard.. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the hexa-herbal decoction...... colonizes the skin of most patients with AD and produces superantigens that could further increase severity of AD via subverting T-regulatory cell activity and inducing corticosteroid resistance.  Therefore, activity of the decoctions prepared from mixture and individual medicinal plants of the formula...
Full Text Available As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.
Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.
Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the research was to investigate the antiviral and immunoregulatory effects of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, Panax notoginseng saponins, notoginsenoside R1, and anemoside B4 saponins commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines.
Chen, L-C; Chen, I-C; Wang, B-R; Shao, C-H
Insomnia is a common complaint in the general population. Interest in the use of alternative treatments for insomnia is increasing exponentially and is fairly common in Taiwan. We undertook a survey to define the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines (CM) for insomnia in Taiwan. The survey was conducted over a period of 4 years, from January 2003 to December 2006. Outpatients with primary insomnia and being treated with CM were studied. Core drug-use indicators were the number of CM items per prescription, the dosing frequency and duration of CM prescriptions, the most common prescribed CM herbs and CM formulae used. Six thousand eight hundred and sixty patients, using 37,046 CM herb items, were screened during the study period. The average CM items per prescription was 5.40. Most of prescriptions (95.23%) were prescribed for administration three times a day. The most often prescribed Chinese herbal products were Hong-Hwa (Carthamus tinctorius) and Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San, which includes Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala, Paeonia lactiflora, Bupleurum chinense, and Poria coco. This is the first extensive survey examining the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of insomnia. Although the data were generated in Taiwan, the herbs and practices identified are likely to be widely generalizable wherever Chinese herbal remedies are used for insomnia. Multiple herbs and complex formulae were commonly used. The baseline data generated should be of use in informing subsequent studies, including those aimed at a thorough evaluation of the herbs' effectiveness.
Liu, X J; Wagner, Jr, H N; Tao, S
The effects of the Chinese herbal medicine higenamine on left ventricular function were studied by means of an external radiation detector in 15 patients with heart disease. Higenamine, administered intravenously, markedly increased the ejection fraction of LV, as well as the ejection rate. The LVEF increased from 46%+-9% to 60%+-15% and 61%+-12% (P<0.005) after a 30- and 60-min infusion of higenamine, respectively. The percentage increase in LVEF paralleled the increase in the heart rate. The effects of higenamine on LV function were similar to the response obtained with isoproterenol. These results document the pharmacologic effect of the Chinese herbal medicine, higenamine, on heart function.
Liu, X.J.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Tao, S.
The effects of the Chinese herbal medicine higenamine on left ventricular function were studied by means of an external radiation detector in 15 patients with heart disease. Higenamine, administered intravenously, markedly increased the ejection fraction of LV, as well as the ejection rate. The LVEF increased from 46%+-9% to 60%+-15% and 61%+-12% (P<0.005) after a 30- and 60-min infusion of higenamine, respectively. The percentage increase in LVEF paralleled the increase in the heart rate. The effects of higenamine on LV function were similar to the response obtained with isoproterenol. These results document the pharmacologic effect of the Chinese herbal medicine, higenamine, on heart function. (orig.)
Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.
Gao, Yue; Ma, Zengchun; Zhang, Boli
The research of new herbal drugs involves in new herbal drugs development and renew the old drugs. It is necessary to research new herbal drugs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The current development of famous TCM focuses on the manufacture process, quality control standards, material basis and clinical research. But system management of security evaluation is deficient, the relevant system for the safety assessment TCM has not been established. The causes of security problems, security risks, target organ of toxicity, weak link of safety evaluation, and ideas of safety evaluation are discussed in this paper. The toxicology research of chinese herbal drugs is necessary based on standard of good laboratory practices (GLP), the characteristic of Chinese herbal drugs is necessary to be fully integrated into safety evaluation. The safety of new drug research is necessary to be integrated throughout the entire process. Famous Chinese medicine safety research must be paid more attention in the future.
Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua
Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240
Liu, Ching-Shen; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well-recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, which exhibits inherent drug resistance. In this study, the antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of 58 Chinese herbal medicines used in Taiwan were tested against 89 nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results gathered by the disc diffusion method showed that 26 out of the 58 herbal extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the 26 herbal extracts, 10 extracts showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and were selected for further antibacterial property assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active partition fractions ranged from 0.25 to 11.0 mg/L. The presence of flavonoid compounds in the active fractions of test herbal extracts was observed by the TLC-bioautography. The results from the time-kill assay revealed that most of the herbal extracts completely killed the test organisms within 4 hours. Exposure of the test strains to a sub-MIC level of the herbal extracts for 10 consecutive subcultures did not induce resistance to the active components. A combination of the active herbal fractions with antibiotics showed that one of the herbal medicines, the hexane fraction of Ramulus Cinnamomi, possessed a synergistic effect with tetracycline, gentamycin, and streptomycin. In conclusion, the tested Chinese medical herbs have the potential to be developed into natural antibiotics. This is the first evaluation for screening large amounts of medical plants against nosocomial antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan.
Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine (CHM has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%. In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1. There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia.
Full Text Available Large amounts of Chinese herbal medicine wastes produced by the medicinal factories have been mainly landfilled as waste. In this study, via phosphoric acid activation, a Chinese herbal medicine waste from Magnolia officinalis (CHMW-MO was prepared for activated carbon (CHMW-MO-AC. The effect of preparation conditions (phosphoric acid/CHMW-MO impregnation ratio, activation temperature, and time of activated carbon on yield of CHMW-MO-AC was investigated. The surface area and porous texture of the CHMW-MO-ACs were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The SBET and pore volume were achieved in their highest value of 920 m2/g and 0.703 cm3/g, respectively. Thermal gravity analysis and scanning electron microscope images showed that CHMW-MO-ACs have a high thermal resistance and pore development. The results indicated that CHMW-MO is a good precursor material for preparing activated carbon, and CHMW-MO-AC with well-developed mesopore volume can be prepared by H3PO4 activation.
Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, De; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Lang, Yong-Ying
Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.
Wang, Dali; Calabrese, Edward J; Lian, Baoling; Lin, Zhifen; Calabrese, Vittorio
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been long practiced and is becoming ever more widely recognized as providing curative and/or healing treatments for a number of diseases and physiological conditions. This paper posits that herbal medicines used in TCM treatments may act through hormetic dose-response mechanisms. It is proposed that the stimulatory (i.e., low dose) and inhibitory (i.e., high dose) components of the hormetic dose response correspond to respective "regulating" and "curing" aspects of TCM herbal treatments. Specifically, the "regulating" functions promote adaptive or preventive responses, while "curing" treatments alleviate the clinical symptoms. Patterns of hormetic responses are described, and the applicability of these processes to herbal medicines of TCM are explicated. It is noted that a research agenda aimed at elucidating these mechanisms and patterns would be expansive and complex. However, we argue its value, in that hormesis may afford something akin to a Rosetta Stone with which to interpret, translate, and explain TCM herbology in ways that are aligned with biomedical perspectives that could enable a more integrative approach to medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCulloch, Michael; Ly, Helen; Broffman, Michael; See, Caylie; Clemons, Jen; Chang, Raymond
Background. Chinese herbal medicines reportedly increase efficacy and minimize toxicity of chemotherapy; however, little attention has been paid to how poor study quality can bias outcomes. Methods. We systematically searched MEDLINE, TCMLARS, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicines combined with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy compared with the same chemotherapy alone. We screened for eligibility, extracted data, and pooled data with random-effects meta-analysis. Outcome measures were survival, toxicity, tumor response, performance status, quality of life, and Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) criteria to critically evaluate the quality of reporting in the randomized trials included in the meta-analysis. Results. We found 36 potentially eligible studies, with only 3 (those with low ROB) qualifying for meta-analysis. Two reported chemotherapy-related diarrhea reduced by 57% (relative risk [RR] = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.19-1.01; I2 test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with nonsignificant results. Two reported white blood cell toxicity reduced by 66% (RR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.16-0.72; I2 test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with statistically significant results. Stratifying analysis by studies with high versus low ROB, we found substantial overestimation of benefit: Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of platelet toxicity by Chinese herbal medicines (RR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.15-0.84 vs RR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.11-3.92). Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of vomiting toxicity (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.33-0.61 vs RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.48-1.58). And, studies with high ROB overestimated by 21% the reduction in diarrhea toxicity (RR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.20-0.58 vs RR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19-1.01). Studies with high ROB also overestimated by 16% improvement in tumor response (RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.18-1.63 vs RR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.81-1.79). Not accounting for ROB
Winston I. Lu
Full Text Available Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs.
Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda
Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.
Chen, L C; Wang, B R; Chou, Y C; Tien, J H
Drug utilization studies are important for the optimization of drug therapy and have received a great attention in recent years. Most of the information on drug use patterns has been derived from studies in modern Western medicines; however, studies regarding the drug utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (CM) are few. The present study was the first clinical research to evaluate the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines in a general hospital in Taiwan. Data were collected prospectively from the patients attending the Traditional Medicine Center of Taipei Veteran General Hospital under CM drug treatments. The study was carried out over a period of 1 year, from January 2002 to December 2002. Core drug use indicators, such as the average number of drugs per prescriptions, the dosing frequency of prescriptions, and the most common prescribed CM herbs and formulae were evaluated. The primary diagnosis and the CM drugs prescribed for were also revealed. All data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. A total of 10 737 patients, representing 52 255 CM drugs, were screened during the study period. Regarding the prescriptions, the average number of drugs per prescription was 4.87 and 37.21% of prescriptions were composed by five drugs. Most of prescriptions (91.38%) were prescribed for three times a day. The most often prescribed Chinese herb was Hong-Hwa (5.76%) and the most common Chinese herbal formula was Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San (3.80%). The most frequent main diagnosis was insomnia (15.58%), followed by menopause (5.22%) and constipation (5.09%). The survey revealed the drug use pattern of CMs in a general hospital. The majority of CM prescriptions were composed by 3-6 drugs and often prescribed for three times a day. Generally, the rational drug uses of CM drugs were provided with respect to the various diagnoses. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hong, Ming; Li, Sha; Tan, Hor Yue; Cheung, Fan; Wang, Ning; Huang, Jihan; Feng, Yibin
Herbal medicines are widely used for treating liver diseases and generally regarded as safe due to their extensive use in Traditional Chinese Medicine practice for thousands of years. However, in recent years, there have been increased concerns regarding the long-term risk of Herb-Induced Liver Injury (HILI) in patients with liver dysfunction. Herein, two representative Chinese herbal medicines: one-Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (XCHT)-a composite formula, and the other- Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu) -a single herb, were analyzed by network pharmacology study. Based on the network pharmacology framework, we exploited the potential HILI effects of XCHT and Heshouwu by predicting the molecular mechanisms of HILI and identified the potential hepatotoxic ingredients in XCHT and Heshouwu . According to our network results, kaempferol and thymol in XCHT and rhein in Heshouwu exhibit the largest number of liver injury target connections, whereby CASP3, PPARG and MCL1 may be potential liver injury targets for these herbal medicines. This network pharmacology assay might serve as a useful tool to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of HILI. Based on the theoretical predictions, further experimental verification should be performed to validate the accuracy of the predicted interactions between herbal ingredients and protein targets in the future.
Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20-40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN.
Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang
Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming
Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622
Full Text Available Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery.
Fan, Tai-Ping; Deal, Greer; Koo, Hoi-Lun; Rees, Daryl; Sun, He; Chen, Shaw; Dou, Jin-Hui; Makarov, Valery G; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Shikov, Alexander N; Kim, Yeong Shik; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chang, Yuan Shiun; Jia, William; Dias, Alberto; Wong, Vivian Chi-Woon; Chan, Kelvin
GP-TCM is the first EU-funded Coordination Action consortium dedicated to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. One of the key deliverables of the Work Package 7 in GP-TCM was to investigate information of the existing requirements for registration of TCM products listed by global regulatory bodies. The paper aims to collate data and draw comparison of these regulations. Case studies are also presented to illustrate the problems involved in registering TCM products in different regions worldwide. A collaborative network task force was established during the early stage of the GP-TCM project and operated through exchanges, teleconferences and focused discussions at annual meetings. The task force involved coordinators, academics who are actively involved with R&D of Chinese herbal medicines, experts on monographic standards of Chinese materia medica, representatives from regulatory agencies, experts from industries in marketing Chinese medicines/herbal medicines and natural products. The co-ordinators took turns to chair teleconferences, led discussions on specific issues at AGM discussion sessions, at joint workshops with other work-packages such as WP1 (quality issues), WP3 (toxicology issues) and WP6 (clinical trial issues). Collectively the authors were responsible for collating discussion outcomes and updating written information. A global overview of regulations on herbal registration has been compiled during the three years of the consortium. The regulatory requirements for registration of herbal products in the EU and China were compared, and this is extended to other regions/countries: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. A wide variation of the regulations for the categories of herbal products exists: food (functional food, novel foods, dietary food for special medical purpose, foods for particular nutritional use, food supplement); cosmetic, traditional herbal medicine products; herbal
Full Text Available Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine.
Qu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zou, Wen-Jun
Registration of Chinese patent medicine in European Union (EU) is of great significance to the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine as EU market acts as an important position in the global botanical market. In retrospect, the domestic studies on EU regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products have been conducted for more than 10 years, but there is still some cognitive bias and lack of research. In this paper, a review of the relevant research progress and the main misunderstanding problems about Directive 2004/24/EC, like the centralized and decentralized supervision system of traditional herbal medicinal products in the EU, marketing authorization procedures for traditional herbal medicinal products, Community Herbal Monograph and List Entries, would be systematically analyzed, so as to provide reference for the registration of Chinese patent medicine in EU. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD. However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN.
Gao, Fen; Ren, Xiao-xia; Wang, Meng-liang; Qin, Xue-mei
In recent years, root rot diseases of Chinese herbal medicine have been posing grave threat to the development of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. This article presents a review on the occurring situation of the root rot disease, including the occurrence of the disease, the diversity of the pathogens, the regional difference in dominant pathogens,and the complexity of symptoms and a survey of the progress in bio-control of the disease using antagonistic microorganisms. The paper also discusses the existing problems and future prospects in the research.
Wang, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Chi; Li, Cuishan; Li, Daocheng; He, Ping; Su, Zhaojuan; Li, Yanling; Ding, Yiling; Lu, Aiping
Breastfeeding is recommended worldwide but not fully practiced. The first week after childbirth is regarded as a critical period for increasing breast milk production. The aim of the study was to investigate whether Chinese herbal medicine Zengru Gao would result in more women breastfeeding in the first week after childbirth. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted of 588 mothers considering breastfeeding in China. Among the mothers of the intervention group, the intervention included Chinese herbal medicine Zengru Gao; among those of the control group, it did not. Primary outcomes were the percentages of fully and partially breastfeeding mothers. Secondary outcome was baby's daily formula intake. At 3 d and 7 d after delivery, significant differences were found in favour of Zengru Gao group on the percentage of full/ partial breastfeeding (Z = - 3.0037, p = 0.0027). At day 7, the percentage of full/ partial breastfeeding of the active group increased to 71.48%/20.70% versus 58.67%/30.26% in the control group, the differences remained significant (Z = - 3.0037, p = 0.0027). No statistically significant differences were detected on primary measures at 1 d. While intake of formula differed between groups at 1 d and 3 d, this difference did not achieve statistical significance, but this difference was apparent by 7 d (55.45 ± 115.39 ml/day vs 90.66 ± 153.89 ml/day). In conclusion, Chinese Herbal medicine Zengru Gao enhanced breastfeeding success during one week postpartum. The approach is acceptable to participants and merits further evaluation. ChiCTR-IPR-15007376 , December 11, 2015.
Ru, Jinlong; Li, Peng; Wang, Jinan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Bohui; Huang, Chao; Li, Pidong; Guo, Zihu; Tao, Weiyang; Yang, Yinfeng; Xu, Xue; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling
Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed. The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was built based on the framework of systems pharmacology for herbal medicines. It consists of all the 499 Chinese herbs registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia with 29,384 ingredients, 3,311 targets and 837 associated diseases. Twelve important ADME-related properties like human oral bioavailability, half-life, drug-likeness, Caco-2 permeability, blood-brain barrier and Lipinski's rule of five are provided for drug screening and evaluation. TCMSP also provides drug targets and diseases of each active compound, which can automatically establish the compound-target and target-disease networks that let users view and analyze the drug action mechanisms. It is designed to fuel the development of herbal medicines and to promote integration of modern medicine and traditional medicine for drug discovery and development. The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature of TCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs. TCMSP is freely available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/tcmsp.php.
Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granu...
Long, Xingchao; Huang, Luqi; Jiang, Erguo; Zhou, Yonghong; Xu, Yanfeng; Zheng, Shuhua; Ning, Xiaoling; Liu, Hongwei; Chen, Lin
To analyze costs of the traditional Chinese medicine industry focusing on production costs. Data of 50 planted Chinese herbal medicines and 50 wild Chinese herbal medicines were summarized and analyzed to see the changes of price of Chinese herbal medicines. The derivative problems of limited price were analyzed by crude drug, quality of Chinese medicine and sustainable utilization of resource. The price of Chinese medicine shall be adapted to sustainable development of market economy.
Jong, Maw-Shiou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Chen, Fang-Pey
Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of use and prescriptive patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treating constipation by analyzing the claims data of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. The computerized claims dataset of the TCM office visits and the corresponding prescription files in 2004 compiled by the NHI Research Institute in Taiwan were linked and processed. Visit files with the single diagnostic coding of constipation (ICD-9-CM code 564.0) were extracted to analyze the frequency and pattern of corresponding CHM prescriptions. The association rule was applied to analyze the co-prescription of CHM in treating constipation. There were 152,564 subjects who visited TCM clinics only for constipation in Taiwan during 2004 and received a total of 387,268 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 20 and 29 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.5%). Female subjects used CHM for constipation more frequently than male subjects (female:male = 3.31:1). There was an average of 4.6 items of single Chinese herbs or formula in a single prescription for constipation. Ma-zi-renwan was the most commonly prescribed herbal formula, while Da-huang (Rheum palmatum) was the most commonly used single Chinese herb. According to the association rule, the most common prescribed pattern of 2-drug combination of CHM for treating constipation was Ban-xia-xie-xin-tang plus Ma-zi-ren-wan, while the 3-drug combination of CHM was Fang-feng-tong-sheng-san, Rheum palmatum and Ma-zi-ren-wan. This study showed the pattern of single Chinese herbs or herbal formulae used in treating constipation in Taiwan. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs in treating constipation. 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei
The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum
Tomassoni, A J; Simone, K
Herbal medicaments are in common use. In general, the judicious use of carefully selected and prepared herbal medications seems to cause few adverse effects and may be beneficial. However, toxic effects of these products have been reported with increasing frequency. Infants and children may be even more susceptible to some of the adverse effects and toxicity of these products because of differences in physiology, immature metabolic enzyme systems, and dose per body weight. Although information promoting the use of herbal medicine is widespread, true evidence-based information about the efficacy and safety of herbal medications is limited. Although the most conservative approach is to recommend against use of herbal medicine until such evidence is available, some patients are not receptive to this approach. A reasonable approach for health care providers may be to follow such use closely, assist in herbal therapeutic decisions, and monitor for adverse effects and interactions. This manuscript discusses general concepts about herbal medicines, public health implications, and a framework for mechanisms of adverse effects from the use of botanicals. Adverse effects and toxicity of selected herbal products, including Chinese herbal medicines, are presented. The authors propose a risk reduction approach in which physicians actively seek information about the use of complementary or alternative medicine while taking medical histories.
Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui
In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.
Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming
Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.
Flat wart on the effectiveness of TCM treatment. Outpatients will be by the "People's Republic of China Chinese medicine industry standards, TCM diagnosis of dermatological diseases efficacy standards, Chen Hou State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1994-06-28 approved, 1995-01-01 implementation". Randomly divided into two groups. Treatment and control groups. Treatment groups treated with Chinese herbs. The control group were treated with WM. Since the preparation of the unification formula ointment, cuboiling method. Chinese herbal medicine preparation by my hospital room Producer. 5 g pre pack, after treatment for 30 days, clinical observation. The group of Chinese medicine is better than western medicine (86.7% vs 71.7% , P < 0.05). Chinese medicine has some effect flat wart.
Wu, Xu; Wang, Shengpeng; Lu, Junrong; Jing, Yong; Li, Mingxing; Cao, Jiliang; Bian, Baolin; Hu, Changjiang
Processing ( Paozhi ) represents a unique Chinese pharmaceutic technique to facilitate the use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for a specific clinical need in the guidance of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. Traditionally, most CHMs require a proper processing to meet the needs of specific clinical syndromes before being prescribed by TCM practitioners. During processing, significant changes in chemical profiles occur, which inevitably influence the associated pharmacological properties of a CHM. However, although processing is formed in a long-term practice, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear for most CHMs. The deepening understanding of the mechanism of processing would provide scientific basis for standardization of processing. This review introduced the role of processing in TCM and several typical methods of processing. We also summarized the up-to-date efforts on the mechanistic study of CHM processing. The processing mechanisms mainly include the following aspects: (i) directly reducing contents of toxic constituents; (ii) structural transformation of constituents; (iii) improving solubility of constituents; (iv) physically changing the existing form of constituents; (v) and influence by excipients. These progress may give new insights into future researches.
Teschke, Rolf; Larrey, Dominique; Melchart, Dieter; Danan, Gaby
Background : Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI) from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods : To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results : HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion : Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients' safety and benefit.
Full Text Available Background: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods: To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results: HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion: Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients’ safety and benefit.
Teschke, Rolf; Larrey, Dominique; Melchart, Dieter; Danan, Gaby
Background: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI) from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods: To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results: HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion: Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients’ safety and benefit. PMID:28930128
Chan, Kelvin; Shaw, Debbie; Simmonds, Monique S J; Leon, Christine J; Xu, Qihe; Lu, Aiping; Sutherland, Ian; Ignatova, Svetlana; Zhu, You-Ping; Verpoorte, Rob; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Duez, Pierre
Studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), like those of other systems of traditional medicine (TM), are very variable in their quality, content and focus, resulting in issues around their acceptability to the global scientific community. In an attempt to address these issues, an European Union funded FP7 consortium, composed of both Chinese and European scientists and named "Good practice in traditional Chinese medicine" (GP-TCM), has devised a series of guidelines and technical notes to facilitate good practice in collecting, assessing and publishing TCM literature as well as highlighting the scope of information that should be in future publications on TMs. This paper summarises these guidelines, together with what has been learned through GP-TCM collaborations, focusing on some common problems and proposing solutions. The recommendations also provide a template for the evaluation of other types of traditional medicine such as Ayurveda, Kampo and Unani. GP-TCM provided a means by which experts in different areas relating to TCM were able to collaborate in forming a literature review good practice panel which operated through e-mail exchanges, teleconferences and focused discussions at annual meetings. The panel involved coordinators and representatives of each GP-TCM work package (WP) with the latter managing the testing and refining of such guidelines within the context of their respective WPs and providing feedback. A Good Practice Handbook for Scientific Publications on TCM was drafted during the three years of the consortium, showing the value of such networks. A "deliverable - central questions - labour division" model had been established to guide the literature evaluation studies of each WP. The model investigated various scoring systems and their ability to provide consistent and reliable semi-quantitative assessments of the literature, notably in respect of the botanical ingredients involved and the scientific quality of the work described. This
Liu, Jing-Jing; Si, Jin-Ping
To clarify the change and development of the original plants， medicinal organs， traditional functions， resource distribution of "Huangjing"(Polygonati Rhizome)， a traditional Chinese medicine， we investigated Polygonatum species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts. The name of "Nüwei" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic. Its effects included two aspects： one was similar to "Weirui"(Polygonati Odorati Rhizome， "Yuzhu")， that was tonifying， nourishing one's vitality， removing wind and dampness， settling five organs， making body lightness， keeping longevity and not being hungry; the second was alike to "Huangjing" recorded in the book of Ming Yi Bie Lu(Appendant Records of Famous Physicians). Specifically， "Weirui" possesses the therapeutic effect of "Nüwei"， while "Huangjing" possesses the tonic effect of " Nüwei". Thereafter， the following ancient Chinese herbal texts kept those two names and function records. Accordingly， we hold the point of view that "Huangjing" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic in the synonym of "Nüwei". "Yuzhu" included the "Huangjing" in ancient herbal text before Qing Dynasty， that was further confirmed by the research on change and development of the original plants. The identification between "Yuzhu" and "Huangjing" was based on the shape of rhizome and size before early Tang Dynasty. The shape was a key character and used up to now， but size was not reasonable. The opposite phyllotaxy was an important character of authentic "Huangjing" from Tang to Qing Dynasty. The seedling of Polygonatum sibiricum and P. kingianum， the adult plant of P. cyrtonema with alternate leaves were misused as "Yuzhu"("Nüwei" and "Weirui") at that time. Therefore， both "Yuzhu" and "Huangjing" should be used as key words during the search of ancient prescriptions and development of new drugs and health foods. The leaves， flowers， fruits and seedlings could
Shokryazdan, Parisa; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Md Saadand, Salwani; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Zhou, Hailong; Diao, Xiao Ping; Liang, Juan Boo
Heat stress negatively affects the productivity of chickens in commercial poultry farms in humid tropics. In this study, the concentrations and types of the antioxidant compounds of eight Chinese herbal medicines, which have previously demonstrated promising effects on suppressing heat stress as a mixture, were investigated using reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, and Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Our results provided the levels of phenolic compounds, total amounts of sugars, and total unsaturated fatty acids in the herbal extracts. Apart from the detection and quantification of the active ingredients of herbs that have the potential to mitigate heat stress in poultry, results of this study also provide useful data for developing an efficient and accurate formulation of the herbs' mixtures in order to induce positive effects against heat stress in in vivo studies.
Full Text Available Heat stress negatively affects the productivity of chickens in commercial poultry farms in humid tropics. In this study, the concentrations and types of the antioxidant compounds of eight Chinese herbal medicines, which have previously demonstrated promising effects on suppressing heat stress as a mixture, were investigated using reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, and Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Our results provided the levels of phenolic compounds, total amounts of sugars, and total unsaturated fatty acids in the herbal extracts. Apart from the detection and quantification of the active ingredients of herbs that have the potential to mitigate heat stress in poultry, results of this study also provide useful data for developing an efficient and accurate formulation of the herbs’ mixtures in order to induce positive effects against heat stress in in vivo studies.
Huang, Yipeng; Wu, Zhenwei; Su, Rihui; Ruan, Guihua; Du, Fuyou; Li, Gongke
Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) are promising approach for the treatment of various diseases which have attracted increasing attention all over the world. Chemometrics in quality control of TCHMs are great useful tools that harnessing mathematics, statistics and other methods to acquire information maximally from the data obtained from various analytical approaches. This feature article focuses on the recent studies which evaluating the pharmacological efficacy and quality of TCHMs by determining, identifying and discriminating the bioactive or marker components in different samples with the help of chemometric techniques. In this work, the application of chemometric techniques in the classification of TCHMs based on their efficacy and usage was introduced. The recent advances of chemometrics applied in the chemical analysis of TCHMs were reviewed in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Flower, Andrew; Lewith, George T; Little, Paul
For most complementary and alternative medicine interventions, the absence of a high-quality evidence base to define good practice presents a serious problem for clinicians, educators, and researchers. The Delphi process may offer a pragmatic way to establish good practice guidelines until more rigorous forms of assessment can be undertaken. To use a modified Delphi to develop good practice guidelines for a feasibility study exploring the role of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of endometriosis. To compare the outcomes from Delphi with data derived from a systematic review of the Chinese language database. An expert group was convened for a three-round Delphi that initially produced key statements relating to the CHM diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis (round 1) and then anonymously rated these on a 1-7 Likert scale (rounds 2 and 3). Statements with a median score of 5 and above were regarded as demonstrating positive group consensus. The differential diagnoses within Chinese Medicine and rating of the clinical value of individual herbs were then contrasted with comparable data from a review of Chinese language reports in the Chinese Biomedical Retrieval System (1978-2002), and China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (1985-2002) databases and the Chinese TCM and magazine literature (1984-2004) databases. Consensus (good practice) guidelines for the CHM treatment of endometriosis relating to common diagnostic patterns, herb selection, dosage, and patient management were produced. The Delphi guidelines demonstrated a high degree of congruence with the information from the Chinese language databases. In the absence of rigorous evidence, Delphi offers a way to synthesize expert knowledge relating to diagnosis, patient management, and herbal selection in the treatment of endometriosis. The limitations of the expert group and the inability of Delphi to capture the subtle nuances of individualized clinical decision-making limit the usefulness of
... used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... extracts, and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...
Zhou, Fang-Fang; Xu, Zhao-Xia; Adila, Aipire; Li, Jin-Yao
Asthma is a kind of chronic respiratory inflammation, commonly with breathlessness, chest tightness, coughing, recurrent episodes of wheezing and airflow obstruction, severely affecting human health. A variety of immunocytes are involved in this chronic disease. Chinese herbal medicine(CHM) has a long history in the treatment of asthma. A large number of studies have shown that CHM could ameliorate asthma symptoms through regulating cellular immune responses. This paper reviewed the studies of CHM on the regulation of immunocytes and their mechanisms in recent years, including the count of inflammatory cells, maturation of dendritic cells, balance of helper T cell subtypes, induction of regulatory T cells and intracellular signaling pathways. We also proposed the future research directions about the effects of CHM on asthma treatment. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Ting, Chin-Tsung; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Lee, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is frequently provided to HCC patients. The aim of this study was to understand the prescription frequency and patterns of CHM for HCC patients by analyzing the claims data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. We identified 73918 newly diagnosed HCC subjects from the database of Registry for Catastrophic Illness during 2002 to 2009 and to analyze the frequency and pattern of corresponding CHM prescriptions for HCC patients. There were a total of 685,079 single Chinese herbal prescriptions and 553,952 Chinese herbal formula prescriptions used for 17,373 HCC subjects before 2 years of HCC diagnosis. Among the 13,093 HCC subjects who used CHMs after HCC diagnosis, there were 462,786 single Chinese herbal prescriptions and 300,153 Chinese herbal formula prescriptions were counted. By adjusting with person-year and ratio of standardized incidence rate, the top ten prescribed single herbal drugs and Chinese herbal formulas for HCC patients were described in our study. Among them, we concluded that, Oldenlandia diffusa (Chinese herbal name: Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao), Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Da Huang) and the herbal preparation of Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang and Gan-Lu-Yin, were the most obviously increased and important CHMs been used for HCC patients. We established an accurate and validated method for the actual frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating HCC in Taiwan. We propose that these breakthrough findings may have important implications for HCC therapy, clinical trials and modernization of CHM.
Full Text Available This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus, Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo, pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus, green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum, garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus, turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood. Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.
Zhou, Simin; Dong, Lanlan; He, Yuan; Xiao, Hong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the unprecedented aging tendency in our world population and has become a significant health issue. The use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat AD has been increasing in recent years. The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of combining acupuncture with herbal medicine to treat AD. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture plus herbals versus treatment with western drugs for AD were retrieved from 11 databases. The data were extracted by two authors; dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while continuous data were calculated by mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. Although the combined analysis of the score of Activity of Daily Life (ADL) scale MD was [Formula: see text]3.59 (95% CI [Formula: see text]7.18-0.01, [Formula: see text]), which indicates there was no statistically significant difference between the two treatments at reducing the ADL scale score, the pooled results of 12 trials indicated that acupuncture plus Chinese herbal medicine was better than western drugs at improving the effectiveness rate (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.40-3.56), the combined evidence of 11 articles showed that acupuncture plus Chinese herbal medicine was more effective than western drugs at improving the scores for the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale (2.10, 95% CI 0.69-3.51, [Formula: see text]) and the traditional Chinese medicine symptom (MD 5.07, 95% CI 3.90-6.25, [Formula: see text]). From the current research results, acupuncture plus herbal medicine may have advantages over western drugs for treating AD. Nevertheless, well-designed RCTs with a larger sample size are required in the future.
Caroline A. Smith
Full Text Available Despite the growth of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and western herbal medicine (WHM research in Australia, little is known about how ethics committees (HRECs assess the ethics of TCM or WHM research. The objectives of this study were to examine the experiences of TCM and WHM researchers and HRECs with the evaluation of ethics applications. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken of HRECs and TCM and WHM researchers in Australia. Anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to 224 HRECs and 117 researchers. A response confirming involvement in TCM or WHM research applications was received from 20 HRECs and 42 researchers. The most frequent ethical issues identified by HRECs related to herbal products including information gaps relating to mode of action of herbal medicines and safety when combining herbal ingredients. Researchers concurred that they were frequently requested to provide additional information on multiple aspects including safety relating to the side effects of herbs and herb-drug interactions. Overall adherence with the principles of ethical conduct was high among TCM and WHM researchers although our study did identify the need for additional information regarding assessment of risk and risk management.
Thomford, Nicholas Ekow; Dzobo, Kevin; Chimusa, Emile; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Chirikure, Shadreck; Wonkam, Ambroise; Dandara, Collet
While drugs remain the cornerstone of medicine, herbal medicine is an important comedication worldwide. Thus, precision medicine ought to face this clinical reality and develop "companion diagnostics" for drugs as well as herbal medicines. Yet, many are in denial with respect to the extent of use of traditional/herbal medicines, overlooking that a considerable number of contemporary therapeutic drugs trace their discovery from herbal medicines. This expert review underscores that absent such appropriate attention on both classical drug therapy and herbal medicines, precision medicine biomarkers will likely not stand the full test of clinical practice while patients continue to use both drugs and herbal medicines and, yet the biomarker research and applications focus only (or mostly) on drug therapy. This asymmetry in biomarker innovation strategy needs urgent attention from a wide range of innovation actors worldwide, including governments, research funders, scientists, community leaders, civil society organizations, herbal, pharmaceutical, and insurance industries, policymakers, and social/political scientists. We discuss the various dimensions of a future convergence map between herbal and conventional medicine, and conclude with a set of concrete strategies on how best to integrate biomarker research in a realm of both herbal and drug treatment. Africa, by virtue of its vast experience and exposure in herbal medicine and a "pregnant" life sciences innovation ecosystem, could play a game-changing role for the "birth" of biomarker-informed personalized herbal medicine in the near future. At this critical juncture when precision medicine initiatives are being rolled out worldwide, precision/personalized herbal medicine is both timely and essential for modern therapeutics, not to mention biomarker innovations that stand the test of real-life practices and implementation in the clinic and society.
Smith Caroline A
Full Text Available Abstract Chinese medicine has been used to treat a variety of cancer-related conditions. This study aims to examine the prevalence and patterns of Chinese medicine usage by cancer patients. We reviewed articles written in English and found only the Chinese medicine usage from the studies on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Seventy four (74 out of 81 articles reported rates of CAM usage ranging from 2.6 to 100%. Acupuncture was reported in 71 out of 81 studies. Other less commonly reported modalities included Qigong (n = 17, Chinese herbal medicine (n = 11, Taichi (n = 10, acupressure (n = 6, moxibustion (n = 2, Chinese dietary therapy (n = 1, Chinese massage (n = 1, cupping (n = 1 and other Chinese medicine modalities (n = 19. This review also found important limitations of the English language articles on CAM usage in cancer patients. Our results show that Chinese medicine, in particular Chinese herbal medicine, is commonly used by cancer patients. Further research is warranted to include studies not written in English.
Full Text Available This paper reports a simple, rapid, and effective method for simultaneous detection of cartap (Ca, thiocyclam (Th, and tebufenozide (Te in Chinese herbal medicines including Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Liquorices using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR. The proposed method can handle the intrinsic interferences of herbal samples; satisfactory average recoveries attained from near-infrared (NIR and mid-infrared (MIR PLSR models were 99.0±10.8 and 100.2±1.0% for Ca, 100.2±6.9 and 99.7±2.5% for Th, and 99.1±6.3 and 99.6±1.0% for Te, respectively. Furthermore, some statistical parameters and figures of merit are fully investigated to evaluate the performance of the two models. It was found that both models could give accurate results and only the performance of MIR-PLSR was slightly better than that of NIR-PLSR in the cases suffering from herbal matrix interferences. In conclusion, FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with PLSR has been demonstrated for its application in rapid screening and quantitative analysis of multipesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines without physical or chemical separation pretreatment step and any spectral processing, which also implies other potential applications such as food and drug safety, herbal plants quality, and environmental evaluation, due to its advantages of nontoxic and nondestructive analysis.
Yeh, Mei-Ling; Chiu, Wei-Ling; Wang, Yu-Jen; Lo, Chyi
This study aimed to investigate the use of traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative medicine in stroke patients in Taiwan. Chinese herbal medicine, massage, acupuncture, natural products, and exercise were widely used among stroke patients. Integrating safe and effective traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative medicine into conventional therapies is suggested.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users. When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy.Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life.
Full Text Available Erythema ab igne (EAI is a reticulated, telangiectatic, and hyperpigmented skin eruption resulting from chronic exposure to long-term moderate heat. The incidence has decreased substantially today because of the advent of modern central heating systems. Recently, we encountered a patient who developed EAI after 2 weeks of footbaths with Chinese herbal remedies, which she used to treat her acute ankle sprain. Alternative Chinese medicine, such as herbal footbath, is a prevalent medical practice to treat acute pains as well as many chronic musculoskeletal ailments among Chinese and Asian populations. It has also become increasingly popular in Western countries in the past decade. Herein, we would like to report an uncommon case of iatrogenic EAI caused by footbath and raise the attention of clinicians to such rare, potentially malignant-transforming, dermatosis.
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM in treatment of perimenopausal depression (PD in China. Methods: To identify randomized controlled trials, an electronic search has been conducted through databases as follows: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Chinese Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and WanFang Digital Periodicals Database. Methodological quality was evaluated by Cochrane Collaboration's tool which is able to assess the risk of bias in Review Manager Software. What's more, meta-analysis was performed by using Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.2 software, (Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, and Denmark. Dichotomous data were analyzed by using relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI. Continuous variables were analyzed using weighted mean differences (WMDs and 95% CI. Subgroup analysis was performed by the type of medicine which was used in the experimental group. Results: This meta-analysis includes 11 randomized control trials with 818 patients. Compared to the control group (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: [1.03, 1.26], P = 0.009 and WMD: −2.09, 95% CI: [ −3.58, −0.18], the experimental group had a significant higher clinical efficacy rate and relatively lower Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D score. For clinical efficacy rate, the results varied depending on the detail treatment measures of the experimental group. In the experimental group with TCHM, no significant difference was observed (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: [0.97, 1.33], while in the experimental group combined with western medicine, a significant difference in the clinical efficacy rate between the experimental group and control group showed up (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: [1.01, 1.32], P = 0.04. For the HAM-D score, subgroup analyses revealed that the
Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose
Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.
Flower, Andrew; Lewith, George; Little, Paul
There is a need to develop an evidence base for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) that is both rigorous and reflective of good practice. This paper proposes a novel methodology to test individualised herbal decoctions using a randomised, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. A feasibility study was conducted to explore the role of CHM in the treatment of endometriosis. Herbal formulae were pre-cooked and dispensed as individual doses in sealed plastic sachets. This permitted the development and testing of a plausible placebo decoction. Participants were randomised at a distant pharmacy to receive either an individualised herbal prescription or a placebo. The trial met the predetermined criteria for good practice. Neither the participants nor the practitioner-researcher could reliably identify group allocation. Of the 28 women who completed the trial, in the placebo group (n=15) 3 women (20%) correctly guessed they were on placebo, 8 (53%) thought they were on herbs and 4 (27%) did not know which group they had been allocated to. In the active group (n=13) 2 (15%) though they were on placebo, 8 (62%) thought they were on herbs and 3 (23%) did not know. Randomisation, double blinding and allocation concealment were successful and the study model appeared to be feasible and effective. It is now possible to subject CHM to rigorous scientific scrutiny without compromising model validity. Improvement in the design of the placebo using food colourings and flavourings instead of dried food will help guarantee the therapeutic inertia of the placebo decoction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In East Asia, numerous reports describe the utilization of traditional Chinese herbal decoctions to treat gout. However, the reported clinical effects vary. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we reviewed and analyzed a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of Chinese herbal decoctions for treating gout. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search of databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese biomedical literature database, et al. In addition, we manually searched the relevant meeting information in the library of the Third Military Medical University. RESULTS: Finally, 17 randomized controlled trials with a sample size of 1,402 cases met the criteria and were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis showed that when gout had progressed to the stage of acute arthritis, there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine, as indicated based on the following parameters: serum uric acid (standardized mean difference (SMD:0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.03 to 0.67, C reactive protein (SMD: 0.25, 95% CI: -0.18 to 0.69, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SMD: 0.21, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.45 and overall clinical response (relative risk (RR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10. However, the Chinese herbal decoction was significantly better than traditional Western medicine in controlling adverse drug reactions (RR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13. CONCLUSIONS: Through a systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine for the treatment of gout, we found that Chinese herbal decoction and traditional Western medicine led to similar clinical efficacy, but the Chinese herbal decoctions were superior to Western medicine in terms of controlling adverse drug reactions.
Flower, Andrew; Witt, Claudia; Liu, Jian Ping; Ulrich-Merzenich, Gudrun; Yu, He; Lewith, George
ETHNOGRAPHIC RELEVANCE: Clinical trials investigating Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) have been frequently criticised for their lack of scientific rigour. As part of the GP-TCM project a team of experienced clinical researchers and CHM practitioners have developed clinical trial guidelines for CHM that combine an appreciation for traditional methods of practice with detailed and practical advice on research methodology. This paper presents an executive summary of this work. It introduces the practice of CHM and the key considerations that need to be addressed whilst researching this traditional medical system. These guidelines emphasise the importance of identifying best practice, and then developing and applying appropriate and rigorous research methodologies to investigate CHM as a whole system. It is hoped that this will encourage a thoughtful and meticulous process of investigation that will clarify the contribution that CHM can make to our future healthcare. Innovative new approaches are considered including the application of the new "omic" technologies and systems biology as a way of enhancing our understanding of traditional practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.
HIV-positive support groups, together with hospital pharmacists in Thailand are fighting the high cost and lack of access to pharmaceuticals by producing and distributing herbal medicines. In Theung district, Chiang Rai province, members of the local support group for people with HIV produce their own, low-cost, herbal medicines. Although the herbal medicines they produce do not provide a cure for HIV/AIDS, they do offer relief for some of the symptoms of opportunistic infections. The herbs are prepared by the group members under the supervision of the pharmacy department at the district hospital. Local people judge their effectiveness by hearing testimonials from people who have witnessed improvement in symptoms. In response to the popularity and effectiveness of herbal medicines, the Ministry of Public Health has approved plans to sell products derived from local herbs in the pharmacies of government hospitals.
Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lin, Jung-Chun; Lin, Chih-Chien; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Ying-Ju
Complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) include stroke, which is a cerebrovascular disturbance characterized by reduced blood flow in the brain, leading to death or physical disability. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in ancient China for the treatment of diabetes and stroke by supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation. This study aimed to investigate the frequencies and patterns of CHM treatment for stroke patients with T2D and the outcomes of long-term use in Taiwan. We identified 3079 stroke patients (ICD-9-CM: 430-438) with T2D. We allocated 618 stroke patients, matched for age, gender, and T2D-to-stroke duration, to both CHM and non-CHM groups. Chi-square test, conditional multivariable logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test were used in this study. The CHM group was characterized by more cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ulcer disease, hyperlipidemia, tobacco use, and higher income. The cumulative survival probability was higher in the CHM group (Pherbs, respectively. The use of CHM as adjunctive therapy may improve the overall survival (OS) of stroke patients with T2D. The list of the comprehensive herbal medicines that they used might be useful in future large-scale, randomized clinical investigations of agent effectiveness, safety, and potential interactions with conventional treatments in stroke patients with T2D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xueying; Hou, Weilong; Dou, Deqiang
The morphological identification is an effective and simple quality evaluation method in Chinese drugs, and the traits of mealiness and color were widely used in the commercial market of Chinese drugs. The objective of this study was to explore the correlation between mealiness of herbal drugs and its quality; licorice was selected as an example. The mealiness of licorice was graded by its weight; meanwhile, the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection method; the content of polysaccharides, soluble sugars, pectin, total starch, amylose, and amylopectin was measured by colorimetric method; and the number and diameter of starch granule were observed by microscope. The results showed that the mealiness of licorice which collected from wild and cultivated plants is positively correlated with the content of glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, the ratio of amylose to total starch, and the number of starch granules whose diameter was over 5 μm. However, the mealiness is negatively correlated with the total starch. Further, the formation mechanism of starch granule was discussed. It is for the first time to report the positive correlation between the mealiness and the starch granule size, the ratio of amylose to total starch, which can provide rationality for the quality evaluation using the character of mealiness in herbal medicine. It is a convenient method to justify the quality of herbal medicine. To explore the correlation between mealiness of herbal drugs and its quality, licorice was selected as an example. The result indicated that the effective constituent is correlated with mealiness of licorice. Abbreviations Used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.
Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing
With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise.
Full Text Available The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources.
Shergis, Johannah L; Wu, Lei; Zhang, Anthony L; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie C
Many people with asthma use herbal medicines to help reduce symptoms and improve asthma control. To update the systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of herbal medicine for adult asthma. Nine English and Chinese databases were searched (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL, AMED, CBM, CNKI, CQVIP, Wanfang). Herbal medicines combined with routine pharmacotherapies compared with the same pharmacotherapies alone or placebo. Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and GRADE Summary of Findings tables were used to evaluate methodological quality. Twenty-nine (29) studies involving 3,001 participants were included. Herbal interventions used multi-ingredients such as licorice root, crow-dipper, astragali, and angelica. Compared with routine pharmacotherapies alone, herbal medicines as add-on therapy improved lung function (FEV1: MD 7.81%, 95% CI 5.79, 9.83, I(2) = 63%; PEFR: MD 65.14 L/min, 95% CI 58.87, 71.41, I(2) = 21%); asthma control (MD 2.47 points, 95% CI 1.64, 3.29, I(2) = 55%); reduced salbutamol usage (MD -1.14 puffs/day, 95% CI -2.20, -0.09, I(2) = 92%); and reduced acute asthma exacerbations over one year (MD -1.20, 95% CI -1.82, -0.58, one study). Compared with placebo plus pharmacotherapies herbal medicines as add-on therapy improved lung function (FEV1: MD 15.83%, 95% CI 13.54, 18.12 and PEFR: MD 55.20 L/min, 95% CI 33.41, 76.99). Other outcomes were not reported in these placebo studies. Included studies were low to moderate quality. Adverse events were rare. Herbal medicines combined with routine pharmacotherapies improved asthma outcomes greater than pharmacotherapies alone. Included studies did not blind participants therefore more studies that address such weaknesses are warranted.
Mao, Penyuan; Liu, Shujie; Xue, Jianguo; Wu, Yuejun; Wang, Changqing
BACKGROUND This randomized, controlled trial was designed to assess whether acupuncture plus an oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine provides greater relief of symptoms than oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine alone for treatment of pelvic inflammatory sequelae. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty-two patients ages 22 to 45 years with pelvic inflammatory sequelae were randomly assigned into one of 2 groups: an herbal group (n=30) and an herbal with acupuncture group (n=32). Both groups were treated for 3 courses of 3 months each. RESULTS Significant improvement of clinical symptoms and signs of pelvic inflammatory sequelae occurred in both treatment groups. The total effective rate for the herbal group was 83.33%, and for the herbal with acupuncture group it was 100% ([i]P[/i]=0.354 for difference between groups). During treatment, 5 patients had adverse reactions of nausea, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. After adjustment of the herb prescription, all adverse reactions disappeared. CONCLUSIONS Our results highlight the benefit of oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine along with acupuncture; this had a greater clinical curative effect rate than oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine alone when treating pelvic inflammatory sequelae.
Jiao, Qishu; Wang, Rufeng; Jiang, Yanyan; Liu, Bin
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as a unique form of natural medicine, has been used in Chinese traditional therapeutic systems over two thousand years. Active components in Chinese herbal medicine are the material basis for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Research on drug-protein binding is one of the important contents in the study of early stage clinical pharmacokinetics of drugs. Plasma protein binding study has far-reaching influence on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs and helps to understand the basic rule of drug effects. It is important to study the binding characteristics of the active components in Chinese herbal medicine with plasma proteins for the medical science and modernization of TCM. This review summarizes the common analytical methods which are used to study the active herbal components-protein binding and gives the examples to illustrate their application. Rules and influence factors of the binding between different types of active herbal components and plasma proteins are summarized in the end. Finally, a suggestion on choosing the suitable technique for different types of active herbal components is provided, and the prospect of the drug-protein binding used in the area of TCM research is also discussed.
Wang, J.; Heijden, R. van der; Spijksma, G.; Reijmers, T.; Wang, M.; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der
A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method was developed for the high throughput and robust qualitative profiling of alkaloids in Fuzi-the processed lateral roots of the Chinese herbal medicine Aconitum carmichaeli Debx (A. carmichaeli). After optimization,
Suryawati, Suryawati; Suardi, Hijra Novia
The herbal medicine has been widely used in children for the treatment of several symptoms and the prevention of diseases before accessing the hospital for professionals help. There are 3 kinds of marketed herbal medicine including empirical based herbal medicine (jamu), standardized herbal medicine (obat herbal terstandar) and clininically tested herbal medicine (fitofarmaka). This study aimed to investigate the utilization of the marketed herbal medicine along with non marketed ones which w...
Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF (20.2% of all prescriptions, followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1% and Xing-Su-San (12.8%. Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH (14.6%, followed by Xing Ren (10.7%. MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5% and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study.
Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Thien, Peck-Foong; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lo, Su-Shun; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang
Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF) (20.2% of all prescriptions), followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1%) and Xing-Su-San (12.8%). Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH) (14.6%), followed by Xing Ren (10.7%). MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5%) and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study.
Betty Yuen Kwan Law
Full Text Available Autophagy is a universal catabolic cellular process for quality control of cytoplasm and maintenance of cellular homeostasis upon nutrient deprivation and environmental stimulus. It involves the lysosomal degradation of cellular components such as misfolded proteins or damaged organelles. Defects in autophagy are implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases including cancers, myopathy, neurodegenerations, infections and cardiovascular diseases. In the recent decade, traditional drugs with new clinical applications are not only commonly found in Western medicines, but also highlighted in Chinese herbal medicines (CHM. For instance, pharmacological studies have revealed that active components or fractions from Chaihu (Radix bupleuri, Hu Zhang (Rhizoma polygoni cuspidati, Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubesens, Hou po (Cortex magnoliae officinalis and Chuan xiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong modulate cancers, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease via autophagy. These findings shed light on the potential new applications and formulation of CHM decoctions via regulation of autophagy. This article reviews the roles of autophagy in the pharmacological actions of CHM and discusses their new potential clinical applications in various human diseases.
Sarris, Jerome; Ng, Chee Hong; Schweitzer, Isaac
The field of genetics, which includes the use of 'omic' technologies, is an evolving area of science that has emerging application in phytotherapy. Omic studies include pharmacogenomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Herbal medicines, as monotherapies, or complex formulations such as traditional Chinese herbal prescriptions, may benefit from omic studies, and this new field may be termed 'herbomics'. Applying herbomics in the field of psychiatry may provide answers about which herbal interventions may be effective for individuals, which genetic processes are triggered, and the subsequent neurochemical pathways of activity. The use of proteomic technology can explore the differing epigenetic effects on neurochemical gene expression between individual herbs, isolated constituents and complex formulae. The possibilities of side effects or insufficient response to the herb can also be assessed via pharmacogenomic analysis of polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 liver enzymes or P-glycoprotein. While another novel application of omic technology is for the validation of the concept of synergy in individual herbal extracts and prescriptive formulations. Chronic administration of psychotropic herbal medicines may discover important effects on chromatin remodelling via modification of histone and DNA methylation. This paper focuses on the emerging field of herbomics, and is to our knowledge the first publication to explore this in the area of psychiatry. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) are of significant importance for human health care in China and have a profound cultural and philosophical background described in the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theories. The main objective of TCM is to maintain or restore the balance of the body as a whole
Yang, Pei-Rung; Shih, Wei-Tai; Chu, Yen-Hua; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wu, Ching-Yuan
Background Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been frequently used among patients with chronic diseases including hypertension; however, the co-prescription pattern of herbal formulae and single herbs remain uncharacterized. Thus, this large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study evaluated the frequency and co-prescription pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension in Taiwan from 2003 to 2009. Methods The database of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims was obtained from the Nati...
Jiang, Dan; Coscione, Alberto; Li, Lily; Zeng, Bai-Yun
Male infertility normally refers a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female partner after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Male infertility in recent years has been attracting increasing interest from public due to the evidence in decline in semen quality. There are many factors contributing to the male infertility including abnormal spermatogenesis; reproductive tract anomalies or obstruction; inadequate sexual and ejaculatory functions; and impaired sperm motility, imbalance in hormone levels, and immune system dysfunction. Although conventional treatments such as medication, surgical operation, and advanced techniques have helped many male with infertility cause pregnancy in their female partners, effectiveness is not satisfactory and associated with adverse effects. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to improve male infertility in China for a very long time and has now been increasingly popular in Western countries for treating infertility. In this chapter we summarized recent development in basic research and clinical studies of CHM in treating male infertility. It has showed that CHM improved sperm motility and quality, increased sperm count and rebalanced inadequate hormone levels, and adjusted immune functions leading to the increased number of fertility. Further, CHM in combination with conventional therapies improved efficacy of conventional treatments. More studies are needed to indentify the new drugs from CHM and ensure safety, efficacy, and consistency of CHM. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun, Da-zhi; Li, Shao-dan; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yin; Mei, Rong; Yang, Ming-hui
To explore advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) by analyzing differences in the origin of philosophy for human health between CM and Western medicine (WM). Methodologically, a distinctive feature of CM is its systems theory, which is also the difference between CM and WM. Since the birth of CM, it has taken the human body as a whole from the key concepts of "qi, blood, yin-yang, viscera (Zang-Fu), and meridian and channel", rather than a single cell or a particular organ. WM evolves from the Western philosophic way of thinking and merely uses natural sciences as the foundation. The development of WM is based on human structures, or anatomy, and therefore, research of WM is also based on the way of thinking of decomposing the whole human body into several independent parts, which is the impetus of promoting the development of WM. The core of CM includes the holistic view and the dialectical view. Chinese herbal medicines contain various components and treat a disease from multiple targets and links. Therefore, Chinese herbal medicines treat a diseased state by regulating and mobilizing the whole body rather than just regulating a single factor, since the diseased state is not only a problem in a local part of the body but a local reflection of imbalance of the whole body.
William CS CHO
Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.
Zhu, Xiaoshu; Liew, Yuklan; Liu, Zhao Lan
Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) usage is expected to increase as women suffering from menopausal symptoms are seeking alternative therapy due to concerns from the adverse effects (AEs) associated with hormone therapy (HT). Scientific evidence for their effectiveness and safety is needed. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Search methods We searched the Gynaecology and Fertility Group’s Specialised Register of controlled trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO (from inception to March 2015). Others included Current Control Trials, Citation Indexes, conference abstracts in the ISI Web of Knowledge, LILACS database, PubMed, OpenSIGLE database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI, 1999 to 2015). Other resources included reference lists of articles as well as direct contact with authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of CHM with placebo, HT, pharmaceutical drugs, acupuncture, or another CHM formula in women over 18 years of age, and suffering from menopausal symptoms. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed 864 studies for eligibility. Data extractions were performed by them with disagreements resolved through group discussion and clarification of data or direct contact with the study authors. Data analyses were performed in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Main results We included 22 RCTs (2902 women). Participants were from different ethnic backgrounds with the majority of Chinese origin. When CHM was compared with placebo (eight RCTs), there was little or no evidence of a difference between the groups for the following pooled outcomes: hot flushes per day (MD 0.00, 95% CI −0.88 to 0.89; 2 trials, 199 women; moderate quality evidence); hot flushes per day assessed by an overall hot
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Si, Jin-Ping; Zhang, Yuan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Liu, Jing-Jing; Liu, Zhong-Jian
Dendrobium species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts were investigated in this paper, including their dscriptions of original species, producing areas and quality. Our results indicated that the major producing areas were Lu'an, Anhui province and Wenzhou, Taizhou, Zhejiang province. In addition, the sweet flavor, short, thin and solid stems were standing for good quality. Based on the stable producing areas and quality descriptions, D. catenatum (D. officinale) ("Tiepi Shihu") and D. houshanense were high quality medicinal Dendrobium species ("Shihu" ) in ancient China. Besides, there were 3 scientific names for "Tiepi Shihu", including D. candidum, D. officinale, D. catenatum. After textual investigation, We suggest that D. catenatum should be its scientific name, and D. officinale was synonyms published later. However, the name "D. officinale" could be reserved as it is much more popular used in publication and commodities. Moreover, its Chinese name should be "Tiepi Shihu". Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Doganay-Knapp, Kirsten; Orland, Annika; König, Gabriele M; Knöss, Werner
Herbal substances and preparations thereof play an important role in healthcare systems worldwide. Due to the variety of these products regarding origin, composition and processing procedures, appropriate methodologies for quality assessment need to be considered. A majority of herbal substances is administered as multicomponent mixtures, especially in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine and ayurvedic medicine, but also in finished medicinal products. Quality assessment of complex mixtures of herbal substances with conventional methods is challenging. Thus, emphasis of the present work was directed on the development of complementary methods to elucidate the composition of mixtures of herbal substances and finished herbal medicinal products. An indispensable prerequisite for the safe and effective use of herbal medicines is the unequivocal authentication of the medicinal plants used therein. In this context, we investigated the potential of three different PCR-related methods in the characterization and authentication of herbal substances. A multiplex PCR assay and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay were established to analyze defined mixtures of the herbal substances Quercus cortex, Juglandis folium, Aristolochiae herba, Matricariae flos and Salviae miltiorrhizae radix et rhizoma and a finished herbal medicinal product. Furthermore, a standard cloning approach using universal primers targeting the ITS region was established in order to allow the investigation of herbal mixtures with unknown content. The cloning approach had some limitations regarding the detection/recovery of the components in defined mixtures of herbal substances, but the complementary use of two sets of universal primer pairs increased the detection of components out of the mixture. While the multiplex PCR did not retrace all components in the defined mixtures of herbal substances, the established qPCR resulted in simultaneous and specific detection of the five target sequences in all defined
Thyagarajan, S P; Jayaram, S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Hari, R; Jeyakumar, P; Sripathi, M S
The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Seto, Sai-Wang; Kiat, Hosen; Lee, Simon M Y; Bensoussan, Alan; Sun, Yu-Ting; Hoi, Maggie P M; Chang, Dennis
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently become a powerful animal model for cardiovascular research and drug discovery due to its ease of maintenance, genetic manipulability and ability for high-throughput screening. Recent advances in imaging techniques and generation of transgenic zebrafish have greatly facilitated in vivo analysis of cellular events of cardiovascular development and pathogenesis. More importantly, recent studies have demonstrated the functional similarity of drug metabolism systems between zebrafish and humans, highlighting the clinical relevance of employing zebrafish in identifying lead compounds in Chinese herbal medicine with potential beneficial cardiovascular effects. This paper seeks to summarise the scope of zebrafish models employed in cardiovascular studies and the application of these research models in Chinese herbal medicine to date. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Kansui, Yasuo; Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Uchizono, Yuji; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Ooboshi, Hiroaki
Yokukansan is a Chinese herbal medicine containing licorice that has been shown to alleviate the behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, with few adverse effects. Increasing numbers of patients with Alzheimer's disease in Japan are now being treated with this drug. However, yokukansan should be used with caution because of its potential to induce pseudoaldosteronism through the inhibition of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, which metabolizes cortisol into cortisone. We present the case of an 88-year-old woman with a history of Alzheimer's disease who was transferred to our emergency department because of drowsiness, anorexia, and muscle weakness. Her blood pressure was 168/90 mmHg. Laboratory data showed serum potassium of 1.9 mmol/l, metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.54; HCO 3 - , 50.5 mmol/l; chloride, 81 mmol/l; sodium, 140 mmol/l), and respiratory disorders (pCO 2 , 60.5 mmHg; pO 2 , 63.8 mmHg). Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were suppressed, and urinary potassium excretion was 22 mmol/l (calculated transtubular potassium gradient 12.9). An electrocardiogram showed flat T-waves and U-waves with ventricular premature contractions. Echocardiography denied volume depletion. Medical interview disclosed that she had been treated with a Chinese herbal medicine (yokukansan) containing licorice. The final diagnosis was pseudoaldosteronism and respiratory acidosis induced by licorice. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and respiratory acidosis all subsided shortly after the discontinuation of yokukansan and initiation of intravenous potassium replacement. This case highlights the need for nephrologists to consider the possible involvement of Chinese herbal medicines, including yokukansan, when they encounter hypokalemia in elderly patients.
Zhang, Tian; Li, Jun-de; Cheng, Meng; Li, Ying; Lin, Zhong-Bin; Shen, Yi-Hua; Huang, Lu-Qi
The dynamic monitoring data of traditional Chinese medicine resources is one of the important tasks of the dynamic monitoring system of Chinese medicine resources,the system has formed a periodic monitoring data reporting mechanism. Data authenticity and accuracy are the basis for the sustainable and healthy development of Chinese medicine resources dynamic monitoring,information technology is an effective means to improve the efficiency of data reporting, reporting quality. Data production based on dynamic monitoring is of great significance for grasp the trend of change and development of Chinese medicine resources. In order to achieve the real-time control of changes to the national Chinese medicine resources, we build the Chinese medicine resources dynamic monitoring system. In order to solve the problems in practice, we have upgraded the fill system by using the data of GIS. In order to achieve the multidimensional, improve safety, practicality and standardization of the data, which laid a foundation for subsequent processing of data. The system can collect the information of the cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines,production and sales of daily reporting data, provide the Chinese herbal medicine market,fast growing industry environment such as positioning center. In this paper, the design and implementation of the system are expounded.According to the business requirements, we designed 12 forms, 98 collection indicators to meet the needs of dynamic monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine resources. This paper will introduce the development content, design and implementation, main function characteristics and application effect of the national Chinese medicine resources fill System. To explain the role that GIS technology plays in the system and how to realize the cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines, production and sales of daily reporting data, provide the Chinese herbal medicine market,fast growing industry environment such as positioning center
Li, Yang; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jun Yan; Tan, Ren Xiang
Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: approximately 40 microg/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae), Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaceae), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 microg/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: approximately 60 microg/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized.
Liu, Wei; Ge, Tongtong; Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin
Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs.
Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin
Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs. PMID:28423368
Sun, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Gao, Wu-Lin; Dai, Guo-Hua
To analyze the prescription and medication rules of Chinese medicines in the treatment of palpitations in the Chinese journal full text database(CNKI) by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance system, and provide a reference for further research and development of modern traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) in treatment of palpitations. In order to give better guidance for clinical mediation, prescriptions used for treatment of palpitations in CNKI were collected, and then were input to the TCM inheritance support system for establishing a Chinese medicine prescription database for palpitations. The software's revised mutual information, complex system entropy clustering and other data mining methods were adopted to analyze the prescriptions according to the frequencies of herbs, "four natures", "five flavors" and "meridians" of the high-frequency medicines in the database, identify the core herbs and application characteristics, and analyze the prescription rules and medication experience. Totally, 545 prescriptions used for palpitation were included in this study and involved 247 Chinese herbs. The analysis results showed that the herbs in prescriptions for palpitation mostly had the warm property, and the herbs in heart and spleen meridian accounted for a larger proportion, indicating that the treatment was mainly to nourish heart and strengthen spleen. The top 11 herbs in usage frequency were consistent with the high-frequency medicines in medication patterns of common herbal pairs; therefore, we considered that these 11 herbs were the core herbs; the core herbal combination included Cassia Twig, Licorice, fossil fragments, Ostreae decoction, and evolved into 9 new prescriptions for treating palpitation. Our results objectively presented the prescription and medication rules for treating palpitation and provided extremely effective guidance for the clinical therapy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity.This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs, Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine.
Chao, Te-Hsin; Fu, Pin-Kuei; Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chang, Shih-Ni; Chiahung Mao, Frank; Lin, Ching-Heng
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is commonly provided to cancer patients, however, the patterns of prescriptions for this type of medicine in Taiwan are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the use of traditional Chinese medicine products in colon cancer patients post-surgery in Taiwan and to research patterns of TCM. This was a cross-sectional study of newly diagnosed colon cancer patients who received surgery between 2004 and 2008 identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The prescription patterns and reasons for the use of TCM for colon cancer were analyzed. The results showed that "symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions" (23.3%) and diseases of the digestive system (16.9%) were the most common reasons for using Chinese herbal medicine. Xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang (7.1%), Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (4.3%), Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (4.1%), Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (3.7%), Ban-Xia-Xie-Xin-Tang (3.4%), Gui-pi-tang (2.4%), Ping-Wei-San (2.4%), Gan-Lu-Yin (2.0%), Bao-He-Wan (1.9%), and Zhen-Ren-Huo-Ming-Yin (1.8%) were the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herbal formulae (CHF) for colon cancer patients post-surgery. Hedyotis diffusa Willd (Bai Hua She She Cao) (5.1%) and Scutellaria barbata (Ban Zhi Lian )(4.8%) were the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herbs. This study identified patterns of TCM use in colon cancer patients post-surgery in Taiwan. The herbal ingredients were most commonly used for stimulate ghrelin secretion to increase food intake and had potential anti-tumor effect. However, further research is required to evaluate any beneficial effects which could identify leads for the development of new treatment strategies using TCM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective. To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS. Methods. Four English and four Chinese databases were searched through November, 2015. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials were selected. Data extraction and quality evaluation were performed by two authors independently. RevMan 5.2.0 software was applied to analyze the data of included trials. Results. A total of 14 trials involving 1551 patients were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated superior global symptom improvement (RR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.31, 2.00; P<0.00001; number needed to treat = 3.6, abdominal pain improvement (RR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.61, 2.35; P<0.00001, diarrhea improvement (RR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.60, 2.20; P<0.00001, pain threshold assessment (MD = 54.53; 95% CI 38.76, 70.30; P<0.00001, and lower IBS Symptom Severity Score (SMD = −1.01; 95% CI −1.72, −0.30; P=0.005, when compared with placebo, while for defecation threshold assessment, quality of life, and adverse events, no differences were found between treatment groups and controlled groups. Conclusion. This meta-analysis shows that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safe treatment for D-IBS. However, due to the small sample size and high heterogeneity, further studies are required.
Guo Jun; Chen Baotian; Meng Hua; Liu Wenchao; Xie Wei; Sheng Rong
Objective: To examine the effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts, Danggui (Radix angelicae sinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong), Huangqi (Radix astragali), and Danshen (Radix salviae miltiorrhizae) on rats with bone marrow injury induced with whole-body gamma-ray exposure. Methods: Sixty male rats were randomly divided into three groups, control group, model group (irradiation only with no administration of the extracts), and drug treatment group (irradiation and administration of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts). Rats were irradiated with 6 Gy cobolt-60 gamma rays after administration of the extracts for two weeks. The number of marrow nucleate cells was counted, and VEGF and PDGF expression were measured with Western blot method on the 7th day since the irradiation. Results: Bone marrow nucleate cells and VEGF and PDGF expression in bone marrow cells in the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01), and these values in the drug treatment group were significantly higher than those in the model group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: The extracts of Chuanxiong, Danggui, Huangqi, and Danshen can be used to prevent from ration bone marrow injury in rats. (authors)
Full Text Available Academic writings indicate that the medicinal use of plants dates back to 4000 - 5000 B.C. (1. Utilization of medicinal herbs has indeed a long history not only in human's life, but also in animals and there are some interesting evidences about the animals' self-medication, in both the prevention and treatment of diseases (2-5. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the importance of traditional medicines and created strategies, guidelines and standards for botanical medicines (6, 7. A significant part of those traditional text dealing with medicine, which were appreciated by ancient scientific communities worldwide, such as The Canon of Medicine by Persian physician–philosopher Ibn Sina (or Avicenna, 980 to 1032 AD, is allocated to herbal medicines. The Canon explores nearly 500 medicinal plants and herbal drugs. It should be noted that this book was used as a medical textbook in Europe until the 17th century AD (8, 9. Although there are important evidences about using some kinds of experimental approaches in traditional medicine (8, the efficacy of such approaches is in doubt because it is generally agreed that they might have been part of physicians' personal experiences. Not only the demand for herbal drugs is growing in developing countries, but also there are some evidences that consumers in developed countries are becoming disillusioned with modern healthcare; hence, the demand for traditional alternatives including herbal medicines is increasing in developing countries (10. On the one hand, the increased interest in herbal medicines throughout the world (10, 11, on the other hand, the need for direct empirical evidence about the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the proper statistical society with the appropriate number and method, denote the significance of new studies about medicinal plants and publishing their results. Herbal Medicines Journal (eISSN: 2538-2144 reports valuable research results for researchers all
Zhang, Jun-Hua; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li-Mei; Li, Chuan; Gao, Yue; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Bo-Li
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription is the main therapies for disease prevention and treatment in Chinese medicine. Following the guidance of the theory of TCM and developing drug by composing prescriptions of TCM materials and pieces, it is a traditional application mode of TCM, and still widely used in clinic. TCM prescription has theoretical advantages and rich clinical application experience in dealing with multi-factor complex diseases, but scientific research is relatively weak. The lack of scientific cognition of the effective substances and mechanism of Chinese medicine leads to insufficient understanding of the efficacy regularity, which affects the stability of effect and hinders the improvement of quality of Chinese medicinal products. Component-based Chinese medicine (CCM) is an innovation based on inheritance, which breaks through the tradition of experience-based prescription and realize the transformation of compatibility from herbal pieces to components. CCM is an important achievement during the research process of modernization of Chinese medicine. Under the support of three national "973" projects, in order to reveal the scientific connotation of the prescription compatibility theory and develop innovative Chinese drugs, we have launched theoretical innovation and technological innovation around the "two relatively clear", and opened up the research field of CCM. CCM is an innovation based on inheritance, breaking through the tradition of experience based prescription, and realizing the transformation from compatibility of herbal pieces to component compatibility, which is an important achievement of the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. In the past more than 10 years, with the deepening of research and the expansion of application, the theory and methods of CCM and efficacy-oriented compatibility have been continuously improved. The value of CCM is not only in developing new drug, more important is to build a
Xu, Yun; Mao, Jun J; Sun, Lingyun; Yang, Lin; Li, Jie; Hao, Yingxu; Li, Huashan; Hou, Wei; Chu, Yuping; Bai, Yu; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jinwan; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jianbin; Liu, Jianping; Yang, Yufei
Chinese cancer patients often use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbal medicine during or after active cancer treatments. However, little is known about how TCM herbal medicine impacts cancer outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the association between TCM herbal therapy and survival outcomes in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer. We conducted an eight-center prospective cohort study in China among patients who had undergone radical resection for stage II and III colorectal cancer. All patients received comprehensive conventional treatments according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, and follow-up visits were conducted over five years. We defined high exposure as a patient's use of TCM individualized herbs for more than one year, ascertained via clinical interviews. The primary outcome was disease-free survival (DFS), with overall survival (OS) as a secondary outcome. Between April 2007 and February 2009, we enrolled 312 patients into the cohort; 166 (53.2%) met the definition of high exposure to TCM herbs. Adjusting for covariates, high exposure to TCM was associated with both better DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39 to 0.98) and OS (HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.68). In subgroup exploratory analysis, the effects demonstrated that the differences in outcomes were statistically significant in patients who had received chemotherapy. Longer duration of TCM herbal use is associated with improved survival outcomes in stage II and III colorectal cancer patients in China. More research is needed to evaluate the effects and underlying mechanisms of herbal medicine on colorectal cancer outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi
In literature, there are many information on the distribution of Chinese herbal medicine. Limited by the technical methods, the origin of Chinese herbal medicine or distribution of information in ancient literature were described roughly. It is one of the main objectives of the national census of Chinese medicine resources, which is the background information of the types and distribution of Chinese medicine resources in the region. According to the national Chinese medicine resource census technical specifications and pilot work experience, census team with "3S" technology, computer network technology, digital camera technology and other modern technology methods, can effectively collect the location information of traditional Chinese medicine resources. Detailed and specific location information, such as regional differences in resource endowment and similarity, biological characteristics and spatial distribution, the Chinese medicine resource census data access to the accuracy and objectivity evaluation work, provide technical support and data support. With the support of spatial information technology, based on location information, statistical summary and sharing of multi-source census data can be realized. The integration of traditional Chinese medicine resources and related basic data can be a spatial integration, aggregation and management of massive data, which can help for the scientific rules data mining of traditional Chinese medicine resources from the overall level and fully reveal its scientific connotation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin
In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products
Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Tsao, Sai-Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li KaShing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Feng, Yibin, E-mail: email@example.com [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)
In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products.
Ung, C Y; Li, H; Kong, C Y; Wang, J F; Chen, Y Z
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely practiced and is considered as an attractive to conventional medicine. Multi-herb recipes have been routinely used in TCM. These have been formulated by using TCM-defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs), the scientific basis of which is unclear. The usefulness of TCM-HPs was evaluated by analyzing the distribution pattern of TCM-HPs of the constituent herbs in 1161 classical TCM prescriptions, which shows patterns of multi-herb correlation. Two artificial intelligence (AI) methods were used to examine whether TCM-HPs are capable of distinguishing TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes. Two AI systems were trained and tested by using 1161 TCM prescriptions, 11,202 non-TCM recipes, and two separate evaluation methods. These systems correctly classified 83.1-97.3% of the TCM prescriptions, 90.8-92.3% of the non-TCM recipes. These results suggest that TCM-HPs are capable of separating TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes, which are useful for formulating TCM prescriptions and consistent with the expected correlation between TCM-HPs and the physicochemical properties of herbal ingredients responsible for producing the collective pharmacological and other effects of specific TCM prescriptions.
Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C
This study aimed to co-compost Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) as the bulking agent with food waste (FW) to develop a high value antipathogenic compost. The FW, sawdust (SD) and CMHRs were mixed at three different mixing ratios, 5:5:1, 2:2:1 and 1:1:1 on dry weight basis. Lime at 2.25% was added to the composting mix to buffer the pH during the composting. A control without lime addition was also included. The mixtures were composted in 20-L in-vessel composters for 56 days. A maximum of 67.2% organic decomposition was achieved with 1:1:1 mixing ratio within 8 weeks. The seed germination index was 157.2% in 1:1:1 mixing ratio, while other ratios showed compost food waste at the dry weight ratio of 1:1:1 (FW: SD: CMHRs) was recommended for FW-CMHRs composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Guang
The supply of Chinese patent medicine is influenced by the price of raw materials (Chinese herbal medicines) and the stock of resources. On the one hand, raw material prices show cyclical volatility or even irreversible soaring, making the price of Chinese patent medicine is not stable or even the highest cost of hanging upside down. On the other hand, due to lack of resources or disable some of the proprietary Chinese medicine was forced to stop production. Based on the micro-service architecture and Redis cluster deployment Based on the micro-service architecture and Redis cluster deployment, the supply security monitoring and analysis system for Chinese patent medicines in national essential medicines has realized the dynamic monitoring and intelligence warning of herbs and Chinese patent medicine by connecting and integrating the database of Chinese medicine resources, the dynamic monitoring system of traditional Chinese medicine resources and the basic medicine database of Chinese patent medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating osteoarthritis in Asia for centuries. This study aimed to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM used in treating osteoarthritis in Taiwan. Methods A complete database (total 22,520,776 beneficiaries) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims offered by the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan for the year 2002 was employed for this research. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified according to the diagnostic code of the International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM for treating osteoarthritis. Results There were 20,059 subjects who visited TCM clinics for osteoarthritis and received a total of 32,050 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (19.2%), followed by 50-59 years (18.8%) and 60-69 years group (18.2%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for osteoarthritis more frequently than male subjects (female: male = 1.89: l). There was an average of 5.2 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for osteoarthritis. Du-zhong (Eucommia bark) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese single herb, while Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for osteoarthritis. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed formula was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang plus Shen-tong-zhu-yu-tang, and the most commonly prescribed triple-drug combination was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang, Gu-sui-pu (Drynaria fortune (Kunze) J. Sm.), and Xu-Duan (Himalaya teasel). Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating osteoarthritis. Conclusions This study
Lee, Yi-Chiao; Wang, Ting-Hao; Chen, Shih-Yu; Lin, Hsiang-Ling; Tsai, Ming-Yen
Viral oral ulcers are common presentations in pediatric clinics. Although self-limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and lead to dehydration. Despite the widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for pediatric upper respiratory disease in Taiwan, there is little evidence for its effectiveness as an antipyretic or in aiding ulcer healing for children with viral oral ulcers. We report two cases of children who presented with viral oral ulcers to illustrate the potential efficacy of CHM treatment in recovery from herpangina (HA) and herpetic gingivostomatitis (HGS). A 10-year-old girl with HA presented with an acute febrile illness associated with small vesicular or ulcerative lesions on the posterior oropharyngeal structures. The family refused western medicine due to a prior anaphylactic skin rash when she had taken sulfa drugs. The other patient was a 4-year-old boy with complaints of painful ulcers and hemorrhagic crusts on the lips. He was diagnosed with HGS and had received ibuprofen and supportive treatments such as hydration and local anesthesia spray for days, characterized by fever, anorexia, and nausea to no effect. Because the patients were suffering from the damp-heat syndrome according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) differentiation, both were treated using the same herbal formulas powder prescription, named Liang Ge San (LGS) and Gan Lu Xiao Du Dan (GLXDD). After several days of CHM treatment, the oral ulcers were in regression. Follow-up of the frontal view in both patients showed satisfactory disappearance of the sick furred tongue. The results of these case reports show that the early prescription of CHM is an effective modality of alternative treatment for viral oral ulcers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CHM treatment hastening the recovery from febrile disease with viral oral ulcers in Taiwan. Future experimental studies to determine the definitive mechanism and clinical trials
Chien, Pei-Shan; Tseng, Yu-Fang; Hsu, Yao-Chin; Lai, Yu-Kai; Weng, Shih-Feng
Large-scale pharmaco-epidemiological studies of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for treatment of urticaria are few, even though clinical trials showed some CHM are effective. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions for urticaria by analysing the population-based CHM database in Taiwan. This study was linked to and processed through the complete traditional CHM database of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan during 2009. We calculated the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions used for treatment of urticaria, of which the diagnosis was defined as the single ICD-9 Code of 708. Frequent itemset mining, as applied to data mining, was used to analyse co-prescription of CHM for patients with urticaria. There were 37,386 subjects who visited traditional Chinese Medicine clinics for urticaria in Taiwan during 2009 and received a total of 95,765 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 18 and 35 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (32.76%). In addition, women used CHM for urticaria more frequently than men (female:male = 1.94:1). There was an average of 5.54 items prescribed in the form of either individual Chinese herbs or a formula in a single CHM prescription for urticaria. Bai-Xian-Pi (Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb while Xiao-Feng San was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. The most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Xiao-Feng San plus Bai-Xian-Pi while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Xiao-Feng San, Bai-Xian-Pi, and Di-Fu Zi (Kochia scoparia). In view of the popularity of CHM such as Xiao-Feng San prescribed for the wind-heat pattern of urticaria in this study, a large-scale, randomized clinical trial is warranted to research their efficacy and safety.
Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933
Full Text Available Dementia is a leading cause of mental and physical disability. Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease (AD constituting 10–15% of the dementia population. Currently there are no approved pharmaceutical options for VaD and the conventional anti-AD therapies provide only modest, short-term relief of symptoms associated with VaD. Herbal medicines have been used for the management of dementia-like symptoms for centuries and may provide viable therapies for VaD due to their multicomponent and multitarget approach. This review is designed to provide an updated overview on the current status of herbal medicine research, with an emphasis on Chinese herbal medicine, for the treatment of VaD or dementia. A case study is also provided to demonstrate the development process of a novel standardized complex herbal formulation for VaD. The article reveals some preliminary evidence to support the use of single and complex herbal preparations for VaD and dementia. Multiple issues in relation to clinical and preclinical research have been identified and future research directions are discussed.
Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel
Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.
Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel
Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198
Full Text Available Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.
Dai, Cheng-En; Li, Hai-Long; He, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Fen-Fen; Zhu, Hua-Liu; Liu, Liang-Feng; Du, Wei
The pharmacological activity of active ingredients from Chinese medicine depends greatly on the microecological environment of probiotics in the human body. After effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by probiotics, their metabolites can increase pharmacological activity, and can be absorbed more easily to improve the bioavailability. Therefore, the combination of Chinese medicines with probiotics is the innovation point in R&D of functional food and Chinese medicines, and also a new thinking for the modernization of Chinese medicine.This review summarizes and analyses the research progress on metabolism effects of gut microbiota on Chinese medicines components, the regulating effect of effective ingredients from Chinese medicine on intestinal probiotics, the application status of probiotics in traditional Chinese medicines, and the main problems and prospects in the research and development of Chinese medicines products with probiotic, aiming to provide theoretical guidance and practical value for the fermentation engineering of Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Ho, Z C
Huang Di Nei Jing, the first systematic Chinese medical book, was compiled from the observations of imperial herbal doctors in the Qin and Han periods (221 BC - 220 AD). From this classic traditional source may be derived the concept of a balanced and complete diet and probably the world's first dietary guidelines. Basic to the tradition are han, re, wen and bu foods, respectively 'cold', 'hot', 'neutral', 'strengthening'. Basic to Chinese cuisine are jan and tsai- 'cereal' (the rice staple and main meal) and 'dishes' to accompany the rice. Chinese traditional medicine, as in Huang Di Nei Jing, considers the nourishment of body and mind. It also emphasises that herbal medicine and food have the same origin. Diet was essential to the prevention of disease which a glossary of Chinese terms is given at the end of the paper in the Chinese tradition, was superior to treatment.
Tulunay, Munevver; Aypak, Cenk; Yikilkan, Hulya; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used all over the world, and herbal medicines are the most preferred ways of CAM. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2014 among patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL) in Family Medicine Department of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, in Ankara. A questionnaire about herbal drug use was applied by face to face interview to the participants. A total of 217 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 56.6 ± 9.7 years (55 male and 162 female). The rate of herbal medicine use was 29%. Herbal medicine use among female gender was significantly higher (P = 0.040). Conventional medication use was found to be lower among herbal medicine consumers. There was no relationship between herbal medicine use and type of chronic disease, living area, and occupation or education level. Most frequently used herbs were lemon (39.6%) and garlic (11.1%) for HT, cinnamon (12.7%) for DM, and walnut (6.3%) for HL. In this study, herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore, physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines.
Conclusion: This study showed the pattern of single Chinese herbs or herbal formulae used in treating constipation in Taiwan. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs in treating constipation.
Sun, Zhe; Cao, Yang; Zhai, Lin-Zhu
A cholesterol granuloma (CG) is usually found in the middle ear, papilla, orbits, petrous apex, and choroid plexus, but is highly uncommon in the skull. In spite of benign clinicopathological lesions, bone erosion can be seen occasionally in the patient with CG. The optimal treatment strategy is radical surgery, but complete excision is usually impossible due to anatomical restrictions and a risk of injury to the key structures located nearby. Here, we report a patient with CGs in the suprasellar and sellar regions who was successfully treated with Java brucea and Chinese herbal medicine. A 31-year-old man presenting with progressive decreased vision in both eyes was analyzed. A skull magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a low-density tumor in the uprasellar and sellar regions and histopathological examination revealed a CG. The patient was referred the surgery and radiotherapy. In the meantime, brucea soft capsules and herbal medicine combined were administered to him. The related clinical symptoms and signs resolved significantly after several months, as his therapy progressed. The patient showed no sign of recurrence during the treatment period. Furthermore, he was still alive and disease-free at 37 months of follow-up visit. Overall, brucea soft capsules and a Chinese herbal formula treatment combined could be beneficial in improving the patient's quality of life with CG in the skull.
Full Text Available Globalization of traditional Chinese medicines started around 1996, which was initiated by the Chinese government. However, substantial progress was only achieved in recent years including the adoption of TCM quality monographs in the western pharmacopoeias (United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia and registration in main stream drug regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA. So far, several TCM herbal quality monographs were adopted by the United States Pharmacopoeia including Chinese Salvia, Ganoderma lucidum and Panax notoginseng, etc. Over 45 TCM quality monographs were recorded in the European Pharmacopoeia with 20 more in progress. After the successful registration of the first TCM product named Diao Xin Xue Kang as traditional medicine via the Medicines Evaluation Board of the Netherlands, several other TCM herbal products are in the registration process in several European member states. So far, there has been still not any TCM product authorized as a drug by the FDA regardless of a few TCM products in phase III or phase II clinical trials. This review summarizes the progress made in the globalization of traditional Chinese medicines in recent years and future issues in this regard.
Boateng, Millicent Addai; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Turkson, Bernard Kofi
Background: Over the past decade there has been growing interest in the use of herbal medicine both in developed and developing countries. Given the high proportion of patients using herbal medicine in Ghana, some health facilities have initiated implementation of herbal medicine as a component...... of their healthcare delivery. However, the extent to which herbal medicine has been integrated in Ghanaian health facilities, how integration is implemented and perceived by different stakeholders has not been documented. The study sought to explore these critical issues at the Kumasi South Hospital (KSH) and outline...... the definition, process and goals of integration were lacking, with respondents sharing different views about the purpose and value of integration of herbal medicine within public health facilities. Key informants were supportive of the initiative. Whilst biomedical health workers perceived the system...
Refractory nephrotic syndrome (RNS) is an immune-related kidney disease with poor clinical outcomes. Standard treatments include corticosteroids as the initial therapy and other immunosuppressants as second-line options. A substantial proportion of patients with RNS are resistant to or dependent on immunosuppressive drugs and often experience unremitting edema and proteinuria, cycles of remission and relapse, and/or serious adverse events due to long-term immunosuppression. Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of treating complicated kidney diseases and holds great potential for providing effective treatments for RNS. This review describes the Chinese medical theories relating to the pathogenesis of RNS and discusses the strategies and treatment options using Chinese herbal medicine. Available preclinical and clinical evidence strongly supports the integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine for improving the outcome of RNS. Herbal medicine such as Astragalus membranaceus, Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, and Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F can serve as the alternative therapy when patients fail to respond to immunosuppression or as the complementary therapy to improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects of immunosuppressive agents. Wuzhi capsules (Schisandra sphenanthera extract) with tacrolimus and tetrandrine with corticosteroids are two herb-drug combinations that have shown great promise and warrant further studies. PMID:29507594
Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xi; Xu, Su Wei; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han
Traditional biotechnology has been utilized by human civilization for long in wide aspects of our daily life, such as wine and vinegar production, which can generate new phytochemicals from natural products using micro-organism. Today, with advanced biotechnology, diverse applications and advantages have been exhibited not only in bringing benefits to increase the diversity and composition of herbal phytochemicals, but also helping to elucidate the treatment mechanism and accelerate new drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Applications on phytochemical biotechnologies and microbial biotechnologies have been promoted to enhance phytochemical diversity. Cell labeling and imaging technology and -omics technology have been utilized to elucidate CHM treatment mechanism. Application of computational methods, such as chemoinformatics and bioinformatics provide new insights on direct target of CHM. Overall, these technologies provide efficient ways to overcome the bottleneck of CHM, such as helping to increase the phytochemical diversity, match their molecular targets and elucidate the treatment mechanism. Potentially, new oriented herbal phytochemicals and their corresponding drug targets can be identified. In perspective, tighter integration of multi-disciplinary biotechnology and computational technology will be the cornerstone to accelerate new arena formation, advancement and revolution in the fields of CHM and world pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; He, Xia; Lu, Zhaocen; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Xiaoyang; Sun, Wei
Traditional herbal medicines have played important roles in the ways of life of people around the world since ancient times. Despite the advanced medical technology of the modern world, herbal medicines are still used as popular alternatives to synthetic drugs. Due to the increasing demand for herbal medicines, plant species identification has become an important tool to prevent substitution and adulteration. Here we propose a method for biological assessment of the quality of prescribed species in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia by use of high resolution melting (HRM) analysis of microsatellite loci. We tested this method on licorice, a traditional herbal medicine with a long history. Results showed that nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers produced distinct melting curve profiles for the five licorice species investigated using HRM analysis. These results were validated by capillary electrophoresis. We applied this protocol to commercially available licorice products, thus enabling the consistent identification of 11 labels with non-declared Glycyrrhiza species. This novel strategy may thus facilitate DNA barcoding as a method of identification of closely related species in herbal medicine products. Based on this study, a brief operating procedure for using the SSR-HRM protocol for herbal authentication is provided.
Yan, Guojun; Wang, Xiaobing; Chen, Zhou; Wu, Xianhui; Pan, Jinhuo; Huang, Yushen; Wan, Gang; Yang, Zhaogang
Nowadays, in silico tools are widely used to provide the potential structure of the metabolites formed depending on the site of metabolism. These methods can also highlight the molecular moieties that help to direct the molecule into the cytochrome cavity so that the site of metabolism is in proximity to the catalytic center. In this minireview, we summarized three aspects of the in silico methods in the application of prediction of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) properties of compounds: structure-based approaches for predicting molecular modeling of drug metabolizing enzymes; in silico metabolite prediction; and pharmacophore models for analysis substrate specificity. Moreover, we also extended the in silico studies in Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wu, Y; Li, J C; Mao, L G
To study the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in treating ascites to elucidate its mechanism in regulating the lymphatic stomata and promoting the absorption of ascites from the peritoneal cavity. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and computerized image processing and quantitative analysis assays, the CHM extract consisting of Atractylodes macrocephala, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Codonopsis pilosula, Alismatis orientale and Leonurus heterophyllus were studied. Intraperitoneal injection of nitric oxide (NO) supplier or CHM administration could cause the average area of lymphatic stomata obviously enlarged (P inverted obviously, i.e. the average area and the density of lymphatic stomata were markedly reduced (P < 0.01). CHM might treat ascites through increasing the endogenous NO concentration to open the lymphatic stomata and in turn to conduct the peritoneal water through lymphatic path.
Zhao, Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Sheng; Su, Shu-Lan; Wu, Qi-Nan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zeng, Jian-Guo
The global antimicrobial resistance has been a big challenge to the human health for years. It has to make balance between the safety of animal products and the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry. Any methods that can minimize or even phase out the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry should be encouraged. We herein describe the research strategies for feed additives and veterinary medicines from the side products of Chinese medicine resources industrialization. Killing two birds with one stone-besides the major purposes, the rational utilization of non-medicinal parts and wastes of industrialization of Chinese herbal medicines is also achieved under the proposed strategies. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART is the current HIV/AIDS treatment modality. Despite the fact that HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and reducing the mortality of HIV/AIDS patients, it has become increasingly clear that HAART does not offer an ultimate cure to HIV/AIDS. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population in the world. This reality has urgently called for the need to develop inexpensive alternative anti-HIV/AIDS therapy. This need has further manifested by recent clinical trial failures in anti-HIV-1 vaccines and microbicides. In the current study, we characterized a panel of extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants for their activities against HIV-1 replication. Methods Crude and fractionated extracts were prepared from various parts of nine traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants in Hainan Island, China. These extracts were first screened for their anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity in human CD4+ Jurkat cells. Then, a single-round pseudotyped HIV-luciferase reporter virus system (HIV-Luc was used to identify potential anti-HIV mechanisms of these extracts. Results Two extracts, one from Euphorbiaceae, Trigonostema xyphophylloides (TXE and one from Dipterocarpaceae, Vatica astrotricha (VAD inhibited HIV-1 replication and syncytia formation in CD4+ Jurkat cells, and had little adverse effects on host cell proliferation and survival. TXE and VAD did not show any direct inhibitory effects on the HIV-1 RT enzymatic activity. Treatment of these two extracts during the infection significantly blocked infection of the reporter virus. However, pre-treatment of the reporter virus with the extracts and treatment of the extracts post-infection had little effects on the infectivity or gene expression of the reporter virus. Conclusion These results demonstrate that TXE and VAD inhibit HIV-1 replication likely by blocking
Full Text Available Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas.
Miller, Gretchen M; Stripp, Richard
In America, recent growth in the popularity of Chinese herbal/patent medicines (CHM/CPM) has generated concerns as to the safety of these and other herbal remedies. Lack of strict federal regulations has lead to the possibility of improper labeling and even adulteration of these products with western drugs or other chemical contaminants. Our laboratory has conducted an analytical study to determine the presence of undeclared pharmaceuticals and therapeutic substances within CHM/CPM sold in New York City's Chinatown. Ninety representative samples randomly purchased in the form of pills, tablets, creams and teas were screened by appropriate analytical techniques including TLC, GC/MS and HPLC. Five samples contained nine different western pharmaceuticals. Two of these samples contained undeclared or mislabeled substances. One sample contained two pharmaceuticals contraindicated in people for whom the product was intended. Drugs identified include promethazine, chlormethiazole, chlorpheniramine, diclofenac, chlordiazepoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, triamterene, diphenhydramine and sildenafil citrate (Viagra).
Liu Xiaojuan; Zhao Quanli; Sun Guoxin; Williams, Paul; Lu Xiujun; Cai Jingzhu; Liu Wenju
Rice and drinking water are recognized as the dominant sources of arsenic (As) for human intake, while little is known about As accumulation and speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), which have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both eastern and western cultures. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. The levels of inorganic arsenic in CHMs from fields and markets or pharmacies ranged from 63 to 550 ng/g with a mean of 208 ng/g and 94 to 8683 ng/g with a mean of 1092 ng/g, respectively. The highest concentration was found in the Chrysanthemum from pharmacies. It indicates that the risk of inorganic As in CHMs to human health is higher in medicines from markets or pharmacies than that collected directly from fields. Some CHMs may make a considerable contribution to the human intake of inorganic arsenic. - Highlights: ► Arsenic speciation was extracted using 1% HNO 3 in microwave. ► Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. ► The highest concentration of inorganic arsenic was found in the Chrysanthemum. - Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples.
Zhou, Jue; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Qu, Fan; Duez, Pierre
In the last decades, cases of poisoning due to herbal medicines have occurred in many countries; Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are occasionally involved. The experience gained from traditional use is efficient to detect immediate or near-immediate relationship between administration and toxic effects but is quite unlikely to detect medium- to long-term toxicities; thorough investigations of herbal medicines (toxicity assessments, active pharmacovigilance) appear then essential for their safe use. Genotoxicity is an especially insidious toxicity that may result in carcinoma development years after exposure; it can arise from multiple compounds, with or without metabolic activation. The present work reviews traditional CHMs and phytochemicals that have been shown to present a genotoxic hazard. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhang, Kun; Niu, Liang-Chen; Yuan, Fu-Jie; Liu, Shen-Peng
Traditional Chinese medicine is widely used in the treatment of fractures, osteoporosis, other bone related diseases for thousands of years. There are many animal experiments and clinical trials demonstrating that the traditional Chinese medicine such as epimedium, Drynaria and other traditional Chinese medicine can stimulate bone regeneration and inhibit bone resorption, accelerating the fracture healing. In recent years many cell experiments have shown that these herbal ingredients up-regulated the expression of intracellular osteogenic transcription factors and osteogenic related genes, and then induced osteoblastic differentiation and stimulated the proliferation of osteoblasts, bone nodule formation and matrix mineralization. Meanwhile these herbal ingredients up-regulated the expression of intracellular osteoclastic transcription factors and osteoclast related genes, inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption of osteoclasts. In addition, intracellular signaling pathways regulated these herbal ingredients by might be involved in the above effects. We can have a conclusion that the genes expression regulated by transcription factors in pre-osteoblast and pre-osteoclast and these signaling pathways are the major molecular mechanisms and research hotspots of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting fracture healing. Based on these molecular mechanisms to review, this review provides not only the foundation for the study of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting fracture healing, but also the basis for clinical treatment of fracture. Copyright© 2017 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.
Gaire, Bhakta Prasad
Herbal medicines, mainly of plant source, are invaluable source for the discovery of new therapeutic agents for all sorts of human ailments. The complex pathogenesis of stroke and multifactorial effect of herbal medicine and their active constituents may suggest the promising future of natural medicine for stroke treatment. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, neuroprotective and vascular protective effect of herbal medicines are believed to be efficacious in stroke treatment. Herbs typically have fewer reported side effects than allopathic medicine, and may be safer to use over longer period of time. Herbal medicines are believed to be more effective for the longstanding health complaints, such as stroke. Several medicinal plants and their active constituents show the promising results in laboratory research. However failure in transformation of laboratory animal research to the clinical trials has created huge challenge for the use of herbal medicine in stroke. Until and unless scientifically comprehensive evidence of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine in ischemic stroke patients is available, efforts should be made to continue implementing treatment strategies of proven effectiveness. More consideration should be paid to natural compounds that can have extensive therapeutic time windows, perfect pharmacological targets with few side effects. Herbal medicine has excellent prospective for the treatment of ischemic stroke, but a lot of effort should be invested to transform the success of animal research to human use.
Effiong Ekong Akpan
Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango, shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew, Carica papaya (paw-paw leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree, and Azadirachta indica (Neem trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission.
Davyson de L. Moreira
Full Text Available In the European Union, traditional herbal medicines that are regarded as "acceptably safe, albeit not having a recognized level of efficacy" fit into a special category of drugs ("traditional herbal medicine products" for which requirements of non-clinical and clinical studies are less rigorous. A regulation proposal published by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance (Anvisa defines a similar drug category ("traditional phytotherapeutic products" for registration purposes. Regarding herbal medicines, both agencies seem to be lenient regarding proof of efficacy, and consider long-standing folk use as evidence of safety and a waiver of a thorough toxicological evaluation. Nonetheless, several herbal products and constituents with a long history of folk usage are suspected carcinogenic and/or hepatotoxic. Herbal products have also been shown to inhibit and/or induce drug-metabolizing enzymes. Since herbal medicines are often used in conjunction with conventional drugs, kinetic and clinical interactions are a cause for concern. A demonstration of the safety of herbal medicines for registration purposes should include at least in vitroand in vivogenotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for > 3 months or intermittently for > 6 months, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies (for drugs used by women of childbearing age, and investigation of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes.
Koh, H L; Woo, S O
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is gaining popularity as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. Reports of efficacy of TCM are increasing in numbers. TCM includes both crude Chinese medicinal materials (plants, animal parts and minerals) and Chinese proprietary medicine (CPM) [final dosage forms]. Despite the belief that CPM and herbal remedies are of natural origin, unlike Western medicine, and are hence safe and without many adverse effects, there have been numerous reports of adverse effects associated with herbal remedies. Factors affecting the safety of herbal medicines include intrinsic toxicity, adulteration, substitution, contamination, misidentification, lack of standardisation, incorrect preparation and/or dosage and inappropriate labelling and/or advertising. Hence, new regulations on the control of CPM were enforced in Singapore with effect from 1 September 1999. These include licensing and labelling requirements, as well as control of microbial contamination. This article also reviews reports of excessive toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in CPM in Singapore between 1990 and 1997. The names, uses, toxic heavy metal or drug detected and the year of detection are tabulated. Information on the brand or manufacturer's name are provided whenever available. The public and healthcare professionals should be better informed of the basic concept of TCM and its usefulness, as well as the potential adverse effects associated with its use. Greater control over the safety and quality of CPM could be achieved through good manufacturing practice, regulatory control, research, education, reporting usage of Chinese medicine (as in drug history) as well as reporting of adverse events.
Full Text Available Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy.
Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun
The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks.
Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert
Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Li, Meng; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi
Based on the data collected by the census team in the national census information management system, the spatial autocorrelation analysis method was used to analyze the similarity of the richness of Chinese herbal medicine resources in the investigated counties. The results showed that the species richness in the investigated counties appeared a tendency to focus on the distribution of the characteristics. Among them, the areas with sparse resources are concentrated in most areas of the north of the Yangtze River, northwest and most areas of Tibet. The areas with abundant resources are concentrated in the areas south of the Yangtze River. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abundance of traditional Chinese medicine resources between regions. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abundance of traditional Chinese medicine resources between regions. Due to the large differences in the land area between the county and the richness of the types of traditional Chinese medicine resources, it is proposed to increase the land area of the traditional Chinese medicine resource census when allocating the fourth national census of Chinese medicine resources by the "factor method", and the richness of traditional Chinese medicine and other indicators, in order to give full play to the efficiency of transfer payment system. Based on the county area and the rich variety of traditional Chinese medicine resources, combined with the national drug resources census pilot work carried out, it is recommended to focus on attention and support in the national medicine resources census work, personnel team, funding, summary of results on the western and southern provinces. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety
Wan-Ying Wu; Wen-Zhi Yang; Jin-Jun Hou; De-An Guo
Globalization of traditional Chinese medicines started around 1996, which was initiated by the Chinese government. However, substantial progress was only achieved in recent years including the adoption of TCM quality monographs in the western pharmacopoeias (United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia) and registration in main stream drug regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). So far, several TCM herbal quality monogra...
M.E. Mothibe, E Osuch, C.P. Kahler-Venter ... With commercialisation and marketing, some of the herbal medicines (HMs) used are readily ... The HM Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the THC test.
Full Text Available AbstractThe foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine has been practiced for centuries in East Asia. Herbs are used to maintain health and cure disease. Certain Chinese herbs are known to protect and improve the brain, memory, and nervous system. To apply ancient knowledge to modern science, some major natural therapeutic compounds in herbs were extracted and evaluated in recent decades. Emerging studies have shown that herbal compounds have neuroprotective effects or can ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the mechanisms of herbal compounds that protect against neurodegenerative diseases, we summarize studies that discovered neuroprotection by herbal compounds and compound-related mechanisms in neurodegenerative disease models. Those compounds discussed herein show neuroprotection through different mechanisms, such as cytokine regulation, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, glucose metabolism, and synaptic function. The interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α signaling pathways are inhibited by some compounds, thus attenuating the inflammatory response and protecting neurons from cell death. As to autophagy regulation, herbal compounds show opposite regulatory effects in different neurodegenerative models. Herbal compounds that inhibit ER stress prevent neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, there are compounds that protect against neuronal death by affecting glucose metabolism and synaptic function. Since the progression of neurodegenerative diseases is complicated, and compound-related mechanisms for neuroprotection differ, therapeutic strategies may need to involve multiple compounds and consider the type and stage of neurodegenerative diseases.
Dong Mo; Bao Guangliang
Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients was labeled with triteium by using exchange of new synthesized tritiated water or exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. The active ingredients was Genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid .The radiochemical purity of the three labeled compounds were more than 95% after TLC and HPLC purification. The specific activities of tritium labeled-genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid were 5.97, 3.24 and 470 GBq/g, respectively. The results indicated that the unstable Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients could be labeled with tritium by the methods of exchange of new synthesized tritiated water and exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. (authors)
Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar
Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxici...
Wei, Zhenzhen; Feng, Suxiang; Fang, Xiaoyan; Miao, Mingsan
Purposes: To sum up the characteristics of Chinese medicine with Sophora Japonica and provide reference for the research, development and utilization of the Chinese medicine of Sophora japonica in the future. Methods: The author sums up the forms, functions, indications, usage, dosage and contraindications of the proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the Ministerial standards. In addition, we will inquire about the clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora japonica in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Results: The proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica was widely used in the treatment of various diseases in clinic, but it was taken orally and without any external use of Chinese patent medicine. Moreover, in most of the proprietary Chinese medicine, Sophora japonica was used as a supplement; In addition, the causes of adverse reactions were not analyzed, and the safety of the drugs needed to be further analyzed. Conclusions: To make clear the role of Sophora japonica in proprietary Chinese medicine, we can develop the Chinese medicine new dosage forms of Sophora japonica; The Chinese medicine is made up of a variety of single herbs, some are toxic drugs, when an adverse reaction occurs, We should analyze the specific causes and avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. In addition, Sophora japonica is a traditional herbal medicine and food in China; we can expand the application in other areas and explore the pharmacological and toxicological pathology.
Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is a commonly occurring gastrointestinal disorder. An increase in the annual incidence of AP has been observed, and it causes acute hospitalization and high mortality. The diagnosis and treatment guidelines for AP recommend conservative medical treatments focused on reducing pancreatic secretion and secondary injury, as a primary therapeutic approach. Unfortunately, the existing treatment options have limited impact on the incidence and severity of AP due to the complex and multifaceted pathological process of this disease. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs have been used as efficient therapeutic agents to attenuate AP in Asian countries. Despite early cell culture, animal models, and clinical trials, CHMs are capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets participating in the pathogenesis of AP; however, comprehensive, up-to-date communication in this field is not yet available. This review focuses on the pharmacological activities of CHMs against AP in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanisms. A computational prediction of few selected and promising plant-derived molecules (emodin, baicalin, resveratrol, curcumin, ligustrazine, and honokiol to target numerous proteins or networks involved in AP was initially established based on a network pharmacology simulation. Moreover, we also summarized some potential toxic natural products for pancreas in order to more safe and reasonable medication. These breakthrough findings may have important implications for innovative drug research and the future development of treatments for AP.
Fan Xiaohui; Cheng Yiyu; Ye Zhengliang; Lin Ruichao; Qian Zhongzhi
Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. As a typical example, a binary chromatographic fingerprinting of 'Danshen Dropping Pill' (DSDP), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in China, was developed. First, two HPLC fingerprints that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of depsides and saponins of DSDP were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of DSDP. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach. The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines
Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is one of the main causes of heart failure and could increase death, hospitalization, and rehospitalization rate. The effect of conventional medicine treatment (CMT is limited; meanwhile, the combination of CMT and Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine (OCHM represents exciting adjunctive therapies. In this study, we ascertained the therapeutic effect of OCHM in combination with CMT for dilated cardiomyopathy by using meta-analysis methods for controlled clinical trials. We searched studies from five databases and extracted data from these studies. We also assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We evaluated the following outcome measures to estimate the prognosis in patients with DCM: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD, stroke volume (SV, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, 6-minute walk test (6MWT, and overall efficacy. The result showed that OCHM combined with CMT for the improvement of therapeutic effect in DCM patients. However, the evidence remains weak due to the small sample size, high clinical heterogeneity, and poor methodological quality of the included trials. Further, large sample size and well-designed trials are needed.
Fakeye, Titilayo O; Adisa, Rasaq; Musa, Ismail E
The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests were used at 95% confidence level to evaluate the data obtained. Level of significance was set at pherbal medicines in crude forms or as pharmaceutical prepackaged dosage forms, with 74.3% preferring self-prepared formulations. Almost 30% who were using herbal medicine at the time of the study believed that the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is safe. Respondents' reasons for taking herbal medications were varied and included reasons such as herbs having better efficacy than conventional medicines [22.4%], herbs being natural, are safer to use during pregnancy than conventional medicines [21.1%], low efficacy of conventional medicines [19.7%], easier access to herbal medicines [11.2%], traditional and cultural belief in herbal medicines to cure many illnesses [12.5%], and comparatively low cost of herbal medicines [5.9%]. Over half the respondents, 56.6% did not support combining herbal medicines with conventional drugs to forestall drug-herb interaction. About 33.4% respondents believed herbal medicines possess no adverse effects while 181 [30.4%] were of the opinion that adverse/side effects of some herbal medicines could be dangerous. Marital status, geopolitical zones, and educational qualification of respondents had statistically significant effects on respondents views on side effects of herbal medicines [pherbal medicines to the fetus [pherbal medicines by pregnant women in Nigeria highlighting an urgent need for health care practitioners and
Zhu, Jiayi; Shen, Lan; Lin, Xiao; Hong, Yanlong; Feng, Yi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic, fatal neurodegenerative disease which leads to progressive muscle atrophy and paralysis. In order to summarize the characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine compounds and their preparations in the prevention and treatment of ALS through analyzing the mechanism, action site, and symptoms according to effective clinical research. We searched ALS, motor neuron disease, chemical drugs, herbal medicine, Chinese medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and various combinations of these terms in databases including the PudMed, Springer, Ovid, Google, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases. It was found that the chemical drugs almost had not sufficient evidence to show their effectiveness in the treatment of ALS, except RILUZOLE. According to the characteristics of clinical symptoms of ALS, Chinese medicine practitioners believe that this disease belongs to the category of "atrophic disease". In clinical research, many Chinese herbal formulas had good clinical efficacies in the treatment of ALS with multiple targets, multiple links, and few side effects. And four kinds of dialectical treatment had been developed based on Clinical data analysis and the use of dialectical therapy: Benefiting the kidney; Declaring the lungs; Enhancing the Qi; and Dredging the meridian. In this review, we provide an overview of chemical drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine compound and its preparations in therapy of ALS as well as how they may contribute to the ALS pathogenesis, thereby offering some clues for further studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests were used at 95% confidence level to evaluate the data obtained. Level of significance was set at p Results More than two-third of respondents [67.5%] had used herbal medicines in crude forms or as pharmaceutical prepackaged dosage forms, with 74.3% preferring self-prepared formulations. Almost 30% who were using herbal medicine at the time of the study believed that the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is safe. Respondents' reasons for taking herbal medications were varied and included reasons such as herbs having better efficacy than conventional medicines [22.4%], herbs being natural, are safer to use during pregnancy than conventional medicines [21.1%], low efficacy of conventional medicines [19.7%], easier access to herbal medicines [11.2%], traditional and cultural belief in herbal medicines to cure many illnesses [12.5%], and comparatively low cost of herbal medicines [5.9%]. Over half the respondents, 56.6% did not support combining herbal medicines with conventional drugs to forestall drug-herb interaction. About 33.4% respondents believed herbal medicines possess no adverse effects while 181 [30.4%] were of the opinion that adverse/side effects of some herbal medicines could be dangerous. Marital status, geopolitical zones, and educational qualification of respondents had statistically significant effects on respondents views on side effects of herbal medicines [p Conclusion The study emphasized
Sun, E; Xu, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wei, Ying-Jie; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Cheng, Xu-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin
Based on practice of Epimedium processing mechanism for many years and integrated multidisciplinary theory and technology, this paper initially constructs the research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier, which to form an innovative research mode of the " chemical composition changes-biological transformation-metabolism in vitro and in vivo-intestinal absorption-pharmacokinetic combined pharmacodynamic-pharmacodynamic mechanism". Combined with specific examples of Epimedium and other Chinese herbal medicine processing mechanism, this paper also discusses the academic thoughts, research methods and key technologies of this research system, which will be conducive to systematically reveal the modem scientific connotation of traditional Chinese medicine processing, and enrich the theory of Chinese herbal medicine processing.
Background Germany is a country with a high use of herbal medicinal products. Population-based data on the use of herbal medicinal products among children are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of herbal medicine use among children and adolescents in Germany. Methods As data base served the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative population based survey conducted 2003–2006 by the Robert Koch Institute. 17,450 boys and girls aged 0–17 years provided information on drug use in the preceding seven days. Herbal medicinal products were defined according to the European and German drug laws. SPSS Complex Sample method was used to estimate prevalence rates and factors associated with herbal medicine use. Results The prevalence rate of herbal medicinal product use amounts to 5.8% (95% confidence interval 5.3-6.3%). Use of herbal medicine declines along with increasing age and shows no difference between boys and girls in younger age groups. Teenage girls are more likely to use herbal medicines than teenage boys. Two thirds of herbal medicines are used for the treatment of coughs and colds; nearly half of herbal medicines are prescribed by medical doctors. Determinants of herbal medicinal product use are younger age, residing in South Germany, having a poor health status, having no immigration background and coming from a higher social class family. Children’s and parents-related health behavior is not found to be associated with herbal medicine use after adjusting for social class. Conclusions Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 17 years in Germany is widely spread and shows relatively higher rates compared to international data. This study provides a reference on the use of herbal medicinal products for policy-makers, health professionals and parents. Further studies are needed to investigate the
Tu, Yue; Sun, Wei; Chen, Di-Ping; Wan, Yi-Gang; Wu, Wei; Yao, Jian
Aging is the gradual functional recession of the living tissues or organs caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors together. Autophagy is a process of degrading cytoplasmic components mediated by lysosomes in eukaryotic cells. Kidney is a typical target organ of aging. Autophagy regulates renal aging. Decrease in autophagy can accelerate renal aging,whereas,increase in autophagy can delay renal aging. During the process of regulating renal aging,the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its related signaling pathways including the adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mTOR,the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/ serine-threonine kinase(Akt)/mTOR,the AMPK/silent information regulation 1 (Sirt1) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) play the important roles in renal aging. Regulating the key signaling molecules in these pathways in vivo can control renal aging. Some Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and their extracts with the effects of nourishing kidney or activating stasis, such as Cordyceps sinensis, curcumin and resveratrol have the beneficial effects on renal aging and/or autophagy. Therefore,revealing the pharmacological effects of CHM in anti-renal aging based on the molecular mechanisms of autophagy will become one of the development trends in the future study. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Law Kim Sooi
Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1% followed by coconut oil (35.4%. The majority of women (89.2% used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38% per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%, with most women getting information from their parents (60.7% and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2% and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P<0.05. Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy.
Full Text Available Fei Sun,1 Bing Xu,1,2 Yi Zhang,1 Shengyun Dai,1 Chan Yang,1 Xianglong Cui,1 Xinyuan Shi,1,2 Yanjiang Qiao1,2 1Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine Information Engineering, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of Manufacture Process Control and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs, influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules’ properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS. By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet. Keywords: Panax
Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Ying-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Chang, Tung-Ti; Tsao, Jung-Ying; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Sun, Mao-Feng
Uterine fibroid (myoma) is one of the most common diseases in women. Although there are several studies on the efficacy of Chinese herbs, there is a lack of large-scale survey on the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of uterine fibroid. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of Chinese herbal products for patients with uterine fibroid, prescribed by licensed TCM doctors in Taiwan. A random sample comprised of one million individuals with newly diagnosed uterine fibroid between 2002 and 2010 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was analyzed. Demographic characteristics, TCM usage, the frequency as well as average daily dose of Chinese herbal formulas and the single herbs prescribed for patients with uterine fibroid, were analyzed. Overall, 35,786 newly diagnosed subjects with uterine fibroid were included. Majority of these patients (87.1%; n=31,161) had visited TCM clinics. Among them, 61.8% of their visits used Chinese herbal remedies. Patients less than 45 years of age tended to use TCM more frequently than elder patients. Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill) was the most frequently prescribed Chinese herbal formula, while San-Leng (Rhizoma Sparganii) was the most commonly prescribed single herb. Our study identified the characteristics and prescription patterns of TCM for patients with uterine fibroid in Taiwan. Further basic mechanistic studies and clinical trials are needed to confirm the therapeutic effects and mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong
This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50–59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. “Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan” and “Xuan-Shen” (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. “Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)” were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413
Benzie, Iris F. F; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi
.... With over 3,550 current references, the book highlights the role of herbal medicine in national health care while providing case studies of widely used herbal remedies and their effects on human...
commonly employed therapeutic methods in TCM include Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture/moxibustion, diet therapy, mind/body exercises (Qigong and Tai Chi), and Tui Na (Chinese massage) (Lao, 1999). Herbal medicine has been an integral part of TCM for more than 2000 years. Many herbal formulations have ...
Conclusions: In this study herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 217-220
Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, JingQi; Sørensen, Dan
Based on anecdotal evidence of anti-hypertensive effect of Gold Nine Soft Capsules, an in vivo study of this complex Chinese "herbal-based" medicine was initiated. Dosage of the content of Gold Nine capsules in spontaneous hypertensive rats showed a remarkably good effect. This led to further...... of a combination of commercially purchased standards was shown to be equivalent to that of the capsule content. Adulteration of herbal remedies and dietary supplements with synthetic drugs is an increasing problem that may lead to serious adverse effects. LC-MS-SPE/NMR as a method for the rapid identification...
Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Zhao, Zhongzhen
China and India have a long history in the therapeutic application of botanical drugs in traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are considered as two of the most ancient systems of medicine, with history of more than two millennia. Medicinal plants are the principal medicinal materials used in both these systems. This review discusses about the histories of Ayurveda and TCM, the common medicinal plants species, the drug processing strategies used, and the current statuses of these traditional systems of medicine (TSM). Through the views presented in this article, we aim to provide a new perspective to herbal drug researchers for expanding and improving the utilization of botanical drugs and their therapeutic applications. A bibliographic investigation of Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeias, monographs and official websites was performed. Furthermore, information was obtained from scientific databases on ethnobotany and ethno medicines. The review of Ayurveda and TCM ethno medicine indicates that both these systems have many medicinal materials in common. The studies carried out by the authors for comparison of plants from same genus from both these TSM's have been discussed to further bring focus to the utilization of "qualitatively" similar species which can be utilized and substituted for endangered or economically valued species. The overview of ancient literature and scientific findings for drugs in both these systems suggests that, the botanical drugs used in common and their processing methods can be explored further for extensive utilization in traditional medicine. This review describes the histories, common medicinal plant species, their processing methods and therapeutic applications in Ayurveda and TCM. The insights provided through this article may be used by herbal drug researchers and pharmacologists for further exploration of botanical drugs from these two traditional systems of medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by
Thelingwani, Roslyn; Masimirembwa, Collen
The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal medicines. Such evaluations will add value to herbal medicines as doctors and patients will be better informed on which drugs and herbal medicines to take or not take together. This can also lead to the adoption of guidelines by regulatory agents such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and governmental agencies controlling the use of medicines. Of current interest is the evaluation of drug-herb interactions (DHI) involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of medicines where there is a promising possibility to adopt the current FDA and EMA guidelines on the evaluation of herbal medicines for drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this review we demonstrate progress made so far in DHI and point to possible future developments that will contribute to the safe use of herbal medicines.
Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra
In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed.
Fan Xiaohui [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng Yiyu [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Ye Zhengliang [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin Ruichao [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing 100050 (China); Qian Zhongzhi [Committee of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Beijing 100061 (China)
Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. As a typical example, a binary chromatographic fingerprinting of 'Danshen Dropping Pill' (DSDP), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in China, was developed. First, two HPLC fingerprints that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of depsides and saponins of DSDP were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of DSDP. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach. The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines.
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a common malignancy with a high mortality. Most patients present clinically with advanced pancreatic cancer. Moreover, the effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy is limited. Complementary and alternative medicines represent exciting adjunctive therapies. In this study, we ascertained the beneficial and adverse effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM in combination with conventional therapy for inoperable pancreatic cancer by using meta-analysis methods for controlled clinical trials. We extracted data for studies searched from six electronic databases that were searched and also assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We evaluated the following outcome measures: 6-month and 1-year survival rate, objective response rate, disease control rate, quality of life, and adverse effects. The final analysis showed CHM is a promising strategy as an adjunctive therapy to treat advanced or inoperable pancreatic cancer and that CHM in combination with conventional therapy is a promising strategy for resistant disease. However, convincing evidence must be obtained and confirmed by high-quality trials in future studies.
Conclusion: The results support the view that herbs represent a rich source of anti-lipase compounds. The screening of the methanolic extracts of 37 Chinese medicinal plants in vitro led to the identification of several extracts with potential activity against PPL, in particular, P. vulgaris and R. palmatum. We also found that several monomeric chemicals in these herbs exhibited good or moderate activity against PPL. To the best of our knowledge, these traditional Chinese herbal medicines or phytochemicals have not been previously screened for their lipase inhibitory activity.
Zhang, Jun; Lv, Jing; Pang, Shuang; Bai, Xiaohong; Yuan, Fang; Wu, Yubin; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Guanqi; Zhang, Shaoqing
Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) involves the renal impairment of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and can easily relapse into life-threatening late nephropathy in severe cases. Although there is a lack of validated evidence for its effectiveness, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is one of the most commonly used methods in China to treat HSPN. It is thus need to report the protocol of a prospective cohort trial using CHM to investigate the effectiveness, safety and advantages for children with HSPN. This large, prospective, multicenter cohort study started in May 2015 in Shenyang. Six hundred children diagnosed with HSPN were recruited from 3 institutions and are followed-up every 2 to 4 weeks till May 2020. Detailed information of participants includes general information, history of treatment, physical examination, and symptoms of TCM is taken face-to-face at baseline. This study has received ethical approval from the ethics committee of institutional review board of the Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (No.2016CS(KT)-002-01). Articles summarizing the primary results and ancillary analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02878018.
Interference-free spectrofluorometric quantification of aristolochic acid I and aristololactam I in five Chinese herbal medicines using chemical derivatization enhancement and second-order calibration methods
Hu, Yong; Wu, Hai-Long; Yin, Xiao-Li; Gu, Hui-Wen; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Li; Fang, Huan; Yu, Ru-Qin
A rapid interference-free spectrofluorometric method combined with the excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and the second-order calibration methods based on the alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) and the self-weighted alternating trilinear decomposition (SWATLD) algorithms, was proposed for the simultaneous determination of nephrotoxic aristolochic acid I (AA-I) and aristololactam I (AL-I) in five Chinese herbal medicines. The method was based on a chemical derivatization that converts the non-fluorescent AA-I to high-fluorescent AL-I, achieving a high sensitive and simultaneous quantification of the analytes. The variables of the derivatization reaction that conducted by using zinc powder in acetose methanol aqueous solution, were studied and optimized for best quantification results of AA-I and AL-I. The satisfactory results of AA-I and AL-I for the spiked recovery assay were achieved with average recoveries in the range of 100.4-103.8% and RMSEPs herbal medicines obtained from the proposed method were also in good accordance with those of the validated LC-MS/MS method. In light of high sensitive fluorescence detection, the limits of detection (LODs) of AA-I and AL-I for the proposed method compare favorably with that of the LC-MS/MS method, with the LODs herbal medicine matrices without any prior separations and clear-up processes.
Full Text Available The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals’ lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases.
Fu, Nai-Fang; Luo, Chang-Hui; Wu, Jun-Cai; Zheng, Yan-Yan; Gan, Yong-Jin; Ling, Jian-An; Liang, Heng-Qiu; Liang, Dan-Yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xian-Jun; Pan, Rui-Hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-Jun
The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases.
Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng
The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. The study employed an inductive exploratory qualitative approach. It was conducted at a private herbal clinic in Accra. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit 16 participants. Data collection was through individual face-to-face interviews and these were transcribed and analysed using content analysis procedures. It was realized that the factors that enhanced the use of herbal medicine included use of convincing information to enhance the initiation of herbal medicine use, effectiveness of herbal medicine, personal preference for herbal medicine, perceived ineffectiveness of western medicine and integration of spirituality in herbal medicine. The factors that hindered herbal medicine use included negative perceptions and attitudes about herbal medicine, poor vending environment, poor knowledge of vendors, high cost of herbal products at credible herbal clinics and inconsistent effectiveness of some herbal products. Participants desired that the national health insurance scheme will cover the cost of herbal medicine to alleviate the financial burden associated with herbal medicine use. Although some Ghanaians patronize herbal medicine, the negative perceptions about herbal medicine resulting from deceitful producers and vendors call for enhanced education and monitoring to ensure that effective herbal products are used.
Full Text Available The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs.
... Changes in blood pressure Enioutina EY, et al. Herbal medicines: Challenges in the modern world. Part 5. Status ... Pharmacology. 2017;10:327. Saper RB. Overview of herbal medicines and dietary supplements. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ ...
Herbal medicines are used by patients, mostly without the knowledge of their Doctors and other Health providers. The presentation, course and outcomes of the patient's condition may thus be affected. There has been a lot of concern recently about the use of herbal medicines. The Ghana Food and Drugs Board has come ...
Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Bosmia, Anand N; Fakhree, Mohammad A A; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Balch, Margaret Wood; Loukas, Marios; Khodadoust, Kazem; Khalili, Majid; Eknoyan, Garabed
In accord with the notions of humoralism that prevailed in medieval medicine, therapeutic interventions, including diuretics, were used to restore the disturbed balance among the four humors of the human body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Most diuretics were derived from plants. The primary textual reference on herbal diuretics was Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, which was written during the first century CE. The authors reviewed the medieval medical texts written in Persian and Arabic and compiled a list of 135 herbal diuretics used by the medieval medical authorities for treating various ailments. Between the 8th and 11th centuries CE, Middle Eastern physicians systematically reviewed extant books on medicine and pharmacotherapy and compiled new and expanded lists of herbal medicines, diuretics in particular. Furthermore, they introduced new chemical methods of extraction, distillation, and compounding in the use of herbal medicines. Several herbal remedies now are considered as potentially safe and affordable alternatives to chemical pharmaceuticals. Thus, research on medieval herbal therapies may prove to be relevant to the practice of current cardiovascular and renal pharmacotherapy. The authors propose that modern research methods can be employed to determine which of these agents actually are effective as diuretics.
Full Text Available Men have been using herbal medicines for thousands of years. The advantages of this type of therapeutics include good availability, local cultural aspects, individual preferences, the increasing demand for natural and organic products, and the already validated synergistic effects of herbal medicines. However, ethically, the scope and limits of these drugs need to be established not only by ethnopharmacological evidences but also by scientific investigations, which confirm the therapeutic effects. With this study, we propose to discuss the possible advantages of using herbal medicines instead of purified compounds, the truth and myths about herbal medicines, drug discovery, and the implications for medical education and health care.
Researches on the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of the disease-syndrome combination approach in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine are becoming a hot spot in andrology, but many recent studies of this kind have failed to explain the connotation of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in andrology. Related existing problems include repeated researches into the same indexes of action mechanisms of different therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese herbal compound and special prescriptions, studies focusing on individual diseases but ignoring symptoms, immature syndrome models for studies of mechanisms, and too much attention to uncertain or immature target mechanisms. The stress should be placed on the action mechanisms of Chinese herbal compound and special prescriptions on male diseases and, what is more important, on the clarification of the essential principles of differentiation and treatment of TCM syndromes. In the recent years, proteomics, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics have shed some light upon researches into the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of the disease-syndrome combination approach in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in andrology. An insight into the TCM syndrome, a macroscopic inductive analysis, and a comprehension of such microcosmic aspects as the gene, protein, metabolism and metagenome may contribute to some breakthroughs and new ideas in the studies of disease-syndrome combination in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in andrology.
Department, 3Department of Vascular Surgery, The Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,. Chengdu, Sichuan ... Background: The rate of gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, often regarded as precancerous lesions, developing ..... Ling-Bai-Zhu on promoting apoptosis of transplanted.
Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J
Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio. Significant challenges exist in determining shared concepts of social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio across international research collaborations. However, we argue that collaborative partnership, including democratic deliberation, offers the context and process by which many of the ethical challenges in international herbal medicine research can, and should be, resolved. By "cross-training" investigators, and investing in safety-monitoring infrastructure, the issues identified by this comprehensive framework can promote ethically sound international herbal medicine research that contributes to global health.
Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.
Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations
The research pattern in medicinal plants and traditional medicine practices in Nigeria is largely unknown. Hence this paper examined such research patterns with a view to determining how the country fared in herbal medicine research and development. The study also identified the number of herbal medicine scientific ...
McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Moran, Carmen C
Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners.
McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J.; Moran, Carmen C.
Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners. PMID:26680418
Tan, Manrong; Yan, Dan; Qiu, Lingling; Chen, Longhu; Yan, Yan; Jin, Cheng; Li, Hanbing; Xiao, Xiaohe
For the quality management system of herbal medicines, intermediate and finished products it exists the " short board" effect of methodologies. Based on the concept of process control, new strategies and new methods of the production process quality control had been established with the consideration of the actual production of traditional Chinese medicine an the characteristics of Chinese medicine. Taking Banlangen granule as a practice example, which was effective and widespread application, character identification, determination of index components, chemical fingerprint and biometrics technology were sequentially used respectively to assess the quality of Banlangen herbal medicines, intermediate (water extraction and alcohol precipitation) and finished product. With the transfer rate of chemical information and biological potency as indicators, the effectiveness and transmission of the above different assessments and control methods had been researched. And ultimately, the process quality control methods of Banlangen granule, which were based on chemical composition analysis-biometric analysis, had been set up. It can not only validly solute the current status that there were many manufacturers varying quality of Banlangen granule, but also ensure and enhance its clinical efficacy. Furthermore it provided a foundation for the construction of the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine production process.
Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing
Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research.
Kim, Hyunah; Hughes, Peter J; Hawes, Emily M
This study was performed to review studies carried out in Korea reporting toxic reactions to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as a result of heavy metal contamination. PubMed (1966-August 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1965-August 2013) were searched using the medical subject heading terms of "Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Medicine, Korean Traditional," "Medicine, Traditional," "Metals, Heavy," and "Drug Contamination". For Korean literature, Korea Med (http://www.koreamed.org), the Korean Medical Database (http://kmbase.medric.or.kr), National Discovery for Science Leaders (www.ndsl.kr), Research Information Sharing Service (http://www.riss.kr), and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "Chinese medicine," "Korean medicine," "herbal medicine," and "metallic contamination" in Korean. Bibliographies of case reports and case series, identified using secondary resources, were also utilized. Only literature describing cases or studies performed in Korea were included. Case reports identified clear issues with heavy metal, particularly lead, contamination of TCMs utilized in Korea. No international standardization guidelines for processing, manufacturing and marketing of herbal products exist. Unacceptably high levels of toxic metals can be present in TCM preparations. Health care providers and patients should be educated on the potential risks associated with TCMs. International advocacy for stricter standardization procedures for production of TCMs is warranted.
Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming
The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche.
Ge, Qing-fang; Zhang, Hui-yun
To explore the central mechanisms of anger emotion and the effects of Chinese herbal medicines for regulating liver qi on the anger emotion and the expression level of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3B receptor (5-HT3BR) in rat hypothalamus. Rat models of anger-in or anger-out emotions were prepared by the methods of resident intruder paradigm. There were five groups in this study: control, anger-in model, Jingqianshu Granule-treated anger-in, anger-out model and Jingqianping Granule-treated anger-out groups. The treatment groups were orally given Jingqianshu granules and Jingqianping granules respectively, and the model groups and the normal control group were given sterile water. Open-field test and sucrose preference test were used to evaluate behavioristics of the rats. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot methods were used to detect the expression levels of 5-HT3BR mRNA and protein in the rat hypothalamus. The expression of 5-HT3BR in hypothalamus of anger-in model rats increased obviously (Pexpressions of 5-HT3BR in the treatment groups were significantly improved (Pexpression and the anger-out emotion can obviously reduce its expression. Chinese herbal medicines for regulating liver qi may treat anger emotion in rats by improving the hypothalamic 5-HT3BR protein and gene expression levels.
Wu, Xi; Hu, Hui; Guo, Liang; Wang, Hui
To compare the difference in the efficacy on post-herpetic neuralgia among TCM herbal cupping therapy, Chinese medicine thermal compressing therapy and mecobalamine. Fifty-seven cases were randomized into a TCM herbal cupping group, a thermal compressing group and a western medicine group, 19 cases in each one. The oral administration of ibuprofen was applied in every group. In the herbal cupping group, the bamboo cups soaked in the boiled Chinese herbal decoction were sucked on the most significant painful area. In the thermal compressing group, the towel soaked in the boiled Chinese herbal decoction was compressed on the most significant painful area. In the medication group, the muscular injection of mecobalamine was adopted. The treatment was given once a day, for 2 weeks totally in each group. SF-MPQ score and clinical efficacy before and after treatment were observed in each group. The remarkable effective rates were 78.9% (15/19), 36.8% (7/19) and 5.3% (1/19) in the TCM herbal cupping group, thermal compressing group and western medicine group separately. The efficacy in the TCM herbal cupping group was significantly superior to the thermal compressing group and western medicine group (all P cupping group was reduced more significantly as compared with the thermal compressing group and western medicine group (all P cupping therapy achieves the superior efficacy for post-herpetic neuralgia and relieves pain effectively of the patients, which is more advantageous than CM herbal thermal compressing therapy and Mecobalamine.
Wang, Zhijun; Liu, Xuefeng; Ho, Rebecca Lucinda Ka Yan; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei; Chow, Moses Sing Sum
Although over 100 chemotherapeutic agents are currently available for the treatment of cancer patients, the overall long term clinical benefit is disappointing due to the lack of effectiveness or severe side effects from these agents. In order to improve the therapeutic outcome, a new approach called precision medicine or personalized medicine has been proposed and initiated by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. However, the limited availability of effective medications and the high cost are still the major barriers for many cancer patients. Thus alternative approaches such as herbal medicines could be a feasible and less costly option. Unfortunately, scientific evidence for the efficacy of a majority of herbal medicines is still lacking and their development to meet FDA approval or other regulatory agencies is a big challenge. However, herbal medicines may be able to play an important role in precision medicine or personalized medicine. This review will focus on the existing and future technologies that could speed the development of herbal products for treatment of resistant cancer in individual patients. Specifically, it will concentrate on reviewing the phenotypic (activity based) rather than genotypic (mechanism based) approach to develop herbal medicine useful for personalized cancer chemotherapy.
Benzie, Iris F. F; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi
"Responding to the increased popularity of herbal medicines and other forms of complementary or alternative medicine in countries around the world, this reference reviews and evaluates various safety...
Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong
To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the
Meria M Dan
Full Text Available Wound is a common injury due to internal and or external factors, which are subsequently associated with many immunological events, including necrosis, inflammation, etc. Significant amounts of tissue damage and infection are two silent features of wound along with other co-morbidities. Wound healing is a complex process where immunohistochemistry, tissue regeneration, and remodeling are predominant events. Since early human life, there are many traditional procedures are in use to treat wounds of various kind. However, the modern medical practices are rapidly growing in wound healing, traditional herbal medicine and use of medicinal plant products are showing equal ability and drawing the attention of medical practitioners. Herbal/traditional medicine is one of the oldest procedures in countries like India and China. In recent days, it has become reliable option in developed nations such as USA, UK, and other European nations for treatment of many deadly diseases including cancer. India is one of the biggest biodiversity reservoirs in the world with vast range of plant species and high access to the ancient medical practices. According to the WHO data and available sources, there more than 80% world population depends on herbal medical products. This indicates that despite the lack of clinical and scientific evidences, the herbal or traditional market is growing at rapid pace. In this literature review, we presented the role of herbal medicine in wound healing, some of the common medicinal plants, the quality, safety, and efficacy concerns of herbal medical products.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This paper assessed the attributes of herbal and orthodox medicines such as affordability, packaging, ... Results showed that the respondents rated herbal medicines higher than orthodox ...
Leach, Matthew J; Page, Amy T
Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that can profoundly impact a person's health and wellbeing. Herbal medicine represents one of the most frequently used complementary and alternative treatments of insomnia. However, the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine for the treatment of this disorder is currently uncertain. In order to ascertain the evidence base for herbal medicine for insomnia, we systematically searched seventeen electronic databases and the reference lists of included studies for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Fourteen RCTs, involving a total of 1602 participants with insomnia, met the inclusion criteria. Four distinct orally administered herbal monopreparations were identified (i.e., valerian, chamomile, kava and wuling). There was no statistically significant difference between any herbal medicine and placebo, or any herbal medicine and active control, for any of the thirteen measures of clinical efficacy. As for safety, a similar or smaller number of adverse events per person were reported with kava, chamomile and wuling when compared with placebo. By contrast, a greater number of events per person were reported with valerian. While there is insufficient evidence to support the use of herbal medicine for insomnia, there is a clear need for further research in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trogrlić, Ivo; Trogrlić, Dragan; Trogrlić, Darko; Trogrlić, Amina Kadrić
In the latest years, a lot of research studies regarding the usage of active agents from plants in the treatment of tumors have been published, but there is no data about successful usage of herbal remedies in the treatment of glioblastoma in humans. The phytotherapy involved five types of herbal medicine which the subjects took in the form of tea, each type once a day at regular intervals. Three patients took herbal medicine along with standard oncological treatment, while two patients applied for phytotherapy after completing medical treatment. The composition of herbal medicine was modified when necessary, which depended on the results of the control scans using the nuclear magnetic resonance technique and/or computed tomography. Forty-eight months after the introduction of phytotherapy, there were no clinical or radiological signs of the disease, in three patients; in one patient, the tumor was reduced and his condition was stable, and one patient lived for 48 months in spite of a large primary tumor and a massive recurrence, which developed after the treatment had been completed. The results achieved in patients in whom tumor regression occurred exclusively through the use of phytotherapy deserve special attention. In order to treat glioblastoma more effectively, it is necessary to develop innovative therapeutic strategies and medicines that should not be limited only to the field of conventional medicine. The results presented in this research paper are encouraging and serve as a good basis for further research on the possibilities of phytotherapy in the treatment of glioblastoma.
Due to side effects of synthetic drugs, herbal products are rapidly gaining popularity in the world market. The global herbal market in 2010 was US$65 billion and is estimated to hit US$93 billion in 2015. The Malaysian herbal market is estimated to expand from RM7 billion in 2010 to about RM29 billion by 2020. Inspite of its rich biodiversity and well-practised knowledge of herbal medicine amongst its multi cultured population, the share of Malaysia in the global herbal market is very small and not up to the mark. The present article will deal with the measures to be adopted for global promotion of Malaysian herbal products. The scenario and perceptions of herbal medicine are discussed. (author)
Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro; Numata, Takehiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Arita, Ryutaro; Saito, Natsumi; Kikuchi, Akiko; Ohsawa, Minoru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Tadashi
Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation's experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords "disaster" and "herbal medicine" were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.
Wang, Julie; Jones, Stacie M; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Song, Ying; Yang, Nan; Sicherer, Scott H; Makhija, Melanie M; Robison, Rachel G; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Sampson, Hugh A; Li, Xiu-Min
Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is a 9-herb formula based on traditional Chinese medicine that blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model. In phase I studies FAHF-2 was found to be safe and well tolerated. We sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of FAHF-2 as a treatment for food allergy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study 68 subjects aged 12 to 45 years with allergies to peanut, tree nut, sesame, fish, and/or shellfish, which were confirmed by baseline double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenges (DBPCFCs), received FAHF-2 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 22). After 6 months of therapy, subjects underwent DBPCFCs. For those who demonstrated increases in the eliciting dose, a repeat DBPCFC was performed 3 months after stopping therapy. Treatment was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. By using intent-to-treat analysis, the placebo group had a higher eliciting dose and cumulative dose (P = .05) at the end-of-treatment DBPCFC. There was no difference in the requirement for epinephrine to treat reactions (P = .55). There were no significant differences in allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 levels, cytokine production by PBMCs, or basophil activation between the active and placebo groups. In vitro immunologic studies performed on subjects' baseline PBMCs incubated with FAHF-2 and food allergen produced significantly less IL-5, greater IL-10 levels, and increased numbers of regulatory T cells than untreated cells. Notably, 44% of subjects had poor drug adherence for at least one third of the study period. FAHF-2 is a safe herbal medication for subjects with food allergy and shows favorable in vitro immunomodulatory effects; however, efficacy for improving tolerance to food allergens is not demonstrated at the dose and duration used. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Identified as a treasure of natural herbal products, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has attracted extensive attention for their moderate treatment effect and lower side effect. Cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD are a leading cause of death. TCM is used in China to prevent and treat CCVD. However, the complexity of TCM poses challenges in understanding the mechanisms of herbs at a systems-level, thus hampering the modernization and globalization of TCM. A novel model, termed traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology (TCMSP analysis platform, which relies on the theory of systems pharmacology and integrates absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/T evaluation, target prediction and network/pathway analysis, was proposed to address these problems. Here, we review the development of systems pharmacology, the TCMSP approach and its applications in the investigations of CCVD and compare it with other methods. TCMSP assists in uncovering the mechanisms of action of herbal formulas used in treating CCVD. It can also be applied in ascertaining the different syndrome patterns of coronary artery disease, decoding the multi-scale mechanisms of herbs, and in understanding the mechanisms of herbal synergism.
Chan, W. F.; Lin, C. W.
An HPLC undergraduate experiment on the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed. Two commonly used herbs ("glycyrrhizae radix" and "cinnamomi ramulus") are studied. Glycyrrhizin, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde are chosen as markers for the herbs. The dried herbs in their natural state and a TCM…
This paper presents the barriers to herbal medicine research in Nigeria. This is with a view to formulating appropriate strategies that would be deployed to overcome the identified barriers to herbal medicine research. The paper therefore identified and discussed some of these inherent barriers such as the standardization of ...
Full Text Available Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed.
Recent advances in the Research and development of Herbal Medicines are highlighted and a scheme for R & D work is presented. The need for adequate information (chemical, biological, botanical and so on) on local plants is highlighted. There is also the need to standardize the herbal product, prepare it in an ...
Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J
Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal me...
Yang, Pei-Rung; Shih, Wei-Tai; Chu, Yen-Hua; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wu, Ching-Yuan
Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been frequently used among patients with chronic diseases including hypertension; however, the co-prescription pattern of herbal formulae and single herbs remain uncharacterized. Thus, this large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study evaluated the frequency and co-prescription pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension in Taiwan from 2003 to 2009. The database of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims was obtained from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. Patients with hypertension during study period were defined according to diagnostic codes in the International Classification of Disease Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. The frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for hypertension were analyzed. We also applied association rules to evaluate the CHPs co-prescription patterns. The hypertension cohort included 154,083 patients, 123,240 patients of which (approximately 80 %) had used TCM at least once. In total, 81,582 visits involving CHP prescriptions were hypertension related; Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin and Dan Shen (Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for treating hypertension. This study elucidated the utilization pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension. Future studies on the efficacy and safety of these CHPs and on drug-herb interactions are warranted.
Ibrahim, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Halimatu-Sadia; Habib, Rabiatu Hamisu; Gbedema, Stephen Yao
Despite the development of more researched and formulated orthodox medicines, herbal medicines continue to be well patronized for persons across the world with some patrons concurrently using both forms, oblivious of the unwanted effects that may occur. Using a multistage sampling procedure, a semistructured questionnaire was used to collect data in April 2016 from 240 informants from three selected hospitals and three herbal clinics in Tamale, a city in northern Ghana. Using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, binary logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic predictors of concurrent use of herbal and orthodox medicines. Orthodox medicines were the drug of choice for 54.2% and 49.2% of patrons of hospitals and herbal clinics, respectively. Also, 67.5% of herbal clinic patrons used orthodox medicines, while 25.0% of hospital attendees used herbal medications prior to their visit to the health facilities. Up to 17.9% of respondents concurrently used herbal and orthodox medicines for their prevailing ailment with age, less than 30 years being the only predictor of this habit (p = 0.015; 95% CI, 1.183–4.793; cOR = 2.4). All health professionals including those in herbal clinics should therefore be interested in the drug history of their clients. PMID:29743917
He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F
Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a
Cao, Huijuan; Wu, Ruohan; Han, Mei; Caldwell, Patrina Ha Yuen; Liu, Jian-Ping
About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637).Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR) and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available. Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30).After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14) and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups. This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.
Full Text Available About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy.To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility.The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637.Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available.Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30.After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14 and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups.This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.
The study aimed to evaluate the bacterial contamination of powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified herbal retail outlets in different parts of Kaduna metropolis. The assessments of the contamination of the herbal products were carried out using standard procedures: total aerobic bacterial plate count, ...
Manchishi, Stephen M
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. The limited supply, high cost as well as low efficacy and adverse side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a matter of major concern. Herbal medicine has always been traditionally part of treatment of epilepsy. Herbal medicines are generally well tolerated, with fewer side effects. To highlight some herbal extracts that have been studied for their anticonvulsant activity in animal models, literature search from PubMed and Science Direct, was performed. The keywords for the search consisted of combinations of the following terms: Herbal antiepileptic and/or anticonvulsant, botanicals + epilepsy. Literature published in the last five years was considered. Eighteen (18) anticonvulsant herbal agents are reported and discussed. Experiments mostly consisted of phenotypic screens in rodents, with little diversity in screening methods. In most experiments, the tested extracts prolonged the time to onset of seizures and decreased their duration. Most experimenters implicate potentiation of GABAergic activity as the mode of action of the extracts, even though some experimenters did not fully characterise the bioactive chemical composition of their extracts. Potential herbal remedies have shown positive results in animal models. It remains unclear how many make it into clinical trials and eventually making part of the AED list. More rigorous research, applying strict research methodology with uniform herbal combinations, as well as clinical studies are urgently needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Zhou, Huaying; Luo, Dehan; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Li, Zhong; He, Jiafeng
This paper provides a review of the most recent works in machine olfaction as applied to the identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs). Due to the wide variety of CHMs, the complexity of growing sources and the diverse specifications of herb components, the quality control of CHMs is a challenging issue. Much research has demonstrated that an electronic nose (E-nose) as an advanced machine olfaction system, can overcome this challenge through identification of the complex odors of CHMs. E-nose technology, with better usability, high sensitivity, real-time detection and non-destructive features has shown better performance in comparison with other analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although there has been immense development of E-nose techniques in other applications, there are limited reports on the application of E-noses for the quality control of CHMs. The aim of current study is to review practical implementation and advantages of E-noses for robust and effective odor identification of CHMs. It covers the use of E-nose technology to study the effects of growing regions, identification methods, production procedures and storage time on CHMs. Moreover, the challenges and applications of E-nose for CHM identification are investigated. Based on the advancement in E-nose technology, odor may become a new quantitative index for quality control of CHMs and drug discovery. It was also found that more research could be done in the area of odor standardization and odor reproduction for remote sensing.
Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Beuerle, Till
Herbal medicines have been used for centuries for the management and treatment of various ailments due to the belief that they pose only little or no health risk and side effects, and also, in part, due to their availability, affordability and/or self-supply. However, the increasing information over the recent years on the occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, herbal food and tea products has raised concerns about the safety of herbal medicines with respect to contamination. To this day, little is known on the occurrence of toxic PAs in herbal medicines, especially in tropical West Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the PA content of 70 well-known and widely patronized plant-derived medicinal preparations, which are commercialized in Ghana and some West African countries, in order to ascertain their potential health risk. PAs of the herbal medicinal products, sourced from specialized drugstores and mostly regulatory approved, were analyzed for their PA content by a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method. The results show that a total of 60% of the analyzed herbal products were PA positive, indicating an average PA-concentration of 25.0μg/kg. The maximum PA level (1290.0μg/kg) was attributed to a regulatory-approved herbal medicine not known, according to the list of declared ingredients, to contain PA-plant parts. Interestingly, higher PA content (average, 30.2μg/kg) was detected in regulatory-approved herbal medicines, in contrast to lower amount (average, 8.0μg/kg) detected in non-regulatory-approved products. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that herbal medicines containing PA plants as ingredients, as well as some of those containing plant species not known to produce PAs, are likely to contain hepatotoxic PA at levels higher than the daily dose in food and herbal medicinal products proposed by the European Medicines Agency (i.e. 0.35μg PA per day for 50kg adult and 0.14μg PA per day for 20kg children
Zhang, Wei; Sun, Qinglei; Liu, Jianhua
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for healing of different health problems for thousands of years. They have been used as therapeutic, complementary and alternative medicines. TCMs usually consist of dozens to hundreds of various compounds, which are extracted from raw...... herbal sources by aqueous or alcoholic solvents. Therefore, it is difficult to correlate the pharmaceutical effect to a specific lead compound in the TCMs. A detailed analysis of various components in TCMs has been a great challenge for modern analytical techniques in recent decades. In this chapter...
Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna
The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lisha J. John
Full Text Available The prevalence of the herbal medicines use is on the rise across the world, especially amongst pregnant women. The scenario in the Middle Eastern region was reviewed to explore the prevalence, usage pattern, motivation, and attitude towards use of herbal medicine by pregnant women. Literature published up to December 2012 showed the prevalence of herbal medicine use varied between 22.3–82.3%, implying a rising trend in the utilization of herbal medicine during pregnancy. The most common herbs used were peppermint, ginger, thyme, chamomile, sage, aniseed, fenugreek, and green tea. The most common reasons for use included the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and cold and flu symptoms. The majority of women used these products during their first trimester, and did not reveal this information to their physician. Most women were advised by family and friends to use herbal medicines and believed they were more effective and had fewer side effects than modern medicine especially during pregnancy. In conclusion, the use of herbal medicine is prevalent among pregnant women in the Middle Eastern region and healthcare providers need to seek information pertaining to their use.
Standardised Chinese herbal treatment delivered by GPs compared with individualised treatment administered by practitioners of Chinese herbal medicine for women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Flower, Andrew; Harman, Kim; Lewith, George; Moore, Michael; Bishop, Felicity L; Stuart, Beth; Lampert, Nicholas
In the UK, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection presented by women in primary care. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) are defined as three episodes of UTI in the last 12 months, or two episodes in the last 6 months. Between 20 and 30 % of women who have had one episode of UTI will have an RUTI, and approximately 25 % of these will develop subsequent recurrent episodes. RUTIs can have a significant negative effect on the quality of life, and have a high impact on health care costs as a result of outpatient visits, diagnostic tests and prescriptions. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a recorded history of treatments for the symptoms of UTIs for more than 2000 years. More recent clinical research in China has provided some preliminary evidence that CHM can alleviate the symptoms of UTIs and reduce the rate of recurrence, but more rigorous investigation is required. The RUTI trial is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, feasibility trial. A total of 80 women will be randomised to 'individualised' herbs prescribed by a Chinese herbal practitioner or to 'standardised' herbs provided by primary care clinicians. Both arms will have herbs for prevention of UTIs and treatment of acute episodes. Treatment duration is for 16 weeks. The primary outcomes are the number of episodes of recurrent UTIs during the trial period and in the 6 months of follow-up, and the number of days of symptoms rated moderately bad or worse based on patient diaries. Secondary outcomes will assess participant expectations and beliefs, adherence to the treatment, adverse events and health economics and provide quantitative and qualitative assessments of the impact of recurrent infections on the lives of women. The RUTI trial is the first instance of CHM delivered as a clinical trial of an investigatory medicinal product in the UK. This study provides important information regarding the feasibility and acceptability of researching and using
Yu, Bei-Bei; Gong, Xiu-Lin
With the current trend of globalization, unprecedented opportunities and enormous changes have emerged for the global development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, many old and new challenges and problems still remain, including partial or limited comprehension of acupuncture, oriental medicine and TCM, the existence of non-standardized institutes of TCM and acupuncture training schools, unqualified TCM practitioners, and problems concerning Chinese herbal medicine and inexperience in conducting TCM business. These problems will doubtlessly impede the further development of TCM worldwide in the foreseeable future. It is also clear that the globalization of TCM will require a large scale systematic project and constitute an arduous historical task. This paper aims to consolidate 6 strategic development modes to reinforce and facilitate the process of TCM globalization through a detailed analysis of both the present status and existing problems concerning the development of TCM in the United States.
Julia A Devonish
Full Text Available Worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and its related management costs have increased over time. The latest predictions anticipate this trend to continue during the next few decades. As individuals with T2DM in the United States (US are burdened with escalating prescription drug expenses, the appeal and use of cost effective alternatives may also increase. Herbal supplements are an example of such an alternative, but are unregulated and mostly lacking scientific evidence of advertised claims. In general, plant based herbal preparations are often advertised as ‘natural’, ‘less-toxic’, ‘medicines’ and are widely available from public retailers throughout the country. Over half of the US adult population report the use of supplements. Eastern countries, and especially China, have a long history of the use of herbal preparations as traditional medicine to prevent and treat diabetes. Recently the US has experienced a growth in the number imports of herbal supplements and other Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM to the country as well as the most rapid population growth in individuals who identify themselves as Asian. To date, little is known about the prevalence TCM use in the management of T2DM either alone or in combination with prescription medicines in the US. Knowledge of possible implications to patient safety (e.g., interactions, adverse effects with concurrent use of both TCM and prescription medicines is also lacking. This review begins with summaries of the T2DM management strategies employed in traditional modern medicine (TMM and Chinese medicine (TCM. A review of literature follows where the most commonly used TCM herbal preparations and their ingredients are identified and found along with any published reports of their proposed mechanisms of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and contraindications. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or
Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng
Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. Methods The study employed an inductive exploratory qua...
McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Wiener, Karl K; Sarris, Jerome
Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health condition in Australia. In addition, there are many people who experience problematic anxiety symptoms who do not receive an anxiety disorder diagnosis but require treatment. As herbal medicine use is popular in Australia, and little is known about how adults experiencing anxiety are using these medicines, this study aimed to identify how Australian adults who experience anxiety are using herbal medicines. An online cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using purposive convenience sampling to recruit Australian adults who have experienced anxiety symptoms and have used herbal medicines (N = 400). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test of contingency, analysis of variance, and simple logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Eighty two percent of participants experienced anxiety symptoms in the previous 12 months, with 47% reporting having previously been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In addition, 72.8% had used herbal medicines specifically for anxiety symptoms in their lifetime, while 55.3% had used prescribed pharmaceuticals, with 27.5% having used herbal medicines concurrently with prescribed pharmaceuticals. The Internet and family and friends were the most frequently used sources of information about herbal medicines. Forty eight percent of participants did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their doctor. Herbal medicines are being used by adults with anxiety and are commonly self-prescribed for anxiety symptoms. Health practitioners who are experts in herbal medicine prescribing are consulted infrequently. In addition, herbal medicine use is often not disclosed to health practitioners. These behaviours are concerning as people may not be receiving the most suitable treatments, and their use of herbal medicines may even be dangerous. It is critical we develop a better understanding of why people are using these medicines, and how we can develop improved health literacy
Full Text Available Like chemical drugs, research and development of herbal medicine also have a need to resolve enantiomers. To help illustrating the antiviral bioactivity of Isatidis Radix, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC was used for analytical and preparative separation of (R,S-goitrin, which was reported as the active ingredient of the herbal. Improved resolution was achieved on Chiralpak IC column, using acetonitrile as the organic modifier, representing a tenfold increase in speed, compared to the previous normal phase HPLC (NPLC method. The newly developed chromatographic method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantitation (LOQ. Scale-up purification of (R-goitrin and (S-goitrin was performed on a preparative column with >90% total recovery. The absolute stereochemical assignment of the purified isomers was determined through optical rotation study. This attempt explored SFC’s application in chiral research of traditional Chinese medicine.
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of Chinese herbal therapy on chronic tension-type headache. Method. 132 patients with chronic tension-type headache were enrolled in the study. All patients filled in headache questionnaire at baseline phase and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after baseline. As an alternative therapeutic method, the patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Therapeutic effects were evaluated during 12 weeks of followup. Result. In the primary outcome analysis, mean headache scores were significantly lower in the group. Scores fell by 25%–40% during 12 weeks of followup. Patients fared significantly well for most secondary outcome measures. From baseline to 4–12 weeks of followup, the number of days with headache decreased by 6.8–9.5 days. Duration of each attack also significantly (P < 0.05 shortened from 5.3 hours at 4 weeks to 4.9 hours after 8 weeks of followup. Days with medication per four weeks at followup were lower than those at the baseline. The differences were significant (P < 0.05, 0.01 for all end points. Days with medication fell by 56.6% at 12 weeks. Conclusion. The study has provided evidence that Chinese herbal therapy can be clinically useful for the treatment of chronic tension-type headache.
Zou Zhaohui; Zhao Junqi; Deng Gangqiao; Wang Qian; Li Wenge; Peng Ling; Luo Zhiping
One batch of Jinsuo pills, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine, treated by standardized irradiation process but failed to meet the sanitation requirement. Radiation resistant microbe was separated from the pills sample and the Gram stain showed positive, the colony of the microbe is milky white and concentric circle shape. It is observed as one of bacillus by microscope, its D 10 values in physiological saline and filter paper are 6.75 and 7.18 kGy, respectively. (authors)
Welz, Alexandra N; Emberger-Klein, Agnes; Menrad, Klaus
The use of herbal medicine, as one element of complementary and alternative medicine, is increasing worldwide. Little is known about the reasons for and factors associated with its use. This study derives insights for the use of herbal medicine in Germany regarding the usage aims, role played by the type of illness, reasons for preferred usage and sources of information. Using a qualitative methodological approach, six focus groups (n = 46) were conducted. Two groups with young, middle-aged and elderly participants, respectively. After audiotaping and verbatim transcription, the data were analysed with a qualitative content analysis. We found that treating illnesses was the most frequently discussed aim for using herbal medicine over all age groups. Preventing illnesses and promoting health were less frequently mentioned overall, but were important for elderly people. Discussions on herbal medicine were associated with either mild/moderate diseases or using herbal medicine as a starting treatment before applying conventional medicine. In this context, participants emphasized the limits of herbal medicine for severe illnesses. Dissatisfaction with conventional treatment, past good experiences, positive aspects associated with herbal medicine, as well as family traditions were the most commonly-mentioned reasons why herbal medicine was preferred as treatment. Concerning information sources, independent reading and family traditions were found to be equally or even more important than consulting medicinal experts. Although herbal medicine is used mostly for treating mild to moderate illnesses and participants were aware of its limits, the combination of self-medication, non-expert consultation and missing risk awareness of herbal medicine is potentially harmful. This is particularly relevant for elderly users as, even though they appeared to be more aware of health-related issues, they generally use more medicine compared to younger ones. In light of our finding
Yan, Jing; Wang, Yun; Luo, Si-Jun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
Interpreting the molecular interactions in Chinese herbal medicine will help to understand the molecular mechanisms of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and predict the new pharmacological effects of TCM. Yet, we still lack a method which could integrate the concerned pieces of parsed knowledge about TCM. To solve the problem, a new method named TCM grammar systems was proposed in the present article. The possibility to study the interactions of TCM at the molecular level using TCM grammar systems was explored using Herba Ephedrae Decoction (HED) as an example. A platform was established based on the formalism of TCM grammar systems. The related molecular network of Herba Ephedrae Decoction (HED) can be extracted automatically. The molecular network indicates that Beta2 adrenergic receptor, Glucocorticoid receptor and Interleukin12 are the relatively important targets for the anti-anaphylaxis asthma function of HED. Moreover, the anti-anaphylaxis asthma function of HED is also related with suppressing inflammation process. The results show the feasibility using TCM grammar systems to interpret the molecular mechanism of TCM. Although the results obtained depend on the database absolutely, recombination of existing knowledge in this method provides new insight for interpreting the molecular mechanism of TCM. TCM grammar systems could aid the interpretation of the molecular interactions in TCM to some extent. Moreover, it might be useful to predict the new pharmacological effects of TCM. The method is an in silico technology. In association with the experimental techniques, this method will play an important role in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TCM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wei Xun; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Xiao Tiqiao; Chen Min; Liu Lixiang; Luo Yuyu; Du Guohao; Xu Hongjie
The microscopic morphology of plant cells and their ergastic substances is an important standard for the identification of Chinese traditional medicine. The authors have developed a new method, X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) based on the microfocus X-ray tube, to explore microstructures of Chinese herbal medicine. The results indicate that XPCI is capable of distinguishing the structures commonly used in the identification. Non-destructive detection and high sensibility are counted among the major advantages of XPCI. The possibility of future applications of XPCI in the field of medicine identification is discussed. (authors)
Oltean, H.; Robbins, C.S.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.M.; Bombardier, C.; Gagnier, J.J.
BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines
Guo, Hui; Miao, Yanyan; Miao, mingsan
Dried Rehmanniae Radix has sweet taste, and its drug property is cold.It acts on heart, liver and kidney.It has the effect of clearing heat and cooling blood, nourishing yin and promoting fluid production.The active constituents of dried Rehmanniae Radix are mainly iridoid glycosides, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and so on.This article sorted and analyzed the application forms, efficacy, applicable symptomsh and the frequency of the use of single traditional Chinese medicine in the Chinese patent medicines containing dried Rehmanniae Radix in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia of 2015. This method provides a train of thought for the further study of the pharmacological constituents of dried Rehmanniae Radix, and supplements the pharmacodynamics of Chinese herbal medicine of dried Rehmanniae Radix. It also provides ideas for the improvement of dried Rehmanniae Radix prescription and the new usage of its old prescription.
Samuels, Noah; Ben-Arye, Eran; Maimon, Yair; Berger, Raanan
To identify the unmonitored use of herbal medicine by female patients with breast cancer, examining the impact of an integrative physician (IP) consultation on this practice. The files of 269 female patients with breast cancer following an IP consultation were surveyed retrospectively for use of herbal medicine for cancer-related goals. Expectations from the IP consultation and adherence to the IP-guided treatments were examined as well. Among the cohort, 111 (41.3%) reported using herbal medicine for cancer-related goals, unmonitored by their oncology healthcare professional. Factors predicting herbal medicine use were the adoption of dietary changes (odds ratio = 13.6, p herbal medicine than non-users (34.5 vs. 22.8%; p = 0.088), as were those who had consulted with a complementary/alternative medicine practitioner (54.9 vs. 20.8%; p = 0.005). The IP advised 17 patients (15.3%) to stop taking specific herbal products due to safety-related concerns; and 10 patients to take dietary supplements for relief of specific symptoms. Herbal medicine users were less likely than non-users to adhere to the IP-recommended treatment program (34.7 vs. 48.3%; p = 0.037). Unmonitored use of herbal medicine by patients with breast cancer is more frequent among those adopting dietary changes for cancer-related goals. Integrative physicians provide evidence-based guidance on the safe and effective use of herbal products, and reframe patient expectations from cancer-related goals to reducing symptoms and improving quality of life.
Chu, Shih-Meng; Shih, Wei-Tai; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chu, Yen-Hua
Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are commonly used in patients with hyperlipidemia in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Because hyperlipidemia and related disease are common issues worldwide, this study analyzed the prescription patterns and frequencies of CHPs for treating patients with hyperlipidemia in Taiwan. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become popular as a therapy for controlling symptoms in patients with hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to analyze the prescription patterns of TCM for patients with hyperlipidemia in Taiwan. The study population was recruited from a random-sampled cohort of 1,000,000 people from the National Health Insurance Research Database between 2003 and 2009. We identified 30,784 outpatient visits related with hyperlipidemia diagnosis and collected these medical records. Association rules of data mining were conducted to explore the co-prescription patterns for Chinese herbal products (CHPs). The most commonly prescribed herbal formula for hyperlipidemia treatment was Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang (16.1%), and Shan Zha (Crataegi fructus; 25.0%) was the most commonly prescribed single herb. The most commonly prescribed combination of an herbal formula and a single herb was Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang and Dan Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), and the most commonly prescribed combination of couplet herbs was Dan Shen and Shan Zha. Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang is the most frequently prescribed formula and is typically prescribed with Shan Zha, Dan Shen, and He Shou Wu for patients with hyperlipidemia. Clinical trials are warranted in future research to investigate the effects of the CHPs in terms of safety and efficacy and in particular to evaluate potential interactions with conventional treatments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Full Text Available Epidermal permeability barrier function plays a critical role in regulating cutaneous functions. Hence, researchers have been searching for effective and affordable regimens to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function. In addition to topical stratum corneum lipids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and liver X receptor ligands, herbal medicines have been proven to benefit epidermal permeability barrier function in both normal and diseased skin, including atopic dermatitis, glucocorticoid-induced skin damage, and UVB-damaged skin. The potential mechanisms by which herbal medicines improve the permeability barrier include stimulation of epidermal differentiation, lipid production, antimicrobial peptide expression, and antioxidation. Therefore, utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative approach to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function in order to prevent and/or treat skin disorders associated with permeability barrier abnormalities.
... lead’s effects on health. How to tell if herbal medicines or folk medicines contain lead You only can ... as high as 90%. Ghasard, an Indian folk medicine, has also been found to contain lead. It is a brown powder used as a tonic. Ba-baw-san is a Chinese herbal remedy that contains lead. It is used to ...
Sun Lizhe; Liu Hui; He Zhao; Wei Feng; Ma Xuanpeng
Objective: To observe the curative effect of interventional recanalization combined with chinese traditional medicine in treatment of fallopian tube obstruction. Methods: There were 200 cases in treatment group and 120 cases in control group. In the treatment group patients were given chinese herbal medicine after the intervention. In sixth month a follow up imaging was performed assessing the patency. The follow up also included the pregnancy rate 1 year later. Results: The patency rate was 83% in treatment group, and 81.5% in control group (P>0.05). Re-conjunction rate was 7.6% in the study group and 22% in control group (P<0.01). The pregnancy rate was 67% in study group and 42% in control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: With interventional recanalization combined with chinese traditional medicine, good curative effect obtained in treatment of fallopian tube obstructive infertility. Combined with Chinese traditional medicine, the post-procedure re-conjunction rate is decreased, especially in the case of short fallopian tube obstruction
Sammons, Helen M; Gubarev, Michael I; Krepkova, Lubov V; Bortnikova, Valentina V; Corrick, Fenella; Job, Kathleen M; Sherwin, Catherine Mt; Enioutina, Elena Y
Herbal medicines (HMs) have been well known to people of the European Union (EU) and Russia for centuries. Currently, Western HMs can be classified into two categories, plant-derived conventional medicines and dietary supplements. Interest to HMs has grown rapidly in all countries during the past two decades. The main goal of this review article is to present the history of HMs in the EU and Russia, forms of modern HMs, including Oriental Medicines that are popular among consumers of both countries. Additional discussion points comprise safety and adulteration issues associated with HMs, including regulatory changes and new legislative measures undertaken by the authorities. Materials available from legislative and governmental websites, PubMed and news media were used. Expert commentary: Due to cultural diversities in the EU and Russia, traditional HMs of other regions, particularly Chinese Traditional and Ayurvedic medicines, are also popular. Recently, dietary supplements containing multiple herbal and other natural products have flooded the EU and Russian markets. Pharmacovigilance in these markets is challenging in terms of establishing quality and safety of ingredients, determining efficacy, and defining risks of herb-herb and herb-drug interactions. Both the EU and Russia have introduced new legislation aimed to overcome these deficiencies.
Herbal remedies and dietary supplements have become an important area of research and clinical practice in orthopaedics and rheumatology. Understanding the risks and benefits of using herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatic diseases, and musculoskeletal complaints is a key priority of physicians and their patients. This review discusses the latest advances in the use of herbal medicines for treating osteoarthritis (OA) by focusing on the most significant trends and developments. This paper sets the scene by providing a brief introduction to ethnopharmacology, Ayurvedic medicine, and nutrigenomics before discussing the scientific and mechanistic rationale for targeting inflammatory signalling pathways in OA by use of herbal medicines. Special attention is drawn to the conceptual and practical difficulties associated with translating data from in-vitro experiments to in-vivo studies. Issues relating to the low bioavailability of active ingredients in herbal medicines are discussed, as also is the need for large-scale, randomized clinical trials.
Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.
Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W.; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified
Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…
Wang, Yu-Guang; Jin, Rui; Kong, Xiang-Wen; Zhang, Bing
The efficacy and safety of application of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) during the pregnancy is a hotspot among scholars. However, the traditional pregnancy contraindication content has certain historical limitations, and cannot meet the needs of the current pregnant women for rational drug use. We need to refine and interpret it with modern medical science. In this paper, we summarized the ancient and modern knowledge about pregnancy contradiction and tried to establish a grading safety system, based on the actual clinical practices and thte medication grading concept of western medicines. Specifically speaking, in this paper, we compared the connotations of forbidden/contradiction and cautious use, and focused on the safe herbs that included in the prescriptions for dietary therapy. Meanwhile, in this paper, we summarized the core content of the famous theories of ″You Gu Wu Yun (pregnancy disease)″ and ″Shuai Qi Da Ban Er Zhi (therapy during pregnancy)″, and studied the dangerous and unknown risk of TCMs during pregnancy. At last, a five-grade safety system of TCMs applied on the pregnant women was established, including forbidden, contraindicated, cautious, uncertain and available medicines. We classified medicines with the embryotoxicity (e.g. teratogenic, mutagenic, ageneisa), the traditional toxicity (e.g. abortion), the fierce herbal property (e.g. removing blood stasis, promoting Qi circulation) and reliable edible medicinal herbs. We also place an ″uncertain″ category based on objective reality. Meanwhile, 33 sample TCMs were preliminarily determined. This paper proposed the preference and ideas for the rational herbal use in pregnancy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the most recent works in machine olfaction as applied to the identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs. Due to the wide variety of CHMs, the complexity of growing sources and the diverse specifications of herb components, the quality control of CHMs is a challenging issue. Much research has demonstrated that an electronic nose (E-nose as an advanced machine olfaction system, can overcome this challenge through identification of the complex odors of CHMs. E-nose technology, with better usability, high sensitivity, real-time detection and non-destructive features has shown better performance in comparison with other analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Although there has been immense development of E-nose techniques in other applications, there are limited reports on the application of E-noses for the quality control of CHMs. The aim of current study is to review practical implementation and advantages of E-noses for robust and effective odor identification of CHMs. It covers the use of E-nose technology to study the effects of growing regions, identification methods, production procedures and storage time on CHMs. Moreover, the challenges and applications of E-nose for CHM identification are investigated. Based on the advancement in E-nose technology, odor may become a new quantitative index for quality control of CHMs and drug discovery. It was also found that more research could be done in the area of odor standardization and odor reproduction for remote sensing.
Lian, Xiao-Xiao; Guo, Xiao-Xia
To investigate the herbal prescription rules of Professor Jiang Liangduo in the treatment of abdominal mass based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system software (TCMISS) of version 2.5, find out new herbal formulas for the treatment of abdominal mass, and then provide new reference to its traditional Chinese medicine therapy. By the method of retrospective study, one hundred and thirty-two outpatient prescriptions of Professor Jiang for the treatment of abdominal mass were collected to establish a typical database with TCMISS. Four properties, five tastes, channel tropism, frequency count, Chinese herbal prescriptions rules and the new prescriptions were analyzed so as to dig out the prescription rules. There were 57 herbs with a frequency>=15, and then 91 core combinations of 2-5 herbs were evolved and 9 new prescriptions were created. It was found out that these drugs mainly had the effects of liver nourishing and soothing, soft-moist and dredging-tonifying, supporting right and dispeling evil, cooperating with the method of calming the liver and resolving hard lump according to the actual situation. It reflected the thought of treatment based on syndrome differentiation in TCM, and provided a new reference for its clinical treatment and research. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Shrestha Keshab P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest
Ning, Zhangchi; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhao, Siyu; Liu, Baoqin; Xu, Xuegong; Liu, Yuanyan
The curative effects of traditional Chinese medicines are principally based on the synergic effect of their multi-targeting, multi-ingredient preparations, in contrast to modern pharmacology and drug development that often focus on a single chemical entity. Therefore, the method employing a few markers or pharmacologically active constituents to assess the quality and authenticity of the complex preparations has a number of severe challenges. Metabonomics can provide an effective platform for complex sample analysis. It is also reported to be applied to the quality analysis of the traditional Chinese medicine. Metabonomics enables comprehensive assessment of complex traditional Chinese medicines or herbal remedies and sample classification of diverse biological statuses, origins, or qualities in samples, by means of chemometrics. Identification, processing, and pharmaceutical preparation are the main procedures in the large-scale production of Chinese medicinal preparations. Through complete scans, plants metabonomics addresses some of the shortfalls of single analyses and presents a considerable potential to become a sharp tool for traditional Chinese medicine quality assessment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Liang, Lan; He, Qing; Chen, Zhenqiang; Zhu, Siqi
Since the spectral imaging technology emerged, it has gained a lot of application achievements in the military field, precision agriculture and biomedical science. When the fluorescence spectrum imaging first applied to the detection of the feature resource of Chinese herbal medicine, the characteristics of holistic and ambiguity made it a new approach to the traditional Chinese medicine testing. In this paper, we applied this method to study the Chinese medicine north and south isatis root granules by comparing their fluorescence spectra. Using cluster analysis, the results showed that the north and south Banlangen can not be divided by ascription. And these indicate that there is a large difference in the quality of Banlangen granules on the market, and fluorescence spectrum imaging method can be used in monitoring the quality of radix isatidis granules.
Kang, Hong; Tang, Kailin; Liu, Qi; Sun, Yi; Huang, Qi; Zhu, Ruixin; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Duanfeng; Huang, Chenggang; Cao, Zhiwei
Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients' metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski's Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients' targets databases). A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/.
Full Text Available We conducted a National Health Insurance Research Database-based Taiwanese nationwide population-based cohort study to evaluate whether Chinese herbal medicine (CHM treatment decreased the incidence of chronic hepatitis in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. A total of 81171 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer within the defined study period. After randomly equal matching, data from 13856 patients were analyzed. Hazard ratios of incidence rate of chronic hepatitis were used to determine the influence and therapeutic potential of CHM in patients with breast cancer. The patients with breast cancer receiving CHM treatment exhibited a significantly decreased incidence rate of chronic hepatitis even across the stratification of age, CCI score, and treatments. The cumulative incidence of chronic hepatitis for a period of seven years after initial breast cancer diagnosis was also reduced in the patients receiving CHM treatment. The ten most commonly used single herbs and formulas were effective in protecting liver function in patients with breast cancer, where Hedyotis diffusa and Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San were the most commonly used herbal agents. In conclusion, our study provided information that western medicine therapy combined with CHM as an adjuvant modality may have a significant impact on liver protection in patients with breast cancer.
Jong Hun Lee
Full Text Available Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS, and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(PH:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT, and glutathione S-transferase (GST. Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs. The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM. In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer.
Gagnier, Joel J; Oltean, Hanna; van Tulder, Maurits W; Berman, Brian M; Bombardier, Claire; Robbins, Christopher B
Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Many people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. We searched numerous electronic databases up to September 2014; checked reference lists in review articles, guidelines and retrieved trials; and personally contacted individuals with expertise in this area. We included RCTs examining adults (over 18 years of age) suffering from acute, sub-acute, or chronic nonspecific LBP. The interventions were herbal medicines that we defined as plants used for medicinal purposes in any form. Primary outcome measures were pain and function. Two review authors assessed risk of bias, GRADE criteria (GRADE 2004), and CONSORT compliance and a random subset were compared with assessments by a third individual. Two review authors assessed clinical relevance and resolved any disagreements by consensus. Fourteen RCTs (2050 participants) were included. Capsicum frutescens (cayenne) reduces pain more than placebo. Although Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Salix alba (white willow bark), Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), Solidago chilensis (Brazilian arnica), and lavender essential oil also seem to reduce pain more than placebo, evidence for these substances was of moderate quality at best. No significant adverse events were noted within the included trials. Additional well-designed large trials are needed to test these herbal medicines against standard treatments. In general, the completeness of reporting in these trials was poor. Trialists should refer to the CONSORT statement extension for reporting trials of herbal medicine interventions. N/A.
Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J
To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.
Zhu, Chun-Sheng; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Xiao, Ming-Liang; Niu, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Bing
Since the chromatographic fingerprint was introduced, it has been accepted by many countries to assess the quality and authenticity of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). However, solely using the chromatographic fingerprint to assay numerous chemicals is not suitable for the assessment of the whole internal quality and pharmacodynamics of CHM. Consequently, it is necessary to develop a rational approach to connecting the chromatographic fingerprint with effective components to assess the internal quality of CHM. For this purpose, a spectrum-effect relationship theory was proposed and accepted as a new method for the assessment of CHM because of its potential use to screen effective components from CHM. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the application of the spectrum-effect relationship theory in the research of CHM, including research mentality, different chromatographic analysis techniques, data processing technologies, and structure determination. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lung Cheng Chuen
Full Text Available Abstract Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components have not been fully elucidated or easily monitored. Bioactive, characteristic, main, synergistic, correlative, toxic and general components may be selected. This article reviews the effective use of chemical markers in the quality control of herbal medicines including the selection criteria considering the roles and physicochemical factors which may affect the effective use of chemical markers.
Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa
Leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. It is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. It is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. Leucorrhea is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In their manuscripts, the word "Sayalan-e rahem" was used by Avicenna and some other Iranian traditional practitioners to describe this condition. Ancient practitioners believed that excessive residue (kesrate fozool) and weakness of digestion (Za'afe hazm) were the main causes of leucorrhea, for which herbal therapy was the main proposed treatment. In the present study, medicinal plants used in ITM for leucorrhea are introduced. In this research, six Iranian traditional textbooks including Canon of Medicine (Avicena 980-1037 AD), A-Hawi (Razes 865-925 AD), Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo'men tonekaboni, 17th century), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili 18th century), Ikhtiarat Badi'i (Ansari 1329-1404 AD), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiy (Ibn al-Baitar 1197 AD) were studied and searched for anti-leucorrhea medicines. Then the herbal medicines were selected and scored depending on their frequency in the above-mentioned textbooks. Additional attention was paid to provide the most suitable scientific name for each plant. This study introduced many Materia Medica with anti-leucorrhea activity and among them seven herbs including Rubus fruticosus L., Rhus coriaria L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rumex acetosa L., Olea europaea L. and Quercus lusitanica Lam. showed the most repetition in ITM prescriptions. These herbs can be introduced as new anti-leucorrhea herbal medicines for clinical research.
Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Xia-Wei; Chen, Shuang; Shan, Chun-Shuo; Xu, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Jia-Zhen; Bao, Xiao-Yi; Lin, Yan; Zheng, Guo-Qing; Wang, Yan
Currently, there is lack of cure or disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is purported to ameliorate AD progression, perhaps by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we conducted an updated systematic review to investigate the efficacy and safety of CHM for AD based on high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reviewed its possible mechanisms of neurogenesis according to animal-based researches. Twenty eligible studies with 1767 subjects were identified in eight database searches from inception to February 2017. The studies investigated the CHM versus placebo (n=3), CHM versus donepezil (n=9 with 10 comparisons), CHM plus donepezil versus donepezil (n=3), CHM versus a basic treatment (n=3), and CHM plus basic treatment versus basic treatment (n=2). Adverse events were reported in 11 studies, analyzed but not observed in 3 studies, and not analyzed in 6 studies. The main findings of present study are that CHM as adjuvant therapy exerted an additive anti-AD benefit, whereas the efficacy of CHM as a monotherapy was inconclusive. Additionally, CHMs were generally safe and well tolerated in AD patients. Active molecules in frequent constituents of CHMs can alter multiple critical signaling pathways regulating neurogenesis. Thus, the present evidence supports, to a limited extent, the conclusion that CHM can be recommended for routine use in AD patients and its possible mechanism enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis through activating the multi-signal pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adisa Rasaq; Fakeye Titilayo O; Musa Ismail E
Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. De...
Background: Traditional, complimentary and alternative medicines (TCAMS) are increasingly being promoted by various Sub-Saharan African governments as a promising health resource in the control and amelioration of HIV/AIDS. The accessibility and cultural acceptability of both herbal medicines and faith healing and ...
Zhang, Peng; Li, Xi-Wen; Dong, Lin-Lin; Chen, Shi-Lin
The issues including excessive pesticide residues and heavy metal contamination have become the bottle-neck in the development of Chinese herbal medicines. Compared with traditional chemical pesticides, biological pesticides, especially botanical pesticides, are more safe and environment-friendly, which were beneficial to the quality improvement Chinese medicinal materials. Though there exists a weak basic research and it is hard for promotion and regulation, the policy of good and the desire for botanical pesticides will accelerate its development, and replace traditional chemical pesticides gradually. This paper reviews the current situation of botanical pesticides, and gives some pertinence suggestions according to the existing problems and challenges. Research on botanical pesticides will become the key point to solve the problem of excessive pesticides residues and heavy metal contamination, and promote the healthy development of Chinese materia medica. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Yan; Shi, Ting-Ting; Wang, Hui; Li, Meng; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi
With the development of computer and image processing technology, image recognition technology has been applied to the national medicine resources census work at all stages.Among them: ①In the preparatory work, in order to establish a unified library of traditional Chinese medicine resources, using text recognition technology based on paper materials, be the assistant in the digitalization of various categories related to Chinese medicine resources; to determine the representative area and plots of the survey from each census team, based on the satellite remote sensing image and vegetation map and other basic data, using remote sensing image classification and other technical methods to assist in determining the key investigation area. ②In the process of field investigation, to obtain the planting area of Chinese herbal medicine was accurately, we use the decision tree model, spectral feature and object-oriented method were used to assist the regional identification and area estimation of Chinese medicinal materials.③In the process of finishing in the industry, in order to be able to relatively accurately determine the type of Chinese medicine resources in the region, based on the individual photos of the plant, the specimens and the name of the use of image recognition techniques, to assist the statistical summary of the types of traditional Chinese medicine resources. ④In the application of the results of transformation, based on the pharmaceutical resources and individual samples of medicinal herbs, the development of Chinese medicine resources to identify APP and authentic herbs 3D display system, assisted the identification of Chinese medicine resources and herbs identification characteristics. The introduction of image recognition technology in the census of Chinese medicine resources, assisting census personnel to carry out related work, not only can reduce the workload of the artificial, improve work efficiency, but also improve the census results
Liao, Xing; Robinson, Nicola
Evidence based medicine demands the highest form of scientific evidence to demonstrate the efficacy and clinical effectiveness for any therapeutic intervention in order to provide best care. It is however accepted that in the absence of scientific evidence, personal experience and expert opinion together with professional judgement are critical. Obtaining evidence for drug safety, postmarketing surveillance (PMS) has focussed on follow up of observational cohorts exposed to a particular drug in order to estimate the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Evidence on PMS of Chinese herbal products is still limited, in particular for herbal injections. The aim of this article is to suggest a new model of ascertaining the safety of Chinese medicine using a more comprehensive approach for collecting data. To collect safety data on the Chinese herbal injection, Kudiezi, a mixed methods approach is proposed using 18 hospital information systems to detect ADRs in order to prospectively observe 30,000 patients over 3 years. Evidence will also be collected using a questionnaire survey and through a sample of semi structured interviews. This information based on the expert opinion and the experience of clinicians will produce additional data on the frequency and types of side effects in clinical practice. Furthermore semi structured interviews with a random sample of patients receiving the injection will be carried out to ascertain any potential side effects missed. It is hoped that this comprehensive approach to data collection will accumulate wider evidence based on individual traditional Chinese medicine care and treatment and provide important feedback to the national data collection system to ensure completeness of ADR data recording, monitoring and any potential wider effects through developing improved ADR guidelines.
Background: Herbal medicine use in children , adults and other groups have been documented but little information is known about the use herbal medicine mixtures in neonates and infants less than six months old. This is important because pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics changes between infants and adults ...
Full Text Available Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM. This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications.
Full Text Available Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN- induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation.
Wang, Yu-guang; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jin, Rui; Li, Hong-yan; Kong, Xiang-wen; Qiao, Yan-jiang
Chinese patent orthopedic medicines feature complex components, mainly including desperate and toxic herbal pieces, narrow safety window, more clinical contraindications and frequent adverse drug reaction/events (ADR/ADE). To study the general safe medication regularity of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines, define key points in the medication education and ensure rational clinical medication, the authors took 80 types of commonly used Chinese patent orthopedic medicines as the study objects, collect 237 cases from 164 ADR/ADE documents through a system retrieval strategy, make a multidimensional literature analysis to determine the common risk factors for safe and rational medication of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines and establish an ADR/ADE prevention regularity. First, in the aspect of clinical symptoms, skin allergy is the most common ADR/ADE and closely related to the toxic ingredients, particularly accumulated liver or kidney damage caused by some drugs. Second, there are three time nodes in the ADR/ADE occurrence; The ADR/ADE occurred in 30 minutes is closely related to the idiosyncrasy; the ADR/ADE occurred between several months and half a year is related to the drug-induced liver and kidney damages; The most common ADR/ADE was observed within 7 days and predictable according to the pharmacological actions; Third, toxicity is an important factor in the occurrence of ADR/ADE of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines. Fourth, emphasis shall be given to the special medication factors, such as the combination with western medicines and Chinese herbal decoctions, overdose and long-course medication and self-medical therapy. In conclusion, the general ADR/ADE prevention regularity for Chinese patent orthopedic medicines was summarized to provide supports for clinicians in safe and rational medication and give the guidance for pharmacist in medication education.
Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Molecular-targeted therapy has been developed for cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Cancer cells have different metabolic properties from normal cells. Normal cells mostly rely upon the process of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to produce energy whereas cancer cells have developed an altered metabolism that allows them to sustain higher proliferation rates. Cancer cells could predominantly produce energy by glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen. This alternative metabolic characteristic is known as the “Warburg Effect.” Although the exact mechanisms underlying the Warburg effect are unclear, recent progress indicates that glycolytic pathway of cancer cells could be a critical target for drug discovery. With a long history in cancer treatment, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is recognized as a valuable source for seeking bioactive anticancer compounds. A great progress has been made to identify active compounds from herbal medicine targeting on glycolysis for cancer treatment. Herein, we provide an overall picture of the current understanding of the molecular targets in the cancer glycolytic pathway and reviewed active compounds from Chinese herbal medicine with the potentials to inhibit the metabolic targets for cancer treatment. Combination of TCM with conventional therapies will provide an attractive strategy for improving clinical outcome in cancer treatment.
Weng, Shu-Wen; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Liu, Chun-Kai; Chang, Ching-Mao
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4%) patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (N = 11,609; 57.8%) of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn's disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted. PMID:27822287
Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Li, Te-Mao; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Jung-Chun; Lin, Chih-Chien; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Ying-Ju
Due to the development of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV/AIDS is now regarded as a treatable chronic disease. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is a type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that has been widely applied in the healthcare system in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of use and patterns of prescription for the CHM-based treatment of HIV-infected patients and to assess the long-term effects of CHM on hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease events in these patients. We identified 21,846 HIV-infected patients (ICD-9-CM: 042-044, 079, and V08 codes). Of these, 1083 and 2166 patients who used CHM and were non-users, respectively, were matched for age, gender, and ART use before CHM. The chi-squared test, Cox proportional hazard model, Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test were used for comparisons between these two groups. CHM users had a lower risk of hyperlipidemia compared with non-users after adjusting for comorbidities by using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model (P = 0.0011; HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.52-0.85). In addition, the CHM users had a lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with non-users after adjusting for comorbidities (P = 0.0004; HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.53-0.83). The 10-year cumulative incidences of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease were lower in the CHM group (P herbs. A CHM network analysis showed that JG was the core CHM in one cluster, and BM, MXSGT, and HQin were important CHMs in that cluster. In the other cluster, YHS was the core CHM, and SYGCT and JWXYS were important CHMs. CHM as adjunctive therapy may reduce hyperlipidemia and the risk for cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. The list of the comprehensive herbal medicines that the patients used might be useful in further scientific investigations or therapeutic interventions for preventing atherosclerosis among HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The potential for pharmaceuticals to produce side effects and drug interactions is well known to medical practitioners and the lay public alike. However, the potential for alternative medicines to produce such effects is less widely known. We describe a potentially dangerous interaction between a herbal medicine and concomitant selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) ingestion.
The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida as Add-On Medication in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Ineffectively Managed by Metformin Monotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial
Lian, Fengmei; Tian, Jiaxing; Chen, Xinyan; Li, Zhibin; Piao, Chunli; Guo, Junjie; Ma, Licheng; Zhao, Lijuan; Xia, Chengdong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tong, Xiaolin
Background Metformin plays an important role in diabetes treatment. Studies have shown that the combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications is more effective than metformin monotherapy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, we evaluated whether Jinlida, a Chinese herbal medicine, enhances the glycemic control of metformin in type 2 diabetes patients whose HbA1c was ineffectively controlled with metformin alone. Methods A total of 186 diabetes patients were...
Liu, Lan-Ying; Feng, Bin; Chen, Jiong; Tan, Qing-Rong; Chen, Zheng-Xin; Chen, Wen-Song; Wang, Pei-Rong; Zhang, Zhang-Jin
Herbal medicine is increasingly used in depressed patients. The purpose of this retrospective controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine treatment of severe depressive episode. A total of 146 severely depressed subjects were selected from patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychosomatics of Tongde Hospital at Hangzhou, China between 1st September 2009 and 30th November 2013. While all were medicated with psychotropic drugs, 78 received additional individualized herbal medicine. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured using 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-24) at admission and thereafter once weekly during hospital stay. The proportion of patients achieving clinical response and remission and incidence of adverse events were compared. The two groups had similar average length of hospital stay for approximately 28 days and were not different in the use of psychotropic medications. Survival analysis revealed that patients with herbal medicine had significantly higher chance of achieving clinical response [relative risk (RR)=2.179, Pherbal medicine. Patients with herbal medicine experienced remarkably fewer incidences of physical tiredness, headache, palpitation, dry mouth and constipation, but had a significantly higher incidence of digestive discomfort compared to patients without herbal medicine. These results indicate that additional treatment with individualized herbal medicine enhances antidepressant response and reduces certain side effects associated with psychotropic medications. Herbal medicine is an effective and relatively safe therapy for severe depressive episode (Trial Registration: ChiCTR-OCH-13003864). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sun, Wei; Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Shi-Lin
The substitution of low-cost or adulterated herbal products for high-priced herbs makes it important to be able to identify and trace herbal plant species and their processed products in the drug supply chain. PCR-based methods play an increasing role in monitoring the safety of herbal medicines by detecting adulteration. Recent studies have shown the potential of DNA barcoding combined with high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis in herbal medicine identification. This method involves precisely monitoring the change in fluorescence caused by the release of an intercalating DNA dye from a DNA duplex as it is denatured by a gradual increase in temperature. Since the melting profile depends on the GC content, length, and strand complementarity of the amplification product, Bar-HRM analysis opens up the possibility of detecting single-base variants or species-specific differences in a short region of DNA. This review summarizes key factors affecting Bar-HRM analysis and describes how Bar-HRM is performed. We then discuss advances in Bar-HRM analysis of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution toward safe and effective herbal medicines.
Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Bojović, Srđan; Stefanović, Milena; Vidaković, Vera
Ethnobotanical knowledge and traditional medicinal practices from different parts of the world are of global importance and documentation of ethnobotanical, and ethnopharmacological data is a key prerequisite for further research in the area of herbal medicine and its implementation in clinical practice. An attempt was made to evaluate the scientific output of research related to ethnobotany and herbal medicine in journals indexed in the subject area "Integrative and Complementary Medicine" in the period 2001-2013, in order to ascertain research trends in both subdisciplines. All articles related to ethnobotany and herbal medicine, extracted from journals included in the field of I&C Medicine and published in the period 2001-2013, have been analyzed for general bibliometric data, and specific data: ethnobotanical data (geographic, floristic, pharmacological, sociological and other relevant data) and phytotherapeutic data (type of applied herbal medicine, plant species studied, pharmacological activity of studied plant species and disease and disorder type studied on a particular model). In the studied period, the number of articles dealing with ethnobotany and herbal medicine increased 6.3-fold. Articles related to ethnobotanical studies documented medicinal flora from 81 countries, either giving an overview of overall medicinal flora, or presenting the ethnomedicinal aspect of the use of plants for the treatment of ailments typical to the studied area. Additionally, the authors provided significant information on the methods of use and herbal preparations. In herbal medicine studies, plants, traditional plant remedies, herbal medicinal products and active herbal compounds were tested for many of pharmacological activities (146), with the curative activity emerging as most frequently tested. Out of 39 model systems, most of the studies were carried out under controlled in vitro conditions (4589 articles), followed by rat in vivo (2320), human in vivo (1285), mouse
Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.
In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality
Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.
In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality
Kaltsum, U., E-mail: email@example.com [Physics Education Department, IKIP PGRI Semarang (Indonesia); Triyana, K., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Siswanta, D., E-mail: email@example.com [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)
In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality
Conclusion: Institutions from China still plays a major role in TCM-focused T2DM studies. The effect of TCM herbs on insulin resistance is the hot topic of the domain. Developing new TCM herbal medicine that regulates incretin effect is the domain frontier. Research on the Chinese medicines treatment of T2DM needs more high-quality evidence to support, and its mechanism requires further exploration.
Fang Xingwang; Wu Jilan
The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by γ-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by γ irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by γ-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb
Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151
Kroes, Burt H
In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply
Wang, Yifei; Jin, Fujun; Wang, Qiaoli; Suo, Zucai
Abstract Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) has been used in Chinese society for more than 5,000 years to treat diseases from inflammation to cancer. Here, we report the case of nine living AIDS patients in the age range of 51 to 67 who were treated with either a unique formula of TCM alone from 2001 to 2009 or the TCM from 2001 to 2006 and then switched to occasional antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly, the viral loads of eight patients were at undetectable levels on June 28, 2016, w...
Martena, M.J.; Wielen, van der J.C.A.; Rietjens, I.; Klerx, W.N.M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.
Traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and other Asian traditional medicine systems may contain significant amounts of mercury, arsenic or lead. Though deliberately incorporated in Asian traditional herbal preparations for
Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita
In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…
Fu, Yao; Yang, Jin-Chao; Cunningham, Anthony B; Towns, Alexandra Maria; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Hua-Ying; Li, Jian-Wen; Yang, Xue-Fei
Herbal teas have long been consumed by Chinese people for preventive and/or therapeutic healthcare. Although herbal teas are widely consumed by many cultural groups in different regions of China, no thorough review has been undertaken to assess the diversity of the country's herbal tea usage. This literature review, complemented by a quantitative survey in an important tea market in Kunming, begins to fill this knowledge gap. The study aims to summarize the current knowledge of plant species used as herbal teas by different cultural groups in different regions of China, with a focus on the teas' perceived traditional healthcare functions, related phytochemical/pharmaceutical research, and safety issues. The study involved a comprehensive literature review and a market survey. The literature review was based on published ethnobotanical studies of herbal teas in China. We searched the Web of Science™, ELSEVIER, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the China Science and Technology Journal Database to locate relevant studies (including journal articles, Masters/PhD dissertations and books) that were published before March 2017. A species list was compiled based on the review and supplemented with information retrieved from the Scifinder database (https://scifinder.cas.org) and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010). A Use Value Index was employed for ranking the most cited species. Based on the 29 most cited species, we discussed the current research status in relation to healthcare benefits and safety concerns of herbal teas in China. To better understand the current status of the herbal tea market in China, we also surveyed 136 tea vendors at the Xiongda Tea Market in Kunming. Information gathered from the survey included the species sold, the sale prices and the form of the herbal tea product. The literature identified 759 plant species used as herbal tea in China and the market survey identified an additional 23 species. Most of the species used were
... in the treatment of atrophic gastritis (AG) in China and other Far Eastern countries. ... However, the H. pylori eradication effect of CHD was not supported by the ... Keywords: atrophic gastritis; Helicobacter pylori; Chinese herbal decoction; ...
Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda Brandon J. Auerbach1,2*, Steven J. Reynolds3,4, Mohammed...Background: Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known...about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai
Hilmy, N; Suryasaputra, C [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre
Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 8/ per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10/sup 5/ per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10/sup 3/ per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast.
Hilmy, Nazly; Suryasaputra, C.
Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10 4 and 10 8 per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10 5 per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10 3 per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast. (author)
Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which is related to many cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases, especially stroke. It can therefore increase cardiovascular mortality and all-cause death. The current treatments of AF remain to be western drugs and radiofrequency ablation which are limited by the tolerance of patients, adverse side effects, and high recurrence rate, especially for the elderly. On the contrary, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM with long history of use involves various treatment methods, including Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs or bioactive ingredients, Chinese patent medicines, acupuncture, Qigong, and Tai Chi Chuan. With more and more researches reported, the active roles of TCM in AF management have been discovered. Then it is likely that TCM would be effective preventive means and valuable additional remedy for AF. The potential mechanisms further found by numerous experimental studies showed the distinct characteristics of TCM. Some CHMs or bioactive ingredients are atrial-selective, while others are multichannel and multifunctional. Therefore, in this review we summarized the treatment strategies reported in TCM, with the purpose of providing novel ideas and directions for AF management.
Zhu, Shibai; Song, Yi; Chen, Xi; Qian, Wenwei
Chinese herbal medicine has traditionally been considered to promote blood circulation to remove obstruction in the channels and clear pathogenic heat to drain dampness effects. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate its benefits for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after lower extremity orthopedic surgery. Relevant, published studies were identified using the following keywords: lower extremity orthopedic surgery, arthroplasty, joint replacement, fracture, traditional Chinese and western medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and Venous thromboembolism (VTE). The following databases were used to identify the literature consisting of RCTs with a date of search of 31 May 2017: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of knowledge, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chongqing VIP Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, and the Wanfang Database (including three English and four Chinese databases). All relevant data were collected from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The outcome variables were the incidence rate of DVT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and D-dimer; subcutaneous hematoma; and other reported outcomes. RevMan5.2. software was adopted for the meta-analysis. A total of 20 published studies (1862 cases) met the inclusion criteria. The experimental group, 910 patients (48.87%), received the Chinese herbal medicine or traditional Chinese and western medicine for prevention of DVT; the control group, 952 patients (51.13%), received the standard western treatment. The meta-analysis showed that traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy reduced the incidence rates of DVT significantly when compared with controls (risk ratio [RR] = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.54; P < 0.00001), and the D-dimer was lower in the experimental group (P = 0.01). Besides, the incidence rate of subcutaneous hematoma was lower in the experimental group (P < 0
Hirshler, Yafit; Doron, Ravid
Traditional herbal medicine can offer efficacious and safe alternative pharmacotherapies for depression. The ability of an herbal medicine to produce neuroadaptive processes, that enhance neuroplasticity and cellular resilience in response to chronic stress, may point to its antidepressant potential. We suggest that among many investigated herbal medicines, those that can enhance neuroplasticity may have stronger therapeutic potential. The current article presents a summary of traditional herbal medicines, which are thought to exert antidepressant-like effects in chronic stress models via neuroplasticity enhancement. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a biomarker for neuroplasticity-related mechanisms compromised in depression and recovered by conventional antidepressants, including synaptic plasticity, cell survival, neurogenesis and spine formation. We therefore presumed that if an herbal medicine up-regulates BDNF in the hippocampus and/or prefrontal cortex (PFC), its antidepressant-like effect is mediated, at least partially, via neuroplasticity-related mechanisms. Literature search was performed using the general terms depression, stress, neuroplasticity and herbal medicines. Screening of retrieved preclinical studies revealed 30 traditional herbal medicines: 8 single herbs, 15 bioactive constituents, and 7 herbal formulas. The antidepressant-like effects of these medicines were associated with reversal of chronic stress-induced impairment in neuroplasticity, most notably by BDNF up-regulation, activation of BDNF downstream signaling pathways and increase in neurogenesis in the hippocampus and/or PFC/frontal cortex. In light of the ability of these medicines to enhance neuroplasticity, we suggest that they may be suitable candidates for clinical investigation in depressed individuals. Once their efficacy, tolerability and safety will be substantiated, they may serve as natural alternatives to conventional antidepressants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B
Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.
Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964
Full Text Available Acute coronary syndrome, stroke and other ischemic events continue to be the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, and their incidence is rapidly increasing in the developing nations. These cardiovascular disorders clinically manifest as acute atherothrombotic events. Application of oral antiplatelet drugs is a milestone in the therapy of cardiovascular diseases. However, the limited efficacy of these drugs in the setting of arterial thrombosis, their unfavorable side effects, cost-to-benefit issues and the drug resistance phenomenon substantiate the need for the development of new and more efficacious antithrombotic drugs. In recent years, with the progress in the study of the Chinese medicine pharmacology, many Chinese herbs and formulas, as well as active constituents have been reported to possess not only effects on platelet aggregation and activation but also beneficial roles in vascular functions. Compared with currently used antithrombotic agents, herb remedies exert antithrombotic effects in a multi-pathway and multi-target manner. This paper will cover the progress in research on the ameliorating effects of herbal remedies on thrombosis, with focusing on their protection of vascular endothelial cells and inhibition of platelet activation.
Full Text Available A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a. The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA, adequate intake (AI and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.
Li, Xinger; Liu, Haiyan; Feng, Huiping; Xian, Zhongren; Chen, Yanhong; Chen, Jianping; Tang, Chunzhi; Lai, Xinsheng; Lan, Xiaoling; Huang, Huanzhen; Yu, Dongdong
Type-2 diabetes has become a major disease and is known to seriously impair people's health worldwide. Prediabetes includes impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and is the most critical period for preventing type-2 diabetes, as it can be identified and reversed. Studies in the past decade have indicated that acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine may be beneficial for treating prediabetes. However, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) should be conducted to obtain more clinical evidence on this topic. An RCT will be implemented in this study, using a72-week study period (24 weeks for the intervention and 48 weeks for follow-up). Participants will be recruited from the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University in China. Eighty participants will be randomized to the treatment group (acupuncture plus herbal medicine and health education) or the control group (health education only), 40 participants in each. People included in this study must have been diagnosed with prediabetes using Western medicine criteria. The endpoint indices include the incidence of diabetes mellitus and the reversion rate. The primary outcome is fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level, 2-h plasma glucose (2-hPG) level after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) level. Secondary outcomes include the following: Body Mass Index (BMI); hemorheology, including shear rates of whole-blood viscosity and plasma viscosity. Safety indices include hepatic (ALT, AST) and renal function (BUN, Cr) and records of adverse events, including diarrhoea, colds, pharyngitis, and sleep disorders. Quality control will be implemented, including quality control of the laboratory, researchers, participants, investigational drugs, data and documents, occurrence of bias, supervision, among others, according to uniform standard operating procedures (SOPs) which have been established by the Good Clinical Practice (GCP) office of the Fifth
Jang, Soobin; Kim, Kyeong Han; Sun, Seung-Ho; Go, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu
Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0%) considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1%) answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was "TKM hospital or clinic" (63.6%), and most participants (72.2%) took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for "health improvement" (57.3%), and the reasons for not using them was "medication not necessary" (63.7%). Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%). Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5%) were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines.
Kim, Kyeong Han; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Cheol
Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0%) considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1%) answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was “TKM hospital or clinic” (63.6%), and most participants (72.2%) took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for “health improvement” (57.3%), and the reasons for not using them was “medication not necessary” (63.7%). Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%). Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5%) were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines. PMID:28491107
Ane R. T. Costa
Full Text Available The dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicines in the solid dosage form for oral use. This work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of three herbal medicines in the form of capsules and tablet containing Passiflora, produced with powder or dried extract. Assay of total flavonoids and dissolution methods were validated and obtained results allowed the quantification of flavonoids with precision, accuracy and selectivity. The percentage of total flavonoids found was 2% for capsule A (containing only powder, 0.97% for capsule B (containing only dried extract and 5.5% for tablet. Although the content was lower, the release of flavonoids present in the capsule containing dried extract was 12% higher over 30 min, with dissolved percentage values of 87 and 75, for the capsules containing extract and powder, respectively. The tablet containing dried extract presented dissolution of 76%, despite the higher content of flavonoids, which may be due to pharmacotechnical problems. Obtained data demonstrated the need to implement these tests in the quality control of herbal medicines, confirming the release of the active ingredients that underlie the pharmacological action of these medicines.
Ahmed, Mansoor; Hwang, Jung Hye; Choi, Soojeung; Han, Dongwoon
High prevalence of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and the lack of information on their safety is a public concern. Despite this, no significant research has been done regarding potential adverse effects of using herbal medicines during pregnancy, especially among developing Asian countries. Cross-sectional studies were searched up to year 2016 on PubMed/Medline and EMBASE, the data were extracted and quality of studies was assessed using the quality appraisal tool. The findings are reported in accordance to the PRISMA checklist (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). Classification on safety of identified herbal medicines was done based on current scientific literature. This study included eight cross-sectional studies (2729 participants) from seven different Asian countries, of which 1283 (47.01%) women used one or more herbal medicines during pregnancy. Peppermint (22.8%), aniseed (14.7%), olibanum (12.9%), flixweed seed (12.2%) and ginger (11.5%) were the most frequently used herbal medicines. Out of the 33 identified herbal medicines, 13 were classified as safe to use, five as use with caution, eight were potentially harmful to use in pregnancy and information on seven herbal medicines was not available in the current literature. Several herbal medicines identified in this review were classified to be potentially harmful or the information regarding safety in pregnancy was missing. It is recommended that contraindicated herbal medicines should be avoided and other herbals should be taken under supervision of a qualified health care practitioner. The classification regarding safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy can be utilized to create awareness on prevention of adverse effects.
Briggs, David R.
Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity
Luo, Qiulan; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian
Chinese herbal medicine formula Yu ping feng san (YPFS) is commonly used for allergic rhinitis (AR). Previous review had summarized the effectiveness and safety of YPFS, however without any subgroup analysis performed to provide detailed evidence for guiding clinical practice. YPFS was recommended for the management of AR by Chinese medicine clinical practice guideline, but the treatment duration of YPFS was also not specified. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of YPFS in treating adult AR with the most recent evidence, and attempt to specify the duration of utilisation through subgroup meta-analyses. Seven databases were searched from their inceptions to September 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating YPFS for adult AR were included. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis and subgroup meta-analyses were conducted for evaluating the effectiveness of YPFS. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used for rating the quality of evidence. Twenty-two RCTs involving 23 comparisons were included in this review. YPFS was compared to placebo, pharmacotherapy, and used as an add-on treatment compared to pharmacotherapy. Meta-analyses were feasible for the outcomes of four individual nasal symptom scores and "effective rate". Four individual nasal symptom scores decreased after YPFS' combination treatment: itchy nose (MD-0.46, 95% CI[-0.50, -0.42]), sneezing (MD-0.41, 95% CI[-0.47, -0.35]), blocked nose (MD-0.46, 95% CI[-0.54, -0.39]) and runny nose (MD-0.42, 95% CI[-0.58, -0.26]). Based on "effective rate", meta-analysis showed that YPFS did not achieve better effect than pharmacotherapy (RR1.07, 95%CI [0.94, 1.22), but its combination with pharmacotherapy seemed more effective than pharmacotherapy alone (RR1.27, 95%CI [1.19, 1.34]) (low quality). Subgroup analysis suggested that YPFS was not superior to the second
Herbal remedies and dietary supplements have become an important area of research and clinical practice in orthopaedics and rheumatology. Understanding the risks and benefits of using herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatic diseases, and musculoskeletal complaints is a key priority of physicians and their patients. This review discusses the latest advances in the use of herbal medicines for treating osteoarthritis (OA) by focusing on the most significant trends and developme...
Full Text Available Protected areas are generally regarded as a power tool to conserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, few protected areas could address three crucial problems simultaneously, namely funding, public participation and rural living. Here, we introduced a new protective approach, Natural Fostering, which integrated herbal medicine production with community conservation. The principles of Natural Fostering adopted species–species interaction at community level. Most effective chemical components of herbal medicine are derived from such interaction. Fritillaria cirrhosa was selected as an economic botany, one of herbal medicines, to carry out Natural Fostering. Community habitats, herbal medicine production, funding and income of local family were investigated to verify the feasibility of Natural Fostering for biodiversity. We found the density of plant populations and the annual average personal income of rural people increased. F. cirrhosa production could provide sufficient funds for sustainable conservation. Local people gradually changed their life style of wild collection and overgrazing, instead of herbal medicine production. The fostering area set up a good sustainable economic cycle. Natural Fostering can be presented as an effective and pragmatic way to conserve biological diversity and sustainable utilization of traditional medicinal resources.
Chiu, Pei-Hsun; Hsieh, Hsin-Ying; Wang, Sun-Chong
Targeted cancer therapies, with specific molecular targets, ameliorate the side effect issue of radiation and chemotherapy and also point to the development of personalized medicine. Combination of drugs targeting multiple pathways of carcinogenesis is potentially more fruitful. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been tailoring herbal mixtures for individualized healthcare for two thousand years. A systematic study of the patterns of TCM formulas and herbs prescribed to cancers is valuabl...
Thomford, Nicholas E.; Dzobo, Kevin; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Chirikure, Shadreck; Dandara, Collet
The most accessible points of call for most African populations with respect to primary health care are traditional health systems that include spiritual, religious, and herbal medicine. This review focusses only on the use of herbal medicines. Most African people accept herbal medicines as generally safe with no serious adverse effects. However, the overlap between conventional medicine and herbal medicine is a reality among countries in health systems transition. Patients often simultaneously seek treatment from both conventional and traditional health systems for the same condition. Commonly encountered conditions/diseases include malaria, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, tuberculosis, and bleeding disorders. It is therefore imperative to understand the modes of interaction between different drugs from conventional and traditional health care systems when used in treatment combinations. Both conventional and traditional drug entities are metabolized by the same enzyme systems in the human body, resulting in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions, whose properties remain unknown/unquantified. Thus, it is important that profiles of interaction between different herbal and conventional medicines be evaluated. This review evaluates herbal and conventional drugs in a few African countries and their potential interaction at the pharmacogenomics level. PMID:26402689
This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders. High-quality evidence was found to exist for the use of Piper methysticum (Kava), Passiflora spp. (passionflower) and Galphimia glauca (galphimia) for anxiety disorders; and Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for major depressive disorder. Other encouraging herbal medicines with preliminary evidence include Curcuma longa (turmeric) in depression, Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) in affective disorders, and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) as an adjunctive treatment in Schizophrenia. Although depression and anxiety are commonly researched, many other mental disorders still require further prospective investigation. Although the previous review suggested increasing the adjunctive study of select herbal medicines with pharmaceuticals, this was still only found to sparingly occur in research designs. Aside from this, future focus should involve the incorporation of more biomarker analysis, in particular pharmacogenomics, to determine genetic factors moderating response to herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
da Silva, Neirivaldo Cavalcante; Honorato, Ricardo Saldanha; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Garrigues, Salvador; Cervera, Maria Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel
There is an increasing demand for herbal medicines in weight loss treatment. Some synthetic chemicals, such as sibutramine (SB), have been detected as adulterants in herbal formulations. In this study, two strategies using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been developed to evaluate potential adulteration of herbal medicines with SB: a qualitative screening approach and a quantitative methodology based on multivariate calibration. Samples were composed by products commercialized as herbal medicines, as well as by laboratory adulterated samples. Spectra were obtained in the range of 14,000-4000 per cm. Using PLS-DA, a correct classification of 100% was achieved for the external validation set. In the quantitative approach, the root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), for both PLS and MLR models, was 0.2% w/w. The results prove the potential of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration in quantifying sibutramine in adulterated herbal medicines samples. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
The accessibility and cultural acceptability of both herbal medicines and faith healing and the scarcity of ..... public healthcare system. ... Policy Framework and Integration of Traditional ..... discussion within partnerships and HIV prevention and.
Full Text Available Abstract Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property.
Liu, Ju-Han; Cheng, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Commercial pharmaceutical herbal products have enabled people to take traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in a convenient and accessible form. However, the quantity and quality should be additionally inspected. To address the issue, a combination of chemical and physical inspection methods were developed to evaluate the amount of an herbal formula, Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (XSLJZT), in clinical TCM practice. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method with electrospray ionization was developed to measure the herbal biomarkers of guanosine, atractylenolide III, glycyrrhizic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, hesperidin, and oleanolic acid from XSLJZT. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs and light microscopy photographs with Congo red and iodine-KI staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers and starch content. Furthermore, solubility analysis, swelling power test, and crude fiber analysis were contributed to measure the starch additive in pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrated large variations in the chemical components of different pharmaceutical brands. The SEM photographs revealed that the starch was oval, smooth, and granular, and that the raw herbal powder appears stripy, stretched, and filiform. The stained light microscopy photographs of all of the pharmaceutical products showed added starch and raw herbal powder as extenders. The developed chemical and physical methods provide a standard operating procedure for the quantity control of the herbal pharmaceutical products of XSLJZT.
Full Text Available Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0% considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1% answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was “TKM hospital or clinic” (63.6%, and most participants (72.2% took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for “health improvement” (57.3%, and the reasons for not using them was “medication not necessary” (63.7%. Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%. Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5% were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines.
Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.
Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4% patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (N=11,609; 57.8% of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn’s disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted.
Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Atlasi, Rasha; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad
Recently, popularity and use of herbal medicine in treatment of diabetes have been increased. Since, oxidative stress is known as the main underlying pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications, the purpose of this bibliometric study is to assess the global scientific production analysis and developing its trend in field of antioxidative hypoglycemic herbal medicines and diabetic nephropathy focusing on the scientific publication numbers, citations, geographical distribution in the world and determining the main journal (source) in the field. Our search terms were "diabetes", "renal", "nephropathy", "herb", "Chinese medicine", "traditional medicine", and "antioxidant" from Scopus database until January 2015 and analysis of the distribution of words in the publication year, main journal (source) in the field, geographical distribution, documents' type and language, subject area, and h-index of citations were crried out. The Scopus analysis tools and VOSviewer software version 1.6.3 have been used for analysis. Within 1166 papers were published until year 2015, 78 studies were related to this topic in human. Increasing trend in number of related researches was shown. Fifty eight percent of the published papers were original articles, and the highest number was produced in 2013 with 21 documents. Top subject areas were medicine with global publication share of 71.8 %, and pharmacology was ranked the second (39.7 %). Iran was the first country with global publication. The total citation of the documents were 2518 times and h-index was 24. The highest cited paper was a review article with 336 citation number, and top source was "Journal of Medicinal Plants". Both of top authors and affiliation were from Iran; "Tehran University of Medical Sciences". Also, top author in the co-authorship mapping and clustering assessment was from Iran. Although, we found an ascending trend of scientific publications in field of antioxidative herbal medicine and diabetic
Ye, Haoyu; Ignatova, Svetlana; Peng, Aihua; Chen, Lijuan; Sutherland, Ian
This paper builds on previous modelling research with short single layer columns to develop rapid methods for optimising high-performance counter-current chromatography at constant stationary phase retention. Benzyl alcohol and p-cresol are used as model compounds to rapidly optimise first flow and then rotational speed operating conditions at a preparative scale with long columns for a given phase system using a Dynamic Extractions Midi-DE centrifuge. The transfer to a high value extract such as the crude ethanol extract of Chinese herbal medicine Millettia pachycarpa Benth. is then demonstrated and validated using the same phase system. The results show that constant stationary phase modelling of flow and speed with long multilayer columns works well as a cheap, quick and effective method of optimising operating conditions for the chosen phase system-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:0.8:1:0.6, v/v). Optimum conditions for resolution were a flow of 20 ml/min and speed of 1200 rpm, but for throughput were 80 ml/min at the same speed. The results show that 80 ml/min gave the best throughputs for tephrosin (518 mg/h), pyranoisoflavone (47.2 mg/h) and dehydrodeguelin (10.4 mg/h), whereas for deguelin (100.5 mg/h), the best flow rate was 40 ml/min.
Wang, Shijun; Tang, Qiaofei; Qian, Wei; Fan, Yu
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for the prevention and treatment of persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR), but results are still equivocal. This study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of CHM in patients with PAR. Databases searched included articles published in the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database from 1999 to 2011. The studies included were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHM to placebo if they included patients with PAR. The main outcomes were the changes in the standardized mean difference (SMD) of nasal symptom scores and total serum IgE level. Methodological quality was assessed by the modified Jadad's scale. Seven RCTs with 533 patients were identified and analyzed. In the meta-analysis, CHM reduced the total nasal symptom scores compared to placebo (SMD, -1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.03 to -0.62; P = 0.003). The effect estimate was in favor of the CHM intervention (SMD, -1.09; 95% CI, -2.74 to 0.55) in reducing the total serum IgE level, although this was not significant (P = 0.19). CHM interventions appear to have beneficial effects in patients with PAR. However, the published efficacy studies are too small to draw firm conclusion. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available Zhiqiang Wang,1 Lei Yuan,1 Yongchuan Wang,2 Baizhi Yang,1 Xiaohong Dong,1 Zhaowang Gao3 1Department of Urology, Shouguang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shouguang, 2Department of Urology, Weifang Traditional Chinese Hospital, Weifang, 3Department of Urology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for chronic prostatitis (CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes.Methods: An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software.Results: Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001 and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: -1.08, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.81, P<0.00001. Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of -1.39 (95% CI: -1.87 to -0.92, P<0.00001. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: -0.23, 95% CI: -0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06. The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34 and less than that
Wang, Hong-ping; Chen, Chang; Liu, Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun; Wu, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Hong-Bin
The incomplete identification of the chemical components of traditional Chinese medicinal formula has been one of the bottlenecks in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Tandem mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of chemical substances. Current automatic tandem mass spectrometry acquisition, where precursor ions were selected according to their signal intensity, encounters a drawback in chemical substances identification when samples contain many overlapping signals. Compounds in minor or trace amounts could not be identified because most tandem mass spectrometry information was lost. Herein, a molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation method for complex Chinese medicine chemical constituent analysis was developed. The precursor ions were selected according to their two-dimensional characteristics of retention times and mass-to-charge ratio ranges from herbal compounds, so that all precursor ions from herbal compounds were included and more minor chemical constituents in Chinese medicine were identified. Compared to the conventional automatic tandem mass spectrometry setups, the approach is novel and can overcome the drawback for chemical substances identification. As an example, 276 compounds from the Chinese Medicine of Yi-Xin-Shu capsule were identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Jin, Rui; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Bing
Herbal property theory of traditional Chinese medicines is the theoretical guidance on authentication of medicinal plants, herborization, preparation of herbal medicines for decoction and clinical application, with important theoretical value and prac- tical significance. Our research team proposed the "three-element" theory for herbal properties for the first time, conducted a study by using combined methods of philology, chemistry, pharmacology and mathematics, and then drew the research conclusion that herbal properties are defined as the chemical compositions-based comprehensive expression with complex and multi-level (positive/negative) biological effects in specific organism state. In this paper, researchers made a systematic mathematical analysis in four aspects--the correlation between herbal properties and chemical component factors, the correlation between herbal properties and organism state fac- tor, the correlation between herbal properties and biological effect factor and the integration study of the three elements, proposed future outlook, and provided reference to mathematical studies and mathematical analysis of herbal properties.
Rashrash, Mohamed; Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M
To describe the prevalence of herbal medicine use among US adults and to assess factors associated with and predictors of herbal use. The data for herbal products use were collected from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience and Pharmacists' Roles. Chi-square test was used to analyz factors associated with herbal use, and predictors of herbal use were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with herbal supplement use include age older than 70, having a higher than high school education, using prescription medications or over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and using a mail-order pharmacy." All Disease state associated significantly with herbal use. Approximately thirty-eight percent of those who used herbals used prescription medications and 42% of those who used herbals also used an OTC medication. The most frequent conditions associated with herbal supplement use were a stroke (48.7%), cancer (43.1%), and arthritis (43.0%). Among herbal product users, factors that predicted use included having higher than school education, using OTC medications, using mail-order pharmacy, stroke, obesity, arthritis, and breathing problems. More than one-third of respondents reported using herbal supplements. Older age and higher education were associated with a higher use of herbal supplements. People with chronic diseases are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. OTC drug users and patients with stroke are more likely to use herbal medicines than others.
Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M
Objective: To describe the prevalence of herbal medicine use among US adults and to assess factors associated with and predictors of herbal use. Design: The data for herbal products use were collected from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience and Pharmacists’ Roles. Chi-square test was used to analyz factors associated with herbal use, and predictors of herbal use were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results: Factors associated with herbal supplement use include age older than 70, having a higher than high school education, using prescription medications or over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and using a mail-order pharmacy.” All Disease state associated significantly with herbal use. Approximately thirty-eight percent of those who used herbals used prescription medications and 42% of those who used herbals also used an OTC medication. The most frequent conditions associated with herbal supplement use were a stroke (48.7%), cancer (43.1%), and arthritis (43.0%). Among herbal product users, factors that predicted use included having higher than school education, using OTC medications, using mail-order pharmacy, stroke, obesity, arthritis, and breathing problems. Conclusions: More than one-third of respondents reported using herbal supplements. Older age and higher education were associated with a higher use of herbal supplements. People with chronic diseases are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. OTC drug users and patients with stroke are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. PMID:28959715
Ma, Xueqin; Zheng, Chengjian; Hu, Changling; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping
Plants of the genus Desmodium (Fabaceae), such as Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. and Desmodium gyrans (L. f.) DC., have a long history of medical use in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat various ailments including rheumatism, pyrexia, dysentery, wounds, cough, malaria, hepatitis, hemoptysis, etc. In the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, most species have the effect of relieving internal heat or fever, neutralizing toxins, inhibiting pain, invigorating blood circulation, suppressing cough and alleviating dyspnea. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by analyzing secondary sources including Chinese Herbal Classics, and worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder) were scrutinized for the available information on the ethnopharmacological uses in Chinese medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Desmodium species. The genus Desmodium is a large member of the Papilionaceae (Fabaceae) family. It contains about 350 plant species used for both feeding stuffs and herbal medicines, of which only about 30 species have been phytochemically or pharmacologically investigated. Desmodium plant extracts, as well as the active principles, have been experimentally studied for their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antinephrolithic, antibacterial, and nootropic activities in vitro or in vivo. And so far, a total of 212 compounds have been isolated from 15 Desmodium species and characterized mainly as flavonoids and alkaloids, followed by terpenoids, steroids, phenols, phenylpropanoids, glycosides and a number of volatile oils. The remaining unrevealed species are recorded chiefly in Asia and Africa being used in empirical treatment for various diseases. Desmodium species have long been used in TCM to treat various ailments. Available scientific references revealed that the traditional medical uses of some important Desmodium species in TCM have been evaluated by modern pharmacological
Li, Xiu-Min; Brown, Laverne
Although corticosteroids and beta(2)-agonists are effective in managing asthma symptoms, a curative therapy for asthma is lacking. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care as a complementary and alternative medicine modality. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma and explores their possible mechanisms of action. We first reviewed 5 clinical studies of antiasthma TCM herbal remedies published between 2005 and 2007. We then summarized possible mechanisms underlying their effects on the basis of data in the original articles, published abstracts, and available databases. Possible mechanisms include anti-inflammation, inhibition of airway smooth muscle contraction, and immunomodulation. Research on TCM herbal therapy for food allergy is rare, and we therefore focused on the effect and mechanism of action of food allergy herbal formula-2 on a murine model of peanut allergy and preliminary clinical study results. Evidence from clinical studies supports beneficial effects of TCM herbal therapy on asthma. A number of mechanisms may be responsible for efficacy of these agents. Strong preclinical study data suggest the potential efficacy of food allergy herbal formula-2 for food allergy.
Fong, Sophia Y K; Liu, Mary; Wei, Hai; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore; Lee, Vincent H L; Amidon, Gordon L; Zuo, Zhong
The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), which is a scientific approach to categorize active drug ingredient based on its solubility and intestinal permeability into one of the four classes, has been used to set the pharmaceutical quality standards for drug products in western society. However, it has received little attention in the area of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). This is likely, in part, due to the presence of multiple active components as well as lack of standardization of CHM. In this report, we apply BCS classification to CHMs provisionally as a basis for establishing improved in vitro quality standards. Based on a top-200 drugs selling list in China, a total of 31 CHM products comprising 50 official active marker compounds (AMCs) were provisionally classified according to BCS. Information on AMC content and doses of these CHM products were retrieved from the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. BCS parameters including solubility and permeability of the AMCs were predicted in silico (ACD/Laboratories). A BCS classification of CHMs according to biopharmaceutical properties of their AMCs is demonstrated to be feasible in the current study and can be used to provide a minimum set of quality standards. Our provisional results showed that 44% of the included AMCs were classified as Class III (high solubility, low permeability), followed by Class II (26%), Class I (18%), and Class IV (12%). A similar trend was observed when CHMs were classified in accordance with the BCS class of AMCs. Most (45%) of the included CHMs were classified as Class III, followed by Class II (16%), Class I (10%), and Class IV (6%); whereas 23% of the CHMs were of mixed class due to the presence of multiple individual AMCs with different BCS classifications. Moreover, about 60% of the AMCs were classified as high-solubility compounds (Class I and Class III), suggesting an important role for an in vitro dissolution test in setting quality control standards ensuring consistent
Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Vickers, A.; Saller, R.; Melchart, D.
BACKGROUND: Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with herbal medicine.
Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Vickers, A.; Saller, R.; Melchart, D.
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials on herbal medicines. METHODS: Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of
Full Text Available Purpose: consider the rational combination of the herbs in fytocomplexes applied in the rehabilitation of the type 2 diabetes. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the use of herbal medicine in the complex rehabilitation for patients with diabetes. Results: modern views on the necessity and the features of the use of herbal remedies especially in the diabetes type 2 are presented; the main medicinal plants used in this pathology are described. The main attention is paid to the peculiarities of forming up an integrated cure that contains a mixture of several kinds of medicinal plants. The classification of herbal drugs used for diabetes is given. Conclusions: advantages of application of collection of medicinal plants over synthetic drugs in the complex treatment of the type 2 diabetes are proved.
Szeto, Yim-Tong; Cheng, Ngok-Fung; Pak, Sok-Cheon; Kalle, Wouter
The Chinese herbal decoction formula Xiao Jian Zhong Tang (XJZT) is one of the classic formulas from the classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Previous studies on XJZT found that it is effective for treating peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome, functional gastroenteritis and similar psychosomatic disorders of the digestive organs. It has also been shown that all the herbs used in XJZT contain antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the in vitro DNA protection effect of the individual herb extracts and the whole formula. Water extract of the herbs and XJZT were used to pre-treat human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were then exposed to hydrogen peroxide. The in vitro DNA protection effect of the herbs was investigated by comet assay. No DNA protective effect (P < 0.05) was found for individual herb extracts, but XJZT showed protection of human lymphocytic DNA upon oxidative stress (P < 0.05). The in vitro DNA protection effect of XJZT was conferred by the synergistic effect of the herbs, while the individual herbs had no such effect.
Diwu, Yong-chang; Tian, Jin-zhou; Shi, Jing
To study the effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yinsiwei compound (YSW) on spatial learning and memory ability in rats with sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD) and the ultrastructural basis of the hippocampal neurons. A rat model of SAD was established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats were divided into six groups: sham-operation group, model group, donepezil control group, and YSW low, medium and high dose groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the corresponding drugs by gavage for two months. Meanwhile, the model group and the sham-operation group were given the same volume of distilled water by gavage once a day for two months. The Morris water maze was adopted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. The place navigation test and the spatial probe test were conducted. The escape latency, total swimming distance and swimming time in the target quadrant of the rats were recorded. Also, the hippocampus tissues of rats were taken out and the ultrastructure of hippocampus neurons were observed by an electron microscope. In the place navigation test, compared with the model group, the mean escape latency and the total swimming distance of the donepezil group and the YSW low, medium and high dose groups were significantly shortened (Pmicroscope also confirmed the efficacy of the drug treatment. Chinese herbal medicine YSW compound can improve spatial learning and memory impairment of rats with SAD. The ultrastructural basis may be that it can protect the microtubule structures of hippocampal neurons and prevent nerve axons from being damaged.
Li, Fu-Shuang; Weng, Jing-Ke
Plants have long been recognized for their therapeutic properties. For centuries, indigenous cultures around the world have used traditional herbal medicine to treat a myriad of maladies. By contrast, the rise of the modern pharmaceutical industry in the past century has been based on exploiting individual active compounds with precise modes of action. This surge has yielded highly effective drugs that are widely used in the clinic, including many plant natural products and analogues derived from these products, but has fallen short of delivering effective cures for complex human diseases with complicated causes, such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases. While the plant kingdom continues to serve as an important source for chemical entities supporting drug discovery, the rich traditions of herbal medicine developed by trial and error on human subjects over thousands of years contain invaluable biomedical information just waiting to be uncovered using modern scientific approaches. Here we provide an evolutionary and historical perspective on why plants are of particular significance as medicines for humans. We highlight several plant natural products that are either in the clinic or currently under active research and clinical development, with particular emphasis on their mechanisms of action. Recent efforts in developing modern multi-herb prescriptions through rigorous molecular-level investigations and standardized clinical trials are also discussed. Emerging technologies, such as genomics and synthetic biology, are enabling new ways for discovering and utilizing the medicinal properties of plants. We are entering an exciting era where the ancient wisdom distilled into the world's traditional herbal medicines can be reinterpreted and exploited through the lens of modern science.
Background: The WHO has advocated for the integration of herbal medicinal products into the primary health care system of developing countries. Safety, however, is a concern to the drug regulatory bodies. This study was carried out to determine the organoleptic properties and the microbial quality of herbal products ...
Full Text Available Herbal medicinal products which are used perorally in the treatment of minor articular pain include those obtained from willow bark, Salicis cortex, devil's claw root, Harpagophyti radix, nettle leaf and herb, Urticae folium/herba, meadowsweet flower and herb, Filipendulae ulmariae flos/herba, ash leaf, Fraxini folium, and blackcurrant leaf, Ribis nigri folium. They can be in the form of a herbal tea or solid and liquid dosage forms. Anti-inflammatory and/or analgetic action form/s basis for their therapeutic usage. Among mentioned herbal drugs, only willow bark, Salicis cortex, is employed for producing herbal medicinal products with well-established use (dry standardised hydroethanolic extract in the solid dosage form intended for oral application. Furthermore, traditional herbal medicines prepared from arnica flower, Arnicae flos, which are intended for dermal application (liquid and semi-solid dosage forms are used for symptomatic relief of rheumatic complaints, also because of their anti-inflammatory and analgetic effects. Owing to rubefacient activity, herbal medicinal products with well-established use based on the soft extracts of capsicum, Capsici frustus, (medicated plasters and semi-solid dosage forms for cutaneous use, as well as traditional herbal medicines based on rosemary leaf and oil, Rosmarini folium/aetheroleum, juniper oil, Juniperi aetheroleum, and eucalyptus oil, Eucalypti aetheroleum (bath additives and/or liquid and semi-solid dosage forms for dermal application, are used to decrease pain.
Khaled, Meyada; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Zhang, Lu-Yong
Recently, biologically active compounds isolated from plants used in herbal medicine have been the center of interest. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), structurally closely related to the lignan podophyllotoxin, is a potent antitumor and anti-inflammatory agent. However, DPT has not been used clinically yet. Also, DPT from natural sources seems to be unavailable. Hence, it is important to establish alternative resources for the production of such lignan; especially that it is used as a precursor for the semi-synthesis of the cytostatic drugs etoposide phosphate and teniposide. The update paper provides an overview of DPT as an effective anticancer natural compound and a leader for cytotoxic drugs synthesis and development in order to highlight the gaps in our knowledge and explore future research needs. The present review covers the literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected via electronic search using Chinese papers and the major scientific databases including PubMed, Sciencedirect, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords. All abstracts and full-text articles reporting database on the history and current status of DPT were gathered and analyzed. Plants containing DPT have played an important role in traditional medicine. In light of the in vitro pharmacological investigations, DPT is a high valuable medicinal agent that has anti-tumor, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties. Further, DPT is an important precursor for the cytotoxic aryltetralin lignan, podophyllotoxin, which is used to obtain semisynthetic derivatives like etoposide and teniposide used in cancer therapy. However, most studies have focused on the in vitro data. Therefore, DPT has not been used clinically yet. DPT has emerged as a potent chemical agent from herbal medicine. Therefore, in vivo studies are needed to carry out clinical trials in humans and enable the development of new anti-cancer agents. In addition, DPT from commercial
Background: Commercial herbal medicines (CHMs) being marketed as immune boosters or tonics, have gained widespread popularity. The many herbal mixtures sold have not been tested for efficacy and safety, despite their modern packaging and presentations. It is imperative that these herbal mixtures be investigated for ...
Nanloh S Jimam
Full Text Available Background: Due to increased health consciousness among the public, the use of herbal products are on the increase on a daily basis. To achieve optimal benefits, there is a need for pharmacists who are the custodians of knowledge on drugs and drugs-related products to have more understanding and interest in herbal medicine for effective counseling on the products. The purpose of this study was to assess Pharmacists' knowledge and perceptions regarding herbal medicine use. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were administered to 200 pharmacists working within the study areas to fill; after which the collected data were statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS software programmer, version 20. Results: Only 88.5% of the respondents responded on the questionnaires, and their mean age was 34 years; median year of experience in practice was 8.2 years; and their areas of practice included hospital (56.1%, community (28.1%, academic (8.47%, and industries (4.52%. More than half (76.27% of them believed that herbal products were more efficacious and safer (61.02% than orthodox medicines; with almost all of them (94.92% acknowledging the beneficial effects of incorporating herbal medicines into orthodox medicine practice. However, most of them (72.88% confessed having little knowledge on herbal remedies, especially drug-herbs interactions (81.36%, and their main source of information on herbs was from school (56.50%. Conclusions: The result showed poor level of pharmacists' knowledge on herbal medicine; which might result in poor patients' counseling on herbal therapy, especially regarding their safety and potential interaction with orthodox medicine.
Willingness of Herbal Medicine Practitioners and Herbs Vendors to Contribute Financially to Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Ibadan, ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The earlier version of this paper had some errors.
The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the use of herbal medicines among a sample of pregnant women and to determine whether the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is associated with women’s attitudes towards herbal medicines and their sociodemographic features, such as age, education level, income, and smoking. A survey was conducted among 650 pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy, consecutively recruited in obstetrical ward. Response rate was 95,8%. Most women were under 30 (67,4% and primipara (53,3%. The majority of subjects (63,5% declared to have used one or more herbal medicines during their lifetime; 43,8% of pregnant women reported taking at least one herbal medicine during the current pregnancy. 54,2% of users took at least one prescribed medication concomitantly. Women’s habitual use of herbal medicines meant they were at higher risk of taking herbal medicines also during pregnancy. Women were more likely to take herbal medicines if they were housewives, smokers, had moderate family income, with chronic disorders and concomitant drug use. The most frequently herbs taken by interviewees were chamomile, valerian, green tea, cranberry, and garlic. The major purposes for using these products were to cure respiratory problems, CNS disorders and urinary tract infections. The majority of women resorted to obstetricians as the primary information source for of herbal medicines during pregnancy, while they mainly referred to general practitioner and family or friends when not pregnant. In the light of the scanty data concerning the safety of herbal medicines during pregnancy, these results confirm the need to investigate thoroughly the situation of pregnant women and of herbal medicines consumption. Key words: herbal medicines, pregnancy, prevalence, use, maternal characteristics, pharmacoepidemiology. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 28–35.
Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, Jingqi; Sørensen, Dan
Based on anecdotal evidence of anti-hypertensive effect of Gold Nine Soft Capsules, an in vivo study of this complex Chinese "herbal-based" medicine was initiated. Dosage of the content of Gold Nine capsules in spontaneous hypertensive rats showed a remarkably good effect. This led to further investigation of the components of the preparation and eventual identification of three known anti-hypertensive drugs; amlodipine, indapamide and valsartan, which were not declared on the label. Compounds were rapidly identified using LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR, quantified by HPLC, and the in vivo activity of a combination of commercially purchased standards was shown to be equivalent to that of the capsule content. Adulteration of herbal remedies and dietary supplements with synthetic drugs is an increasing problem that may lead to serious adverse effects. LC-MS-SPE/NMR as a method for the rapid identification of such adulterants is highlighted in this case study.
Zhou, Kunyan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Liangzhi; Wu, Taixiang; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities, and affects 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age. Western medicines, such as oral contraceptives, insulin sensitizers and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD), have been used to treat PCOS. Recently, many studies have been published that consider Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS. To assess the efficacy and safety of CHM for subfertile women with PCOS. We searched sources, including the following databases, from inception to 9 June 2016: the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), PsycINFO, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, Wanfang and trial registries. In addition, we searched the reference lists of included trials and contacted experts in the field to locate trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that considered the use of CHM for the treatment of subfertile women with PCOS. Two review authors independently screened appropriate trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in included studies and extracted data. We contacted primary study authors for additional information. We conducted meta-analyses. We used the odds ratios (ORs) to report dichotomous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included five RCTs with 414 participants. The comparisons in the included trials were as follows: CHM versus clomiphene, CHM plus clomiphene versus clomiphene (with or without ethinyloestradiol cyproterone acetate (CEA)), CHM plus follicle aspiration plus ovulation induction versus follicle aspiration plus ovulation induction alone, and CHM plus laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) versus LOD alone. The overall quality of the
Klein, Sabine D; Becker, Simon; Wolf, Ursula
Chai hu (Bupleuri radix), one of the most frequently used herbs in Chinese herbal medicine, has 3 major functions, depending on dosage and combination with other herbs. The aim of this study was to investigate how chai hu is prescribed in everyday practice in Switzerland, and whether these prescription patterns reflect its various applications. A random sample of 1,053 prescriptions was drawn from the database of Lian Chinaherb AG, Wollerau, Switzerland, and analyzed regarding the most frequently used classical formulas containing chai hu, daily dosages and combinations with other herbs. 29.0% of all prescriptions contained chai hu, and 98.0% of these were in granular form. The most frequently used classical formulas were xiao yao san ('rambling powder'), jia wei xiao yao san ('augmented rambling powder') and chai hu shu gan san ('Bupleurum powder to spread the liver'). In more than half of the prescriptions, chai hu was combined with bai shao (Paeoniae Radix Alba), dang gui (Angelicae sinensis radix) or fu ling (Poria). 51.8% of the prescriptions contained a low daily dosage of chai hu, 24.9% a medium and 15.1% a high dosage. Chai hu was generally prescribed in classic combinations with other herbs and in a medium dosage. Due to the addition of supplementary herbs to classical formulas, its daily dose was often diminished from a high or medium dose to a low dose. This raises the question if chai hu would then still exert its desired function of, e.g., moving liver-qi in these prescriptions.
Tsai, Ming-Yen; Hu, Wen-Long; Lin, Che-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chiao; Chen, Shih-Yu; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Chen, Yung-Hsiang
Certain Chinese herbal products (CHPs) may protect against the progression of heart failure (HF). However, there is a lack of research regarding the use of CHPs in patients with HF. The aims of this study were to analyze CHPs usage patterns in patients with HF and to identify the frequency and combination of CHPs most commonly used for HF. This retrospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study was conducted using a randomly sampled cohort of one million patients selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for the years 2000-2010 in Taiwan. CHP use and the top ten most frequently prescribed formulae and single herbs for treating HF were assessed, including total formulae number and average and frequency of prescriptions. Demographic characteristics, including sex and age at diagnosis of HF, were examined, together with existing comorbidities. The cohort included 19,988 newly diagnosed AD patients, who were given CHP treatment for HF between 2000 and 2010. Among them, female patients (53.3%) and those over 65years old (63.9%) were more likely to use CM. After adjusting for demographic factors, HF patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) were more likely to seek traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment than those with non-TCM users (57.6% vs. 52.6%). Zhi-Gan-Cao-Tang (4.07%) and Danshen (5.13%) were the most frequent formula CHP and single CHP prescribed by TCM practitioners for treating HF, respectively. Most people with HF who consumed CHPs used CHPs to supplement Yang-Qi, nourish the Ying-blood, and strengthen the heart spirit as complementary medicines to relieve HF-related symptoms, in addition to using standard anti-HF treatments. Further large-scale, randomized clinical trials are warranted in order to determine the effectiveness and safety of these herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Jing-Fan; Liu, Pi-Hua; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Lien, Angela Shin-Yu; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Yu, Chin-Hui; Yang, Shu-Ling; Chang, Hen-Hong; Yen, Hung-Rong
Complementary and alternative therapies in treating atopic dermatitis are not uncommon. However, substantial evidence and consensus on treating atopic dermatitis is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics and utilization of traditional Chinese medicine in patients with atopic dermatitis. We retrospectively collected patients with atopic dermatitis at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan between 2002 and 2011. Patients' demographic data, duration and frequency of treatment, serum total immunoglobulin E levels, and traditional Chinese medicine treatment principles and prescription were analyzed. There were 4145 patients (8.8%) received traditional Chinese medicine therapy between 2002 and 2011. Among them, 2841 (68.54%) chose TCM only and 1304 (31.46%) chose to combine TCM and WM therapies. Those who chose combination therapy were younger, and needed more times of visit and longer duration of treatment. The most frequent comorbid conditions accompany atopic dermatitis were allergic rhinitis (46.06%) and asthma (21.46%). Among the 87,573 prescriptions written for Chinese medicine, the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb were Xiao-Feng-San (Eliminate Wind Powder) (16.98%) and Bai-Xian-Pi (Cortex Dictamni) (12.68%), respectively. The most commonly used therapeutic principles of herbal formulas and single herbs were releasing exterior (20.23%) and clearing heat (41.93%), respectively. Our hospital-based study characterized the utilization patterns of traditional Chinese medicine in atopic dermatitis patients. This information could be used as references for clinical application and provide valuable information for future clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yi-Lin; Lee, Chien-Ying; Huang, Kuang-Hua; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Ming
Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are commonly prescribed for sleep disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate the prescription patterns of CHPs and Western medicine for patients with these disorders in Taiwan, and analyze the frequency of using single herbs (SHs) and herbal formulas (HFs). In this retrospective population-based study secondary data analysis was performed using data from Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) between January 2007 and December 2011. In total, 1000,000 beneficiaries from the LHID were randomly selected from the 2010 registry for beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with sleep disorder and MDD according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 307.40 and 311, respectively. Among a total of 11,030 patients with sleep disorder, 9619 used Western medicine, 1334 used CHPs, and 77 used both, Among a total of 11,571 patients with MDD, 11,389 used Western medicine, 131 used CHPs, and 51 used both. Regardless of disorder type, women were predominant The majority of the patients were aged 22-44 years, had a monthly income of NT$17,281-NT$22,800, and lived in an area with Level 1 and Level 2 urbanization. Of the patients with sleep disorder, 1411 had used CHPs and visited a clinic 5298 times on average. Of the patients with MDD, 182 had used CHPs and visited a clinic 755 times on average. The three most commonly used SHs and HFs were Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, and Polygalae Radix, and Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang, and Chai-Hu-Chia-Lung-Ku-Mu-Li-Tang, respectively. Chinese herbal products including SHs and HFs are prescribed for patients with sleep disorder and MDD. However, the efficacy and safety of CHPs for sleep disorder and MDD need to be further evaluated. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Full Text Available In an extensive screening, the antiviral, antitrypanosomal and anticancer properties of extracts from 82 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine and European phytomedicine were determined. Several promising plants that were highly effective against hepatitis B virus (HBV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV—a flavivirus used here as a surrogate in vitro model of hepatitis C virus, trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei brucei and several cancer cell lines were identified. Six aqueous extracts from Celosia cristata, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Houttuynia cordata, Selaginella tamariscina, Alpinia galanga and Alpinia oxyphylla showed significant antiviral effects against BVDV without toxic effects on host embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr cells, while Evodia lepta, Hedyotis diffusa and Glycyrrhiza spp. demonstrated promising activities against the HBV without toxic effects on host human hepatoblastoma cells transfected with HBV-DNA (HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Seven organic extracts from Alpinia oxyphylla, Coptis chinensis, Kadsura longipedunculata, Arctium lappa, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Saposhnikovia divaricata inhibited T. b. brucei. Moreover, among fifteen water extracts that combined high antiproliferative activity (IC50 0.5–20 µg/mL and low acute in vitro toxicity (0–10% reduction in cell viability at IC50, Coptis chinensis presented the best beneficial characteristics. In conclusion, traditional herbal medicine from Europe and China still has a potential for new therapeutic targets and therapeutic applications.
Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Yue; Liang, Jun-Song; Zhou, Xing-Wen
Correct identification of medicinal plant ingredients is essential for their safe use and for the regulation of herbal drug supply chain. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a recently developed approach to identify herbal medicine species. This novel molecular biology technique enables timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where infrastructures to support polymerase chain reaction facilities are lacking. Studies that used this method have altered our view on the extent and complexity of herbal medicine identification. In this review, we give an introduction into LAMP analysis, covers the basic principles and important aspects in the development of LAMP analysis method. Then we presented a critical review of the application of LAMP-based methods in detecting and identifying raw medicinal plant materials and their processed products. We also provide a practical standard operating procedure (SOP) for the utilization of the LAMP protocol in herbal authentication, and consider the prospects of LAMP technology in the future developments of herbal medicine identification and the challenges associated with its application.
Analysis of Sheng-Mai-San, a Ginseng-Containing Multiple Components Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Physical Examination by Electron and Light Microscopies
Full Text Available Sheng-Mai-San is a multi-component traditional Chinese herbal preparation. Due to the fact granulated additives, such as starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, lactose and raw herbal powder may alter the content of the bioactive markers in the herbal products, a developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1, Rh1, compound K, ophiopogonin D and schizandrin from the Sheng-Mai-San herbal formulation. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe the morphology of the herbal granular powders. Light microscopy with Congo red and iodine-KI reagent staining was used to identify the cellulose fiber and cornstarch added to pharmaceutical herbal products. The swelling power (SP, water solubility index (WSI, and crude fiber analysis were used to determine the contents of cellulose fiber and cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products. In this study, we developed a novel skill to assess the quantification of appended cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products using Aperio ImageScope software. Compared with the traditional cornstarch analysis, our analysis method is a rapid, simple and conversion process which could be applied to detect the percentage of added cornstarch in unknown powder products. The various range of the herbal content for the five pharmaceutical manufacturers varied by up to several hundreds-fold. The physical examination reveals that the morphology of the herbal pharmaceutical products is rough and irregular with sharp layers. This study provides a reference standard operating procedure guide for the quality control of the Chinese herbal pharmaceutical products of Sheng-Mai-San.
Analysis of Sheng-Mai-San, a Ginseng-Containing Multiple Components Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Physical Examination by Electron and Light Microscopies.
Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Sheng-Mai-San is a multi-component traditional Chinese herbal preparation. Due to the fact granulated additives, such as starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, lactose and raw herbal powder may alter the content of the bioactive markers in the herbal products, a developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of ginsenoside Rb₁, Rb₂, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg₁, Rh₁, compound K, ophiopogonin D and schizandrin from the Sheng-Mai-San herbal formulation. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the herbal granular powders. Light microscopy with Congo red and iodine-KI reagent staining was used to identify the cellulose fiber and cornstarch added to pharmaceutical herbal products. The swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), and crude fiber analysis were used to determine the contents of cellulose fiber and cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products. In this study, we developed a novel skill to assess the quantification of appended cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products using Aperio ImageScope software. Compared with the traditional cornstarch analysis, our analysis method is a rapid, simple and conversion process which could be applied to detect the percentage of added cornstarch in unknown powder products. The various range of the herbal content for the five pharmaceutical manufacturers varied by up to several hundreds-fold. The physical examination reveals that the morphology of the herbal pharmaceutical products is rough and irregular with sharp layers. This study provides a reference standard operating procedure guide for the quality control of the Chinese herbal pharmaceutical products of Sheng-Mai-San.
Kiguba, Ronald; Ononge, Sam; Karamagi, Charles; Bird, Sheila M
Clinical history-taking can be employed as a standardized approach to elucidate the use of herbal medicines and their linked suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among hospitalized patients. We sought to identify herbal medicines nominated by Ugandan inpatients; compare nomination rates by ward and gender; confirm the herbs' known pharmacological properties from published literature; and identify ADRs linked to pre-admission use of herbal medicines. Prospective cohort of consented adult inpatients designed to assess medication use and ADRs on one gynaecological and three medical wards of 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital. Baseline and follow-up data were obtained on patients' characteristics, including pre-admission use of herbal medicines. Fourteen percent (26/191) of females in Gynaecology nominated at least one specific herbal medicine compared with 20 % (114/571) of inpatients on medical wards [20 % (69/343) of females; 20 % (45/228) of males]. Frequent nominations were Persea americana (30), Mumbwa/multiple-herb clay rods (23), Aloe barbadensis (22), Beta vulgaris (12), Vernonia amygdalina (11), Commelina africana (7), Bidens pilosa (7), Hoslundia opposita (6), Mangifera indica (4), and Dicliptera laxata (4). Four inpatients experienced 10 suspected ADRs linked to pre-admission herbal medicine use including Commelina africana (4), multiple-herb-mumbwa (1), or unspecified local-herbs (5): three ADR-cases were abortion-related and one kidney-related. The named herbal medicines and their nomination rates generally differed by specialized ward, probably guided by local folklore knowledge of their use. Clinical elicitation from inpatients can generate valuable safety data on herbal medicine use. However, larger routine studies might increase the utility of our method to assess herbal medicine use and detect herb-linked ADRs. Future studies should take testable samples of ADR-implicated herbal medicines for further analysis.
Yee Meng Chong
Full Text Available The quorum sensing (QS system has been used by many opportunistic pathogenic bacteria to coordinate their virulence determinants in relation to cell-population density. As antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, interference with QS has been regarded as a novel way to control bacterial infections. As such, many plant-based natural products have been widely explored for their therapeutic roles. These natural products may contain anti-QS compounds that could block QS signals generation or transmission to combat QS pathogens. In this study, we report the anti-QS activities of four different Chinese herbal plant extracts: Poria cum Radix pini, Angelica dahurica, Rhizoma cibotii and Schizonepeta tenuifolia, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. All the plants extracted using hexane, chloroform and methanol were tested and found to impair swarming motility and pyocyanin production in P. aeruginosa PAO1, particularly by Poria cum Radix pini. In addition, all the plant extracts also inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum CV026 up to 50% while bioluminescence activities were reduced in lux-based E. coli biosensors, pSB401 and pSB1075, up to about 57%. These anti-QS properties of the four medicinal plants are the first documentation that demonstrates a potential approach to attenuate pathogens’ virulence determinants.