WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese continental scientific

  1. Heat flow study at the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling site: Borehole temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Hu, Shengbiao; Huang, Shaopeng; Yang, Wencai; Wang, Jiyang; Yuan, Yusong; Yang, Shuchun

    2008-02-01

    The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project offers a unique opportunity for studying the thermal regime of the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. In this paper, we report measurements of borehole temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production from the 5158 m deep main hole (CCSD MH). We have obtained six continuous temperature profiles from this borehole so far. The temperature logs show a transient mean thermal gradient that has increased from 24.38 to 25.28 K km-1 over a period of about 1.5 years. We measured thermal conductivities and radiogenic heat productions on more than 400 core samples from CCSD MH. The measured thermal conductivities range between 1.71 and 3.60 W m-1 K-1, and the radiogenic heat productions vary from 0.01 μW m-3 to over 5.0 μW m-3, with a mean value of 1.23 ± 0.82 μW m-3 for the upper 5-km layer of the crust. The heat productions in CCSD MH appear to be more rock-type than depth-dependent and, over the depth range of CCSD MH, do not fit the popular model of heat production decreasing exponentially with increasing depth. The measured heat flow decreases with depth from ˜75 mW m-2 near the surface to ˜66 mW m-2 at a depth of 4600 m. High heat flow anomalies occur at ˜1000 and ˜2300 m, and low anomalies occur at 3300-4000 m. A preliminary two-dimensional numerical model suggests that both radiogenic heat production and thermal refraction due to structural heterogeneity are at least partially responsible for the vertical variation of heat flow in CCSD MH.

  2. The Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin, NE China: Organic-rich source rock evaluation with geophysical logs from Borehole SK-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zou, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous strata have been recognized as an important target of oil or gas exploration in the Songliao Basin, northeast China. The second borehole (SK-2) of the Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK) is the first one to drill through the Cretaceous continental strata in the frame of ICDP. It was designed not only to solve multiple scientific problems (including the Cretaceous paleoenvironment and paleoclimate, as well as deep resources exploration of the Songliao Basin), but also to expect to achieve new breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration. Based on the project, various geophysical log data (including gamma, sonic, resistivity, density etc.) and core samples have been collected from Borehole SK-2. We do research on organic-rich source rocks estimation using various geophysical log data. Firstly, we comprehensively analyzed organic-rich source rocks' geophysical log response characteristics. Then, source rock's identification methods were constructed to identify organic-rich source rocks with geophysical logs. The main identification methods include cross-plot, multiple overlap and Decision Tree method. Finally, the technique and the CARBOLOG method were applied to evaluate total organic carbon (TOC) content from geophysical logs which provide continuous vertical profile estimations (Passey, 1990; Carpentier et al., 1991). The results show that source rocks are widely distributed in Borehole SK-2, over a large depth strata (985 5700m), including Nenjiang, Qingshankou, Denglouku, Yingcheng, Shahezi Formations. The organic-rich source rocks with higher TOC content occur in the Qingshankou (1647 1650m), Denglouku (2534 2887m) and Shahezi (3367 5697m) Formations. The highest TOC content in these formations can reach 10.31%, 6.58%, 12.79% respectively. The bed thickness of organic-rich source rocks in the these formations are totally up to 7.88m, 74.34m, 276.60m respectively. These organic-rich rocks in the

  3. Chinese graduate students and U.S. scientific productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaulé, Patrick; Piacentini, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2013), s. 698-701 ISSN 0034-6535 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : graduate students * Chinese immigrants * scientific output Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2013

  4. National and international scientific elites: an analysis of Chinese scholars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, F.; Larivière, V.; Julien, C.A.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the WoS with a national Chinese bibliometric database at the level of individual authors and measure the extent of the overlap of the group of authors that are the most active in the two data sources. The results indicate that Chinese scholars do not have homogeneous publication patterns: some very productive scholars mostly publish in international (WoS) journals while others prefer to diffuse their research results in national Chinese journals. Disciplines that are most international in scope exhibit a much higher level of overlap than those of the social sciences and humanities. These results suggest that the WoS does not accurately represent Chinese research activities, especially in social science and humanities, but that it also has a relative overlap with the Chinese national scientific literature in the natural and medical sciences. (Author)

  5. Scientific psychology within the Chinese language and cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Heyong

    2006-01-01

    The Scientific Psychology that was founded by Wilhelm Wundt appeared in China in the late nineteenth century. The scholars translated the name of psychology into Chinese as Xin-Li-Xue, for which the meaning of the words looks like "heartology," i.e., "the study of the heart." In Chinese, the same core structure related to "heart" (Xin) is found in most of the terms of psychology, such as emotion, thinking, will, forgetting, and memory. By translating Xin as "heart" instead of "mind," we maintain an embodied approach to understanding the "principles of the heart." Through a historical approach to the influence of Western psychology, a cultural analysis of the meaning of the term psychology in Chinese, and a focus on the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, we can witness the significance of psychology in the Chinese language and cultural context. I will use three parts to present psychology in the Chinese cultural context: the origins of Chinese psychology, from a historical approach; the meaning of "psychology" in Chinese, using a cultural analysis; and the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, focusing on the development and future.

  6. Biodiversity of a wreck from the Belgian Continental Shelf: monitoring using scientific diving: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Massin, Cl.; Norro, A.; Mallefet, J.

    2002-01-01

    Scientific diving from aboard the r/v Belgica has been employed to carry out a preliminary study of the macrofauna living on a wreck (the Birkenfels) located on the Belgian Continental Shelf (BCS). The study revealed an extremely rich sessile and slow moving fauna (at least 40 species), 3 jellyfish species and 8 fish species. The presence of at least 51 species represents a biodiversity of macrofauna on the wreck that is much higher than that found in nearly all known surrounding soft bottorn...

  7. [Investigation methodology and application on scientific and technological personnel of traditional Chinese medical resources based on data from Chinese scientific research paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-yan; Li, Yuan-hai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fang-zhou; Wang, Jing; Tian, Ye; Yang, Ce; Liu, Yang; Li, Meng; Sun Li-ying

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the present status of the scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resource science. Based on the data from Chinese scientific research paper, an investigation regarding the number of the personnel, the distribution, their output of paper, their scientific research teams, high-yield authors and high-cited authors was conducted. The study covers seven subfields of traditional Chinese medicine identification, quality standard, Chinese medicine cultivation, harvest processing of TCM, market development and resource protection and resource management, as well as 82 widely used Chinese medicine species, such as Ginseng and Radix Astragali. One hundred and fifteen domain authority experts were selected based on the data of high-yield authors and high-cited authors. The database system platform "Skilled Scientific and Technological Personnel in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resource Science-Chinese papers" was established. This platform successfully provided the retrieval result of the personnel, output of paper, and their core research team by input the study field, year, and Chinese medicine species. The investigation provides basic data of scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine resource science for administrative agencies and also evidence for the selection of scientific and technological personnel and construction of scientific research teams.

  8. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC): Continental scientific drilling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Research summaries are presented of ongoing or proposed deep drilling programs to explore hydrothermal systems, buried astroblemes, continental crust, magma systems, mountain belt tectonics, subduction zones, and volcanoes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  9. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. W...

  10. Red Science: China's Scientific Capital and the Future of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Salazar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS produces the scientific and technological breakthroughs that place China among the major players in scientific innovation. However, the control that the Chinese government exerts over the Academy and the tradition of guanxi among its members prevent the CAS from take-off and securing a free environment to conduct original research. The article assesses the economic logic of scientific control and its effects within the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The paper’s aim is to derive to what extent the CAS will remain as China’s main provider of scientific innovation. The “national innovation systems” approach and the cultural traditions rooted in Confucianism are revised in detail to provide an accurate perspective. The paper concludes that the CAS’ international reputation as a center of scientific and technological innovation might be at stake unless the Chinese government makes some critical reforms.

  11. Scientific Evidence on the Supportive Cancer Care with Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William CS CHO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.

  12. [Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-09-01

    The compound Chinese materia medica is the medication pattern of the traditional Chinese medicine for the disease prevention and treatment. The single Chinese materia medica (mostly in decoction pieces) is the prescription composition of the compound Chinese materia medica. The study of the effective substance basis of Chinese materia medica should be based on the chemical compositions of the compound Chinese materia medica as an entry point considering the different status of "Monarch, Minister, Assistant, and Guide" for a certain single Chinese materia medica in the different compound Chinese materia medica while substance basis research of a certain single Chinese materia medica should be a full component analysis as well as both stable and controllable quality. Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica.

  13. 77 FR 15382 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Notice of Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Committee provides advice on the feasibility, appropriateness, and scientific value of the OCS Environmental... relevance of the research and data being produced to meet BOEM's scientific information needs for decision...

  14. ACADEMICIAN N.A. LOGATCHEV AND HIS SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL: CONTRUBITION TO STUDIES OF THE CENOZOIC CONTINENTAL RIFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Rasskazov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available N.A. Florensov and N.A. Logatchev pioneered development of fundamental concepts of the structure and evolution of the Baikal system of rift basins. At the turn to the 21st century, in view of the wide availability of scientific research data on the Cenozoic continental rift zones located in Eurasia, Africa and North America, and taking into account the application of new research methods and options to process and analyze huge amounts of geological and geophysical data, a priority was comprehensive modeling of rifting from its origin to the current period of time. This scientific challenge was addressed by the research team under the leadership of N.A. Logachev.

  15. 77 FR 27480 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... data being produced to meet BOEM's scientific information needs for decision making and may recommend.../ecology, physical sciences, and social sciences) to review the specific research plans of BOEM's regional... Committee business. [[Page 27481

  16. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.

  17. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.

  18. 76 FR 23331 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... and data being produced to meet BOEMRE scientific information needs for decision making and may...., biology/ecology, physical sciences, and social sciences) to review the specific studies plans of the... continue with Committee business. The meetings are open to the public. Approximately 40 visitors can be...

  19. 78 FR 25100 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... data being produced to meet BOEM's scientific information needs for decision making and may recommend.... Discipline breakout groups (i.e., biology/ecology, physical sciences, and social sciences) will meet from 1... Committee business will be discussed from 3:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. The meetings are open to the public...

  20. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L. (eds.)

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  1. Quo Vadis ICDP? The Science Plan of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The rocks and fluids of our ever-changing planet contain heat, energy, and life as well as archived records of what has gone before. These precious relicts and living systems need to be probed, collected, monitored and analyzed. The science results obtained cover the spectrum of the earth sciences from climate change, natural hazards and earth resources to the origins of life on Earth. The need to drill has never been greater, and this requires improved coordination between the marine, terrestrial and ice-coring communities and the research and private sector communities, effectively addressing the needs of our growing population for energy, sustenance, and quality of life. The ICDP is an infrastructure for scientific drilling that facilitates outstanding science. It is the only international platform for scientific research drilling in terrestrial environments. ICDP brings together scientists and stakeholders from 24 nations to work together at the highest scientific and technical niveaux. More than 30 drilling projects and 55 planning workshops have been supported to date. It is an efficient organisation, run according to the philosophy "lean and mean", with an average annual budget of about 5 million, and further third-party drilling expenditures that more than doubles this yearly investment. Here we report on ICDP's 2013 Science Conference "Imaging the Past to Imagine our Future", held November 11-14, 2013 in Potsdam whose goal was to set the new ICDP Science Plan in motion. New insights into geoprocesses and the identification of hot topics were high on the agenda, and debated in closed sessions, via posters and through oral presentations, and where appropriate dovetailed with socio-economic challenges. The conference was used to strengthen and expand our ties with member countries, and to debate incorporating industry into selected ICDP strategic activities where it makes sense to do so (ICDP remains science-driven). In addition, the conference paved the way

  2. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tippi K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  3. [Guidelines of reference recording in scientific papers of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong

    2008-01-01

    To improve the compilation quality of references, work in well with articles search and periodicals evaluation, and promote international academic exchange, the Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology shall adjust its principles of reference recording in scientific papers based on the GB/T7714 -2005. From 2008, the references in scientific papers to be submitted are requested to record by the Citation-Sequence. In this paper, some examples were presented, and the issues needed to be paid more attention to by the authors were put forward.

  4. Chinese mineral dust and anthropogenic aerosol inter-continental transport: a Greenland perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bory, A.; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S.; Svensson, A.; Biscaye, P.

    2012-04-01

    Impurities contained in snow and ice layers in Greenland provide a record of the history of atmospheric dustiness and pollution in the Northern Hemisphere. The source of the particles deposited onto the ice cap may be investigated using specific intrinsic tracers. Provenance discrimination may then provide valuable constraints for the validation of atmospheric transport models as well as for the monitoring of natural and anthropogenic aerosols emissions at a global scale. Clay mineralogy combined with the strontium and neodymium isotope composition of the insoluble particles extracted from recent snow deposits at NorthGRIP (75.1°N, 042.3°W), for instance, enabled us to demonstrate that the Taklimakan desert of North-western China was the main source of mineral dust reaching central Greenland at present [Bory et al., EPSL, 2002 ; GRL, 2003a]. Here we report the lead isotopic signature of these snow-pit samples, covering the 1989-1995 and 1998-2001 time periods. Unradiogenic lead isotopic composition of our Greenland samples, compared to Asian dust isotopic fingerprints, implies that most of the insoluble lead reaching the ice cap is of anthropogenic origin. Lead isotopes reveal likely contributions from European/Canadian and, to a lesser extent, US sources, as well as a marked overprinted signature typical of Chinese anthropogenic lead sources. The relative contribution of the latter appears to have been increasing steadily over the last decade of the 20th century. Quantitative estimates suggest that, in addition to providing most of the dust, China may have already become the most important supplier of anthropogenic lead deposited in Greenland by the turn of the 20th to the 21st century. The close timing between dust and anthropogenic particles deposition onto the ice cap provides new insights for our understanding of Chinese aerosols transport to Greenland.

  5. Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    are useful to analyze subsidence that accompanies sedimentation. Borehole gravimetry and well logging are useful in determining sediment density, which...their subsequent transport and precipitation . Specifically, do interconnected rock pores and fractures exist over a range of sizes, so that essentially

  6. Transnational Research Networks in Chinese Scientific Production. An Investigation on Health-Industry Related Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Lauretta; Pollio, Chiara; Di Tommaso, Marco R

    2017-08-29

    Transnational research networks (TRN) are becoming increasingly complex. Such complexity may have both positive and negative effects on the quality of research. Our work studies the evolution over time of Chinese TRN and the role of complexity on the quality of Chinese research, given the leading role this country has recently acquired in international science. We focus on the fields of geriatrics and gerontology. We build an original dataset of all scientific publications of China in these areas in 2009, 2012 and 2015, starting from the ISI Web of Knowledge (ISI WoK) database. Using Social Network Analysis (SNA), we analyze the change in scientific network structure across time. Second, we design indices to control for the different aspects of networks complexity (number of authors, country heterogeneity and institutional heterogeneity) and we perform negative binomial regressions to identify the main determinants of research quality. Our analysis shows that research networks in the field of geriatrics and gerontology have gradually become wider in terms of countries and have become more balanced. Furthermore, our results identify that different forms of complexity have different impacts on quality, including a reciprocal moderating effect. In particular, according to our analysis, research quality benefits from complex research networks both in terms of countries and of types of institutions involved, but that such networks should be "compact" in terms of number of authors. Eventually, we suggest that complexity should be carefully taken into account when designing policies aimed at enhancing the quality of research.

  7. Transnational Research Networks in Chinese Scientific Production. An Investigation on Health-Industry Related Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauretta Rubini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transnational research networks (TRN are becoming increasingly complex. Such complexity may have both positive and negative effects on the quality of research. Our work studies the evolution over time of Chinese TRN and the role of complexity on the quality of Chinese research, given the leading role this country has recently acquired in international science. We focus on the fields of geriatrics and gerontology. We build an original dataset of all scientific publications of China in these areas in 2009, 2012 and 2015, starting from the ISI Web of Knowledge (ISI WoK database. Using Social Network Analysis (SNA, we analyze the change in scientific network structure across time. Second, we design indices to control for the different aspects of networks complexity (number of authors, country heterogeneity and institutional heterogeneity and we perform negative binomial regressions to identify the main determinants of research quality. Our analysis shows that research networks in the field of geriatrics and gerontology have gradually become wider in terms of countries and have become more balanced. Furthermore, our results identify that different forms of complexity have different impacts on quality, including a reciprocal moderating effect. In particular, according to our analysis, research quality benefits from complex research networks both in terms of countries and of types of institutions involved, but that such networks should be “compact” in terms of number of authors. Eventually, we suggest that complexity should be carefully taken into account when designing policies aimed at enhancing the quality of research.

  8. Scientific Collaboration in Chinese Nursing Research: A Social Network Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Ni; Hao, Yu-Fang; Cao, Jing; She, Yan-Chao; Duan, Hong-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration has become very important in research and in technological progress. Coauthorship networks in different fields have been intensively studied as an important type of collaboration in recent years. Yet there are few published reports about collaboration in the field of nursing. This article aimed to reveal the status and identify the key features of collaboration in the field of nursing in China. Using data from the top 10 nursing journals in China from 2003 to 2013, we constructed a nursing scientific coauthorship network using social network analysis. We found that coauthorship was a common phenomenon in the Chinese nursing field. A coauthorship network with 228 subnetworks formed by 1428 nodes was constructed. The network was relatively loose, and most subnetworks were of small scales. Scholars from Shanghai and from military medical system were at the center of the Chinese nursing scientific coauthorship network. We identified the authors' positions and influences according to the research output and centralities of each author. We also analyzed the microstructure and the evolution over time of the maximum subnetwork.

  9. Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these

  10. Traditional Chinese medicine formulas for irritable bowel syndrome: from ancient wisdoms to scientific understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai-Tao; Zhong, Linda; Tsang, Siu-Wai; Lin, Ze-Si; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) serves as the most common alternative therapeutic approach for Western medicine and benefits IBS patients globally. Due to the lack of scientific evidence in the past, TCM formulas were not internationally well recognized as promising IBS remedies. In this review, firstly, we present the etiology and therapy of IBS in terms of traditional Chinese medical theory. Secondly, we summarize the clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM formulas for IBS patients that are available in the literature (from 1998 to September 2013), in which 14 RCTs conducted of high quality were discussed in detail. Of the 14 selected trials, 12 of those concluded that TCM formulas provided superior improvement in the global symptoms of IBS patients over the placebo or conventional medicines. As well, all 14 RCTs suggested that TCM formulas have good safety and tolerability. Last but not least, we explore the pharmacological mechanisms of the anti-IBS TCM formulas available in the literature (from 1994 to September, 2013). Collectively, in combating IBS symptoms, most TCM formulas exert multi-targeting actions including the regulation of neurotransmitters and hormones in the enteric nervous system (ENS), modulation of smooth muscle motility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, attenuation of intestinal inflammation and restoration of intestinal flora, etc. In conclusion, TCM formulas appear to be promising for IBS treatment. This review provides a useful reference for the public in furthering a better understanding and acceptance of TCM formulas as IBS remedies.

  11. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  12. Determination of In-situ Rock Thermal Properties from Geophysical Log Data of SK-2 East Borehole, Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Songliao Basin, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, X.; Peng, C.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Songliao Basin is a drilling project under the framework of ICDP. It aims at detecting Cretaceous environmental/climate changes and exploring potential resources near or beneath the base of the basin. The main hole, SK-2 East Borehole, has been drilled to penetrate through the Cretaceous formation. A variety of geophysical log data were collected from the borehole, which provide a great opportunity to analyze thermal properties of in-situ rock surrounding the borehole.The geothermal gradients were derived directly from temperature logs recorded 41 days after shut-in. The matrix and bulk thermal conductivity of rock were calculated with the geometric-mean model, in which mineral/rock contents and porosity were required as inputs (Fuchs et. al., 2014). Accurate mineral contents were available from the elemental capture spectroscopy logs and porosity data were derived from conventional logs (density, neutron and sonic). The heat production data were calculated by means of the concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium determined from natural gamma-ray spectroscopy logs. Then, the heat flow was determined by using the values of geothermal gradients and thermal conductivity.The thermal parameters of in-situ rock over the depth interval of 0 4500m in the borehole were derived from geophysical logs. Statistically, the numerical ranges of thermal parameters are in good agreement with the measured values from both laboratory and field in this area. The results show that high geothermal gradient and heat flow exist over the whole Cretaceous formation, with anomalously high values in the Qingshankou formation (1372.0 1671.7m) and the Quantou formation (1671.7 2533.5m). It is meaningful for characterization of geothermal regime and exploration of geothermal resources in the basin. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the "China Continental Scientific Drilling Program of Cretaceous Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK)" of China

  13. Evaluation of forestry strategies for climate change mitigation in continental France. Scientific literature and main actors' positioning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago Esquinas, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This work contributes to the current scientific debate regarding the optimization of the forest sector's contribution to mitigating climate change. A scientific literature review has pointed out some uncertainties on the contribution to emission reduction objectives in the short to medium-term of an increasing harvest of forest resources for wood construction and energy generation. Timing of mitigation benefits for a managed forest depends on forestry upstream characteristics(forest and soil type and silviculture method) and downstream characteristics (transport distance, use of wood, efficiency of wood based energy production, fossil-fuel based reference system that is substituted,etc). A survey conducted among national forest experts points out debates concerning optimal silviculture practices to mitigating climate change. These discussions are due to the trades-off between sequestering carbon in forest ecosystems and climatic benefits obtained by sustainable forest harvesting and use of wood products to displace fossil emissions. (author) [fr

  14. Improve nursing in evidence-based practice: How Chinese nurses' read and comprehend scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Fei Huang

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The survey of the current status of literature education among Chinese nurses suggests that providing protected time, training for critical thinking, and incentive mechanisms will help improve nurses' engagement in literature and create a culture of academic inquiry.

  15. Final Scientific/Technical Report of Gas Hydrate Dynamics on the Alaskan Beaufort Continental Slope: Modeling and Field Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbach, Matthew J [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Colwell, Frederick S [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Harris, Robert [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Methane Hydrates, a solid form of methane and water, exist at high pressures and low temperatures, occurs on every continental margin on Earth, represents one of the largest reservoirs of carbon on the planet, and, if destabilized, may play an important role in both slope stability and climate change. For decades, researchers have studied methane hydrates with the hope of determining if methane hydrates are destabilizing, and if so, how this destabilization might impact slope stability and ocean/atmosphere carbon budgets. In the past ~5 years, it has become well established that the upper “feather-edge” of methane hydrate stability (intermediate water depths of ~200-500 meters below sea level) represents an important frontier for methane hydrates stability research, as this zone is most susceptible to destabilization due to minor fluctuations in ocean temperature in space and time. The Arctic Ocean—one of the fastest warming regions on Earth—is perhaps the best place to study possible changes to methane hydrate stability due to ocean warming. To address the stability of methane hydrates at intermediate ocean depths, Southern Methodist University in partnership with Oregon State University and The United State Geological Survey at Woods Hole began investigating methane hydrate stability in intermediate water depths below both the US Beaufort Sea and the Atlantic Margin, from 2012-2017. The work was funded by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The key goal of the SMU component of this study was to collect the first ever heat flow data in the Beaufort Sea and compare measured shallow (probe-based1) heat flow values with deeper (BSR-derived2) heat flow values, and from this, determine whether hydrates were in thermal equilibrium. In September 2016, SMU/OSU collected the first ever heat flow measurements in the US Beaufort Sea. Despite poor weather and rough seas, the cruise was a success, with 116 heat flow

  16. Research on Evaluation of Chinese Students' Competence in Written Scientific Argumentation in the Context of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Wang, Houxiong

    2017-01-01

    Attending to practice has become a significant topic in science education today. As scientific argumentation is a typical form of scientific practice as well as an important educational practice, more and more attention has been paid to it by science education researchers. Evaluating students' competence in scientific argumentation is one of the…

  17. Bibliometric Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine Scientific Production between 1982 and 2016 Indexed in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consentino, Ricardo; Santos, Maria João; Matos, Luís Carlos; Machado, Jorge Pereira

    2018-05-03

    Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be understood as a system of sensations and findings designed to establish the functional vegetative state of the body. This state may be treated by several therapeutic methods such as acupuncture, Chinese pharmacotherapy, dietetics, Tuina , and Qigong . Nowadays, as a result of several evidence-based reported beneficial effects over specific pathological conditions, there is an increasing tendency to integrate some of these practices in Western medicine. The main goal of this study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of TCM scientific production between 1982 and 2016 indexed in PubMed, by analyzing several parameters including time and location distribution, publication quality, experimental design, and treatment methods. Methods: The methodology was based on the quantitative inventory of published scientific research indexed in PubMed medical subject headings (MeSH), sorted within the broad term “Traditional Chinese Medicine” and integrating the following criteria as limit filters: “Species: Humans”, “Article Type: Clinical Trial”. In addition, the articles’ triage was ruled by temporal limitations set between 1945 and 2016. Results: The overall analysis of data allowed observation of an average annual growth of approximately 33%, with a productive peak of 122 articles in 2007. The scientific production was distributed in 27 countries, led by China (76.1%), followed by the United States of America (3.0%) and South Korea (2.1%). A significant amount of references were published in Chinese journals: more than 50%; however, these journals had a low impact factor. The most cited treatments in the keywords section of the articles were phytotherapy (55%) and acupuncture (40%). Conclusion: The increasing demand for TCM seems to be due to factors such as lower side effects and greater efficacy in some patients not responding well to conventional therapy. As a result, a considerable amount of TCM science

  18. Non-scientific classification of Chinese herbal medicine as dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.

  19. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-fen Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  20. Examination of the "CSI Effect" on Perceptions of Scientific and Testimonial Evidence in a Hong Kong Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2017-05-01

    Television is a powerful medium through which to convey information and messages to the public. The recent proliferation of forensic science and criminal justice information throughout all forms of media, coupled with raised expectations toward forensic evidence, has led some to suspect that a "CSI effect" ( Crime Scene Investigation effect) is taking place. The present study contributes to the literature addressing the CSI effect in two ways. First, it examines whether the CSI effect exists in the Chinese population of Hong Kong. Second, using a mock-jury paradigm, it empirically examines a more integrative perspective of the CSI effect. It was found that, although the amount of media coverage involving forensic evidence does influence participants' perception of legal evidence to some degree, such a perception does not affect participants' legal decision making. Viewers of forensic dramas were not more likely to convict the defendant when forensic evidence was presented and not less likely to convict when only testimonial evidence was presented. The only significant predictor of the defendant's culpability when scientific evidence was presented was participants' ratings of the reliability of scientific evidence. Results from the present study lend no support to the existence of the CSI effect in Hong Kong.

  1. Scientific publications on systematic review and meta-analysis from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the English literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiping; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2012-03-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are playing an increasingly important role in clinical research and practice. This study aimed to measure the scientific production of systematic review and meta-analysis from the three major regions of China: the Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). English articles on systematic review and meta-analysis from ML, HK, and TW from 2001 to 2010 were retrieved from the PubMed database. The total number of articles, impact factors (IF), and articles published in high-impact journals were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons among the three regions. There were 1 587 published articles from ML (1 292), HK (203), and TW (92) during the past ten years. The annual total numbers of articles in the three regions increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 (from 13 to 677). The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from TW since 2001, and surpassed that from HK in 2003. The accumulated IF of articles from ML (3 488.24) was higher than those from HK (493.16) and TW (216.39). HK had the highest average IF of 3.31, followed by ML of 2.90 and TW of 2.85. Researchers from HK published a larger proportion of papers in high-impact journals than those from ML and TW. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was the most popular journal in China. Chinese authors have been very active to enhance the systematic review and meta-analysis research over the past ten years, especially in ML. The gap between ML and the other two regions has been narrowed. But there is still considerable room for Chinese authors to improve their studies on systematic review and meta-analysis.

  2. Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…

  3. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá, made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research.

  4. Measurement of low-LET radiation dose aboard the chinese scientific experiment satellite (1988) by highly sensitive LiF (Mg, Cu, P) TL chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonglun; Zheng Yanzhen.

    1989-01-01

    Low-LET radiation dose is an important portion of spaceflight dose. It is a new application that highly sensitive LiF(Mg, Cu, P) TL chips are used in measurement of low-LET dose aboard the chinese scientific experiment satellite. Avarage dose rate in satellite is 9.2 mrad/day and on the ground is about 0.32 mrad/day

  5. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1985-01-01

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  6. 1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

  7. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part II: Introducing Euler Poles Using Baja-North America Relative Plate Motion Across the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, J. P.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Lamb, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere (RCL) initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum, including lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. This component of the curriculum introduces students to the Euler pole description of relative plate motion (RPM) by examining the tectonic interactions of the Baja California microplate and North American plate. The plate boundary varies in rift obliquity along strike, from highly oblique and strike-slip dominated in the south to slightly less oblique and with a larger extensional component in the north. This Google Earth-based exercise provides students with a visualization of RPM using small circle contours of the local direction and magnitude of Baja-North America movement on a spherical Earth. Students use RPM to calculate the fault slip rates on transform, normal, and oblique-slip faults and examine how the varying faulting styles combine to accommodate RPM. MARGINS results are integrated via comparison of rift obliquity with the structural style of rift-related faults around the GOC. We find this exercise to fit naturally into courses about plate tectonics, geophysics, and especially structural geology, given the similarity between Euler pole rotations and stereonet-based rotations of structural data.

  8. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Characterizing the Response of the Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrate Reservoir to Bottom Water Warming Along the Upper Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Evan A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnson, H. Paul [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Salmi, Marie [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Whorley, Theresa [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-10

    The objective of this project is to understand the response of the WA margin gas hydrate system to contemporary warming of bottom water along the upper continental slope. Through pre-cruise analysis and modeling of archive and recent geophysical and oceanographic data, we (1) inventoried bottom simulating reflectors along the WA margin and defined the upper limit of gas hydrate stability, (2) refined margin-wide estimates of heat flow and geothermal gradients, (3) characterized decadal scale temporal variations of bottom water temperatures at the upper continental slope of the Washington margin, and (4) used numerical simulations to provide quantitative estimates of how the shallow boundary of methane hydrate stability responds to modern environmental change. These pre-cruise results provided the context for a systematic geophysical and geochemical survey of methane seepage along the upper continental slope from 48° to 46°N during a 10-day field program on the R/V Thompson from October 10-19, 2014. This systematic inventory of methane emissions along this climate-sensitive margin corridor and comprehensive sediment and water column sampling program provided data and samples for Phase 3 of this project that focused on determining fluid and methane sources (deep-source vs. shallow; microbial, thermogenic, gas hydrate dissociation) within the sediment, and how they relate to contemporary intermediate water warming. During the 2014 research expedition, we sampled nine seep sites between ~470 and 520 m water depth, within the zone of predicted methane hydrate retreat over the past 40 years. We imaged 22 bubble plumes with heights commonly rising to ~300 meters below sea level with one reaching near the sea surface. We collected 22 gravity cores and 20 CTD/hydrocasts from the 9 seeps and at background locations (no acoustic evidence of seepage) within the depth interval of predicted downslope retreat of the methane hydrate stability zone. Approximately 300 pore water

  9. Continental Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  10. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism.

  11. Continental divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The historical precedents to the idea of continent-wide diversion of water in North America are reviewed, starting from early perceptions of continental drainage and the era of canal building that reached its peak in the mid-1800s. The attitude that natural landscapes can be rearranged to suit human needs has persisted from that era with the proposal for continent-wide water diversion megaprojects, many involving the movement of water from Canada to the southwestern USA. Over 50 water diversions exist in Canada, with a total diverted flow of 4,400 m 3 /s. The density of interconnected and almost-connected lakes and rivers has favored such diversions. Of these diversions, 95% of their storage capacity and 96% of their flow is for hydroelectric power generation. The number of diversions in the USA is similar but water volumes are only a sixth of those in Canada, and the water is mainly used for irrigation or water supply. Experience in both countries shows that diversions are contained by political boundaries. No large-scale diversion of fresh water across the international boundary has received any government support, and no significant change in this policy is anticipated. In the water-short areas of the USA, conservation and reallocation of water resources are receiving priority. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liao, Zhuan; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2010-10-01

    People of Chinese ethnicity are the largest population in the world. Critical care medicine in China is developing rapidly and has achieved great advances in recent 20 years. The research contribution in critical care medicine among Chinese individuals in the three major regions of China--Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW)--is unknown. Articles published in 18 journals on critical care medicine originating from ML, TW, and HK from 1999 to 2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Science Citation Index Expanded. Quantity and quality analyses were conducted for the total numbers of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in high-impact journals. There were 932 articles from ML (268), TW (506), and HK (158) from 1999 to 2008. The annual total numbers of articles of the three regions increased gradually from 1999 to 2008 (from 57 to 157). From 2002 onward, the number of articles published from ML exceeded that from HK, but TW still has the dominance in both annual and total number of articles published compared with ML and HK. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (1676.67) was higher than that from ML (708.25) and HK (449.51). TW had the highest average IF of 3.31 followed by HK of 2.85 and ML of 2.64. HK had the highest average citations of each article of 10.73, followed by TW of 6.74 and ML of 5.34. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions. The total numbers of articles in China increased markedly from 1999 to 2008. TW published the most number of articles, clinical trials, and randomised controlled trials among the three regions. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions.

  13. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  14. Functional Pathways of Social Support for Mental Health in Work and Family Domains Among Chinese Scientific and Technological Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yiqun; Gan, Tingting; Chen, Zhiyan; Miao, Miao; Zhang, Kan

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the role of social support in the complex pattern of associations among stressors, work-family interferences and depression in the domains of work and family. A questionnaire was administered to a nationwide sample of 11,419 Chinese science and technology professionals. Several structural equation models were specified to determine whether social support functioned as a predictor or a mediator. Using Mplus 5.0, we compared the moderation model, the independence model, the antecedent model and the mediation model. The results revealed that the relationship between work-family interference and social support was domain specific. The independence model fit the data best in the work domain. Both the moderation model and the antecedent model fit the family domain data equally well. The current study was conducted to answer the need for comprehensive investigations of cultural uniqueness in the antecedents of work-family interference. The domain specificity, i.e. the multiple channels of the functions of support in the family domain and not in the work domain, ensures that this study is unique and culturally specific. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Deep continental margin reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  16. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  17. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  18. Continental Mathematics League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartararo, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Continental Mathematics League, which offers a series of meets for children in grades 3 though 9. In addition, a Calculus League and a Computer Contest are offered. The league allows schools to participate by mail so that rural schools can participate. (CR)

  19. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  20. Comparison of Journal Self-Citation Rates between Some Chinese and Non-Chinese International Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Background The past 3 decades have witnessed a boost in science development in China; in parallel, more and more Chinese scientific journals are indexed by the Journal Citation Reports issued by Thomson Reuters (SCI). Evaluation of the performance of these Chinese SCI journals is necessary and helpful to improve their quality. This study aimed to evaluate these journals by calculating various journal self-citation rates, which are important parameters influencing a journal impact factor. Methodology/Principal Findings We defined three journal self-citation rates, and studied these rates for 99 Chinese scientific journals, almost exhausting all Chinese SCI journals currently available. Likewise, we selected 99 non-Chinese international (abbreviated as ‘world’) journals, with each being in the same JCR subject category and having similar impact factors as their Chinese counterparts. Generally, Chinese journals tended to be higher in all the three self-citation rates than world journal counterparts. Particularly, a few Chinese scientific journals had much higher self-citation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that generally Chinese scientific journals have higher self-citation rates than those of world journals. Consequently, Chinese scientific journals tend to have lower visibility and are more isolated in the relevant fields. Considering the fact that sciences are rapidly developing in China and so are Chinese scientific journals, we expect that the differences of journal self-citation rates between Chinese and world scientific journals will gradually disappear in the future. Some suggestions to solve the problems are presented. PMID:23173041

  1. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    reveal a minimum of 18 m thick strata of modern muds (Fig. 2g). At the outer boundary of the Gulf of Myanmar Continental Shelf 8 Martaban (15oN Latitude), brown muds overlie coarse sands indicating that modern deltaic sediments... on the Myeik Bank (Rodolfo, 1969a). Modern sediments on the Ayeyarwady shelf General composition, Texture and Grain-size: The distribution and sediment texture on the Ayeyarwady shelf shows fine-grained sediments comprising silty-clay and clayey...

  2. Kidney tubular-cell secretion of osteoblast growth factor is increased by kaempferol: a scientific basis for "the kidney controlling the bone" theory of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mian; Li, Shun-xiang; Xiao, Jiang-feng; Wang, Jian; Lozanoff, Scott; Zhang, Zhi-guang; Luft, Benjamin J; Johnson, Francis

    2014-09-01

    To study, at the cytological level, the basic concept of Chinese medicine that "the Kidney (Shen) controls the bone". Kaempferol was isolated form Rhizoma Drynariae (Gu Sui Bu, GSB) and at several concentrations was incubated with opossum kidney (OK) cells, osteoblasts (MC3T3 E1) and human fibroblasts (HF) at cell concentrations of 2×10(4)/mL. Opossum kidney cell-conditioned culture media with kaempferol at 70 nmol/L (70kaeOKM) and without kaempferol (0OKM) were used to stimulate MC3T3 E1 and HF proliferation. The bone morphological protein receptors I and II (BMPR I and II) in OK cells were identified by immune-fluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Kaempferol was found to increase OK cell growth (Pkaempferol increases kidney cell secretion of OGF. Neither of these media had any significant effect on HF growth. Kaempferol also was found to increase the level of the BMPR II in OK cells. This lends strong support to the original idea that the Kidney has a significant influence over bone-formation, as suggested by some long-standing Chinese medical beliefs, kaempferol may also serve to stimulate kidney repair and indirectly stimulate bone formation.

  3. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  4. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  5. 分子配伍理论科学内涵及在现代中药研发中的应用%Scientific Connotation of Molecule Compatibility and Role in Research and Development of Modern Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑玲; 谢恬; 李铖璐; 曾昭武; 孙云廷; 王秋岩; 王安明; 殷晓浦

    2013-01-01

    提出分子配伍理论,为现代中药研究提供理论指导.阐述分子配伍理论产生的背景、必然性和科学内涵,及分子配伍理论的特征.论述分子配伍理论指导下的现代中药(成分中药)的特征.结果显示分子配伍理论具有3个特征:①分子配伍理论体现了中西医的有机结合;②分子配伍理论系统思维与分析还原法的有机结合;③坚持中医药理论的整体观.现代中药具有5个特征:①方中所有成分化学结构、分子式、分子量均清楚;②分子配伍符合方剂学君臣佐使的原则;③作用机制清楚、疗效确切、剂型先进、质量稳定可控;④多通道、多途径、多层次、多靶点对患病机体产生网络药理作用;⑤对复杂性、系统性疾病疗效明显,副作用小.中药现代化的关键是中医药理论现代化.分子配伍理论的提出,是时代发展的必然产物,必将促进中医药事业的繁荣昌盛.%Molecular Compatibility theory was put forward to provide theoretical guidance for modern Chinese medicine ( molecular Chinese medicine ) . They were expounded to the background, scientific connotation, necessity, features of Molecular Compatibility theory and characteristics of modem Chinese medicine. Molecular compatibility theory had three features. ①It reflected the concept of organic combination of Chinese and western medicine. ② Systematic thinking combined with analysis reduction method organically. ③The overall concept of TCM theory was adhered to; Characteristics of modern Chinese medicine by molecular compatibility theory was three. ① They were clear of the chemical structure, molecular formula, molecular weight of all ingredients in prescription. ②The principle of dunchenzuoshi was followed. ③It had clear mechanism, definite effect, advanced dosage forms, stable quality control. ④ Multichannel, multi-evel and multi-channel network pharmacological effects were produced in sick body.

  6. ETHNOPRED: a novel machine learning method for accurate continental and sub-continental ancestry identification and population stratification correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Population stratification is a systematic difference in allele frequencies between subpopulations. This can lead to spurious association findings in the case–control genome wide association studies (GWASs) used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease-linked phenotypes. Methods such as self-declared ancestry, ancestry informative markers, genomic control, structured association, and principal component analysis are used to assess and correct population stratification but each has limitations. We provide an alternative technique to address population stratification. Results We propose a novel machine learning method, ETHNOPRED, which uses the genotype and ethnicity data from the HapMap project to learn ensembles of disjoint decision trees, capable of accurately predicting an individual’s continental and sub-continental ancestry. To predict an individual’s continental ancestry, ETHNOPRED produced an ensemble of 3 decision trees involving a total of 10 SNPs, with 10-fold cross validation accuracy of 100% using HapMap II dataset. We extended this model to involve 29 disjoint decision trees over 149 SNPs, and showed that this ensemble has an accuracy of ≥ 99.9%, even if some of those 149 SNP values were missing. On an independent dataset, predominantly of Caucasian origin, our continental classifier showed 96.8% accuracy and improved genomic control’s λ from 1.22 to 1.11. We next used the HapMap III dataset to learn classifiers to distinguish European subpopulations (North-Western vs. Southern), East Asian subpopulations (Chinese vs. Japanese), African subpopulations (Eastern vs. Western), North American subpopulations (European vs. Chinese vs. African vs. Mexican vs. Indian), and Kenyan subpopulations (Luhya vs. Maasai). In these cases, ETHNOPRED produced ensembles of 3, 39, 21, 11, and 25 disjoint decision trees, respectively involving 31, 502, 526, 242 and 271 SNPs, with 10-fold cross validation accuracy of

  7. The continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle...... are consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions...... and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 16387–16414.] show strong correlation with tectono-thermal ages and with regional variations in lithospheric thickness constrained by surface heat flow data and seismic velocities. In agreement with xenolith data...

  8. Palaeomagnetism and the continental crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, J.D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to palaeomagnetism offering treatment of theory and practice. It analyzes the palaeomagnetic record over the whole of geological time, from the Archaean to the Cenozoic, and goes on to examine the impact of past geometries and movements of the continental crust at each geological stage. Topics covered include theory of rock and mineral magnetism, field and laboratory methods, growth and consolidation of the continental crust in Archaean and Proterozoic times, Palaeozoic palaeomagnetism and the formation of Pangaea, the geomagnetic fields, continental movements, configurations and mantle convection.

  9. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  10. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Environmental Studies Program (ESP) and environmental aspects of the offshore energy and marine minerals... oceanography, as well as studies of the social and economic impacts of OCS energy and marine minerals... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer...

  11. Sedimentation on continental margins: An integrated program for innovative studies during the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrourer, Charles A.; Coleman, James M.; Rouge, Baton; Flood, Roger D.; Ginsburg, Robert N.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Hine, Albert C.; Sternberg, Richard W.; Swift, Donald J. P.; Wright, L. Donelson

    Continental margins are of great scientific interest, and they represent the focus of human interaction with the ocean. Their deep structure forms the transition from continental to oceanic crust, and their surface expression extends from coastal environments of estuaries and shorelines across the continental shelf and slope to either the base of a continental rise or a marginal trough. Modern continental margins represent natural laboratories for investigation of complex relationships between physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, which are sensitive to environmental conditions both on the land and in the ocean. The history of these conditions is preserved within the sedimentary deposits of continental margins. The deposits form repositories for much of the particulate material transported off the world's land masses and produced from dissolved components in the world ocean. Past deposits of continental margins have been uplifted to form many mountain ranges and sedimentary terrains of the world, which record details of Earth history and contain valuable natural resources, such as petroleum and natural gas. Modern deposits of continental margins record the more recent events that have influenced Earth and also contain natural resources (for instance, minerals, sand, and gravel), as well as anthropogenic pollutants (for example, heavy metals and pesticides). The fates of many materials beneficial and deleterious to humans are dependent on the pathways followed by sedimentary particles on continental margins.

  12. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica.

  13. Hoe de Nederlandse wetenschap beter te maken. [Improving the health of scientific research in The netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Biomedical science in the Netherlands and other continental European countries is lagging behind scientific research in English-speaking countries. A comparison between the two systems reveals several crucial differences. Although levels of government funding of scientific research are approximately

  14. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Chinese Students' Satisfaction of the Study Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinggang; Taplin, Ross; Brown, Alistair M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Building upon McLeod and Wainwright's paradigm for rigorous scientific assessment of study abroad programs, this paper aims to use social learning theory to assess mainland Chinese students' satisfaction of the Chinese Curtin Student Accounting Academic Programme. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of mainland Chinese students enrolled…

  16. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  17. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann

    2014-01-01

    Chinese scientific output has increased dramatically in recent years, but its internal spatial structure has received scant attention. Estimated gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass...... and distance effects. Intercity coauthorships involving Beijing are more common than Beijing's output volume and location would imply, and this Beijing bias is increasing over time. The second type of spatial political bias is greater intraprovincial collaboration than is accounted for by size and distance....... The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  18. Philosophical Intelligence: Letters, Print, and Experiment during Napoleon's Continental Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Iain P

    2015-12-01

    This essay investigates scientific exchanges between Britain and France from 1806 to 1814, at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. It argues for a picture of scientific communication that sees letters and printed texts not as separate media worlds, but as interconnected bearers of time-critical information within a single system of intelligence gathering and experimental practice. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte's Continental System blockade severed most links between Britain and continental Europe, yet scientific communications continued--particularly on electrochemistry, a subject of fierce rivalry between Britain and France. The essay traces these exchanges using the archive of a key go-between, the English man of science Sir Charles Blagden. The first two sections look at Blagden's letter-writing operation, reconstructing how he harnessed connections with neutral American diplomats, merchants, and the State to get scientific intelligence between London and Paris. The third section, following Blagden's words from Britain to France to America, looks at how information in letters cross-fertilized with information in print. The final section considers how letters and print were used together to solve the difficult practical problem of replicating experiments across the blockade.

  19. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  20. Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  1. Insect control in socialist China and the corporate United States: the act of comparison, the tendency to forget, and the construction of difference in 1970s U.S.-Chinese scientific exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Sigrid

    2013-06-01

    In 1975, a delegation of U.S. entomologists traveled to socialist China to observe Chinese insect control science. Their overwhelmingly positive reports highlighted in relief the pernicious effects of pesticide corporations on U.S. agriculture; some entomologists hoped this would goad the United States to catch up to China in environmentally sensible insect control practices. Of course, insect control in socialist China carried its own political baggage, some of which-for example, mass mobilization and self-reliance--the state made highly visible to visitors, and some of which--for example, harsh treatment of scientists--it sought to obscure. For both the U.S. and the Chinese participants, the act of comparison itself was of primary significance in the exchange, allowing them to construct socialist Chinese science as refreshingly different from U.S. science. At the same time, however, this construction of difference meant forgetting the much longer transnational history in which U.S. and Chinese entomology had been intertwined.

  2. Thermal models pertaining to continental growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.; Ashwal, L.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal models are important to understanding continental growth as the genesis, stabilization, and possible recycling of continental crust are closely related to the tectonic processes of the earth which are driven primarily by heat. The thermal energy budget of the earth was slowly decreasing since core formation, and thus the energy driving the terrestrial tectonic engine was decreasing. This fundamental observation was used to develop a logic tree defining the options for continental growth throughout earth history

  3. Geological features and geophysical signatures of continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. As years passed, more and more evidences were uncovered to support the idea that the plates were moving... to build-up of the wide and low-relief (flat) continental shelf (covered by shelf seas), slope and rise. Initially passive margins form at divergent plate boundary following break-up of the continent, then they move away with the accretion of new...

  4. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  5. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO 2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  6. Scientific meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)

  7. A Facies Model for Temperate Continental Glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Gail Mowry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the presence and dynamics of continental glaciers in the domination of the physical processes of erosion and deposition in the mid-latitudes during the Pleistocene period. Describes the use of a sedimentary facies model as a guide to recognizing ancient temperate continental glacial deposits. (TW)

  8. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R L

    1993-01-01

    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers.

  9. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces and man-made tritium. (author)

  10. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces. Some comments on man made tritium are given. (author)

  11. English-Chinese oil field dictionary. [English-Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, S [comp.

    1979-01-01

    In this edition the original English-Chinese Oil Field Dictionary was modified line by line and major additions and deletions were made. A total of 37,000 terms and phrases were collected. The following disciplines were included: petroleum geology, earth physics and detection, well prospecting and measuring, development of oil fields, oil recovery, oil storage and transport, etc. In addition, a limited number of common scientific terms, phrases and terminologies were also included.

  12. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  13. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  14. Video Tutorial of Continental Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Juwaedah, A.; Mahmudatussa'adah, A.

    2018-02-01

    This research is motivated by the belief in the importance of media in a learning process. Media as an intermediary serves to focus on the attention of learners. Selection of appropriate learning media is very influential on the success of the delivery of information itself both in terms of cognitive, affective and skills. Continental food is a course that studies food that comes from Europe and is very complex. To reduce verbalism and provide more real learning, then the tutorial media is needed. Media tutorials that are audio visual can provide a more concrete learning experience. The purpose of this research is to develop tutorial media in the form of video. The method used is the development method with the stages of analyzing the learning objectives, creating a story board, validating the story board, revising the story board and making video tutorial media. The results show that the making of storyboards should be very thorough, and detailed in accordance with the learning objectives to reduce errors in video capture so as to save time, cost and effort. In video capturing, lighting, shooting angles, and soundproofing make an excellent contribution to the quality of tutorial video produced. In shooting should focus more on tools, materials, and processing. Video tutorials should be interactive and two-way.

  15. Continental energy plan. Canadian perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The 'continental energy plan' was first mentioned by US President George Bush during his election campaign, and relates to the adjustment of energy resources development in Canada and Mexico. The US energy policy aims to reduce US dependence on middle east oil supplies, increase US energy production, increase regional integration of energy supplies throughout North America, increase US refining capacity, reduce regulatory barriers, increase use of alternative energies, and to increase support for research and development. Under the Canada/US FTA (Free Trade Agreement) and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), not less than 50% of Canadian crude oil and natural gas are imported to the US market. As for Mexico, it exempted most portions of its energy sector from the agreement during the NAFTA negotiations. Now that Mexico itself is facing energy shortage, however, it is anticipated that under President Vincente Fox it will adopt a policy like that of Canada and start development by introducing foreign money into the fields of oil, gas, and electricity. (NEDO)

  16. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  17. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florenskiy, K.P.; Nikolayeva, O.V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H 2 0, CO 2 , etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes

  18. Exploration of the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Vora, K.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    impetus from sponsored surveys of other organizations, chiefly the oil industry, ports and harbours as well as industries disposing of their effluents in the marine environment. By now the entire western continental shelf and a large part...

  19. Continental Contributions to Philosophy of Science

    OpenAIRE

    REGINE KATHER

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews the book Continental Philosophy of Science, edited by Gary Gutting. Introductory remarks about the historical relationship between philosophy and science are followed by a presentation and discussion of different philosophies of science and commentaries on the eleven German and French authors whose texts are found in this volume. In addition to her assessment of Guttings’s collection, the author’s overall conclusion is that one characteristic trait of the Continental philos...

  20. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  1. The Continental Market Seen from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, Michel

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation, the Chairman of a French gas company (Elf) comments on the evolution of the Continental gas market from a British point of view. He first discusses the differences between the US, British and Continental gas markets, recalls the provisions of the European Gas Directive and states why a fully competitive system is a long-term prospect in Continental Europe. Seen from the UK, the provisions of the EU directive may appear modest. Due to the long transportation, British gas companies may find it hard to compete on the gas market of Continental Europe. When Inter connector, the gas pipeline connecting the gas markets in UK and the Continent, begins operation, there will be a flow of gas from the UK to the Continent according to already signed contracts. But there may be contractual flows both ways. Gas prices will level off between the UK and Northern Europe, at least for the industry. The continental markets will change gradually, the Gas Directive and the Inter connector will help the move towards a more competitive gas industry, but the fundamentals will not change: low gas prices for the next few years, competition between the big three exporters to Continental Europe, and long-term contracts that will extend beyond 2005

  2. Evolutionism through Chinese Eyes: Yan Fu, Ma Junwu and Their translations of Darwinian Evolutionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsing-song Vincent Shen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The huge impact that Darwinian Evolutionism has effected over Chinese intellectuals through Yan Fu's translation of Huxley's "Evolution and Ethics" into the Tianyanlun, is in fact based on Chinese traditional worldview on the one hand and the novel ideas it brings to the Chinese mind facing the challenge of transition. However, Yan Fu's translation is not as scientific as it should be when dealing with Huxley's discourse. Ma Junwu's translation of Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" attempts to be more scientific, in an effort to supply exact scientific terms and discourse in Chinese. However, at the end it is social Darwinism that has won the mind of the Chinese people. This paper analyses the ideas in Chinese past that leads to Chinese perception of Darwimism evolutionism and examines the ways it has been translated by Yan Fu and Ma Junwu.  

  3. Scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Trangenstein, John A

    2017-01-01

    This is the third of three volumes providing a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals of scientific computing. This volume discusses topics that depend more on calculus than linear algebra, in order to prepare the reader for solving differential equations. This book and its companions show how to determine the quality of computational results, and how to measure the relative efficiency of competing methods. Readers learn how to determine the maximum attainable accuracy of algorithms, and how to select the best method for computing problems. This book also discusses programming in several languages, including C++, Fortran and MATLAB. There are 90 examples, 200 exercises, 36 algorithms, 40 interactive JavaScript programs, 91 references to software programs and 1 case study. Topics are introduced with goals, literature references and links to public software. There are descriptions of the current algorithms in GSLIB and MATLAB. This book could be used for a second course in numerical methods, for either ...

  4. China ranks second in scientific publications since 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, P.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2008-01-01

    With the fast development of its economy, China plays an increasingly important role in the world. China's performance in science is also impressive. The exponential growth of Chinese scientific publications provides evidence. However, statistical results about China's world share of scientific

  5. [Discussion on present situation of study on pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Dan; Kang, Li-Ping; He, Ya-Li; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicine has attracted widespread attention at home and abroad. This paper analyzed the pollution present situation and existing problems of pesticide residue for Chinese herbal medicines, explicited the analytical methods of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines. Meanwhile, the commonly used pesticide residue degradation and application in Chinese herbal medicines were discussed. Moreover, on the basis of analysis of pesticide residue standards, this paper proposed the necessity and urgency of the limit standard of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines, and provided a scientific references for deepening research and developing safe, green medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  7. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde

  8. Medieval Chinese syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Anderl, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    “Medieval Chinese Syntax” aims to provide a sketch of the development of function words and syntactic structures during the Chinese Medieval period, including Early Medieval Chinese (ca. 0-700 A.D.) and Late Medieval Chinese (ca. 700-1100).

  9. Convergent tectonics and coastal upwelling: a history of the Peru continental margin ( Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Suess, E.; Emeis, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Late in 1986, scientists on the ODP drillship JOIDES Resolution confirmed that the upper slope of the Peruvian margin consists of continental crust whereas the lower slope comprises an accretionary complex. An intricate history of horizontal and vertical movements can be detected, and the locations of ancient centers of upwelling appear to have varied, partly due to tectonic movements of the margin. In this review of Leg 112, the 3 scientific leaders on this cruise discuss their results. -from Journal Editor

  10. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  11. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record.

  12. Continental transform margins : state of art and future milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Transform faults were defined 45 years ago as ‘a new class of fault' (Wilson, 1965), and transform margins were consequently individualized as a new class of continental margins. While transform margins represent 20 to 25 % of the total length of continent-ocean transitions, they were poorly studied, especially when compared with the amount of data, interpretations, models and conceptual progress accumulated on divergent or convergent continental margins. The best studied examples of transform margins are located in the northern part of Norway, south of South Africa, in the gulf of California and on both sides of the Equatorial Atlantic. Here is located the Côte d'Ivoire - Ghana margin, where the more complete data set was acquired, based on numerous geological and geophysical cruises, including ODP Leg 159. The first models that encompassed the structure and evolution of transform margins were mainly driven by plate kinematic reconstructions, and evidenced the diachronic end of tectonic activity and the non-cylindrical character of these margins, with a decreasing strike-slip deformation from the convex to the concave divergent-transform intersections. Further thermo-mechanical models were more specifically designed to explain the vertical displacements along transform margins, and especially the occurrence of high-standing marginal ridges. These thermo-mechanical models involved either heat transfer from oceanic to continental lithospheres across the transform faults or tectonically- or gravity-driven mass transfer in the upper crust. These models were far from fully fit observations, and were frequently dedicated to specific example, and not easily generalizable. Future work on transform continental margins may be expected to fill some scientific gaps, and the definition of working directions can benefit from the studies dedicated to other types of margins. At regional scale the structural and sedimentological variability of transform continental margins has

  13. Atlantic continental margin of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, John A.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Palmer, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this Decade of North American Geology (D-NAG) volume will be to focus on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin, including the onshore coastal plain, related onshore Triassic-Jurassic rift grabens, and the offshore basins and platforms. Following multiple compressional tectonic episodes between Africa and North America during the Paleozoic Era that formed the Appalachian Mountains, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras were dominated by tensional tectonic processes that separated Africa and North America. Extensional rifting during Triassic and Early Jurassic times resulted in numerous tensional grabens both onshore and offshore, which filled with nonmarine continental red beds, lacustrine deposits, and volcanic flows and debris. The final stage of this breakup between Africa and North America occurred beneath the present outer continental shelf and continental slope during Early or Middle Jurassic time when sea-floor spreading began to form new oceanic crust and lithosophere between the two continents as they drifted apart. Postrift subsidence of the marginal basins continued in response to cooling of the lithosphere and sedimentary loading.Geophysical surveys and oil-exploration drilling along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin during the past 5 years are beginning to answer many questions concerning its deep structure and stratigraphy and how it evolved during the rifting and early sea-floor-spreading stages of the separation of this region from Africa. Earlier geophysical studies of the U.S. continental margin used marine refraction and submarine gravity measurements. Single-channel seismic-reflection, marine magnetic, aeromagnetic, and continuous gravity measurements became available during the 1960s.

  14. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  15. The new “Chinese dream” regards science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitrelli Nico

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology: these are the mainstays China wants to concentrate on in order to stabilise its future as an emerging world power. Beijing plans to have the whole, enormous Chinese population literate in the scientific field within a few years. Scientific popularization is the key to what now, due to political influences and deep social disparities, seems remote.

  16. An annotated bibliography of scientific literature on managing forests for carbon benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah J. Hines; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2010-01-01

    Managing forests for carbon benefits is a consideration for climate change, bioenergy, sustainability, and ecosystem services. A rapidly growing body of scientific literature on forest carbon management includes experimental, modeling, and synthesis approaches, at the stand- to landscape- to continental-level. We conducted a search of the scientific literature on the...

  17. The Coastal Zone: Man and Nature. An Application of the Socio-Scientific Reasoning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, June Paradise; And Others

    The curriculum model described here has been designed by incorporating the socio-scientific reasoning model with a simulation design in an attempt to have students investigate the onshore impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) gas and oil development. The socio-scientific reasoning model incorporates a logical/physical reasoning component as…

  18. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  19. Atmospheric residence times of continental aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkanski, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    The global atmospheric distributions of Rn-222 are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas Rn-222 (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead-210 is produced by decay of Rn-222 and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the Rn-222 distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of Rn-222 and Pb-210 atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for Rn-222 are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantarctic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that the fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of Pb-210 focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale

  20. Relation between the continental TCZ and the TCZ over Equatorial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    So the relationship between the continental and oceanic TCZ is complex. On the one hand, the oceanic TCZ maintains the continental TCZ by propagations, on the other it tries to suppress it by competition.

  1. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  2. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  3. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  4. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  5. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Description of background samples in the continental margin of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    This study provide data concerning of the background sediments of the continental margin of Uruguay. There were carried out different works with witnesses in order to extract various sediment samples from the continental shelf

  6. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time.

  7. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  8. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  9. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandran C; Srinivas C; Shenoy S

    1991-01-01

    A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  10. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  11. Uncovering the glacial history of the Irish continental shelf (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, P.; Benetti, S.; OCofaigh, C.

    2013-12-01

    In 1999 the Irish Government initiated a €32 million survey of its territorial waters known as the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS). The INSS is amongst the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken anywhere in the world and provides high-resolution multibeam, backscatter and seismic data of the seabed around Ireland. These data have been used to provide the first clear evidence for extensive glaciation of the continental shelf west and northwest of Ireland. Streamlined drumlins on the mid to outer shelf record former offshore-directed ice flow towards the shelf edge and show that the ice sheet was grounded in a zone of confluence where ice flowing onto the shelf from northwest Ireland merged with ice flowing across the Malin Shelf from southwest Scotland. The major glacial features on the shelf are well developed nested arcuate moraine systems that mark the position of the ice sheet margin and confirm that the former British Irish Ice Sheet was grounded as far as the shelf edge around 100 km offshore of west Donegal at the last glacial maximum. Distal to the moraines, on the outermost shelf, prominent zones of iceberg plough marks give way to the Barra/Donegal fan and a well developed system of gullies and canyons which incise the continental slope. Since 2008 several scientific cruises have retrieved cores from the shelf and slope to help build a more detailed understanding of glacial events in this region. This presentation will provide an overview of the glacial history of the Irish shelf and will discuss ongoing research programmes that are building on the initial research findings to produce a better understanding of the nature and timing of ice sheet events in this region.

  12. [Present situation and prospects of special fertilizer for traditional Chinese medicine herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Ji-Yong; Wang, Wen-Quan

    2004-08-01

    To find out the present situation and the development trend special fertilizer of the traditional Chinese medicina plants. By consulting a great deal of literatures on special fertilizer and fertilization on traditional Chinese medicine herbs, and based on the scientific research and manufacture experience of the author, and the theoretic actuality of the researches on the fertilization of traditional Chinese medicine herbs, the present study of the special fertilizer inside and outside of our country was analyzed. The view points of developing special fertilizer for Chinese traditional medicine were put forward, and the development trend of special fertilizer for traditional Chinese medicine herbs was forecasted.

  13. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  14. Root zone of a continental rift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Moritz; Svenningsen, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    melt are considered to account for the compositional range exhibited by the KIC igneous rocks. U/Pb SIMS geochronological data from zircon rims yield an emplacement age of 578 ± 9 Ma. The KIC is thus younger and more depleted than coeval mafic rocks found in the Seve Nappe, and is interpreted...... to represent a high-level magma plumbing system in a late-stage continental rift. The composition and volume of rift-related igneous rocks in the Seve Nappes are inconsistent with a mantle plume origin, but are thought to record progressive lithospheric thinning and increasing involvement of an asthenospheric......Mafic magmatic rocks formed between ca. 615 and 560 Ma along the Neoproterozoic margins of Baltica and Laurentia are classically attributed to continental rifting heralding the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. We report new data for the Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex (KIC) exposed in the Seve Nappes...

  15. Chlorine-36 dating of continental evaporites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qi

    1990-01-01

    Teh chloring-36 production, principle and experimental method of 36 Cl dating are briefly described. The ages calculated from the 36 Cl/Cl ratios are generally concordant with those obtained by using 14 C, 230 Th and magnetostratigraphic techniques. It confirms the constancy of the chlorine input ratio over the last million years and implys that 36 Cl can provide accurate dates on continental saline sediments

  16. Swell propagation across a wide continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson, Eric J.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of wave refraction and damping on swell propagation across a wide continental shelf were examined with data from a transect of bottom pressure recorders extending from the beach to the shelf break near Duck, North Carolina. The observations generally show weak variations in swell energy across the shelf during benign conditions, in qualitative agreement with predictions of a spectral refraction model. Although the predicted ray trajectories are quite sensitive to the irregular she...

  17. Formation of continental crust by intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G. J.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.

    2017-09-01

    How were the continents formed in the Earth? No global numerical simulation of our planet ever managed to generate continental material self-consistently. In the present study, we show that the latest developments of the convection code StagYY enable to estimate how to produce the early continents, more than 3 billion years ago. In our models, melting of pyrolitic rocks generates a basaltic melt and leaves behind a depleted solid residue (a harzburgite). The melt generated in the mantle is transported to the surface. Only basaltic rocks melting again can generate continental crust. Should the basaltic melt always reach the open air and cool down? Should the melt be intruded warm in the pre-existing crust? The present study shows that both processes have to be considered to produce continents. Indeed, granitoids can only be created in a tight window of pressure-temperature. If all basalt is quickly cooled by surface volcanism, the lithosphere will be too cold. If all basalt is intruded warm below the crust then the lithosphere will be too warm. The key is to have both volcanism and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) to reach the optimal temperature and form massive volumes of continental material.

  18. The continental lithosphere: a geochemical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkesworth, C.J.; Person, G.; Turner, S.P.; Calsteren, P. Van; Gallagher, K.

    1993-01-01

    The lithosphere is the cool strong outler layer of the Earth that is effectively a boundary layer to the convecting interior. The evidence from mantle xenoliths and continental basalts is that the lower continental crust and uppermost mantle are different beneath Archaen and proterozoic areas. Mantle xenoliths from Archaen terrains, principally the Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa, are significantly depleted in Fe and other major elements which are concentrated in basalts. Nd and Os isotope data on inclusions in diamonds and peridoties respectively, indicate that such mantle is as old as the overlying Archaen crust. Since it appears to have been coupled to the overlying crust, and to have been isolated from the homogenising effects of convection for long periods of time, it is inferred to be within the continental lithosphere. The mantle lithosphere beneath Proterozoic and younger areas is less depleted in major elements, and so it is more fertile, less buoyant, and therefore thinner, than the Archaen mantle lithosphere. (author). 136 refs, 14 figs

  19. Mining Concept Maps from News Stories for Measuring Civic Scientific Literacy in Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yuen-Hsien; Chang, Chun-Yen; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang; Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by a long-term goal in education for measuring Taiwanese civic scientific literacy in media (SLiM), this work reports the detailed techniques to efficiently mine a concept map from 2 years of Chinese news articles (901,446 in total) for SLiM instrument development. From the Chinese news stories, key terms (important words or phrases),…

  20. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  1. Atmospheric Residence Times of Continental Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkanski, Yves Jacques

    The global atmospheric distributions of ^{222}Rn and ^{210 }Pb are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA GISS^1>=neral circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas ^ {222}Rn (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead -210 is produced by decay of ^{222} Rn and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the ^{222} Rn distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of ^ {222}Rn and ^{210 }Pb atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for ^{222} Rn are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantartic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of ^{210}Pb focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale. The globally averaged residence time for ^{210 }Pb-containing aerosols in the troposphere is 7 days. The average increase in residence time

  2. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  3. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  4. Continental Drift”: Translation and Kimiko Hahn’s Transcultural Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Mai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the expanding discourse of transnational Asian American Studies, this essay studies Kimiko Hahn, particularly her engagement with East Asian traditions in her poetry, and shows how her work exemplifies a transcultural Asian American literature that requires reading beyond the domestic boundaries of the United States. Drawing on Walter Benjamin's and Gayatri Spivak’s translation studies, it examines how Hahn critiques the assimilationist representation of Asian women in translations of Asian texts such as Arthur Waley’s version of Lady Murasaki’s The Tale of Genji. It then reads how, based on her thoughts about literary translation, Hahn experiments with creative practices of “translation,” including a retranslation of Ezra Pound’s Chinese images and untranslation of zuihitsu. Rewriting Ezra Pound’s Chinese images, Hahn reconstructs women’s voice in ancient Chinese writings. Undoing the simplistic interpretation of the classical Japanese form zuihitsu, her restorative untranslation of the form makes connections between the discursive agency of ancient Asian women writers and contemporary women poets. Thus, Hahn’s translational writing reveals a poetics of “continental drift,” a poetics that calls attention to the necessity of reading Asian American literature in transnational and transcultural contexts.

  5. [Probe into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Da-Ning; Guo, Lan-Ping; Lu, Jian-Wei; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-10-01

    Focusing on the problems of Chinese materia medica resources,and combining with the national Chinese materia medica resources survey, the paper probes into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources. The establishment of the monitoring mechanism needs one organization and management agencies to supervise and guide monitoring work, one network system to gather data information, a group of people to perform monitoring work, a system of technical methods to assure monitoring work scientific and practical, a series of achievements and products to figure out the methods for solving problems, a group of monitoring index system to accumulate basic data, and a plenty of funds to keep normal operation of monitoring work.

  6. [Development and application of component-based Chinese medicine theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Hua; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li-Mei; Li, Chuan; Gao, Yue; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription is the main therapies for disease prevention and treatment in Chinese medicine. Following the guidance of the theory of TCM and developing drug by composing prescriptions of TCM materials and pieces, it is a traditional application mode of TCM, and still widely used in clinic. TCM prescription has theoretical advantages and rich clinical application experience in dealing with multi-factor complex diseases, but scientific research is relatively weak. The lack of scientific cognition of the effective substances and mechanism of Chinese medicine leads to insufficient understanding of the efficacy regularity, which affects the stability of effect and hinders the improvement of quality of Chinese medicinal products. Component-based Chinese medicine (CCM) is an innovation based on inheritance, which breaks through the tradition of experience-based prescription and realize the transformation of compatibility from herbal pieces to components. CCM is an important achievement during the research process of modernization of Chinese medicine. Under the support of three national "973" projects, in order to reveal the scientific connotation of the prescription compatibility theory and develop innovative Chinese drugs, we have launched theoretical innovation and technological innovation around the "two relatively clear", and opened up the research field of CCM. CCM is an innovation based on inheritance, breaking through the tradition of experience based prescription, and realizing the transformation from compatibility of herbal pieces to component compatibility, which is an important achievement of the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. In the past more than 10 years, with the deepening of research and the expansion of application, the theory and methods of CCM and efficacy-oriented compatibility have been continuously improved. The value of CCM is not only in developing new drug, more important is to build a

  7. Knowledge Building in the Fields of STI (Strategic Technical Information and Geopolitics for Competitive Intelligence: A Strategic Application for the Chinese Market in the Field of Agricultural Biotechnologies in the People's Republic of China (PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Guénec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors underline the increasing importance of Chinese scientific information. They compare the results of a request launched on Western and Chinese databases concerning Chinese scientific paper publication. Although Chinese scientists are having more and more visibility in international scientific journals, their publications in English are far fewer than those in Chinese. The difference is so drastic that it emphasizes the need for westerners (researchers and observers to access and master the use of Chinese sources of information. The aim of this paper is to define the specificity of Chinese scientific information and also to present some primary results concerning the automatic analysis of Chinese writing. Our method uses a specific core language close to the point of view of the expert and his or her knowledge that will permit accurate information retrieval from a huge quantity of documents.

  8. Implications of nuclear industry globalization for chinese nuclear industry: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifeng; Ding Qihua; Wang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of the world nuclear industry has developed into a new phase. Chinese nuclear industry will be inevitably integrated into this trend. Globalization will bring both positive and adverse effects on Chinese nuclear industry. Facing the fierce competition, Chinese companies must rise to many challenges to enter the global nuclear market. And China need to make scientific decisions and take effective measures in various fields of nuclear industry to realized the goal of global development. (authors)

  9. Initiation of continental accretion: metamorphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Conand; Frederic, Mouthereau; Gianreto, Manatschal; Adbeltif, Lahfid

    2017-04-01

    The physical processes involved at the beginning of the continental collision are largely unknown because they are transient and therefore hardly identifiable from the rock record. Despite the importance of key parameters for understanding mountain building processes, especially the formation of deep mountain roots and their impacts on earthquakes nucleation, rock/fluid transfers and oil/gas resources in the continental crust, observations from the earliest collision stages remain fragmentary. Here, we focus on the example of Taiwan, a young and active mountain belt where the transition from oceanic subduction, accretion of the first continental margin to mature collision can be followed in space and time. We present preliminary results and provide key questions regarding the reconstruction of time-pressure-temperature paths of rocks & fluids to allow discriminating between rift-related thermal/rheological inheritance and burial/heating phases during convergence. Previous studies have focused on peak temperatures analyzed by Raman Spectrometry of Carbonaceous Matter from the deeper structural layers exposed in the Central Range of Taiwan. In the pre-rift sediments, these studies reported a positive gradient from West to Est, and values from geothermal gradients (up to 60°C/km) known in the region, and higher temperature closer to the pre-rift units. Cross sections and maps with high resolution peak temperatures are in process as well as pressure estimations to determine how the sediments were metamorphosed. In addition to this work, we report a few inherited temperatures in the 390-570 °C range, indicating recycling of organic matter from metasediments that recorded HT events, likely originated from higher grade metamorphic units of mainland China, which have been eroded and deposited in the post-rift sediments.

  10. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedanti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India, Kaapvaal craton (South Africa, Baltic shield (Kola, Russia, Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan, Nissho pluton (Japan and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany. The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  11. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanti, N.; Srivastava, R. P.; Pandey, O. P.; Dimri, V. P.

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India), Kaapvaal craton (South Africa), Baltic shield (Kola, Russia), Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan), Nissho pluton (Japan) and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany). The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  12. Magmatism and deformation during continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Derek

    2013-04-01

    The rifting of continents and the transition to seafloor spreading is characterised by extensional faulting and thinning of the lithosphere, and is sometimes accompanied by voluminous intrusive and extrusive magmatism. In order to understand how these processes develop over time to break continents apart, we have traditionally relied on interpreting the geological record at the numerous fully developed, ancient rifted margins around the world. In these settings, however, it is difficult to discriminate between different mechanisms of extension and magmatism because the continent-ocean transition is typically buried beneath thick layers of volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and the tectonic and volcanic activity that characterised breakup has long-since ceased. Ongoing continental breakup in the African and Arabian rift systems offers a unique opportunity to address these problems because it exposes several sectors of tectonically active rift sector development spanning the transition from embryonic continental rifting in the south to incipient seafloor spreading in the north. Here I synthesise exciting, multidisciplinary observational and modelling studies using geophysical, geodetic, petrological and numerical techniques that uniquely constrain the distribution, time-scales, and interactions between extension and magmatism during the progressive breakup of the African Plate. This new research has identified the previously unrecognised role of rapid and episodic dike emplacement in accommodating a large proportion of extension during continental rifting. We are now beginning to realise that changes in the dominant mechanism for strain over time (faulting, stretching and magma intrusion) impact dramatically on magmatism and rift morphology. The challenge now is to take what we're learned from East Africa and apply it to the rifted margins whose geological record documents breakup during entire Wilson Cycles.

  13. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  14. Hong Kong homeopathy: how it arrived and how it connected with Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ka-wai

    2010-07-01

    Translated as 'Shunshi Liaofa' in Mandarin, homeopathy received considerable attention from local physicians, thanks to Dr Heribert Schmidt who shared his views on the similarities between this western medical therapy and Chinese medicine during his visit to Hong Kong in 1954. Considered widely as non-scientific and superstitious, Chinese medicine was pushed to the periphery during the 1950s. On the contrary, adopted by western advanced countries, homeopathy was generally regarded as scientific and reliable. Schmidt's acknowledgement of the scientific roots of Chinese medicine excited many traditional therapists. The purpose of this paper is to trace the history of how homeopathy was introduced to Hong Kong and discuss its relationship with scientification of Chinese medicine. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  16. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhemenetskaya, V F

    1985-07-01

    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  17. A vision for a continental energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.; Tobin, B.; Angevine, G.; Fryer, K.; Martin, L.T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presented a vision with respect to a continental energy strategy and the principles and goals that must underlie such a strategy. These principles include relying on signals emanating from energy markets to guide investment; limiting the role of government to that of ensuring that the policy and institutional framework is conducive to the development and operation of competitive and innovative energy markets; and ensuring free and open energy trade in energy commodities, both within the continent and with the rest of the world. The paper also identified a number of important factors that, would shape and condition continental energy development and trade. The paper provided an overview of the North American energy use and supply situation for the following resources: oil; natural gas; electricity; coal; nuclear power; hydroelectricity; geothermal energy; wind power; solar power; and ethanol. It also discussed the contribution of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) through increased natural gas exports. It was concluded that given the petroleum resources of the three countries and their increased value because of higher oil and gas prices, there was considerable incentive for Canada, the United States, and Mexico to streamline regulations in order to facilitate the efficient development, transportation, and use of the continent's energy resources in accordance with market conditions. 38 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  18. A Spatial Model of Erosion and Sedimentation on Continental Margins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratson, Lincoln

    1999-01-01

    .... A computer model that simulates the evolution of continental slope morphology under the interaction of sedimentation, slope failure, and sediment flow erosion has been constructed and validated...

  19. A relatively reduced Hadean continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhi; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Among the physical and chemical parameters used to characterize the Earth, oxidation state, as reflected by its prevailing oxygen fugacity (fO2), is a particularly important one. It controls many physicochemical properties and geological processes of the Earth's different reservoirs, and affects the partitioning of elements between coexisting phases and the speciation of degassed volatiles in melts. In the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to document the evolution of mantle and atmospheric oxidation state with time and in particular the possible transition from an early reduced state to the present oxidized conditions. So far, it has been established that the oxidation state of the uppermost mantle is within ±2 log units of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer, probably back to ~4.4 billion years ago (Ga) based on trace-elements studies of mantle-derived komatiites, kimberlites, basalts, volcanics and zircons, and that the O2 levels of atmosphere were initially low and rose markedly ~2.3 Ga known as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), progressively reaching its present oxidation state of ~10 log units above QFM. In contrast, the secular evolution of oxidation state of the continental crust, an important boundary separating the underlying upper mantle from the surrounding atmosphere and buffering the exchanges and interactions between the Earth's interior and exterior, has rarely been addressed, although the presence of evolved crustal materials on the Earth can be traced back to ~4.4 Ga, e.g. by detrital zircons. Zircon is a common accessory mineral in nature, occurring in a wide variety of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and is almost ubiquitous in crustal rocks. The physical and chemical durability of zircons makes them widely used in geochemical studies in terms of trace-elements, isotopes, ages and melt/mineral inclusions; in particular, zircons are persistent under most crustal conditions and can survive many secondary

  20. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 9. The Scientific Enterprise - Assumptions, Problems, and Goals in the Modern Scientific Framework. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 13 Issue 9 September 2008 pp 885-894 ...

  1. [Location information acquisition and sharing application design in national census of Chinese medicine resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    In literature, there are many information on the distribution of Chinese herbal medicine. Limited by the technical methods, the origin of Chinese herbal medicine or distribution of information in ancient literature were described roughly. It is one of the main objectives of the national census of Chinese medicine resources, which is the background information of the types and distribution of Chinese medicine resources in the region. According to the national Chinese medicine resource census technical specifications and pilot work experience, census team with "3S" technology, computer network technology, digital camera technology and other modern technology methods, can effectively collect the location information of traditional Chinese medicine resources. Detailed and specific location information, such as regional differences in resource endowment and similarity, biological characteristics and spatial distribution, the Chinese medicine resource census data access to the accuracy and objectivity evaluation work, provide technical support and data support. With the support of spatial information technology, based on location information, statistical summary and sharing of multi-source census data can be realized. The integration of traditional Chinese medicine resources and related basic data can be a spatial integration, aggregation and management of massive data, which can help for the scientific rules data mining of traditional Chinese medicine resources from the overall level and fully reveal its scientific connotation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. [On the evolution of scientific thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde Torres, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Nominalists of the XIV century, precursors of modern science, thought that science's object was not the general, vague and indeterminate but the particular, which is real and can be known directly. About the middle of the XVII Century the bases of the modern science became established thanks to a revolution fomented essentially by Galileo, Bacon and Descartes. During the XVIII Century, parallel to the development of the great current of English Empiricism, a movement of scientific renewal also arose in continental Europe following the discipline of the Dutch Physicians and of Boerhaave. In the XIX Century, Claude Bernard dominated the scientific medicine but his rigorous determinism impeded him from taking into account the immense and unforeseeable field of the random. Nowadays, we approach natural science and medicine, from particular groups of facts; that is, from the responses of Nature to specific questions, but not from the general laws. Furthermore, in recent epistemology, the concept that experimental data are not pure facts, but rather, facts interpreted within a hermeneutical context has been established. Finally a general tendency to retrieve philosophical questions concerning the understanding of essence and existence can frequently be seen in scientific inquiry. In the light of the evolution of medical thought, it is possible to establish the position of scientific medicine within the movement of ideas dominating in our time. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GIS and RS soil-vegetation correlations for continental salt-lands habitats in NE Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Laurenţiu Stoica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continental saltlands have a high degree of peculiarity amongst European primary habitats and a prominent insular character. The present scientific approach establishes the degree of soil-vegetation correlation in continental slatlands patches as a measure of habitat continuity/fragmentation and soil conservation/degradation. The use of hyperspectral imagery, soil types’ distribution and vegetal associations’ conservation status reveal disturbances in relation with human induced modifications in comparison with normal plant-soil interdependence. Supervised classifications of LANDSAT satellite imagery along with detailed soil maps, ground truth data provided by accurate GPS positioning and field based plants evaluation are used to perform landscape metrics analyses. The landscape metrics approach is meant to find the balance between extent and grain in the case of saltlands habitats analyses and the degree of patches and classes inhomogeneity. These also give an insight of habitats connectivity and/or isolation in relation with land use topology and soil multiplexing. The resulting training sets developed for a representative, protected area in the county of Iaşi enhance the creation of a comprehensive mask to be used for the evaluation of larger areas in the silvan-steppes of North-Eastern Romania. The model is statistically tested to depict the degree of correlation and confidence. The final goal resides in more proper measures elaboration for the mitigation of continental saltland preservation and natural resources exploitation via agricultural and the associated activities.

  5. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  6. 77 FR 4056 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Hotel in Reston, Virginia. The meeting will serve as a venue to introduce the newest members of the.... ADDRESSES: Reston Sheraton Hotel, 11810 Sunrise Valley Drive Reston, Virginia, 20191, telephone (703) 620... Budget's Circular A-63, Revised. Dated: January 23, 2012. Alan Thornhill, Chief Environmental Officer...

  7. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  8. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  9. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  10. Translation: an example from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example,

  11. Continental Transform Boundaries: Tectonic Evolution and Geohazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Steckler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Continental transform boundaries cross heavily populated regions, and they are associated with destructive earthquakes,for example, the North Anatolian Fault (NAFacross Turkey, the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault in Haiti,the San Andreas Fault in California, and the El Pilar fault in Venezuela. Transform basins are important because they are typically associated with 3-D fault geometries controlling segmentation—thus, the size and timing of damaging earthquakes—and because sediments record both deformation and earthquakes. Even though transform basins have been extensively studied, their evolution remains controversial because we don’t understand the specifics about coupling of vertical and horizontal motions and about the basins’long-term kinematics. Seismic and tsunami hazard assessments require knowing architecture and kinematics of faultsas well as how the faults are segmented.

  12. Moho and magmatic underplating in continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.

    2013-01-01

    interacts with the surrounding crustal rocks which leads to smearing of geophysical signals from the underplated material. In terms of processes, there is no direct discriminator between the traditional concept of underplated material and lower crustal magmatic intrusions in the form of batholiths and sill......Underplating was originally proposed as the process of magma ponding at the base of the crust and was inferred from petrologic considerations. This process not only may add high density material to the deep crust, but also may contribute low density material to the upper parts of the crust by magma...... fractionation during cooling and solidification in the lower crust. Separation of the low density material from the high-density residue may be a main process of formation of continental crust with its characteristic low average density, also during the early evolution of the Earth. Despite the assumed...

  13. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  14. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  15. Temporal change in fragmentation of continental US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Collin Homer

    2008-01-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem function and condition arise from changes in forest fragmentation. Previous studies estimated forest fragmentation for the continental United States (US). In this study, new temporal land-cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were used to estimate changes in forest fragmentation at multiple scales for the continental US....

  16. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  17. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  18. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  19. State of the soft bottoms of the continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Alvis, Angela I; Solano, Oscar David

    2002-01-01

    The presented information, it is based on studies carried out on the continental shelf of the Colombian Caribbean, mainly in the Gulf of Morrosquillo and the Magdalena and Guajira departments in the last ten years. A diagnostic is done of the soft bottoms of the Colombian continental shelf

  20. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  1. Progress towards Continental River Dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Wei; Zheng, Xing; Liu, Frank; Maidment, Daivd; Hodges, Ben

    2017-04-01

    The high-resolution National Water Model (NWM), launched by U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in August 2016, has shown it is possible to provide real-time flow prediction in rivers and streams across the entire continental United States. The next step for continental-scale modeling is moving from reduced physics (e.g. Muskingum-Cunge) to full dynamic modeling with the Saint-Venant equations. The Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) provides a computational approach for the Saint-Venant equations, but obtaining sufficient channel bathymetric data and hydraulic roughness is seen as a critical challenge. However, recent work has shown the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) method can be applied with the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to provide automated estimation of effective channel bathymetry suitable for large-scale hydraulic simulations. The present work examines the use of SPRNT with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and HAND-derived bathymetry for automated generation of rating curves that can be compared to existing data. The approach can, in theory, be applied to every stream reach in the NHD and thus provide flood guidance where none is available. To test this idea we generated 2000+ rating curves in two catchments in Texas and Alabama (USA). Field data from the USGS and flood records from an Austin, Texas flood in May 2015 were used as validation. Large-scale implementation of this idea requires addressing several critical difficulties associated with numerical instabilities, including ill-posed boundary conditions generated in automated model linkages and inconsistencies in the river geometry. A key to future progress is identifying efficient approaches to isolate numerical instability contributors in a large time-space varying solution. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  2. Ethical Wills – a Continental Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Swennen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethical wills are testaments, or planning instruments mortis causa alike, that contain provisions regarding the deceased’s (non-economic values rather than his (economic valuables. The authors define and analyse the substance and form of ethical wills from a comparative Continental law perspective, drawing on Belgian, Dutch, French and German law. The focus primarily is on charges or conditions in restraint or constraint of (non- denominational or family choices by testamentary beneficiaries; and in this context it is contended that both the doctrine of public policy (“ordre public” and the horizontal application of the ECHR extensively restrict testamentary freedom. Nevertheless, the analogous application of estate planning techniques increasingly allows benevolent testators to plan their ethical legacy. Los testamentos éticos son testamentos, similares a instrumentos de planificación mortis causa, que contienen disposiciones relativas a los valores (no económicos del difunto, en lugar de sus objetos de valor (económico. Los autores definen y analizan el contenido y la forma de los testamentos éticos desde una perspectiva comparativa de derecho continental, basada en la legislación belga, holandesa, francesa y alemana. Se centra principalmente en los cargos o las condiciones de restricción o limitación de las opciones (aconfesionales o familiares de los herederos; y en este contexto se afirma que tanto la doctrina de política pública ("ordre public" como la aplicación horizontal del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos, restringen ampliamente la libertad testamentaria. Sin embargo, la aplicación análoga de técnicas de planificación y gestión patrimonial y sucesoria, permite cada vez más a los testadores de últimas voluntades planificar su legado ético.

  3. VARIABILITY OF THE THERMAL CONTINENTALITY INDEX IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIARANEK1 DOMINIKA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the spatial and temporal variability of thermal continentality in Central Europe. Gorczyński’s and Johansson-Ringleb’s formulae were used to derive the continentality index. The study also looked at the annual patterns of air temperature amplitude (A, a component of both of these formulae, and D; the difference between the average temperatures of autumn (Sep.-Nov. and spring (Mar.-May. Records of six weather stations representing the climate of Central Europe were included in the study covering the period 1775-2012 (Potsdam, Drezden, Prague, Vienna, Krakow, Debrecen. The highest continentality index was found in Debrecen and the lowest in Potsdam. The continentality index fluctuated with time with two pronounced dips at the turn of the 19th century and in the second half of the 20th century. The highest continentality index values were recorded during the 1930s and 1940s.

  4. Rational Thoughts on the Development of Chinese Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Qihui

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to keep the steady, fast and sustainable development of auto industry, we should have an overall knowledge of the history and current situation of the world auto industry, and have a correct strategic planning and scientific measures towards the Chinese auto industry.

  5. A bibliometric study on Chinese herbal medicine treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aims of this study are to evaluate and summarize the scientific production in the field of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A systematic bibliometric search was performed based on the PubMed database covering relative publications between January 1, ...

  6. Application of nuclear analysis techniques in ancient chinese porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Xu Qing; Feng Xiangqian; Lei Yong; Cheng Lin; Wang Yanqing

    2005-01-01

    Ancient ceramic was fired with porcelain clay. It contains various provenance information and age characteristic. It is the scientific foundation of studying Chinese porcelain to analyze and research the ancient ceramic with modern analysis methods. According to the property of nuclear analysis technique, its function and application are discussed. (authors)

  7. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  8. Ages and Growth of the Continental Crust from Radiogenic Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchett, P. J.; Samson, S. D.

    2003-12-01

    The development and application of radiogenic isotopes to dating of geologic events, and to questions of growth, evolution, and recycling processes in the continental crust are mature areas of scientific inquiry. By this we understand that many of the approaches used to date rocks and constrain the evolution of the continents are well established, even routine, and that the scope of data available on age and evolution of continents is very large. This is not to say that new approaches have not been developed in recent years, or that new approaches and/or insights cannot be developed in the future. However, the science of continental crustal evolution is definitely a domain where many of the problems are well defined, the power of the techniques used to solve them are well known, and the limitations of field and laboratory databases, as well as the preserved geologic record, are understood.From the very early days of crustal evolution studies, it was innovations and improvements in laboratory techniques that drove the pace of discovery (e.g., Holmes, 1911; Nier, 1939). This remained true through all the increments in capability reviewed in this chapter, up to the present day. Thus, continental crustal evolution is an area of Earth science where a species of very laboratory-oriented investigator, the "radiogenic isotope geologist" or "geochronologist," has made major advances, even breakthroughs, in understanding. This is true in spite of the fact that many of the individuals of the species may have lacked field expertise, or even more than a primitive level of geologic background. Because design and building of instruments like radiation detectors or mass spectrometers requires a knowledge of physics, many of the early practitioners of rock dating were physicists, like Alfred Nier (cited above). Since the 1970s, essentially all mass spectrometers have been constructed by specialized commercial firms, and the level of physics expertise among isotope geologists has

  9. The extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Collier, J. S.; Rümpker, G.

    2013-11-01

    The granitic islands of the Seychelles Plateau have long been recognised to overlie continental crust, isolated from Madagascar and India during the formation of the Indian Ocean. However, to date the extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles region remains unknown. This is particularly true beneath the Mascarene Basin between the Seychelles Plateau and Madagascar and beneath the Amirante Arc. Constraining the size and shape of the Seychelles continental fragment is needed for accurate plate reconstructions of the breakup of Gondwana and has implications for the processes of continental breakup in general. Here we present new estimates of crustal thickness and VP/VS from H-κ stacking of receiver functions from a year long deployment of seismic stations across the Seychelles covering the topographic plateau, the Amirante Ridge and the northern Mascarene Basin. These results, combined with gravity modelling of historical ship track data, confirm that continental crust is present beneath the Seychelles Plateau. This is ˜30-33 km thick, but with a relatively high velocity lower crustal layer. This layer thins southwards from ˜10 km to ˜1 km over a distance of ˜50 km, which is consistent with the Seychelles being at the edge of the Deccan plume prior to its separation from India. In contrast, the majority of the Seychelles Islands away from the topographic plateau show no direct evidence for continental crust. The exception to this is the island of Desroche on the northern Amirante Ridge, where thicker low density crust, consistent with a block of continental material is present. We suggest that the northern Amirantes are likely continental in nature and that small fragments of continental material are a common feature of plume affected continental breakup.

  10. [Research progress on potential liver toxic components in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhong, Rong-Ling; Xia, Zhi; Huang, Hou-Cai; Zhong, Qing-Xiang; Feng, Liang; Song, Jie; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the proportion of traditional Chinese medicine in scientific research and its clinical use increased gradually. The research result also becomes more and more valuable, but in the process of using traditional Chinese medicine, it also needs to pay more attention. With the gradual deepening of the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine, some traditional Chinese medicines have also been found to have the potential toxicity, with the exception of some traditional toxicity Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine in the growth, processing, processing, transportation and other aspects of pollution or deterioration will also cause the side effects to the body. Clinical practice should be based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine to guide rational drug use and follow the symptomatic medication, the principle of proper compatibility. The constitution of the patients are different, except for a few varieties of traditional Chinese medicines are natural herbs with hepatotoxicity, liver toxicity of most of the traditional Chinese medicine has idiosyncratic features. The liver plays an important role in drug metabolism. It is easy to be damaged by drugs. Therefore, the study of traditional Chinese medicine potential liver toxicity and its toxic components has become one of the basic areas of traditional Chinese medicine research. Based on the review of the literatures, this paper summarizes the clinical classification of liver toxicity, the pathogenesis of target cell injury, and systematically summarizes the mechanism of liver toxicity and toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper provided ideas for the study of potential liver toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine and protection for clinical safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Chinese Economic Development in the Next 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Xin Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Chinese economic development is discussed in detail. The 5 major strategies are investigated thoroughly: 1 Speed-maintaining strategies. In this strategies, China must hold a suitable high speed economic growth rate in order to fully use Chinese manpower and world economic opportunities; 2Healthy economy strategy. By designing and making all effective policies, China must strive to keep Chinese economy in a healthy and controllable status. 3 Competiveness strategy. For this strategy to be effective, China have to push up the RD mechanism to pave the way for technology innovation and encourage companies to use and invent new skills and products to develop a higher level living conditions for Chinese people. 4 People’s quality enhancement. To make Chinese economy a high speed and competitive for a long run, it is vital to enhance Chinese people’s scientific knowledge and skills, especially the modern information technology skills, in this way, Chinese population will be a huge pool for the innovation not the obstacles. 5 Balanced development strategy. All economic related factors must be balanced for a sustainable growth. In the context, the detail procedures and methods are outlined and discussed.

  12. Application of Toxic Chinese Medicine in Chinese Pharmacopoeia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Feng, Yu; Mao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Explore the application characteristics of proprietary Chinese medicine prescriptions containing toxic herbs in pharmacopoeia. Methods: In this paper, according to the clinical application of pharmacopoeia proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into table agent, Qushu agent, diarrhea agent, heat agent, Wen Li agent, cough and asthma agents, resuscitation agent, Gutian agent, Fuzheng agent, Anshen agent, hemostatic agent, The traditional Chinese medicine prescription and the clinical application of the Chinese herbal medicine containing the toxic Chinese medicine were analyzed and sorted out., Summed up the compatibility of toxic herbs and application characteristics. Results: Toxic Chinese herbal medicine in the cure of traditional Chinese medicine to play a long-standing role, through the overall thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking of toxic Chinese medicine in the analysis of Chinese medicine that [2], toxic Chinese medicine in the application of proprietary Chinese medicine can not lack. Conclusion: Pharmacopoeia included proprietary Chinese medicine not only in the clinical treatment of good, but also the application of its toxic traditional Chinese medicine and its understanding of the enrichment of the toxic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and treatment-related disease pathology between the points of contact for patients with clinical applications Based on and theoretical guidance of Chinese medicine [3].

  13. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both

  14. 75 FR 65020 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    .... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: The Ritz-Carlton Hotel, 1150 22nd Street, NW...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: InterContinental Mark Hopkins Hotel, 999 California... Hotel, 999 Ninth Street, NW., Washington, DC 20001. Contact Person: Weijia Ni, PhD, Scientific Review...

  15. [Academician Li Lianda talking about doctors doing scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Li, Yi-kui

    2015-09-01

    At present, Chinese medical field faces with an important problem of how to correctly handle the relationship between medical and scientific research. Academician Li Lianda advocates doctors doing scientific research under the premise of putting the medical work first. He points out that there are many problems in the process of doctors doing scientific research at present such as paying more attention to scientific research than medical care, excessively promoting building scientific research hospital, only paying attention to training scientific talents, research direction be flashy without substance, the medical evaluation system should be improved and so on. Medical, scientific research and teaching are inseparable because improving medical standards depends on scientific research and personnel training. But not all doctors need to take into account of medical treatment, scientific research and teaching in the same degree while not all hospitals need to turn into three-in-one hospital, scientific research hospital or teaching hospital. It must be treated differently according to the actual situation.

  16. Urban Heat Island phenomenon in extreme continental climate (Astana, Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Pavel; Akhmetova, Alina

    2015-04-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is well known in scientific literature since first half of the 19th century [1]. By now a wide number of world capitals is described from climatological point of view, especially in mid-latitudes. In beginning of XXI century new studies focus on heat island of tropical cities. However dynamics UHI in extreme continental climates is insufficiently investigated, due to the fact that there isn't large cities in Europe and Northern America within that climate type. In this paper we investigate seasonal and diurnal dynamics UHI intensity for Astana, capital city of Kazakhstan (population larger than 835 000 within the city) including UHI intensity changes on different time scales. Now (since 1998) Astana is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia [3] For this study we use the UHI investigation technology, described in [2]. According to this paper, we selected three stations: one located into city in high and midrise buildings area (including extensive lowrise and high-energy industrial - LCZ classification) and two others located in rural site (sparsely built or open-set and lightweight lowrise according LCZ classification). Also these stations must be close by distance (less than 100 km) and altitude. Therefore, first for Astana city were obtained numerical evaluations for UHI climate dynamics, UHI dependence of synoptic situations and total UHI climatology on monthly and daily averages. References: 1.Howard, L. (1833) The Climate of London, Deduced from Meteorological Observations. Volume 2, London. 2.Kukanova E.A., Konstantinov P.I. An urban heat islands climatology in Russia and linkages to the climate change In Geophysical Research Abstracts, volume 16 of EGU General Assembly, pages EGU2014-10833-1, Germany, 2014. Germany. 3.www.pogoda.ru.net

  17. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43− with very high DIN: PO43− concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and

  18. UNIDADES GEOMORFOLÓGICAS DE PORTUGAL CONTINENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantino Insua Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available São representadas cartograficamente as unidades geomorfológicas identificadas para os 89015 km2 do território de Portugal Continental. A delimitação das unidades teve por base a análise dos padrões da textura fornecida por imagens SRTM, com revisão e adaptação posterior à altimetria e à geologia, para os quais foram usadas bases cartográficas digitais. Foram considerados três níveis taxionómicos que permitem descrever e caracterizar áreas homogéneas do ponto de vista geomorfológico. As três unidades de 1º nível baseiam-se nas unidades morfostruturais clássicas consideradas para a Península Ibérica. As dez unidades de 2º nível constituem, na sua maioria, divisões clássicas do relevo de Portugal Continental, agora agrupadas de acordo com a metodologia adoptada e designadas como unidades morfosculturais. As 56 unidades de 3º nível, ou subunidades morfosculturais, foram individualizadas com base nos padrões de relevo identificados nas imagens SRTM e na observação de campo e adquiriram uma designação baseada essencialmente nas geoformas que as individualizam e na toponímia local. As unidades geomorfológicas identificadas são descritas através de características do relevo, dissecação fluvial, estruturas, tipo de drenagem e base geológica, bem como de parâmetros numéricos gerados de forma automática, como classes de altitude e de declividade. Pretende-se que o mapa elaborado possa contribuir para a gestão territorial, em especial na tomada de decisões em conservação da natureza.

  19. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  20. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  1. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  2. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we......-ba /pha pa/ ta-da /tha ta/ ka-ga / kha-ka/ For L2 acquisition it is held that same and new phonemes are (relatively) easy acquired, whereas similar but not identical sounds are difficult to learn. New sounds are initially mapped onto the L1 phoneme inventory (Kuhl 1991). For Danish, this would predict...... instruction, which pitch contours do the Danish learners of Chinese use on neutral tones and to what extent does their production match that of native speakers? Future research may include Norwegian and Swedish-accented Chinese and a comparison between the different Germanic accents of CFL. Reference Kuhl, P...

  3. The Chinese nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenez, J.C.; Bettoun, G.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides presents the organization of the Chinese nuclear industry and its perspectives for the 2 next decades. The presentation is divided into 5 parts. Part one: the energy sector in China. Due to the economic development of the country this sector is flourishing and reaches an average growth rate of 9% per year. More than fifty per cent of the power plants being built in the world, are located in China. The electricity production stems by far from fossil energies (>80%) but this part is expected to decrease to reach 70% in 2020. Part 2: the Chinese nuclear program. This program is dual: the massive deployment of chinese improved reactors of second generation (the construction of 6 CPR1000 reactors will be launched each year) and the import and assimilation of reactors of the third generation: 4 AP1000 and 2 EPR are being built. Part 3: the organization of the Chinese nuclear sector. The main actors are CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation), CGNPC (China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation), CPI (China Power Investment Corporation), SNPTC (State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation). The main 5 Chinese suppliers are also presented. Part 4: The role of EDF. Today's EDF role is multiple: to be active in the Chinese nuclear program, to go beyond technical assistance to reach partnership, to invest in Chinese power plants, to promote cooperation between French and Chinese actors of the nuclear industry. A lot of joint ventures have been created. Part 5: the Taishan project. Taishan is a coastal site near Macao in the Guangdong province in which 2 EPR are being built, the first concrete was cast in october 2009, 52 months of construction are scheduled and the first unit will be commissioned in end 2013 while the second commissioning is planned for end 2014. (A.C.)

  4. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative to...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  5. Chinese Typography Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jie; Gu, Yujun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new network architecture for Chinese typography transformation based on deep learning. The architecture consists of two sub-networks: (1)a fully convolutional network(FCN) aiming at transferring specified typography style to another in condition of preserving structure information; (2)an adversarial network aiming at generating more realistic strokes in some details. Unlike models proposed before 2012 relying on the complex segmentation of Chinese components or str...

  6. Common Pb isotope mapping of UHP metamorphic zones in Dabie orogen, Central China: Implication for Pb isotopic structure of subducted continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji; Wang, Ying; Li, Shu-Guang

    2014-10-01

    north and central or south Dabie zones during retro-grade metamorphism enhanced by the extensive magmatism in the Cretaceous has also been observed in the 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagrams. A combined study of common Pb isotopic compositions of Dabie orthogneisses and Sulu UHPM rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project demonstrates that a slab marked by extremely unradiogenic Pb observed in the main hole was absent in the Dabie orogen. However, occurrence of some Mesozoic granitoids with such unradiogenic character in the Dabie orogen suggests that their source may be a buried unradiogenic unit underlying below north Dabie zone. This case study clearly shows that whether the position of the Dabie data relative to the orogen curve of the plumbotectonic model is helpful in understanding the Pb isotopic structure and evolution of subducted continental crust.

  7. Age and Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    The long-standing belief that age is negatively associated with scientific productivity and creativity is shown to be based upon incorrect analysis of data. Studies reported in this article suggest that the relationship between age and scientific performance is influenced by the operation of the reward system. (Author)

  8. Scientific Notation Watercolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…

  9. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...

  11. Mg/Ca of Continental Ostracode Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Forester, R. M.; Marco-Barba, J.; Mezquita, F.

    2007-12-01

    Marine ionic chemistry is thought to remain constant. This, together with the belief that marine calcifiers partition Mg/Ca in a systematic manner as functions of temperature (and Mg/Ca) of water forms the basis of the Mg/Ca thermometer. In continental settings both of these assumptions are usually not true. Continental waters contain a wide variety of solutes in absolute and relative ion concentrations. Hence, waters with identical Mg/Ca may have very different concentrations of Mg and Ca and very different anions. Here we use two examples to focus on the effects of ion chemistry on Mg/Ca partitioning in continental ostracode shells and we ignore the complexities of solute evolution, which can change Mg/Ca over timescales of minutes to millennia. Palacios-Fest and Dettman (2001) conducted a monthly study of ,Cypridopsis vidua at El Yeso Lake in Sonora, Mexico. They established a relation between temperature and average shell Mg/Ca using regression analyses on averaged data. When their Mg/Ca-temperature relation is applied to monthly ,C. vidua data from Page Pond near Cleveland, Ohio, water temperatures of -8 to -1°C are obtained. The observed Mg/Ca ranges for El Yeso Lake (0.31 to 0.46) and Page Pond (0.33 to 0.46) are similar, as are their specific conductivities (700 to 850μS for El Yeso Lake; 400 to 600μS for Page Pond). However, [Ca] is 140-260 mg/L for El Yeso, but only 70-90 mg/L for Page Pond. Page Pond data, in fact, shows a good temperature shell Mg/Ca relation for .C. vidua, but the relation is different from that at El Yeso. Hence, shell Mg/Ca is a multi-valued, family of curves function of temperature and Mg/Ca of water that depends on the [Mg] and [Ca] values in water and perhaps other factors. Our second example comes from sites near Valencia, Spain and involves shell data for ,Cyprideis torosa, an estuarine ostracode that is tolerant of a wide range of salinity and can live in continental waters as long as the carbonate alkalinity to Ca ratio is

  12. Monthly hydroclimatology of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas; Devineni, Naresh; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2018-04-01

    Physical/semi-empirical models that do not require any calibration are of paramount need for estimating hydrological fluxes for ungauged sites. We develop semi-empirical models for estimating the mean and variance of the monthly streamflow based on Taylor Series approximation of a lumped physically based water balance model. The proposed models require mean and variance of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, co-variability of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and regionally calibrated catchment retention sensitivity, atmospheric moisture uptake sensitivity, groundwater-partitioning factor, and the maximum soil moisture holding capacity parameters. Estimates of mean and variance of monthly streamflow using the semi-empirical equations are compared with the observed estimates for 1373 catchments in the continental United States. Analyses show that the proposed models explain the spatial variability in monthly moments for basins in lower elevations. A regionalization of parameters for each water resources region show good agreement between observed moments and model estimated moments during January, February, March and April for mean and all months except May and June for variance. Thus, the proposed relationships could be employed for understanding and estimating the monthly hydroclimatology of ungauged basins using regional parameters.

  13. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous continental convergence and intracontinental orogenesis in East Asia: A synthesis of the Yanshan Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Fuqin; Cui, Jianjun; Chen, Xuanhua; Zhang, Shuanhong; Miao, Laicheng; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Wei; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Shiqi; Li, Hailong

    2015-12-01

    widespread intracontinental orogeny and continental reconstruction, are commonly termed the Yanshan Revolution (Movement) in the Chinese literature.

  14. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago

  15. Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions of the continental United States. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  16. Neotectonism - An offshore evidence from eastern continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, K.M.; Raju, Y.S.N.

    tremor provide evidence of Neo-tectonic activity in this regio. The epicentral region falls in a shallow marine environment ideal for generating a geophysical database for stable continental region earthquakes....

  17. Late Devonian and Triassic basalts from the southern continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    continental margin of the East European Platform, tracers of a single heterogeneous ... Areas of Precambrian consolidation within the Late Paleozoic orogen; 3. Areas of ...... and hydrocarbon accumulations; J. Petroleum Geology. 16 183–196.

  18. Topographic features over the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Machado, T.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    water depth and the continental shelfedge several interesting topographic features such as Terraces, Karstic structures associated with pinnacles and troughs and smooth dome shaped reef structures are recorded. The nature of these features...

  19. ISLSCP II Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Consumption by Continental Erosion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Continental Atmospheric CO2 Consumption data set represents gridded estimates for the riverine export of carbon and of sediments based on empirical...

  20. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  1. Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality Simulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the data used in Figures 1 – 6 and Table 2 of the technical note "Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality...

  2. Seabottom backscatter studies in the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...

  3. Glacier-influenced sedimentation on high-latitude continental margins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Cofaigh, C. Ó

    2002-01-01

    This book examines the process and patterns of glacier-influenced sedimentation on high-latitude continental margins and the geophysical and geological signatures of the resulting sediments and landform...

  4. Sediments of the western continental shelf of India - Environmental significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    The degree of fragmentation and colour of the skeletal fragments, colouration in benthic foraminifers have been studied in surficial sediment samples collected from forty stations from the continental shelf region between Ratnagiri in the south...

  5. and three-dimensional gravity modeling along western continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    weaknesses (lineaments) along the path of Indian plate motion over the Réunion hotspot. .... Tectonic map of western and central parts of peninsular India showing the western continental ... basaltic layers and their theoretical gravitational.

  6. U.S. East Coast Continental Margin (CONMAR) Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USGS/WHOI Continental Margin (CONMAR) Data set was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as a joint program of...

  7. Caloplaca coeruleofrigida sp. nova, a species from continental Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Seppelt, R.

    2003-01-01

    Caloplaca coeruleofrigida Søchting & Seppelt is described from Southern Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. It is characterized by vertically elongated papillae and a pale orange pigmentation on shaded parts, and black thallus and apothecia on exposed parts of the thallus......Caloplaca coeruleofrigida Søchting & Seppelt is described from Southern Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. It is characterized by vertically elongated papillae and a pale orange pigmentation on shaded parts, and black thallus and apothecia on exposed parts of the thallus...

  8. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  9. Mapping Soil Age at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slessarev, E.; Feng, X.

    2017-12-01

    Soil age controls the balance between weathered and unweathered minerals in soil, and thus strongly influences many of the biological, geochemical, and hydrological functions of the critical zone. However, most quantitative models of soil development do not represent soil age. Instead, they rely on a steady-state assumption: physical erosion controls the residence time of unweathered minerals in soil, and thus fixes the chemical weathering rate. This assumption may hold true in mountainous landscapes, where physical erosion rates are high. However, the steady-state assumption may fail in low-relief landscapes, where physical erosion rates have been insufficient to remove unweathered minerals left by glaciation and dust deposition since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). To test the applicability of the steady-state assumption at continental scales, we developed an empirical predictor for physical erosion, and then simulated soil development since LGM with a numerical model. We calibrated the physical erosion predictor using a compilation of watershed-scale sediment yield data, and in-situ 10Be denudation measurements corrected for weathering by Zr/Ti mass-balance. Physical erosion rates can be predicted using a power-law function of local relief and peak ground acceleration, a proxy for tectonic activity. Coupling physical erosion rates with the numerical model reveals that extensive low-relief areas of North America may depart from steady-state because they were glaciated, or received high dust fluxes during LGM. These LGM legacy effects are reflected in topsoil Ca:Al and Quartz:Feldspar ratios derived from United States Geological Survey data, and in a global compilation of soil pH measurements. Our results quantitatively support the classic idea that soils in the mid-high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are "young", in the sense that they are undergoing transient response to LGM conditions. Where they occur, such departures from steady-state likely increase

  10. Biogeochemistry of southern Australian continental slope sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeh, H.H.; Crispe, A.J.; Heggie, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores from the middle to lower slope of the southern continental margin of Australia between the Great Australian Bight and western Tasmania are compared in terms of marine and terrigenous input signals during the Holocene. The mass accumulation rates of carbonate, organic carbon, biogenic Ba. and Al are corrected for lateral sediment input (focusing), using the inventory of excess 230 Th in the sediment normalised to its known production rate in the water column above each site. The biogenic signal is generally higher in the eastern part of the southern margin probably due to enhanced productivity associated with seasonal upwelling off southeastern South Australia and the proximity of the Subtropical Front, which passes just south of Tasmania. The input of Al, representing the terrigenous signal, is also higher in this region reflecting the close proximity of river runoff from the mountainous catchment of southeastern Australia. The distribution pattern of Mn and authigenic U, together with pore-water profiles of Mn ++ , indicate diagenetic reactions driven by the oxidation of buried organic carbon in an oxic to suboxic environment. Whereas Mn is reduced at depth and diffuses upwards to become immobilised in a Mn-rich surface layer. U is derived from seawater and diffuses downward into the sediment, driven by reduction and precipitation at a depth below the reduction zone of Mn. The estimated removal rate of U from seawater by this process is within the range of U removal measured in hemipelagic sediments from other areas, and supports the proposition that hemipelagic sediments are a major sink of U in the global ocean. Unlike Mn, the depth profile of sedimentary Fe appears to be little affected by diagenesis, suggesting that little of the total Fe inventory in the sediment is remobilised and redistributed as soluble Fe. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. The Revista Scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Antonio Martínez Molina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Revista Scientific aims to publish quality papers that include the perspective of analysis in educational settings. Together with www.indtec.com.ve, this electronic publication aims to promote and disseminate, with seriousness and rigor, the academic production in this field. Editorial of the new stage Revista Scientific was created with the aim of constituting a reference space for scientific research in the field of research analysis that is carried out within the universities in Latin America, once the distribution list hosted on the INDTEC platform (http://www.indtec.com.ve is consolidated as a space for dissemination and development of new ideas and initiatives. The first presentation of INDTEC Magazine was held in August 2016 in Venezuela. Thanks to the support of the INDTEC platform, SCIENTIFIC Magazine has been able to develop from the cooperative work of the people who make up its Editorial Committee, Academic Committee and Scientific Committee in Electronic Edition, and of the referees of each one of the numbers. Part of the success is due to the motivation of its co-editors and excellent professionals from different parts of the world: Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Spain, Mexico, Venezuela, which form the various committees, with enthusiasm and joy participating in this project (whose organizational structure is presented in this edition and continues in increcendo. Also, the strategy adopted to edit a monographic number from the various events organized in the framework of the universities, has contributed to provide SCIENTIFIC with a point value speaker of intellectual progress in the field of education. SCIENTIFIC Magazine is currently indexed in ISI, International Scientific Indexing, Dubai - UAE; ROAD, the Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources (ISSN International Center, France; REVENCYT-ULA, Venezuela; Google Scholar (Google Scholar, International Index; Published in Calaméo; ISSUU; Academia

  12. Older Chinese-Australian and Chinese community music engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sicong

    2017-01-01

    This research study will investigate community music engagement by both Chinese-Australians and Chinese older people at two different older people’s organizations with the aim of exploring the affects of music engagement on older people. The study seeks to explore cultural differences between Chinese-Australian older people and Chinese older people as they relate to their music engagement. The research contentions were that (1) active music engagement can enhance the quality of the life of ol...

  13. Neogene sedimentation on the outer continental margin, southern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Underwood, M.B.; Gardner, J.V.; Barron, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neogene sedimentary rocks and sediments from sites on the outer continental margin in the southern Bering Sea and on the Alaska Peninsula are dominated by volcanic components that probably were eroded from an emergent Aleutian Ridge. A mainland continental source is subordinate. Most sediment in the marine environment was transported to the depositional sites by longshore currents, debris flows, and turbidity currents during times when sea level was near the outermost continental shelf. Fluctuations of sea level are ascribed both to worldwide glacio-eustatic effects and to regional vertical tectonics. Large drainage systems, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, had little direct influence on sedimentation along the continental slope and Unmak Plateau in the southern Bering Sea. Sediments from those drainage systems probably were transported to the floor of the Aleutian Basin, to the numerous shelf basins that underlie the outer continental shelf, and to the Arctic Ocean after passing through the Bering Strait. Environments of deposition at the sites along the outer continental margin have not changed significantly since the middle Miocene. The site on the Alaska Peninsula, however, is now emergent following shallow-marine and transitional sedimentation during the Neogene. ?? 1980.

  14. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Yinan; Huang, Yingjie; Lu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence. Alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) appear to have positive effects on methamphetamine and ketamine addiction. Both Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Radix Pueraiae (Gegen) have beneficial inhibitory effects on alcohol intake. Sinomenine has been shown to have preventive and curative effects on opioid dependence. l-Stepholidine, an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia (Rulan), attenuated the acquisition, maintenance, and reacquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and antagonized the heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines may be used to complement current treatments for drug addiction, including withdrawal and relapse. As the molecular mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese herbal medicines are elucidated, further advances in their use for the treatment of drug addiction are promising. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scientific meeting abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is a collection of the scientific meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, different aspects of energy and presents research done in 1999 in these fields

  17. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  18. Visualization in scientific computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielson, Gregory M; Shriver, Bruce D; Rosenblum, Lawrence J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide a reference source to scientists, engineers, and students who are new to scientific visualization or who are interested in expanding their knowledge in this subject...

  19. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    The phrase pre-modern scientific may be used to describe certain attitudes and ..... But unfortunately, in the general atmosphere of poor education and collective fears .... present day science and technology that old time beliefs and traditional ...

  20. WITHER SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No library or information service and especially in a developing .... Good public relations, consultancy services including bilateral and ... project proposal for the creation of a scientific and technological information ... For example, in 1995 the ...

  1. Shaping a Scientific Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    us to understand how a truth is reproduced, circulating among diverse fields of human knowledge. Also it will show why we accept and reproduce a particular discourse. Finally, we state Euclidean geometry as a truth that circulates in scientific discourse and performs a scientific self. We unfold...... the importance of having students following the path of what schools perceive a real scientist is, no to become a scientist, but to become a logical thinker, a problem solver, a productive citizen who uses reason....

  2. Scientific information processing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Maylin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper systematizes several theoretical view-points on scientific information processing skill. It decomposes the processing skills into sub-skills. Several methods such analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, document analysis were used to build up a theoretical framework. Interviews and survey to professional being trained and a case study was carried out to evaluate the results. All professional in the sample improved their performance in scientific information processing.

  3. Open scientific communication urged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a report released last week the National Academy of Sciences' Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security concluded that the ‘limited and uncertain benefits’ of controls on the dissemination of scientific and technological research are ‘outweighed by the importance of scientific progress, which open communication accelerates, to the overall welfare of the nation.’ The 18-member panel, chaired by Dale R. Corson, president emeritus of Cornell University, was created last spring (Eos, April 20, 1982, p. 241) to examine the delicate balance between open dissemination of scientific and technical information and the U.S. government's desire to protect scientific and technological achievements from being translated into military advantages for our political adversaries.The panel dealt almost exclusively with the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union but noted that there are ‘clear problems in scientific communication and national security involving Third World countries.’ Further study of this matter is necessary.

  4. Nineteenth-century collapse of a benthic marine ecosystem on the open continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašových, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M

    2017-06-14

    The soft-sediment seafloor of the open continental shelf is among the least-known biomes on Earth, despite its high diversity and importance to fisheries and biogeochemical cycling. Abundant dead shells of epifaunal suspension-feeding terebratulid brachiopods ( Laqueus ) and scallops on the now-muddy mainland continental shelf of southern California reveal the recent, previously unsuspected extirpation of an extensive offshore shell-gravel ecosystem, evidently driven by anthropogenic siltation. Living populations of attached epifauna, which formerly existed in a middle- and outer-shelf mosaic with patches of trophically diverse muds, are restricted today to rocky seafloor along the shelf edge and to the sandier shelves of offshore islands. Geological age-dating of 190 dead brachiopod shells shows that (i) no shells have been produced on the mainland shelf within the last 100 years, (ii) their shell production declined steeply during the nineteenth century, and (iii) they had formerly been present continuously for at least 4 kyr. This loss, sufficiently rapid (less than or equal to 100 years) and thorough to represent an ecosystem collapse, coincides with intensification of alluvial-plain land use in the nineteenth century, particularly livestock grazing. Extirpation was complete by the start of twentieth-century urbanization, warming, bottom fishing and scientific surveys. The loss of this filter-feeding fauna and the new spatial homogeneity and dominance of deposit- and detritus-feeders would have altered ecosystem functioning by reducing habitat heterogeneity and seawater filtering. This discovery, attesting to the power of this geological approach to recent ecological transitions, also strongly increases the spatial scope attributable to the negative effects of siltation, and suggests that it has been under-recognized on continental shelves elsewhere as a legacy of coastal land use. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Impacts of continental arcs on global carbon cycling and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. T.; Jiang, H.; Carter, L.; Dasgupta, R.; Cao, W.; Lackey, J. S.; Lenardic, A.; Barnes, J.; McKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    On myr timescales, climatic variability is tied to variations in atmospheric CO2, which in turn is driven by geologic sources of CO2 and modulated by the efficiency of chemical weathering and carbonate precipitation (sinks). Long-term variability in CO2 has largely been attributed to changes in mid-ocean ridge inputs or the efficiency of global weathering. For example, the Cretaceous greenhouse is thought to be related to enhanced oceanic crust production, while the late Cenozoic icehouse is attributed to enhanced chemical weathering associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Here, we show that continental arcs may play a more important role in controlling climate, both in terms of sources and sinks. Continental arcs differ from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges in that the continental plate through which arc magmas pass may contain large amounts of sedimentary carbonate, accumulated over the history of the continent. Interaction of arc magmas with crustal carbonates via assimilation, reaction or heating can significantly add to the mantle-sourced CO2 flux. Detrital zircons and global mapping of basement rocks shows that the length of continental arcs in the Cretaceous was more than twice that in the mid-Cenozoic; maps also show many of these arcs intersected crustal carbonates. The increased length of continental arc magmatism coincided with increased oceanic spreading rates, placing convergent margins into compression, which favors continental arcs. Around 50 Ma, however, nearly all the continental arcs in Eurasia and North America terminated as India collided with Eurasia and the western Pacific rolled back, initiating the Marianas-Tonga-Kermadec intra-oceanic subduction complex and possibly leading to a decrease in global CO2 production. Meanwhile, extinct continental arcs continued to erode, resulting in regionally enhanced chemical weathering unsupported by magmatic fluxes of CO2. Continental arcs, during their magmatic lifetimes, are thus a source of CO2, driving

  6. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  7. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  8. The Chinese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Willem Huijnk; Ria Vogels

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Chinese Nederlanders This report presents the first national picture of the position of the Chinese community in the Netherlands. A large-scale survey was conducted among persons of Chinese origin living in the Netherlands, with the aim of answering questions on a wide range of

  9. Checking of seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal NPP of Chinese continent after Fukushima nuclear accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Xiangdong; Zhou Bengang; Zhao Lianda

    2013-01-01

    A checking on seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal nuclear power plant (NPP) of Chinese continent has been made after Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident caused by earthquake tsunami.The results of the checking are introduced briefly in this paper,including the evaluations of seismic and tsunami hazard in NPP siting period,checking results on seismic and tsunami hazard.Because Chinese coastal area belongs to the continental shelf and far from the boundary of plate collision,the tsunami hazard is not significant for coastal area of Chinese continent.However,the effect from tsunami still can' t be excluded absolutely since calculated result of Manila trench tsunami source although the tsunami wave is lower than water level from storm surge.The research about earthquake tsunami will continue in future.The tsunami warning system and emergency program of NPP will be established based on principle of defense in depth in China.

  10. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real

  11. Continental Influence versus marine transition in Rio de la Plata zone - internal continental shelf of the South Atlantic - a multi proxy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burone, L.; Franco-Fraguas, P.; Garcia-Rodriguez, F.; Venturini, N.; Brugnoli, E.; Muniz, P.; Ortega, L.; Marin, Y.; Mahiques, M.; Nagaic, R.; Bicegoc, M.; Figueiras, R.; Salaroli, A.

    2012-01-01

    The terrigenous proxies contribution, the organic matter origin, the productivity, the hydrodynamic and the biological records were used to determine the imrprint of the continental influence along the Rio de la Plata and the Continental Atlantic

  12. Structure and tectonics of western continental margin of India: Implication for geologic hazards

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.

    characteristics of Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI) are closely related to the tectonic history of the Indian subcontinent, its break up during continental rifting, magmatic and sedimentary history, northward movement of India and finally collision... Continental Flood Basalt (DCFB) province on the western and central Indian (Duncan. 1990) as well as continental flood basalt on the Praslin Island in the Seychelles microcontinent (Devey and Stephens, 1991). The DCFB is the largest known continental flood...

  13. Chinese Counterspace Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    overly prideful country with “no ethical principles”151 seeking to “rule the world”152 while “spiritually polluting”153 China. The Chinese believe that...long term relationships through less direct means. The U.S. directness could also be seen as selfish and proud rather than as self-assertive, thereby...into a “ benign competition.”420 Lieutenant Colonel Troy L. Dixon described a U.S. approach to achieving increased cooperation with the Chinese.421

  14. Distribution of Chinese names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2013-03-01

    We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

  15. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  16. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository.

  17. Scientific computer simulation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaizer, Joshua S.; Heller, A. Kevin; Oberkampf, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Before the results of a scientific computer simulation are used for any purpose, it should be determined if those results can be trusted. Answering that question of trust is the domain of scientific computer simulation review. There is limited literature that focuses on simulation review, and most is specific to the review of a particular type of simulation. This work is intended to provide a foundation for a common understanding of simulation review. This is accomplished through three contributions. First, scientific computer simulation review is formally defined. This definition identifies the scope of simulation review and provides the boundaries of the review process. Second, maturity assessment theory is developed. This development clarifies the concepts of maturity criteria, maturity assessment sets, and maturity assessment frameworks, which are essential for performing simulation review. Finally, simulation review is described as the application of a maturity assessment framework. This is illustrated through evaluating a simulation review performed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In making these contributions, this work provides a means for a more objective assessment of a simulation’s trustworthiness and takes the next step in establishing scientific computer simulation review as its own field. - Highlights: • We define scientific computer simulation review. • We develop maturity assessment theory. • We formally define a maturity assessment framework. • We describe simulation review as the application of a maturity framework. • We provide an example of a simulation review using a maturity framework

  18. Scientific collaboratories in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Li, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind...

  19. Making continental-scale environmental programs relevant locally for educators with Project BudBurst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Henderson, S.; Wasser, L.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage non professionals in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide excellent opportunities for educators and their students to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch, this on-line program has engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent, and in contemplating the meaning of such data in their local environments. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst educational resources and share lessons learned from educators in implementing the program in formal and informal education settings. Lesson plans and tips from educators will be highlighted. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago Botanic Garden.

  20. [Application progress of proteomic in pharmacological study of Chinese medicinal formulae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Qian; Zhan, Shu-Yu; Ruan, Yu-Er; Zuo, Zhi-Yan; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Shuai-Jie; Ding, Bao-Yue

    2017-10-01

    Chinese medicinal formulae are the important means of clinical treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. It is urgent to use modern advanced scientific and technological means to reveal the complicated mechanism of Chinese medicinal formulae because they have the function characteristics of multiple components, multiple targets and integrated regulation. The systematic and comprehensive research model of proteomic is in line with the function characteristics of Chinese medicinal formulae, and proteomic has been widely used in the study of pharmacological mechanism of Chinese medicinal formulae. The recent applications of proteomic in pharmacological study of Chinese medicinal formulae in anti-cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, anti-liver disease, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and other diseases were reviewed in this paper, and then the future development direction of proteomic in pharmacological study of Chinese medicinal formulae was put forward. This review is to provide the ideas and method for proteomic research on function mechanism of Chinese medicinal formulae. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: morphology, geology and identification of the base of the slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.

    2014-01-01

    This work is about the morphology, geology and the identification of the base of the slope in the The Uruguayan continental margin which corresponds to the the type of divergent, volcanic and segmented margins. Morphologically is constituted by a clearly defined continental shelf, as well as a continental slope that presents configuration changes from north to south and passes directly to the abyssal plain

  2. Exploring the Continental Margin of Israel: “Telepresence” at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Dwight F.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Ballard, Robert D.

    2011-03-01

    A multidisciplinary team of American and Israeli scientists conducted ocean exploration with a “telepresence” component offshore Israel in September 2010 on board the new E/V Nautilus, which is a reincarnation of the former East German R/V Alexander von Humboldt. This was the first comprehensive geological and biological exploration of the Israel continental margin using deep submergence vehicle systems. Diverse seafloor environments in water depths between 500 and 1300 meters were sampled and imaged using two remotely operated vehicle (ROV) systems, Hercules and Argus. The ROV dives within three areas (Figure 1) investigated high-priority acoustic targets representing geological, biological, or archaeological features as identified by the onboard scientific team. During the dives, biological and geological samples and more than 100 kilometers of high-resolution side-scan sonar data were collected.

  3. Continental scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-F. Graf

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While Antarctica is often described as a pristine environment, there is an increasing awareness of the potential threats from local pollution sources including tourist ships and emissions associated with scientific activities. However, to date there has been no systematic attempt to model the impacts of such pollutants at the continental scale. Indeed, until very recently there was not even a sulphur emission budget available for Antarctica. Here we present the first comprehensive study of atmospheric pollution in Antarctica using a limited area chemistry climate model, and a monthly emissions inventory for sulphur from maintenance of research stations, ground and air traffic, shipping and the active Erebus volcano. We find that ship emissions, both sulphurous and black carbon, dominate anthropogenic pollution near the ground. Their prevalence is likely to rise dramatically if recent trends in tourism continue.

  4. Making better scientific figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  5. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  6. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  7. NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Horace G.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1988, the Scientific Visualization Studio(SVS) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has produced scientific visualizations of NASA s scientific research and remote sensing data for public outreach. These visualizations take the form of images, animations, and end-to-end systems and have been used in many venues: from the network news to science programs such as NOVA, from museum exhibits at the Smithsonian to White House briefings. This presentation will give an overview of the major activities and accomplishments of the SVS, and some of the most interesting projects and systems developed at the SVS will be described. Particular emphasis will be given to the practices and procedures by which the SVS creates visualizations, from the hardware and software used to the structures and collaborations by which products are designed, developed, and delivered to customers. The web-based archival and delivery system for SVS visualizations at svs.gsfc.nasa.gov will also be described.

  8. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  9. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  10. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  11. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  12. The Imperative in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Anne Yue

    A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

  13. Chinese court case fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    established as early as the 6th Century AD, whereas the first substantial evidence of the tradition is from 13th Century and the first Chinese crime fiction novels were written during the 17th Century. This article is, then, a corrective for the international history of crime fiction based on numerous...

  14. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  15. The Chinese House Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

  16. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  17. The achievement and dilemma of political education in Chinese universities since 1978: a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper author considers political education in Chinese universities. Political education has always been a controversy as much as a top issue of social-political life in modern China. Along with the drastic changes brought by the Reform in 1978, political education in Chinese universities has gradually shifted in both contents and forms from stereotyped ideological-political work to a modernized scientific educational disciplinary with strong theoretical supports. It is shown that poli...

  18. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-01

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  19. Usability in Scientific Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Suduc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.

  20. Tracking the current rise of chinese pharmaceutical bionanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Tim; Herron, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    THE CONTEXT AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Over the last decade China has emerged as a major producer of scientific publications, currently ranking second behind the US. During that time Chinese strategic policy initiatives have placed indigenous innovation at the heart of its economy while focusing internal R&D investments and the attraction of foreign investment in nanotechnology as one of their four top areas. China's scientific research publication and nanotechnology research publication production has reached a rank of second in the world, behind only the US. Despite these impressive gains, some scholars argue that the quality of Chinese nanotech research is inferior to US research quality due to lower overall times cited rates, suggesting that the US is still the world leader. We combine citation analysis, text mining, mapping, and data visualization to gauge the development and application of nanotechnology in China, particularly in biopharmananotechnology, and to measure the impact of Chinese policy on nanotechnology research production. Our text mining-based methods provide results that counter existing claims about Chinese nanotechnology research quality. Due in large part to its strategic innovation policy, China's output of nanotechnology publications is on pace to surpass US production in or around 2012.A closer look at Chinese nanotechnology research literature reveals a large increase in research activity in China's biopharmananotechnology research since the implementation in January, 2006 of China's Medium & Long Term Scientific and Technological Development Plan Guidelines for the period 2006-2020 ("MLP"). Since the implementation of the MLP, China has enjoyed a great deal of success producing bionano research findings while attracting a great deal of foreign investment from pharmaceutical corporations setting up advanced drug discovery operations. Given the combination of current scientific production growth as well as economic growth, a relatively low

  1. Scientific annual report 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on scientific research at DESY in 1972. The activities in the field of electron-nucleon scattering, photoproduction and synchrotron radiation get a special mention. It is also reported on the work on the double storage ring as well as on the extension to the synchrotron. (WL/LN) [de

  2. Funding scientific open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Fonda, C.; Zennaro, M.

    2006-11-01

    In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

  3. Scientific Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This annual scientific report gives an concise overview of research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2007. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  4. Report of scientific results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The findings of R+D activities of the HMI radiation chemistry department in the fields of pulsed radiolysis, reaction kinematics, insulators and plastics are presented as well as the scientific publications and lectures of HMI staff and visitors including theoretical contributions, theses and dissertations, and conference papers. (HK) [de

  5. Scientific Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor

  6. Scientific Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2005. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research.

  7. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  8. Scientific Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2004. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  9. Scientific Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2004. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research.

  10. Is risk analysis scientific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part). © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Scientific Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Medical Journal: an official journal of Egyptian Medical Education provides a forum for dissemination of knowledge, exchange of ideas, inform of exchange of ideas, information and experience among workers, investigators and clinicians in all disciplines of medicine with emphasis on its treatment and prevention.

  12. Scientific Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor.

  13. Assessing Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, John M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A method for assessing scientific performance based on relationships displayed numerically in published documents is proposed and illustrated using published documents in pediatric oncology for the period 1979-1982. Contributions of a major clinical investigations group, the Childrens Cancer Study Group, are analyzed. Twenty-nine references are…

  14. Scientific Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2006. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research.

  15. Scientific Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2006. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  16. Scientific Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2003. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge, and fusion research.

  17. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information in policymaking. The selection of scientists and technology professionals for positions in the... Administration on a wide range of issues, including improvement of public health, protection of the environment... technological findings and conclusions. If scientific and technological information is developed and used by the...

  18. Scientific annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the scientific research at DESY in 1973, which included the first storage of electrons in the double storage ring DORIS. Also mentioned are the two large spectrometers PLUTO and DASP, and experiments relating to elementary particles, synchrotron radiation, and the improvement of the equipment are described. (WL/AK) [de

  19. Scientific Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2005. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  20. Scientific Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2003. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge, and fusion research

  1. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  2. 1995 Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This annual scientific report of SCK-CEN presents a comprehensive coverage and research activities in the filed of (a) waste and site restoration (b) reactor safety and radiation protection (c) operation of BR2 Materials Testing Reactor and (d) services provided by the center (analysis for characterization of waste packages, nuclear measurements, low-level radioactivity measurements).

  3. Toward executable scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Cushing, R.; Vasyunin, D.; Laat, C. de; Belloum, A.S.Z.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reproducibility of experiments is considered as one of the main principles of the scientific method. Recent developments in data and computation intensive science, i.e. e-Science, and state of the art in Cloud computing provide the necessary components to preserve data sets and re-run code and

  4. 2003 Scientific Technological Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Cuba, A.; Gayoso Caballero, C.; Robles Nique, A.; Olivera Lescano, P.

    2004-08-01

    This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2003. This report includes 54 papers divided in 9 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials science, radiochemistry, industrial applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, and management aspects

  5. Continental Margins and the Law of the Sea - an `Arranged Marriage' with Huge Research Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, L.

    2005-12-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) requires coastal states intending to secure sovereignty over continental shelf territory extending beyond 200 nautical miles to submit geological/geophysical data, along with their analysis and synthesis of the relevant continental margin in support of their claim. These submissions are scrutinised and assessed by a UN Commission of experts who decide if the claim is justified, and thereby ultimately allowing the exploitation of non-living resources into this extended maritime space. The amount of data required to support the case will vary from margin to margin, depending on the local geological evolution, but typically will involve the running of new, dedicated marine surveys, mostly bathymetric and seismic. Key geological/geophysical issues revolve around proof of `naturalness' of the prolongation of land mass (cue - wide-angle seismics, deep drilling and sampling programmes) and shelf and slope morphology and sediment section thickness (cue - swath bathymetry and multichannel seismics programmes). These surveys, probably primarily funded by government agencies anxious not to lose out on the `land grab', will generate datasets which will inevitably boost not only the research effort leading to increased understanding of margin evolution in academic terms, but also contribute to wider applied aspects of the work such as those leading to refinement of deepwater hydrocarbon resource potential. It is conservatively estimated that in the region of fifty coastal states world-wide have a significant potential for claiming continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles, and that the total area available as extended shelf could easily exceed 7 million square kilometres. However, while for the vast majority of these states a UNCLOS deadline of 2009 exists for submitting a claim - to date only four have done so (Russia, Brazil, Australia and Ireland). It is therefore predictable, if not inevitable, that within the

  6. Scientific Tourism in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2016-12-01

    The Scientific Tourism is relatively new direction in the world, however it already has managed to gain great popularity. As it is, it has arisen in 1980s, but its ideological basis comes from the earliest periods of the human history. In Armenia, it is a completely new phenomenon and still not-understandable for many people. At global level, the Scientific Tourism has several definitions: for example, as explains the member of the scientific tourist centre of Zlovlen Mrs. Pichelerova "The essence of the scientific tourism is based on the provision of the educational, cultural and entertainment needs of a group of people of people who are interested in the same thing", which in our opinion is a very comprehensive and discreet definition. We also have our own views on this type of tourism. Our philosophy is that by keeping the total principles, we put the emphasis on the strengthening of science-individual ties. Our main emphasis is on the scientific-experimental tourism. But this does not mean that we do not take steps to other forms of tourism. Studying the global experience and combining it with our resources, we are trying to get a new interdisciplinary science, which will bring together a number of different professionals as well as individuals, and as a result will have a new lore. It is in this way that an astronomer will become an archaeologist, an archaeologist will become an astrophysicist, etc. Speaking on interdisciplinary sciences, it's worth mentioning that in recent years, the role of interdisciplinary sciences at global level every day is being considered more and more important. In these terms, tourism is an excellent platform for the creation of interdisciplinary sciences and, therefore, the preparation of corresponding scholars. Nevertheless, scientific tourism is very important for the revelation, appreciation and promotion of the country's historical-cultural heritage and scientific potential. Let us not forget either that tourism in all its

  7. Continental Fog Attenuation Empirical Relationship from Measured Visibility Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nadeem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Free Space Optics (FSO has the great potential for future communication applications. However, weather influenced reduced availability had been the main cause for its restricted growth. Among different weather influences fog plays the major role. A new model generalized for all FSO wavelengths, has been proposed for the prediction of continental fog attenuation using visibility data. The performance of the proposed model has been compared with well known models for measured attenuation data of Continental fog. The comparison has been performed in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE.

  8. The Dual Reality of the Chinese Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Zhang, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on stem cell research and financial derivatives as two case studies to analyse the role of scientific knowledge and technology in the development of the Chinese knowledge economy. The findings suggest that, despite China's recent commitments in acquiring international expertise......, there is a decoupling between knowledge acquisitions and applications in the institutionalisation of knowledge within these sectors. Scientific-based knowledge and professional know-how are on the one hand perceived as prime drivers of China's development, yet they on the other hand remain subordinate to existing...

  9. Quaternary nanofossils on the Brazilian continental shelf; Nanofosseis calcarios do quaternario da margem continental brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Rogerio Loureiro [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia], E-mail: rlantunes@petrobras.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The study of calcareous nanofossils occurring in the deposits on the Brazilian continental margin began in the late 1960s, undertaken solely by PETROBRAS. Instead of presenting an academic outlook, the purpose of these investigations is first to formulate a biostratigraphic framework to apply to oil well samples. The initial result was the first zoning for the Brazilian continental margin, which considered the deposits formed between the Aptian and Miocene series. Since the 1960s to date, many papers have been written either with details of that original zoning or applying nanofossil biostratigraphy to solve stratigraphic problems. Regardless of all the papers and studies undertaken, little attention has been paid to the Quaternary, since these deposits are normally of no interest to petroleum geology stricto sensu, especially in a large part of the Brazilian margin. On the other hand, there are a few articles and some Master's dissertations and PhD theses that were written and/or are in progress in Brazilian universities. On the other hand, elsewhere in the world, Quaternary nanofossils have been thoroughly investigated in terms of biostratigraphy and paleoceanography. It is, therefore, very clear that there is a gap between what is being done elsewhere in the world and what has been done in Brazil. In fact, this gap is not larger simply because of a few researchers in Brazilian universities who are studying this topic. The intention of this paper is to contribute toward a richer study of Quaternary nanofossils. It, therefore, contains illustrations and taxonomic descriptions of many species observed in the younger strata of the Brazilian margin basins. This article not only aspires to portray and disseminate the potential of nanofossils for the marine Quaternary study but is also an invitation to students (under and post-graduates) and university researchers - an invitation to learn a little more about the subject and spend some time studying these real gems

  10. Quaternary nanofossils on the Brazilian continental shelf; Nanofosseis calcarios do quaternario da margem continental brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Rogerio Loureiro [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia], E-mail: rlantunes@petrobras.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The study of calcareous nanofossils occurring in the deposits on the Brazilian continental margin began in the late 1960s, undertaken solely by PETROBRAS. Instead of presenting an academic outlook, the purpose of these investigations is first to formulate a biostratigraphic framework to apply to oil well samples. The initial result was the first zoning for the Brazilian continental margin, which considered the deposits formed between the Aptian and Miocene series. Since the 1960s to date, many papers have been written either with details of that original zoning or applying nanofossil biostratigraphy to solve stratigraphic problems. Regardless of all the papers and studies undertaken, little attention has been paid to the Quaternary, since these deposits are normally of no interest to petroleum geology stricto sensu, especially in a large part of the Brazilian margin. On the other hand, there are a few articles and some Master's dissertations and PhD theses that were written and/or are in progress in Brazilian universities. On the other hand, elsewhere in the world, Quaternary nanofossils have been thoroughly investigated in terms of biostratigraphy and paleoceanography. It is, therefore, very clear that there is a gap between what is being done elsewhere in the world and what has been done in Brazil. In fact, this gap is not larger simply because of a few researchers in Brazilian universities who are studying this topic. The intention of this paper is to contribute toward a richer study of Quaternary nanofossils. It, therefore, contains illustrations and taxonomic descriptions of many species observed in the younger strata of the Brazilian margin basins. This article not only aspires to portray and disseminate the potential of nanofossils for the marine Quaternary study but is also an invitation to students (under and post-graduates) and university researchers - an invitation to learn a little more about the subject and spend some time studying these real gems of

  11. Turning Scientific Presentations into Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruffo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    To increase students' confidence in giving scientific presentations, students were shown how to present scientific findings as a narrative story. Students who were preparing to give a scientific talk attended a workshop in which they were encouraged to experience the similarities between telling a personal anecdote and presenting scientific data.…

  12. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...... that contemporary China studies have increasingly developed into a collective effort and that no scholar conducts his/her research in a vacuum devoid of dept to other contributions in the field. The paper will focus on the period since the Cultural Revolution. Consequently, we will not attempt a discussion...

  13. Scientific Programming in Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Van Snyder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fortran programming language was designed by John Backus and his colleagues at IBM to reduce the cost of programming scientific applications. IBM delivered the first compiler for its model 704 in 1957. IBM's competitors soon offered incompatible versions. ANSI (ASA at the time developed a standard, largely based on IBM's Fortran IV in 1966. Revisions of the standard were produced in 1977, 1990, 1995 and 2003. Development of a revision, scheduled for 2008, is under way. Unlike most other programming languages, Fortran is periodically revised to keep pace with developments in language and processor design, while revisions largely preserve compatibility with previous versions. Throughout, the focus on scientific programming, and especially on efficient generated programs, has been maintained.

  14. 1997 Scientific Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, P.

    1998-01-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes

  15. Scientific report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the 'Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires' (DRN) during the year 1999. DRN is one of the CEA Institutions. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in English) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department for the year 1999 are presented giving information on the simulation of low mach number compressible flow, experimental irradiation of multi-materials, progress in the dry route conversion process of UF 6 to UO 2 , the neutronics, the CASCADE installation, the corium, the BWR type reactor cores technology, the reactor safety, the transmutation of americium and fuel cell flow studies, the crack propagation, the hybrid systems and the CEA sites improvement. (A.L.B.)

  16. Scientific publications in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magar, A

    2012-09-01

    Scientific publications have become a mainstay of communication among readers, academicians, researchers and scientists worldwide. Although, its existence dates back to 17 th century in the West, Nepal is still struggling to take few steps towards improving its local science for last 50 years. Since the start of the first medical journal in 1963, the challenges remains as it were decades back regarding role of authors, peer reviewers, editors and even publishers in Nepal. Although, there has been some development in terms of the number of articles being published and appearances of the journals, yet there is a long way to go. This article analyzes the past and present scenario, and future perspective for scientific publications in Nepal.

  17. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  18. Collaboration in scientific practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann

    2014-01-01

    This monograph investigates the collaborative creation of scientific knowledge in research groups. To do so, I combine philosophical analysis with a first-hand comparative case study of two research groups in experimental science. Qualitative data are gained through observation and interviews......, and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists within research...... to their publication. Specifically, I suggest epistemic difference and the porosity of social structure as two conceptual leitmotifs in the study of group collaboration. With epistemic difference, I emphasize the value of socio-cognitive heterogeneity in group collaboration. With porosity, I underline the fact...

  19. Scientific report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires'', (DRN) during the year 1998. DRN is one of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in english) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department, for the year 1998, are presented giving information on the reactors technology and safety, the neutronics, the transmutation and the hybrid systems, the dismantling and the sites improvement, the nuclear accidents, the nuclear matter transport, the thermonuclear fusion safety, the fuel cladding materials and radioactive waste control. (A.L.B.)

  20. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  1. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  2. Multivariable Chinese Remainder Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    to sleep. The 3rd thief wakes up and finds the rest of the coins make 7 equal piles excepting a coin which he pockets. If the total number of coins they stole is not more than 200, what is the exact number? With a bit of hit and miss, one can find that 157 is a possible number. The Chinese remainder theorem gives a systematic ...

  3. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... 2012 with 41 students studying journalism at People's University, Tsinghua University, China Youth University for Political Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing Foreign Languages University and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing and at Fudan University in Shanghai....

  4. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  5. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  6. [Verruca planae Chinese medicine treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Ming

    2008-08-01

    Flat wart on the effectiveness of TCM treatment. Outpatients will be by the "People's Republic of China Chinese medicine industry standards, TCM diagnosis of dermatological diseases efficacy standards, Chen Hou State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1994-06-28 approved, 1995-01-01 implementation". Randomly divided into two groups. Treatment and control groups. Treatment groups treated with Chinese herbs. The control group were treated with WM. Since the preparation of the unification formula ointment, cuboiling method. Chinese herbal medicine preparation by my hospital room Producer. 5 g pre pack, after treatment for 30 days, clinical observation. The group of Chinese medicine is better than western medicine (86.7% vs 71.7% , P < 0.05). Chinese medicine has some effect flat wart.

  7. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  8. Professional scientific blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Beke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bear a resemblance to digital notice board, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be collectivization of the knowledge. In this article I am going to examine the characteristics of the scientific blog as a genre. Conventional learning counts as a rather solitary activity. If the students have access to the materials of each other and of the teacher, their sense of solitude diminishes and this model is also closer to the constructivist approach that features the way most people think and learn. Learning does not mean passively collecting tiny pieces of knowledge; it much more esembles ‘spinning a conceptual net’ which is made up by the experiences and observations of the individual. With the spreading of the Internet more universities and colleges worldwide gave a try to on-line educational methods, but the most efficient one has not been found yet. The publication of the curriculum (the material of the lectures and the handling of the electronic mails are not sufficient; much more is needed for collaborative learning. Our scholastic scientific blog can be a sufficient field for the start of a knowledge-building process based on cooperation. In the Rocard-report can be read that for the future of Europe it is crucial to develop the education of the natural sciences, and for this it isnecessary to act on local, regional, national and EU-level. To the educational processes should be involved beyond the traditional actors (child, parent, teacher also others (scientists, professionals, universities, local institutions, the actors of the economic sphere, etc.. The scholastic scientific blog answer the purposes, as a collaborative knowledge-sharing forum.

  9. Scientific progress report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The R + D-projects in this field and the infrastructural tasks mentioned are handled in seven working- and two project groups: Computer systems, Numerical and applied mathematics, Software development, Process calculation systems- hardware, Nuclear electronics, measuring- and automatic control technique, Research of component parts and irradiation tests, Central data processing, Processing of process data in the science of medicine, Co-operation in the BERNET-project in the 'Wissenschaftliches Rechenzentrum Berlin (WRB)' (scientific computer center in Berlin). (orig./WB)

  10. Scientific Technological Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayoso C, C.; Cuya G, T.; Robles N, A.; Prado C, A.

    2003-07-01

    This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2002. This report includes 58 papers divided in 10 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials, industrial applications, biological applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, nuclear safety, and management aspects

  11. Evaluating a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Whitton, Mary C.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.

    2003-01-01

    of the system, and post-interviews to understand the participants' views of doing science under both conditions. We hypothesized that study participants would be less effective, report more difficulty, and be less favorably inclined to adopt the system when collaborating remotely. Contrary to expectations...... of collaborating remotely. While the data analysis produced null results, considered as a whole, the analysis leads us to conclude there is positive potential for the development and adoption of scientific collaboratory systems....

  12. National nuclear scientific program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Matausek, M.V.; Neskovic, N.

    2001-01-01

    National scientific program of the Vinca Institute Nuclear Reactors And Radioactive Waste comprises research and development in the following fields: application of energy of nuclear fission, application of neutron beams, analyses of nuclear safety and radiation protection. In the first phase preparatory activities, conceptual design and design of certain processes and facilities should be accomplished. In the second phase realization of the projects is expected. (author)

  13. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PROSCENIUM OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Berlingher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, organizations developed rapidly, their managers began to realize that they had too frequent managerial problems; this awareness lead to a new phase of development of scientific management. Examining the titles published in that period, it can be concluded that management issues that pose interest related to payroll and payroll systems, problems exacerbated by the industrial revolution and related work efficiency. Noting that large organizations losing power, direct supervision, the managers were looking for incentives to replace this power . One of the first practitioners of this new management system was Henry R. Towne, the president of the well-known enterprise "Yale and Towne Manufacturing Company", which applied the management methods in his company workshops. Publishers of magazines "Industrial Management" and "The Engineering Magazine" stated that HR Towne is, undisputedly, the pioneer of scientific management. He initiated the systematic application of effective management methods and his famous article "The Engineer as Economist" provided to the company. "American Society of Mechanical Engineers" in 1886 was the one that probably inspired Frederick W. Taylor to devote his entire life and work in scientific management.

  15. The next scientific revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tony

    2010-11-01

    For decades, computer scientists have tried to teach computers to think like human experts. Until recently, most of those efforts have failed to come close to generating the creative insights and solutions that seem to come naturally to the best researchers, doctors, and engineers. But now, Tony Hey, a VP of Microsoft Research, says we're witnessing the dawn of a new generation of powerful computer tools that can "mash up" vast quantities of data from many sources, analyze them, and help produce revolutionary scientific discoveries. Hey and his colleagues call this new method of scientific exploration "machine learning." At Microsoft, a team has already used it to innovate a method of predicting with impressive accuracy whether a patient with congestive heart failure who is released from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. It was developed by directing a computer program to pore through hundreds of thousands of data points on 300,000 patients and "learn" the profiles of patients most likely to be rehospitalized. The economic impact of this prediction tool could be huge: If a hospital understands the likelihood that a patient will "bounce back," it can design programs to keep him stable and save thousands of dollars in health care costs. Similar efforts to uncover important correlations that could lead to scientific breakthroughs are under way in oceanography, conservation, and AIDS research. And in business, deep data exploration has the potential to unearth critical insights about customers, supply chains, advertising effectiveness, and more.

  16. Age and isotope evidence for the evolution of continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorbath, S.

    1978-01-01

    Irreversible chemical differentiation of the mantle's essentially infinite reservoir for at least the past 3800 Ma has produced new continental, sialic crust during several relatively short (ca. 100-300 Ma) episodes which were widely separated in time and may have been of global extent. During each episode (termed 'accretion-differentiation superevent'), juvenile sial underwent profound igneous, metamorphic and geochemical differentiation, resulting in thick (ca. 25-40 km), stable, compositionally gradational, largely indestructible, continental crust exhibiting close grouping of isotopic ages of rock formation, as well as mantle-type initial Sr and Pb isotopic ratios for all major constituents. Isotopic evidence suggests that within most accretion-differentiation superevents - and especially during the earlier ones - continental growth predominated over reworking of older sialic crust. Reworking of older sialic crust can occur in several types of geological environment and appears to have become more prevalent with the passage of geological time. It is usually clearly distinguishable from continental growth, by application of appropriate age and isotope data. (author)

  17. Prerequisites of Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in Continental Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoluci Mato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper was to analyze the current status of rural tourism in Croatia and to identify possibilities, guidelines and methods of its sustainable development. The research has shown that rural tourism in Croatia falls behind the sun-and-beach holiday tourism in coastal Croatia and that numerous and diverse natural and social resources in Continental Croatia are insufficiently employed, especially in the Continental part of the country Past research of rural tourism in continental Croatia relied on individual entrepreneurial initiative and scarce funding resources, so that consequently a heterogeneous and fragmented rural tourism offer, based on various tourism forms and special interest tourism types, has developed in an unorganized way. However, rural tourism can become a driving force for the development of rural areas, taking into account the concept of sustainable development, based on the balance of economic, ecological and social responsibility. In the future, it should encourage development projects that ensure integrated tourist offer and thereby enable long-term sustainable development of rural tourism in continental Croatia.

  18. Fuels management in the southern Appalachian Mountains, hot continental division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Reilly; Thomas A. Waldrop; Joseph J. O’Brien

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Hot Continental Mountains Division, M220 (McNab and others 2007) are a topographically and biologically complex area with over 10 million ha of forested land, where complex environmental gradients have resulted in a great diversity of forest types. Abundant moisture and a long, warm growing season support high levels of productivity...

  19. Early diagenesis of phosphorus in continental margin sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the organic material in the oceans that reaches the sea floor is deposited on continental margins and not in the deep sea. This organic matter is the principal carrier of phosphorus (P) to sediments. A part of the organic material is buried definitely. The other part decomposes,

  20. Continental Ice Sheets and the Planetary Radiation Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction between continental ice sheets and the planetary radiation budget is potentially important in climate-sensitivity studies. A simple ice-sheet model incorporated in an energybalance climate model provides a tool for studying this interaction in a quantitative way. Experiments in which

  1. Growth of the continental crust: constraints from radiogenic isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    Most models for evolution of continental crust are expressed in the form of a diagram illustrating the cumulative crustal mass (normalized relative to the present crustal mass) as a function of time. Thus, geochronological data inevitably play a major role in either constructing or testing crustal growth models. For all models, determining the start-time for effective crustal accretion is of vital importance. To this end, the continuing search for, and reliable characterization of, the most ancient crustal rock-units remains a worthy enterprise. Another important role for geochronology and radiogenic isotope geochemistry is to assess the status of major geological events as period either of new crust generation or of reworking of earlier formed continental crust. For age characterization of major geological provinces, using the critieria outined, the mass (or volume) of crust surviving to the present day should be determinable as a function of crust formation age. More recent developments, however, appear to set severe limitations on recycling of crust, at least by the process of sediment subduction. In modeling crustal growth without recycling, valuable constaints on growth rate variations through time can be provided if variations in the average age of the continental crust can be monitored through geological history. The question of the average age of the exposed continental crust was addressed by determining Sm-Nd crustal residence model ages (T-CR) for fine-grained sediment loads of many of the world's major rivers

  2. Areas with special ecological values on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Kessel, J.G.; Berkenbosch, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this report we are submitting proposals for the boundaries of areas on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). In the National Spatial Strategy a conservation regime has been determined for five areas in the North Sea with special ecological values. RIKZ and Alterra have formulated this report in

  3. Ooid turbidites from the Central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    Gravity displaced debris flows/turbidites have been observed in five box cores collected between water depths of 649 and 3,627 m from the Central Western continental margin of India. Studies on grain size, carbonate content, and coarse fraction...

  4. The Statoil/Hydro fusion in a continental shelf perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter

    2007-01-01

    The article analysis the consequences of the Statoil/Hydro merger on the development on the Norwegian continental shelf. Various indicators of results of the market power the merger are presented and the effects of reduced competition on the markets are discussed. The advantages of the merger on the activities on the shelf are analyzed. (tk)

  5. Clay mineral distribution on the Kerala continental shelf and slope

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of @iRV gaveshani@@ were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral cntent. The distribution of total clay (< 4~k fraction...

  6. Statistical analysis of planktic foraminifera of the surface Continental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planktic foraminiferal assemblage recorded from selected samples obtained from shallow continental shelf sediments off southwestern Nigeria were subjected to statistical analysis. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine variants of planktic parameters. Values obtained for these parameters were ...

  7. CEO compensation, family control, and institutional investors in Continental Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, Ettore; Gonenc, Halit; Ozkan, Neslihan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of family control and institutional investors on CEO pay packages in Continental Europe, using a dataset of 754 listed firms with 3731 firm-year observations from 14 countries during 2001-2008. We find that family control curbs the level of CEO total and cash

  8. The African Diaspora in continental African struggles for freedom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In light of this realization, this article discusses the contributions of the African Diaspora towards continental African liberation from European colonial domination, with a view to theorizing the implications of this history on the criticism of African Renaissance literature. Focusing on Diasporan African agency in organizing ...

  9. Deep Crustal Melting and the Survival of Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, D.; Teyssier, C. P.; Rey, P. F.; Korchinski, M.

    2017-12-01

    Plate convergence involving continental lithosphere leads to crustal melting, which ultimately stabilizes the crust because it drives rapid upward flow of hot deep crust, followed by rapid cooling at shallow levels. Collision drives partial melting during crustal thickening (at 40-75 km) and/or continental subduction (at 75-100 km). These depths are not typically exceeded by crustal rocks that are exhumed in each setting because partial melting significantly decreases viscosity, facilitating upward flow of deep crust. Results from numerical models and nature indicate that deep crust moves laterally and then vertically, crystallizing at depths as shallow as 2 km. Deep crust flows en masse, without significant segregation of melt into magmatic bodies, over 10s of kms of vertical transport. This is a major mechanism by which deep crust is exhumed and is therefore a significant process of heat and mass transfer in continental evolution. The result of vertical flow of deep, partially molten crust is a migmatite dome. When lithosphere is under extension or transtension, the deep crust is solicited by faulting of the brittle upper crust, and the flow of deep crust in migmatite domes traverses nearly the entire thickness of orogenic crust in Recognition of the importance of migmatite (gneiss) domes as archives of orogenic deep crust is applicable to determining the chemical and physical properties of continental crust, as well as mechanisms and timescales of crustal differentiation.

  10. Potential power-generating stations on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittl, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Progress toward the installation of floating power plants, which represent a beneficial use of the continental shelf, is presented. The demonstration of the feasibility of such facilities with existing technology, and the thorough support by safety and environmental reviews, have been made possible by the efforts of engineers and scientists working toward supplying the nation's growing energy needs

  11. Slumping on the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Mohan, R.; Muralinath, A.S.

    continental margin is believed to have set in motion during the beginning of Holocene. Besides, it infers that after 6 k.y. B.P. the magnitude of slumping is minimal. The slumping may be attributed to the evolution of methane gas as one of the important causes...

  12. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  13. Mineralogy of the carbonate sediments - western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    An X-ray diffraction study of forty-six sediment samples and three oolitic limestone samples from the western continental shelf of India shows that aragonite is the dominant carbonate mineral (99% maximum), followed by low-magnesium calcite (77...

  14. Geochemistry of sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Paropkari, A.L.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The bulk and partition geochemistry of Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Cu have been investigated in sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India. The results show that (1) the bulk geochemistry varies from one shelf unit to the other, (2) all...

  15. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  16. Chinese values, health and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C

    2001-10-01

    To describe the roots of Chinese values, beliefs and the concept of health, and to illustrate how these ways have influenced the development of health care and nursing among Chinese in the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Scope. Based on the literature and direct observation in the PRC and ROC, this is an introduction to Chinese philosophies, religion, basic beliefs, and values with a special meaning for health and nursing. Chinese philosophies and religion include Confucian principles, Taoism, theory of "Yin" and "Yang", and Buddhism. Beliefs and values include the way of education, practice of acupuncture, herbal treatments and diet therapy. How people value traditional Chinese medicine in combination with western science, and the future direction of nursing and nursing inquiry are also briefly addressed. Chinese philosophies and religions strongly influence the Chinese way of living and thinking about health and health care. Nurses must combine information about culture with clinical assessment of the patient to provide cultural sensitive care. A better way may be to combine both western and Chinese values into the Chinese health care system by negotiating between the traditional values while at the same time, respecting an individual's choice. The foundation of China's philosophical and aesthetic tradition, in combination with western science is important to the future advancement of nursing research that will be beneficial to the Republics, Asia, and the world.

  17. The paradox of scientific expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads to a f...... cross-disciplinary research and in the collective use of different kinds of scientific expertise, and thereby make society better able to solve complex, real-world problems.......Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads...... to a fragmentation of scientific expertise. To resolve this paradox, the present paper investigates three hypotheses: 1) All scientific knowledge is perspectival. 2) The perspectival structure of science leads to specific forms of knowledge asymmetries. 3) Such perspectival knowledge asymmetries must be handled...

  18. Students' Argumentation Skills across Two Socio-Scientific Issues in a Confucian Classroom: Is Transfer possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Chan-Choong; Daniel, Esther G. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues the possible simultaneous development and transfer of students' argumentation skills from one socio-scientific issue to another in a Confucian classroom. In Malaysia, the Chinese vernacular schools follow a strict Confucian philosophy in the teaching and learning process. The teacher talks and the students listen. This case study…

  19. Demystifying Scientific Data ­ Using Earth Science to Teach the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiff, P. J.; Santos, E. A.; Erickson, P. J.; Niell, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    insights into complicated processes. Geodesy: Students learn about tectonic plate theory in middle school to explain continental drift, but have no idea about how it is determined. By learning about the process, students become more familiar with measurement, uncertainty, and error. Students who analyze continental drift using observations from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) will discover the current limits of scientific measurement (approximately one part in a billion) and see how even these data may contain unmodeled effects. In both projects the process of understanding data will give the students a better picture of how science works. These lessons and activities were created under the Research Experiences for Teachers program of the National Science Foundation.

  20. Structural lineaments from the magnetic anomaly maps of the eastern continental margin of India (ECMI) and NW Bengal Fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.; Subrahmanyam, A; Rao, M.M.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    extension of 85 degrees E ridge, abutting the continental shelf off Chilka Lake and (3) trend 3, locted over the continental shelf/slope between Visakhapatnm and Paradip represents a folded (ridges and depressions) nature of the continental basement...

  1. Engineering, Development and Philosophy American, Chinese and European Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Mitcham, Carl; Li, Bocong; An, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    This inclusive, cross-cultural study rethinks the nexus between engineering, development, and culture. It offers diverse commentary from a range of disciplinary perspectives on how the philosophies of today’s cultural triumvirate—American, European and Chinese—are shaped and given nuance by the cross-fertilization of engineering and development. Scholars from the humanities and social sciences as well as engineers themselves reflect on key questions that arise in this relational context, such as how international development work affects the professional views, identities, practice and ethics of engineers.   The first volume to offer a systematic and collaborative study that cuts across continental boundaries, the book delineates the kinds of skills and competences that tomorrow’s engineering success stories will require, and analyzes fascinating aspects of the interplay between engineering and philosophy, such as how traditionally Chinese ways of thinking can influence modern engineering practice in...

  2. Communication in superconductivity research: A study of scientific discoveries with particular reference to a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, H.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to study the communications dimensions of China's contribution to the discovery of high-Tc superconductors. Chinese researchers of the field were compared with non-Chinese superconductivity scientists from developed countries to reveal similarities and differences in the formal as well as the informal domains of scholarly communication. 240 documents highly cited in a manually created Chinese data base and in Science Citation Index for the period of 1987-89 were examined to delineate the formal structure of communication in the area. Noteworthy similarities, e.g., similar cited cores, identical publication sources, and comparable intellectual structures of cocitation data, were found in formal communication between Chinese and non-Chinese scientists. Nevertheless, differences were also located in regard to citedness, timeliness and direction of communication. Findings reflect the role Chinese scientists played in the discovery of high-Tc superconductors. Chinese researchers overall did better in the formal domain than in the informal realm of scientific communication. Informal communication with scientists from advanced nations appears to be a very weak element in China's endeavors of searching for high-Tc superconductors

  3. A new GPS velocity field in the south-western Balkans: insights for continental dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Duni, L.; Ganas, A.; Georgiev, I.; Jouanne, F.; Koci, R.; Kuka, N.; Metois, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Balkans peninsula is an area of active distributed deformation located at the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate. Relatively low strain rates and logistical reasons have so far limited the characterization and definition of the active tectonics and crustal kinematics. The increasing number of GNSS stations belonging to national networks deployed for scientific and cadastral purposes, now provides the opportunity to improve the knowledge of the crustal kinematics in this area and to define a cross-national velocity field that illuminates the active tectonic deformation. In this work we homogeneously processed the data from the south western Balkans and neighbouring regions using available rinex files from scientific and cadastral networks (ALBPOS, EUREF, HemusNET, ITALPOS, KOPOS, MAKPOS, METRICA, NETGEO, RING, TGREF). In order to analyze and interpret station velocities relative to the Eurasia plate and to reduce the common mode signal, we updated the Eurasian terrestrial reference frame described in Métois et al. 2015. Starting from this dataset we present a new GPS velocity field covering the south western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Using this new velocity field, we derive the strain rate tensor to analyze the regional style of the deformation. Our results (1) improve the picture of the general southward flow of the crust characterizing the south western Balkans behind the contractional belt at the boundary with Adriatic and (2) provide new key elements for the understanding of continental dynamics in this part of the Eurasian plate boundary.

  4. On the Possibility of a Scientific Theory of Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical strengths and weaknesses of Laudan's normative naturalism, which understands the principles of scientific method to be akin to scientific hypotheses, and therefore open to test like any principle of science. Contains 19 references. (Author/WRM)

  5. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.; Dü rr, H. H.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Slomp, C. P.; Goossens, N.; Regnier, P. A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  6. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.; Dü rr, H. H.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Slomp, C. P.; Regnier, P. A. G.

    2012-01-01

    files. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  7. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Laruelle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems. Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation and 149 sub-units (COSCATs. Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  8. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laruelle, G.G.; Dürr, H.H.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Slomp, C.P.; Goossens, N.; Regnier, P.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and

  9. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2012-10-04

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric pro- files. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  10. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2013-05-29

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  11. Marie Curie: scientific entrepreneur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudia, S.

    1998-01-01

    Marie Curie is best known for her discovery of radium one hundred years ago this month, but she also worked closely with industry in developing methods to make and monitor radioactive material, as Soraya Boudia explains. One hundred years ago this month, on 28 December 1898, Pierre Curie, Marie Sklodowska-Curie and Gustave Bemont published a paper in Comptes-rendus - the journal of the French Academy of Sciences. In the paper they announced that they had discovered a new element with astonishing properties: radium. But for one of the authors, Marie Curie, the paper was more than just the result of outstanding work: it showed that a woman could succeed in what was then very much a male-dominated scientific world. Having arrived in Paris from Poland in 1891, Marie Curie became the first woman in France to obtain a PhD in physics, the first woman to win a Nobel prize and the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne. She also helped to found a new scientific discipline: the study of radioactivity. She became an icon and a role-model for other women to follow, someone who succeeded - despite many difficulties - in imposing herself on the world of science. Although Curie's life story is a familiar and well documented one, there is one side to her that is less well known: her interaction with industry. As well as training many nuclear physicists and radiochemists in her laboratory, she also became a scientific pioneer in industrial collaboration. In this article the author describes this side of Marie Curie. (UK)

  12. Scientific (Wo)manpower?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Persson, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent male and female PhDs choose academic vs non‐academic employment. Further, it analyses gender earnings differences in the academic and non‐academic labour markets. Design/methodology/approach – Rich Swedish cross‐sectional regist...... scientific human capital. Originality/value – The study is the first to investigate career‐choice and earnings of Swedish PhDs. Further, the study is the first to investigate both the academic and the non‐academic labour markets....

  13. Scientific report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This scientific report of the Fuel Cycle Direction of the Cea, presents the Direction activities and research programs in the fuel cycle domain during the year 1999. The first chapter is devoted to the front end of the fuel cycle with the SILVA process as main topic. The second chapter is largely based on the separation chemistry of the back end cycle. The third and fourth chapters present studies of more applied and sometimes more technical developments in the nuclear industry or not. (A.L.B.)

  14. Scientific report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.; Gueneau, C.; Doizi, D.

    1998-01-01

    In this book are found technical and scientific papers on the main works of the Direction of the Fuel Cycle (DCC) in France. The study fields are: the up-side of the nuclear fuel cycle with theoretical studies (plasma simulation) and technological developments and instrumentation (lasers diodes, carbides plasma projection, carbon 13 enrichment); the down-side nuclear fuel cycle with theoretical studies (ion Eu 3+ complexation simulation, decay simulation, uranium and plutonium diffusion study, electrolyser operating simulation), scenario studies ( recycling, wastes management), experimental studies; dismantling and cleaning (soils cleaning, surface-active agent for decontamination, fault tree analysis); analysis with expert systems and mass spectrometry. (A.L.B.)

  15. Annual scientific report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Bobin, K.; Michiels, G.; Proost, J.

    1975-01-01

    The main activities of SCK/CEN during 1974 are reported in individual summaries. Fields of research are the following: sodium cooled fast reactors, gas cooled reactors, light water reactors, applied nuclear research (including waste disposal, safeguards and fusion research), basic and exploratory research (including materials science, nuclear physics and radiobiology). The BR2 Materials testing reactor and associated facilities are described. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the SCK/CEN Scientific staff is given

  16. SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegane GÜVEN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Technological and scientific innovations have increased exponentially over the past years in the dentistry profession. In this article, these developments are evaluated both in terms of clinical practice and their place in the educational program. The effect of the biologic and digital revolutions on dental education and daily clinical practice are also reviewed. Biomimetics, personalized dental medicine regenerative dentistry, nanotechnology, high-end simulations providing virtual reality, genomic information, and stem cell studies will gain more importance in the coming years, moving dentistry to a different dimension.

  17. Annual scientific report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Bobin, K.; Michiels, G.; Proost, J.

    1976-01-01

    The main activities of SCK/CEN during 1975 are reported in individual summaries. Field of research are the following: sodium cooled fast reactors, gas cooled reactors, light water reactors, applied nuclear research (including waste disposal, safeguards and fusion research), basic and exploratory research (including materials science, nuclear physics and radiobiology). The BR2 Materials testing reactor and associated facilities are described. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the SCK/CEN Scientific staff is given

  18. Practical scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, A

    2011-01-01

    Scientific computing is about developing mathematical models, numerical methods and computer implementations to study and solve real problems in science, engineering, business and even social sciences. Mathematical modelling requires deep understanding of classical numerical methods. This essential guide provides the reader with sufficient foundations in these areas to venture into more advanced texts. The first section of the book presents numEclipse, an open source tool for numerical computing based on the notion of MATLAB®. numEclipse is implemented as a plug-in for Eclipse, a leading integ

  19. Scientific activities 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  20. Energy and scientific communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, E.

    2013-06-01

    Energy communication is a paradigmatic case of scientific communication. It is particularly important today, when the world is confronted with a number of immediate, urgent problems. Science communication has become a real duty and a big challenge for scientists. It serves to create and foster a climate of reciprocal knowledge and trust between science and society, and to establish a good level of interest and enthusiasm for research. For an effective communication it is important to establish an open dialogue with the audience, and a close collaboration among scientists and science communicators. An international collaboration in energy communication is appropriate to better support international and interdisciplinary research and projects.

  1. Scientific visualization and radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrance, D.P.; Hoyer, C.E.; Wrestler, F.A.; Kuhn, M.J.; Moore, W.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Scientific visualization is the visual presentation of numerical data. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) has developed methods for visualizing computerbased simulations of digital imaging data. The applicability of these various tools for unique and potentially medical beneficial display of MR images is investigated. Raw data are obtained from MR images of the brain, neck, spine, and brachial plexus obtained on a 1.5-T imager with multiple pulse sequences. A supercomputer and other mainframe resources run a variety of graphic and imaging programs using this data. An interdisciplinary team of imaging scientists, computer graphic programmers, an physicians works together to achieve useful information

  2. On the dynamics and the geochemical mechanism of the evolution of the continental crust. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, K.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the isotopic composition of oxygen in the continental crust, in the oceans, in the oceanic crust and in the upper mantle shows the dynamics of plate tectonics and continental growthto be more or less constant during the last three or four aeons independent on the geochemical mechanism of continental growth. (author)

  3. The hot continental division: Oak forests, fire, and ecosystem management frame fuels management questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan L. Stout; Matthew B. Dickinson; Gregory J. Nowacki

    2012-01-01

    The Hot Continental Division is one of the larger ecoregions within the continental United States (McNab and Avers 1994), incorporating portions of 19 States and extending from the eastern seacoast to areas west of the Mississippi River (chapter 1). The Division includes the Eastern (Oceanic) and Eastern (Continental) Broadleaf Forest Provinces and two Mountain...

  4. 75 FR 73159 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...-0153; Notice 1] Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Continental Tire North America, Inc., (Continental),\\1\\ has determined that certain passenger car replacement tires manufactured in 2009 do not fully comply with paragraph S5.5(b) of Federal...

  5. Mechanisms of continental subduction and exhumation of HP and UHP rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burov, Evgene; Francois, Thomas; Yamato, Philippe; Wolf, Sylvie

    We discuss possible scenarios of continental collision, and their relation to mechanisms of exhumation of HP and UHP rocks, inferred from thermo-mechanical numerical models accounting for thermo-rheological complexity of the continental lithosphere. Due to this complexity, mechanisms of continental

  6. Influence of mid-crustal rheology on the deformation behavior of continental crust in the continental subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fucheng; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2018-06-01

    Although the presence of low-viscosity middle crustal layer in the continental crust has been detected by both geophysical and geochemical studies, its influence on the deformation behavior of continental crust during subduction remains poorly investigated. To illustrate the crustal deformation associated with layered crust during continental subduction, we conducted a suite of 2-D thermo-mechanical numerical studies with visco-brittle/plastic rheology based on finite-differences and marker-in-cell techniques. In the experiments, we established a three-layer crustal model with a quartz-rich middle crustal layer embedded between the upper and lower continental crust. Results show that the middle crustal layer determines the amount of the accreted upper crust, maximum subduction depth, and exhumation path of the subducted upper crust. By varying the initial effective viscosity and thickness of the middle crustal layer, the further effects can be summarized as: (1) a rheologically weaker and/or thicker middle crustal layer results in a larger percentage of the upper crust detaching from the underlying slab and accreting at the trench zone, thereby leading to more serious crustal deformation. The rest of the upper crust only subducts into the depths of high pressure (HP) conditions, causing the absence of ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks; (2) a rheologically stronger and/or thinner middle crustal layer favors the stable subduction of the continental crust, dragging the upper crust to a maximum depth of ∼100 km and forming UHP rocks; (3) the middle crustal layer flows in a ductile way and acts as an exhumation channel for the HP-UHP rocks in both situations. In addition, the higher convergence velocity decreases the amount of subducted upper crust. A detailed comparison of our modeling results with the Himalayan collisional belt are conducted. Our work suggests that the presence of low-viscosity middle crustal layer may be another possible mechanism for

  7. The Scientific Case against Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ivan

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  8. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  9. Metadata in Scientific Dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, T.

    2011-12-01

    Discussions of standards in the scientific community have been compared to religious wars for many years. The only things scientists agree on in these battles are either "standards are not useful" or "everyone can benefit from using my standard". Instead of achieving the goal of facilitating interoperable communities, in many cases the standards have served to build yet another barrier between communities. Some important progress towards diminishing these obstacles has been made in the data layer with the merger of the NetCDF and HDF scientific data formats. The universal adoption of XML as the standard for representing metadata and the recent adoption of ISO metadata standards by many groups around the world suggests that similar convergence is underway in the metadata layer. At the same time, scientists and tools will likely need support for native tongues for some time. I will describe an approach that combines re-usable metadata "components" and restful web services that provide those components in many dialects. This approach uses advanced XML concepts of referencing and linking to construct complete records that include reusable components and builds on the ISO Standards as the "unabridged dictionary" that encompasses the content of many other dialects.

  10. Budapest scientific a guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, István

    2015-01-01

    This guidebook introduces the reader—the scientific tourist and others—to the visible memorabilia of science and scientists in Budapest—statues, busts, plaques, buildings, and other artefacts. According to the Hungarian–American Nobel laureate Albert Szent-Györgyi, this metropolis at the crossroads of Europe has a special atmosphere of respect for science. It has been the venue of numerous scientific achievements and the cradle, literally, of many individuals who in Hungary, and even more beyond its borders became world-renowned contributors to science and culture. Six of the eight chapters of the book cover the Hungarian Nobel laureates, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the university, the medical school, agricultural sciences, and technology and engineering. One chapter is about selected gimnáziums from which seven Nobel laureates (Szent-Györgyi, de Hevesy, Wigner, Gabor, Harsanyi, Olah, and Kertész) and the five “Martians of Science” (von Kármán, Szilard, Wigner, von Neumann, and Teller...

  11. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.

  12. Verified scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullinger, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this essay, the author attempts to enlighten the reader as to the meaning of the term ''verified scientific findings'' in section 13, sub-section 1, sentence 2 of the new Chemicals Control Law. The examples given here are the generally accepted regulations in regards to technology (that is sections 7a and 18b of the WHG (law on water economy), section 3, sub-section 1 of the machine- and engine protection laws) and to the status of technology (section 3, sub-section 6 of the BImSchG (Fed. law on prevention of air-borne pollution)), and to the status of science (section 5, sub-section 2 of the AMG (drug legislation). The ''status of science and technology'' as defined in sections 4 ff of the Atomic Energy Law (AtomG) and in sections 3, 4, 12, 2) of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance (1.StrlSch. VO), is also being discussed. The author defines the in his opinion ''dynamic term'' as the generally recognized result of scientific research, and the respective possibilities of practical utilization of technology. (orig.) [de

  13. Drilling for scientific purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1987-09-01

    Drilling for scientific purpose is a process of conducting geophysical exploration at deep underground and drilling for collecting crust samples directly. This is because earth science has advanced to get a good understanding about the top of the crust and has shifted its main interest to the lower layer of the crust in land regions. The on-land drilling plan in Japan has just started, and the planned drilling spots are areas around the Minami River, Hidaka Mts., kinds of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granite in outside zone, the extension of Japan Sea, Ogasawara Is., Minami-Tori Is., and active volcanos. The paper also outlines the present situation of on-land drilling in the world, focusing on the SG-3rd super-deep well SG-3 on the Kola Peninsula, USSR, Satori SG-1st well SG-1 in Azerbaidzhan S.S.R, V.S.S.R, Sweden's wells, Cyprus' wells, Bayearn well Plan in West Germany, and Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program in the U.S. At its end, the paper explains the present situation and the future theme of the Japanese drilling technique and points out the necessity of developing equipment, and techniques. (14 figs, 5 tabs, 26 refs)

  14. Density Sorting During the Evolution of Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Behn, M. D.; Hacker, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    We consider two settings - in addition to "delamination" of arc lower crust - in which dense, mafic eclogites founder into the convecting mantle while buoyant, felsic lithologies accumulate at the base of evolving continental crust. Arc processes play a central role in generating continental crust, but it remains uncertain how basaltic arc crust is transformed to andesitic continental crust. Dense, SiO2-poor products of fractionation may founder from the base of arc crust by "delamination", but lower arc crust after delamination has significantly different trace elements compared to lower continental crust (LCC). In an alternative model, buoyant magmatic rocks generated at arcs are first subducted, mainly via subduction erosion. Upon heating, these buoyant lithologies ascend through the mantle wedge or along a subduction channel, and are "relaminated" at
the base of overlying crust (e.g., Hacker et al EPSL 11, AREPS 15). Average buoyant lavas and plutons
for the Aleutians, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, Kohistan and Talkeetna arcs fall within the range of estimated LCC major and trace elements. Relamination is more efficient in generating continental crust than delamination. Himalayan cross-sections show Indian crust thrust beneath Tibetan crust, with no intervening mantle. There is a horizontal Moho at ca 80 km depth, extending from thickened Indian crust, across the region where Tibetan crust overlies Indian crust, into thickened Tibetan crust. About half the subducted Indian crust is present, whereas the other half is missing. Data (Vp/Vs; Miocene lavas formed by interaction of continental crust with mantle; xenolith thermometry) indicate 1000°C or more from ca 50 km depth to the Moho since the Miocene. We build on earlier studies (LePichon et al Tectonics 92, T'phys 97; Schulte-Pelkum et al Nature 05; Monsalve et al JGR 08) to advance the hypothesis that rapid growth of garnet occurs at 70-80 km and 1000°C within subducting Indian crust. Dense eclogites founder

  15. Traditional Chinese medicine treatment of liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Rongbing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment of liver diseases is derived from the regulation of liver function including storing blood and governing the free flow of qi, in which functional systems such as modern digestion, endocrine, and the gut-liver axis are involved, and is established on modern hepatic physiology, pathology, and etiology. To objectively reveal the characteristics and advantages of modern TCM treatment of liver diseases, we analyzed the clinical and research situation of TCM therapy for liver diseases in the last decade and collected major achievements that have been applied in clinical treatment of diseases, published in core journals, and confirmed by major scientific research programs. The results showed TCM combined with antiviral therapy can improve the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B. TCM can help HBV carriers prevent disease progression. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy for acute-on-chronic liver failure can block the deterioration induced by endotoxin. TCM has been widely applied in protecting the liver through nonspecific anti-inflammation, alleviating hepatic fibrosis, and preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver. TCM plays an important role in treating some currently untreatable liver diseases. Therefore, it is our common responsibility to inherit and develop effective principle-method-recipe-medicines and create a better medical care system.

  16. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabalina Olga Ivanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country. According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means. To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men. The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.

  17. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Ивановна Шабалина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country.  According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means.To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan.The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men.The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-33

  18. Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for

  19. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  20. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese...

  1. Chinese Companies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.M.; Pieke, F.N.; Stam, T.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of Chinese investment in the Netherlands has been cause for both excitement and anxiety. Many of the companies and other investors are still unknown and the background and objectives of their investment often remain unclear. This research takes a close look at fourteen Chinese

  2. Mechanical removal of Chinese privet

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Robert B. Rummer; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2007-01-01

    Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.), a highly invasive nonnative plant, is prevalent in the Southern United States. Chinese privet infestations can hinder regeneration of desirable species, reduce stand productivity, and have other undesirable consequences. A combined mechanical (mulching) and chemical (triclopyr) treatment was applied to...

  3. Transnational Learning and Chinese Sayings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haedy

    2017-01-01

    Chinese sayings within the context of transnational education have not been extensively explored within higher education. In this qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured interviews, data were collected from 24 participants to explore their transnational study experience. Chinese sayings, framed within a rich Confucian history, provide a…

  4. Keeping Research Data from the Continental Deep Drilling Programme (KTB) Accessible and Taking First Steps Towards Digital Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Ulbricht, D.; Conze, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Continental Deep Drilling Programme (KTB) was a scientific drilling project from 1987 to 1995 near Windischeschenbach, Bavaria. The main super-deep borehole reached a depth of 9,101 meters into the Earth's continental crust. The project used the most current equipment for data capture and processing. After the end of the project key data were disseminated through the web portal of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The scientific reports were published as printed volumes. As similar projects have also experienced, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain a data portal over a long time. Changes in software and underlying hardware make a migration of the entire system inevitable. Around 2009 the data presented on the ICDP web portal were migrated to the Scientific Drilling Database (SDDB) and published through DataCite using Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) as persistent identifiers. The SDDB portal used a relational database with a complex data model to store data and metadata. A PHP-based Content Management System with custom modifications made it possible to navigate and browse datasets using the metadata and then download datasets. The data repository software eSciDoc allows storing self-contained packages consistent with the OAIS reference model. Each package consists of binary data files and XML-metadata. Using a REST-API the packages can be stored in the eSciDoc repository and can be searched using the XML-metadata. During the last maintenance cycle of the SDDB the data and metadata were migrated into the eSciDoc repository. Discovery metadata was generated following the GCMD-DIF, ISO19115 and DataCite schemas. The eSciDoc repository allows to store an arbitrary number of XML-metadata records with each data object. In addition to descriptive metadata each data object may contain pointers to related materials, such as IGSN-metadata to link datasets to physical specimens, or identifiers of literature interpreting the data

  5. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  6. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  7. Chinese paleontology and the reception of Darwinism in early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaobo

    2017-12-01

    The paper examines the social, cultural and disciplinary factors that influenced the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by China's first generation paleontologists. Darwinism was mixed with Social Darwinism when first introduced to China, and the co-option of Darwinian phrases for nationalistic awakening obscured the scientific essence of Darwin's evolutionary theory. First generation Chinese paleontologists started their training in 1910s-1920s. They quickly asserted their professional identity by successfully focusing on morphology, taxonomy and biostratigraphy. Surrounded by Western paleontologists with Lamarckian or orthogenetic leanings, early Chinese paleontologists enthusiastically embraced evolution and used fossils as factual evidence; yet not enough attention was given to mechanistic evolutionary studies. The 1940s saw the beginning of a new trend for early Chinese paleontologists to incorporate more biological and biogeographical components in their work, but external events such as the dominance of Lysenkoism in the 1950s made the Modern Synthesis pass by without being publicly noticed in Chinese paleontology. Characterized by the larger goal of using science for nation building and by the utilitarian approach favoring local sciences, the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by first generation Chinese paleontologists raise important questions for studying the indigenizing efforts of early Chinese scientists to appropriate Western scientific theories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  9. Should scientific realists be platonists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Jacob; Morrison, Joe

    2015-01-01

    an appropriate use of the resources of Scientific Realism (in particular, IBE) to achieve platonism? (§2) We argue that just because a variety of different inferential strategies can be employed by Scientific Realists does not mean that ontological conclusions concerning which things we should be Scientific...

  10. Report of the 8th International Symposium on the Observation of the Continental Crust Through Drilling; Dai 8 kai tairiku kagaku kussaku kokusai symposium ni sankashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K. [Super Deep Core Drilling Study Group, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-29

    This report relates to the 8th International Symposium on the Observation of the Continental Crust Through Drilling, convened at Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba City, on February 26, 1996. The symposium was represented by approximately 200 people from the U.S., Canada, Britain, Germany, France, Russia, China, and some others, who discussed active faults, drilling and logging, transfer of fluids and heat in the crust, history of the earth and climate, ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) and international cooperation under this program in the future, etc. In reference to ultradeep drilling in the world, drillings by Germany`s KTB (Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm)(9,101m deep) and Russia at Kola Peninsula (l2,261m) were reviewed. Concerning the efforts of U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program during the previous 11-year period, it was reported that it had cost a total of $84,000,000; that investigations had been made into volcanos and geotherm, fault tectonics, sedimentary basins, holes due to meteorites, and metal ore deposits; and that 61 holes (total length: 31,310m and maximum depth: 3,510m) had been drilled and investigated. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. EFSA Scientific Committee; Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    of improving the expression and communication of risk and/or uncertainties in the selected opinions. The Scientific Committee concluded that risk assessment terminology is not fully harmonised within EFSA. In part this is caused by sectoral legislation defining specific terminology and international standards......The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways......, the Scientific Committee concludes that particular care must be taken that the principles of CAC, OIE or IPPC are followed strictly. EFSA Scientific Panels should identify which specific approach is most useful in dealing with their individual mandates. The Scientific Committee considered detailed aspects...

  12. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Antarctic new particle formation from continental biogenic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-M. Kyrö

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over Antarctica, aerosol particles originate almost entirely from marine areas, with minor contribution from long-range transported dust or anthropogenic material. The Antarctic continent itself, unlike all other continental areas, has been thought to be practically free of aerosol sources. Here we present evidence of local aerosol production associated with melt-water ponds in continental Antarctica. We show that in air masses passing such ponds, new aerosol particles are efficiently formed and these particles grow up to sizes where they may act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The precursor vapours responsible for aerosol formation and growth originate very likely from highly abundant cyanobacteria Nostoc commune (Vaucher communities of local ponds. This is the first time freshwater vegetation has been identified as an aerosol precursor source. The influence of the new source on clouds and climate may increase in future Antarctica, and possibly elsewhere undergoing accelerating summer melting of semi-permanent snow cover.

  14. Growth of the continental crust: a planetary-mantle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The lack of earth rocks older than about 3.8 Ga is frequently interpreted as evidence that the earth formed little or no subduction-resistant continental crust during the first 700 My of its history. Such models obviously imply that the pre-3.8 Ga earth was covered entirely or almost entirely by smoothly subducting oceanic crust. On the other hand, the thermal regime of the early earth probably tended to cause the oceanic crust at this time to be comparatively thin and comparatively mafic. The present earth is covered by about 50 percent oceanic crust, averaging about 7 km in thickness, and 41 percent continental crust, averaging roughly 40 km in thickness. Thus continentless-early-earth models would seem to imply a total mass of crust less than 1/3 that of the present day earth. Possible explanations are examined

  15. Antarctic new particle formation from continental biogenic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrö, E.-M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Virkkula, A.; Dal Maso, M.; Parshintsev, J.; Ruíz-Jimenez, J.; Forsström, L.; Manninen, H. E.; Riekkola, M.-L.; Heinonen, P.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-04-01

    Over Antarctica, aerosol particles originate almost entirely from marine areas, with minor contribution from long-range transported dust or anthropogenic material. The Antarctic continent itself, unlike all other continental areas, has been thought to be practically free of aerosol sources. Here we present evidence of local aerosol production associated with melt-water ponds in continental Antarctica. We show that in air masses passing such ponds, new aerosol particles are efficiently formed and these particles grow up to sizes where they may act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The precursor vapours responsible for aerosol formation and growth originate very likely from highly abundant cyanobacteria Nostoc commune (Vaucher) communities of local ponds. This is the first time freshwater vegetation has been identified as an aerosol precursor source. The influence of the new source on clouds and climate may increase in future Antarctica, and possibly elsewhere undergoing accelerating summer melting of semi-permanent snow cover.

  16. Source pool geometry and the assembly of continental avifaunas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R; Rahbek, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Classical niche-assembly models propose that the composition of biotic communities in continental landscapes is determined chiefly by the autecology of species, interspecific competition, and the diversity of resources and habitats within a region. In contrast, stochastic models propose that simu......Classical niche-assembly models propose that the composition of biotic communities in continental landscapes is determined chiefly by the autecology of species, interspecific competition, and the diversity of resources and habitats within a region. In contrast, stochastic models propose...... on the assembly of avian communities with an analysis of assemblage dispersion fields, which can be visualized by overlaying the geographic ranges of all species that occur in an assemblage. Contours of species richness surrounding focal quadrats illustrate the decay rate of assemblage similarity with distance...... and exhibited complex geographical patterns that were associated with the distribution of biomes. These results are broadly consistent with the predictions of niche-assembly models but offer little support for stochastic assembly models....

  17. COBBOOM: The Continental Breakup and Birth of Oceans Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann M. Stock

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of continents and creation of new oceans is a fundamental yet primitively understood aspect of the plate tectonic cycle. Building upon past achievements by ocean drilling and geophysical and geologic studies, we propose “The Continental Breakup and Birth of Oceans Mission (COBBOOM” as the next major phase of discovery, for which sampling by drilling will be essential.In September 2006, fifty-one scientists from six continents gathered in Pontresina, Switzerland to discuss current knowledge of continental breakup and sedimentary basin formation and how the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP can deepen that knowledge Coffin et al., 2006. Workshop participants discussed a global array of rifted margins (Fig. 1, formulated the critical problems to beaddressed by future drilling and related investigations, and identified key rift systems poised for IODP investigations. 

  18. Integrative taxonomy for continental-scale terrestrial insect observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara M Gibson

    Full Text Available Although 21(st century ecology uses unprecedented technology at the largest spatio-temporal scales in history, the data remain reliant on sound taxonomic practices that derive from 18(th century science. The importance of accurate species identifications has been assessed repeatedly and in instances where inappropriate assignments have been made there have been costly consequences. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON will use a standardized system based upon an integrative taxonomic foundation to conduct observations of the focal terrestrial insect taxa, ground beetles and mosquitoes, at the continental scale for a 30 year monitoring program. The use of molecular data for continental-scale, multi-decadal research conducted by a geographically widely distributed set of researchers has not been evaluated until this point. The current paper addresses the development of a reference library for verifying species identifications at NEON and the key ways in which this resource will enhance a variety of user communities.

  19. Integrative Taxonomy for Continental-Scale Terrestrial Insect Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cara M.; Kao, Rebecca H.; Blevins, Kali K.; Travers, Patrick D.

    2012-01-01

    Although 21st century ecology uses unprecedented technology at the largest spatio-temporal scales in history, the data remain reliant on sound taxonomic practices that derive from 18th century science. The importance of accurate species identifications has been assessed repeatedly and in instances where inappropriate assignments have been made there have been costly consequences. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will use a standardized system based upon an integrative taxonomic foundation to conduct observations of the focal terrestrial insect taxa, ground beetles and mosquitoes, at the continental scale for a 30 year monitoring program. The use of molecular data for continental-scale, multi-decadal research conducted by a geographically widely distributed set of researchers has not been evaluated until this point. The current paper addresses the development of a reference library for verifying species identifications at NEON and the key ways in which this resource will enhance a variety of user communities. PMID:22666362

  20. The origin of continental crust: Outlines of a general theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The lower continental crust, formerly very poorly understood, has recently been investigated by various geological and geophysical techniques that are beginning to yield a generally agreed on though still vague model (Lowman, 1984). As typified by at least some exposed high grade terranes, such as the Scottish Scourian complex, the lower crust in areas not affected by Phanerozoic orogeny or crustal extension appears to consist of gently dipping granulite gneisses of intermediate bulk composition, formed from partly or largely supracrustal precursors. This model, to the degree that it is correct, has important implications for early crustal genesis and the origin of continental crust in general. Most important, it implies that except for areas of major overthrusting (which may of course be considerable) normal superposition relations prevail, and that since even the oldest exposed rocks are underlain by tens of kilometers of sial, true primordial crust may still survive in the lower crustal levels (of. Phinney, 1981).

  1. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  2. Scientific developments ISFD3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schropp, M.H.I.; Soong, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Highlights, trends, and consensus from the 63 papers submitted to the Scientific Developments theme of the Third International Symposium on Flood Defence (ISFD) are presented. Realizing that absolute protection against flooding can never be guaranteed, trends in flood management have shifted: (1) from flood protection to flood-risk management, (2) from reinforcing structural protection to lowering flood levels, and (3) to sustainable management through integrated problem solving. Improved understanding of watershed responses, climate changes, applications of GIS and remote-sensing technologies, and advanced analytical tools appeared to be the driving forces for renewing flood-risk management strategies. Technical competence in integrating analytical tools to form the basin wide management systems are demonstrated by several large, transnation models. However, analyses from social-economic-environmental points of view are found lag in general. ?? 2006 Taylor & Francis Group.

  3. Dishonesty in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-02

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone's daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it's adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity.

  4. Dishonesty in scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone’s daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it’s adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity. PMID:26524587

  5. Annual scientific report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, J.; Billiau, R.; Kirk, F.

    1979-01-01

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1978. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactor and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  6. Ben Franklin's Scientific Amusements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Dudley

    2003-04-01

    As an American icon, Benjamin Franklin is often portrayed as wise and canny in business and politics, earnestly pursuing and extolling diligence, sensible conduct, pragmatism, and good works. Also legendary are some of his inventions, particularly the lightning rod, bifocals, and an efficient wood-burning stove. The iconic image is misleading in major respects. Today, surprisingly few people appreciate that, in the 18th century, Franklin was greatly esteemed throughout Europe as a scientist (termed then a "natural philosopher.") He was hailed as the "Newton of Electricity." Indeed, until Franklin, electricity seemed more mysterious than had gravity in Newton's time, and lightning was considered the wrath of God. By his own account, Franklin's studies of electricity and many other phenomena were prompted not by practical aims, but by his playful curiosity--which often became obsessive. Also not generally appreciated is the importance of Franklin's scientific reputation in enhancing his efforts to obtain French support for the American Revolution.

  7. Ethics in Scientific Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Leslie J.

    2012-08-01

    We all learn in elementary school not turn in other people's writing as if it were our own (plagiarism), and in high school science labs not to fake our data. But there are many other practices in scientific publishing that are depressingly common and almost as unethical. At about the 20 percent level authors are deliberately hiding recent work -- by themselves as well as by others -- so as to enhance the apparent novelty of their most recent paper. Some people lie about the dates the data were obtained, to cover up conflicts of interest, or inappropriate use of privileged information. Others will publish the same conference proceeding in multiple volumes, or publish the same result in multiple journals with only trivial additions of data or analysis (self-plagiarism). These shady practices should be roundly condemned and stopped. I will discuss these and other unethical actions I have seen over the years, and steps editors are taking to stop them.

  8. Annual scientific report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, J.; Billiau, R.; Kirk, F.

    1978-01-01

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1977. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactors and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploraty research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear reseach and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  9. Annual scientific report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Kirk, F.; Proost, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1976. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactors and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry

  10. Annual scientific report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Proost, J.

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1980. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactor and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics; the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors, namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basis and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  11. Scientific journal cancellations

    CERN Multimedia

    The Library

    2001-01-01

    Earlier this year the Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) requested the Library and the Working Group for Acquisitions to revise the current printed journal collection in order to cancel those titles that are less required. Savings could then be used for the development of other collections and particularly electronic resources needed to support CERN current research activities. A list of proposed cancellations was drawn and posted on the Library web pages: http://library.cern.ch/library_general/cancel.html The SIPB invites every one to check if any of the titles are of importance to their work, in which case you are invited to inform the Library before the 25th of September by sending an e-mail to: eliane.chaney@cern.ch Titles not reconsidered by the users will be cancelled by the end of the year. Thank you, The Library

  12. Apollo's scientific legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.

    1979-01-01

    The scientific value and importance of the Apollo lunar programme is assessed in the light of data obtained both from the lunar surface itself and also from the command modules which orbited above. It is stated that much of the material they returned still awaits a detailed examination and that the cooperative teams set up to handle the lunar material have established new methods and standards of analysis, which are currently revitalising the old science of meteoritics. The new forms of organised research have also been carried over in the rapidly developing subject of planetary science. It is concluded that whatever the motives for launching the Apollo missions, planetary scientists have been in a much better position to understand the Solar System since then. (UK)

  13. Tectonics and sedimentary process in the continental talud in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Santa Ana, H.; Soto, M.; Morales, E.; Tomasini, J.; Hernandez-Molina, F.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and evolution of the continental margin of Uruguay is due to the interaction of an important set of sedimentary processes. The contourite and turbiditic are the most significant processes which are associated with the development of submarine canyons as well as the gravitational mass respect to major landslides. These processes generate erosional and depositional features with a direct impact on different areas of application, which have potential environmental risks (gravitational landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis) and potential economic resources

  14. Glacial morphology and depositional sequences of the Antarctic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Schneider, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a simple model for the unusual depositional sequences and morphology of the Antarctic continental shelf. It considers the regional stratal geometry and the reversed morphology to be principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the ice grounding line. The model offers several guidelines for stratigraphic interpretation of the Antarctic shelf and a Northern Hemisphere shelf, both of which were subject to many glacial advances and retreats. -Authors

  15. USArray Imaging of Continental Crust in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2017-12-01

    The thickness and bulk composition of continental crust provide important constraints on the evolution and dynamics of continents. Crustal mineralogy and thickness both may influence gravity anomalies, topographic elevation, and lithospheric strength, but prior to the inception of EarthScope's USArray, seismic measurements of crustal thickness and properties useful for inferring lithology are sparse. Here we improve upon a previously published methodology for joint inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies and seismic receiver functions by using parameter space stacking of cross correlations of modeled synthetic and observed receiver functions instead of standard H-κ amplitude stacking. The new method is applied to estimation of thickness and bulk seismic velocity ratio, vP/vS, of continental crust in the conterminous United States using USArray and other broadband network data. Crustal thickness variations are reasonably consistent with those found in other studies and show interesting relationships to the history of North American continental formation. Seismic velocity ratios derived in this study are more robust than in other analyses and hint at large-scale variations in composition of continental crust. To interpret the results, we model the pressure-/temperature-dependent thermodynamics of mineral formation for various crustal chemistries, with and without volatile constituents. Our results suggest that hydration lowers bulk crustal vP/vS and density and releases heat in the shallow crust but absorbs heat in the lowermost crust (where plagioclase breaks down to pyroxene and garnet resulting in higher seismic velocity). Hence, vP/vS variations may provide a useful proxy for hydration state in the crust.

  16. Seismic imaging of lithospheric discontinuities and continental evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.

    1999-09-01

    Discontinuities in physical properties within the continental lithosphere reflect a range of processes that have contributed to craton stabilization and evolution. A survey of recent seismological studies concerning lithospheric discontinuities is made in an attempt to document their essential characteristics. Results from long-period seismology are inconsistent with the presence of continuous, laterally invariant, isotropic boundaries within the upper mantle at the global scale. At regional scales, two well-defined interfaces termed H (˜60 km depth) and L (˜200 km depth) of continental affinity are identified, with the latter boundary generally exhibiting an anisotropic character. Long-range refraction profiles are frequently characterized by subcontinental mantle that exhibits a complex stratification within the top 200 km. The shallow layering of this package can behave as an imperfect waveguide giving rise to the so-called teleseismic Pn phase, while the L-discontinuity may define its lower base as the culmination of a low velocity zone. High-resolution, seismic reflection profiling provides sufficient detail in a number of cases to document the merging of mantle interfaces into lower continental crust below former collisional sutures and magmatic arcs, thus unambiguously identifying some lithospheric discontinuities with thrust faults and subducted oceanic lithosphere. Collectively, these and other seismic observations point to a continental lithosphere whose internal structure is dominated by a laterally variable, subhorizontal layering. This stratigraphy appears to be more pronounced at shallower lithospheric levels, includes dense, anisotropic layers of order 10 km in thickness, and exhibits horizontal correlation lengths comparable to the lateral dimensions of overlying crustal blocks. A model of craton evolution which relies on shallow subduction as a principal agent of craton stabilization is shown to be broadly compatible with these characteristics.

  17. Coupling between the continental carbon and water cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentine, P.; Lemordant, L. A.; Green, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The continental carbon adn water cycles are fundamentally coupled through leaf gas exchange at the stomata level. IN this presnetation we will emphasize the importance of this coupling for the future of the water cycle (runoff, evaporation, soil moisture) and in turn the implications for the carbon cycle and the capacity of continents to act as a carbon dioxyde sink in the future. Opprtunites from coupled carbon-water monitoring platforms will be then emphasized.

  18. Continental drift and climate change drive instability in insect assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fengqing; Tierno de Figueroa, Jos? Manuel; Lek, Sovan; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-01-01

    Global change has already had observable effects on ecosystems worldwide, and the accelerated rate of global change is predicted in the future. However, the impacts of global change on the stability of biodiversity have not been systematically studied in terms of both large spatial (continental drift) and temporal (from the last inter-glacial period to the next century) scales. Therefore, we analyzed the current geographical distribution pattern of Plecoptera, a thermally sensitive insect gro...

  19. The Uncertain of Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovina dÁvila Bordoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the existence of certainty in the scientific process, it seeks the truth, however, faced with the unknown, causes uncertainties and doubts. We used the bibliographical research, in which it systematized the scientific literature on epistemology and knowledge related to the scientific process and the uncertainties that surround him. The scientific process, though continuously seeks the truth, will not attain perfection, because the researcher deals with the unknown. The science seeks constantly new knowledge and progress with the criticism of the mistakes, seeks the truth, however these are provisional. It is concluded that all scientific knowledge is uncertain.

  20. Designing scientific applications on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Many of today's complex scientific applications now require a vast amount of computational power. General purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) enable researchers in a variety of fields to benefit from the computational power of all the cores available inside graphics cards.Understand the Benefits of Using GPUs for Many Scientific ApplicationsDesigning Scientific Applications on GPUs shows you how to use GPUs for applications in diverse scientific fields, from physics and mathematics to computer science. The book explains the methods necessary for designing or porting your scientific appl

  1. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  2. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.

  3. PSI Scientific report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwnicki, P.

    2010-04-01

    This annual report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at work done at the institute in the year 2009. In particular, the SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility that will allow novel investigations of femtosecond molecular dynamics in chemical, biochemical and condensed-matter systems and permit coherent diffraction imaging of individual nanostructures is commented on. Potential scientific applications of the SwissFEL are noted. Further, the institute's research focus and its findings are commented on. Synchrotron light is looked at and results obtained using neutron scattering and muon spin resonance are reported on. Work done in the micro and nano-technology, biomolecular research and radiopharmacy areas is also reported on Work performed in the biology, general energy and environmental sciences area is also reported on. The institute's comprehensive research facilities are reviewed and the facilities provided for users from the national and international scientific community, in particular regarding condensed matter, materials science and biology research are noted. In addition to the user facilities at the accelerators, other PSI laboratories are also open to external users, e.g. the Hot Laboratory operated by the Nuclear Energy and Safety Department that allows experiments to be performed on highly radioactive samples. The Technology Transfer Office at PSI is also reported on. This department assists representatives from industry in their search for opportunities and sources of innovation at the PSI. Further, an overview is presented of the people who work at the PSI, how the institute is organised and how the money it receives is distributed and used. Finally, a comprehensive list of publications completes the report

  4. [Exploration and analysis of the thought of medical education in the Shanghai New Chinese Medical College].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Shang, Li; Bing, Shoulan

    2014-11-01

    Shanghai New Chinese Medical College set up by Zhu Nanshan and his sons, Zhu Xiaonan and Zhu Hegao, was a medical college of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the most innovative spirit in modern time. Its affiliated research institute held the principle of "realizing the scientific truth of TCM, training TCM advanced talents", marking the beginning of the pioneering of "scientific TCM". The educational plan, clinical research and academic organization based on "carrying forward the quintessence of Chinese culture, absorbing and digesting the new knowledge" showed a certain influence at home and abroad. The College advocated the combination of communicating with famous physicians and the study of theory, cultivation of students' organization and academic society, launching of journals, and organizing students' research associations was aiming at the satisfaction of the social needs and teaching orientation. Its running experience provided useful reference for modern TCM medical education.

  5. Scientific Collaboration and Coauthors in Life Science Journal Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-hsiu Fu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It is common to conduct collaborative research in science and technology. In particular, the development of big science, Internet, and globalization facilitated the scientific collaboration. This study used two databases, Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports as data sources. From the analysis of 320 papers in 16 journals in life sciences, the results showed that there is no significant correlation between the impact factor of journals and the number of authors. Moreover, there is no correlation of authors and the cited times, either. The number of authors and cited times in most papers are under 10 persons and 25 times, respectively.[Article content in Chinese

  6. [Study on pharmacologic action characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian based on medicinal properties combinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong-Ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    To establish a characterization system of traditional Chinese medicinal properties in line with modern scientific cognition regularity, in order to reveal properties of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian and relations of effects of medicinal properties. By collecting data about traditional Chinese medicinal properties recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005 Edition), literature and data about pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines recorded in the Chinese Materia Medica, by using the method of association rules, the authors dug pharmacological effect rules corresponds to relevant medicinal property combinations, with the medicinal property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian as the target. It was found that either obvious different pharmacological effects or identical pharmacological characteristics existed in traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian. With the aim to explore the correlations between traditional Chinese medicine medicinal properties and pharmacological effects, the authors linked the traditional Chinese medicine theory with modern research achievements, in order to provide the ideas and methods for interpreting mechanisms of medicinal properties.

  7. [New method for analyzing pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines by using specific knockout technology with monoclonal antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Qu, Hui-Hua; Wang, Qing-Guo

    2013-09-01

    Study on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines is one of the key issues for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Having introduced the monoclonal antibody technology into the study on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines, the author prepared the immunoaffinity chromatography column by using monoclonal antibodies in active components of traditional Chinese medicines, so as to selectively knock out the component from herbs or traditional Chinese medicine compounds, while preserving all of the other components and keeping their amount and ratio unchanged. A comparative study on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was made to explicitly reveal the correlation between the component and the main purpose of traditional Chinese medicines and compounds. The analysis on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines by using specific knockout technology with monoclonal antibodies is a new method for study pharmacodynamic material basis in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines. Its results can not only help study material basis from a new perspective, but also help find the modern scientific significance in single herb or among compounds of traditional Chinese medicines.

  8. Short term solar radiation forecasting: Island versus continental sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, John; David, Mathieu; Lauret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Due its intermittency, the large-scale integration of solar energy into electricity grids is an issue and more specifically in an insular context. Thus, forecasting the output of solar energy is a key feature to efficiently manage the supply-demand balance. In this paper, three short term forecasting procedures are applied to island locations in order to see how they perform in situations that are potentially more volatile than continental locations. Two continental locations, one coastal and one inland are chosen for comparison. At the two time scales studied, ten minute and hourly, the island locations prove to be more difficult to forecast, as shown by larger forecast errors. It is found that the three methods, one purely statistical combining Fourier series plus linear ARMA models, one combining clear sky index models plus neural net models, and a third using a clear sky index plus ARMA, give similar forecasting results. It is also suggested that there is great potential of merging modelling approaches on different horizons. - Highlights: • Solar energy forecasting is more difficult for insular than continental sites. • Fourier series plus linear ARMA models are one forecasting method tested. • Clear sky index models plus neural net models are also tested. • Clear sky index models plus linear ARMA is also an option. • All three approaches have similar skill.

  9. Using continental land loading for routine data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, L.

    2013-12-01

    The availability of the hydrological models that are updated regularly made it feasible to apply for analysis of space geodesy data a reduction for 3D displacements caused by the changes in the continental water storage on a routine basis, as it is done for a long time with ocean loading and atmospheric pressure loading. The service of the continental storage water loading was launched in 2013. The service utilizes the outputs of several hydrological models and provides the 3D time series in the form of global maps with 1-3 hour time resolution, time series for the set of ~1000 space geodesy sites, and an on-demand web-based application that allows a user to compute and download the time series of displacements for user-specified sites. The design of such a service and experience of its running are summarized. The loading series were validated by processing all available VLBI data. Results of validation are presented. Impact of using continental water storage for data reduction on estimates of other parameters, such as station velocities, is discussed.

  10. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  11. The Role of the Submarine Channel Pernambuco in the Brazilian Continental Margin East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.; Villena, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Continental Margin, which coastline measures more than 8,500km gives to Brazil continental dimensions. This huge region is conditioned by the action of process such as, sedimentals, tectonics, geomorphological and climatical, as example, which direct or in conjunction with other ones, since of continental break up between South America and Africa are going on and may be responsible for the current morphology of the margin. In accordance with this point of view, the Oriental part of the Brazilian Continental Margin, presents characteristics of a passive margin and fisiographically ''starved'', in which the continental break occur no more than 100km from de coastline and the sedimentary coverage is mainly carbonatic. The continental slope does not present great extension if compared with other parts of the Brazilian Margin and sharp gradient. The remark presence of the continental plateaus (Rio Grande Plateau and Pernambuco Plateau), which link with the continental rise and additionally the Paraiba, Pernambuco e Bahia seamounts, are the majors features in the morphology of the region between the slope and the continental rise. This paper will concentrate its focus on Bahia Seamount, with emphasis in the mainly erosive feature which cut transversally the seamounts, named Pernambuco Submarine Channel. It will be employed bathymetric multibeam and seismic data carried out by the Brazilian Continental Shelf Project (LEPLAC) in the current year and pieces of information from bibliographic researches in order to present a discussion by the hole of the Pernambuco Submarine Channel in the Occidental region of the Brazilian Continental Margin

  12. A novel water poverty index model for evaluation of Chinese regional water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L.; Jin, C. L.; Li, Y. X.; Zhou, Z. L.

    2017-08-01

    This study proposed an improved Water Poverty Index (WPI) model employed in evaluating Chinese regional water security. Firstly, the Chinese WPI index system was constructed, in which the indicators were obtained according to China River reality. A new mathematical model was then established for WPI values calculation on the basis of Center for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) model. Furthermore, this new model was applied in Shiyanghe River (located in western China). It turned out that the Chinese index system could clearly reflect the indicators threatening security of river water and the Chinese WPI model is feasible. This work has also developed a Water Security Degree (WSD) standard which is able to be regarded as a scientific basis for further water resources utilization and water security warning mechanism formulation.

  13. [Opportunity and challenge of post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Xi; Song, Hai-Bo; Ren, Jing-Tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-Xin; Pang, Yu

    2014-09-01

    Post-marketing evaluation is a process which evaluate the risks and benefits of drug clinical application comprehensively and systematically, scientific and systematic results of post-marketing evaluation not only can provide data support for clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine, but also can be a reliable basis for the supervision department to develop risk control measures. With the increasing demands for treatment and prevention of disease, traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used, and security issues are also exposed. How to find risk signal of traditional Chinese medicine in the early stages, carry out targeted evaluation work and control risk timely have become challenges in the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  14. Evolution of the scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper`s development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965-?).

  15. Evolution of the scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper's development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965- ).

  16. Essential and toxic trace elements in the chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.F.; Jenq Yann Yang; Ming-Jenq Duo; Chang, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The concentration of certain toxic and essential elements in various raw materials of Chinese herbs and 'scientific Chinese medicine' were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Correlation of these elements as they exist in the raw materials and in the prescription of medicine were investigated and the approximate intake of elements by patients were estimated. Values of elements determined both by AAS and INAA presented excellent agreement. The ranges of elemental concentrations were found to vary from 10 4 to 10 -1 mg/kg in different kinds of herbs. All herbs exhibit extraordinary enrichment capabilities from the environment for elements such as Mn, Zn, Ca, K, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb and As. Higher contents of Cd, Pb and As in herbs may be attributed to the uptake of these elements from polluted soil due to industrial and anthropogenic activities. It was found that commercial scientific Chinese medicine, SCDBT, contains more elemental concentrations than that of herbs used in the prescription, which may indicate that possible contamination could be caused by unknown ingredients added in the process. A much higher toxic elemental content, such as Pb, Cd and As, has been found in CFH and the daily intake of these elements by the patient will exceed the PTDI values. (author)

  17. Developing institutional collaboration between Wageningen university and the Chinese academy of agricultural sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, A.B.; Lin, Z.; Qu, L.; Jacobsen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific co-operation between the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and Wageningen University (WU) has been underway since 1990, especially in the field of plant sciences. In 2001, CAAS and WU initiated a formal joint PhD training programme to further structure their co-operation.

  18. 6-33 Optimization of ARP System in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Yongping[1; Gou; Shizhe[1; Yuan; Chao[1; Yue; Min[1; Ma; Yuan[1

    2015-01-01

    The Academia Resource Planning (hereafter abbreviated as ARP) of the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was launched in 2005. It is an important scientific research management system of CAS. In order to meet the multiple dimensions and levels application requirements, the second phase of ARP has gradually formed ten management systems, two application platforms and four application projects.

  19. Recent Highlights of Metabolomics in Chinese Medicine Syndrome Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-hua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese medicine syndrome (CMS, “ZHENG” in Chinese is an understanding of the regularity of disease occurrence and development as well as a certain stage of a comprehensive response of patients with body condition. However, because of the complexity of CMS and the limitation of present investigation method, the research for deciphering the scientific basis and systematic features of CMS is difficult to go further. Metabolomics enables mapping of early biochemical changes in disease and hence provides an opportunity to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover, its method and design resemble those of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM which focuses on human disease via the integrity of close relationship between body and syndromes. In the systemic context, metabolomics has a convergence with TCM syndrome; therefore it could provide useful tools for exploring essence of CMS disease, facilitating personalized TCM, and will help to in-depth understand CMS. The integration of the metabolomics and CMS aspects will give promise to bridge the gap between Chinese and Western medicine and help catch the traditional features of CMS. In this paper, particular attention will be paid to the past successes in applications of robust metabolomic approaches to contribute to low-molecular-weight metabolites (biomarkers discovery in CMS research and development.

  20. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment

  1. [Expert consensus post-marketing evaluation scheme to detect immunotoxicity of Chinese medicine in clinical populations (draft version for comments)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Bin; Jiang, Jun-Jie; Chang, Yan-Peng; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Hao; Lu, Peng-Fei

    2013-09-01

    Through consensus, establish a post-marketing scheme and the technical processes to evaluate Chinese medicine's immunotoxicity on a population, as well as its beneficial influences on the immune system. Provide regulations on the collection, storage and transportation of serum samples. This article applies to the post-marketing scientific evaluation of the immunotoxicity of parenterally administered, and for other ways of taking Chinese medicine.

  2. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  3. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  4. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  5. Benthic oxygen consumption on continental shelves off eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jonathan; Emerson, Craig W.; Hargrave, Barry T.; Shortle, Jeannette L.

    1991-08-01

    The consumption of phytoplankton production by the benthos is an important component of organic carbon budgets for continental shelves. Sediment texture is a major factor regulating benthic processes because fine sediment areas are sites of enhanced deposition from the water column, resulting in increased organic content, bacterial biomass and community metabolism. Although continental shelves at mid- to high latitudes consist primarily of coarse relict sediments ( PIPER, Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1013-1035), shelf regions of boreal and subarctic eastern Canada contain large areas of silt and clay sediments ( FADER, Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1123-1153). We collated estimates of benthic oxygen consumption in coarse (<20% silt-clay, <0.5% organic matter) and fine sediments (20% silt-clay, 0.5% organic matter) for northwest Atlantic continental shelves including new data for Georges Bank, the Scotian Shelf, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf. Estimates were applied to the areal distribution of sediment type on these shelves to obtain a general relationship between sediment texture and benthic carbon consumption. Mean benthic oxygen demand was 2.7 times greater in fine sediment than in coarse sediment, when normalized to mean annual temperature. In terms of carbon equivalents, shelf regions with minimal fine sediment (Georges Bank, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland-northeast Newfoundland) consumed only 5-8% of annual primary production. Benthos of the Gulf of Maine (100% fine sediment) and the Scotian Shelf (35% fine sediment) utilized 16-19% of primary production. Although 32% of the Labrador Shelf area contained fine sediments, benthic consumption of pelagic production (8%) was apparently limited by low mean annual temperature (2°C). These results indicate that incorporation of sediment-specific oxygen uptake into shelf carbon budgets may increase estimates of benthic consumption by 50%. Furthermore, respiration and production by large

  6. Considering bioactivity in modelling continental growth and the Earth's evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2013-09-01

    The complexity of planetary evolution increases with the number of interacting reservoirs. On Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. Through plate tectonics, the surface biosphere can impact deep subduction zone processes and the interior of the Earth. Subducted sediments are particularly important, because they influence the Earth's interior in several ways, and in turn are strongly influenced by the Earth's biosphere. In our model, we use the assumption that a thick sedimentary layer of low permeability on top of the subducting oceanic crust, caused by a biologically enhanced weathering rate, can suppress shallow dewatering. This in turn leads to greater vailability of water in the source region of andesitic partial melt, resulting in an enhanced rate of continental production and regassing rate into the mantle. Our model includes (i) mantle convection, (ii) continental erosion and production, and (iii) mantle water degassing at mid-ocean ridges and regassing at subduction zones. The mantle viscosity of our model depends on (i) the mantle water concentration and (ii) the mantle temperature, whose time dependency is given by radioactive decay of isotopes in the Earth's mantle. Boundary layer theory yields the speed of convection and the water outgassing rate of the Earth's mantle. Our results indicate that present day values of continental surface area and water content of the Earth's mantle represent an attractor in a phase plane spanned by both parameters. We show that the biologic enhancement of the continental erosion rate is important for the system to reach this fixed point. An abiotic Earth tends to reach an alternative stable fixed point with a smaller

  7. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  8. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    -Government seeks to develop new business sectors and to attract foreign investment, including investments from China, to develop especially its mineral resources. China now is the second largest economy in the world and the outbound investments by Chinese companies presents unprecedented opportunities for both...... Chinese companies and their global partners. However, Chinese outbound investment faces many hurdles both at home and outside. This article analyzes some of the main aspects in relation to regulatory hurdles, political obstacles as well as environmental, labor and financial challenges primarily focusing...... on investments in the mining industry....

  9. A Chinese sky trust?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Mark [Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: brenner@econs.umass.edu; Riddle, Matthew [Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: mriddle@econs.umass.edu; Boyce, James K. [Political Economy Research Institute and Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: boyce@econs.umass.edu

    2007-03-15

    The introduction of carbon charges on the use of fossil fuels in China would have a progressive impact on income distribution. This outcome, which contrasts to the regressive distributional impact found in most studies of carbon charges in industrialized countries, is driven primarily by differences between urban and rural expenditure patterns. If carbon revenues were recycled on an equal per capita basis via a 'sky trust,' the progressive impact would be further enhanced: low-income (mainly rural) households would receive more in sky-trust dividends than they pay in carbon charges, and high-income (mainly urban) households would pay more than they receive in dividends. Thus a Chinese sky trust would contribute to both lower fossil fuel consumption and greater income equality.

  10. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. A Chinese sky trust?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Mark; Riddle, Matthew; Boyce, James K.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of carbon charges on the use of fossil fuels in China would have a progressive impact on income distribution. This outcome, which contrasts to the regressive distributional impact found in most studies of carbon charges in industrialized countries, is driven primarily by differences between urban and rural expenditure patterns. If carbon revenues were recycled on an equal per capita basis via a 'sky trust,' the progressive impact would be further enhanced: low-income (mainly rural) households would receive more in sky-trust dividends than they pay in carbon charges, and high-income (mainly urban) households would pay more than they receive in dividends. Thus a Chinese sky trust would contribute to both lower fossil fuel consumption and greater income equality

  12. Atalante: scientific report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report makes a synthesis of the research works carried out at CEA Marcoule in the domain of the back-end of the fuel cycle. The research programs involving the ATALANTE facility concern: the improvement of the spent fuel reprocessing of today's and tomorrow's reactors, the separation of minor actinides prior to their transmutation, and the long-term behaviour of ultimate radioactive wastes immobilized in suitable matrices for a reversible storage or a disposal in deep geologic repositories. The report presents the main scientific results obtained these last years in the domain of: 1 - basic chemistry of actinides and fission products, 2 - processing of spent fuels, 3 - actinides recycling experiments, 4 - long-term behaviour of conditioning matrices for materials and wastes, and 5 - measurements and analytical techniques used in the above mentioned studies. The ATALANTE facility is in the core of the future nuclear stakes which aim at optimizing the recycling of nuclear materials using innovative and proliferation-safe processes, and at minimizing the impact of radioactive wastes on the environment. (J.S.)

  13. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  14. Scientific report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, N.

    1999-01-01

    This book contains technical and scientific papers on the main works of the Direction of the Fuel Cycle (DCC) in France. The study fields are: the upper fuel cycle studies with the SILVA (isotope separation by laser on atomic vapor) process (a model of gas centrifuge separative performance, an estimation of electron gun cathodes erosion, a power improvement of diode-pumped solid-state-lasers, measurement using intracavity near resonant propagation in atomic vapours); the down side fuel cycle studies (electronic structure of lanthanide or actinides complexes, forecasting of the stoichiometry of europium nitrate complexes, actinides complexes structural determination, experimental studies on separations, radioactive wastes processing and conditioning with the vitrification processes, radioactive wastes storage with concrete behaviour and biodegradation); studies on dismantling and cleansing (rheological behaviour of foams, remote decontamination of austenitic steel by ultra-violet laser); and technological analysis (high resolution wavelength meter, optimization methodology for diffractive and hybrid optic systems, reliability of fast switches in power electronics, study of cesium isolation, chemical optodes based on evanescent-wave absorption, study of viscous liquid ultrafiltration using supercritical CO 2 as a promoter). (A.L.B.)

  15. [Research progress on current pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin

    2011-03-01

    In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction.

  16. Better science and better race? Social Darwinism and Chinese eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yuehtsen Juliette

    2014-12-01

    This essay explores the variegated roles played by racial, eugenic, and Social Darwinist discourse in China over roughly the last century. Using Japan as a parallel for comparison, it analyzes the introduction of the term "eugenics" into Japanese and Chinese. It then locates the deployment of eugenics and Social Darwinism as counterimperial discourse in East Asia. It offers a brief history of eugenics thinking in China across the twentieth century, focusing on the Chinese eugenicist Pan Guangdan, who used race as a category of analysis yet without any sense of hierarchy. He was critically aware of the scientific basis of eugenics and helped craft the study of eugenics in China, from biology to sociology, from economics to ethnology.

  17. [Scientific journalism and epidemiological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the communications media in the construction of symbols has been widely acknowledged. Many of the articles on health published in the daily newspapers mention medical studies, sourced from scientific publications focusing on new risks. The disclosure of risk studies in the mass media is also a topic for editorials and articles in scientific journals, focusing the problem of distortions and the appearance of contradictory news items. The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning and content of disclosing scientific risk studies in large-circulation daily newspapers, analyzing news items published in Brazil and the scientific publications used as their sources during 2000. The "risk" is presented in the scientific research projects as a "black box" in the meaning of Latour, with the news items downplaying scientific disputes and underscoring associations between behavioral habits and the occurrence of diseases, emphasizing individual aspects of the epidemiological approach, to the detriment of the group.

  18. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...

  19. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa

  20. Chinese student mobility, local engagement and transformation of Chinese communities in England: an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented growth and circulation of Chinese international students cannot be fully understood unless the roles of host societies including diaspora Chinese communities are taken into account. This chapter draws attention to a phenomenon of local engagement, a process of interconnections and interactions between Chinese students and local communities, leading to a co-development of both Chinese students and diaspora Chinese communities in host countries. The links and impacts of Chinese st...

  1. Recent progress of {sup 10}Be tracer studies in Chinese loess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weijian, E-mail: weijian@loess.llqg.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing 100875 (China); Xie, Xingjun [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Beck, Warren [NSF-Arizona AMS Facility, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kong, Xianghui; Xian, Feng; Du, Yajuan; Wu, Zhenkun [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Studies of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be in Chinese loess began about twenty-five years ago and since then a number of research groups worldwide have contributed to a firm understanding of the production, transport, deposition and storage of {sup 10}Be in loess. The essential characteristics that make {sup 10}Be a useful isotopic tracer in loess, include: (1) dominant atmospheric production directly linked to the intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field; (2) climate-dependent deposition; and (3) subsequent immobility, so that as {sup 10}Be accumulates in a loess profile its stratigraphic integrity is preserved. This fact, combined with very high deposition rates in loess on the Chinese Loess Plateau, makes {sup 10}Be an especially valuable continental archive of paleoclimate and paleomagnetism, complementing marine and ice-core records. Here we provide in particular the most recent progress of {sup 10}Be tracer studies in Chinese loess, including the determination of the correct age of the Brunhes–Matuyama polarity reversal at 780 ± 3 ka B.P., in accord with marine and ice records, and quantitative reconstruction of 130-ka paleoprecipitation using {sup 10}Be from Chinese loess profiles.

  2. Mastering scientific computing with R

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you want to learn how to quantitatively answer scientific questions for practical purposes using the powerful R language and the open source R tool ecosystem, this book is ideal for you. It is ideally suited for scientists who understand scientific concepts, know a little R, and want to be able to start applying R to be able to answer empirical scientific questions. Some R exposure is helpful, but not compulsory.

  3. TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios N. KOUMPAROULIS; Dionysios K. SOLOMOS

    2012-01-01

    Frederick Taylor is known as the father of modern management. Taylor’s scientific management revolutionized industry and helped shape the modern organization. Scientific management revolutionized industry because it explains how to increase production by working smarter, not harder. Taylor’s ideas were not limited to only serving the company’s bottom line but from the increase in productivity benefited the workforce as well. The principles of scientific management have become a machine of uni...

  4. Scientific Information Service at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of information is an essential part of CERN's mission. It brings people together from all around the world and trains the scientists of tomorrow. CERN scientific output is documented and made available for the scientific community and the general public through the CERN Document Server, INSPIRE-HEP and Wikipedia. This report presents the work done in the Scientific Information Service during the summer student program.

  5. The GTC Scientific Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.

    2005-12-01

    Since the early stages of the GTC project, the need of a scientific archive was already identified as an important tool for the scientific exploitation of the data. In this work, the conceptual design and the main functionalities of the Scientific Data Archive of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GSA) are described. The system will be developed, implemented and maintained at the Laboratorio de Astrofísica Espacial y Física Fundamental (LAEFF).

  6. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.

  7. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  8. Chinese culture approached through touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Champion, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Can recent technology help bridge cultures through playful interaction appropriate to traditional tacit means of acquiring knowledge? In order to help answer this question, we designed four Adobe Flash-based based game prototypes and evaluated them via a touch-screen PC. The goal was to offer non......, fun, and cultural authenticity. While this form of tangible computing proved engaging, it raises technical issues of how to convey appropriately the interactive elements without the help of the evaluator, and how to evaluate user satisfaction. We also briefly discuss more embodied and spatial......Chinese participants a playful way of experiencing aspects of traditional Chinese culture. The four single-player games were based on the four arts of China (music, calligraphy, painting and the game of Go!). In the evaluation we asked non-Chinese and the Chinese participants to evaluate the games in terms of learning...

  9. Eismitte in the Scientific Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    was a setting for scientific knowledge production as well as diplomatic maneuvering, providing new insights into the history of polar exploration and the intertwining of scientific and geopolitical considerations. Author Janet Martin-Nielsen draws on new research in private, government, military......Since the first attempts by Europeans to penetrate Greenland's interior, its geometric center, Eismitte (‘middle ice’), has been one of the most forbidding but scientifically rich locations in the Arctic. Tracing its history from European contact through the Cold War, this study shows how Eismitte......, and institutional archives in many languages in multiple countries to illuminate Eismitte’s place in the scientific imagination....

  10. The craft of scientific writing

    CERN Document Server

    Alley, Michael

    2019-01-01

    The Craft of Scientific Writing uses scores of examples to show the differences between scientific writing that informs and persuades and scientific writing that does not. Focusing on technical papers, dissertations, and reports, this text shows engineers, scientists, and technical professionals the five keys of style that distinguish the best scientific documents: (1) having the details presented in a methodical fashion, (2) having the important details emphasized, (3) having ideas cast into clear and precise sentences, (4) having clear connections between those ideas, and (5) having illustrations that persuade.

  11. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  12. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  13. Scientific Information Platform for the 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake is one of the deadliest in recent human history. This earthquake has not just united the whole world to help local people to lead their life through the difficult time, it has also fostered significant global cooperation to study this event from various aspects: including pre-seismic events (such as the seismicity, gravity, electro-magnetic fields, well water level, radon level in water etc), co-seismic events (fault slipping, landslides, man-made structure damages etc) and post-seismic events (such as aftershocks, well water level changing etc) as well as the disaster relief efforts. In the last four years, more than 300 scientific articles have been published on peer-reviewed journals, among them about 50% are published in Chinese, 30% in English, and about 20% in both languages. These researches have advanced our understanding of earthquake science in general. It has also sparked open debates in many aspects. Notably, the role of the Zipingpu reservoir (built not long ago before the earthquake) in the triggering of this monstrous earthquake is still one of many continuing debates. Given that all these articles are ssporadically spread out on different journals and numerous issues and in different languages, it can be very inefficient, sometimes impossible, to dig out the information that are in need. The Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology (ERGCDUT) has initiated an effort to develop an information platform to collect and analyze scientific research on or related to this earthquake, the hosting faults and the surrounding tectonic regions. A preliminary website has been setup for this purpose: http://www.wenchuaneqresearch.org. Up to this point (July 2012), articles published in 6 Chinese journals and 7 international journals have been collected. Articles are listed journal by journal, and also grouped by contents into four major categories, including pre-seismic events, co-seismic events, post

  14. The Cosmopolitanization of Science: Experience from Chinese Stem Cell Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2010-09-01

    It is commonly perceived that the 'globalization of science' may result in a 'Westernization of science'. In this paper, however, I use the case of stem cell science in China to demonstrate that developing countries are sometimes able to effectively shape the norms of global/local scientific exchange. Based on interviews with 38 stem cell scientists in six Chinese cities in early 2008, this paper elucidates Chinese scientists' outlook towards cross-border collaborations and the effects that the internationalization of science has had on everyday laboratory operations. Findings suggest that although there still exists an asymmetry of scientific influence, and in many aspects China is still 'catching-up' to the West, there is also a changing nature of communication beyond borders. One key aspect of recent international scientific development is the growing necessity for local stakeholders to acquire a global mindset and to compare, reflect and accommodate diverse interests. This is what I define as the 'cosmopolitanization of science'. The study empirically examines the sociological and methodological implications of the cosmopolitanization process and further develops Ulrich Beck's cosmopolitan theory by delineating four main features of the 'cosmopolitanization of science': shared future benefits, passive ethicization, reflexive negotiation, and continuous performance.

  15. Chinese herbal medicines for hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, X X; Yuan, Y; Liu, Y; Wu, T X; Han, S

    2007-04-18

    Hyperthyroidism is a disease in which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones circulate in the blood. Patients, among other things suffer from tachycardia, warm moist skin and raised body temperature. The treatment of hyperthyroidism includes symptom relief and therapy with antithyroid medications, radioiodine and thyroidectomy. Medicinal herbs are used alone or in combination with antithyroid agents to treat hyperthyroidism in China and some other countries. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines for treating hyperthyroidism. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database. Randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of Chinese herbal medicines alone with Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine or both. Three authors interviewed authors of all potentially relevant studies by telephone to verify randomisation procedures. One author entered data into a data extraction form and another author verified the results of this procedure. Thirteen relevant trials with 1770 participants were included. All of them were of low quality. Fifty-two studies still need to be assessed because the original authors could not be interviewed. None of these trials analysed mortality, health related quality of life, economic outcomes or compliance. Compared to antithyroid drugs alone the results showed that Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs may offer benefits in lowering relapse rates, reducing the incidence of adverse effects, relieving symptoms, improving thyroid antibody status and thyroid function. Two trials investigated Chinese herbal medicine versus radioiodine and reported improvements in anxiety, tachycardia and heat intolerance. However, thyroid function - with the exception of restored thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - was not significantly altered. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicines added to other routine

  16. Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

    OpenAIRE

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for rare species as medicine, who are involved in the trade and why is law enforcement complicated? This article will show that the illicit trade in TCM is a form of crime that transcends the borders o...

  17. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitativ...

  18. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  19. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as well as sustainability. Meanwhile, the hidden knowledge behind the complicated and somehow empirical solid-state fermentation process of Chinese liquor can enrich the food sector to improve our qua...

  20. Analysis of Chinese Communist Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Confucianism, Legalism, Taoism and ancestral beliefs have been superseded by the dialectical materialism of the Commu- nists’ doctrine; and the mutual...developing individualism or independence. Chinese cosmology existed long before Christianity or Confu- cianism; it survived as a principal religious belief ...harmonious. With these beliefs , the Chinese nature religion included both ancestral and nonances- tral worship. These forces and the Lord on High