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Sample records for chinese continental scientific

  1. Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Logging Database System

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan Fang; Heping Pan

    2013-01-01

    A lot of logging information (logging and logging interpretation results) have been acquired in borehole of Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling (CCSD). The general management method about these logging information are not satisfied with the need of CCSD logging engineering. In order to manage efficiently, insert and inquiry rapidly, and use efficiently logging information, logging database of CCSD will need be specially established and it’s management software system will need be made. We i...

  2. The ICDP Information Network and the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conze, R.; Su, D.

    2002-12-01

    ICDP is an international program investigating the 'System Earth' in multidisciplinary co-operation. Funded drilling projects are characterized by detailed fieldwork at world-class geological sites on the continents and by the global scope of research objectives. During project work, partnering researchers from all over the world work together at remote drill sites and in laboratories at their institutions. Researchers apply a range of highly diverse scientific methodologies, thereby acquiring huge data sets. Multinational co-operation and increasing amounts of scientific data require completely new concepts and practices for scientific work, and place heavy demands on information and communications management. This is achieved by means of the ICDP Information Network. Scientists working on ICDP related data need a central long-term data archive with powerful tools for navigation, data modeling and analysis. The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD is a national key scientific and engineering project of the PR China supported by ICDP. The current drill site of CCSD is located in Donghai, Jiangsu Province, the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, which possesses global geological significance. From the spud on June 25, 2001 to April 6, 2002, the 2000m pilot hole was finished with a total core recovery of 88.7% and an average inclination angle of 3-4 degrees. The pilot hole has been transformed to the main hole by hole opening. Deepening and coring of the CCSD-1 main hole is currently in progress. Most of the basic scientific documentation and measurements are done in a large field laboratory directly beside the drill rig, which was set up using the standard of the former German Continental Scientific Drilling (KTB). It includes a powerful infrastructure for computing and electronic communication as well as a comprehensive twofold data and information management: 1. The CCSD-DMIS is a special Data Management Information System for the chinese

  3. A Study on the Classification and Well-Logging Identification of Eclogite in the Main Hole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jian'en; Wei Wenbo; Jin Sheng; Ye Gaofeng; Deng Ming

    2007-01-01

    Eclogite, one of the important lithologies in the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project, exists above the depth of 3 245 m and has distinctive responses of gamma-ray, compensating density and neutron well-logging, and so on. In this study, according to the diversities of minerals and chemical components and well-logging responses, eclogites are classified from three aspects of origin, content of oxygen, and sub-mineral. We studied the logging identification method for eclogite sub-classes based on multi-element statistics and reconstructed 11 kinds of eclogite.As a result, eclogites can be divided into 6 types using well logs. In the light of this recognition, the eclogite in the main hole is divided into 20 sections, and the distribution characters of all sub-classes of eclogite are analyzed, which will provide important data for geological research of CCSD.

  4. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  5. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong

    2015-10-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on. PMID:26677664

  6. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  7. [Scientific Positioning of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-ming

    2016-03-01

    Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement. PMID:27236880

  8. On Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Scientific Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范智鹏

    2013-01-01

    Scientific socialism provides proletarian with ideological weapon, which is used to lead and organize the masses to pursue socialism. The formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the product of scientific socialism in China, which is the latest achievement combining scientific socialism and Chinese national conditions.

  9. Continental scientific drilling program. [Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 17-21, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The dynamics, structure, evolution, and genesis of the continents offer a major scientific challenge. At the same time, society faces many problems that require information about the continental crust for solution. A workshop on continental drilling for scientific purposes addressed the questions of how to maximize the scientific value of current and planned efforts of federal agencies and industry and how to supplement these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purpoes. Four panels addressed the scientific and associated societal problems relating to basement structures and deep continental basins, thermal regimes, mineral resources, and earthuqakes. These panels identified the main problems in each area that could be solved by information obtained from drill holes. A fifth panel considered needs for technological developments. The importance of a communications and coordinating mechanism to maximize the scientific results was noted. To this end, a Continental Scientific Drilling Program is outlined, including two advisory and guiding committees, one concerned with scientific objectives, the other with operations. (RWR)

  10. Chinese graduate students and U.S. scientific productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaulé, Patrick; Piacentini, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2013), s. 698-701. ISSN 0034-6535 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : graduate students * Chinese immigrants * scientific output Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2013

  11. Chinese duo fired for scientific fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li

    2010-02-01

    A major case of academic fraud in China has led to calls for the country to adopt a new system of academic evaluation that steers away from heavily supporting scientists who publish the most papers. The calls have been made after some 70 papers published by Chinese scientists in Acta Crystallographica Section E were retracted from the journal late last year. The authors acknowledged that their analysis had been fabricated.

  12. Chinese graduate students and U.S. scientific productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaulé, Patrick; Piacentini, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2013), s. 698-701. ISSN 0034-6535 Grant ostatní: UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : graduate students * Chinese immigrants * scientific output Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2013

  13. A new model for the dynamic evolution of Chinese lithosphere: 'continental roots-plume tectonics'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J. F.; Mo, X. X.; Zhao, H. L.; Wu, Z. X.; Luo, Z. H.; Su, S. G.

    2004-05-01

    Chinese continental lithosphere comprises three tectonic domains: (1) eastern China, a region characterized by rifting, extensional basins, and voluminous basaltic volcanism; (2) central China, a plexus of cratonic terrains with low-heat flow (40-50 mw/m 2), including the Tarim, Erdos, and Yangtze blocks welded by pre-Cenozoic orogenic belts; and (3) western China, a region comprising the Qinghai-Tibet-Himalaya orogen. The relatively thin crust (˜35 km) and lithosphere (˜70 km) of eastern China is believed to reflect mantle upwelling, while near-normal crust (˜45 km) and thickened lithosphere (>200 km) in central China suggest a mantle lithosphere root resembling those inferred for the Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons. Thickened crust (˜70 km) and lithosphere (>150 km) in western China reflect the advanced development of an orogen root. The lower density and relative buoyancy of central cratonic mantle roots appear to have contributed to the long-term tectonic stability of the central Chinese lithospheric blocks. In contrast, gravitational instability produced by thickening of the denser western Chinese lithosphere and the resulting subsidence and eventual delamination of orogenic roots are believed to have led to postorogenic extensional collapse. Although the geological relationships suggest compressional forces caused both mountain building and orogen root development, extensional stress resulting from gravitational collapse is believed to have induced lithospheric and crustal thinning with concomitant reduction of topography. The term 'continental roots-plume tectonics' has been adopted to describe the configuration and dynamic condition of subcontinental lithosphere and upper mantle beneath China. Accordingly, it is proposed that supracrustal tectonic forms represent the surface expressions of, and responses to, deep 'continental roots-plume tectonics'. While the prevailing view is that the western orogenic belt is not genetically related to eastern

  14. Annual Consultation on the Likelihood of Earthquakes in Continental China: Its Scientific and Practical Merits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhongliang; Liu Jie; Zhu Chuanzhen; Jiang Changsheng; Huang Fuqiong

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Chinese seismologists have started to conduct the Annual Consultation on the Likelihood of Coming Earthquakes in the Next Year. This approach has unique scientific and practical merits either as an active response to the social needs in the situation that earthquake prediction research meets many difficulties, or as a real forward prediction test persistently conducted for 1/3 century. It is a pity that such an approach has not been well-known by international seismological community, and the scientific merits of such an endeavor is sometimes regrettably underestimated.

  15. Geothermal measurements in the pilot-boreholes of the China Continental Scientific Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The geothermal measurements in the piIot-boreholes of the China Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) indicate that the temperature gradients in the target area of the deep drilling range from 19 to 26℃/km, which is lower than that (25-30℃/km) for the global continental area and similar to that for the KTB (21-28℃/km). Thermal conductivity measurements for 44 core samples show that the ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks have 50% higher thermal conductivity (with a mean of 3.94±1.26 W/mK) than that for the average value of the upper crust.The measured heat flow values vary between 76 and 80 mW/m2, higher than that for the global continental area (65±1.6 mW/m2) and the continental China (61±15.5 mW/m2)as well as the adjacent North Jiangsu Basin (68 mW/m2), but lower than that below 1000 m in the KTB (85 mW/m2). The elevated heat flow in the pilot-boreholes can be attributed to the lateral heat concentration due to higher rock thermal conductivity of the UHP belt than that of the adjacent rocks. Lower deep temperature in the target area of the deep drilling can be expected due to the lower measured temperature gradient, which means that the Sulu area is geothermally suitable for continental deep drilling.

  16. Policy and Profit Allocation for the Cooperative Development of Natural Gas Resource on Chinese Offshore Continental Shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingsong; Zhang Mingzhi

    1994-01-01

    @@ Rich natural gas resources on Chinese offshore continental shelf China has a wide sea waters with their offshore continental shelf covering over 1 million km2. Rich oil-gas resources are lying under the sea waters. In accordance with the conventional international assessment method for oil and gas resources, it is expected that the gas reserve volume in China is approximately 14 000 billion cu.m.

  17. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC): Continental scientific drilling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Research summaries are presented of ongoing or proposed deep drilling programs to explore hydrothermal systems, buried astroblemes, continental crust, magma systems, mountain belt tectonics, subduction zones, and volcanoes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  18. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  19. Red Science: China's Scientific Capital and the Future of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Salazar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS produces the scientific and technological breakthroughs that place China among the major players in scientific innovation. However, the control that the Chinese government exerts over the Academy and the tradition of guanxi among its members prevent the CAS from take-off and securing a free environment to conduct original research. The article assesses the economic logic of scientific control and its effects within the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The paper’s aim is to derive to what extent the CAS will remain as China’s main provider of scientific innovation. The “national innovation systems” approach and the cultural traditions rooted in Confucianism are revised in detail to provide an accurate perspective. The paper concludes that the CAS’ international reputation as a center of scientific and technological innovation might be at stake unless the Chinese government makes some critical reforms.

  20. Scientific Evidence on the Supportive Cancer Care with Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William CS CHO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.

  1. The Lake El’gygytgyn Scientific Drilling Project – Conquering Arctic Challenges through Continental Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Schwamborn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Between October 2008 and May 2009, the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDPco-sponsored a campaign at Lake El´gygytgyn, located in a 3.6-Ma-old meteorite impact crater in northeastern Siberia. Drilling targets included three holes in the center of the 170-m-deep lake, utilizing the lake ice cover as a drilling platform, plus one hole close to the shore in the western lake catchment. At the lake’s center. the entire 315-m-thick lakesediment succession was penetrated. The sediments lack any hiatuses (i.e., no evidence of basin glaciation or desiccation, and their composition reflects the regional climatic and environmental history with great sensitivity. Hence, the record provides the first comprehensive and widely timecontinuous insights into the evolution of the terrestrial Arctic since mid-Pliocene times. This is particularly true for the lowermost 40 meters and uppermost 150 meters of the sequence, which were drilled with almost 100% recovery and likely reflect the initial lake stage during the Pliocene and the last ~2.9 Ma, respectively. Nearly 200 meters of underlying rock were also recovered; these cores consist of an almost complete section of the various types of impact breccias including broken and fractured volcanic basement rocks and associated melt clasts. The investigation of this core sequence promises new information concerning the El´gygytgyn impact event, including the composition and nature of the meteorite, the energy released, and the shock behavior of the volcanic basement rocks. Complementary information on the regional environmental history, including the permafrost history and lake-level fluctuations, is being developed from a 142-m-long drill core recovered from the permafrost deposits in the lake catchment. This core consists of gravelly and sandy alluvial fan deposits in ice-rich permafrost, presumably comprising a discontinuous recordof both Quaternary and Pliocene deposits.

  2. [Treatment of senile diseases should prescribe Chinese patent medicine scientifically].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Xiang

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of senile diseases by Chinese patent medicine should prescribe according to physiological and pathological specialty of the aged. It's necessary for treatment according to syndrome differentiation associating with the disease,reasonable combination of drugs avoiding adverse reactions,gentle medicine character but not fierce,small medicine quantity but not great, the use of Chinese patent medicine mild and tonic used properly but not excessively. PMID:24812911

  3. Chinese Scientific and Technical Information Institutions: Development and Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanning, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The collection, storage, processing, and dissemination of scientific and technical information make an important basis for economic and social development as well as for scientific development. A nation has to develop the right mechanisms and modalities to collect, store, process, and disseminate scientific and technical information tailored to…

  4. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xianwen; Xu, Shenmeng; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness ...

  5. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness centrality. Moreover, the series of polices implemented by the Chinese government to recruit oversea experts seems to contribute a lot to China-US scientific collaboration.

  6. Cardiac protection of new compounds from scientific Chinese medicine (SCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yi-zhun

    2008-01-01

    Objective Purification and Standardization of Chinese herbal extracts became a hot topic since last decade. Though traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used as a mixture from several herbs for centuries, it has been drawn much attention for studying the standardized Chinese herbs using modern technology. Methods Recently, we compared purified Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (PSME) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, Rarnipril, in in vitro experiments and also in vivo using animal model of myocardial infarction. Results PSME was found to have a significantly higher trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity which indicated a great capacity for scavenging free radicals. PSME could also prevent pyrogalto red bleaching and DNA damage. After 2 weeks treatment with PSME or Ramipril, survival rates of rats with experimental myocardial infarction were marginally increased (68.2% and 71.4%) compared with saline (61.5%). In another recent study, we evaluated the cardioprotective effects of PSME on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts and in hypoxic vascular smooth muscle calls. We found that PSME treated hearts showed significant postischemic contractile function recovery (develop pressure recovered to 44.2±4.9 % versus 17.1±5.7 %, P<0.05; maximum contraction recovered to 57.2±5.9 % versus 15.1±6.3%, P<0. 001; maximum relaxation restored to 69.3±7.3% versus 15.4±6.3%, P<0.001 in PSME and control group respectively). Conclusions Significant elevated in end-diastolic pressure, which indicated LV stiffening in PSME hearts might be resulted by exceed dose of PSME used. Purified and standardized Chinese herb could provide an alternative regimen for the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  7. Selected data fron continental scientific drilling core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrave, J.A.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Luedemann, G.; Garcia, S.; Dennis, B.; Hulen, J.B.; Janik, C.; Tomei, F.A.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents geochemical and isotopic data on rocks and water and wellbore geophysical data from the Continental Scientific Drilling Program core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. These core holes were drilled as a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental questions about magma, water/rock interactions, ore deposits, and volcanology. The data in this report will assist the interpretation of the hydrothermal system in the Jemez Mountains and will stimulate further research in magmatic processes, hydrothermal alteration, ore deposits, hydrology, structural geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. 37 refs., 36 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. ACADEMICIAN N.A. LOGATCHEV AND HIS SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL: CONTRUBITION TO STUDIES OF THE CENOZOIC CONTINENTAL RIFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Rasskazov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available N.A. Florensov and N.A. Logatchev pioneered development of fundamental concepts of the structure and evolution of the Baikal system of rift basins. At the turn to the 21st century, in view of the wide availability of scientific research data on the Cenozoic continental rift zones located in Eurasia, Africa and North America, and taking into account the application of new research methods and options to process and analyze huge amounts of geological and geophysical data, a priority was comprehensive modeling of rifting from its origin to the current period of time. This scientific challenge was addressed by the research team under the leadership of N.A. Logachev.

  9. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L. (eds.)

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  10. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tippi K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  11. Quo Vadis ICDP? The Science Plan of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The rocks and fluids of our ever-changing planet contain heat, energy, and life as well as archived records of what has gone before. These precious relicts and living systems need to be probed, collected, monitored and analyzed. The science results obtained cover the spectrum of the earth sciences from climate change, natural hazards and earth resources to the origins of life on Earth. The need to drill has never been greater, and this requires improved coordination between the marine, terrestrial and ice-coring communities and the research and private sector communities, effectively addressing the needs of our growing population for energy, sustenance, and quality of life. The ICDP is an infrastructure for scientific drilling that facilitates outstanding science. It is the only international platform for scientific research drilling in terrestrial environments. ICDP brings together scientists and stakeholders from 24 nations to work together at the highest scientific and technical niveaux. More than 30 drilling projects and 55 planning workshops have been supported to date. It is an efficient organisation, run according to the philosophy "lean and mean", with an average annual budget of about 5 million, and further third-party drilling expenditures that more than doubles this yearly investment. Here we report on ICDP's 2013 Science Conference "Imaging the Past to Imagine our Future", held November 11-14, 2013 in Potsdam whose goal was to set the new ICDP Science Plan in motion. New insights into geoprocesses and the identification of hot topics were high on the agenda, and debated in closed sessions, via posters and through oral presentations, and where appropriate dovetailed with socio-economic challenges. The conference was used to strengthen and expand our ties with member countries, and to debate incorporating industry into selected ICDP strategic activities where it makes sense to do so (ICDP remains science-driven). In addition, the conference paved the way

  12. What is the Role of Chinese Medical Theory in Modern Scientific Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Johannes GRETEN

    2008-01-01

    经典中医诊断,例如根据中医的海德堡模型进行诊断,研究结果很大程度依赖于经典的诊断标准.未来中医的研究质量会受到很多因素的影响,如将经典的中医诊断作为纳入标准;用客观指标作为衡量研究结果的标准;采用双盲对照研究.因此,有必要对传统中医学诊断和功能性标准可测参数达成一致,同时也需要对其功能性术语及基本理论达成共识.本文指出经典中医学理论对现代研究具有重要指导意义,在现代研究中应正确理解并恰当应用.%Defining the classical Chinese diagnosis such as by the Heidelberg model of TCM has shown that outcome of studies is largely dependent on classical diagnostic criteria.The quality of future studies in TCM will largely depend on a variety of factors,such as(1)the classical Chinese diagnosis as an inclusion criterion,(2) objectively measurable parameters as the main criterion of outcome,(3)double blinding of controls.A common understanding of the diagnosis and functional criteria of TCM is therefore necessary,as well as a common understanding of the functional terminology and rationally accessible theory. This undedines the necessity of classical Chinese medical theory for modern scientific research,its proper definition and application in studies.

  13. Continental drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, E.M. (ed.)

    1975-01-01

    The Workshop on Continental Drilling was convened to prepare a report for submission to the US Geodynamics Committee with respect to the contribution that could be made by land drilling to resolve major problems of geodynamics and consider the mechanisms by which the responsibility for scientific planning, establishment of priorities, administration, and budgeting for a land-drilling program within the framework of the aims of the Geodynamics Project would best be established. A new and extensive program to study the continental crust is outlined in this report. The Workshop focused on the following topics: processes in the continental crust (mechanism of faulting and earthquakes, hydrothermal systems and active magma chambers); state and structure of the continental crust (heat flow and thermal structure of the crust; state of ambient stress in the North American plate; extent, regional structure, and evolution of crystalline continental crust); short hole investigations; present state and needs of drilling technology; drill hole experimentation and instrumentation; suggestions for organization and operation of drilling project; and suggested level of effort and funding. Four recommendations are set down. 8 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  14. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  15. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  16. Learning Common Chinese Chemical Terms and Characters: A Resource for Scientific Research and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsiu-Yi; Churchill, David G.

    2008-01-01

    This article serves as a primer to Mandarin Chinese mainly for chemical practitioners who have no familiarity with the Mandarin Chinese language and who may travel to East Asia during their career or work in collaboration with Chinese-speaking people. Eight vocabulary lists (given in English, written Chinese, and Pinyin romanization) feature…

  17. Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these

  18. A didactic sequence on inquiry, modelling and creation of scientific knowledge on Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift

    OpenAIRE

    Domènech Casal, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Se describe una actividad de indagación sobre la Tectónica de placas. En ella, el alumnado debe reconstruir la historia geológica de un planeta imaginario integrando distintos tipos de datos (distribución geográfica de fósiles, antigüedad de orógenos, regiones sísmicas) para construir un modelo de la ubicación de los límites de placa tectónica y los cambios que han sufrido los distintos continentes. A lo largo de la actividad se suceden distintas organizaciones de aula y andamios ...

  19. Promoting integrative medicine by computerization of traditional Chinese medicine for scientific research and clinical practice: The SuiteTCM Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur de Sá Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Chinese and contemporary Western medical practices evolved on different cultures and historical contexts and,therefore,their medical knowledge represents this cultural divergence.Computerization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is being used to promote the integrative medicine to manage,process and integrate the knowledge related to TCM anatomy,physiology,semiology,pathophysiology,and therapy.METHODS:We proposed the development of the SuiteTCM software,a collection of integrated computational models mainly derived from epidemiology and statistical sciences for computerization of Chinese medicine scientific research and clinical practice in all levels of prevention.The software includes components for data management (DataTCM),simulation of cases (SimTCM),analyses and validation of datasets (SciTCM),clinical examination and pattern differentiation (DiagTCM,Tongue TCM,and Pulse TCM),intervention selection (AcuTCM,HerbsTCM,and DietTCM),management of medical records (ProntTCM),epidemiologic investigation of sampled data (ResearchTCM),and medical education,training,and assessment (StudentTCM).DISCUSSION:The SuiteTCM project is expected to contribute to the ongoing development of integrative medicine and the applicability of TCM in worldwide scientific research and health care.The SuiteTCM 1.0 runs on Windows XP or later and is freely available for download as an executable application.

  20. Evaluation of forestry strategies for climate change mitigation in continental France. Scientific literature and main actors' positioning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work contributes to the current scientific debate regarding the optimization of the forest sector's contribution to mitigating climate change. A scientific literature review has pointed out some uncertainties on the contribution to emission reduction objectives in the short to medium-term of an increasing harvest of forest resources for wood construction and energy generation. Timing of mitigation benefits for a managed forest depends on forestry upstream characteristics(forest and soil type and silviculture method) and downstream characteristics (transport distance, use of wood, efficiency of wood based energy production, fossil-fuel based reference system that is substituted,etc). A survey conducted among national forest experts points out debates concerning optimal silviculture practices to mitigating climate change. These discussions are due to the trades-off between sequestering carbon in forest ecosystems and climatic benefits obtained by sustainable forest harvesting and use of wood products to displace fossil emissions. (author)

  1. Li and B Isotope Systematics of Ultrahigh-pressure Metamorphic Rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yilin Xiao; Rolf L. Romer; Jochen Hoefs; Anette Meixner; Zeming Zhang

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent improvements in the precision of Li and B isotope measurements have demonstrated the potential of these elements in tracing a wide range of geological processes. The Li and B isotope systematics of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks provides a unique opportunity to investigate the behaviour of Li and B during fluid-rock interaction at high temperatures and very high pressures and to constrain the fluid budget and the recycling of subducted crustal materials into the mantle during UHP metamorphism.

  2. Microfacies of Deep-water Deposits and Forming Models of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling-SKII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Extensive transgression of lake water occurred during the Cretaceous Qingshankou Stage and the Nengjiang Stage in the Songliao basin, forming widespread deep-water deposits. Eleven types of microfacies of deep-water deposits have been recognized in the continuous core rocks from the SKII,including mudstone of still water, marlite, dolostone, oil shale, volcanic ashes, turbidite, slump sediment, tempestite, seismite, ostracoda limestone and sparry carbonate, which are divided into two types: microfacies generated due to gradually changing environments (Ⅰ) and microfacies generated due to geological events (Ⅱ). Type Ⅰ is composed of some special fine grain sediments such as marlite,dolomite stone and oil shale as well as mudstone and Type Ⅱ is composed of some sediments related to geological events, such as volcanic ashes, turbiditie, slump sediment, tempestite, seismite, ostracoda limestone. The formation of sparry carbonate may be controlled by factors related to both environments and events. Generally, mudstone sediments of still water can be regarded as background sediments, and the rest sediments are all event sediments, which have unique forming models, which may reflect controlling effects of climatics and tectonics.

  3. Flux and budget of BC in the continental shelf seas adjacent to Chinese high BC emission source regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yin; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lin, Tian; Hu, Limin; Huang, Guopei; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-07-01

    This study conducted the first comprehensive investigation of sedimentary black carbon (BC) concentration, flux, and budget in the continental shelves of "Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS)," based on measurements of BC in 191 surface sediments, 36 riverine water, and 2 seawater samples, as well as the reported data set of the atmospheric samples from seven coastal cities in the Bohai Rim. BC concentrations in these matrices were measured using the method of thermal/optical reflectance. The spatial distribution of the BC concentration in surface sediments was largely influenced by the regional hydrodynamic conditions, with high values mainly occurring in the central mud areas where fine-grained particles (median diameters > 6 Φ (i.e., area-integrated sedimentary BC sink flux in the entire BS and YS was ~325 Gg/yr, and the BS alone contributed ~50% (~157 Gg/yr). The BC budget calculated in the BS showed that atmospheric deposition, riverine discharge, and import from the Northern Yellow Sea (NYS) each contributed ~51%, ~47%, and ~2%. Therefore, atmospheric deposition and riverine discharge dominated the total BC influx (~98%). Sequestration to bottom sediments was the major BC output pattern, accounting for ~88% of the input BC. Water exchange between the BS and the NYS was also an important BC transport route, with net BC transport from the BS to the NYS.

  4. Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez Fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) corehole VC-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks intersected deep in Continental Scientific Drilling Program corehole VC-1, adjacent to the late Cenozoic Valles caldera complex, have been disrupted to form a spectacular breccia sequence. The breccias are of both tectonic and hydrothermal origin, and probably formed in the Jemez fault zone, a major regional structure with only normal displacement since mid-Miocene. Tectonic breccias are contorted, crushed, sheared, and granulated; slickensides are commmon. Hydrothermal breccias, by contrast, lack these frictional textures, but arej commonly characterized by fluidized matrix foliation and prominent clast rounding. Fluid inclusions in the hydrothermal breccias are dominantly two-phase, liquid-rich at room temperature, principally secondary, and form two distinctly different compositional groups. Older inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, are highly saline and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range 189 to 246/sup 0/C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize (also to liquid) in the range 230 to 283/sup 0/C. Vapor-rich inclusions locally trapped along with these dilute liquid-rich inclusions document periodic boiling. These fluid-inclusion data, together with alteration assemblages and textures as well as the local geologic history, have been combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site.

  5. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-fen Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  6. Scientific Investigation of the Materials in a Chinese Ming Dynasty Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuya Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the cooperation project Rescue and Conserve the Endangered Wall Paintings in the Museums of China, systematic investigations concerning the materials and techniques used in the wall paintings detached from a Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 temple, Dazhao Temple in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia of China, as well as the previous conservation intervention materials have been carried out. X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX were used for the identification of inorganic materials in the wall paintings, while Pyrolysis in combination of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS was applied for the characterization of organic materials. Pigments including cinnabar, lead white, atacamite/para-atacamite, orpiment, ochre, minium, carbon black and smalt were identified. The binding medium in the painting was determined as animal glue. Alkyd is an uncommon consolidant in the conservation of Chinese wall paintings, but it could be determined in this object, where conservation treatments were performed in the 1950s.

  7. Outreach, Diversity, and Education Supported by NSF Facilities LacCore and the Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office (CSDCO), University of Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climatic and environmental change are a powerful hook to engage students and the public with geoscience. Recent lake sediments often feature visual and compositional evidence of anthropogenic changes, which can pique curiosity and serve as a gateway for interest in more remote past changes. Cores provide an integrative, place-based geoscience education/outreach platform: lake dynamics incorporate principles of chemistry, physics, and biology; lake basin formation and sedimentary signals trace back to numerous geoscience subdisciplines. Lakes reflect local changes, and so are inherently place-based and relevant to both rural and urban populations. The esthetics of lakes in the landscape and sediments under the microscope spark the artistic sensibilities of those who do not consider themselves scientists: lakes are readymade for STEAM education. LacCore has exploited the magic of lake sediment cores in its 15 years as an NSF Facility, and now expands to additional environments as the NSF Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office. Part of scaling up is the formalization of major support for the Broader Impacts (BI) activities of Facility users. LacCore/CSDCO now musters its collaborative experiences in site REUs and other undergrad research projects, in-depth training of students, teachers, and faculty, a long list of informal education experiences, and common-good software development, to provide assistance to researchers seeking meaningful broader impacts and educators seeking extra- or co-curricular field and laboratory research experiences for their students. Outreach, diversity, and education support includes dissemination of best practices, as well as coordination, administration, and basic capacity for such activities in collaboration with project PIs and students, through no-cost support, or collaborative proposals or supplements from NSF where necessary for project scale. Community-driven research and broadening participation are central to the

  8. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Chen, Gang; Wu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá), made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn) of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation) causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research. PMID:24872929

  9. Current Situations of Competitive Scientific Research Projects for Agri-scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO; Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    This paper collected and arranged competitive scientific research projects undertaken by Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences in 2003-2014. Through statistical analysis on quantity of projects,funded amount,age of person responsible,professional title of person responsible,academic degree of person responsible,research object,it discussed relevant characteristics and rules. Finally,it came up with pertinent measures and recommendations,in the hope of providing services for decision-making and scientific and technological management.

  10. Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…

  11. 1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

  12. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  13. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part I: Introducing Seismic Interpretation and Isostasy Principles Using Gulf of California Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M. A.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Loveless, J. P.; Goodliffe, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum designed for an upper-division structural geology, tectonics or geophysics course. The curriculum includes lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. The first set of materials introduces the RCL initiative to students and has them analyze the bathymetry and oblique-rifting geometry of the GOC in an exercise using GeoMapApp. The second set of materials has two goals: (1) introduce students to fundamental concepts of interpreting seismic reflection data via lectures and in-class interpretation of strata, basement, and faults from recent GOC seismic data, and (2) encourage students to discover the structural geometry and rift evolution, including the east-to-west progression of faulting and transition from detachment to high-angle faulting in the northern GOC, and changes in deformation style from north to south. In the third set of materials, students investigate isostatic affects of sediment fill in GOC oblique rift basins. This activity consists of a problem set, introduced in a lecture, where students integrate their findings from the previous bathymetry- and seismic-interpretation exercises.

  14. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part II: Introducing Euler Poles Using Baja-North America Relative Plate Motion Across the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, J. P.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Lamb, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere (RCL) initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum, including lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. This component of the curriculum introduces students to the Euler pole description of relative plate motion (RPM) by examining the tectonic interactions of the Baja California microplate and North American plate. The plate boundary varies in rift obliquity along strike, from highly oblique and strike-slip dominated in the south to slightly less oblique and with a larger extensional component in the north. This Google Earth-based exercise provides students with a visualization of RPM using small circle contours of the local direction and magnitude of Baja-North America movement on a spherical Earth. Students use RPM to calculate the fault slip rates on transform, normal, and oblique-slip faults and examine how the varying faulting styles combine to accommodate RPM. MARGINS results are integrated via comparison of rift obliquity with the structural style of rift-related faults around the GOC. We find this exercise to fit naturally into courses about plate tectonics, geophysics, and especially structural geology, given the similarity between Euler pole rotations and stereonet-based rotations of structural data.

  15. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism. PMID:22212356

  16. Malmquist Index Analysis of the Dynamic Changes in Scientific Research Productivity of Some Chinese Universities before and after Merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongmei; Liang, Wenyan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamic changes in research productivity of Chinese higher education institutions (HEIs) before and after merger with Malmquist index, and decomposes the total factor productivity change index into catching-up effect, scale effect and frontier-shift effect. The main finding is that technological improvement and innovation…

  17. Continental dynamics and continental earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东宁; 张国民; 张培震

    2003-01-01

    Two key research projects in geoscience field in China since the IUGG meeting in Birmingham in 1999, the project of "East Asian Continental Geodynamics" and the project of "Mechanism and Prediction of Strong Continental Earthquakes" are introduced in this paper. Some details of two projects, such as their sub-projects, some initial research results published are also given here. Because of the large magnitude of the November 14, 2001 Kunlun Mountain Pass MS=8.1 earthquake, in the third part of this paper, some initial research results are reviewed for the after-shock monitoring and the multi-discipline field survey, the impact and disaster of this earthquake on the construction site of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) railway and some other infrastructure.

  18. Continental Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  19. Improve the scientific and nutritional analysis of Chinese cooking%提高中国烹饪的科学营养化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄忠

    2015-01-01

    随着社会的不断进步和发展,中国烹饪逐渐形成、发展、成熟为具有代表性的饮食文化,在国内外久负盛名。然而在中国烹饪的发展过程中也存在很多需要完善之处。例如中国烹饪更重视对色、香、味的追求,而忽视其科学搭配、营养价值的关注。在这种新的时代背景下,政府部门首先加强对烹饪营养条例的制定和实施,烹饪教育加强对烹饪工作者培养理念及教育观念的创新与改革显得尤为重要。本文笔者将从中国烹饪的科学营养角度出发,在简要分析当前我国烹饪科学营养化存在问题的基础上,为加强中国烹饪营养化、科学化的步伐提出具体策略,旨在为促进中国烹饪的成熟健康发展提供充足的理论依据和实践借鉴。%Along with society's unceasing progress and development, Chinese cuisine has gradually formed, development, maturity for diet culture with representative, long enjoyed a good reputation both at home and abroad. But in the development of Chinese cuisine, there are also many needs to improve. For example, Chinese cooking pays more attention to the color, smell, taste, and the pursuit of the neglect of its scientific collocation, nutritional value of attention. In this new era background, the government departments to strengthen the formulation and implementation of the regulations of the cooking, cooking education to strengthen the cultivation of the concept and the concept of education and reform of the concept of education is particularly important. In this paper, the author will start from the perspective of science and technology of China, and analyze the existing problems of China's Culinary Science, and put forward specific strategies to strengthen the nutrition and scientiifc development of Chinese cooking.

  20. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  1. 中国传统药膳文化科学发展问题的思考%Scientific Perspective on Development of Chinese Traditional Medicated Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏明; 管婧婧

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the relationship between Chinese traditional medicated food science and modern nutriology, identify the developmental direction of modern medicated food culture, and propose suggestions for the scientific development of medicated food culture. [Method] Based on the previous studies, the comparative research was conducted to analyze the difference between and similarity of medicated food science and modern nutriology in terms of the theory system and research expertise. [Result] The scientific and objective recognition of the effects of medicated food could promote the development of medicated food culture. For the academic research, the advantages of traditional medicated food culture and weakness of modern nutriology need to be understood. For the practice, the experience of modern nutriology can be learned to help the innovation of medicated food science's research methods and regulation of usage. [Conclusion] The development of medicated food culture not only needs to inherit the tradition, but also needs to learn from the modern nutriology and pharmacology, and assimilates the achievements from modern western science civilization.%[目的]探究中国传统药膳学与现代食品营养学的关系,明确当代药膳文化发展的方向,提出药膳文化科学发展的对策。[方法]以相关文献为基础,采用比较研究法对药膳学与食品营养学就两者的理论体系和研究专长进行相似性和差异性分析。[结果]要实现药膳文化的科学发展,对药膳的功效要有科学、客观的认识。理论研究上要看到传统药膳学的宏观远见以及现代食品营养学的不足,积极发掘整理药膳文献;在实践上要吸收现代食品营养学研究的一些经验,创新药膳的研究方法,为药膳的使用制定规范。[结论]在继承传统的同时,借鉴现代营养学和药理学的理论,吸收现代西方科技文明的优秀成果,可以实现药膳文化的科学发展。

  2. Continental margins: linking ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris; Rabalais, Nancy; Middelburg, Jack; Roy, Sylvie; Liu, Kon-Kee; Thomas, Helmut; Zhang, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Impacts of Global, Local and Human Forcings on Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecosystems, IMBER/LOICZ Continental Margins Open Science Conference; Shanghai, China, 17–21 September 2007; More than 100 scientists from 25 countries came together to address global, regional, local, and human pressures interactively affecting continental margin biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs, and society. Continental margins cover only 12% of the global ocean area yet account for more than 30% of global oceani...

  3. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  4. Scientific Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest grain consumers,food security has always been a major concern for the Chinese nation.China must confront the challenge of feeding a fifth of the world's population with less than 9 percent of the planet's arable land.In 2011,China's grain output recorded growth for the eighth successive year,and total production reached an all-time high of 571million tons.In terms of food security,China's goal is to maintain a self-sufficiency rate of above 95 percent.However,an annual net population growth of 7.39 million and the effective decline of the area of farmland in the country,as a result of urbanization,make achieving such selfsufficiency a serious challenge.Given the heavy burden placed on Chinese agriculture,constantly raising productivity by relying on scientific and technological progress has become a priority for China's agricultural sector.The Ministry of Agriculture,for example,has worked to raise China's annual grain yield per-unit area by 1 percent,on average,over the past decade.Last year,the contributory rate of scientific and technological development to China's agriculture reached 52 percent,surpassing the contribution made by land,labor and other production factors for the first time in history.

  5. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  6. A Comparative Study of Western and Chinese Precaution of Dishonesty in Scientific Research and the Enlightenment%防范科研不端行为的制度借鉴与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张效英; 李强; 姚跃传; 陈卫平

    2011-01-01

    近些年来,科研不端现象呈现出新的发展趋势,科研活动中的行为规范问题日益显现出其重要性。西方发达国家在科研不端行为的界定、认定、防范与治理等方面进行了大量的研究与实践,并且从法规及制度上不断地完善对科研不端行为的约束,积累了较为丰富的经验。这些有益经验对于加强我国学术道德建设,建立适合我国国情的科研活动管理规范体系具有重要的借鉴意义。%In recent years,the increasing spread of dishonesty in scientific research has been witnessed,making the issue of setting code of conduct highly urgent.In western countries,the studies on dishonesty in scientific research have been conducted in the aspects of definition,affirmation,precaution and solution to enhance the sanctioning effect through legislation-drafting and regulation improvement.These rich experience is valuable for us to develop the scientific ethic and establish the management system of scientific research with Chinese characteristics.

  7. Investigation on the Influencing Factors of the Scientific and Innovative Elites:With a National Key Laboratory's Scientific Researcher of Chinese Academic of Sciences as the Research Object%科技拔尖创新人才影响因素研究--以中科院某院级重点实验室的科研人员为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 李冰

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a national key laboratory's scientific re-searcher of Chinese academic of sciences is set as a research ob-ject. The sample scientists are analyzed, counted in macro and micro aspects. By exploring the progress along the meritocratic path, valid suggestions are put forward for cultivating the scien-tific and innovative talent.%  本文选取了中国科学院某院级重点实验室的科研人员作为考察对象,从宏观和微观方面对选取的科学家样本进行各种分析、统计,分析他们的创新成才之路,从而对培养我国的科技创新拔尖人才提出合理化建议。

  8. Investigation on the Influencing Factors of the Scientific and Innovative Elites:With a National Key Laboratory's Scientific Researcher of Chinese Academic of Sciences as the Research Object%科技拔尖创新人才影响因素研究--以中科院某院级重点实验室的科研人员为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 李冰

    2013-01-01

      本文选取了中国科学院某院级重点实验室的科研人员作为考察对象,从宏观和微观方面对选取的科学家样本进行各种分析、统计,分析他们的创新成才之路,从而对培养我国的科技创新拔尖人才提出合理化建议。%In this article, a national key laboratory's scientific re-searcher of Chinese academic of sciences is set as a research ob-ject. The sample scientists are analyzed, counted in macro and micro aspects. By exploring the progress along the meritocratic path, valid suggestions are put forward for cultivating the scien-tific and innovative talent.

  9. 中国特色社会主义理论体系:科学而有用的理论%Theoretical System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics:Scientific and Useful Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽华

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is scientific and useful theory,which reflects on following aspects:proceeding from Chinese reality,it solves actual problems,working out problems of"brain"and"pocket";having abundant contents and precise logic,with series of standpoints,it reflects Party's new standard of recognition of governing law of CPC,construction rule of socialism and development discipline of human society;promoting success and changing pattern of world,it creates miracle of China and provides new development pattern for other countries.%中国特色社会主义理论体系是一种科学而有用的理论,主要体现为:面向中国问题,破解现实难题,从中国实际出发,解决了"脑袋"问题和"口袋"问题;内容丰富,逻辑严谨,用一系列重大理论观点体现了我们党对共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律的认识把握的新水平;促进中国成功、改变世界格局,不仅创造了中国奇迹,也为其他国家提供了新的发展模式.

  10. Biogeografia de Portugal Continental

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, José C.; Aguiar, Carlos; Capelo, J.; Lousã, Mário; Neto, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    Apresentam-se alguns conceitos fundamentais usados em Biogeografia. Propõe-se uma tipologia biogeográfica para Portugal continental desenvolvida a partir dos trabalhos de S. Rivas-Martínez para a Península Ibérica, principalmente: RIVAS-MARTÍNEZ et al (1990). São enumeradas as unidades biogeográficas reconhecidas no território continental nacional e discutem-se os seus limites até ao nível de Superdistrito, bem como os critérios e fundamentos florísticos e fitossociológicos ...

  11. Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

  12. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  13. 分子配伍理论科学内涵及在现代中药研发中的应用%Scientific Connotation of Molecule Compatibility and Role in Research and Development of Modern Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑玲; 谢恬; 李铖璐; 曾昭武; 孙云廷; 王秋岩; 王安明; 殷晓浦

    2013-01-01

    提出分子配伍理论,为现代中药研究提供理论指导.阐述分子配伍理论产生的背景、必然性和科学内涵,及分子配伍理论的特征.论述分子配伍理论指导下的现代中药(成分中药)的特征.结果显示分子配伍理论具有3个特征:①分子配伍理论体现了中西医的有机结合;②分子配伍理论系统思维与分析还原法的有机结合;③坚持中医药理论的整体观.现代中药具有5个特征:①方中所有成分化学结构、分子式、分子量均清楚;②分子配伍符合方剂学君臣佐使的原则;③作用机制清楚、疗效确切、剂型先进、质量稳定可控;④多通道、多途径、多层次、多靶点对患病机体产生网络药理作用;⑤对复杂性、系统性疾病疗效明显,副作用小.中药现代化的关键是中医药理论现代化.分子配伍理论的提出,是时代发展的必然产物,必将促进中医药事业的繁荣昌盛.%Molecular Compatibility theory was put forward to provide theoretical guidance for modern Chinese medicine ( molecular Chinese medicine ) . They were expounded to the background, scientific connotation, necessity, features of Molecular Compatibility theory and characteristics of modem Chinese medicine. Molecular compatibility theory had three features. ①It reflected the concept of organic combination of Chinese and western medicine. ② Systematic thinking combined with analysis reduction method organically. ③The overall concept of TCM theory was adhered to; Characteristics of modern Chinese medicine by molecular compatibility theory was three. ① They were clear of the chemical structure, molecular formula, molecular weight of all ingredients in prescription. ②The principle of dunchenzuoshi was followed. ③It had clear mechanism, definite effect, advanced dosage forms, stable quality control. ④ Multichannel, multi-evel and multi-channel network pharmacological effects were produced in sick body.

  14. 美国《临床化学杂志》栏目和版面设置对中文期刊的启示%Difference of column setting between Chinese medical scientific journals and Clinical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武昱; 顾佳; 游苏宁

    2013-01-01

    Column setting shows the categories and range of the information a journal carries. Columns in medical scientific journals play an important role in helping audiences reading and retrieving more efficiently. It may also contribute to submitting papers for authors. Medical journals often seem similar to each other, lacking unique features. This article compares column setting between Chinese medical scientific journals and Clinical Chemistry, and lists the advantages of Clinical Chemistry in hope of helping local scientific journals make better benefit.%期刊设置栏目能体现出期刊内容的大致轮廓及传播信息的类别和范围,为读者的检索和阅读提供方便,是期刊总体设计的一个重要的组成部分.医学期刊栏目的科学设置不仅能够起到导读的作用,而且能够吸引优秀稿件,帮助作者在投稿时对文章进行准确定位.国内期刊常设的栏目大同小异,缺少个性和特色.本文介绍美国《临床化学杂志》栏目设置的特点,总结该刊值得借鉴之处,希望能对扩大国内科技期刊读者群体和提高期刊的社会效益和经济效益有所帮助.

  15. Brazilian continental cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Setembrino; Campanha, Vilma A.

    1981-04-01

    Cretaceous deposits in Brazil are very well developed, chiefly in continental facies and in thick sequences. Sedimentation occurred essentially in rift-valleys inland and along the coast. Three different sequences can be distinguished: (1) a lower clastic non-marine section, (2) a middle evaporitic section, (3) an upper marine section with non-marine regressive lithosomes. Continental deposits have been laid down chiefly between the latest Jurassic and Albian. The lower lithostratigraphic unit is represented by red shales with occasional evaporites and fresh-water limestones, dated by ostracods. A series of thick sandstone lithosomes accumulated in the inland rift-valleys. In the coastal basins these sequences are often incompletely preserved. Uplift in the beginning of the Aptian produced a widespread unconformity. In many of the inland rift-valleys sedimentation ceased at that time. A later transgression penetrated far into northeastern Brazil, but shortly after continental sedimentation continued, with the deposition of fluvial sandstones which once covered large areas of the country and which have been preserved in many places. The continental Cretaceous sediments have been laid down in fluvial and lacustrine environments, under warm climatic conditions which were dry from time to time. The fossil record is fairly rich, including besides plants and invertebrates, also reptiles and fishes. As faulting tectonism was rather strong, chiefly during the beginning of the Cretaceous, intercalations of igneous rocks are frequent in some places. Irregular uplift and erosion caused sediments belonging to the remainder of this period to be preserved only in tectonic basins scattered across the country.

  16. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    . The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  17. On the Scientific Development Concept’s Guiding Role in Scientific Development of Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Yanmin Ren

    2010-01-01

    The scientific development concept reveals the essential demands by the development of Chinese socialist modernization cause and reflects Marxism values as well as scientific outlook of world and history. Providing the answer to a series of basic issues including the purpose, direction, path and strength of development in an overall, systematic and scientific way, the scientific development concept serves as an important ideological weapon to guide the scientific development of China’s higher...

  18. Discussion on the postgraduate education of Chinese and western integrative medicine based on the major scientific research projects%基于重大科研项目探讨中西医结合医学研究生的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池晓玲; 萧焕明; 谢玉宝; 施梅姐

    2015-01-01

    The high quality of Chinese and western integrative medicine talents is the premise of the integrated Chinese and Western medicine to the world. Postgraduate education is directly related to the development of Chinese and Western medicine. The Second Clinical Medical College of Guang-zhou University of Chinese Medicine integrated the declaration and organization and implementation of the national major scientific research projects with Chinese and Western Medicine. By building ech-elon team model and establishing a platform for the exchange of research and communication platform, which covers the academic, technical, scientific and technological innovation, and so on, it cultivated high-level, complex and integrated Chinese and Western Medicine talents from knowledge and skills, innovation ability, interpersonal ability, and comprehensive management ability, etc.%高素质的中西医结合医学人才是中西医结合医学走向世界的前提,中西医结合医学研究生教育直接关系到我国中西医结合医学事业的发展。广州中医药大学第二临床医学院将国家重大科研项目的申报及组织实施与中西医结合医学研究生教育相融合,通过构建梯队式导师团队,建立涵盖学术、技术、科研创新等立体化多渠道的研究生交流平台,从知识与技能、创新能力、人际能力、综合管理能力等方面培养高层次、复合型的中西医结合医学人才。

  19. Southeast continental shelf studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1979-02-12

    Research efforts on the southeast continental shelf currently describe the manner in which fluctuations in Gulf Stream motion influence biological and chemical processes. Current meter arrays are maintained in the Georgia Bight and in Onslow Bay to describe general circulation patterns and to identify forcing functions. biological studies describe processes affecting temporal and spatial variations on the shelf and have attempted to track the biological history of intruded Gulf Stream water masses. Chemical studies examine the influence of both physical and biological variables on the distribution and fate of trace elements. The current state of knowledge is reviewed, the hypotheses developed and are described, a rationale for testing these hypotheses is given. 1 figure, 1 table.

  20. The continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle are...... consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions of the...... and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 16387–16414.] show strong correlation with tectono-thermal ages and with regional variations in lithospheric thickness constrained by surface heat flow data and seismic velocities. In agreement with xenolith...

  1. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica. PMID:26978977

  2. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... of field and laboratory studies in biology, chemistry, and physical oceanography, as well as studies... archaeology; and physical oceanography. The selections are based on maintaining disciplinary expertise in all... disciplines of the biological, physical, chemical, and socioeconomic sciences. Currently, the OCS SC has...

  3. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A

    2014-04-10

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon. PMID:24670638

  4. Management and Organizational Technologies of Chinese Rural Youth Programs. A Scientific Exchange of Rural Youth Programs between the U.S.A. and the People's Republic of China (April 8-30, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    An official delegation of Americans representing the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant colleges visited the People's Republic of China (PRC) to study the management and organization of the Chinese agricultural extension systems and to identify areas for the Chinese authorities to…

  5. Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  6. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  7. -induced continental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

  8. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  9. An Analysis of Difficulties Facing Chinese Scientists’ Holding Posts in International Scientific Organizations and Its Suggestions%我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题及建议探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军平; 秦久怡

    2016-01-01

    Based on some literatures and cases, the paper analyzes some difficulties facing Chinese scientists’ holding posts in international scientific organizations, where some suggestions are put forward in this regard: increase training efforts to make knowledge structure of Chinese scientists diversified both in width and depth; formulate policies and regulations to attract some headquarters for international scientific organizations to be located in China; and issue policies to set up talent reserve pools for the training of preparatory teams and talents for holding posts in international scientific organizations.%结合有关文献材料和案例,本文分析了我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题,尝试提出以下建议:加大培训,使科学家的知识结构更趋多元化;制定政策,支持和吸引国际科技组织总部落户中国;出台政策,建立人才储备库,培养国际科技组织任职预备队伍。

  10. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions :A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lizhen; Zheng, Yu; Luo, Haiyan; Yao, Qingqun

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute (TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS) as an example, this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform, analyzed existing problems, and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  11. Lake Van Drilling Project: A Long Continental Record in Eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    T. Litt; S. Krastel; Örçen, S.; Karabiyikoglu, M.

    2007-01-01

    An international research group is proposing a new research initiative, the Lake Van Drilling Project ‘PaleoVan’ within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The project mainly aims at obtaining high-resolution paleoclimate records from lacustrine sediments, where biotic and abiotic parameters provide proxy climate data. Lake Van in Turkey has the potential to yield long continental records covering several glacial-interglacial cycles from annually...

  12. Bioenergetics of Continental Serpentinites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardace, D.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Serpentinization is the aqueous alteration of ultramafic (Fe- and Mg-rich) rocks, resulting in secondary mineral assemblages of serpentine, brucite, iron oxyhydroxides and magnetite, talc, and possibly carbonate and silica-rich veins and other minor phases-all depending on the evolving pressure-temperature-composition of the system. The abiotic evolution of hydrogen and possibly organic compounds via serpentinization (McCollom and Bach, 2009) highlights the relevance of this geologic process to carbon and energy sources for the deep biosphere. Serpentinization may fuel life over long stretches of geologic time, throughout the global seabed and in exposed, faulted peridotite blocks (as at Lost City Hydrothermal Field, Kelley et al., 2005), and in obducted oceanic mantle units in ophiolites (e.g., Tiago et al., 2004). Relatively little work has been published on life in continental serpentinite settings, though they likely host a unique resident microbiota. In this work, we systematically model the serpentinizing fluid as an environmental niche. Reported field data for high and moderate pH serpentinizing fluids were modeled from Cyprus, the Philippines, Oman, Northern California, New Caledonia, Yugoslavia, Portugal, Italy, Newfoundland Canada, New Zealand, and Turkey. Values for Gibbs Energy of reaction (ΔGr), kJ per mole of electrons transferred for a given metabolism, are calculated for each field site. Cases are considered both for (1) modest assumptions of 1 nanomolar hydrogen and 1 micromolar methane, based on unpublished data for a similar northern California field site (Cardace and Hoehler, in prep.) and (2) an upper estimate of 10 nanomolar hydrogen and 500 micromolar methane. We survey the feasibility of microbial metabolisms for key steps in the nitrogen cycle, oxidation of sulfur in pyrite, iron oxidation or reduction reactions, sulfate reduction coupled to hydrogen or methane oxidation, methane oxidation coupled to the reduction of oxygen, and

  13. The Influence of Chinese Civilizationon Europe, c. 1000-1400

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Bringing together Chinese and Western materials, this article makesa general survey of the spread of Chinese civilization to Europe in themedieval period and the consequent influences. It mainly retrieves thewestward dissemination of Chinese scientific thoughts, the introductionof Chinese agricultural and transport techniques, and the developmentof Chinese inventions such as papermaking and print, silk and porcelain,stirrup and gunpowder in Europe, and even the impacts of Chinesesilk craftsmen and fine arts on Europe. It concludes that Europeansingested valuable nutrition from Chinese civilization from the 11th to14th centuries, laying the foundation for the fundamental changes withgroundbreaking significance in Europe.

  14. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  15. International Scientific Collaboration of China: Collaborating Countries, Institutions and Individuals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Wang, Zhi; Peng, Lian; Wang, Chuanli

    2014-01-01

    Using bibliometric methods, we investigate China's international scientific collaboration from 3 levels of collaborating countries, institutions and individuals. We design a database in SQL Server, and make analysis of Chinese SCI papers based on the corresponding author field. We find that China's international scientific collaboration is focused on a handful of countries. Nearly 95% international co-authored papers are collaborated with only 20 countries, among which the USA account for more than 40% of all. Results also show that Chinese lineage in the international co-authorship is obvious, which means Chinese immigrant scientists are playing an important role in China's international scientific collaboration, especially in English-speaking countries.

  16. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai

    2004-12-16

    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton. PMID:15602559

  17. The Barriers of Foriegn Hotels Entering the Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Yin

    2006-01-01

    China is a late comer in the tourism industry, but it does not mean that China has lower development in the hotel industry because of its surprising growth in the number of hotel. Because the rapidly increasing international and domestic tourists, the Chinese blooming economy and many important international and continental events which will be held in China, the Chinese hotel industry has rapid development in China. Therefore, both foreign and domestic hotel corporations have been expand...

  18. [Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lian-Jun; Xia, Xin-Yi; Shang, Xue-Jun; Huang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Lai

    2006-08-01

    For the first time, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology published an analysis report of Chinese papers indexed in MEDLINE, which indicates that the Chinese government is paying more and more attention to the role of MEDLINE in the evaluation of scientific research. A total of 4 959 journals are listed in the Lists of Journals Indexed in MEDLINE (2006) published by National Library of Medicine, USA (NLM), of which 95 are published in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan) and 2 another Chinese periodicals are published abroad. To familiarize MEDLINE to more medical researchers and to help them contribute to the journals indexed in MEDLINE, this article lists the top 10 Chinese medical institution whose published papers were indexed in MEDLINE in 2004 along with the Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006. And the status of MEDLINE in China is briefly analyzed as well. PMID:16970171

  19. Philosophical Intelligence: Letters, Print, and Experiment during Napoleon's Continental Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Iain P

    2015-12-01

    This essay investigates scientific exchanges between Britain and France from 1806 to 1814, at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. It argues for a picture of scientific communication that sees letters and printed texts not as separate media worlds, but as interconnected bearers of time-critical information within a single system of intelligence gathering and experimental practice. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte's Continental System blockade severed most links between Britain and continental Europe, yet scientific communications continued--particularly on electrochemistry, a subject of fierce rivalry between Britain and France. The essay traces these exchanges using the archive of a key go-between, the English man of science Sir Charles Blagden. The first two sections look at Blagden's letter-writing operation, reconstructing how he harnessed connections with neutral American diplomats, merchants, and the State to get scientific intelligence between London and Paris. The third section, following Blagden's words from Britain to France to America, looks at how information in letters cross-fertilized with information in print. The final section considers how letters and print were used together to solve the difficult practical problem of replicating experiments across the blockade. PMID:27024935

  20. Chinese astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  1. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  2. 中国特色社会主义制度的科学内涵及重大意义%The Scientific Connotation and Great Significance of Socialist System with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄书进

    2012-01-01

    中国特色社会主义制度是社会制度和制度体制的辩证统一,法律体系是社会制度和制度体制自身公共性、权威性和秩序性特点的外在表现,是法治社会的重要标志。中国特色社会主义制度,集中体现了中国特色社会主义的特点和优势,是当代中国发展进步的根本制度保障,标志着中国特色社会主义进入依法治国时期。%The socialist system with Chinese characteristics is the dialectic unification of social institution and institutional regime. The legal system is the external embodiment of the publicity, authority and order properties of social institution and institutional regime, being an important symbol of society under the rule of law. The socialist system with Chinese characteristics intensively embodies the traits and advantages of socialism with Chinese characteristics, being the radical institutional guarantee for the development and advancement of contemporary China, indicating socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new period of genuine rule of law.

  3. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG; Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute( TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences( CATAS) as an example,this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform,analyzed existing problems,and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  4. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  5. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.……

  6. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qiang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.

  7. Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Scientific inquiry reflects how scientists come to understand the natural world, and it is at the heart of how students learn. From a very early age, children interact with their environment, ask questions, and seek ways to answer those questions. Understanding science content is significantly enhanced when ideas are anchored to inquiry…

  8. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-04-14

    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  9. Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Kavoussi

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementa...

  10. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  11. Scientific Fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Balk-Møller, Carl August; Mogensen, Sofia Lin; RAATRÆ LUNDSTEIN, SARAH; Haubroe Larsen, André; Lohse, Mayasarah; Reininger Ardilsø, Lisa; Henrysdóttir, Gu∂run; Sondergaard, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the developments of SSRIs and the presence of them in the market. Dr. Peter Gøtszche’s book “Deadly Medicines and Organized Crime”, claims that scientific fraud is a big part of the pharmaceutical industry and the whole healthcare system in general. Through analyzing Peter Gøtszche’s book and several of his sources, the study aims to create a roadmap in the project, that resembles the process of the antidepressant drugs have to go through, to go from an idea to a patient. ...

  12. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology an...

  13. Scale effects of the continental coastline of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Fenzhen; GAO Yi; ZHOU Chenghu; YANG Xiaomei; FEI Xianyun

    2011-01-01

    Spatial scale is a fundamental problem in Geography.Scale effect caused by fractal characteristic of coastline becomes a common focus of coastal zone managers and researchers.In this study,based on DEM and remote sensing images,multi-scale continental coastlines of China were extracted and the fractal characteristic was analyzed.The results are shown as follows.(1) The continental coastline of China fits the fractal model,and the fractal dimension is 1.195.(2) The scale effects with fractal dimensions of coastline have significant differences according to uplift and subsidence segments along the continental coastlines of China.(3) The fractal dimension of coastline has significant spatial heterogeneity according to the coastline types.The fractal dimension of sandy coastline located in Luanhe River plain is 1.109.The dimension of muddy coastline located in northern Jiangsu Plain is 1.059,while that of rocky coastline along southeastern Fujian is 1.293.(4) The length of rocky coastline is affected by scale more than that of muddy and sandy coastline.Since coastline is the conjunction of sea,land and air surface,the study of coastline scale effect is one of the scientific bases for the researches on air-sea-land interaction in multi-scales.

  14. Semantic Web for data harmonization in Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Scientific studies to investigate Chinese medicine with Western medicine have been generating a large amount of data to be shared preferably under a global data standard. This article provides an overview of Semantic Web and identifies some representative Semantic Web applications in Chinese medicine. Semantic Web is proposed as a standard for representing Chinese medicine data and facilitating their integration with Western medicine data. PMID:20205772

  15. Searching for the remains of subducted continental slabs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ On the basis of oceanic geological and geophysical observations the global plate tectonics theory was put forward in the late 1960s.It inherited the essence of mobilism of continental drift and sea-floor spreading,caused a revolution of earth sciences in the twentieth century.But plate tectonics cannot satisfactorily explain the complicated geological phenomena of continents,it fails in elucidating the formation and evolution process of continents.Therefore,the formation and evolution of continents have been the hot topics explored by earth scientists in recent years.As far as China is concerned,the opening and closing of Tethys are related to the formation,evolution,and compressional reformation of Chinese continent in the Mesozoic period,hence have important implications.

  16. The stable isotope signature of continental runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent international programmes such as the IAEA coordinated research project on 'Isotope tracing of hydrological processes in large river basins' have increased scientific awareness of the potential value of incorporating isotope tracers in large-scale water cycling studies to trace water origin and residence times, snowmelt processes, surface-groundwater exchange, evaporation-transpiration partitioning, precipitation variability, and climate/land use changes. Although isotope techniques have been widely tested and are operationally applied at the small catchment-scale, theoretical development and testing of isotope-mass balance approaches at the continental scale are still in progress. This paper proposes a theoretical basis for predicting the long-term (interannual) signatures of oxygen-18 and deuterium in continental runoff applicable for describing global isotope variability in the mean flux-weighted discharge of large rivers. For long time periods, the mass and isotope balances for the oceans and continents are given. Changes in atmospheric moisture are expected due to admixture of evaporated and transpired moisture to air masses over the continents. Oceanic moisture in coastal areas is shown as which becomes subsequently modified as it moves across the continent to inland areas (ranging from to). The approximate isotope compositions of components. Long-term differences in precipitation arise from Rayleigh-type fractionation of atmospheric moisture and precipitation during rainout over the continents. Transpired moisture is expected to be similar to precipitation or groundwater recharge for a given location, whereas evaporated moisture will be isotopically depleted (plotting on or above the MWL) and river discharge will tend to be isotopically enriched (plotting on or below the MWL). Shown are specific hydroclimate forcings on the 2H-18O isotopic composition including those related to long-term precipitation input signals (temperature, latitude, altitude

  17. Instructions for Authors by Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology (ISSN 1008-7125), founded in June, 1996, is a national academic journal being designed to present the latest basic scientific and clinical researches of gastroenterology in China.

  18. CETA'S Response to Chinese-English Dictionary Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Edwin G., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Chinese-English Translation Assistance Group (CETA), including the development of a dictionary of general terms, and the formation of files of colloquial, scientific, and technical terms. CETA also serves as a clearinghouse for information of interest to students of Chinese. (CLK)

  19. China ranks second in scientific publications since 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Zhou; L. Leydesdorff

    2008-01-01

    With the fast development of its economy, China plays an increasingly important role in the world. China's performance in science is also impressive. The exponential growth of Chinese scientific publications provides evidence. However, statistical results about China's world share of scientific publ

  20. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that effective with...

  1. 大数据时代中国大学生科技创新思维新内涵思考%The New Connotation about the Scientific Innovative Thinking of Chinese University Students in the Era of Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳

    2015-01-01

    论述了在大数据背景下,科技创新思维在知识结构、思维对象和思维方式三个方面发生的深刻变革。并通过问卷调查和访谈方法,调研了当前大学生的科技创新思维现状,发现大数据的认识很模糊,在科技创新活动中仍然沿用传统的思维习惯和研究方法,没有认识到大数据对于科技创新的重要作用和意义,导致其科技创新能力仍显不足。因此,对大学生科技创新思维提出了新的内涵,即掌握大数据技术的基本知识、养成大数据意识,具有这个时代所要求的相关性思维方式。%This thesis discusses deep change of scientific innovative thinking in three aspects of knowledge structure, thought object and thought mode under the background of big data. Questionnaire and interview are employed to in-vestigate the status quo of university student's scientific innovative thinking. It shows that they have vague knowl-edge of big data and they still follow traditional thought habit and research method in scientific innovation activities. They don't realize big data's important purpose and meaning towards scientific innovation. It leads to insufficiency of their scientific innovation ability. So this thesis proposes new connotation for university student's scientific innova-tive thought, which is grasp of big data technology's basic knowledge, development of big data sense and possession of relevant thought mode demanded by this era.

  2. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  3. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  5. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  6. Continental Growth and the Sedimentary Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuime, B.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Cawood, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital sedimentary rocks provide average samples of the continental crust formed at different times and in different places. Some materials are more susceptible to erosion and/or to preservation bias than others, and one issue is to understand how the compositions of a range of source rocks are then recorded in the sediments. Here we considered two different approaches to model the growth of the continental crust: (i) The variation of Nd isotopes in continental shales with different deposition ages, which requires a correction of the bias induced by preferential erosion of younger rocks through an erosion parameter usually referred to as 'K'. The determination of K, and the extent to which it varies in different erosion systems, thus have fundamental implications for the models of continental growth based on radiogenic isotopes in continental sediments. (ii) The variations in U-Pb, Hf and O isotopes in detrital zircons, from 'modern' sediments sampled worldwide. In this approach, O isotopes are used to screen 'hybrid' Hf model ages (i.e. ages resulting from mixing processes of crustal material from different ages) from Hf model ages that represent actual crust formation ages. These two approaches independently suggest that the continental crust has been generated continuously, but with a marked decrease in the continental growth rate at ~3 Ga. The >4 Ga to ~3 Ga period is characterised by relatively high net rates of continental growth (~3.0 km3.a-1), which are similar to the rates at which new crust is generated, and destroyed, at the present time. Net growth rates are much lower since 3 Ga (~0.8 km3.a-1), which may be attributed to higher rates of destruction of continental crust. The inflexion in the continental growth curve at ~3 Ga indicates a change in the way the crust was generated and preserved. This change may be linked to onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics and discrete subduction zones.

  7. Promoting Scientific Spirit to Cultivate Scientific Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Scientific culture is an advanced culture that is based on scientific knowledge and supported by the scientific method, with scientific thinking as its core and scientific spirit as its soul. During the process of modernization, it has profound impacts on human society in terms of values, ethics, mode of thinking, lifestyle and code of conduct, offering human civilization an important ideological source, physical foundation, technological tool and effective carrier.

  8. Chinese Science Policy: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Maurice N., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Lists the assumptions inherent in a liberal model of science and explains how the Chinese model combines a contemporary challenge to this liberal model with a strong positive valuation of science. Explains the problems and patterns related to scientific development in China and the Soviet Union. (GS)

  9. Chinese culture, social work education and research

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, KL; Chan, CLW

    2005-01-01

    In the development of indigenous social work knowledge in China, the power relationship between teacher and student can act as a barrier to the development of scientific knowledge and practice research. Social work education and practice research in Chinese societies should focus on the empowerment of social work students, methodological pluralism and the development of a culturally specific practice research model.

  10. Co-word Analysis using the Chinese Character Set

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, Chinese texts could not be studied using co-word analysis because the words are not separated by spaces in Chinese (and Japanese). A word can be composed of one or more characters. The online availability of programs that separate Chinese texts makes it possible to analyze them using semantic maps. Chinese characters contain not only information, but also meaning. This may enhance the readability of semantic maps. In this study, we analyze 58 words which occur ten or more times in the 1652 journal titles of the China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database. The word occurrence matrix is visualized and factor-analyzed.

  11. Research of Automatic Assignment Topics Indexing Using Chinese Scientific and Technical Vocabulary Systems%汉语科技词系统在文献自动赋词标引中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫莹莹; 许德山; 张运良; 李鹏

    2013-01-01

    文章首先介绍了汉语科技词系统的体系结构和功能,其次设计了自动赋词标引研究的整体思路,完成了自动赋词标引的系统功能实现,包括标引知识库的格式转换、算法实现和系统实现,并收集语料进行测试。最后对自动赋词标引的结果进行了分析,并且总结了该自动赋词标引研究的特点和不足,介绍了未来的工作设想。%The author introduced the system structure and function of Chinese science and technology system firstly, then designed the whole idea of automatic assignment topics indexing, completed the function of automatic assignment topics indexing system, including knowledge base format conversion, algorithm and system implementation, and col ected data to test the result. Final y, author analyzed the result of the automatic assignment topics indexing, summarized the characteristics and the insufficiency of automatic assignment topic indexing, and introduced the future work.

  12. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  13. Modernization of Chinese herbal compound and the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-lan; SUN Zhi; DU Juan

    2008-01-01

    Chinese herbal compound is playing an important role on curing human diseases. And it has been a trend that Chinese herbal compound is being used all over the world in 21 century. However, our Chinese herbal compound is facing serious challenge for the lack of canonical system of quality criterion for Chinese herbal compound so it has been a urgent problem to set up the quality control standards and reveal therapeutic basis of Chinese herbal compound. In order to give full play to the advantages of Chinese herbal compound, modern scientific and technological is used to research of Chinese herbal compound, especially the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS), because it is high sensitive, rapid, and obtain more information. It is very necessary that HPLC-MS is uesed to elucidate the effective components of basic substances of Chinese Herbal Compound, and endow traditional Chinese medicine with modern scientific connotation.

  14. The new “Chinese dream” regards science communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pitrelli Nico

    2005-01-01

    Science and technology: these are the mainstays China wants to concentrate on in order to stabilise its future as an emerging world power. Beijing plans to have the whole, enormous Chinese population literate in the scientific field within a few years. Scientific popularization is the key to what now, due to political influences and deep social disparities, seems remote.

  15. The new “Chinese dream” regards science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitrelli Nico

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology: these are the mainstays China wants to concentrate on in order to stabilise its future as an emerging world power. Beijing plans to have the whole, enormous Chinese population literate in the scientific field within a few years. Scientific popularization is the key to what now, due to political influences and deep social disparities, seems remote.

  16. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record. PMID:19812080

  17. Continental Shelf Boundary - Alaska NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundaries (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  18. Modeling the dynamics of continental shelf carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Eileen E; Cahill, Bronwyn; Fennel, Katja; Friedrichs, Marjorie A M; Hyde, Kimberly; Lee, Cindy; Mannino, Antonio; Najjar, Raymond G; O'Reilly, John E; Wilkin, John; Xue, Jianhong

    2011-01-01

    Continental margin systems are important contributors to global nutrient and carbon budgets. Effort is needed to quantify this contribution and how it will be modified under changing patterns of climate and land use. Coupled models will be used to provide projections of future states of continental margin systems. Thus, it is appropriate to consider the limitations that impede the development of realistic models. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of modeling carbon cycling on continental margins as well as the processes and issues that provide the next challenges to such models. Our overview is done within the context of a coupled circulation-biogeochemical model developed for the northeastern North American continental shelf region. Particular choices of forcing and initial fields and process parameterizations are used to illustrate the consequences for simulated distributions, as revealed by comparisons to observations using quantitative statistical metrics. PMID:21329200

  19. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  20. Freshwater peat on the continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, K.O.; Wigley, R.L.; Bartlett, A.S.; Rubin, M.; Barghoorn, E.S.

    1967-01-01

    Freshwater peats from the continental shelf off northeastern United States contain the same general pollen sequence as peats from ponds that are above sea level and that are of comparable radiocarbon ages. These peats indicate that during glacial times of low sea level terrestrial vegetation covered the region that is now the continental shelf in an unbroken extension from the adjacent land areas to the north and west.

  1. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  2. Model-Data Comparisons of Pan-Continental Drought over North America during the Common Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, S.; Smerdon, J. E.; Seager, R.; Cook, B.

    2014-12-01

    Pan-continental droughts, or droughts that simultaneously affect a large percentage of the geographically and climatically distinct regions of North America, present significant on-the-ground management challenges and, as such, are an important target for scientific research. There are, however, two fundamental reasons why a comprehensive characterization of pan-continental droughts, and their causes, proves challenging: 1) Regional hydroclimate in North America is characterized by distinct atmosphere-ocean dynamics; 2) The relative rarity of pan-continental drought and the short (~150 year) observational record mean that there are few events by which to diagnose how these relatively distinct regional hydroclimate dynamics can combine to produce pan-continental drought. The paradigm of model-data comparisons on paleoclimatic timescales is used herein to extend the North American drought record and to simulate potential atmosphere-ocean states during pan-continental droughts, which together provide a more comprehensive understanding of pan-continental drought dynamics. Specifically, six forced transient simulations of the last millennium from the CMIP5/PMIP3 archives are analyzed in conjunction with gridded tree-ring reconstructions of hydroclimate variability from the North American Drought Atlas (NADA). Models are found to simulate pan-continental drought with the frequency and spatial patterns exhibited by the NADA. They do not, however, agree on the modes of atmosphere-ocean variability that produce pan-continental droughts. This is because simulated ENSO, PDO and AMO dynamics, and their teleconnections to North America, are different between models and observations. Despite these dynamical differences, models are also able to reproduce large-magnitude centennial-scale variability in the frequency of pan-continental drought occurrence—an important feature of the paleoclimate record. These changes do not appear to be tied to exogenous forcings, suggesting that

  3. The Continental Market Seen from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation, the Chairman of a French gas company (Elf) comments on the evolution of the Continental gas market from a British point of view. He first discusses the differences between the US, British and Continental gas markets, recalls the provisions of the European Gas Directive and states why a fully competitive system is a long-term prospect in Continental Europe. Seen from the UK, the provisions of the EU directive may appear modest. Due to the long transportation, British gas companies may find it hard to compete on the gas market of Continental Europe. When Inter connector, the gas pipeline connecting the gas markets in UK and the Continent, begins operation, there will be a flow of gas from the UK to the Continent according to already signed contracts. But there may be contractual flows both ways. Gas prices will level off between the UK and Northern Europe, at least for the industry. The continental markets will change gradually, the Gas Directive and the Inter connector will help the move towards a more competitive gas industry, but the fundamentals will not change: low gas prices for the next few years, competition between the big three exporters to Continental Europe, and long-term contracts that will extend beyond 2005

  4. Thoughts on studies of China continental geology and tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guowei; GUO Anli; YAO Anping

    2006-01-01

    As an important part of the global continents, China continent has long been situated in the peculiar tectonic position and experienced extremely complicated activities, which resulted in the regional unique characteristics for China continent on the global common geological background. These characteristics contain abundant information regarding scientific key issues of modern geological frontier. Thus, China continent can be a natural laboratory and excellent arena for the modern geosciences. The modern earth sciences have started entering the era featured with earth systematic science and beyond plate tectonics. How to take the regional advantage and exploit the treasure resource to participate the new theoretical and methodological creation is a historic opportunity and great challenge we are facing. This paper generalizes research priorities in four fields on China continental geology and tectonics for discussion. They are: China continental tectonics and dynamics; Mesozoic-Cenozoic crustal deformation and deep-seated processes in China continent and the adjacent regions; deep-seated dynamic background and evolutionary trend of crustal tectonic activities on the time scale of human existence; deepseated background and processes of conjunction and transformation of different tectonic systems.

  5. Tectonic development of regions in continental margins on both sides of the Tsinlin paleosea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van, Kh.; Chzhou, Ch.; Syu, Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Starting from the middle Proterozoic (1.9-2.0 billion years ago) the region of Tsinlin was boundary, separating the territory of China geographically into north and south parts. In this region, located between the continental margins of the North Chinese platform in the north and the Yangtze in the south there were marine conditions which disappeared with the completion of the Indochinese phase of folding. Stratigraphy, conditions of sedimentation, magmatism, main faults, evolution of the tectonic structure of the region are described. The boundary between the two ancient continentaly margins passes on the Fensyan-Shanyan fault which reaches Lake Tsinkhay in the west and the Nanyan basin in the east. This fault can be called the convergent zone of absorption of the Earth's crust. On both sides of this zone, batholites of Indochinese and Yanshan age are developed. They are associated apparently with the collision of opposite marginal-continental blocks. The northern continental margin which refers to the North Chinese platform can be separated (from north to south) into 3 zones: middle-upper Proterozoic (Kuanpin and Taovan groups), Caledonian (Tsinlin group) and Hercynian (Drevonsko-Carboniferous flyschoid series). The Caledonian zone is delimited to the south by faults of Shannan-Danfen which is an early Paleozoic zone of subduction (accretion zone for absorption of the Earth's crust of Shannan-Danfen). The southern continental margin from the north of the platform of the Yangtze includes 2 zones: south, Caledonian with deposits of a marginal sea and north, Hercynian-Indochinese age with miogeosynclinal deposits. The boundary between the zones is marked by several massifs of the microcontinent type which are represented by upper Proterozoic epimetamorphic, volcanogenic sedimentary series (Yunsi group); along the northern side of this boundary, local subduction zones are encountered.

  6. On the Academic Responsibility and Social Mission of Chinese Postgraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yang; Min Xie

    2014-01-01

    The progress of Chinese society requires scientific development which is the only path to get rid of pre-modernity dilemma and modernity crisis. Under the circumstance of pre-modernity dilemma and modernity crisis, contemporary postgraduates confront many dilemmas and crises both of education and society. Under the guidance of scientific development, the solution is to realize the academic responsibility of postgraduates by scientifically developing, to accomplish the social mission by promot...

  7. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  8. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  9. Continental drift, organic evolution, and moral courage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Edward

    For the past 40 years or so there has been much discussion of the reasons why, even though there was substantial evidence for it, the continental drift hypothesis of Alfred Wegener and Wladimir Koppen was rejected in the first half of the 20th century. It was often derisively dismissed out of hand.On April 7, 1998, there was a note in Eos by David Stern that included a perceptive and amusing quotation from Teddy Bullard on the question, which has recently reached something of a culmination in an important new book, The Rejection of Continental Drift, by Naomi Oreskes and published by Oxford in 1999.

  10. China ranks second in scientific publications since 2006.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, P

    2008-01-01

    With the fast development of its economy, China plays an increasingly important role in the world. China's performance in science is also impressive. The exponential growth of Chinese scientific publications provides evidence. However, statistical results about China's world share of scientific publications provided by different institutions and researchers have been in disagreement. With the data for 2007 being now available, we provide an update on this issue and conclude that China has bec...

  11. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  12. Chinese varkens in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens

  13. Chinese Translation of Coca Cola: Analysis and Enlightenment

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyang Ran

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese translation of Coca Cola is thought to be a well-known good translation, and many people discussed the translation or brand translation with it as an example. A large number of books or articles generally and abstractly conclude that the Chinese translation leaves people a kind of feeling of coolness and cleanness, pleases and attracts consumers’ attention and their favor, however there is not still a book or an article studying systematically and scientifically how good the trans...

  14. 大陆法系刑法中的“客观的处罚条件”%Objective Condition of Punishment in Criminal Law of Continental Law System-In Perspective of the Criminal Law of Germany, Italy, Chinese Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志鹏

    2015-01-01

    The objective condition of punishment is the reason for containing punishment which is widespread in criminal law of Continental Law System. It means that a person would not be punished before the certain objective condition which is stipulated by criminal law appears since his behavior has constituted a crime. Although there is not any explicit provision about the objective condition of punishment in German criminal code, the criminal law theorists in Germany recognize it commonly. Italian criminal code has explicit provision about the objective condition of punishment in its General Provisions, and in Specific Provisions many crimes involve it. There is also not any explicit provision about it in Taiwan’s“Criminal Code”, but most Taiwan scholars take it as the fourth special element of crime in special circumstances.%“客观的处罚条件”是大陆法系刑法中普遍存在的限制刑罚发动的事由。它是指行为构成犯罪后,法律规定必须出现一定客观状况才对行为人施加刑罚的情况。德国刑法虽然没有明文予以规定,但理论界的共识是承认的。意大利刑法对此在总则中做了明确规定,在分则中也有相当罪名涉及。中国台湾地区“刑法”虽然也没有明确规定客观处罚条件,但多数学者认为其是特殊情况下的第四种犯罪成立要素。

  15. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  16. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...

  17. 准确把握社会主义核心价值体系科学内涵 坚决维护中华民族复兴的精神家园%Grasp Scientific Connotation of Socialist Core Value System, Safeguard Rejuvenation of Chinese Nation's Spiritual Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀华; 魏稳涛

    2011-01-01

    党的十六届六中全会第一次明确提出社会主义核心价值体系,在十七大报告中胡锦涛总书记进一步指出:"社会主义核心价值体系是社会主义意识形态的本质体现。"十七届六中全会通过的《决议》则进一步强调:"社会主义核心价值体系是兴国之魂,是社会主义先进文化的精髓,决定着中国特色社会主义发展方向。"准确把握社会主义核心价值体系的科学内涵,在实践中能更好地宣传和践行,特别是在澄清价值问题方面的一些模糊认识,具有十分重要的意义。%The core value system of socialism was put forward in the Sixth Plenary Session of the Sixteenth Central Commit- tee clearly for the first time,in the report of the 17 th Congress General Secretary Hu Jintao pointed out: "the socialist core value system is the essence of the socialist ideology". Seventeen sessions of six CCP plenary conferences through the "reso- lution" was further stressed: "the core value system of socialism is the soul of a country,advanced socialist culture is the essence of socialism with Chinese characteristics, determines the direction of development." Accurately grasp the scientific connotation of socialist core value system ,which has very important sense in clarifying the value problems of some fuzzy understanding, have very important sense.

  18. Elephant teeth from the atlantic continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, F.C., Jr.; Emery, K.O.; Cooke, H.B.S.; Swift, D.J.P.

    1967-01-01

    Teeth of mastodons and mastodons have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, and relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25.000 years.

  19. Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Classroom Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Prentice K.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various classroom studies related to plate tectonics and continental drift, including comments on and sources of resource materials useful in teaching the topics. A complete list of magazine articles on the topics from the Sawyer Marine Resource Collection may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  20. Swell transformation across the continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Tinder, Cynthia Viernes

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of swell decay across the continental shelf was conducted using data from the SHOaling Waves EXperiment (SHOWEX). Six Datawell Directional Waverider buoys were deployed along a cross-shelf transect, offshore of Duck, North Carolina during an active hurricane season in the fall of 1999.

  1. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  2. Tectonics and melting in intra-continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Vogt, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Most of the geodynamic theories of deformation aswell asmetamorphismandmelting of continental lithosphere are concentrated on plate boundaries and are dominated by the effects of subduction upon deformation of the margins of continental lithospheric blocks. However, it is becoming increasingly appar

  3. Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics by month and summarized annually. Outer Continental Shelf consists of Gulf of Mexico, Pacific and...

  4. Chinese Medicines Induce Cell Death: The Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms for Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Xuanbin Wang; Yibin Feng; Ning Wang; Fan Cheung; Hor Yue Tan; Sen Zhong; Charlie Li; Seiichi Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Chinese medicines have long history in treating cancer. With the growing scientific evidence of biomedical researches and clinical trials in cancer therapy, they are increasingly accepted as a complementary and alternative treatment. One of the mechanisms is to induce cancer cell death. Aim. To comprehensively review the publications concerning cancer cell death induced by Chinese medicines in recent years and provide insights on anticancer drug discovery from Chinese medicines. Materials and...

  5. Chinese Patent Medicine Tongxinluo Capsule for Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Xingjiang Xiong; Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We in...

  6. Getting Healthy Scientifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Recently,Zhao Zhixin,a Beijing-based instructor on scientific bodybuilding and public sport,was interviewed by China Youth Daily,sharing his views on how to get healthy scientifically.Edited excerpts follow:

  7. The ICDP Information Network - A Link between Continental and Marine Data ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conze, R.; Behrends, K.; Waechter, J.

    2001-12-01

    ICDP is an international program investigating the 'System Earth' in multidisciplinary co-operation. Funded drilling projects are characterized by detailed fieldwork at world-class geological sites on the continents and by the global scope of research objectives. During project work, partnering researchers from all over the world work together at remote drill sites and in laboratories at their institutions. Researchers apply a range of highly diverse scientific methodologies, thereby acquiring huge data sets. Multinational co-operation and increasing amounts of scientific data require completely new concepts and practices for scientific work, and place heavy demands on information and communications management. This is achieved by means of the ICDP Information Network. Scientists working on ICDP related data need a central long-term data archive with powerful tools for navigation, data modeling and analysis. On the other hand ODP as well as the future OD21 have also the same objectives on studying the marine geosciences: 'The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) is an international partnership of scientists and research institutions organized to explore the evolution and structure of Earth. ODP provides researchers around the world access to a vast repository of geological and environmental information recorded far below the ocean surface in seafloor sediments and rocks. By studying ODP data we gain a better understanding of Earth's past, present, and future.' (ODP web site, http://www.oceandrilling.org/ODP/ODP.html) The main objective of the Information Network (http://www.icdp-online.de) of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program is to provide comprehensive data and information management for continental scientific drilling projects. The Information Network offers services supporting: ” the common portal for and dissemination of project information by the ICDP Clearinghouse, ” capture of scientific drilling data using individual On-Site Drilling

  8. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Description of background samples in the continental margin of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provide data concerning of the background sediments of the continental margin of Uruguay. There were carried out different works with witnesses in order to extract various sediment samples from the continental shelf

  9. [Study on path of transforming traditional Chinese medicine research achievement into guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yuwen, Ya

    2014-09-01

    At present, a number of scientific research achievements has been formed. Scientific achievement is the crystallization of great efforts from scientific workers, and it's also the valuable treasure of human civilization. Standardization is an important way to promote the international communication of Chinese medicine, and it's significant in boosting China's scientific and technological progress, improving market competitiveness and promoting international trade. Transformation of scientific research to the guideline is not only beneficial to improving the technology content of the standard, but also to the conversion from scientific research achievements into productivity. Therefore, only by absorbing the advanced scientific and technological achievements, reproducing the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and medical technology in standard form, can make TCM keep pace with the times. This study preliminarily explores for the method to transform scientific research achievements into guideline, in order to provide reference for the future technical specifications, thus to further the development of TCM. PMID:25532407

  10. What is scientific misconduct?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Selected examples from history are discussed to illustrate the many difficulties in judging scientific behavior. Scientific misconduct is not an a priori given concept but must first be defined. The definitions of scientific misconduct used in the USA and in Denmark are discussed as examples....

  11. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scientific Integrity Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 9, 2009 Scientific Integrity Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of...

  12. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  13. Incipient speciation with gene flow on a continental island: Species delimitation of the Hainan Hwamei (Leucodioptron canorum owstoni, Passeriformes, Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Liang, Bin; Wang, Jichao; Yeh, Chia-Fen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yanlin; Liang, Wei; Yao, Cheng-Te; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2016-09-01

    Because of their isolation, continental islands (e.g., Madagascar) are often thought of as ideal systems to study allopatric speciation. However, many such islands have been connected intermittently to their neighboring continent during recent periods of glaciation, which may cause frequent contact between the diverging populations on the island and continent. As a result, the speciation processes on continental islands may not meet the prerequisites for strictly allopatric speciation. We used multiple lines of evidence to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of the Hainan Hwamei (Leucodioptron canorum owstoni), which is endemic to Hainan, the largest continental island in the South China Sea. Our analysis of mitochondrial DNA and twelve nuclear loci suggests that the Hainan Hwamei can be regarded as an independent species (L. owstoni); the morphological traits of the Hainan Hwamei also showed significant divergence from those of their mainland sister taxon, the Chinese Hwamei (L. canorum). We also inferred the divergence history of the Hainan and Chinese Hwamei to see whether their divergence was consistent with a strictly allopatric model. Our results suggest that the two Hwameis split only 0.2 million years ago with limited asymmetrical post-divergence gene flow. This implies that the Hainan Hwamei is an incipient species and that speciation occurred through ecologically divergent selection and/or assortative mating rather than a strictly allopatric process. PMID:27233437

  14. [On the evolution of scientific thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde Torres, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Nominalists of the XIV century, precursors of modern science, thought that science's object was not the general, vague and indeterminate but the particular, which is real and can be known directly. About the middle of the XVII Century the bases of the modern science became established thanks to a revolution fomented essentially by Galileo, Bacon and Descartes. During the XVIII Century, parallel to the development of the great current of English Empiricism, a movement of scientific renewal also arose in continental Europe following the discipline of the Dutch Physicians and of Boerhaave. In the XIX Century, Claude Bernard dominated the scientific medicine but his rigorous determinism impeded him from taking into account the immense and unforeseeable field of the random. Nowadays, we approach natural science and medicine, from particular groups of facts; that is, from the responses of Nature to specific questions, but not from the general laws. Furthermore, in recent epistemology, the concept that experimental data are not pure facts, but rather, facts interpreted within a hermeneutical context has been established. Finally a general tendency to retrieve philosophical questions concerning the understanding of essence and existence can frequently be seen in scientific inquiry. In the light of the evolution of medical thought, it is possible to establish the position of scientific medicine within the movement of ideas dominating in our time. PMID:26296626

  15. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  16. Strain weakening enables continental plate tectonics

    OpenAIRE

    Gueydan, Frédéric; Précigout, Jacques; Montesi, Laurent G.J.

    2014-01-01

    International audience Much debate exists concerning the strength distribution of the continental lithosphere, how it controls lithosphere-scale strain localization and hence enables plate tectonics. No rheological model proposed to date is comprehensive enough to describe both the weakness of plate boundary and rigid-like behaviour of plate interiors. Here we show that the duality of strength of the lithosphere corresponds to different stages of microstructural evolution. Geological const...

  17. Sustainable Offshore Wind Potential in Continental Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, P.; Simões, T. (Tânia); Estanqueiro, Ana

    2010-01-01

    This study intends to depict the availability of the sustainable offshore wind energy for Continental Portugal and identify the preliminary areas for developing offshore wind parks. Two scenarios were performed to distinct the different offshore wind turbine prototypes assembled by the manufactory energy sector – bottom fixed and floating models. The results achieved until now indicate that Portugal has a very large potential for offshore wind deployments ready to be exploited, especial...

  18. Corporate Governance Reforms in Continental Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Enriques; Paolo Volpin

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental problem of corporate governance in the United States is to alleviate the conflict of interest between dispersed small shareowners and powerful controlling managers. The fundamental corporate governance in continental Europe and in most of the rest of the world is different. There, few listed companies are widely held. Instead, the typical firm in stock exchanges around the world has a dominant shareholder, usually an individual or a family, who controls the majority of the vot...

  19. Precipitation of Continental Origin over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Agudelo, J. A.; Dominguez, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Amazon forest receives high amounts of moisture from the tropical Atlantic. A significant part of this moisture is returned back to the atmosphere by the forest, and further redistributed to the rest of the continent by the meridional flow imposed by the Andes. Thus, the land-atmosphere interaction between the Amazon forest and the large-scale flow affects not only the forest itself but also the downstream regions. We develop a method to quantify the precipitation of continental origin over South America, and identify the contribution that selected source regions make to continental precipitation. The average annual cycle of precipitation of continental origin for the five-year period 2000-2004 shows a band of high values aligned along the northwest-southeast direction, from southern Peru to northeastern Argentina. The lowest values of precipitation of continental origin occur upstream, over the northeastern coast of South America. Precipitation that originates as moisture from the Amazon forest shows maximum values over the western side of the Amazon, east of the Andes, especially over southern Peru. The Amazon forest also contributes to precipitation over La Plata River Basin (LPRB) and the Pacific coast of Colombia. During its dry season, up to 29.3% of the precipitation over LPRB originates as moisture from the Amazon forest. Throughout the year, the contributions to precipitation over LPRB by the Amazon forest and LPRB (recycled precipitation) are in the same range, but out of phase. The average contribution of the rest of the continent to precipitation over LPRB is smaller but of the same order as that of the Amazon and LPRB.

  20. Magmatic expressions of continental lithosphere removal

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huilin; Currie, Claire A.

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational lithosphere removal in continental interior has been inferred from various observations, including anomalous surface deflections and magmatism. We use numerical models and a simplified theoretical analysis to investigate how lithosphere removal can be recognized in the magmatic record. One style of removal is a Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability, where removal occurs through dripping. The associated magmatism depends on the lithosphere thermal structure. Four types of magmatism ar...

  1. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  2. Continental Drift”: Translation and Kimiko Hahn’s Transcultural Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Mai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the expanding discourse of transnational Asian American Studies, this essay studies Kimiko Hahn, particularly her engagement with East Asian traditions in her poetry, and shows how her work exemplifies a transcultural Asian American literature that requires reading beyond the domestic boundaries of the United States. Drawing on Walter Benjamin's and Gayatri Spivak’s translation studies, it examines how Hahn critiques the assimilationist representation of Asian women in translations of Asian texts such as Arthur Waley’s version of Lady Murasaki’s The Tale of Genji. It then reads how, based on her thoughts about literary translation, Hahn experiments with creative practices of “translation,” including a retranslation of Ezra Pound’s Chinese images and untranslation of zuihitsu. Rewriting Ezra Pound’s Chinese images, Hahn reconstructs women’s voice in ancient Chinese writings. Undoing the simplistic interpretation of the classical Japanese form zuihitsu, her restorative untranslation of the form makes connections between the discursive agency of ancient Asian women writers and contemporary women poets. Thus, Hahn’s translational writing reveals a poetics of “continental drift,” a poetics that calls attention to the necessity of reading Asian American literature in transnational and transcultural contexts.

  3. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  4. Primary scientific results of Chang’E-1 lunar mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The strategic plan for the development of the unmanned Chinese Lunar Exploration Program is characterized by three distinct stages: "orbiting around", "landing on" and "returning from" the Moon. The first Chinese lunar probe, Chang’E-1, which was successfully launched on October 24th, 2007 at Xichang Satellite Launch Center, and guided to crash on the Moon on March 1st, 2009, at 52.36°E, 1.50°S, in the north of Mare Fecunditatis, is the first step towards the "orbiting around" stage. The Chang’E-1 mission lasted 495 days, exceeding the expected life-span by about four months. A total of 1.37 TB raw data was received from Chang’E-1. It was then processed into 4 TB scientific data products at various levels. Many scientific results have been obtained by analyzing these data, including especially the "global lunar image from the first Chinese lunar explora- tion mission". All scientific goals of Chang’E-1 have been achieved. It provides much useful materials for further advances of lunar sciences and planetary chemistry. Meanwhile, these results will serve as a firm basis for future Chinese lunar missions.

  5. Evaluating a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Whitton, Mary C.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.

    2003-01-01

    process of scientific work completed by 20 pairs of participants (upper level undergraduate science students) working face-to-face and remotely. We collected scientific outcomes (graded lab reports) to investigate the quality of scientific work, post-questionnaire data to measure the adoptability of the......The evaluation of scientific collaboratories has lagged behind their development. Do the capabilities afforded by collaboratories outweigh their disadvantages? To evaluate a scientific collaboratory system, we conducted a repeated-measures controlled experiment that compared the outcomes and...... of collaborating remotely. While the data analysis produced null results, considered as a whole, the analysis leads us to conclude there is positive potential for the development and adoption of scientific collaboratory systems....

  6. Scientific Journalism in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, the problems of scientific journalism and activities of Armenian science journalists are presented. Scientific journalism in the world, forms of its activities, Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) press-releases and their subjects, ArAS website "Mass Media News" section, annual and monthly calendars of astronomical events, and "Astghagitak" online journal are described. Most interesting astronomical subjects involved in scientific journalism, reasons for non-satisfactory science outreach and possible solutions are discussed.

  7. Rational Thoughts on the Development of Chinese Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Qihui

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to keep the steady, fast and sustainable development of auto industry, we should have an overall knowledge of the history and current situation of the world auto industry, and have a correct strategic planning and scientific measures towards the Chinese auto industry.

  8. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  9. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  10. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  11. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  12. On Developing Business Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  13. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  14. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket, and the play...

  15. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  16. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  17. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  18. Chinese/American Physicists: A Transnational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2011-03-01

    As part of a broader project on ``Chinese/American Scientists: Transnational Science during the Cold War and Beyond,'' this paper examines the movements of American-trained Chinese physicists following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. While a majority of these physicists chose to stay in the US (the ``stayees''), a number went back to China in the 1950s (the ``returnees'') against many obstacles during the McCarthy era. After the reopening of US-China relations in the 1970s, the two groups joined hands in promoting China-US scientific and educational exchanges, leading eventually to the coming to the US of a new generation of Chinese physics students and the return to China of some of the original ``stayees.'' This transnational history of Chinese/American physicists aims to illustrate the nature and extent of the Americanization of international science and the internationalization of American science in the post-World War II era. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SES-1026879.

  19. 78 FR 25100 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... Orleans Convention Center. DATES: Tuesday, May 14, 2013, Plenary Session from 9:00 a.m. to noon and.... ADDRESSES: 859 Convention Center Boulevard, New Orleans, Louisiana 70130, telephone (504) 613-2888....

  20. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  1. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  2. Competitiveness of the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report relates to an initiative from the Ministry of Industry and Energy in Norway to establish a development and operation forum in the petroleum sector. The aim of the forum's work is to identify and to be a contribution to realize measures for the further development of improving the competitiveness on the Norwegian continental shelf. In this connection, the importance is to focus on increased efficiency (included timing), and measures to reduce the level of exploration, development, and operation costs, and to make the Norwegian suppliers more cost efficient. The Ministry emphasizes the fundamental advantage of cooperating the work between the oil companies, suppliers, research centres, and authorities. 4 figs

  3. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  4. Finite-element models of continental extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, H. David; Morgan, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Numerical models of the initial deformation of extending continental lithosphere, computed to investigate the control of preexisting thermal and mechanical heterogeneities on the style of deformation, are presented. The finite element method is used to calculate deformation with a viscoelastic-plastic model for the lithosphere. Comparisons of the results of analytic models and finite-element models using this method show that good results may be obtained by the numerical technique, even with elements containing both brittle and viscoelastic sampling points. It is shown that the gross style of initial extensional deformation is controlled by the depth and width of the initial heterogeneity which localizes deformation.

  5. Dynamics of the Precambrian Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchuk, L. L.; Gerya, T. V.; van Reenen, D. D.; Smit, C. A.

    2003-04-01

    The Precambrian continental crust is mainly composed of (1) granite greenstone belts (GGB) and (2) granulite facies complexes (GFC). The GFC are often separated from GGB by inward dipping crustal scale shear zones with characteristic sense of movements reflecting thrusting of GFC onto cratonic rocks. The isotope age of the shear zones is identical to GFC, while the latter are always younger than the granite greenstone belts. The dynamics relationships between these two geological units strongly determine tectonic evolution of the Precambrian continental crust. Numerous thermobarometric studies of magmatic and metamorphic rocks show that the Archaean to Early Protorozoic crust as well as the Mantle were hot and therefore relatively soft. Such geothermal regimes may limit separation and movement of micro continents, limiting collisional mechanisms in evolution of the Precambrian crust. The goal of this paper is to show evidence for an alterative model that is based on the mechanism of gravitational redistribution of rocks within the Precambrian continental crust, which might be initiated by a fluid/heat flow related to mantle plumes. The model is tested on the basis of geological, geochemical, geophysical and petrologic data for many paired GFT GGB complexes around the word. Studied granulite complexes are located in between Archaean GGB from which they are separated by inward dipping crustal scale shear zones with reverse sense of movements. The most important evidence for this mechanism is: (i) the near isobaric cooling (IC) and (ii) decompression cooling (DC) shapes of the retrograde P T paths recorded in GFC, while rocks from the juxtaposed GGB in footwalls of the bounding shear zones record P T loops. The Pmax of the loops corresponds to the Pmin, recorded in GFC. Thus the GGB P T loop reflects the burial and ascending of the juxtaposed GGB while the GFC P T path records the exhumation only. The identical isotopic age of GFC and contacting rocks from the shear

  6. Biodiversidad del margen continental del Caribe colombiano.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Incluye valiosa información producto de varios años de investigación marina de las aguas profundas, la plataforma continental y el talud superior del Caribe colombiano, llevada a cabo por un grupo multidisciplinario de investigadores en áreas de taxonomía, geología, ecología, cartografía y conservación del Invemar. Dentro de los resultados más destacados se encuentra el haber colectado e identificado más de 1600 especies, de las cuales alrededor del 35% se constituyeron en primeros registr...

  7. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. PMID:25300714

  8. Mobile Scientific Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrahim Hamdi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mobile and wireless industry is entering an exciting time. Demand for mobile technology is growing at a tremendous rate. Corporations are deploying mobile applications that provide substantial business benefits, and consumers are readily adopting mobile data applications. We present scientific application for mobile phone in steps of software engineering project starting from data gathering, data analysis, designing, coding, packaging, testing and deploying, Mobile Scientific Calculator (MSC enable user to compute any mathematical operation by using this application in mobile phone without needing to use the calculator. Scientific calculator offers three keys the four mathematic operations, the four systems of digits and offering many of functions such as angles functions, power, factorial and other functions. Scientific calculator is suitable for many mobile phones which don t have scientific calculator in its applications, it provide simple design for dealing with its functions for all users. It operated on more than one mobile phone model.

  9. GIS and RS soil-vegetation correlations for continental salt-lands habitats in NE Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Laurenţiu Stoica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continental saltlands have a high degree of peculiarity amongst European primary habitats and a prominent insular character. The present scientific approach establishes the degree of soil-vegetation correlation in continental slatlands patches as a measure of habitat continuity/fragmentation and soil conservation/degradation. The use of hyperspectral imagery, soil types’ distribution and vegetal associations’ conservation status reveal disturbances in relation with human induced modifications in comparison with normal plant-soil interdependence. Supervised classifications of LANDSAT satellite imagery along with detailed soil maps, ground truth data provided by accurate GPS positioning and field based plants evaluation are used to perform landscape metrics analyses. The landscape metrics approach is meant to find the balance between extent and grain in the case of saltlands habitats analyses and the degree of patches and classes inhomogeneity. These also give an insight of habitats connectivity and/or isolation in relation with land use topology and soil multiplexing. The resulting training sets developed for a representative, protected area in the county of Iaşi enhance the creation of a comprehensive mask to be used for the evaluation of larger areas in the silvan-steppes of North-Eastern Romania. The model is statistically tested to depict the degree of correlation and confidence. The final goal resides in more proper measures elaboration for the mitigation of continental saltland preservation and natural resources exploitation via agricultural and the associated activities.

  10. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  11. Norwegian Continental Shelf Petroleum Pipe-It Integrator & Production Forecaster

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    This thesis summarizes and concludes my master thesis research work. The main objective of this research was to develop a rigorous and generic forecast model for all the fields on the Norwegian Continental Shelf based on publically available data and free software. Pipe-It Norwegian Continental Shelf Integrator and Forecaster solution provides the opportunity to forecast oil and gas production rate and economics for all assets on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The solution is automatically ...

  12. Geological features and geophysical signatures of continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    margins of India, with which some of the main geological features of continental margins have been modified. This article provides a brief review on theory of plate tectonics for understanding the process of intra- continental breakup..., thereby the results are discussed for classification of the margins. The Theory of Plate Tectonics The theory of continental drift, which paves the way for discovery of plate tectonics, was put forward by Alfred Lother Wegener as early as in 1912...

  13. Numerical simulation of the collision between Indian and Eurasian Plates and the deformations of the present Chinese continent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the continental lithosphere of the East Asia is regarded as a continuum in a power law rheology. It lays on a relative soft upper mantle and limited in a trapezoid geological frame. The movement of the Indian Plate at the rate of 5 cm/a is assumed to be the main driving force for the Tibet Plateau(s uplift and the lithosphere deformation of the Chinese continent. The numerical simulation shows that the predicted horizontal deformation model of the Chinese continent is comparable with the results of the GPS observation. It implicates that the collision and compression between India and Eurasia Plates is the main driving force of the horizontal deformations of the Chinese continent. It is also shows that the patterns of the continental deformation are controlled by many factors such as the dynamical parameters of the lithosphere and the boundary conditions as well.

  14. Scientific Utopia: I. Opening scientific communication

    CERN Document Server

    Nosek, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Existing norms for scientific communication are rooted in anachronistic practices of bygone eras, making them needlessly inefficient. We outline a path that moves away from the existing model of scientific communication to improve the efficiency in meeting the purpose of public science - knowledge accumulation. We call for six changes: (1) full embrace of digital communication, (2) open access to all published research, (3) disentangling publication from evaluation, (4) breaking the "one article, one journal" model with a grading system for evaluation and diversified dissemination outlets, (5) publishing peer review, and, (6) allowing open, continuous peer review. We address conceptual and practical barriers to change, and provide examples showing how the suggested practices are being used already. The critical barriers to change are not technical or financial; they are social. While scientists guard the status quo, they also have the power to change it.

  15. Aeromagnetic data and geological structure of continental China: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Sheng-Qing; Tong, Jing; Ding, Yan-Yun; Li, Zhan-Kui

    2016-06-01

    We review the latest aeromagnetic geological data of continental China. We discuss the latest achievements in geological mapping and the newly detected features based on aeromagnetic data. Using aeromagnetic data collected for more than 50 years, a series of 1:5000000 and 1:1000000 aeromagnetic maps of continental China were compiled using state-of-the-art digital technology, and data processing and transformation. Guided by plate tectonics and continental dynamics, rock physical properties, and magnetic anomalies, we compiled maps of the depth of the magnetic basement of continental China and the major geotectonic units, and presented newly detected geological structures based on the aeromagnetic data.

  16. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  17. A vision for a continental energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented a vision with respect to a continental energy strategy and the principles and goals that must underlie such a strategy. These principles include relying on signals emanating from energy markets to guide investment; limiting the role of government to that of ensuring that the policy and institutional framework is conducive to the development and operation of competitive and innovative energy markets; and ensuring free and open energy trade in energy commodities, both within the continent and with the rest of the world. The paper also identified a number of important factors that, would shape and condition continental energy development and trade. The paper provided an overview of the North American energy use and supply situation for the following resources: oil; natural gas; electricity; coal; nuclear power; hydroelectricity; geothermal energy; wind power; solar power; and ethanol. It also discussed the contribution of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) through increased natural gas exports. It was concluded that given the petroleum resources of the three countries and their increased value because of higher oil and gas prices, there was considerable incentive for Canada, the United States, and Mexico to streamline regulations in order to facilitate the efficient development, transportation, and use of the continent's energy resources in accordance with market conditions. 38 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  18. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Goessling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events. We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last advected across the ocean-land boundary. In case (B recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last evaporated from the ocean. For case B we show by means of a simple scale analysis that, given the conditions on Earth, realistic frequency distributions may be regarded as a mixture of a Poisson distribution and a geometric distribution. By contrast, in case A the Poisson distribution generally appears as a reasonable approximation. This conclusion is consistent with the simulation results of an earlier study where an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water vapor tracers was used. Our results demonstrate that continental moisture recycling can be interpreted as a Poisson process.

  19. Collision zone magmatism aids continental crustal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savov, Ivan; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Ralf, Halama; Gevorg, Navasardian; Chuck, Connor; Massimo, D'Antonio; Samuele, Agostini; Osamu, Ishizuka; Sergei, Karapetian; Arkadi, Karakhanian

    2014-05-01

    The continental crust has a broadly andesitic bulk composition and is predominantly generated at convergent margins. However, estimates of the bulk composition of oceanic arcs indicate a bulk composition closer to basalt than to andesite. Hence, reworking processes that transform basaltic island arc crust into andesitic continental crust are essential[1] and explaining growth of andesitic continental crust via accretion of arc crustal fragments remains problematic. Recent studies of magmatism in the Great Tibetan Plateau[2], as site of multiple and still active continent-continent collisions, have proposed that andesitic CC is generated via amalgamation of large volumes of collision-related felsic magmas generated by melting of hydrated oceanic crust with mantle geochemical signatures. We aim to test this hypothesis by evaluating geochemical data from the volcanically and tectonically active Lesser Caucasus region (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and E. Turkey), as the only other region where active continent-continent collision takes place. We will benefit from the newly compiled volcano-tectonic database of collision-related volcanic and plutonic rocks of Armenia that is comparable in quality and detail to the one available on Tibet. Our dataset combines several detailed studies from the large Aragats shield volcano[3] and associated monogenetic volcanic fields (near the capital city of Yerevan), as well as > 500 Quaternary to Holocene volcanoes from Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik volcanic highlands (toward Armenia-Nagorno-Karabakh-Azerbaijan-Iran border). The Armenian collision-related magmatism is diverse in volume, composition, eruption style and volatile contents. Interestingly, the majority of exposed volcanics are andesitic in composition. Nearly all collision-related volcanic rocks, even the highly differentiated dacite and rhyolite ignimbrites, have elevated Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios varying only little (average ~ 0.7043 and ~ 0

  20. Success factors of Chinese restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Aakala, Liwen Heli

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the thesis fall into three aspects: 1) understanding Chinese entrepreneurship through some major aspects; such as, the characteristics of Chinese entrepreneur and successful skills needed; 2) scanning the Chinese culture that is associated with their entrepreneurial success in restaurant business as well as understanding the Finnish culture that affects Chinese restaurants’ presence in Finland; 3) acquainting with the competitive strategies that those Chinese restaurants emp...

  1. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Stable Continental Region (SCR) earthquakes tend to claim more human lives and inflict heavier financial losses as they occur where not expected and the local and regional preparedness to mitigate such catastrophes is minimal. Artificial water Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS), most prominent in SCR, provides an exceptional window to comprehend genesis of such earthquakes. Since the first scientific reporting of the RTS at the Boulder Dam, USA during 1930s, over 100 cases of RTS have been reported globally. Damaging earthquakes exceeding M 6 have occurred at Hsingfengkiang (China), Kariba (Zambia -Zimbabwe border), Kremasta (Greece) and Koyna (India). It is debated that the 2008 M 7.8 Sichuan earthquake in China, which claimed over 80,000 human lives was triggered by filling of a nearby reservoir. Located close to the west coast of India, Koyna is a classical site of RTS, where triggered earthquakes have been occurring since the impoundment in 1962, including the largest RTS earthquake of M 6.3 on December 10, 1967 which claimed over 200 human lives and destroyed Koyna town. Over the past 49 years 22 earthquakes of M ≥ 5 and several thousand smaller earthquakes have occurred in a restricted area of 20 X 30 sq. km. with no other seismic activity within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. The latest M 5.1 earthquake occurred on December 12, 2009. Although several studies have clearly established the association of continued RTS at Koyna with precipitation driven loading and unloading of the Koyna and Warna reservoirs, the trigger mechanism is little understood. Our knowledge about the physical properties of rocks and fluids in the fault zones and how they affect the build-up of stress for an extended period is limited by the lack of data from the near field region. A deep bore hole of up to 7 km depth at a scientifically and logistically suitable location is under an advance stage of planning. A detailed workshop and field visits involving some 50 scientists from 10

  2. The Contrast of Chinese and English in the Translation of Chinese Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Li

    2009-01-01

    Chinese poetry is the soul of Chinese literature and Chinese culture. A good translation of a Chinese verse can promote the prevalence of Chinese culture. In the translation of Chinese poetry, translators should not only keep the characteristics of Chinese poems, but also embody the English characteristics. This article analyzed some versions of translation and proposed factors affecting the translation of Chinese poetry.

  3. Preperation of Scientific Movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Pekdağ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide information on the preparation of the scientific movies as a part of Information and Communications Technology. The preparation stages of the scientific movies and their visualizations on computer screens were described. For preparing movies, the unit on the "acid-base reactions" on 11th grade French chemistry curriculum was used, and the knowledge presented in the movies was determined by an analysis of the 11th grade chemistry curriculum and the chemistry books. Also, the information that will be beneficial for readers and researchers on the scenario preparation of scientific movies and picture selection was mentioned.

  4. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43− with very high DIN: PO43− concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and

  5. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  6. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  7. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  8. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  9. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  10. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed. PMID:19888561

  11. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals remarkable predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society,...

  12. Russia's scientific legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Many insights of Russian scientists are unknown or long-forgotten outside of Russia. Making the Russian literature accessible to the international scientific community could stimulate new lines of research.

  13. 《中华航海医学与高气压医学杂志》2009-2013年文献计量学分析%Analysis of the scientific papers published in the Chinese Journal of Nautical Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine from 2009 to 2013 through the approach of bibliometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘辉亮; 吕传禄; 王映红; 林永丽; 莫琳芳; 张阵阵

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过分析《中华航海医学与高气压医学杂志》2009-2013年的文献计量学指标,使读者更全面地了解该期刊,为本编辑部提升杂志学术水平提供借鉴与参考.方法 运用文献计量学方法,以该刊2009-2013年刊载文献为研究对象,参考2010-2014年《中国科技期刊引证报告(扩刊版)》,对杂志5年间载文量、引用频次、影响因子、基金论文比、地区分布数等指标进行统计分析.结果 (1)载文量:年期刊载文量逐年下降,2013年略有回升;(2)引用频次:总被引频次整体呈现出逐年递增的趋势,即年指标2011年大幅提升,2012-2013年趋于平稳;(3)影响因子:2010-2011年期刊影响因子相对较低,2012、2013年影响因子有较大提升;(4)基金论文比:2012年最高为0.38,2013年最低为0.128,波动较大.(5)地区分布数:近5年,期刊每年刊载来自全国约20个省、自治区、直辖市约90个机构与单位的稿件;(6)平均作者数:每年的论文平均作者数均大于4.结论 《中华航海医学与高气压医学杂志》是我国航海医学、高压氧医学、潜水医学领域唯一的核心期刊,亦是本领域的医师、学者、机构进行科研、交流的重要平台.通过近5年的文献计量学统计分析,能够客观反映期刊的发展现状与趋势,对指导期刊改进工作和促进学科发展有重要的借鉴意义.%Objective To get a more comprehensive knowledge of the Chinese Journal of Nautical Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine through analysis of the bibliometric data published in the journal from 2009 -2013,so that readers will have a profound knowledge of the journal and it will also facilitate the editorial board to improve the academic level of the journal by drawing experience from others.Methods With the scientific papers published in the journal from 2009-2013 as research subjects,in reference to " the Citation Report of the China Science and Technology Journals" between the years of

  14. Preperation of Scientific Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent Pekdağ

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to provide information on the preparation of the scientific movies as a part of Information and Communications Technology. The preparation stages of the scientific movies and their visualizations on computer screens were described. For preparing movies, the unit on the "acid-base reactions" on 11th grade French chemistry curriculum was used, and the knowledge presented in the movies was determined by an analysis of the 11th grade chemistry curriculum and the chemistry books. A...

  15. Shaping a Scientific Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    us to understand how a truth is reproduced, circulating among diverse fields of human knowledge. Also it will show why we accept and reproduce a particular discourse. Finally, we state Euclidean geometry as a truth that circulates in scientific discourse and performs a scientific self. We unfold the...... importance of having students following the path of what schools perceive a real scientist is, no to become a scientist, but to become a logical thinker, a problem solver, a productive citizen who uses reason....

  16. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    OpenAIRE

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in ...

  17. Achievements of Space Scientific Experiments Aboard SJ-8 Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jingchang; WAN Shixin; ZHANG Pu; LIN Hai; LIU Fang; HU Wenrui

    2008-01-01

    As scientific experiment payloads, microgravity experiments of fluid physics, life science,combustion science, physics and accelerator measurement were conducted on board the Chinese recoverable satellite SJ-8 during 18-day orbital flight. The experimental payloads and an experiment support system constituted the microgravity experiment system of the flight mission. This article has presented the briefs of the scientific achievements of these space experiments, the composition and performance of the Microgravity Experimental System (MES) and the general picture of the overall flight mission, respectively.

  18. Chinese Marine Materia Medica

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...

  19. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  20. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  1. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  2. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-01-01

    China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will d...

  3. Country Review: Chinese Taipei

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2008-01-01

    This report, prepared by the Secretariat of the OECD was the basis for a peer review examination of Chinese Taipei at the OECD’s Global Forum on Competition on 9 February, 2006. Competition law in Chinese Taipei has been an important element of the program of economic reforms that moved the economy from centrally directed emphasis on manufacturing and exports to a market-driven emphasis on services and high technology. The competition law follows mainstream practice about restrictive agreemen...

  4. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  5. Winners of 2008 CAS Award for international Scientific Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Ling

    2009-01-01

    @@ On 14 January, 2009, CAS honored three foreign scientists for their lasting and fruitful contributions to the collaboration between CAS and the world: Akito Arima, president of the Japan Science Foundation, Yuen-Ron Shen, professor of physics with the University of California at Berkley, and Michel Che, catalyst expert and chair professor at Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Their association with the Chinese scientific community can be dated back to some three decades ago.

  6. Discussion of current Chinese flag issure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凯文

    2014-01-01

    Flag issue refers to a question of what methodology to be adopted as a guiding ideology, and which road to take. Solving the problem correctly concerns to the prospect and fortune of our nation. In the tide of economic globalization and world multi-polarization, that means we must hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, implement the scientific approach on the development comprehensively, change all the wrong ideas, and don’t copy “western”mode blindly, to make the right direction of banner deeply into the hearts of people.

  7. Systematic mapping of the Spanish continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Juan; Muñoz, Araceli; Uchupi, Elazar

    2012-07-01

    For economic, environmental, recreational, military, and political reasons it is critical for coastal states to have up-to-date information on their marine margins. Spain began to acquire such data 17 years ago. From 1995 to the present, the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO), a research organization of the state, has carried out a systematic geological and geophysical study of the Spanish margins. Among these projects are (1) the hydrographic and oceanographic study of the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that was implemented by the Navy Hydrographic Institute (IHM); (2) the Espace Project, a study of the Spanish continental shelf; and (3) the Capesme Project, which created fisheries maps of the Mediterranean Sea. The latter two projects were carried out in collaboration with the Secretariat General of the Sea (SGM).

  8. Tropospheric arsenic over marine and continental regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate and vapor concentrations of atmospheric As have been measured over various marine and continental areas. Particulate sample were collected on double Whatman 41 filters. Particulate-vapor samples were collected using an in-line filter system with a 0.45-μm pore size Nuclepore filters as a particle prefilter in front of two Whatman 41 filters impregnated with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and glycerol for vapor As collection. Arsenic determinations were by destructive neutron activation. The data from the Nuclepore-impregnated filter samples indicates that the major fraction of As in the atmosphere is particulate but a vapor component of As is detectable, most frequently associated with high sampling temperatures and high total As concentrations. With the data presented here, estimates of representative global near-surface concentrations of atmospheric arsenic have been made

  9. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    The GABEX I experiment is designed to provide synoptic coverage of a series of Gulf Stream wave-like disturbances, the effect of these on the circulation of the entire shelf, and on biological and chemical processes. This study was initiated in February 1980 when current meter arrays were deployed. These meters will be removed in July 1980. In April three ships will simultaneously study the effects of Gulf Stream disturbances on the hydrography, chemistry, and biology of the shelf. One vessel will track a specific wave-like disturbance and provide synoptic coverage of the shelf area. The second vessel will determine the effect of shelf break processes on adjacent shelf water; and the third will study trace metal distributions in and outside of disturbances. Research progress is reported in continental shelf studies, nearshore and estuarine studies (diffusion of freshwater out of nearshore zone), tidal currents and material transport, and mixing of inlet plumes.

  10. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  11. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  12. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  13. 78 FR 6222 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... described in a notice we published on May 10, 2006, in the Federal Register (71 FR 27221-27224, Docket No... of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balaeric Islands and Canary Islands) into...

  14. Prof. CHEN Ke-ji Winning the Prize of "Ren Ji Cup" for International Contribution to Chinese Medicine by WFCMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In order to promote the exchange and cooperation of Chinese medicine among the states and regions globally and fasten the step of Chinese medicine to the world, the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies (WFCMS) has set up an award for those who have greatly contributed to medical treatment, education, scientific research of Chinese medicine, and the establishment of the statutory registration of Chinese medicine. The First International Contribution to Chinese Medicine Award Ceremony was held on April 10 at the Great Hall of the People in China. Prof. CHEN Ke-ji (China), Lin Tzi Chang (Australia) and David Molony (U.S.A) were awarded "Ren Ji Cup", the Prize for International Contribution to Chinese Medicine.

  15. Ethical Wills – a Continental Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Swennen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethical wills are testaments, or planning instruments mortis causa alike, that contain provisions regarding the deceased’s (non-economic values rather than his (economic valuables. The authors define and analyse the substance and form of ethical wills from a comparative Continental law perspective, drawing on Belgian, Dutch, French and German law. The focus primarily is on charges or conditions in restraint or constraint of (non- denominational or family choices by testamentary beneficiaries; and in this context it is contended that both the doctrine of public policy (“ordre public” and the horizontal application of the ECHR extensively restrict testamentary freedom. Nevertheless, the analogous application of estate planning techniques increasingly allows benevolent testators to plan their ethical legacy. Los testamentos éticos son testamentos, similares a instrumentos de planificación mortis causa, que contienen disposiciones relativas a los valores (no económicos del difunto, en lugar de sus objetos de valor (económico. Los autores definen y analizan el contenido y la forma de los testamentos éticos desde una perspectiva comparativa de derecho continental, basada en la legislación belga, holandesa, francesa y alemana. Se centra principalmente en los cargos o las condiciones de restricción o limitación de las opciones (aconfesionales o familiares de los herederos; y en este contexto se afirma que tanto la doctrina de política pública ("ordre public" como la aplicación horizontal del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos, restringen ampliamente la libertad testamentaria. Sin embargo, la aplicación análoga de técnicas de planificación y gestión patrimonial y sucesoria, permite cada vez más a los testadores de últimas voluntades planificar su legado ético.

  16. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry in continental tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Katharine W.; Lechler, Alex R.

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructing the thermal history of minerals and fluids in continental environments is a cornerstone of tectonics research. Paleotemperature constraints from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry have provided important tests of geodynamic, structural, topographic and basin evolution models. The thermometer is based on the 13C-18O bond ordering in carbonates (mass-47 anomaly, Δ47) and provides estimates of the carbonate formation temperature independent of the δ18O value of the water from which the carbonate grew; Δ47 is measured simultaneously with conventional measurements of carbonate δ13C and δ18O values, which together constrain the isotopic composition of the parent water. Depending on the geologic setting of carbonate growth, this information can help constrain paleoenvironmental conditions or basin temperatures and fluid sources. This review examines how clumped isotope thermometry can shed new light on problems in continental tectonics, focusing on paleoaltimetry, basin evolution and structural diagenesis applications. Paleoaltimetry is inherently difficult, and the precision in carbonate growth temperature estimates is at the limit of what is useful for quantitative paleoelevation reconstruction. Nevertheless, clumped isotope analyses have enabled workers to address previously intractable problems and in many settings offer the best chance of understanding topographic change from the geologic record. The portion of the shallow crust residing at temperatures up to ca. 200 °C is important as host to economic resources and records of tectonics and climate, and clumped isotope thermometry is one of the few proxies that can access this critical range with sensitivity to temperature alone. Only a handful of studies to date have used clumped isotopes to investigate diagenesis and other sub-surface processes using carbonate crystallization temperatures or the sensitivity of Δ47 values to a sample's thermal history. However, the thermometer is

  17. Ages and Growth of the Continental Crust from Radiogenic Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchett, P. J.; Samson, S. D.

    2003-12-01

    The development and application of radiogenic isotopes to dating of geologic events, and to questions of growth, evolution, and recycling processes in the continental crust are mature areas of scientific inquiry. By this we understand that many of the approaches used to date rocks and constrain the evolution of the continents are well established, even routine, and that the scope of data available on age and evolution of continents is very large. This is not to say that new approaches have not been developed in recent years, or that new approaches and/or insights cannot be developed in the future. However, the science of continental crustal evolution is definitely a domain where many of the problems are well defined, the power of the techniques used to solve them are well known, and the limitations of field and laboratory databases, as well as the preserved geologic record, are understood.From the very early days of crustal evolution studies, it was innovations and improvements in laboratory techniques that drove the pace of discovery (e.g., Holmes, 1911; Nier, 1939). This remained true through all the increments in capability reviewed in this chapter, up to the present day. Thus, continental crustal evolution is an area of Earth science where a species of very laboratory-oriented investigator, the "radiogenic isotope geologist" or "geochronologist," has made major advances, even breakthroughs, in understanding. This is true in spite of the fact that many of the individuals of the species may have lacked field expertise, or even more than a primitive level of geologic background. Because design and building of instruments like radiation detectors or mass spectrometers requires a knowledge of physics, many of the early practitioners of rock dating were physicists, like Alfred Nier (cited above). Since the 1970s, essentially all mass spectrometers have been constructed by specialized commercial firms, and the level of physics expertise among isotope geologists has

  18. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  19. VARIABILITY OF THE THERMAL CONTINENTALITY INDEX IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIARANEK1 DOMINIKA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the spatial and temporal variability of thermal continentality in Central Europe. Gorczyński’s and Johansson-Ringleb’s formulae were used to derive the continentality index. The study also looked at the annual patterns of air temperature amplitude (A, a component of both of these formulae, and D; the difference between the average temperatures of autumn (Sep.-Nov. and spring (Mar.-May. Records of six weather stations representing the climate of Central Europe were included in the study covering the period 1775-2012 (Potsdam, Drezden, Prague, Vienna, Krakow, Debrecen. The highest continentality index was found in Debrecen and the lowest in Potsdam. The continentality index fluctuated with time with two pronounced dips at the turn of the 19th century and in the second half of the 20th century. The highest continentality index values were recorded during the 1930s and 1940s.

  20. Future Perspectives of Chinese Medical Formulae: Chinmedomics as an Effector

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat or prevent disease. The health care paradigm has shifted from a focus on disease to TCM therapy with a holistic approach. However, the actual value of TCM has not been fully recognized worldwide due to a lack of scientific approaches to its study. Today omics has become practically available, and resembles TCM in many aspects, and can serve as a key driving force for the translation of the traditional Chinese med...

  1. Three-dimensional thermal structure of the Chinese continental crust and upper mantle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN; MeiJian; SHI; YaoLin

    2007-01-01

    We invert S-wave velocities for the 3D upper-mantle temperatures, in which the position with a temperature crossing the 1300℃ adiabat is corresponding to the top of the seismic low velocity zone. The temperatures down to the depth of 80 km are then calculated by solving steady-state thermal conduction equation with the constraints of the inverted upper-mantle temperatures and the surface temperatures, and then surface heat flows are calculated from the crustal temperatures. The misfit between the calculated and observed surface heat flow is smaller than 20% for most regions. The result shows that, at a depth of 25 km, the crustal temperature of eastern China (500―600℃) is higher than that of western China (<500℃). At a depth of 100 km, temperatures beneath eastern and southeastern China are higher than the adiabatic temperature of 1300℃, while that beneath west China is lower. The Tarim craton and the Sichuan basin show generally low temperature. At a depth of 150 km, temperatures beneath south China, eastern Yangtze craton, North China craton and around the Qiangtang terrane are higher than the adiabatic temperature of 1300℃, but is the lowest beneath the Sichuan basin and the regions near the Indian-Eurasian collision zone. At a depth of 200 km, very low temperature occurs beneath the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the south to the Tarim craton.

  2. Scientific collaboratories in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Li, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind...

  3. Urban Heat Island phenomenon in extreme continental climate (Astana, Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Pavel; Akhmetova, Alina

    2015-04-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is well known in scientific literature since first half of the 19th century [1]. By now a wide number of world capitals is described from climatological point of view, especially in mid-latitudes. In beginning of XXI century new studies focus on heat island of tropical cities. However dynamics UHI in extreme continental climates is insufficiently investigated, due to the fact that there isn't large cities in Europe and Northern America within that climate type. In this paper we investigate seasonal and diurnal dynamics UHI intensity for Astana, capital city of Kazakhstan (population larger than 835 000 within the city) including UHI intensity changes on different time scales. Now (since 1998) Astana is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia [3] For this study we use the UHI investigation technology, described in [2]. According to this paper, we selected three stations: one located into city in high and midrise buildings area (including extensive lowrise and high-energy industrial - LCZ classification) and two others located in rural site (sparsely built or open-set and lightweight lowrise according LCZ classification). Also these stations must be close by distance (less than 100 km) and altitude. Therefore, first for Astana city were obtained numerical evaluations for UHI climate dynamics, UHI dependence of synoptic situations and total UHI climatology on monthly and daily averages. References: 1.Howard, L. (1833) The Climate of London, Deduced from Meteorological Observations. Volume 2, London. 2.Kukanova E.A., Konstantinov P.I. An urban heat islands climatology in Russia and linkages to the climate change In Geophysical Research Abstracts, volume 16 of EGU General Assembly, pages EGU2014-10833-1, Germany, 2014. Germany. 3.www.pogoda.ru.net

  4. Discussions about Management of Scientific Research Projects in Agricultural Research Institutes: A Case Study of EPPI of CATAS

    OpenAIRE

    CHU, Xiaoqiang; QIN, Hanchun; SHAN, Guoyan; LIN, Peiqun; HUANG, Guixiu

    2015-01-01

    Taking Environment and Plant Protection Institute in Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences as an example, it summarized major experience and practice in management of scientific research projects from strengthening project database, enhancing project planning, reinforcing scientific research management team construction, bringing into play functions of academies and institutes, and improving management system. It analyzed existing problems and came up with recommendations from str...

  5. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.

  6. Scientific computer simulation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the results of a scientific computer simulation are used for any purpose, it should be determined if those results can be trusted. Answering that question of trust is the domain of scientific computer simulation review. There is limited literature that focuses on simulation review, and most is specific to the review of a particular type of simulation. This work is intended to provide a foundation for a common understanding of simulation review. This is accomplished through three contributions. First, scientific computer simulation review is formally defined. This definition identifies the scope of simulation review and provides the boundaries of the review process. Second, maturity assessment theory is developed. This development clarifies the concepts of maturity criteria, maturity assessment sets, and maturity assessment frameworks, which are essential for performing simulation review. Finally, simulation review is described as the application of a maturity assessment framework. This is illustrated through evaluating a simulation review performed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In making these contributions, this work provides a means for a more objective assessment of a simulation’s trustworthiness and takes the next step in establishing scientific computer simulation review as its own field. - Highlights: • We define scientific computer simulation review. • We develop maturity assessment theory. • We formally define a maturity assessment framework. • We describe simulation review as the application of a maturity framework. • We provide an example of a simulation review using a maturity framework

  7. Scientific/Techical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chris Leighton, Neutron Scattering Society of American; Mr. J. Ardie (Butch) Dillen, MRS Director of Finance and Administration

    2012-11-07

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the North American neutron user community, strengthening ties within this diverse group, and promoting neutron research in related disciplines. The conference thus serves a dual role as both a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides a forum for scientific discussion of neutron-enabled research in fields as diverse as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, elementary excitations, fundamental physics, and development of neutron instrumentation. This is achieved through a combination of invited oral presentations, contributed oral presentations, and poster sessions. Adequate opportunity for spontaneous discussion and collaboration is also built into the ACNS program in order to foster free exchange of new scientific ideas and the potential for use of powerful neutron scattering methods beyond the current realms of application. The sixth American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2012) provided essential information on the breadth and depth of current neutron-related research worldwide. A strong program of plenary, invited and contributed talks showcased recent scientific results in neutron science in a wide range of fields, including soft and hard condensed matter, biology, chemistry, energy and engineering applications, and neutron physics.

  8. Common Pb isotope mapping of UHP metamorphic zones in Dabie orogen, Central China: Implication for Pb isotopic structure of subducted continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji; Wang, Ying; Li, Shu-Guang

    2014-10-01

    north and central or south Dabie zones during retro-grade metamorphism enhanced by the extensive magmatism in the Cretaceous has also been observed in the 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagrams. A combined study of common Pb isotopic compositions of Dabie orthogneisses and Sulu UHPM rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project demonstrates that a slab marked by extremely unradiogenic Pb observed in the main hole was absent in the Dabie orogen. However, occurrence of some Mesozoic granitoids with such unradiogenic character in the Dabie orogen suggests that their source may be a buried unradiogenic unit underlying below north Dabie zone. This case study clearly shows that whether the position of the Dabie data relative to the orogen curve of the plumbotectonic model is helpful in understanding the Pb isotopic structure and evolution of subducted continental crust.

  9. A Review and Prospect for Scientific and Engineering Computing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Dehao

    2002-01-01

    The rise of scientific computing was one of the most important advances in the S&T progress during the second half of the 20th century. Parallel with theoretical exploration and scientific experiments,scientific computing has become the "third means" for scientific activities in the world today. The article gives a panoramic review of the subject during the past 50 years in China and lists the contributions made by Chinese scientists in this field. In addition, it reveals some key contents of related projects in the national research plan and looks into the development vista for the subject in China at the dawning years of the new century.

  10. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  11. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  12. Making better scientific figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  13. Scientific foundations of engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McKnight, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Providing an overview of the foundations of engineering from a fundamental scientific and physical perspective, this book reinforces the basic scientific and mathematical principles which underpin a range of engineering disciplines and applications. It covers the basics of physics, including quantum physics, as well as some key topics in chemistry, making it a valuable resource for both students and professionals looking to gain a more coherent and interdisciplinary understanding of engineering systems. Throughout, the focus is on common features of physical systems (such as mechanical and electronic resonance), showing how the same underlying principles apply to different disciplines. Problems are provided at the end of each chapter including conceptual questions and examples to demonstrate the practical application of fundamental scientific principles. These include real-world examples, which are solvable using computational packages such as MATLAB.

  14. Teaching Chinese Negotiating Style through Examination of Key Chinese Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Dan

    This study examined different shades of meaning that a single word may have in Chinese in an effort to better understand the relationship between language and culture. An understanding of the exact meaning of Chinese words and expressions can greatly assist non-Chinese in understanding both the language and the society as a whole. A total of 102…

  15. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  16. SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at scientific justification of didactics referred to the social and humanitarian field of knowledge. The author deals with the scientific character criteria (verity, inter-subjectivity, systemacity and validity taking into account different scientific rationality types (classical and nonclassical and identifying post-modernism influence on didactics. Objectives and results of research. Attempts are made to systematize the didactic knowledge and identify its components and structure. Didactic concepts are classified in accordance with its objects: teaching process by the whole, its individual components or educative process aspects that enable to form definite teaching views, studying it from the specific positions. The author singles out holistic-didactic, component and aspect concepts; and specifies the concept of didactic systems and models with its hierarchy. The author highlights the didactic knowledge increment. Apart from traditional empirical theoretical researches, the author’s attention is drawn to the academic pursuit such as a scientific project based on the didactic object specificity of the teaching process which is fully human controlled and realized and doesn’texist without human being. It is shown that basic theoretical ideas of scientific projects are itemized, concretized and enlarged during co-current educative practice, i.e. an adhesion of theory and practice occurs.It is stressed that there are two special directions of didactic development multidimensionality: 1. extension of its semantic field in the context of modern socio-cultural conditions; 2. increase of scientific status related to a conceptual framework improvement, empirically accumulated information arrangement, new hypotheses, theories and concepts’ development. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate well-reasoned statement of the didactics’ scientific status, its particular components and structure

  17. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...... integrity.This task involves not only a discussion of these norms is content, but also a discussion of the theoreticalconditions for their development. Thus, a number of normative assumptions of the modern debate onvalues in science (values in science debate) is being discussed.The thesis concludes that...

  18. Usability in Scientific Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Suduc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.

  19. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  20. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago

  1. UNIDADES GEOMORFOLÓGICAS DE PORTUGAL CONTINENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantino Insua Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available São representadas cartograficamente as unidades geomorfológicas identificadas para os 89015 km2 do território de Portugal Continental. A delimitação das unidades teve por base a análise dos padrões da textura fornecida por imagens SRTM, com revisão e adaptação posterior à altimetria e à geologia, para os quais foram usadas bases cartográficas digitais. Foram considerados três níveis taxionómicos que permitem descrever e caracterizar áreas homogéneas do ponto de vista geomorfológico. As três unidades de 1º nível baseiam-se nas unidades morfostruturais clássicas consideradas para a Península Ibérica. As dez unidades de 2º nível constituem, na sua maioria, divisões clássicas do relevo de Portugal Continental, agora agrupadas de acordo com a metodologia adoptada e designadas como unidades morfosculturais. As 56 unidades de 3º nível, ou subunidades morfosculturais, foram individualizadas com base nos padrões de relevo identificados nas imagens SRTM e na observação de campo e adquiriram uma designação baseada essencialmente nas geoformas que as individualizam e na toponímia local. As unidades geomorfológicas identificadas são descritas através de características do relevo, dissecação fluvial, estruturas, tipo de drenagem e base geológica, bem como de parâmetros numéricos gerados de forma automática, como classes de altitude e de declividade. Pretende-se que o mapa elaborado possa contribuir para a gestão territorial, em especial na tomada de decisões em conservação da natureza.

  2. Principle, traits and functions of electrochemical fingerprint of Chinese traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In regard to such challenging analysis problems as scientific identification and quality evaluation of Chinese traditional medicine, the electrochemical fingerprint technique of Chinese traditional medicine has been researched. The principle, traits, functions, etc., of the electrochemical fingerprint have detailedly been analyzed and discussed by the B-Z oscillatory system using malonic acid as main dissipation substance, characterized by the fact that different influences of different Chinese traditional medicines on the mechanism of the oscillatory reaction cause different changes of the shape of the potential-time curve of the oscillatory system under the conditions of constant temperature and pressure. An economical, simple and convenient, easy pushing and effective scientific method for distinguishing and evaluating multifarious Chinese traditional medicines has successfully been put forward.

  3. Subduction-driven recycling of continental margin lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A; Bezada, M J; Niu, F; Humphreys, E D; Palomeras, I; Thurner, S M; Masy, J; Schmitz, M; Gallart, J; Carbonell, R; Miller, M S

    2014-11-13

    Whereas subduction recycling of oceanic lithosphere is one of the central themes of plate tectonics, the recycling of continental lithosphere appears to be far more complicated and less well understood. Delamination and convective downwelling are two widely recognized processes invoked to explain the removal of lithospheric mantle under or adjacent to orogenic belts. Here we relate oceanic plate subduction to removal of adjacent continental lithosphere in certain plate tectonic settings. We have developed teleseismic body wave images from dense broadband seismic experiments that show higher than expected volumes of anomalously fast mantle associated with the subducted Atlantic slab under northeastern South America and the Alboran slab beneath the Gibraltar arc region; the anomalies are under, and are aligned with, the continental margins at depths greater than 200 kilometres. Rayleigh wave analysis finds that the lithospheric mantle under the continental margins is significantly thinner than expected, and that thin lithosphere extends from the orogens adjacent to the subduction zones inland to the edges of nearby cratonic cores. Taking these data together, here we describe a process that can lead to the loss of continental lithosphere adjacent to a subduction zone. Subducting oceanic plates can viscously entrain and remove the bottom of the continental thermal boundary layer lithosphere from adjacent continental margins. This drives surface tectonics and pre-conditions the margins for further deformation by creating topography along the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. This can lead to development of secondary downwellings under the continental interior, probably under both South America and the Gibraltar arc, and to delamination of the entire lithospheric mantle, as around the Gibraltar arc. This process reconciles numerous, sometimes mutually exclusive, geodynamic models proposed to explain the complex oceanic-continental tectonics of these subduction zones

  4. The Effect of Temperature Dependent Rheology on a Kinematic Model of Continental Breakup and Rifted Continental Margin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymms, V. J.; Kusznir, N. J.

    2004-12-01

    The effect of temperature dependent rheology has been examined for a model of continental lithosphere thinning by an upwelling divergent flow field within continental lithosphere and asthenosphere leading to continental breakup and rifted continental margin formation. The model uses a coupled FE fluid flow and thermal solution and is kinematically driven using a half divergence rate Vx and upwelling velocity Vz. Viscosity structure is modified by the evolving temperature field of the model through the temperature dependent Newtonian rheology. Continental lithosphere and asthenosphere material are advected by the fluid-flow field in order to predict crustal and mantle lithosphere thinning leading to rifted continental margin formation. The results of the temperature dependent rheology model are compared with those of a simple isoviscous model. The temperature dependent rheology model predicts continental lithosphere thinning and depth dependent stretching, similar to that predicted by the uniform viscosity model. However compared with the uniform viscosity model the temperature dependent rheology predicts greater amounts of thinning of the continental crust and lithospheric mantle than the isoviscous solutions. An important parameter within the kinematic model of continental lithosphere breakup and rifted continental margin development is the velocity ratio Vz/Vx. For non-volcanic margins, Vz/Vx is thought to be around unity. Applying a velocity ratio Vz/Vx of unity gives a diffuse ocean-continent transition and exhumation of continental lithospheric mantle. For volcanic margins, Vz/Vx is of order 10, falling to unity with a half-life of order 10 Ma, leading to a more sharply defined ocean-continent transition. While Vx during continental breakup may be estimated, Vz can only be inferred. FE fluid flow solutions, in which Vz is not imposed and without an initial buoyancy driven flow component, predict a velocity ratio Vz/Vx of around unity for both temperature

  5. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  6. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  7. 1995 Scientific Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual scientific report of SCK-CEN presents a comprehensive coverage and research activities in the filed of (a) waste and site restoration (b) reactor safety and radiation protection (c) operation of BR2 Materials Testing Reactor and (d) services provided by the center (analysis for characterization of waste packages, nuclear measurements, low-level radioactivity measurements)

  8. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  9. Report of scientific results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of R+D activities of the HMI radiation chemistry department in the fields of pulsed radiolysis, reaction kinematics, insulators and plastics are presented as well as the scientific publications and lectures of HMI staff and visitors including theoretical contributions, theses and dissertations, and conference papers. (HK)

  10. Funding scientific open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

  11. Scientific Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2003. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge, and fusion research

  12. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  13. Scientific techniques in Egyptology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.)

  14. Scientific techniques in Egyptology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.W.A.

    1987-04-01

    The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.).

  15. Scientific Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor.

  16. Assessing Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Assessing student-led, open-ended scientific inquiry holds a unique problem for classroom teachers because of the diverse skills and content that emerge from student work. This article provides tangible strategies for teachers to assess divergent student-generated inquiry in a manner that is manageable for teachers, informative for students, and…

  17. Scientific Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2004. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  18. Scientific Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor

  19. Scientific Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2006. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  20. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  1. Scientific Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2005. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  2. Scientific Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual scientific report gives an concise overview of research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2007. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  3. 2003 Scientific Technological Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2003. This report includes 54 papers divided in 9 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials science, radiochemistry, industrial applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, and management aspects

  4. Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…

  5. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  6. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  7. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  8. Understanding continental margin biodiversity: a new imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A; Sibuet, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the deep continental margins (200-4,000 m) were perceived as monotonous mud slopes of limited ecological or environmental concern. Progress in seafloor mapping and direct observation now reveals unexpected heterogeneity, with a mosaic of habitats and ecosystems linked to geomorphological, geochemical, and hydrographic features that influence biotic diversity. Interactions among water masses, terrestrial inputs, sediment diagenesis, and tectonic activity create a multitude of ecological settings supporting distinct communities that populate canyons and seamounts, high-stress oxygen minimum zones, and methane seeps, as well as vast reefs of cold corals and sponges. This high regional biodiversity is fundamental to the production of valuable fisheries, energy, and mineral resources, and performs critical ecological services (nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, nursery and habitat support). It is under significant threat from climate change and human resource extraction activities. Serious actions are required to preserve the functions and services provided by the deep-sea settings we are just now getting to know. PMID:22457970

  9. Accelerating advances in continental domain hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Clark, Martyn; Arheimer, Berit; Hay, Lauren E.; McMillan, Hilary; Kiang, Julie E.; Seibert, Jan; Hakala, Kirsti; Bock, Andrew; Wagener, Thorsten; Farmer, William H.; Andréassian, Vazken; Attinger, Sabine; Viglione, Alberto; Knight, Rodney; Markstrom, Steven; Over, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In the past, hydrologic modeling of surface water resources has mainly focused on simulating the hydrologic cycle at local to regional catchment modeling domains. There now exists a level of maturity among the catchment, global water security, and land surface modeling communities such that these communities are converging toward continental domain hydrologic models. This commentary, written from a catchment hydrology community perspective, provides a review of progress in each community toward this achievement, identifies common challenges the communities face, and details immediate and specific areas in which these communities can mutually benefit one another from the convergence of their research perspectives. Those include: (1) creating new incentives and infrastructure to report and share model inputs, outputs, and parameters in data services and open access, machine-independent formats for model replication or reanalysis; (2) ensuring that hydrologic models have: sufficient complexity to represent the dominant physical processes and adequate representation of anthropogenic impacts on the terrestrial water cycle, a process-based approach to model parameter estimation, and appropriate parameterizations to represent large-scale fluxes and scaling behavior; (3) maintaining a balance between model complexity and data availability as well as uncertainties; and (4) quantifying and communicating significant advancements toward these modeling goals.

  10. Seamounts along the Iberian continental margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamounts are first-order morphological elements on continental margins and in oceanic domains, which have been extensively researched over recent decades in all branches of oceanography. These features favour the development of several geological processes, and their study gives us a better understanding of their geological and morphological domains. The seamounts around Iberia are numerous and provide excellent examples of the geo diversity of these morphological elements. Here we present a compilation of 15 seamounts around the Iberian Peninsula. These seamounts have different origins related to the geodynamic evolution (volcanism, extensional or compressive tectonics, and diapirism) of the domains where they are located. The current configuration of their relief has been influenced by Neogene-Quaternary tectonics. Their positioning controls the current morpho-sedimentary processes in the basins and on the margins, and high- lights the fact that downslope processes on seamount flanks (mass flows, turbidite flows, and landslides) and processes parallel to seamounts (contouritic currents) correspond to the major geological features they are associated with them. Biogenic structures commonly develop on the tops of seamounts where occasionally isolated shelves form that have carbonate-dominated sedimentation. (Author)

  11. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2015-08-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood-related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data, and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is a component of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations less prepared to avoid flood effects or able to cope with them, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  12. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous continental convergence and intracontinental orogenesis in East Asia: A synthesis of the Yanshan Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Fuqin; Cui, Jianjun; Chen, Xuanhua; Zhang, Shuanhong; Miao, Laicheng; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Wei; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Shiqi; Li, Hailong

    2015-12-01

    widespread intracontinental orogeny and continental reconstruction, are commonly termed the Yanshan Revolution (Movement) in the Chinese literature.

  13. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us that......Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...

  14. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  15. Chinese Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-yue; Chen; Jun; Cheng; Fang-ling; Duan; Jian-gao; Fan; Xiao-ling; Fan; Li-min; Guo; Ming-zhou; Guo; Tao; Han; Jing-yuan; Liu; Xiong; Ma; Wei; Shen; Shi-guang; Feng; Xian-bo; Wang; Yun; Wu; Wen; Xie; Yao; Xie; Hui-chun; Xing; Ping-geYuan; Yong-ping; Yang; Fu-kui; Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy(HE)is a complex,neuropsychiatric abnormality that occurs as a consequence of metabolic disorders in patients with hepatic insufficiency.The pathogenesis is complex with a strong prognosticator of death.To standardize the clinical management of HE,relevant new data were reviewed and assessed by Chinese Committee of Experts on Hepatic Encephalopathy in China and was discussed and debated extensively.Then the consensus on the management of HE was developed.The final recommendations are based on the data available at the time of production of the document and may be updated with pertinent scientific developments at a later time.All the discussion was organized by the editorial board of Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Infectious Diseases(Electronic Edition),Chinese Journal of Liver Diseases(Electronic Edition)and Infection International(Electronic Edition).The evidence gradings in the consensus are listed in Table1.

  16. THE ACHIEVEMENT AND DILEMMA OF POLITICAL EDUCATION IN CHINESE UNIVERSITIES SINCE 1978: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper author considers political education in Chinese universities. Political education has always been a controversy as much as a top issue of social-political life in modern China. Along with the drastic changes brought by the Reform in 1978, political education in Chinese universities has gradually shifted in both contents and forms from stereotyped ideological-political work to a modernized scientific educational disciplinary with strong theoretical supports. It is shown that poli...

  17. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio; Labini, Francesco Sylos

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation$-$that is, the competitiveness of its research system$-$and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is...

  18. Checking of seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal NPP of Chinese continent after Fukushima nuclear accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Xiangdong; Zhou Bengang; Zhao Lianda

    2013-01-01

    A checking on seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal nuclear power plant (NPP) of Chinese continent has been made after Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident caused by earthquake tsunami.The results of the checking are introduced briefly in this paper,including the evaluations of seismic and tsunami hazard in NPP siting period,checking results on seismic and tsunami hazard.Because Chinese coastal area belongs to the continental shelf and far from the boundary of plate collision,the tsunami hazard is not significant for coastal area of Chinese continent.However,the effect from tsunami still can' t be excluded absolutely since calculated result of Manila trench tsunami source although the tsunami wave is lower than water level from storm surge.The research about earthquake tsunami will continue in future.The tsunami warning system and emergency program of NPP will be established based on principle of defense in depth in China.

  19. The Continental Distillery: Building Thick Continental Crust in the Central Andes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.; Tavera, H.; Minaya, E.; Biryol, C. B.; Bishop, B.; Eakin, C. M.; Franca, G.; Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Kumar, A.; Ryan, J. C.; Scire, A. C.; Ward, K. M.; Young, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of stable continental crust and the associated development and destruction of mantle lithospheric roots is central to our understanding of plate tectonics, both at its inception and as an ongoing process today. Subduction zones play an important role in the creation and refinement of continental crust, and also serve as a possible mechanism for the removal of residual mantle material. The central Andes provide an intriguing laboratory for the study of these processes. Up to 400 km wide, 1500 km long, and with an average elevation of 4 km, the Altiplano Plateau is the largest orogen on earth associated with an ocean-continent subduction zone. This is much larger than adjacent 'normal' sections of the Andes, raising the question of why this portion of South American crust became so much more substantial than surrounding areas. Over the past several years, new seismic data have made it possible for us to develop a more complete picture of the lithospheric and asthenospheric processes involved in the development of the Altiplano Plateau and the adjacent narrower orogen further to the north. The 'Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography' (CAUGHT) comprises in part a broadband deployment of 50 stations across the northern flank of the Altiplano Plateau in southern Peru and northern Bolivia. The adjacent 'PerU Lithosphere and Slab Experiment' (PULSE) includes 40 broadband stations that cover the region directly north of the CAUGHT deployment, encompassing the northern edge of the Altiplano, the transition to 'normal' width orogen, and the transition in slab geometry from normal to flat from south to north across the study area. Uplift of the Altiplano Plateau is likely due to some combination shortening, isostasy due to lithospheric destruction or changes in crustal density, magmatic addition to the crust, and/or flow within the thickened crust. Our studies indicate pervasive low velocities across the Altiplano consistent with a

  20. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate...

  1. Coordinating world scientific pulsing, escalating China's innovative waving——Contact: Nobel Prize Laureates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Top-level forum on - "Scientific Frontier and China's Opportunities in the 21st Century" was held by NSFC in Beijing to commemorate the 20th birthday of NSFC. The forum was located on the topics of the scientific frontiers in the 21st century science, science foundation to promote fundamental research, and China's opportunities. Their in-depth discussions will influence future fundamental research in China and strengthen Chinese multi-lateral research ties.

  2. International Conference on Continental Volcanism-IAVCEI 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yigang Xu; Martin A Menzies

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Conference on Continental Volcanism, sponsored by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI), was held at White Swan Hotel, Guangzhou, China, May 14th to 18th, 2006.

  3. U.S. East Coast Continental Margin (CONMAR) Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USGS/WHOI Continental Margin (CONMAR) Data set was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as a joint program of...

  4. Manganese, Iron, and sulfur cycling in Louisiana continental shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfate reduction is considered the primary pathway for organic carbon remineralization on the northern Gulf of Mexico Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) where bottom waters are seasonally hypoxic, yet limited information is available on the importance of iron and manganese cyclin...

  5. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Alaska Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Outer Continental Shelf block outlines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic...

  6. Seabottom backscatter studies in the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...

  7. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  8. Lithologic Descriptions from the Continental Margin Program (HATHLITH71 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains lithologic information on bottom sediments from the Continental Margin Program. The program was a joint collaboration between the U.S....

  9. Continental Airlines Receives J.D. Power and Associates Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On June 29, 2006, Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) was ranked the highest in Customer Satisfaction Among Traditional Network Carriers in North America in the J.D.Power and Associates 2006 Airline Satisfaction Index StudySM.

  10. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  11. University of Idaho Daily Meteorological data for continental US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily surface meteorological (METDATA) data for the Continental United States at 4-km (1/24-deg) resolution. The meteorological variables are...

  12. Sediment Data from the Continental Rise (ZIMMERMAN72 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Short cores were collected on the continental rise off Georges Bank. The character of the sediments and measured bottom currents show that the Western Boundary...

  13. Development on management and sharing of data collected in Chinese Antarctic and Arctic Research Expeditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xiaoliang; Yang Bin; Zhang Xia; Zhang Jie; Zhu Jiangang; Wang Dali

    2004-01-01

    Combined with the current status of Antarctic data management and the characteristics of polar science data resulted from Chinese Antarctic and Arctic Research Expeditions, the Chinese Polar Science Database System(CPSDS) has been designed and established in 2002. The infrastructure, technical standard, mechanism of sharing data of this system are reviewed in this article. Meanwhile, the development of Chinese polar data management is summarized. As the metadata is the powerful and useful tool for managing and disseminating scientific data, the metadata is also used as "search engine" of CPSDS. Besides, the trend of data management and sharing is also discussed.

  14. Coherent sea-level fluctuations along the global continental slope

    OpenAIRE

    Chris W. Hughes; Meredith, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Signals in sea-level or, more properly, sub-surface pressure (SSP; sea-level corrected for the inverse barometer effect) are expected to propagate rapidly along the continental slope due to the effect of sloping topography on wave modes, resulting in strongly correlated SSP over long-distances. Observations of such correlations around the Arctic and Antarctic are briefly reviewed, and then extended using satellite altimetry to the rest of the global continental slope. It is shown that such lo...

  15. Continental tectonics in the aftermath of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Peter

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the basic tenet of plate tectonics, rigid-body movements of large plates of lithosphere, fails to apply to continental interiors. There, buoyant continental crust can detach from the underlying mantle to form mountain ranges and broad zones of diffuse tectonic activity. The role of crustal blocks and of the detachment of crustal fragments in this process is discussed. Future areas of investigation are addressed.

  16. Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale

    OpenAIRE

    R. Doble; R. Crosbie; L. Peeters; K. Joehnk; C. Ticehurst

    2013-01-01

    Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river loss terms and groundwater sustainable yield calculations. However, continental and global scale models of surface water–groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flood inunda...

  17. Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale

    OpenAIRE

    R. Doble; R. Crosbie; L. Peeters; K. Joehnk; C. Ticehurst

    2014-01-01

    Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river-loss terms and groundwater sustainable-yield calculations. However, continental- and global-scale models of surface water–groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flo...

  18. Holocene subsurface temperature variability in the eastern Antarctic continental margin

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J. H.; X. Crosta; Willmott, V.; Renssen, H.; J. Bonnin; Helmke, P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    We reconstructed subsurface (similar to 45-200 m water depth) temperature variability in the eastern Antarctic continental margin during the late Holocene, using an archaeal lipid-based temperature proxy (TEX86 L). Our results reveal that subsurface temperature changes were probably positively coupled to the variability of warmer, nutrient-rich Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW, deep water of the Antarctic circumpolar current) intrusion onto the continental shelf. The TEX86 L record, in c...

  19. The Analytic/Continental Divide of Contemporary Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    A Hesamifar

    2013-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, when other philosophical tendencies were in the ascendance, two important movements emerged which rapidly came to dominate the intellectual domain: analytic philosophy and continental philosophy. The prominence of these two traditions caused the most famous classification of contemporary philosophy into analytic/continental. But this division created problems such as: Is it a comprehensive and exclusive division and could it cover all trends of conte...

  20. Evaluating the Analytic - Continental Divide: Impact on Education in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivona Novak

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary Western philosophy has been generally perceived as one that encompasses two divergent traditions of philosophical thought: analytic and continental. A number of writers have drawn attention to the difficulty of explaining the differences between them. A small number of authors have even questioned the credibility of the analytic-continental division. In this paper I argue that the gulf between traditions is real and has a negative impact on three elements of education in Croatia:...

  1. Seismic structure and tectonics of the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Rao, D.G.; Reddy, P.R.

    continental masses. In this process the oceans have been created and closed. Extensional and compressional tectonic processes were in operation in assembling, breaking and reassembling various continental and oceanic segments of the earth. These processes... of oceanic lithosphere is very efficient. Indeed, the oldest ocean floor that currently resides at the earth`s surface was created in Jurassic times, some 200 million years ago. In 2 contrast, the oldest parts of continents, the Archean shields, are almost...

  2. Chemical Research in Chinese Universities Notice to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ "Chemical Research in Chinese Universities", sponsored by Jilin University mandated by the Education Ministry of P. R. China and published by Higher Education Press in China, is a comprehensive academic journal in the field of chemistry.The journal contains original papers, research notes, letters and reviews written by faculty members, scientific researchers,postgraduates and graduate students of universities and colleges, and scientific institutes all over China and the world, and reports the latest and most creative results of important fundamental research in all aspects of chemistry and of developments with significant consequences across subdisciplines.

  3. Chemical Research in Chinese Universities Notice to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ "Chemical Research in Chinese Universities", sponsored by Jilin University mandated by the Ministry of Education of P. R. China and published by Higher Education Press in China, is a comprehensive academic journal in the field of chemistry. The journal contains original papers, research notes, letters and reviews written by faculty members, scientific researchers, postgraduates and graduate students of universities and colleges, and scientific institutes all over China and the world, and reports the latest and most creative results of important fundamental research in all aspects of chemistry and of developments with significant consequences across subdisciplines.

  4. The Dual Reality of the Chinese Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Zhang, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on stem cell research and financial derivatives as two case studies to analyse the role of scientific knowledge and technology in the development of the Chinese knowledge economy. The findings suggest that, despite China's recent commitments in acquiring international expertise......, there is a decoupling between knowledge acquisitions and applications in the institutionalisation of knowledge within these sectors. Scientific-based knowledge and professional know-how are on the one hand perceived as prime drivers of China's development, yet they on the other hand remain subordinate...

  5. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  6. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  7. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  8. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  9. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  10. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming;

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  11. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  12. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  13. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  14. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  15. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  16. Multiphase studies in continental and marine atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, K.; Wieprecht, W.; Möller, D.

    2010-07-01

    The largest uncertainty in future climate predictions is caused by aerosols and clouds and their interaction with radiation (IPCC, 2007). Aerosol particles have multiple impacts on atmospheric properties: response to climate by optical properties, providing cloud condensation nuclei, being a heterogeneous surface for multiphase chemical reactions e.g. as a source for reactive chlorine. Therefore the chlorine partitioning in marine and continental atmospheres was studied during intensive field campaigns at two European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research: Melpitz (51°32N, 12°54 E; 87 m a.s.l., near Leipzig (D), Spindler et al., 2004) and Mace Head (53°19 N, 9°54 W; ~10 m a.s.l., near Galway (IR); O`Connor et al., 2008). Hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3) and other gaseous species as well after diffusion based separation particulate matter components (e.g., Na, Cl, nitrate, sulphate and others) were determined simultaneously by a denuder-steam chamber-IC-system with a time resolution of 30 min; limit of quantification: 10 ng m-3 (air flow 10 l min-1; Acker et al., 2005). Numerous other atmospheric components (in gas and particulate phase) as well meteorological parameters were determined. Assuming Na to be only of sea-salt origin, the (mass) Na/Cl ratio found in sea water (Rsea = 0.56) is used for calculation of the degree in chlorine loss in particulate matter: Clloss=1-Rsea/Rsample. In Mace Head to a significant extent (~ 20%), sea salt already is depleted in Cl in air masses originate exclusive from the clean marine sector, mainly caused by HCl formation during heterogeneous sulphate formation. In continental influenced air masses a higher degree in Clloss (~ 46%) was found due to additional acid replacement by nitric acid. In air masses arriving Melpitz a very high loss in chlorine has been observed in the aerosol (~ 83%), not showing a significant dependency from the air mass sector and transport percentage above continent. The high

  17. Scientific report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires'', (DRN) during the year 1998. DRN is one of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in english) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department, for the year 1998, are presented giving information on the reactors technology and safety, the neutronics, the transmutation and the hybrid systems, the dismantling and the sites improvement, the nuclear accidents, the nuclear matter transport, the thermonuclear fusion safety, the fuel cladding materials and radioactive waste control. (A.L.B.)

  18. Scientific report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the 'Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires' (DRN) during the year 1999. DRN is one of the CEA Institutions. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in English) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department for the year 1999 are presented giving information on the simulation of low mach number compressible flow, experimental irradiation of multi-materials, progress in the dry route conversion process of UF6 to UO2, the neutronics, the CASCADE installation, the corium, the BWR type reactor cores technology, the reactor safety, the transmutation of americium and fuel cell flow studies, the crack propagation, the hybrid systems and the CEA sites improvement. (A.L.B.)

  19. Collaboration in scientific practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann

    2014-01-01

    , and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists within research...... scientists engage in relations of mutual epistemic dependence. To deepen philosophy’s understanding of scientific practice in its diversity, a distinction should be made between opaque and translucent epistemic dependence. While opaque epistemic dependence involves asymmetries in expertise, translucent...... epistemic dependence does not. As epistemic dependence is facilitated by trust, I investigate the dynamics of epistemic trust in group collaboration. Trust among collaborating scientists is inherently incomplete, and I show that scientists make use of diverse strategies to increase and to supplement...

  20. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it. PMID:15350761

  1. Scientific citations in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Finn Aarup

    2007-01-01

    The Internet-based encyclopaedia Wikipedia has grown to become one of the most visited web-sites on the Internet. However, critics have questioned the quality of entries, and an empirical study has shown Wikipedia to contain errors in a 2005 sample of science entries. Biased coverage and lack of sources are among the "Wikipedia risks". The present work describes a simple assessment of these aspects by examining the outbound links from Wikipedia articles to articles in scientific journals with a comparison against journal statistics from Journal Citation Reports such as impact factors. The results show an increasing use of structured citation markup and good agreement with the citation pattern seen in the scientific literature though with a slight tendency to cite articles in high-impact journals such as Nature and Science. These results increase confidence in Wikipedia as an good information organizer for science in general.

  2. 1997 Scientific Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes

  3. Scientific Auditing Firms

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal P

    2016-01-01

    The "crisis of reproducibility" has been a significant source of controversy, heated debate, and calls for reform to institutional science in recent years. As a long-term solution to address both the present crisis and future obstacles, I propose the creation of a new form of research organization whose purpose would be to conduct random audits of the scientific literature. I suggest that data analytics of a digitized scientific corpus may play a critical role in allowing broadly educated scientists to identify linchpin results to investigate in further detail across all disciplines. I argue that a simple "mock" trial run of a simplified auditing firm consisting of several researchers over a short time period would provide valuable insight into the feasibility of this proposal.

  4. Scientific Programming in Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Van Snyder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fortran programming language was designed by John Backus and his colleagues at IBM to reduce the cost of programming scientific applications. IBM delivered the first compiler for its model 704 in 1957. IBM's competitors soon offered incompatible versions. ANSI (ASA at the time developed a standard, largely based on IBM's Fortran IV in 1966. Revisions of the standard were produced in 1977, 1990, 1995 and 2003. Development of a revision, scheduled for 2008, is under way. Unlike most other programming languages, Fortran is periodically revised to keep pace with developments in language and processor design, while revisions largely preserve compatibility with previous versions. Throughout, the focus on scientific programming, and especially on efficient generated programs, has been maintained.

  5. Scientific Social Responsibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja

    for the development of competitive knowledge economies. In the present paper, these developments are all understood as moves to increase the social responsibility of science, i.e. efforts to hold science accountable to wider social, economic and ethical values. Despite the widespread political and...... theoretical plea for scientific social responsibility (SSR), however, there is a striking lack of knowledge about how it should be (or indeed is) performed in practice. This paper makes a first step in this direction by mapping different interpretations of what scientific social responsibility might entail...... formed organizations to make science responsible for its social effects. More recently, ideals of increasing the social acceptability of science through engagement, reflexivity and dialogue seems to have found their way into the heart of policy-making, not least as a way of making science a prime motor...

  6. [Present situation and development strategies of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-Yao; Lin, Fei

    2015-11-01

    As the actual clinical reflecting of transform Chinese medicine special curative effect, Chinese medicine preparation not only satisfies the need of hospital clinic, scientific research and teaching, but also plays an important role in deepening medical and health system reform, improving people's health level and contributing to the economic growth. However, some problems about administration and approval (tending to western medicine), contraction of the scale, lack of synchronization for clinic and scientific research, and the imbalance of regional development make Chinese medicine preparation move forwards slowly in contradiction. It has not only reduced the effectiveness of the Chinese medicine preparation in hospital clinic, but also brought bad effect on modernized development of Chinese medicine preparation. Research shows that main influencing factors of status quo of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institution include imperfect laws and regulations, high cost than income, and shortage of talents in preparation research. The analysis indicated that the necessary measures to break the contradiction, improve clinical effect of Chinese medicine, and promote the modernization development of Chinese drugs preparation were as follows: government and related departments should strengthen the supporting force in policy by adjusting the examination and approval policy, speeding up dispensing use, reforming pricing system, including into medicare reimbursement, integrating advantage resources and so on; medical institution should actively carry out research and development of traditional Chinese Medicine through drawing the traditional and modern essence, reserving professional talents, and developing characteristic preparation; companies cooperate with hospitals for complementary advantages, which can rapidly transform Chinese medicine preparation into clinical practice. PMID:27071242

  7. Biogeochemistry of southern Australian continental slope sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment cores from the middle to lower slope of the southern continental margin of Australia between the Great Australian Bight and western Tasmania are compared in terms of marine and terrigenous input signals during the Holocene. The mass accumulation rates of carbonate, organic carbon, biogenic Ba. and Al are corrected for lateral sediment input (focusing), using the inventory of excess 230Th in the sediment normalised to its known production rate in the water column above each site. The biogenic signal is generally higher in the eastern part of the southern margin probably due to enhanced productivity associated with seasonal upwelling off southeastern South Australia and the proximity of the Subtropical Front, which passes just south of Tasmania. The input of Al, representing the terrigenous signal, is also higher in this region reflecting the close proximity of river runoff from the mountainous catchment of southeastern Australia. The distribution pattern of Mn and authigenic U, together with pore-water profiles of Mn++, indicate diagenetic reactions driven by the oxidation of buried organic carbon in an oxic to suboxic environment. Whereas Mn is reduced at depth and diffuses upwards to become immobilised in a Mn-rich surface layer. U is derived from seawater and diffuses downward into the sediment, driven by reduction and precipitation at a depth below the reduction zone of Mn. The estimated removal rate of U from seawater by this process is within the range of U removal measured in hemipelagic sediments from other areas, and supports the proposition that hemipelagic sediments are a major sink of U in the global ocean. Unlike Mn, the depth profile of sedimentary Fe appears to be little affected by diagenesis, suggesting that little of the total Fe inventory in the sediment is remobilised and redistributed as soluble Fe. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  9. Discussion of Continental Rifts and Their Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    When continental crust rifts, two chief modifications of that crust occur: 1)stretching of older, existing crust; 2)addition of new rift mass--sediments and mantle mafic units. However, paleorifts, such as the Cambrian Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen differ from neorifts, such as the East African. Much of this difference may be reflected in the nature of the lower rift crust. Stretching of the upper crust is accomplished primarily through faulting while the lower crust flows. Concurrently addition of sediments occurs in downdropped faulted blocks in the upper crust, and of mafic magmas risen and emplaced as intrusive layered complexes through the rift and as extrusive flows. All this happens in a regime of higher temperatures and higher heat flow. Consequences of this can include either melting of the stretched existing crust, or direct fractionation of rising mafic magma or melting of already crystallized mafic complexes, forming new silicic magmas. Geochemistry of these different magmatic bodies elucidates which of these possible processes seems dominant. Most geophysical studies of rifts have two results: 1)higher gravity anomalies indicating addition of new mafic masses, usually interpreted to be concentrated in the upper rift crust; and 2)seismic characteristics indicating crustal mottling and layering of the upper rift crust. What is not clearly indicated is nature of the lower crust, and of the mantle-crust contact (M discontinuity). Comparison of paleorifts and neorifts, and later geological history of paleorifts, suggests interesting interpretations of lower rift crust,especially in paleorifts, and some of the difficulties in sorting out answers.

  10. National nuclear scientific program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National scientific program of the Vinca Institute Nuclear Reactors And Radioactive Waste comprises research and development in the following fields: application of energy of nuclear fission, application of neutron beams, analyses of nuclear safety and radiation protection. In the first phase preparatory activities, conceptual design and design of certain processes and facilities should be accomplished. In the second phase realization of the projects is expected. (author)

  11. Scientific progress report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R + D-projects in this field and the infrastructural tasks mentioned are handled in seven working- and two project groups: Computer systems, Numerical and applied mathematics, Software development, Process calculation systems- hardware, Nuclear electronics, measuring- and automatic control technique, Research of component parts and irradiation tests, Central data processing, Processing of process data in the science of medicine, Co-operation in the BERNET-project in the 'Wissenschaftliches Rechenzentrum Berlin (WRB)' (scientific computer center in Berlin). (orig./WB)

  12. Scientific citations in Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Finn Arup

    2007-01-01

    The Internet-based encyclopaedia Wikipedia has grown to become one of the most visited web-sites on the Internet. However, critics have questioned the quality of entries, and an empirical study has shown Wikipedia to contain errors in a 2005 sample of science entries. Biased coverage and lack of sources are among the "Wikipedia risks". The present work describes a simple assessment of these aspects by examining the outbound links from Wikipedia articles to articles in scientific journals with...

  13. Scientific thinking in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Chandran

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Science, medicine and ophthalmology have all evolved and progressed through varied but powerful influences over the centuries. While the tremendous technological advances in ophthalmology in the past 20 years are readily appreciated, many clinicians fail to grasp the impact of the several clinical trials that have contributed to better patient care. This article briefly traces the history of science, medicine and ophthalmology, and explains how scientific thinking could be applied to the clinical and academic aspects of ophthalmology.

  14. Scientific Technological Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2002. This report includes 58 papers divided in 10 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials, industrial applications, biological applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, nuclear safety, and management aspects

  15. Revolutions of scientific structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hales, Colin G

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses two main cultural problems behind the failure of machine consciousness and artificial general intelligence (AGI) projects over many decades. The first problem recognizes that building a conscious AGI means building an artificial scientist. The book identifies the responsible pitfalls in mainstream scientific behavior and eliminates them by proposing a new operational framework for scientists called "Dual Aspect Science". The second problem arises because scholars involved in machine consciousness and AGI essentially aim to replicate brains with computers. They are demon

  16. PROSCENIUM OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Berlingher

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, organizations developed rapidly, their managers began to realize that they had too frequent managerial problems; this awareness lead to a new phase of development of scientific management. Examining the titles published in that period, it can be concluded that management issues that pose interest related to payroll and payroll systems, problems exacerbated by the industrial revolution and related work efficiency. Noting that large or...

  17. Energy and scientific communication

    OpenAIRE

    De Sanctis E.

    2013-01-01

    Energy communication is a paradigmatic case of scientific communication. It is particularly important today, when the world is confronted with a number of immediate, urgent problems. Science communication has become a real duty and a big challenge for scientists. It serves to create and foster a climate of reciprocal knowledge and trust between science and society, and to establish a good level of interest and enthusiasm for research. For an effective communication it is important to establis...

  18. Professional scientific blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Beke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bear a resemblance to digital notice board, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be collectivization of the knowledge. In this article I am going to examine the characteristics of the scientific blog as a genre. Conventional learning counts as a rather solitary activity. If the students have access to the materials of each other and of the teacher, their sense of solitude diminishes and this model is also closer to the constructivist approach that features the way most people think and learn. Learning does not mean passively collecting tiny pieces of knowledge; it much more esembles ‘spinning a conceptual net’ which is made up by the experiences and observations of the individual. With the spreading of the Internet more universities and colleges worldwide gave a try to on-line educational methods, but the most efficient one has not been found yet. The publication of the curriculum (the material of the lectures and the handling of the electronic mails are not sufficient; much more is needed for collaborative learning. Our scholastic scientific blog can be a sufficient field for the start of a knowledge-building process based on cooperation. In the Rocard-report can be read that for the future of Europe it is crucial to develop the education of the natural sciences, and for this it isnecessary to act on local, regional, national and EU-level. To the educational processes should be involved beyond the traditional actors (child, parent, teacher also others (scientists, professionals, universities, local institutions, the actors of the economic sphere, etc.. The scholastic scientific blog answer the purposes, as a collaborative knowledge-sharing forum.

  19. Scientific Software Component Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  20. The next scientific revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tony

    2010-11-01

    For decades, computer scientists have tried to teach computers to think like human experts. Until recently, most of those efforts have failed to come close to generating the creative insights and solutions that seem to come naturally to the best researchers, doctors, and engineers. But now, Tony Hey, a VP of Microsoft Research, says we're witnessing the dawn of a new generation of powerful computer tools that can "mash up" vast quantities of data from many sources, analyze them, and help produce revolutionary scientific discoveries. Hey and his colleagues call this new method of scientific exploration "machine learning." At Microsoft, a team has already used it to innovate a method of predicting with impressive accuracy whether a patient with congestive heart failure who is released from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. It was developed by directing a computer program to pore through hundreds of thousands of data points on 300,000 patients and "learn" the profiles of patients most likely to be rehospitalized. The economic impact of this prediction tool could be huge: If a hospital understands the likelihood that a patient will "bounce back," it can design programs to keep him stable and save thousands of dollars in health care costs. Similar efforts to uncover important correlations that could lead to scientific breakthroughs are under way in oceanography, conservation, and AIDS research. And in business, deep data exploration has the potential to unearth critical insights about customers, supply chains, advertising effectiveness, and more. PMID:21049680

  1. Soviets seek scientific exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    GEOS-A, associated with the Soviet Union's Institute of Earth Physics, is seeking to promote exchange between Soviet and Western geophysicists. GEOS-A is a nonprofit, private organization formed by specialists from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists.GEOS-A aims to promote the transfer of academic research results to industry and education. It also seeks to stimulate international scientific exchange and to support independent nongovernmental programs and expertise in geophysics and ecology. The organization would like to cooperate with Western universities in exchanging students and young scientists and in building scientific relationships between the two countries. This would include inviting students and young specialists for collaborative scientific research, consultations, language practice, and graduate study in any institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Participants would live in rented private apartments in downtown Moscow for approximately one week to several months. All living expenses would be covered at a rate higher than the academy's standard one (unfortunately travel to and from the Soviet Union cannot be covered).

  2. PROSCENIUM OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Berlingher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, organizations developed rapidly, their managers began to realize that they had too frequent managerial problems; this awareness lead to a new phase of development of scientific management. Examining the titles published in that period, it can be concluded that management issues that pose interest related to payroll and payroll systems, problems exacerbated by the industrial revolution and related work efficiency. Noting that large organizations losing power, direct supervision, the managers were looking for incentives to replace this power . One of the first practitioners of this new management system was Henry R. Towne, the president of the well-known enterprise "Yale and Towne Manufacturing Company", which applied the management methods in his company workshops. Publishers of magazines "Industrial Management" and "The Engineering Magazine" stated that HR Towne is, undisputedly, the pioneer of scientific management. He initiated the systematic application of effective management methods and his famous article "The Engineer as Economist" provided to the company. "American Society of Mechanical Engineers" in 1886 was the one that probably inspired Frederick W. Taylor to devote his entire life and work in scientific management.

  3. Making continental-scale environmental programs relevant locally for educators with Project BudBurst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Henderson, S.; Wasser, L.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage non professionals in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide excellent opportunities for educators and their students to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch, this on-line program has engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent, and in contemplating the meaning of such data in their local environments. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst educational resources and share lessons learned from educators in implementing the program in formal and informal education settings. Lesson plans and tips from educators will be highlighted. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago Botanic Garden.

  4. New exploration and understanding of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xutian, Stevenson; Zhang, Jun; Louise, Wozniak

    2009-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), originating from oriental philosophy and culture, has been developing through a series of special research and experiments with meditation, accumulation of experiences, and a complete comprehension of ancient theories and methods. However, compared with Conventional Western Medicine (CWM), the theory of TCM is complicated and not easily accepted by Westerners. It is important to explore TCM by using modern scientific techniques and theories. Utilizing his frontier experience and up-to-date scientific knowledge, Dr. Qian Xuesen has been trying to incorporate some key principles with the comprehensive understanding of TCM and clarify difficult but important concepts and principles. Some examples are the existence of invisible matter; 'Qi' and 'Qi monism'; the Heart representing the 'whole will' of human beings; the water environment functioning as a fundamental condition of life; the human body being united with nature and universe as one; the spirit and physical body always being considered unified and connected with the five viscera, especially with the Heart; and the Chinese herbal formula working with different principles than CWM drugs. These works are important for understanding the essence of TCM, the promoting of the modernization of TCM theories by means of the latest of achievements in scientific developments, establishing the direction for future medicines with TCM characteristics, uniting Chinese and Western medicines, and exploiting a bright future for the health of mankind. PMID:19606504

  5. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  6. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jingxiang; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yanli; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; Yang, Meina; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Nie, Xiaoyan; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL). A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views. PMID:27478482

  7. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  8. Management of Official Overseas Trips of Staff in Agri-scientific Research Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG; Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute( TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences( CATAS) as an example,this paper discussed current situation of management of official overseas trips of staff in agric-scientific research institutions,analyzed existing problems,and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  9. Exploring Student Identity in an Intercultural Web-Assisted Scientific Inquiry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjie; Hannafin, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study based on Gee's (2001) identity theory examined and compared how American and Chinese middle school students develop identities towards science, culture and technology in an intercultural web-assisted scientific inquiry project. Through analysis of online discussions, videoconferences, interviews, surveys and fieldnotes, we…

  10. Quantifying human impacts on catchment sediment yield: A continental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Govers, Gerard; Verstraeten, Gert

    2015-07-01

    Both from a scientific and environmental management perspective, there is a large need to assess the magnitude and controlling factors of human impacts on catchment sediment yield. Quantifying this impact is difficult, since it requires knowing both the actual sediment yield (SYa, [t km- 2 y- 1]) as well as the corresponding "pristine" value of a catchment (SYp, [t km- 2 y- 1]; i.e. the sediment yield that can be expected if the catchment was not affected by humans). Here we address this problem by comparing measured SYa values for 165 European catchments that were unaffected by dams or reservoirs with their corresponding SYp, which were predicted using a recently developed regression model. The ratio between these two values is expected to reflect the degree of human impact on catchment sediment yield (HIF). Correlation and partial correlation analyses showed that spatial variability in HIF is mainly explained by differences in land use (i.e. the fraction of arable land) and catchment area. The effect of these two factors was clearly linked in western and central Europe: whereas SYa can be easily 40 times higher than SYp in intensively cultivated small (≤ 1 km2) catchments, the difference is negligible for large (> 1000 km2) catchments with the same land use. While, this concurs with our knowledge that the effects of land use (change) on erosion rates can be buffered at the catchment scale, this study provides a first robust quantification of this effect. Apart from a potential climatic effect (i.e. a correlation between HIF and the average annual air temperature) no other factors could be identified that are significant in explaining observed differences in HIF. This indicates that HIF is mainly controlled by catchment scale and land use, while other factors may be only of secondary importance at an intra-continental scale. Nonetheless, more accurate quantifications of these HIF values and more refined characterizations of the catchments in terms of (historical

  11. Bottom current processes along the Iberian continental margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The products of bottom current circulation around the Iberian continental margin are characterised by large erosional and depositional features formed under a variety of geological and oceanographic contexts. The Iberian margins are influenced by several water masses that mainly interact along the upper and middle con- tinental slopes, as well as along the lower slope with the abyssal plains being influenced to a lesser extent. The main depositional features occur along the Ceuta Contourite Depositional System (CDS) within the SW Alboran Sea, in the Gulf of Cadiz (the most studied so far), the western margins of the Portugal/Galician mar- gin, the Ortegal Spur and the Le Danois Bank or Cachucho. Moreover, erosional contourite features have also been recently indentified, most notably terraces, abraded surfaces, channels, furrows and moats. The majority of these features are formed under the influence of the Mediterranean water masses, especially by the interaction of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) with the seafloor. The MOW is characterized as relatively warm (13 degree centigrade) and with a high salinity (∼36.5), giving it a high density relative to the surrounding water masses, hence constituting an important contribution to the global thermohaline circulation, making it one of the most studied water masses surrounding Iberia. The development of both depositional and ero- sional contourite features does not only depend on the bottom-current velocity but also on several other important controlling factors, including: 1) local margin morphology affected by recent tectonic activity; 2) multiple sources of sediment supply; 3) water-mass interphases interacting with the seafloor; and 4) glacioeustatic changes, especially during the Quaternary, when the increasing influence of the bottom cur- rent has been observed during the cold stages. The main objective of this special volume contribution is to provide a review and description of the regional along

  12. Continental Scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-F. Graf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While Antarctica is often described as a pristine environment, the potential threats from local pollution sources including tourist ships and emissions associated with scientific activities have recently been raised. However, to date there has been no systematic attempt to model the impacts of such pollutants at the continental scale. Indeed, until very recently there was not even a sulphur emission budget available for Antarctica. Here we present the first comprehensive study of atmospheric pollution in Antarctica using a limited area chemistry climate model, and a monthly emissions inventory for sulphur from maintenance of research stations, ground and air traffic, shipping and the active volcano Mt. Erebus. We find that ship emissions, both sulphurous and black carbon, dominate anthropogenic pollution near the ground. These are likely to rise considerably if recent trends in tourism continue.

  13. Analisis Homograf Aksara Cina pada Kamus Oxford Concise English- Chinese,Chinese-English

    OpenAIRE

    Nathania, Lenny

    2011-01-01

    Homograph characters exist in every language as well as in Chinese. The Chinese homograph characters are phenomena that often make misunderstood by learners in pronunciation and meaning interpretation. In this thesis with a title “Analisis Homograf Aksara Cina pada Kamus Oxford Concise English – Chinese, Chinese – English” (“Analysis Chinese Homophones characters in Oxford Concise English - Chinese, Chinese - English Dictionary”), focus on Chinese homograph characters from i...

  14. Constraints on continental crustal mass loss via chemical weathering using lithium and its isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao-ming; Rudnick, Roberta L.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical weathering, as well as physical erosion, changes the composition and shapes the surface of the continental crust. However, the amount of continental material that has been lost over Earth’s history due to chemical weathering is poorly constrained. Using a mass balance model for lithium inputs and outputs from the continental crust, we find that the mass of continental crust that has been lost due to chemical weathering is at least 15% of the original mass of the juvenile continental ...

  15. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Society of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology, Immunological Journal, Current Immunology, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; Chinese Journal of

  16. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Socicty of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology,Immunological Journal,Current Immunology,Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology,Chinese Journal of

  17. Understanding Monthly Land Surface Relationships at the Continental Scale Using Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, R. D.; Mehra, V.; Kumar, P.; Bajcsy, P.; Tcheng, D.

    2006-12-01

    In the past few decades, remotely sensed Earth observation data has been gathered at rates now on the order of tens of terabytes per day. These collections of data are valuable reserves of "scientific ore." However, mining the ore for useful science has been challenging due to the sheer volume of data, esoteric formats, varying temporal scales, and varying spatial scales. Regardless, the wide geographic and temporal ranges allow investigations at scales inaccessible by other presently existing methods. We developed a technology called GeoLearn to facilitate data preparation and basic exploration so this data can be more readily available for scientific purposes. GeoLearn is used to prepare the data which we examine for relationships between several land surface variables across the entire continental USA during each month in the summer of 2004. We employ two approaches: k-means style clustering and regression tree approaches. Using k-means, we try to identify geographic regions of similarity using only remotely sensed characteristics. The resulting geographic regions often, but not always, correspond to EPA ecoregion boundaries. Using regressions trees, we try to predict a greenness index (EVI) based on other characteristics. In this case, the differing resolutions of the datasets became important. EVI is the most detailed variable we use. Since regression trees are capable of quite detailed approximations, the best naive model turns out to be based on the one or two most detailed explanatory variables. This results in a model which merely uses the explanatory variables as ID numbers rather than identifying any general relationships. We are able to develop alternative models which maintain flexibility without succumbing to the "ID number" problem as easily. These models allow us to identify what variables are most important for determining vegetation greenness at continental scales as well as how those relationships changed throughout the summer of 2004.

  18. Right away and all at once: how we saved Continental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, G

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, when Greg Brenneman started working at Continental Airlines, it was the most dysfunctional company he had ever seen. It had been through two bankruptcies and ten presidents in ten years. There was next to no strategy. The company was burning through money. And employee morale couldn't get any worse. Today Continental is flying high. It posted revenues of $7.2 billion and a net income of $385 million in 1997. It regularly ranks as one of the top five U.S. airlines for key performance measures such as dispatch reliability. And employee turnover has been drastically reduced. What happened? In this first-person account, Brenneman, now Continental's president and COO, describes how he and the new team at Continental's helm transformed the company "right away and all at once." More specifically, he describes the five lessons he learned during this dramatic turnaround. At the beginning, there was so much wrong with Continental that he felt as if any one misstep could bring the whole effort down. But in a time of crisis, when time is tight and money is tighter, you can't afford to mull over complex strategy. With Gordon Bethune, Continental's chairman and CEO, Brenneman devised the Go Forward Plan, a straightforward strategy focused on four key elements: understanding the market, increasing revenues, improving the product, and transforming the corporate culture. He admits that the plan wasn't complicated--it was pure common sense. The tough part was getting it done. "Do it now!" became the rallying cry of the movement, and the power of momentum has carried Continental to success. PMID:10185430

  19. Marie Curie: scientific entrepreneur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie Curie is best known for her discovery of radium one hundred years ago this month, but she also worked closely with industry in developing methods to make and monitor radioactive material, as Soraya Boudia explains. One hundred years ago this month, on 28 December 1898, Pierre Curie, Marie Sklodowska-Curie and Gustave Bemont published a paper in Comptes-rendus - the journal of the French Academy of Sciences. In the paper they announced that they had discovered a new element with astonishing properties: radium. But for one of the authors, Marie Curie, the paper was more than just the result of outstanding work: it showed that a woman could succeed in what was then very much a male-dominated scientific world. Having arrived in Paris from Poland in 1891, Marie Curie became the first woman in France to obtain a PhD in physics, the first woman to win a Nobel prize and the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne. She also helped to found a new scientific discipline: the study of radioactivity. She became an icon and a role-model for other women to follow, someone who succeeded - despite many difficulties - in imposing herself on the world of science. Although Curie's life story is a familiar and well documented one, there is one side to her that is less well known: her interaction with industry. As well as training many nuclear physicists and radiochemists in her laboratory, she also became a scientific pioneer in industrial collaboration. In this article the author describes this side of Marie Curie. (UK)

  20. The Scientific Case against Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ivan

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  1. Practical scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, A

    2011-01-01

    Scientific computing is about developing mathematical models, numerical methods and computer implementations to study and solve real problems in science, engineering, business and even social sciences. Mathematical modelling requires deep understanding of classical numerical methods. This essential guide provides the reader with sufficient foundations in these areas to venture into more advanced texts. The first section of the book presents numEclipse, an open source tool for numerical computing based on the notion of MATLAB®. numEclipse is implemented as a plug-in for Eclipse, a leading integ

  2. Scientific visualization and radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific visualization is the visual presentation of numerical data. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) has developed methods for visualizing computerbased simulations of digital imaging data. The applicability of these various tools for unique and potentially medical beneficial display of MR images is investigated. Raw data are obtained from MR images of the brain, neck, spine, and brachial plexus obtained on a 1.5-T imager with multiple pulse sequences. A supercomputer and other mainframe resources run a variety of graphic and imaging programs using this data. An interdisciplinary team of imaging scientists, computer graphic programmers, an physicians works together to achieve useful information

  3. Scientific report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This scientific report of the Fuel Cycle Direction of the Cea, presents the Direction activities and research programs in the fuel cycle domain during the year 1999. The first chapter is devoted to the front end of the fuel cycle with the SILVA process as main topic. The second chapter is largely based on the separation chemistry of the back end cycle. The third and fourth chapters present studies of more applied and sometimes more technical developments in the nuclear industry or not. (A.L.B.)

  4. Scientific activities 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  5. Scientific report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book are found technical and scientific papers on the main works of the Direction of the Fuel Cycle (DCC) in France. The study fields are: the up-side of the nuclear fuel cycle with theoretical studies (plasma simulation) and technological developments and instrumentation (lasers diodes, carbides plasma projection, carbon 13 enrichment); the down-side nuclear fuel cycle with theoretical studies (ion Eu3+ complexation simulation, decay simulation, uranium and plutonium diffusion study, electrolyser operating simulation), scenario studies ( recycling, wastes management), experimental studies; dismantling and cleaning (soils cleaning, surface-active agent for decontamination, fault tree analysis); analysis with expert systems and mass spectrometry. (A.L.B.)

  6. Combinatorial scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Naumann, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Combinatorial Scientific Computing explores the latest research on creating algorithms and software tools to solve key combinatorial problems on large-scale high-performance computing architectures. It includes contributions from international researchers who are pioneers in designing software and applications for high-performance computing systems. The book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the latest research, tool development, and applications. It focuses on load balancing and parallelization on high-performance computers, large-scale optimization, algorithmic differentiation of numeric

  7. Annual scientific report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities of SCK/CEN during 1974 are reported in individual summaries. Fields of research are the following: sodium cooled fast reactors, gas cooled reactors, light water reactors, applied nuclear research (including waste disposal, safeguards and fusion research), basic and exploratory research (including materials science, nuclear physics and radiobiology). The BR2 Materials testing reactor and associated facilities are described. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the SCK/CEN Scientific staff is given

  8. Annual scientific report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities of SCK/CEN during 1975 are reported in individual summaries. Field of research are the following: sodium cooled fast reactors, gas cooled reactors, light water reactors, applied nuclear research (including waste disposal, safeguards and fusion research), basic and exploratory research (including materials science, nuclear physics and radiobiology). The BR2 Materials testing reactor and associated facilities are described. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the SCK/CEN Scientific staff is given

  9. CSP for Executable Scientific Workflows

    OpenAIRE

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents CSP as a means of orchestrating the execution of tasks in a scientific workflow. Scientific workflow systems are popular in a wide range of scientific areas, where tasks are organised in directed graphs. Execution of such graphs is handled by the scientific workflow systems and can usually benefit performance-wise from both multiprocessing, cluster and grid environments.PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) for the Python programming langu...

  10. Chinese Medicines Induce Cell Death: The Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanbin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese medicines have long history in treating cancer. With the growing scientific evidence of biomedical researches and clinical trials in cancer therapy, they are increasingly accepted as a complementary and alternative treatment. One of the mechanisms is to induce cancer cell death. Aim. To comprehensively review the publications concerning cancer cell death induced by Chinese medicines in recent years and provide insights on anticancer drug discovery from Chinese medicines. Materials and Methods. Chinese medicines (including Chinese medicinal herbs, animal parts, and minerals were used in the study. The key words including “cancer”, “cell death”, “apoptosis”, “autophagy,” “necrosis,” and “Chinese medicine” were used in retrieval of related information from PubMed and other databases. Results. The cell death induced by Chinese medicines is described as apoptotic, autophagic, or necrotic cell death and other types with an emphasis on their mechanisms of anticancer action. The relationship among different types of cell death induced by Chinese medicines is critically reviewed and discussed. Conclusions. This review summarizes that CMs treatment could induce multiple pathways leading to cancer cell death, in which apoptosis is the dominant type. To apply these preclinical researches to clinic application will be a key issue in the future.

  11. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  12. Photovoltaic for the Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China produces and exports about half of the photovoltaic cells made in the world. About 1000 Chinese enterprises work in the photovoltaic sector and the offer grows too fast to allow some enterprises to cope with lower and lower production costs. Research activities are a key element for the reduction of production costs but small companies can not usually sustain sufficient research. Economists foresee a strong reorganization of the sector: some enterprises will cease their photovoltaic activities, others will face financial difficulties, others will merge to make bigger companies. To make the demand bigger Chinese authorities are taking steps to develop the photovoltaic home market. The installed capacity of photovoltaic plants in China is expected to be somewhere between 11 GWc and 18 GWc in 2015, figures to be compared with only 0.9 GWc in 2010. (A.C.)

  13. Chinese Investment in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).

  14. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: morphology, geology and identification of the base of the slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the morphology, geology and the identification of the base of the slope in the The Uruguayan continental margin which corresponds to the the type of divergent, volcanic and segmented margins. Morphologically is constituted by a clearly defined continental shelf, as well as a continental slope that presents configuration changes from north to south and passes directly to the abyssal plain

  15. Laying the groundwork for NEON's continental-scale ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, G.; Denslow, M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designed to examine a suite of ecological issues. Field-collected data from 96 terrestrial and aquatic sites across the U.S. will be combined with remotely sensed data and existing continental-scale data sets. Field collections will include a range of physical and biological types, including soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, precipitation, plants, animals, insects, and microbes as well as biological sub-samples such as leaf material, blood and tissue samples, and DNA extracts. Initial data analyses and identifications of approximately 175,000 samples per year will occur at numerous external laboratories when all sites are fully staffed in 2017. Additionally, NEON will archive biotic and abiotic specimens at collections facilities where they will be curated and available for additional analyses by the scientific community. The number of archived specimens is currently estimated to exceed 130,000 per year by 2017. We will detail how NEON is addressing the complexities and challenges around this set of analyses and specimens and how the resulting high-quality data can impact ecological understanding. The raw data returned from external laboratories that is quality checked and served by NEON will be the foundation for many NEON data products. For example, sequence-quality nucleic acids extracted from surface waters, benthic biofilms, and soil samples will be building blocks for data products on microbial diversity. The raw sequence data will also be available for uses such as evolutionary investigations, and the extracts will be archived so others can acquire them for additional research. Currently, NEON is establishing contracts for the analysis and archiving of field-collected samples through 2017. During this period, NEON will gather information on the progress and success of this large-scale effort in order to determine the most effective course to pursue with external facilities. Two areas that NEON

  16. EFSA Scientific Committee; Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways of...... improving the expression and communication of risk and/or uncertainties in the selected opinions. The Scientific Committee concluded that risk assessment terminology is not fully harmonised within EFSA. In part this is caused by sectoral legislation defining specific terminology and international standards...... international trade, the Scientific Committee concludes that particular care must be taken that the principles of CAC, OIE or IPPC are followed strictly. EFSA Scientific Panels should identify which specific approach is most useful in dealing with their individual mandates. The Scientific Committee considered...

  17. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  18. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  19. Pollution Across Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Yap Co; Fanying Kong; Shuanglin Lin

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using 1987-1995 data for Chinese provinces. A comparison of off-sample (1996-2004) predictions to actual emissions indicates that more stringent rules are still needed to fight industrial (waste water and dust) pollution. Auxiliary regressions show that conditional on income, northern provinces have lower industrial waste water pollution; non-coastal and provinces with smaller secondary industry shares have lower industrial (waste wa...

  20. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  1. Actually existing Chinese matriarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The essays in this volume present contemporary anthropological perspectives on Chinese kinship, its historical complexity and its modern metamorphoses. The collection draws particular attention to the reverberations of larger socio-cultural and politico-economic processes in the formation of sociality, intimate relations, family histories, reproductive strategies and gender relations – and vice-versa. Drawing on a wealth of ethnographic material from the late imperial period and from cont...

  2. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  3. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  4. Verified scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this essay, the author attempts to enlighten the reader as to the meaning of the term ''verified scientific findings'' in section 13, sub-section 1, sentence 2 of the new Chemicals Control Law. The examples given here are the generally accepted regulations in regards to technology (that is sections 7a and 18b of the WHG (law on water economy), section 3, sub-section 1 of the machine- and engine protection laws) and to the status of technology (section 3, sub-section 6 of the BImSchG (Fed. law on prevention of air-borne pollution)), and to the status of science (section 5, sub-section 2 of the AMG (drug legislation). The ''status of science and technology'' as defined in sections 4 ff of the Atomic Energy Law (AtomG) and in sections 3, 4, 12, 2) of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance (1.StrlSch. VO), is also being discussed. The author defines the in his opinion ''dynamic term'' as the generally recognized result of scientific research, and the respective possibilities of practical utilization of technology. (orig.)

  5. Budapest scientific a guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, István

    2015-01-01

    This guidebook introduces the reader—the scientific tourist and others—to the visible memorabilia of science and scientists in Budapest—statues, busts, plaques, buildings, and other artefacts. According to the Hungarian–American Nobel laureate Albert Szent-Györgyi, this metropolis at the crossroads of Europe has a special atmosphere of respect for science. It has been the venue of numerous scientific achievements and the cradle, literally, of many individuals who in Hungary, and even more beyond its borders became world-renowned contributors to science and culture. Six of the eight chapters of the book cover the Hungarian Nobel laureates, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the university, the medical school, agricultural sciences, and technology and engineering. One chapter is about selected gimnáziums from which seven Nobel laureates (Szent-Györgyi, de Hevesy, Wigner, Gabor, Harsanyi, Olah, and Kertész) and the five “Martians of Science” (von Kármán, Szilard, Wigner, von Neumann, and Teller...

  6. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  7. Continental Margins and the Law of the Sea - an `Arranged Marriage' with Huge Research Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, L.

    2005-12-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) requires coastal states intending to secure sovereignty over continental shelf territory extending beyond 200 nautical miles to submit geological/geophysical data, along with their analysis and synthesis of the relevant continental margin in support of their claim. These submissions are scrutinised and assessed by a UN Commission of experts who decide if the claim is justified, and thereby ultimately allowing the exploitation of non-living resources into this extended maritime space. The amount of data required to support the case will vary from margin to margin, depending on the local geological evolution, but typically will involve the running of new, dedicated marine surveys, mostly bathymetric and seismic. Key geological/geophysical issues revolve around proof of `naturalness' of the prolongation of land mass (cue - wide-angle seismics, deep drilling and sampling programmes) and shelf and slope morphology and sediment section thickness (cue - swath bathymetry and multichannel seismics programmes). These surveys, probably primarily funded by government agencies anxious not to lose out on the `land grab', will generate datasets which will inevitably boost not only the research effort leading to increased understanding of margin evolution in academic terms, but also contribute to wider applied aspects of the work such as those leading to refinement of deepwater hydrocarbon resource potential. It is conservatively estimated that in the region of fifty coastal states world-wide have a significant potential for claiming continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles, and that the total area available as extended shelf could easily exceed 7 million square kilometres. However, while for the vast majority of these states a UNCLOS deadline of 2009 exists for submitting a claim - to date only four have done so (Russia, Brazil, Australia and Ireland). It is therefore predictable, if not inevitable, that within the

  8. Numerical models of trench migration in continental collision zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Magni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Continental collision is an intrinsic feature of plate tectonics. The closure of an oceanic basin leads to the onset of subduction of buoyant continental material, which slows down and eventually stops the subduction process. We perform a parametric study of the geometrical and rheological influence on subduction dynamics during the subduction of continental lithosphere. In 2-D numerical models of a free subduction system with temperature and stress-dependent rheology, the trench and the overriding plate move self-consistently as a function of the dynamics of the system (i.e. no external forces are imposed. This setup enables to study how continental subduction influences the trench migration. We found that in all models the trench starts to advance once the continent enters the subduction zone and continues to migrate until few million years after the ultimate slab detachment. Our results support the idea that the trench advancing is favoured and, in part provided by, the intrinsic force balance of continental collision. We suggest that the trench advance is first induced by the locking of the subduction zone and the subsequent steepening of the slab, and next by the sinking of the deepest oceanic part of the slab, during stretching and break-off of the slab. The amount of trench advancing ranges from 40 to 220 km and depends on the dip angle of the slab before the onset of collision.

  9. Sulfur and metal fertilization of the lower continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locmelis, Marek; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Rushmer, Tracy; Arevalo, Ricardo; Adam, John; Denyszyn, Steven W.

    2016-02-01

    Mantle-derived melts and metasomatic fluids are considered to be important in the transport and distribution of trace elements in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. However, the mechanisms that facilitate sulfur and metal transfer from the upper mantle into the lower continental crust are poorly constrained. This study addresses this knowledge gap by examining a series of sulfide- and hydrous mineral-rich alkaline mafic-ultramafic pipes that intruded the lower continental crust of the Ivrea-Verbano Zone in the Italian Western Alps. The pipes are relatively small (asthenospheric rise during the orogenic collapse of the Variscan belt (< 300 Ma). Unlike previous models, outcomes from this study suggest a significant temporal gap between the occurrence of mantle metasomatism, subsequent partial melting and emplacement of the pipes. We argue that this multi-stage process is a very effective mechanism to fertilize the commonly dry and refractory lower continental crust in metals and volatiles. During the four-dimensional evolution of the thermo-tectonic architecture of any given terrain, metals and volatiles stored in the lower continental crust may become available as sources for subsequent ore-forming processes, thus enhancing the prospectivity of continental block margins for a wide range of mineral systems.

  10. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2014-05-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) of the modern type are known from the middle Paleoproterozoic and have a great abundance in the Phanerozoic. The most researches considered their appearance with ascending of the mantle thermochemical superplumes which provided simultaneously eruption of the same type of lavas on the huge territories. Judging on presence among them different subprovinces, formation of concrete magmatic systems were linked with protuberances (secondary plumes) on the superplumes surfaces. We suggest that origin of such plumes was linked with local enrichment of upper part of the superplumes head beneath roofing by fluid components; it led to lowering of the plume material density and initiated ascending of the secondary plumes. As a result, their heads, where partial melting occurred, can reach the level of the upper crust as it follows from absence of lower-crustal rocks among xenoliths in basalts, although mantle xenoliths existed in them. Important feature of LIPs is presence of two major types of mafic lavas: (1) geochemical-enriched alkali Fe-Ti basalts and picrites, and (2) basalts of normal alkalinity (tholeiites) with different contents of TiO2. At that the first type of mafites are usually typical for lower parts of LIPs which initially developed as continental rifts, whereas the second type composed the upper part of the traps' cover. Magmatic systems of the LIPs are subdivided on three levels of different deep: (1) zones of magma generation, (2) areas of transitional magma chambers where large often layered intrusive bodies are formed, and (3) areas on surface where lava eruptions and subvolcanic intrusions occurred. All these levels are linked by feeder dykes. The least known element of the system is area of magma generation, and, especially, composition of melting substratum. Important information about it is contained in aforementioned mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts and basanites. They practically everywhere are represented by two

  11. Review of papers published in the Chinese Journal of Traumatology (English Edition) in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Atotal of 62 papers have been published in the Chinese Journal of Traumatology (E nglish Edition) (CJT), covering scope of both basic scientific and clin ical study of traffic, craniocerebral, thoracic, extremity, spi nal and spinal cord injuries. Most of them have revealed the latest findings of basic scientific research or clinical treatment on traumatology in China, which, at the same time, play an indispensable role in communication with the foreign researchers.

  12. Evolution of the scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper's development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965- ).

  13. Evolution of the scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper`s development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965-?).

  14. Evaluating the Analytic - Continental Divide: Impact on Education in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Novak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Western philosophy has been generally perceived as one that encompasses two divergent traditions of philosophical thought: analytic and continental. A number of writers have drawn attention to the difficulty of explaining the differences between them. A small number of authors have even questioned the credibility of the analytic-continental division. In this paper I argue that the gulf between traditions is real and has a negative impact on three elements of education in Croatia: philosophy as an academic subject, students and university professors. Before delving into the aforementioned issue, I briefly specify areas of philosophical inquiry where the gulf is the most evident. I end paper with several suppositions concerning the future path of both traditions, which are mostly based on the idea of cooperation between analytic and continental philosophers as it would profoundly contribute to the advancement of teaching philosophy.

  15. The Analytic/Continental Divide of Contemporary Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hesamifar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the twentieth century, when other philosophical tendencies were in the ascendance, two important movements emerged which rapidly came to dominate the intellectual domain: analytic philosophy and continental philosophy. The prominence of these two traditions caused the most famous classification of contemporary philosophy into analytic/continental. But this division created problems such as: Is it a comprehensive and exclusive division and could it cover all trends of contemporary philosophy? What are the features of each school which distinguish it from the other? This article tries to explain the relation between analytic philosophy and continental philosophy, and to evaluate the efforts which have been done to justify the division.

  16. Wavelets in scientific computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Møller

    1998-01-01

    Wavelet analysis is a relatively new mathematical discipline which has generated much interest in both theoretical and applied mathematics over the past decade. Crucial to wavelets are their ability to analyze different parts of a function at different scales and the fact that they can represent...... polynomials up to a certain order exactly. As a consequence, functions with fast oscillations, or even discontinuities, in localized regions may be approximated well by a linear combination of relatively few wavelets. In comparison, a Fourier expansion must use many basis functions to approximate such a...... function well. These properties of wavelets have lead to some very successful applications within the field of signal processing. This dissertation revolves around the role of wavelets in scientific computing and it falls into three parts: Part I gives an exposition of the theory of orthogonal, compactly...

  17. Annual scientific report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1978. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactor and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  18. Dishonesty in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone's daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it's adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity. PMID:26524587

  19. Annual scientific report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1976. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactors and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry

  20. Scientific journal cancellations

    CERN Multimedia

    The Library

    2001-01-01

    Earlier this year the Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) requested the Library and the Working Group for Acquisitions to revise the current printed journal collection in order to cancel those titles that are less required. Savings could then be used for the development of other collections and particularly electronic resources needed to support CERN current research activities. A list of proposed cancellations was drawn and posted on the Library web pages: http://library.cern.ch/library_general/cancel.html The SIPB invites every one to check if any of the titles are of importance to their work, in which case you are invited to inform the Library before the 25th of September by sending an e-mail to: eliane.chaney@cern.ch Titles not reconsidered by the users will be cancelled by the end of the year. Thank you, The Library

  1. Annual scientific report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1980. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactor and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics; the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors, namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basis and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  2. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  3. Ethics in Scientific Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Leslie J.

    2012-08-01

    We all learn in elementary school not turn in other people's writing as if it were our own (plagiarism), and in high school science labs not to fake our data. But there are many other practices in scientific publishing that are depressingly common and almost as unethical. At about the 20 percent level authors are deliberately hiding recent work -- by themselves as well as by others -- so as to enhance the apparent novelty of their most recent paper. Some people lie about the dates the data were obtained, to cover up conflicts of interest, or inappropriate use of privileged information. Others will publish the same conference proceeding in multiple volumes, or publish the same result in multiple journals with only trivial additions of data or analysis (self-plagiarism). These shady practices should be roundly condemned and stopped. I will discuss these and other unethical actions I have seen over the years, and steps editors are taking to stop them.

  4. Annual scientific report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1977. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactors and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploraty research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear reseach and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  5. PSI Scientific report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at work done at the institute in the year 2009. In particular, the SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility that will allow novel investigations of femtosecond molecular dynamics in chemical, biochemical and condensed-matter systems and permit coherent diffraction imaging of individual nanostructures is commented on. Potential scientific applications of the SwissFEL are noted. Further, the institute's research focus and its findings are commented on. Synchrotron light is looked at and results obtained using neutron scattering and muon spin resonance are reported on. Work done in the micro and nano-technology, biomolecular research and radiopharmacy areas is also reported on Work performed in the biology, general energy and environmental sciences area is also reported on. The institute's comprehensive research facilities are reviewed and the facilities provided for users from the national and international scientific community, in particular regarding condensed matter, materials science and biology research are noted. In addition to the user facilities at the accelerators, other PSI laboratories are also open to external users, e.g. the Hot Laboratory operated by the Nuclear Energy and Safety Department that allows experiments to be performed on highly radioactive samples. The Technology Transfer Office at PSI is also reported on. This department assists representatives from industry in their search for opportunities and sources of innovation at the PSI. Further, an overview is presented of the people who work at the PSI, how the institute is organised and how the money it receives is distributed and used. Finally, a comprehensive list of publications completes the report

  6. Research on Chinese Visible Human Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangShaoxiang

    2003-01-01

    “Visible Human Project (VHP)” was initiated by US National Library of Medicine in 1989, and in August 1991, the library signed a contract with Health Science Center of the University of Col-orado to formally carry out the project. According-ly, research team at the University of Colorado col-lected a structural data set of human body after obtaining successive sectiona/ images. A digital image data set of a complete human male cadaver was acquired and made available for public use in November 1994, which aroused worldwide enthu-siasm in this field, and remarkable social and eco-nomic benefit has been gained. Thereafter, some countries initiated their visible human project one after another. Korea started 5-year“Visible Kore-an Human (VKH)” project (Mar. 2000--Feb.2005) in 2000, and the first data set derived from apatient with cerebroma was acquired in 2001. Chi-na began its project in 1999. The first data set of Chinese visible human was obtained at The Third Military Medical University in October 2002. Before that, by utilizing data made public by US VHP, Chi-nese scientists in informatics had exerted them-selves on preliminary work to pave the way for fur-ther achievement. Now that VHP research is such a promising scientific field to meet the need of digital era and will be increasingly common in many areas related with structure and function of human body,the deployment of Chinese Visible Human Project(CVHP) is of great strategic significance with re-gard to science and technology.

  7. Scientific Collaboration and Coauthors in Life Science Journal Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-hsiu Fu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It is common to conduct collaborative research in science and technology. In particular, the development of big science, Internet, and globalization facilitated the scientific collaboration. This study used two databases, Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports as data sources. From the analysis of 320 papers in 16 journals in life sciences, the results showed that there is no significant correlation between the impact factor of journals and the number of authors. Moreover, there is no correlation of authors and the cited times, either. The number of authors and cited times in most papers are under 10 persons and 25 times, respectively.[Article content in Chinese

  8. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  9. National semantic infrastructure for traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-jun CHEN

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is "the traditional medicine that originated in China,and is characterized by holism and treatment based on pattern identification/syndrome differentiation" (WHO,2007).In China,traditional medicine accounts for around 40% of all healthcare delivered;in the West,TCM is increasingly adopted by medical practitioners as a form of complementary and altemative medicine (CAM) (WHO,2002).Both in China and in the West,scientists are attempting to bring the ancient heritage of TCM into line with modem standards,through the scientific development of TCM in the direction of evidence-based medicine (Qiu,2007).There is a pressing need for the digital preservation and global access of TCM knowledge assets.

  10. Numerical models of slab migration in continental collision zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Magni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Continental collision is an intrinsic feature of plate tectonics. The closure of an oceanic basin leads to the onset of subduction of buoyant continental material, which slows down and eventually stops the subduction process. In natural cases, evidence of advancing margins has been recognized in continental collision zones such as India-Eurasia and Arabia-Eurasia. We perform a parametric study of the geometrical and rheological influence on subduction dynamics during the subduction of continental lithosphere. In our 2-D numerical models of a free subduction system with temperature and stress-dependent rheology, the trench and the overriding plate move self-consistently as a function of the dynamics of the system (i.e. no external forces are imposed. This setup enables to study how continental subduction influences the trench migration. We found that in all models the slab starts to advance once the continent enters the subduction zone and continues to migrate until few million years after the ultimate slab detachment. Our results support the idea that the advancing mode is favoured and, in part, provided by the intrinsic force balance of continental collision. We suggest that the advance is first induced by the locking of the subduction zone and the subsequent steepening of the slab, and next by the sinking of the deepest oceanic part of the slab, during stretching and break-off of the slab. These processes are responsible for the migration of the subduction zone by triggering small-scale convection cells in the mantle that, in turn, drag the plates. The amount of advance ranges from 40 to 220 km and depends on the dip angle of the slab before the onset of collision.

  11. The Chinese Spallation Neutron Source Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal of the Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) project was granted in the beginning of 2002 after three review meetings, organized by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and other scientific organizations. Physicists from the Institute of Physics (IP) and the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), both belonging to CAS, consequently started a conceptual design and feasibility study. The CSNS plan calls for a 70-MeV H- linac and a 1.6 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron producing a proton current of 62.5 μA (100kW) at a 25 Hz repetition rate. It should be able to be upgraded to a higher beam power in its second phase. The CSNS target station design team, has initiated to conceptual design of the targetmoderator system based on the suggestions and comments from an international advisory team, in the first moderator-target planning meeting of CSNS project (21-26, April 2002 in Beijing). In consideration of the characteristics of the spallation neutron source, the budgets and possible requests for future users in China, five multi-purpose neutron scattering spectrometers were proposed as the first step

  12. Research on history of Chinese seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Wu, Yuxia

    2010-06-01

    The history of Chinese seismology can be traced back to four thousand years before and divided into four stages, i.e., primitive knowledge, worship of nature, perceptual knowledge and scientific research. The second stage ran in the whole Qin-Han dynasties, and the fourth stage began from Emperor Kangxi in Qing Dynasty and continued to the present. So far China has made four great contributions to seismological development of the world, i.e., the invention of Heng Zhang’s seismoscope, great amount of historical records of earthquakes of four thousand years, most abundant anomaly data before earthquakes, and successful practice of earthquake prediction in Haicheng. However, the seismological research in China at present is still on the junior and developing stage. Now we have been carrying on some recessively historical load in our mind such as the subconsciousness of absolute obedience, habit of phenomenological study as well as the methods of philosophical analysis without sincerity. For constructing a high-level Chinese culture in seismological research, we need to pay attention to combining the phenomenological research with experiment, observation and theory study. It is also suggested to take the appropriated measures matched with the present research level in seismology, as well as to promote coexisting and merging of multi-cultures.

  13. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Ивановна Шабалина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country.  According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means.To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan.The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men.The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-33

  14. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabalina Olga Ivanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country. According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means. To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men. The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.

  15. Discussions about Management of Scientific Research Projects in Agricultural Research Institutes: A Case Study of EPPI of CATAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqiang; CHU; Hanchun; QIN; Guoyan; SHAN; Peiqun; LIN; Guixiu; HUANG

    2015-01-01

    Taking Environment and Plant Protection Institute in Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences as an example,it summarized major experience and practice in management of scientific research projects from strengthening project database,enhancing project planning,reinforcing scientific research management team construction,bringing into play functions of academies and institutes,and improving management system. It analyzed existing problems and came up with recommendations from strengthening project process management,improving management team quality,and improving incentive mechanism,in the hope of providing reference for scientific research project management in agricultural scientific research institutes.

  16. GENERATION OF NONLINEAR INTERNAL WAVES ON CONTINENTAL SHELF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A 2-D KdV equation is derived under condition of arbitrary continuous density profiles. A non-fission version of initial internal solitary waves propagating onto the continental shelf is studied by means of the 2-D KdV equation. Under non-Bohr and Sommerfeld’s condition, numerical calculations are carried out based on the KdV equation. The results shows that the initial internal solitary waves in deep ocean break down into internal undular bores on the continental shelf. And the bores have a like-soliton leading fronts and undular trails.

  17. Deep Continental Crustal Earthquakes and Lithospheric Structure: A Global Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, S.; Isacks, B. L.

    2007-12-01

    The distribution of earthquake depths within the continental crust defines the seismogenic thickness (TS), over which at least some part of crustal deformation is accommodated by rapid release of stored elastic strains. Intraplate continental seismicity is often thought to be restricted to the upper crust where TS is within the range of 15 to 20 km. This appears consistent with a lithospheric strength profile involving a weak, ductile lower crust located beneath a stronger, brittle upper crust. With the assumption of a strong uppermost mantle lid, this is often referred to the Jelly Sandwich model of lithosphere rheology. Studies in many places, however, document lower crustal earthquakes beneath continents in apparent disagreement with the model. We explore this and related issues through a survey of where and in what tectonic settings deep intraplate earthquakes are well documented in the continental crust. TS reaches Moho depth in many intraplate regions \\--- Sierra Nevada, Colorado Plateau, East African and Baikal Rift Systems, North Island New Zealand, Tien Shan, and the Andean and Alpine forelands. A review of possible deformation mechanisms which could control continental earthquake depth and facilitate seismicity beneath the brittle-ductile transition suggests that the influence of fluids is the only mechanism capable of encouraging earthquake occurrence throughout the continental crust at any tectonic setting. Surface derived fluids can induce pore fluid pressure changes to depths of 25 km and melt-reactions can induce earthquakes at depths throughout continental crust. On a global scale, fluid-enhanced embrittlement is not limited by depth or tectonic environment. We find that deep crustal earthquakes occur where the lithosphere is in a transitional state between primarily stable (e.g., shields) and highly deformed (e.g., U.S. Basin and Range or Southern California). Observations of relative intensity of tectonic deformation and regional percent strain

  18. Engineering, Development and Philosophy American, Chinese and European Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Mitcham, Carl; Li, Bocong; An, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    This inclusive, cross-cultural study rethinks the nexus between engineering, development, and culture. It offers diverse commentary from a range of disciplinary perspectives on how the philosophies of today’s cultural triumvirate—American, European and Chinese—are shaped and given nuance by the cross-fertilization of engineering and development. Scholars from the humanities and social sciences as well as engineers themselves reflect on key questions that arise in this relational context, such as how international development work affects the professional views, identities, practice and ethics of engineers.   The first volume to offer a systematic and collaborative study that cuts across continental boundaries, the book delineates the kinds of skills and competences that tomorrow’s engineering success stories will require, and analyzes fascinating aspects of the interplay between engineering and philosophy, such as how traditionally Chinese ways of thinking can influence modern engineering practice in...

  19. Quaternary nanofossils on the Brazilian continental shelf; Nanofosseis calcarios do quaternario da margem continental brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Rogerio Loureiro [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia], E-mail: rlantunes@petrobras.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The study of calcareous nanofossils occurring in the deposits on the Brazilian continental margin began in the late 1960s, undertaken solely by PETROBRAS. Instead of presenting an academic outlook, the purpose of these investigations is first to formulate a biostratigraphic framework to apply to oil well samples. The initial result was the first zoning for the Brazilian continental margin, which considered the deposits formed between the Aptian and Miocene series. Since the 1960s to date, many papers have been written either with details of that original zoning or applying nanofossil biostratigraphy to solve stratigraphic problems. Regardless of all the papers and studies undertaken, little attention has been paid to the Quaternary, since these deposits are normally of no interest to petroleum geology stricto sensu, especially in a large part of the Brazilian margin. On the other hand, there are a few articles and some Master's dissertations and PhD theses that were written and/or are in progress in Brazilian universities. On the other hand, elsewhere in the world, Quaternary nanofossils have been thoroughly investigated in terms of biostratigraphy and paleoceanography. It is, therefore, very clear that there is a gap between what is being done elsewhere in the world and what has been done in Brazil. In fact, this gap is not larger simply because of a few researchers in Brazilian universities who are studying this topic. The intention of this paper is to contribute toward a richer study of Quaternary nanofossils. It, therefore, contains illustrations and taxonomic descriptions of many species observed in the younger strata of the Brazilian margin basins. This article not only aspires to portray and disseminate the potential of nanofossils for the marine Quaternary study but is also an invitation to students (under and post-graduates) and university researchers - an invitation to learn a little more about the subject and spend some time studying these real gems

  20. Chinese Stratgagem And Chinese Business Negotiating Behaviour: An Introduction to Ji

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper aims to arrive at an understanding of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from a Chinese stratagem perspective. The Chinese concept li (stratagem) which has its roots in ancient Chinese military thought is introduced to fill the gap in scholarship. The author has proposed a "S-B Model" which interpretes the strategic patterns of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from The Thirty-Six Stratagems, an ancient Chinese stratagem treatise. The paper argues that Chinese stratagems ha...

  1. Achievement of Chinese Dream and Chinese Spirit of the Age Going out

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Kunming YAO

    2014-01-01

    Chinese dream is a spiritual power to achieve the Great Renaissance of the Chinese nation. In the process of Great Renaissance, we create the great spirit of Chinese nation. With the development of economy prosperity, China has become the second largest economic power in the world. The Chinese nation is undergoing the course of Great Renaissance of Chinese dream. The process of the evolution of Chinese dream is the cultivating process of Chinese spirit of the age. That is the evolution of Chi...

  2. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy. PMID:25204160

  3. Modeling potential habitats for alien species Dreissena polymorpha in continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyang, Li; Yunwei, Ju; Kumar, Sunil; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The effective measure to minimize the damage of invasive species is to block the potential invasive species to enter into suitable areas. 1864 occurrence points with GPS coordinates and 34 environmental variables from Daymet datasets were gathered, and 4 modeling methods, i.e., Logistic Regression (LR), Classification and Regression Trees (CART), Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Prediction (GARP), and maximum entropy method (Maxent), were introduced to generate potential geographic distributions for invasive species Dreissena polymorpha in Continental USA. Then 3 statistical criteria of the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC), Pearson correlation (COR) and Kappa value were calculated to evaluate the performance of the models, followed by analyses on major contribution variables. Results showed that in terms of the 3 statistical criteria, the prediction results of the 4 ecological niche models were either excellent or outstanding, in which Maxent outperformed the others in 3 aspects of predicting current distribution habitats, selecting major contribution factors, and quantifying the influence of environmental variables on habitats. Distance to water, elevation, frequency of precipitation and solar radiation were 4 environmental forcing factors. The method suggested in the paper can have some reference meaning for modeling habitats of alien species in China and provide a direction to prevent Mytilopsis sallei on the Chinese coast line.

  4. THE HISTORY AND INSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: A SKETCHY ACCOUNT

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was founded on November 1, 1949. Over the past six decades, CAS, as China’s most important scientific research center, has embarked on a unique road of development with distinctive features. Its history and system are rarely seen in the world history of science and technology.

  5. Globalisation, Transnational Academic Mobility and the Chinese Knowledge Diaspora: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Welch, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    The master discourses of economic globalisation and the knowledge economy each cite knowledge diasporas as vital "trans-national human capital". Based on a case study of a major Australian university, this article examines the potential to deploy China's large and highly-skilled diaspora in the service of Chinese and Australian scientific and…

  6. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus oral Chinese patent medicine literature metrology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tong-hua; Li, Yuan-yuan

    2012-09-01

    The CBM, CNKI database 1979-2012 included oral Chinese patent medicine treatment diabetes literature, and the literature published time, periodical distribution, sources of literature and statistical analysis, to explore the treatment of type 2 diabetes medicine clinical literature distribution law and development trend, as in diabetes research related to the clinical and scientific research personnel to provide reference. PMID:23236770

  7. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216

  8. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  9. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese h...

  10. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  11. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  12. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  13. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  14. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  15. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  16. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  17. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  18. The development of continental collision metallogeny and its application%大陆碰撞成矿理论的创建及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈衍景

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the continental collision metallogeny is addressed in this paper. The development history of the continental collision metallogeny is divided into five periods, namely, preparation (before 1970) , incubation ( 1971 ~ 1990) , birth (1991 ~2000) , growth (2001 ~2010) and maturation (2011 and thereafter). The hardcore of the continental collision metallogeny is considered to include four tectonic models for Collisional orogeny, Metallogeny and Fluid flow (abbreviated to CMF) at differing scales (global tectonics, orogen, terrane and deposit). It also contains the characterizations of four classes of hydrothermal mineral systems formed in continental collision regime as well as their comparative illustrations with the mineral systems formed in other tectonic settings. The paper also introduces several successful ore-exploration examples guided by the continental collision metallogeny. The facts presented in the paper show that Chinese geologists have contributed much to the development of the continental collision metallogeny, by utilizing the unique conditions of abundant continental collision orogens in China.%本文阐明了大陆碰撞成矿理论的重要性,将大陆碰撞成矿理论的发展史划分为1970年以前的预备期,1971~1990年的孕育期,1991~2000年的诞生期,2001~2010年的成长期和2011年以后的成熟期;指出大陆碰撞成矿理论的核心内容是4个不同尺度(全球构造、造山带、地体、矿床)的碰撞造山流体成矿模式(CMF模式)和4种类型成矿系统的特征及其与其它环境同类成矿系统的对比;介绍了运用大陆碰撞成矿理论指导找矿预测的成功范例.事实证明,中国学者发挥中国碰撞造山带丰富的自然优势,为发展大陆碰撞成矿理论做出了重大贡献.

  19. The paradox of scientific expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2011-01-01

    fragmentation of scientific expertise. To resolve this paradox, the present paper investigates three hypotheses: 1) All scientific knowledge is perspectival. 2) The perspectival structure of science leads to specific forms of knowledge asymmetries. 3) Such perspectival knowledge asymmetries must be handled......Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads to a...... through second order perspectives. We substantiate these hypotheses on the basis of a perspectivist philosophy of science grounded in Peircean semiotics and autopoietic systems theory. Perspectival knowledge asymmetries are an unavoidable and necessary part of the growth of scientific knowledge, and more...

  20. Should scientific realists be platonists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Jacob; Morrison, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Realists about are arrived at by any inferen- tial route which eschews causes (§3), and nor is there any direct pressure for Scientific Real- ists to change their inferential methods (§4). We suggest that in order to maintain inferential parity with Scientific Realism, proponents of EIA need to give......Enhanced Indispensability Arguments (EIA) claim that Scientific Realists are committed to the existence of mathematical entities due to their reliance on Inference to the Best Explana- tion (IBE). Our central question concerns this purported parity of reasoning: do people who defend the EIA make an...... appropriate use of the resources of Scientific Realism (in particular, IBE) to achieve platonism? (§2) We argue that just because a variety of different inferential strategies can be employed by Scientific Realists does not mean that ontological conclusions concerning which things we should be Scientific...

  1. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society as a...... whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion of these...

  2. CSP for Executable Scientific Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard

    can usually benefit performance-wise from both multiprocessing, cluster and grid environments. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) for the Python programming language and takes advantage of CSP's formal and verifiable approach to controlling concurrency and the...... readability of Python source code. Python is a popular programming language in the scientific community, with many scientific libraries (modules) and simple integration to external languages. This thesis presents a PyCSP extended with many new features and a more robust implementation to allow scientific...... is demonstrated through examples. By providing a robust library for organising scientific workflows in a Python application I hope to inspire scientific users to adopt PyCSP. As a proof-of-concept this thesis demonstrates three scientific applications: kNN, stochastic minimum search and McStas to...

  3. Optimal weighted combinatorial forecasting model of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhang; Miao, Ge; Xinlei, Liu; Minyi, Cen

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to provide a scientific basis for unifying the reference value standard of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults. Three predictive models including regression model, principal component model, and artificial neural network model are combined to establish the optimal weighted combination model. The optimal weighted combination model and single model are verified and compared. Optimal weighted combinatorial model can reduce predicting risk of single model and improve the predicting precision. The reference value of geographical distribution of Chinese adults' QT dispersion was precisely made by using kriging methods. When geographical factors of a particular area are obtained, the reference value of QT dispersion of Chinese adults in this area can be estimated by using optimal weighted combinatorial model and reference value of the QT dispersion of Chinese adults anywhere in China can be obtained by using geographical distribution figure as well.

  4. Optimal weighted combinatorial forecasting model of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhang; Miao, Ge; Xinlei, Liu; Minyi, Cen

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to provide a scientific basis for unifying the reference value standard of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults. Three predictive models including regression model, principal component model, and artificial neural network model are combined to establish the optimal weighted combination model. The optimal weighted combination model and single model are verified and compared. Optimal weighted combinatorial model can reduce predicting risk of single model and improve the predicting precision. The reference value of geographical distribution of Chinese adults' QT dispersion was precisely made by using kriging methods. When geographical factors of a particular area are obtained, the reference value of QT dispersion of Chinese adults in this area can be estimated by using optimal weighted combinatorial model and reference value of the QT dispersion of Chinese adults anywhere in China can be obtained by using geographical distribution figure as well.

  5. [Opportunity and challenge of post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Xi; Song, Hai-Bo; Ren, Jing-Tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-Xin; Pang, Yu

    2014-09-01

    Post-marketing evaluation is a process which evaluate the risks and benefits of drug clinical application comprehensively and systematically, scientific and systematic results of post-marketing evaluation not only can provide data support for clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine, but also can be a reliable basis for the supervision department to develop risk control measures. With the increasing demands for treatment and prevention of disease, traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used, and security issues are also exposed. How to find risk signal of traditional Chinese medicine in the early stages, carry out targeted evaluation work and control risk timely have become challenges in the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. PMID:25532372

  6. Combined use of factor analysis and cluster analysis in classification of traditional Chinese medical syndromes in patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Ping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of the combination of factor analysis and systematic cluster analysis in classification of traditional Chinese medical syndromes in patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis, and to provide a scientific basis for the criterion of the classification. Methods: We designed a clinical questionnaire according to the clinical characteristics and the demands of traditional Chinese medical information collection for patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis. By means of...

  7. Data mining for scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai VLASE

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching scientific literature on the Web is a difficult task because of the large volume and the complex dynamics of the scientific literature and because of the complexity and narrow target of typical queries. The problem is compounded by differences among publication standards and formats used in various fields of knowledge. In this paper we review several specific solutions that apply or adapt data mining techniques to searching scientific publications.

  8. Mastering scientific computing with R

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you want to learn how to quantitatively answer scientific questions for practical purposes using the powerful R language and the open source R tool ecosystem, this book is ideal for you. It is ideally suited for scientists who understand scientific concepts, know a little R, and want to be able to start applying R to be able to answer empirical scientific questions. Some R exposure is helpful, but not compulsory.

  9. Can Scientific Impact Be Predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yuxiao; Johnson, Reid A.; Chawla, Nitesh V

    2016-01-01

    A widely used measure of scientific impact is citations. However, due to their heavy-tailed distribution, citations are fundamentally difficult to predict. Instead, to characterize scientific impact, we address two analogous questions asked by many scientific researchers: "How will my h-index evolve over time, and which of my previously or newly published papers will contribute to it?" To answer these questions, we perform two related tasks. First, we develop a model to predict authors' futur...

  10. The Logic of Scientific Writing

    OpenAIRE

    G.L. Volpato

    2011-01-01

    In this work, I describe a logical method for scientific writing. Any decision made in this type of writing should be based on the logic of science and the rules of communication, as part of a creative discourse. I present some logical flaws (regarding journal classification, academic vs. non-academic texts, and subjective inferences) and writing mistakes (in the structure of a paper and the writing style) that can undermine publication.Key Words:scientific writing, scientific communication, ...

  11. TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Koumparoulis; Dionysios K. Solomos

    2012-01-01

    Frederick Taylor is known as the father of modern management. Taylor’s scientific management revolutionized industry and helped shape the modern organization. Scientific management revolutionized industry because it explains how to increase production by working smarter, not harder. Taylor’s ideas were not limited to only serving the company’s bottom line but from the increase in productivity benefited the workforce as well. The principles of scientific management have become a machine of uni...

  12. Scientific Information Service at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of information is an essential part of CERN's mission. It brings people together from all around the world and trains the scientists of tomorrow. CERN scientific output is documented and made available for the scientific community and the general public through the CERN Document Server, INSPIRE-HEP and Wikipedia. This report presents the work done in the Scientific Information Service during the summer student program.

  13. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  14. Scientific Programme Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  15. Scientific report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains technical and scientific papers on the main works of the Direction of the Fuel Cycle (DCC) in France. The study fields are: the upper fuel cycle studies with the SILVA (isotope separation by laser on atomic vapor) process (a model of gas centrifuge separative performance, an estimation of electron gun cathodes erosion, a power improvement of diode-pumped solid-state-lasers, measurement using intracavity near resonant propagation in atomic vapours); the down side fuel cycle studies (electronic structure of lanthanide or actinides complexes, forecasting of the stoichiometry of europium nitrate complexes, actinides complexes structural determination, experimental studies on separations, radioactive wastes processing and conditioning with the vitrification processes, radioactive wastes storage with concrete behaviour and biodegradation); studies on dismantling and cleansing (rheological behaviour of foams, remote decontamination of austenitic steel by ultra-violet laser); and technological analysis (high resolution wavelength meter, optimization methodology for diffractive and hybrid optic systems, reliability of fast switches in power electronics, study of cesium isolation, chemical optodes based on evanescent-wave absorption, study of viscous liquid ultrafiltration using supercritical CO2 as a promoter). (A.L.B.)

  16. Atalante: scientific report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report makes a synthesis of the research works carried out at CEA Marcoule in the domain of the back-end of the fuel cycle. The research programs involving the ATALANTE facility concern: the improvement of the spent fuel reprocessing of today's and tomorrow's reactors, the separation of minor actinides prior to their transmutation, and the long-term behaviour of ultimate radioactive wastes immobilized in suitable matrices for a reversible storage or a disposal in deep geologic repositories. The report presents the main scientific results obtained these last years in the domain of: 1 - basic chemistry of actinides and fission products, 2 - processing of spent fuels, 3 - actinides recycling experiments, 4 - long-term behaviour of conditioning matrices for materials and wastes, and 5 - measurements and analytical techniques used in the above mentioned studies. The ATALANTE facility is in the core of the future nuclear stakes which aim at optimizing the recycling of nuclear materials using innovative and proliferation-safe processes, and at minimizing the impact of radioactive wastes on the environment. (J.S.)

  17. Acquisition of Scientific Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noland, Lynn [Director, Sponsored Programs

    2014-05-16

    Whitworth University constructed a 63,00 sq. ft. biology and chemistry building which opened in the Fall of 2011. This project provided for new state-of-the-art science instrumentation enabling Whitworth students to develop skills and knowledge that are directly transferable to practical applications thus enhancing Whitworth student's ability to compete and perform in the scientific workforce. Additionally, STEM faculty undertake outreach programs in the area schools, bringing students to our campus to engage in activities with our science students. The ability to work with insturmentation that is current helps to make science exciting for middle school and high school students and gets them thinking about careers in science. 14 items were purchased following the university's purchasing policy, that benefit instruction and research in the departments of biology, chemistry, and health sciences. They are: Cadaver Dissection Tables with Exhaust Chamber and accessories, Research Microscope with DF DIC, Phase and Fluorescence illumination with DP72 Camera, Microscope with Fluorescence, Microcomputer controlled ultracentrifuge, Ultracentrifuge rotor, Variable Temperature steam pressure sterilizer, Alliance APLC System, DNA Speedvac, Gel Cocumentation System, BioPac MP150, Glovebox personal workstation,Lyophilizer, Nano Drop 2000/2000c Spectrophotometer, C02 Incubator.

  18. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lu Bay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.

  19. Community intelligence in knowledge curation: an application to managing scientific nomenclature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Dai

    Full Text Available Harnessing community intelligence in knowledge curation bears significant promise in dealing with communication and education in the flood of scientific knowledge. As knowledge is accumulated at ever-faster rates, scientific nomenclature, a particular kind of knowledge, is concurrently generated in all kinds of fields. Since nomenclature is a system of terms used to name things in a particular discipline, accurate translation of scientific nomenclature in different languages is of critical importance, not only for communications and collaborations with English-speaking people, but also for knowledge dissemination among people in the non-English-speaking world, particularly young students and researchers. However, it lacks of accuracy and standardization when translating scientific nomenclature from English to other languages, especially for those languages that do not belong to the same language family as English. To address this issue, here we propose for the first time the application of community intelligence in scientific nomenclature management, namely, harnessing collective intelligence for translation of scientific nomenclature from English to other languages. As community intelligence applied to knowledge curation is primarily aided by wiki and Chinese is the native language for about one-fifth of the world's population, we put the proposed application into practice, by developing a wiki-based English-to-Chinese Scientific Nomenclature Dictionary (ESND; http://esnd.big.ac.cn. ESND is a wiki-based, publicly editable and open-content platform, exploiting the whole power of the scientific community in collectively and collaboratively managing scientific nomenclature. Based on community curation, ESND is capable of achieving accurate, standard, and comprehensive scientific nomenclature, demonstrating a valuable application of community intelligence in knowledge curation.

  20. The craft of scientific writing

    CERN Document Server

    Alley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Craft of Scientific Writing uses scores of examples to show the differences between scientific writing that informs and persuades and scientific writing that does not. Focusing on technical papers, dissertations, and reports, this text shows engineers, scientists, and technical professionals the five keys of style that distinguish the best scientific documents: (1) having the details presented in a methodical fashion, (2) having the important details emphasized, (3) having ideas cast into clear and precise sentences, (4) having clear connections between those ideas, and (5) having illustrations that persuade.