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Sample records for chinense jacq resistente

  1. POLYPHENOLS, ASCORBIC ACID AND CAROTENOIDS CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES IN FRUITS OF CAPSICUM CHINENSE JACQ.

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    M. I. Mamedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum chinense Jacq. is the rich source of phytochemical substances, such as vitamin C, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and occupies a significant place in the cooking of many peoples. The pigment composition, the amount of carotenoids, ascorbic acid and their contribution to the formation of antioxidant properties were studied. The total content of carotenoids and red/yellow pigments varied greatly among the accessions of C. chinense. The highest content of carotenoids 0.581 mg/g was observed in the varieties ‘Ognennaya Deva’ with the red fruit color in the phase of biological ripeness, where red pigments accumulated 56% more than in yellow ones. Fruits of accessions ‘Kolokolchik’ only accumulated yellow pigments, 0.318 mg/g. Presence of significant amount, 2.03 times as much red pigments as yellow ones in the variety ‘Trinidad Scorpion Chocolate’, with protein complex could cause the formation of a brown fruit color. Another tendency was observed in ‘Trinidad Dglahou’. The yellow pigment is 1.5 times as much amount as red, as estimated 0.119 mg/g of yellow and 0.077 mg/g of red pigment. The ascorbic acid content did not depend on the fruit color. Fruits of the ‘Ognennaya Deva’ accumulated the highest amount of ascorbic acid, 301 mg%. The maximum total antioxidant content, was detected in the variety ‘Ognennaya Deva’ 2.65 (TAC, mg.eq. GA/g. Analysis of the dependence of the content of thermo stable antioxidants to the total ones showed the contribution of the unstable antioxidants to thermal effects (particularly ascorbic acid on the level of 16%, on average. A comparative assessment of the pungency level and quantitative capsaicin content in the fruit was carried out by organoleptic, spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The intervals of observed concentrations of capsaicin were 1.0-7.5 mg/g of dry weight (HPLC, the level of pungency on the Scoville scale was 17440-153120 SHU. There

  2. Growth, phenology and chlorophyll fluorescence of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. under water stress conditions

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    Alfonzo Pérez-Gutiérrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The irrigation methods offer a good alternative for increasing water use efficiency. The main purpose of this study was to identify the best irrigation level for Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. plants based on available water capacity (AWC of substrate. An experiment carried out with three irrigation levels (20, 40 and 60% of AWC and five genotypes (H225, H241, H244, H226 and Jaguar. The irrigation level of 20% decreased the soil water potential to cause water stress in plants. At an irrigation level of 40%, average jaguar plant height (92 cm and H241 (79 cm, genotypes were greater than under the other treatments. Average leaf area of H225, H241 and H244 plants was at least 48% greater than Jaguar plants. Average total dry matter of H241 and Jaguar plants, were 30 and 28% greater than H226 plants; and values of maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm, relative electron transport rate and effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II were higher in H241, H244 and H226 plants; i.e. they are less probably due to photo inhibition damage. However, flowering time was earlier in plants with an irrigation level (IL of 20% than plants with an IL of 40%, this was a consequence of stress due to water deficit. The 60% irrigation treatment caused flooding and all genotypes died before the inflorescence stage. These results suggest the enforcement of a suitable irrigation level based in available water capacity of substrate coupled with a vigorous genotype can encourage healthy plants and high water use efficiency.

  3. Exogenous nitrate induces root branching and inhibits primary root growth in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

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    Celis-Arámburo, Teresita de Jesús; Carrillo-Pech, Mildred; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana

    2011-12-01

    The effects of nitrate (NO₃⁻) on the root system are complex and depend on several factors, such as the concentration available to the plant, endogenous nitrogen status and the sensitivity of the species. Though these effects have been widely documented on Arabidopsis and cereals, no reports are available in the Capsicum genus. In this paper, we have determined the effect of an exogenous in vitro application of this nutrient on root growth in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Exposure to NO₃⁻ inhibited primary root growth in both, dose- and time-dependent manners. The highest inhibition was attained with 0.1 mM NO₃⁻ between the fourth and fifth days of treatment. Inhibition of primary root growth was observed by exposing the root to both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions of the nutrient; in contrast, ammonium was not able to induce similar changes. NO₃⁻-induced inhibition of primary root growth was reversed by treating the roots with IAA or NPA, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. Heterogeneous NO₃⁻ application stimulated the formation and elongation of lateral roots in the segment where the nutrient was present, and this response was influenced by exogenous phytohormones. These results demonstrate that habanero pepper responds to NO₃⁻ in a similar fashion to other species with certain particular differences. Therefore, studies in this model could help to elucidate the mechanisms by which roots respond to NO₃⁻ in fluctuating soil environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical characterization and immunolocalization studies of a Capsicum chinense Jacq. protein fraction containing DING proteins and anti-microbial activity.

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    Brito-Argáez, Ligia; Tamayo-Sansores, José A; Madera-Piña, Dianeli; García-Villalobos, Francisco J; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Kú-González, Ángela; Villanueva, Marco A; Islas-Flores, Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    The DING protein family consists of proteins of great biological importance due to their ability to inhibit carcinogenic cell growth. A DING peptide with Mr ∼7.57 kDa and pI ∼5.06 was detected in G10P1.7.57, a protein fraction from Capsicum chinense Jacq. seeds. Amino acid sequencing of the peptide produced three smaller peptides showing identity to the DING protein family. G10P1.7.57 displayed a phosphatase activity capable of dephosphorylating different phosphorylated substrates and inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Western immunoblotting with a custom-made polyclonal antibody raised against a sequence (ITYMSPDYAAPTLAGLDDATK), derived from the ∼7.57 kDa polypeptide, immunodetected an ∼ 39 kDa polypeptide in G10P1.7.57. Purification by electroelution followed by amino acid sequencing of the ∼39 kDa polypeptide yielded seven new peptide sequences and an additional one identical to that of the initially identified peptide. Western immunoblotting of soluble proteins from C. chinense seeds and leaves revealed the presence of the ∼39 kDa polypeptide at all developmental stages, with increased accumulation when the organs reached maturity. Immunolocalization using Dabsyl chloride- or Alexa fluor 488-conjugated antibodies revealed a specific fluorescent signal in the cell cytoplasm at all developmental stages, giving support to the idea that the ∼39 kDa polypeptide is a soluble DING protein. Thus, we have identified and characterized a protein fraction with a DING protein from C. chinense. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

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    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  6. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of a Na+-Insensitive K+ Transporter of Capsicum chinense Jacq

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    Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Benito, Begoña; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Sánchez-Cach, Lucila A.; Medina-Lara, María de Fátima; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity K+ (HAK) transporters are encoded by a large family of genes and are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. These HAK-type transporters participate in low- and high-affinity potassium (K+) uptake and are crucial for the maintenance of K+ homeostasis under hostile conditions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of CcHAK1 gene was isolated from roots of the habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense). CcHAK1 expression was positively regulated by K+ starvation in roots and was not inhibited in the presence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis placed the CcHAK1 transporter in group I of the HAK K+ transporters, showing that it is closely related to Capsicum annuum CaHAK1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeHAK5. Characterization of the protein in a yeast mutant deficient in high-affinity K+ uptake (WΔ3) suggested that CcHAK1 function is associated with high-affinity K+ uptake, with Km and Vmax for Rb of 50 μM and 0.52 nmol mg−1 min−1, respectively. K+ uptake in yeast expressing the CcHAK1 transporter was inhibited by millimolar concentrations of the cations ammonium (NH4+) and cesium (Cs+) but not by sodium (Na+). The results presented in this study suggest that the CcHAK1 transporter may contribute to the maintenance of K+ homeostasis in root cells in C. chinense plants undergoing K+-deficiency and salt stress. PMID:28083010

  7. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

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    Laura Mejía-Teniente

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Germin-like proteins (GLPs are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  8. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

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    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-11-25

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  9. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper at Different Stages of Ripening

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    Lizbeth A. Castro-Concha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k’an-iik (orange and MR8H (red, at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW. The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.

  10. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

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    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  11. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in habanero pepper plants (Capsicum chinense Jacq.): Proline accumulation, ions dynamics and sodium root-shoot partition and compartmentation.

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    Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Velarde-Buendía, Ana; Ku-González, Angela; Carillo-Pech, Mildred; Ortega-Camacho, Daniela; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Pottosin, Igor; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite its economic relevance, little is known about salt tolerance mechanisms in pepper plants. To address this question, we compared differences in responses to NaCl in two Capsicum chinense varieties: Rex (tolerant) and Chichen-Itza (sensitive). Under salt stress (150 mM NaCl over 7 days) roots of Rex variety accumulated 50 times more compatible solutes such as proline compared to Chichen-Itza. Mineral analysis indicated that Na(+) is restricted to roots by preventing its transport to leaves. Fluorescence analysis suggested an efficient Na(+) compartmentalization in vacuole-like structures and in small intracellular compartments in roots of Rex variety. At the same time, Na(+) in Chichen-Itza plants was compartmentalized in the apoplast, suggesting substantial Na(+) extrusion. Rex variety was found to retain more K(+) in its roots under salt stress according to a mineral analysis and microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE). Vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux was higher in Chichen-Itza variety plants, suggesting a higher activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, which fuels the extrusion of Na(+), and, possibly, also the re-uptake of K(+). Our results suggest a combination of stress tolerance mechanisms, in order to alleviate the salt-induced injury. Furthermore, Na(+) extrusion to apoplast does not appear to be an efficient strategy for salt tolerance in pepper plants.

  12. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... qui se retrouve sur le marché international (FAO,. 2006). Les fruits de Capsicum ... piment, l'accès facile au site et sur la base d'une expérience dans le ... comprendre le mode d'emploi des pesticides. Pesticides chimiques ...

  13. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

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    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  14. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

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    Jeanny G. Aldana-Iuit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs, the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq. were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium’s nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod’s placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  15. La estructura resistente

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    Manterola, J.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available A structure, as a whole, consists of an organised set of material parts, whose structural significance depends both on their topological nature and on the external forces acting on them. This duality, that is typical of a structure, is related on the one hand to the structural forms that man can construct, and on the other to progressive adaptation of the structural topology to the external forces acting on it. The integrated study of the constructive process and of the theory of structures does not exhaust the problem of structures. The characteristics of the materials are still to be considered. The effect of these three factors on the cost depends on the dynamic evolution of these factors themselves: their importance being greater or smaller according to the evolutionary stage that is considered and the purpose of the structure. Furthermore, the structural significance of an object is influenced by the changes in the surrounding structural elements. Thus, a form, whose development might be determined strictly by structural motives at a given period, at another stage may no longer depend on structural factors. Hence structure is only a relative concept.En la estructura resistente, tomada como un todo, subyace una organización de elementos materiales, cuyo valor de posición viene condicionado tanto por las condiciones mecánicas de trabajo resistente que se establece entre ellas como por la posibilidad de manejar y colocar en su sitio el peso y volumen que determinan. Esta partición, contenido mismo de lo estructural, nos remite, por un lado, a las condiciones variables en que se concretan las posibilidades energéticas de la humanidad, y por otro, sitúa la estructura enfrentada a las acciones exteriores en una serie de etapas intermedias que para ser resistidas va a ser construida, lo que le proporciona la operatividad que reside en todo proceso de crecimiento. La integración del proceso constructivo y la teoría de lo resistente no agota

  16. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Allium chinense bulbs

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    Yung-Pin Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Allium chinense is a medicinal plant and nutritional food commonly used in Eastern Asia. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant activity (scavenging of α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical, total phenol content, reducing power, and total antioxidant activity and constituents of various extracts from A. chinense. Moreover, we also studied the in vivo hypolipidemic effects of extracts on high-fat-diet Wistar rats. Ethanol extracts from A. chinense showed notable antioxidant activity, and its high-dose essential-oil extract both significantly reduced serum and hepatic total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels and increased serum high-density lipoprotein levels in high-fat-diet Wistar rats compared with those observed following treatment with the control drug probucol. Additionally, visceral fat in high-fat-diet Wistar rats was reduced. Furthermore, groups with high doses of essential-oil and residue extracts showed protective effects associated with histopathological liver alteration. These results suggested that A. chinense is a valuable plant worthy of further investigation as a potential dietary supplement or botanical drug.

  17. Water use efficiency and productivity of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) based on two transplanting dates.

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    López-López, Rutilo; Inzunza-Ibarra, Marco Antonio; Sánchez-Cohen, Ignacio; Fierro-Álvarez, Andrés; Sifuentes-Ibarra, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Habanero pepper production was assessed with drip irrigation and plastic mulch, based on two transplanting dates. The objectives of the study were: (i) to evaluate the effect of two transplanting dates and the use of plastic mulch on water productivity and habanero pepper fruit yield under drip irrigation conditions; and (ii) to determine the profitability and economic viability of the product in the regional market. The work was conducted in the municipality of Huimanguillo, state of Tabasco, Mexico, in loam soils classified as Eutric Fluvisol. The Jaguar variety of habanero pepper, developed by INIFAP and possessing better genetic and productive characteristics, was used. Two transplanting dates were studied, (i) 30 January 2013 and (ii) 15 February 2013, with and without plastic mulch. The conclusions were: (i) application of irrigation depths based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and plastic mulch transplanted on 30 January increased the fruit yield of the crop and improved the benefit-cost ratio of the production system; and (ii) water use efficiency based on the 30 January transplanting date was 8.68 kg m⁻³ of water applied with plastic mulch, 6.51 kg m⁻³ without plastic mulch, and 3.65 kg m⁻³ for the 15 February transplanting date with plastic mulch.

  18. LOS ALMIDONES RESISTENTES Y LA SALUD

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    Carmen Carla Quiroga Ledezma

    2009-01-01

    Para una mejor comprensión de los almidones resistentes y su efecto en la salud se hizo una revisión bibliográfica de los trabajos publicados: estructura del almidón, tipos de modificaciones a la estructura del almidón, digestión del almidón, tipos de almidones, consecuencias fisiológicas del almidón resistente y tendencias futuras.

  19. Phospholipidic signaling and vanillin production in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Capsicum chinense J. cells.

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    Altúzar-Molina, Alma R; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Racagni-Di Palma, Graciela; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2011-02-01

    The phospholipidic signal transduction system involves generation of second messengers by hydrolysis or changes in phosphorylation state. Several studies have shown that the signaling pathway forms part of plant response to phytoregulators such as salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), which have been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. An evaluation was made of the effect of SA and MJ on phospholipidic signaling and capsaicinoid production in Capsicum chinense Jacq. suspension cells. Treatment with SA inhibited phospholipase C (PLC) (EC: 3.1.4.3) and phospholipase D (PLD) (EC: 3.1.4.4) activities in vitro, but increased lipid kinase activities in vitro at different SA concentrations. Treatment with MJ produced increases in PLC and PLD activities, while lipid kinase activities were variable and dose-dependent. The production of vanillin, a precursor of capsaicinoids, increased at specific SA or MJ doses. Preincubation with neomycin, a phospholipase inhibitor, before SA or MJ treatment inhibits increase in vanillin production which suggests that phospholipidic second messengers may participate in the observed increase in vanillin production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Eindrapportage onderzoek naar ontwikkeling Verticillium resistente Acer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.; Sluis, van der B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Dit project is de laatste fase in het onderzoek naar de ontwikkeling van Verticillium-resistente Acer platanoides (Noorse esdoorn) onderstammen wat in 1993 van start ging op het toenmalige CPRO-DLO (nu PRI) met grootschalige selectie-experimenten. PPO-Bomen heeft vanaf 1999 onderzoek gedaan naar

  1. Genetic analysis of Penthorum chinense Pursh by improved RAPD and ISSR in China

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    Zhiqiang Mei

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: This study indicated that improved RAPD and ISSR methods are useful tools for evaluating the genetic diversity and characterizing P. chinense. Our findings can provide the theoretical basis for cultivar identification, standardization, and molecular-assisted breeding of P. chinense for medicinal use.

  2. TÉCNICAS SUSTENTABLES PARA EL MANEJO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL CHILE HABANERO (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.

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    Luna-Esquivel G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una revisión de las investigaciones reportadas en diversas áreas de la agronomía que se pueden aplicar al sistema de producción de chile habanero. Se recopilaron algunos trabajos relacionados con la sustentabilidad propuestos para el cultivo en cuanto a nutrición, manejo de humedad, aplicación de productos hormonales, utilización de productos orgánicos y aplicación de microorganismos. Se concluye que es necesario conocer más a fondo los componentes involucrados en el sistema de producción del cultivo y así lograr una mejor relación beneficio-costo para el productor, de una manera realmente sustentable.

  3. Polyphenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. Leaves

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    Andrei Mocan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. leaves. The different leave extracts contain important amounts of flavonoids (43.73 ± 1.43 and 61.65 ± 0.95 mg/g, respectively and showed relevant antioxidant activity, as witnessed by the quoted methods. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of target phenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. Rutin was the dominant flavonoid in both analysed species, the highest amount being registered for L. chinense. An important amount of chlorogenic acid was determined in L. chinense and L. barbarum extracts, being more than twice as high in L. chinense than in L. barbarum. Gentisic and caffeic acids were identified only in L. barbarum, whereas kaempferol was only detected in L. chinense. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays revealing a better antioxidant activity for the L. chinense extract. Results obtained in the antimicrobial tests revealed that L. chinense extract was more active than L. barbarum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results suggest that these species are valuable sources of flavonoids with relevant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  4. [Light response characteristics of photosynthesis and model comparison of Distylium chinense in different flooding durations].

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    Liu, Ze-bin; Cheng, Rui-mei; Xiao, Wen-fa; Guo, Quan-shui; Wang, Na

    2015-04-01

    The light responses of photosynthesis of two-year-old Distytum chinense seedlings subjected to a simulated reservoir flooding environment in autumn and winter seasons were measured by using a Li-6400 XT portable photosynthesis system, and the light response curves were fitted and analyzed by three models of the rectangular hyperbola, non-rectangular hyperbola and modified rectangular hyperbola to investigate the applicability of different light response models for the D. chinense in different flooding durations and the adaption regulation of light response parameters to flooding stress. The results showed that the fitting effect of the non-rectangular hyperbola model for light response process of D. chinense under normal growth condition and under short-term flooding (15 days of flooding) was better than that of the other two models, while the fitting effect of the modified rectangular hyperbola model for light response process of D. chinense under longer-term flooding (30, 45 and 60 days of flooding) was better than that of the other two models. The modified rectangular hyperbola model gave the best fitted results of light compensation point (LCP) , maximum net photosynthetic rate (P(n max)) and light saturation point (LSP), and the non-rectangular hyperbola model gave the best fitted result of dark respiration rate (R(d)). The apparent quantum yield (Φ), P(n max) and LSP of D. chinense gradually decreased, and the LCP and R(d) of D. chinense gradually increased in early flooding (30 days), but D. chinense gradually produced adaptability for flooding as the flooding duration continued to increase, and various physiological indexes were gradually stabilized. Thus, this species has adaptability to some degree to the flooding environment.

  5. [Study on dynamic accumulation of index components from Bupleurum chinense in various collecting periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-shuai; Li, Xiao-kun; Yang, Yun; Xiao, Gong-sheng; Feng, Wei-sheng

    2010-08-01

    To study the dynamic change law of volatile oil, saikosaponin a, d and alcohol-extract from Bupleurum chinense at Songxian region in Henan province, and to explore the optimal harvest period of Bupleurum chinense. With the contents of saikosaponin a and d, absorbance of volatile oil and percentage of alcohol-extract as indexes, HPLC-ELSD and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were successively used to analyze them. There are obvious differences among the contents of volatile oil, saikosaponin a, d and alcohol-extract in various collecting periods sample, the absorption of volatile oil in distillation was the highest in October, the content of saikosaponin a was the highest in September, the saikosaponin d in December and the percentage of alcohol-extract in October. The optimal harvest period of Bupleurum chinense at Songxian region in Henan is identified, which can provide scientific basis for crude drug production and processing.

  6. Phytochemical Quantification and the In Vitro Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Phellodendron chinense and Its Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yoonju; Lee, Jun; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2017-06-02

    The dried bark of Phellodendron chinense has been used as a traditional herbal medicine to remove damp heat, relieve consumptive fever, and cure dysentery and diarrhea. In the present study, we performed quantitative analyses of the two components of P. chinense , phellodendrine and berberine, using high-performance liquid chromatography. A 70% ethanol extract of P. chinense was prepared and the two components were separated on a C-18 analytical column using a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile and 0.1% ( v / v ) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid. The ultraviolet wavelength used for detection was 200 nm for phellodendrine and 226 nm for berberine. The analytical method established here showed high linearity (correlation coefficient, ≥0.9991). The amount of phellodendrine and berberine used was 22.255 ± 0.123 mg/g and 269.651 ± 1.257 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, we performed an in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity assay and an amyloid-β aggregation test to examine the biological properties of phellodendrine and berberine as therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease. Phellodendrine and berberine inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 = 36.51 and 0.44 μM, respectively). In contrast, neither phellodendrine nor berberine had an effect on amyloid-β aggregation. The P. chinense extract and phellodendrine, but not berberine, exhibited antioxidant activity by increasing radical scavenging activity. Moreover, P. chinense demonstrated a neuroprotective effect in hydrogen peroxide-treated HT22 hippocampal cells. Overall, our findings suggest that P. chinense has potential as an anti-Alzheimer's agent via the suppression of the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase and the stimulation of antioxidant activity.

  7. Comprobaciones resistentes de elementos constructivos de tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada, Enrique

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has the purpose to compare, by means of different tests on adobe bricks and masonry, the obtained resistant properties and those of other similar works carried out in countries having a wide tradition and knowledge about earth as construction material. Elements (adobe bricks and blocks have been tested to compression and bending, and masonry made of those elements to compression and diagonal compression.El presente trabajo pretende comparar, por medio de distintos ensayos sobre elementos y fábricas de mampostería de tierra, las propiedades resistentes obtenidas con las de otros trabajos similares realizados en países con dilatada tradición y conocimiento de la tierra como material de construcción. Se han ensayado elementos (adobes y bloques a compresión y flexotracción y fábricas formadas por conjuntos de los mismos a compresión y a compresión diagonal.

  8. AMIDO RESISTENTE EM FARINHAS DE BANANA VERDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Portes RAMOS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o teor de amido resistente (AR em farinhas de banana verde produzidas a partir de treze genótipos de bananeira. Para a produção da farinha foram separadas a 1ª, 3ª e 5ª pencas de cada genótipo, na qual cada penca correspondeu a uma repetição. Os frutos de cada penca no estádio 1 (casca completamente verde de maturação foram descascados manualmente, cortados em fatias circulares de 0,5 cm e desidratados em estufa com circulação de ar a 40ºC por 48 horas, sendo em seguida moídos. A análise de AR consistiu em um processo enzimático, calculando-se o conteúdo final pela concentração de glicose liberada. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística e mostraram diferenças significativas para o teor de AR nas farinhas obtidas dos genótipos de bananeira, sendo que a farinha com maior teor de AR foi a produzida a partir do cultivar ‘Nam’ (40,25% e a menor pelo híbrido ‘Fhia 01’ (10,01%. Pode-se concluir que o conteúdo de AR varia em relação ao genótipo utilizado para a confecção da farinha e que a banana pode ser uma boa opção de estudo de alimento funcional.

  9. Population genetic structure of Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae), an endangered endemic species of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Wen; Wang, De-Lian; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2005-04-01

    Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae) standing for the monotypic genus is endemic to eastern China. Its conservation status is vulnerable as most populations are small and isolated. Monimopetalum chinense is capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually. The aim of this study was to understand the genetic structure of M. chinense and to suggest conservation strategies. One hundred and ninety individuals from ten populations sampled from the entire distribution area of M. chinense were investigated by using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR). A total of 110 different ISSR bands were generated using ten primers. Low levels of genetic variation were revealed both at the species level (Isp=0.183) and at the population level (Ipop=0.083). High clonal diversity (D = 0.997) was found, and strong genetic differentiation among populations was detected (49.06 %). Small population size, possible inbreeding, limited gene flow due to short distances of seed dispersal, fragmentation of the once continuous range and subsequent genetic drift, may have contributed to shaping the population genetic structure of the species.

  10. Interspecific competition between Solenopsis invicta and two native ant species, Pheidole fervens and Monomorium chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Cheng; Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng-Jen

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to understand the effects of the interspecific competition between red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren and two native ant species, Pheidole fervens Smith and Monomorium chinense Santschi, by conducting colony interference and individual confrontation tests under laboratory conditions. The colony interference test showed that both native ant species, owing to their numerical advantage, killed the Solenopsis invicta virus-1 (SINV-1)-infected or healthy queens of S. invicta. Significantly less time was required for M. chinense to kill all SINV-1-infected S. invicta compared with the time required to kill the healthy S. invicta. Compared with healthy S. invicta, SINV-1-infected S. invicta spent a longer time eliminating the P. fervens colonies. In confrontation tests, M. chinense killed a significantly higher number of infected S. invicta minors than they did healthy minors, but the number of S. invicta majors (either infected or healthy) killed was substantially less. This study found that the viral infection weakened the competitive ability of S. invicta and made them prone to be eliminated by M. chinense but not by P. fervens.

  11. Molecular markers linked to apomixis in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panicum maximum Jacq. is an important forage grass of African origin largely used in the tropics. The genetic breeding of this species is based on the hybridization of sexual and apomictic genotypes and selection of apomictic F1 hybrids. The objective of this work was to identify molecular markers linked to apomixis in P.

  12. Seedling protection and field practices for management of insect vectors and viral diseases of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karungi, J.; Obua, T.; Kyamanywa, S.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was on nursery and field management of seed and insect vectors of viruses on hot pepper. Seedlings raised from hypochlorite-treated seeds under a net tunnel nursery were compared with seedlings raised from untreated seeds in an open nursery. The two groups of seedlings were...

  13. Capsaicinoids, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in different fruit components of the world hottest Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, R; Subhash, K; Longvah, T

    2018-01-01

    The world hottest Naga king chilli is cultivated and consumed in Northeast India. Capsaicinoids, amino acids and fatty acids were studied in fruit and fruit components of Naga king chilli. Capsaicinoid content was increased in each ripening stage and maximum level was observed at red color fruits. Total protein and fat content of placenta was 19.41 and 20.36% respectively. Capsaicinoids of placenta (7.35±2.241%) was higher followed by seed (3.83±1.358%) and pericarp (2.91±0.667%). Similarly, essential amino acid content was also higher in placenta compared to other components. Amino acid score ranged from 37 to 38 with cystine and methionine as limiting amino acid. Low level of palmitic, stearic and α-linolenic acid and very high level of linoleic acid were found in seeds. Total polyunsaturates of seeds were higher followed by whole fruit. Naga king chilli is unique due to its high capsaicinoid content and it offers potential crop for the future exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct online extraction and determination by supercritical fluid extraction with chromatography and mass spectrometry of targeted carotenoids from red Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Recently, supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has gained attention as a fast and useful technology applied to the carotenoids analysis. However, no reports are available in the literature on the direct online extraction and determination by supercritical fluid extraction with chromatography and mass spectrometry. The aim of this research was the development of an online method coupling supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography for a detailed targeted native carotenoids characterization in red habanero peppers. The online nature of the system, compared to offline approaches, improves run-to-run precision, enables the setting of batch-type applications, and reduces the risks of sample contamination. The extraction has been optimized using different temperatures, starting from 40°C up to 80°C. Multiple extractions, until depletion, were performed on the same sample to evaluate the extraction yield. The range of the first extraction yield, carried out at 80°C, which was the best extraction temperature, was 37.4-65.4%, with a %CV range of 2-12. Twenty-one targeted analytes were extracted and identified by the developed methodology in less than 17 min, including free, monoesters, and diesters carotenoids, in a very fast and efficient way. Quantification of the β-carotene was carried out by using the optimized conditions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Tecidos moles (não resistentes: como se fossilizam?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Gobbo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A preservação de tecidos moles (não resistentes desperta atenção pela qualidade dos fósseis preservados, e pela raridade. Este trabalho faz ampla revisão do assunto, desfaz alguns dos mitos correntes sobre fossilização destes materiais, como anaerobiose e soterramento rápido, bem como assinala a relevância do papel da replicagem de estruturas morfológicas por colônias microbianas. No âmbito dos fatores que influenciam a preservação de tecidos não resistentes estão pH, processos de decomposição, soterramento rápido e mineralização rápida por meio de carbonatos ou fosfatos. É possível citar exemplos de fácies sedimentares nas quais há preservação de tecidos não resistentes, como os folhelhos pirobetuminosos, calcários litográficos, folhelhos e diatomitos. Destaca-se o papel das colônias microbianas, tanto na forma de microesferas, como aquelas não-esferulíticas. Os três mitos principais que se procurou desfazer no artigo são: (1 a presença de oxigênio; (2 o soterramento rápido e (3 as colônias microbianas.

  16. Effect of off-season flooding on growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate partitioning, and nutrient uptake in Distylium chinense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Liu

    Full Text Available Distylium chinense is an evergreen shrub used for the vegetation recovery of floodplain and riparian areas in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. To clarify the morphological and physiological responses and tolerance of Distylium chinense to off-season flooding, a simulation flooding experiment was conducted during autumn and winter. Results indicated that the survival rate of seedlings was 100%, and that plant height and stem diameter were not significantly affected by flooding. Adventitious roots and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded seedlings after 30 days of flooding. Flooding significantly reduced the plant biomass of roots, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (Tr, maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, photochemical quenching (qP, and electron transport rate (ETR in leaves, and also affected the allocation and transport of carbohydrate and nutrients. However, D. chinense was able to maintain stable levels of Pn, Fv/Fm, qP, ETR, and nutrient content (N and P in leaves and to store a certain amount of carbohydrate in roots over prolonged durations of flooding. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a high flooding tolerance in D. chinense, and the high survival rate of D. chinense may be attributable to a combination of morphological and physiological responses to flooding.

  17. Effect of off-season flooding on growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate partitioning, and nutrient uptake in Distylium chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zebin; Cheng, Ruimei; Xiao, Wenfa; Guo, Quanshui; Wang, Na

    2014-01-01

    Distylium chinense is an evergreen shrub used for the vegetation recovery of floodplain and riparian areas in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. To clarify the morphological and physiological responses and tolerance of Distylium chinense to off-season flooding, a simulation flooding experiment was conducted during autumn and winter. Results indicated that the survival rate of seedlings was 100%, and that plant height and stem diameter were not significantly affected by flooding. Adventitious roots and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded seedlings after 30 days of flooding. Flooding significantly reduced the plant biomass of roots, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (Tr), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate (ETR) in leaves, and also affected the allocation and transport of carbohydrate and nutrients. However, D. chinense was able to maintain stable levels of Pn, Fv/Fm, qP, ETR, and nutrient content (N and P) in leaves and to store a certain amount of carbohydrate in roots over prolonged durations of flooding. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a high flooding tolerance in D. chinense, and the high survival rate of D. chinense may be attributable to a combination of morphological and physiological responses to flooding.

  18. Impacts of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics on species range limits: a case study of Liriodendron chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aihong; Dick, Christopher W; Yao, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongwen

    2016-05-10

    Species ranges are influenced by past climate oscillations, geographical constraints, and adaptive potential to colonize novel habitats at range limits. This study used Liriodendron chinense, an important temperate Asian tree species, as a model system to evaluate the roles of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics in determining range limits. We examined the demographic history and genetic diversity of 29 L. chinense populations using both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite loci. Significant phylogeographic structure was recovered with haplotype clusters coinciding with major mountain regions. Long-term demographical stability was suggested by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests, and ecological niche models (ENM) and suggested the existence of LGM refuges within mountain regions. Differences in genetic diversity between central and marginal populations were not significant for either genomic region. However, asymmetrical gene flow was inferred from central populations to marginal populations, which could potentially limit range adaptation and expansion of L. chinense.

  19. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper Perfil de voláteis e qualidade sensorial de novas variedades de pimentas Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade sensorial e o perfil de compostos voláteis de novas variedades de pimenta Capsicum (CNPH 4080, uma linhagem de cumari-do-pará, e BRS Seriema, com uma variedade comercial (Biquinho. Voláteis foram isolados do headspace dos frutos in natura por SPME e identificados por CG-EM. Conservas das pimentas foram produzidas para a análise sensorial. Descritores do aroma foram avaliados pelo método Check-All-That-Apply (CATA e os dados de frequência submetidos à Análise de Correspondência. A aceitação do sabor das amostras foi analisada por meio de ANOVA. A BRS Seriema apresentou rico perfil de voláteis, com 53 compostos identificados, sendo que cerca de 40% deles são compostos de aroma doce. A CNPH 4080 apresentou perfil semelhante ao da pimenta Biquinho, por

  20. Higroscopicidade das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Hellismar W. da; Costa, Lílian M.; Resende, Osvaldo; Oliveira, Daniel E. C. de; Soares, Renato S.; Vale, Luís S. R.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOA higroscopicidade de sementes fornece informações essenciais para otimização de processos de secagem, armazenamento e desenvolvimento de embalagens. O objetivo neste trabalho foi determinar as isotermas de dessorção das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.), variedade Cabacinha, para diferentes condições de temperatura e atividade de água utilizando-se o método estático indireto, sendo a atividade de água (aw) determinada por meio do equipamento Hygropalm Model Aw1. Aos dados expe...

  1. QTL mapping of anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) resistance in a cross between Capsicum annuum and C-chinense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Finkers, H.J.; Sanjaya, L.; Groenwold, R.

    2004-01-01

    Anthracnose fruit rot is an economically important disease that affects pepper production in Indonesia. Strong resistance to two causal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici, was found in an accession of Capsicum chinense. The inheritance of this resistance was studied in an F2

  2. AFLP genome scanning reveals divergent selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Magnoliaceae along a latitudinal transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihong eYang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding adaptive genetic variation and its relation to environmental factors are important for understanding how plants adapt to climate change and for managing genetic resources. Genome scans for the loci exhibiting either notably high or low levels of population differentiation (outlier loci provide one means of identifying genomic regions possibly associated with convergent or divergent selection. In this study, we combined AFLP genome scan and environmental association analysis to test for signals of natural selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Chinese Tulip Tree; Magnoliaceae along a latitudinal transect. We genotyped 276 individuals from 11 populations of L. chinense using 987 AFLP markers. Two complementary methods (Dfdist and BayeScan and association analysis between AFLP loci and climate factors were applied to detect outlier loci. Our analyses recovered both neutral and potentially adaptive genetic differentiation among populations of L. chinense. We found moderate genetic diversity within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations with reduced genetic diversity towards the periphery of the species ranges. Nine AFLP marker loci showed evidence of being outliers for population differentiation for both detection methods. Of these, six were strongly associated with at least one climate factor. Temperature, precipitation and radiation were found to be three important factors influencing local adaptation of L. chinense. The outlier AFLP loci are likely not the target of natural selection, but the neighboring genes of these loci might be involved in local adaptation. Hence, these candidates should be validated by further studies.

  3. Lycium chinense leaves extract ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by suppressing hyperglycemia mediated renal oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi Joshua; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious and most frequently encountered diabetic complication, accounting for the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. This present study was aimed at exploring the protective/attenuative effect of Lycium chinense leaf extract (MELC) on streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental Sprague Dawley rats. The oral administration of diabetic rats with MELC markedly ameliorated renal dysfunction as observed in the significant reduction in the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and TGF-β1 as compared to the untreated diabetic control rats. In addition, the elevated levels of renal oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory parameters (GSH, SOD, CAT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly reduced in MELC treated diabetic rats. The results obtained in this study suggests that L. chinense leaf might have the potential as possible pharmacological agent against diabetic nephropathy by suppressing renal oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.

  5. Evaluación de estructuras de muros resistentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewicki, Bohdan

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article, who is one of the main International personalities in the field of the structural engineering, point out the importance of intuition as a component of the creative capacity of the engineer, as well as its necessity within de evaluation process of structures. The article includes also some Indications about the general principles on reliability of masonry structures.

    El autor del presente artículo, una de las máximas autoridades mundiales en el campo de la Ingeniería estructural, señala la importancia de la intuición como componente de la capacidad creadora del ingeniero y su necesidad en el proceso de evaluación de las estructuras. En el artículo se dan también unas indicaciones referentes a principios generales sobre fiabilidad de las estructuras de muros resistentes.

  6. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  7. Isolation and characterization of metabolites from Croton linearis Jacq. leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Díaz, Jesús; Escalona-Arranz, Julio C.; Rojas-Vargas, Julio; Machado-García, Roberto; Carvallo, Mario G. do; Vega-Acosta, Jorge de la

    2015-01-01

    From an ethanolic extract of Croton linearis Jacq. leaves were isolated and identified a total of 7 compounds: two long chain alcohols: 2-methyl-tretradecan-2-ol (1) y el hexacosanol (3); a linear saturated hydrocarbon: tetracosane (2); three fatty acids: stearic (4), 5,8-dien-tetradecanoic (6) and oleic acid (7); as well as a tri-methoxylated flavone: 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (5). Structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 1D and 2D (1H and 13C), as well as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Kovats retention indexes when necessary. The substituent positions were assigned based on combination of heteronuclear HMBC and HMQC as well as homonuclear 1H-1H-COSY experiments. All identified compounds constitute a first report for the specie in study. (author)

  8. Chemical and nutritional evaluation of kernels of bocaiuva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Avaliação química e nutricional de amêndoas da bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila A. Hiane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein characterization and results of proximate composition and mineral analyses of fruit kernels of bocaiuva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd., are reported. The kernels presented high contents of oil (51.7%, protein (17.6% and fiber (15.8%. The seeds´ soluble proteins were isolated according to their solubility. The main separated proteins were globulins (53.5% and glutelins (40.0%. Moreover, the presence of low molecular mass proteases in these two fractions was shown by the SDS-PAGE method. The assays of protease-inhibitory and hemagglutinating activities showed that bocaiuva´s protein fractions were not resistant to trypsin or chymotrypsin activities and that both had low lectin content. The globulin in vitro digestibility assay resembled a casein standard. Neither globulin nor glutelin enzymatic hydrolyses increased significantly (p Caracterização de proteínas e análises da composição centesimal e teores de minerais foram realizados nas amêndoas da bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. As amêndoas apresentaram alto teor de lipídio (51,7%, proteína (17,6% e fibra (15,8%. Proteínas solúveis das sementes foram fracionadas de acordo com a sua solubilidade. As principais proteínas separadas foram as globulinas (53,5% e glutelinas (40,0%, e a presença de proteases de baixo peso molecular nessas duas frações foi revelada por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Ensaios da atividade inibitória de proteases e da hemaglutinação mostraram que as frações protéicas da bocaiúva não foram resistentes à ação da tripsina e quimotripsina e apresentaram baixo teor de lectina. A digestibilidade in vitro da globulina foi semelhante à da caseína padrão. Hidrólises enzimáticas da globulina e glutelina não aumentaram significativamente (p < 0,05, com o aquecimento. Treonina e lisina são os aminoácidos mais limitantes, respectivamente, das duas principais frações de proteínas da amêndoa da bocaiúva, a

  9. Revaluación de Philodendron hederaceum Schott (1829 como transferencia de Arum hederaceum Jacq

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    Dugand Armando

    1945-12-01

    Full Text Available La combinación Philodendron hederaceum: Schott, publicada en 1829 fide Endlicher y Schlechtendal 1831, se considera aquí como transferencia implícita pero válida de Arum hederaceum Jacq. (1760-1763. Los conceptos citados por algunos autores como "Arum hederaceum L." y "Arum hederaceum Willd." representan el mismo Arum hederaceum de Jacquin. "Ph. hederaceum Kunth 1841", excluyendo la referencia a "Martinica", también es el mismo Arum hetieraceum. Jacq. En cuanto a Ph. Jacquinii Schott 1856 es nombre superfluo y sinónimo de Philodendron hederaceum (Jacq, Schott, nombre este que se adopta aquí para la planta típica de Cartagena. EI nombre "Philodendron hederaceum Schott" de 1856, basado en una planta de la Martinica, representa un concepto distinto al de 1829 del mismo autor y por lo tanto se trata aquí como homónimo posterior ilegitimo.   Varios autores han considerado al Arum hetieraceum. Jacq. como especie dudosa, referible al Philodendron Hoftmannii Schott (1858 de Costa Rica. Por falta de material apropiado de aquel país no se puede resolver la cuestión por ahora. Ejemplares topotípicos, recientemente obtenidos no lejos de Cartagena, localidad clásica de Arum hederaceum. Jacq., han servido para esta revaluación.

  10. Arquitectura sismo-resistente: respuesta morfológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulani, Hugo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In the previous reports (1 and (2 we raised the question of the necessity to develop an Earthquake-Resistant Architecture which would make the integral solution of the seismic problem in buildings possible. We established the grounds, objectives, basic principles and methodology for defining the guidelines to be followed in making the architectural design and structural earthquake-resistant design compatible. The present report brings the proposal of an architectural response from the morphological point of view, allowing us to reach an adequate final form which consists of eliminating all the incompatibilities produced by the seismic demands and determining factors, in other words, we search for an architectural design which, owing to its very morphology, is able to satisfy the said conditions; an "Adequate Final Form" which in itself avoids the bothersome guidelines for making the structural and architectural designs compatible, transforming them into morphological responses to each seismic determining factor.

    En informes anteriores (1 y (2 planteamos la necesidad de desarrollar una Arquitectura Sismo-resistente, que posibilite la solución integral del problema sísmico de los edificios. Se establecieron los fundamentos, objetivos, principios básicos y metodología para deducir las pautas de compatibilización del diseño arquitectónico con el diseño estructural sismo-resistente. En el presente informe se propone una respuesta arquitectónica desde la morfología, que permite llegar a una forma final ajustada, en el sentido de eliminar toda incompatibilidad respecto de las exigencias o condicionantes sísmicos. Es decir, un proyecto arquitectónico que por su propia morfología satisfaga dichos condicionantes. Una "Forma Final Ajustada" que evita, por sí misma, las engorrosas pautas de compatibilización del diseño estructural con el diseño arquitectónico, transformándolas en respuestas morfológicas a cada condicionante sísmico.

  11. Digestion of chrysanthemum stunt viroid by leaf extracts of Capsicum chinense indicates strong RNA-digesting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraklis, Boubourakas; Kanda, Hiroko; Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Onda, Mayu; Ota, Nao; Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    CSVd could not infect Nicotiana benthamiana when the plants were pretreated with crude leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. C. chinense leaves were revealed to contain strong RNA-digesting activity. Several studies have identified active antiviral and antiviroid agents in plants. Capsicum plants are known to contain antiviral agents, but the mechanism of their activity has not been determined. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of Capsicum extract's antiviroid activity. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) was inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants before or after treating the plants with a leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. CSVd infection was determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) 3 weeks after inoculation. When Capsicum extract was sprayed or painted onto N. benthamiana before inoculation, it was effective in preventing infection by CSVd. To evaluate CSVd digestion activity in leaf extracts, CSVd was mixed with leaf extracts of Mirabilis, Phytolacca, Pelargonium and Capsicum. CSVd-digesting activities were examined by quantifying undigested CSVd using qRT-PCR, and RNA gel blotting permitted visualization of the digested CSVd. Only Capsicum leaf extract digested CSVd, and in the Capsicum treatment, small digested CSVd products were detected by RNA gel blot analysis. When the digesting experiment was performed for various cultivars and species of Capsicum, only cultivars of C. chinense showed strong CSVd-digesting activity. Our observations indicated that Capsicum extract contains strong RNA-digesting activity, leading to the conclusion that this activity is the main mechanism for protection from infection by CSVd through spraying or painting before inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strong RNA-digesting activity by a plant extract.

  12. Antinociceptive effect of extracts of Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. aerial parts

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    Niloofar Kahkeshani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The genus Marrubium is used for treatment of joint pain, gout, stomach-ache and colic in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. (M. astracanicum is a native species in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive properties of various extracts of aerial parts of M. astracanicum.Materials and Methods: Antinociceptive activities of total hydroalcoholic extract (THE and its n-hexane (non-polar and residual partition (polar fractions were analyzed using formalin test in mice. Morphine (5 mg/kg and normal saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively.Results: Intraperitoneal administration of THE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, non-polar fraction (200 mg/kg and polar fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg, 30 min before formalin injection, caused significant analgesic activity in acute phase (0-5 min after formalin injection of formalin test (p0.05 in comparison with morphine.  In chronic phase (15–60 min after formalin injection, non-polar and polar fractions (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg showed significant analgesic activity (p0.05 in comparison with morphine.Conclusion: Different extracts of M. astracanicum demonstrated antinociceptive activity that support the traditional usage of Marrubium genus for the treatment of arthritis, gout and other inflammatory diseases.

  13. Ocorrência de fungos filamentosos termo-resistentes em polpa de tomate envasada assepticamente

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    BAGLIONI Flávio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal determinar a ocorrência de fungos filamentosos termo-resistentes durante o processamento asséptico de polpa de tomate (8° BRIX. Durante o período de safra de tomate foram feitas amostragens em 9 lotes (3 no início, 3 no pico e 3 em fim de safra e no período de entresafra em 5 lotes. Foi feita a enumeração de fungos termo-resistentes nas amostras coletadas durante as diferentes etapas do processo asséptico de cada lote. Foram obtidas contagens médias relativamente baixas, variando entre <1 e 8UFC/100mL de amostra. As maiores contagens foram obtidas na matéria prima e na água de pré lavagem e transporte. Cinqüenta linhagens de fungos termo-resistentes detectadas no procedimento de enumeração foram isoladas, codificadas e estocadas. Os esporos de cada isolado com 1 mês de cultivo foram submetidos a diferentes choques térmicos para selecionar a linhagem de fungo mais termo-resistente. O isolado de fungo mais termo-resistente (sobrevivência ao choque à 100° C/25 minutos foi identificado como Neosartorya fischeri.

  14. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillén, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  15. Isolation of a novel strain of Planomicrobium chinense from diesel contaminated soil of tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Reena; Tiwary, Bhupendra N

    2013-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain (B6) degrading high concentration of diesel oil [up to 2.5% (v/v)] was isolated from a site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the state of Chhattisgarh, India. The strain demonstrated efficient degradation for diesel oil range alkanes (C14 to C36 i.e., mostly linear chain alkanes). It was identified to be 99% similar to Planomicrobium chinense on the basis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical characteristics. The efficiency of degradation was optimized at pH 7.2 and temperature at 32 °C. GC analysis demonstrated complete mineralization of higher chain alkanes into lower chain alkanes within 96 h. The organism also displayed surface tension reduction by producing stable emulsification on the onset of stationary phase. A multidimensional characteristics of the strain to grow at a high temperature range, resistance to various heavy metals as well as tolerance to moderate concentration of NaCl makes it suitable for bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel oil in tropical environment. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. [Energy accumulation and allocation of main plant populations in Aneurolepidium chinense grassland in Songnen Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guohui; Wen, Mingzhang; Guo, Jixun

    2003-05-01

    The calorific value of plants is dependent on their biological characteristics and energy-containing materials. The allocation of calorific value in different organs of Aneurolepidium chinese, Calamagrostic epigejos, Puccinellia tenuiflora and Chloris virgata was inflorescence > leaf > stem > dead standing. The seasonal dynamics of standing crop energy of aboveground part of four plant populations showed single-peak curve, and the energy production was Aneurolepidium chinense > Calamagrostic epigejos > Chloris virgata > Puccinellia tenuiflora. Energy increasing rate showed double-peak curve, with the first peak at heading stage and the second peak at maturing stage of seeds. Energy increasing rate was negative at the final stage of growth. The horizontal distribution of energy of aboveground part was that the allocation ratio of different organs at different growth stages was different. There existed a similar trend for vertical distribution of energy among four plant populations, i.e., was the vertical distribution of energy of aboveground part showed a tower shape, with the maximum value in 10-30 cm height. The vertical distribution of energy of underground part showed an inverted tower shape from soil surface to deeper layer, with the maximum value in 0-10 cm depth. The standing crop energy of underground part was about 3-4 times than that of aboveground part.

  17. Effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to evaluate the effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on mungbean (Vigna mungo L.Hepper) local cultivar. An experiment [using randomized complete block design (RCBD) design] with three replications was conducted in 2010. The trial comprised of four treatments such as mulching, incorporation into ...

  18. 4-Deoxyaurone formation in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Miosic

    Full Text Available The formation of 4-deoxyaurones, which serve as UV nectar guides in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC., was established by combination of UV photography, mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays and the key step in aurone formation was studied. The yellow flowering ornamental plant accumulates deoxy type anthochlor pigments (6'-deoxychalcones and the corresponding 4-deoxyaurones in the basal part of the flower surface whilst the apex contains only yellow carotenoids. For UV sensitive pollinating insects, this appears as a bicoloured floral pattern which can be visualized in situ by specific ammonia staining of the anthochlor pigments. The petal back side, in contrast, shows a faintly UV absorbing centre and UV absorbing rays along the otherwise UV reflecting petal apex. Matrix-free UV laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-MSI indicated the presence of 9 anthochlors in the UV absorbing areas. The prevalent pigments were derivatives of okanin and maritimetin. Enzyme preparations from flowers, leaves, stems and roots of B. ferulifolia and from plants, which do not accumulate aurones e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to convert chalcones to aurones. Thus, aurone formation could be catalyzed by a widespread enzyme and seems to depend mainly on a specific biochemical background, which favours the formation of aurones at the expense of flavonoids. In contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation, hydroxylation and oxidative cyclization to the 4-deoxyaurones does not occur in one single step but is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, chalcone 3-hydroxylase and aurone synthase (catechol oxidase reaction. Aurone formation shows an optimum at pH 7.5 or above, which is another striking contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation in Antirrhinum majus L. This is the first example of a plant catechol oxidase type enzyme being involved in the flavonoid pathway and in an anabolic reaction in general.

  19. ToF-SIMS imaging of capsaicinoids in Scotch Bonnet peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Peterson, Richard E; Lee, Therese G; Draude, Felix; Pelster, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-13

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining. In this work, ToF-SIMS has been used to image the distribution of capsaicinoids in the interlocular septum and placenta of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet peppers). A unique cryo-ToF-SIMS instrument has been used to prepare and analyze the samples with minimal sample preparation. Samples were frozen in liquid propane, cryosectioned in vacuum, and analyzed without exposure to ambient pressure. ToF-SIMS imaging was performed at -110 °C using a Bi3 (+) primary ion beam. Molecular ions for capsaicin and four other capsaicinoids were identified in both the positive and negative ToF-SIMS spectra. The capsaicinoids were observed concentrated in pockets between the outer walls of the palisade cells and the cuticle of the septum, as well as in the intercellular spaces in both the placenta and interlocular septum. This is the first report of label-free direct imaging of capsaicinoids at the cellular level in Capsicum spp. These images were obtained without the need for labeling or elaborate sample preparation. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ToF-SIMS imaging for studying the distribution of important metabolites in plant tissues.

  20. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Meticilina Resistente (MRSA e Infecções Nosocomiais

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    CRISTINA PAIVA SOUSA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um número crescente de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente (MRSA apresentam resistência a múltiplos agentes antimicrobianos e são implicadas como causas de infecções hospitalares. S. aureus podem ser isolados de ambiente hospitalar e profissionais da saúde, revelando o risco de transmissão desses microrganismos pelo contato direto ou indireto com pacientes hospitalizados. Objetivou-se nesta revisão correlacionar este microrganismo com infecções hospitalares e avaliar as possíveis fontes de infecção, bem como enfatizar a importância do investimento em ações de educação em saúde que culminem em minimização de infecções hospitalares. Palavras-chave: Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente. Infecções nosocomiais.

  2. Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus Vulgaris l. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de Mexico

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    Rosa Navarrete

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de México. Durante 1995 se evaluó la reacción de genotipos de frijol de diversos origenes a Xcp, bajo condiciones de invernadero en el Campo Experimental del Valle de México, del INIFAP. Se realizaron tres experimentos con a120, b44 y csiete genotipos de frijol. Las plantas se inocularon por corte con navajas en la etapa V3, a y b con una mezcla de nueve cepas de Xcp y el c, con cada una de siete cepas con diferente grado de patogenicidad. La severidad se evaluó 20 días después de la inoculación, por comparación con una escala visual de nueve grados. Los datos se analizaron bajo un diseño completamente al azar. En a, los genotipos que mostraron reacción de resistencia a Xcp fueron: A 36, A 475, G 5686, G 11867, Harowood, SEA 14, XAN 266, MCD 4012 y REN 27. En b los genotipos resistentes fueron: Sequía Durango, Taylor y XAN 30. En los experimentos anteriores la severidad de la enfermedad mostró una distribución normal, con el máximo número de genotipos en el grado de severidad cinco en a y seis en b. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de mezclas de cepas de bacterias con diferente patogenicidad es eficiente para identificar genotipos de frijol resistentes a Xcp. Los genotipos resistentes identificados en el último experimento, mostraron respuesta diferencial e interacciones genotipo por cepa. REN 27 y SEA 14 mostraron resistencia a las cepas utilizadas

  3. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina asociado a la comunidad: aspectos epidemiológicos y moleculares

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    Daniel Angel Luján Roca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina asociado a la comunidad (SARM-AC está ampliamente diseminado en el mundo. Es epidémico en algunos países y posee dos marcadores moleculares característicos: el SCCmec IV y la leucocidina de Panton-Valentine, ambos escasamente encontrados en el SARM asociado a la asistencia médica.

  4. Lycium chinense Improves Post-Menopausal Obesity via Regulation of PPAR-γ and Estrogen Receptor-α/β Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Eun-Jung; Choi, You Yeon; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-01-01

    The fruit of Lycium chinense Miller (Solanaceae) is used as a functional food and a medicinal herb for treating many specific health concerns. Weight gain induced by estrogen deficiency is a problem for post-menopausal women around the globe. The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extract of L. chinense (LC) on post-menopausal obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and fed on high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce post-menopausal obesity. LC extract (1[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg) was orally administrated for 6 weeks with continuous HFD feeding. Ovarian adipose tissues and uterus were weighed. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting glucose levels were analyzed. The expressions of adipocyte-specific factors and estrogen receptors (ERs) were investigated. Additionally, lipid accumulation was confirmed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Increased body weight due to post-menopausal obesity was ameliorated about 14.7% and 17.76% by treatment of 1[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg LC, respectively. LC treatment reduced both of serum lipid and fasting blood glucose levels. Adipocyte hypertrophy and fatty liver were ameliorated in LC-treated groups. In LC-treated adipocyte cells, lipid accumulation was significantly inhibited. The expression of perilipin in adipose tissues was decreased by LC. In addition, expression of PPAR-[Formula: see text] protein was down-regulated in adipose tissues and differentiated adipocytes, while GLUT4 expression was increased in adipose tissues by LC treatment. Moreover, LC treatment up-regulated the expressions of ER-[Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] accompanied with increased uterine weight. These results showed the ameliorative effects of LC on overweight after menopause. Post-menopausal obesity may be improved by LC treatment.

  5. SOJA IAC/IAS-5: CULTIVAR RESISTENTE AO CANCRO DA HASTE

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    MASCARENHAS HIPÓLITO ASSUNÇÃO ANTONIO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Há aproximadamente oito anos, o cancro da haste (Phomopsis phaseoli f. sp. meridionalis/Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis da soja tem sido o principal fator limitante da produtividade em áreas de manifestação da doença. O seu controle mediante cultivares resistentes é o método mais econômico. Num ensaio em casa de vegetação, visando avaliar o efeito de doses de potássio no controle do cancro da haste, no cultivar IAS-5, moderadamente resistente, verificou-se haver plantas altamente resistentes, comprovadas em três gerações, todas inoculadas com o fungo causador da doença. A importância da obtenção do IAS-5 e de sua multiplicação deve-se a ser o mais cultivado no Estado de São Paulo e apresentar resistência ao cancro da haste.

  6. Search for C4 developmental mutants in Panicum maximum Jacq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladung, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Mutant plants are useful tools for studying developmental processes in defined genetic backgrounds by comparing them with their respective wild type forms. In this sense, developmental mutants or mutations involved in the establishment of certain leaf or flower specific traits are of special interest. In particular, the evolution of C 4 photosynthesis from C 3 precursors was accompanied by severe developmental changes in leaf morphology and anatomy. Our search of such mutants was followed by the idea to approach the evolution of the C 4 syndrome from a mutagenic point of view. Variants affecting normal development of the C 4 leaf anatomy may, in fact, represent possible regressive steps in C4 photosynthesis. Seeds of the C4 grass Panicum maximum Jacq. were mutagenized using ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) and putative variants were isolated in the M2 generation by visual inspection. Main selection characteristics were whole plant, leaf morphology and pigmentation, and growth characteristics. The choice of a polyploid species for mutagenesis experiments was based on the need of detecting rare mutants, which are possibly lethal when using a diploid plant species. These variants could be of regulatory nature, affecting both morphology and physiology of C 4 photosynthesis early in leaf development. In total, nearly 100 variants were isolated and grown to maturity. Main isolated variants, which conforms to the prediction mentioned above, were as following: large interveinal space-1 and -3 (lis1, lis3), abnormal bundle sheath (abs), midribless (mbl) and variegated leaf -1 (var1). The variant lis1 was a short plant with leaves smaller than the wild type, and had a leaf lamina with a crinkly surface. Photosynthetically, lis1 indicates a clear regression from the C 4 to the C 3 photosynthesis type, which was correlated in the leaf lamina with an increase in the distance between small veins. The variant lis3 was not similar phenotypically to lis1, but it also had very

  7. Epidemia de tuberculosis multidrogo resistente y extensivamente resistente a drogas (TB MDR/XDR en el Perú: situación y propuestas para su control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Del Castillo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el estado actual de las epidemias de tuberculosis multidrogo resitente (TB MDR y tuberculosis extensivamente resistente a drogas (TB XDR en el Perú. Se realiza un análisis de nuestra situación con respecto al resto de Latinoamérica, y de la distribución temporo espacial de los casos de TB XDR en Lima. También presentamos nuestra reflexión de lo que está pasando y debe cambiar; lo que se resume en darle la importancia debida a un problema que nos está rebasando y anteponer a nuestros propios intereses, los intereses de la humanidad; por consiguiente no podemos callar, y debemos declarar a la tuberculosis como emergencia sanitaria nacional. Eso constituye una respuesta, esperamos, aún viable para el Perú.

  8. Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l'herbe de lait ( Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ou aux feuilles de patate douce ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) sur la croissance des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.)

  9. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Staphylococcus aureus sensible, con sensibilidad "BORDERLINE" y resistentes a la meticilina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mendoza Ticona

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las susceptibilidad a diversos antibacterianos de tres categorías de S. aureus según su sensibilidad a la meticilina. Materiales y Métodos: Se aislaron 76 cepas de S. aureus que colonizaban pacientes y personal de salud de tres servicios del Hospital Honorio Delgado de Arequipa, de los cuales 36 fueron sensibles a meticilina (MSSA, 15 con susceptibilidad "borderline" (BORSA y 25 fueron resistentes a la meticilina (MRSA. Se les sometió a antibiograma a 14 antibacterianos. Resultados: El único antibiótico al cual todas los aislamientos fueron sensibles fue vancomicina. Los MRSA fueron resistentes a todos los b-lactámicos excepto imipenem que obtuvo 64% de susceptibilidad. Los BORSA mantuvieron un 80% de sensibilidad a cefalotina y un 100% al imipenem. Los antibióticos cefalotina, imipenem, ciprofloxacina, cotrimoxazol, rifampicina, eritromicina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, lincomicina y gentamicina tuvieron sensibilidades variables (p<0.01 entre las tres categorías; una mayor proporción de MSSA fue sensible a estos antibióticos, luego los BORSA y finalmente los MRSA. Las cepas multi-resistentes fueron mucho más frecuentes en los MRSA que en los otros dos grupos (p <0.01. Conclusión: Existe en nuestro medio cepas de S. aureus con resistencia "borderline" a meticilina. Hay diferencias entre la sensibilidad a diversos antimicrobianos entre los tres grupos de S. aureus. Esta diferenciación podría beneficiar una terapia antimicrobiana más racional. Se debe aplicar en todo aislamiento de S. aureus las recomendaciones internacionales para la detección de meticilino resistencia.

  10. Obras de fábrica resistentes. Consideraciones generales de cálculo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenaro Garrido, José María

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studies de resisting capacity of the non reinforced masonry works to normal requirements from the knowledge of the nominal value to compressive resistance of its elements, or from the results from compression tests carried out on masses or on masonry samples. The obtained expressions for homogeneous sections are also valid for sections that, because of their cavities, they can be considered heterogeneous, allowing a determination of its resistant behaviour by means of the introduction of the conceipt of resistant homogeneous equivalent section. Finaly it includes a study on deforming and buckling of the masonry works to which diverse expressions gathered already in the Model Code CEB-FIP and in the Instruction in force EH'82 for Concrete Works are applied.El presente artículo recoge un estudio de la capacidad resistente de las obras de fábrica no armadas ante las solicitaciones normales, a partir del conocimiento del valor nominal de la resistencia a compresión de los elementos componentes o de los resultados de ensayos a compresión realizados sobre macizos o probetas de obra de fábrica. Las expresiones obtenidas para secciones homogéneas se extienden a secciones que por comprender cavidades hayan de considerarse heterogéneas, haciendo posible una determinación de su comportamiento resistente mediante la introducción del concepto de sección resistente homogénea equivalente. Finalmente se incluye un estudio sobre la deformabilidad y pandeo de las obras de fábrica a los que se aplican diversas expresiones ya recogidas en el Código Modelo CEB-FIP y en la vigente Instrucción EH-82 para obras de hormigón.

  11. Fagotipagem de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a antibióticos, isoladas de leite

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    Wanderley Pereira de Araújo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de amostras de leite cru foram isoladas 201 cepas de S. aureus, as quais foram submetidas a provas de resistência a antibióticos pelo método dos discos impregnados com os seguintes antibacterianos: amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, cefoxitina, cloranfenicol, clindamicina, oxacilina, penicilina, tetraciclina, tobramicina e vancomicina. Com exceção de 88 (43,8%, 90 (44,8%, 24 (11,9% e 40 (19,9% cepas resistentes à penicilina, ampicilina, cloranfenicol e tetraciclina, respectivamente, a maioria das 201 cepas (95% ou mais foi sensível aos antibióticos utilizados. As cepas resistentes a estes quatro antibióticos foram fagotipadas, empregando-se os Conjuntos Básicos Internacionais de bacteriófagos para cepas de origem humana e bovina, verificando-se que houve predomínio de cepas sensíveis a fagos dos grupos III e III/NC do conjunto básico humano e a fagos dos grupos III, IV e da associação III/IV do conjunto bovino.

  12. Estrategias de afrontamiento y personalidad resistente en pacientes de cuidados paliativos. Un estudio preliminar

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    CECILIA PEÑACOBA PUENTE

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La medicina paliativa se dedica al cuidado de los pacientes con enfermedades en fase terminal. En España, existen varias unidades de cuidados paliativos, sin embargo, no en todas se lleva a cabo una intervención multidisciplinaria lo cual es esencial para conseguir que una persona muera en una situación de bienestar y con la mejor calidad posible. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las estrategias de afrontamiento existentes en los enfermos ingresados en unidades de cuidados paliativos en fase de aceptación y su relación con la personalidad resistente. Para ello, se administró un instrumento corto en forma de entrevista. Los resultados encontrados muestran que este tipo de pacientes utilizan estrategias de afrontamiento positivas como acción para resolver problemas, búsqueda de recompensas alternativas y reevaluación positiva. Por otro lado, un aspecto de la personalidad resistente encontrada en estos pacientes es el reto lo cual indica que estos pacientes viven esta experiencia como una oportunidad de desarrollo personal.

  13. TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA COM AZUL DE METILENO SOBRE CEPA DE Staphylococcus aureus RESISTENTE À METICILINA

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    Mirian Alves Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available S. aureus é o agente etiológico de maior importância associado às infecções adquiridas tanto em âmbito comunitário ou hospitalar, devido a sua capacidade de desenvolver resistência às terapias convencionais. A Terapia Fotodinâmica (TFD surge como alternativa a ser utilizada no controle de cepas resistentes aos antibioticos. O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos da TFD com Azul de Metileno (AM sobre cepas de S. aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA. As amostras foram diluídas em PBS estéril de acordo com a escala 0,5 de MacFarland. Os grupos foram compostos com diferentes concentrações de AM, incubados no escuro durante 15 minutos e irradiados por LED Biopdi/Irrad-Led5 em 660nm com fluência de 10 J/cm². Posteriormente, foram semeadas e incubadas à 37ºC por 24 horas. A contagem de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias (UFCs demonstrou que a TFD foi eficaz na menor concentração testada de AM sobre cepas de MRSA.

  14. A comparative study on genetic effects of artificial and natural habitat fragmentation on Loropetalum chinense (Hamamelidaceae) in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, N; Comes, H P; Cao, Y N; Guo, R; Zhang, Y H; Qiu, Y X

    2015-06-01

    Elucidating the demographic and landscape features that determine the genetic effects of habitat fragmentation has become fundamental to research in conservation and evolutionary biology. Land-bridge islands provide ideal study areas for investigating the genetic effects of habitat fragmentation at different temporal and spatial scales. In this context, we compared patterns of nuclear microsatellite variation between insular populations of a shrub of evergreen broad-leaved forest, Loropetalum chinense, from the artificially created Thousand-Island Lake (TIL) and the Holocene-dated Zhoushan Archipelago of Southeast China. Populations from the TIL region harboured higher levels of genetic diversity than those from the Zhoushan Archipelago, but these differences were not significant. There was no correlation between genetic diversity and most island features, excepting a negative effect of mainland-island distance on allelic richness and expected heterozygosity in the Zhoushan Archipelago. In general, levels of gene flow among island populations were moderate to high, and tests of alternative models of population history strongly favoured a gene flow-drift model over a pure drift model in each region. In sum, our results showed no obvious genetic effects of habitat fragmentation due to recent (artificial) or past (natural) island formation. Rather, they highlight the importance of gene flow (most likely via seed) in maintaining genetic variation and preventing inter-population differentiation in the face of habitat 'insularization' at different temporal and spatial scales.

  15. Exploring natural variation of photosynthetic, primary metabolism and growth parameters in a large panel of Capsicum chinense accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Souza, Laise; Scossa, Federico; Chaves, Izabel S; Kleessen, Sabrina; Salvador, Luiz F D; Milagre, Jocimar C; Finger, Fernando; Bhering, Leonardo L; Sulpice, Ronan; Araújo, Wagner L; Nikoloski, Zoran; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

    2015-09-01

    Collectively, the results presented improve upon the utility of an important genetic resource and attest to a complex genetic basis for differences in both leaf metabolism and fruit morphology between natural populations. Diversity of accessions within the same species provides an alternative method to identify physiological and metabolic traits that have large effects on growth regulation, biomass and fruit production. Here, we investigated physiological and metabolic traits as well as parameters related to plant growth and fruit production of 49 phenotypically diverse pepper accessions of Capsicum chinense grown ex situ under controlled conditions. Although single-trait analysis identified up to seven distinct groups of accessions, working with the whole data set by multivariate analyses allowed the separation of the 49 accessions in three clusters. Using all 23 measured parameters and data from the geographic origin for these accessions, positive correlations between the combined phenotypes and geographic origin were observed, supporting a robust pattern of isolation-by-distance. In addition, we found that fruit set was positively correlated with photosynthesis-related parameters, which, however, do not explain alone the differences in accession susceptibility to fruit abortion. Our results demonstrated that, although the accessions belong to the same species, they exhibit considerable natural intraspecific variation with respect to physiological and metabolic parameters, presenting diverse adaptation mechanisms and being a highly interesting source of information for plant breeders. This study also represents the first study combining photosynthetic, primary metabolism and growth parameters for Capsicum to date.

  16. Quality control of goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill.): A value chain analysis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruyu; Heinrich, Michael; Wang, Zigui; Weckerle, Caroline S

    2018-06-14

    Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill., Solanaceae) have been used as a traditional food and medicine for hundreds of years in Asian countries and are now consumed globally. Quality of herbal medicines is critical for safe use and has been shown to be affected by value chains. Using a value chain (VC) framework, we aim at understanding the influence of different VC types on goji quality and revenue of stakeholders. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted during five months of fieldwork in the main production areas in China with a total of 65 stakeholders. Quality of goji, behaviour and financial performance of stakeholders was documented and analysed for different VCs. Ten different types of VCs were identified. VCs with vertical integration and horizontal collaboration were found to have a more coherent quality control and better goji quality as well as improved stakeholders' financial performance. Vertical integration at different levels was found for independent farmer-based VCs, horizontal collaboration was found in the cooperative-based VCs. Full vertically integrated VCs were found in large-scale production. Goji quality and stakeholders' revenues are linked with different types of VCs which mirror stakeholders' behaviour driven by target markets. Considering their positive influence on quality and revenues, well-developed vertically integrated value chains are likely to become more important in the near future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Factores de riesgo para bacteriemia por Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos adquirida en un hospital colombiano

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    Sandra Liliana Valderrama

    2016-04-01

    Conclusión. Para el control de la aparición de P. aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos, se deben fortalecer los programas de control de antimicrobianos, promover el uso prudente de carbapenémicos y quinolonas, y vigilar el uso adecuado de la nutrición parenteral.

  18. Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate Management of Glyphosate-resistant Conyza bonariensis

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    J.M. Paula

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available C. bonariensis (Conyza bonariensis é uma planta daninha da família Asteraceae, amplamente distribuída no Brasil, com presença marcante nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paraná. Biótipos de C. bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate foram identificados nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná e São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de inverno e na pré-semeadura da soja sobre a população de plantas de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate. Os resultados evidenciaram que a população de C. bonariensis é maior em áreas mantidas sem cultivo (pousio do que naquelas áreas cultivadas com trigo ou aveia-preta durante o inverno. Observou-se que o trigo e a aveia-preta exercem efeito supressor sobre a população de C. bonariensis, proporcionando maior facilidade de controle com herbicida na pré-semeadura da cultura usada em sucessão. O controle de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate foi satisfatório quando se utilizaram herbicidas pós-emergentes na cultura do trigo e glyphosate + 2,4-D ou glyphosate + diuron + paraquat na pré-semeadura da soja.Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis, which belongs to the Asteraceae family, is a weed species widely spread in Brazil. Horseweed biotypes resistant to glyphosate, the main herbicide used in Roundup Ready soybean fields, were identified in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Parana. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different winter and pre-sowing management techniques on soybean plant population of C. bonariensis resistant to glyphosate. The results showed that the population of C. bonariensis is larger in areas maintained fallow than in areas planted with wheat or oats during the winter. Wheat and oats were found to exert a suppressive effect on the population of C. bonariensis, providing greater ease of control with herbicide before seeding in the culture used in succession. The control of glyphosate-resistant C

  19. Polyphenolic Composition of Crataegus monogyna Jacq.: From Chemistry to Medical Applications

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    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of scientific evidence has shown that many synthetic drugs can cause serious adverse effects in patients. Recently, the search of natural therapeutic agents with low adverse effects has attracted much attention. In particular, considerable interest has focused on edible and medicinal plants, which play an important role in human diet, and have been used for disease treatment since ancient times. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn is one of the most important edible plants of the Rosaceae family and is also used in traditional medicine. Growing evidence has shown that this plant has various interesting physiological and pharmacological activities due to the presence of different bioactive natural compounds. In addition, scientific evidence suggests that the toxicity of hawthorn is negligible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the available scientific literature about pharmacological activities as well as botanical aspects, phytochemistry and clinical impacts of C. monogyna.

  20. Detection of potassium deficiency on palm oil tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diomande, K.; Konate, A.; Krou Adjo, V.; Soro, A.; Ebby, N.; Ballo, K.

    1998-02-01

    The potassium is the main nutrient element which plays a significant role on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) production and its resistance to the dry season. One can observe 30% decrease of the production in case of potassium deficiency. The potassium nutrition control of an oil palm tree field is a very important activity and leads to the fertilization policy. The Laser Induced Fluorescence (L.I.F.) is a fast and simple method compared to the classical one, ''Diagnostic Foliaire'', usually used in agronomy. We used the L.I.F. method to detect the oil palm tree stress caused by potassium deficiency, analysing the fluorescence spectrum of the chlorophyll a. We proved that the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectrum R=F690/F73S is superior to 0.5 when the tree is under stress and its value is around 0.4 in case of intact tree. (author)

  1. Effect of gamma rays on some qualitative and quantitative characters in Zinnia elegans Jacq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, P.; Jayabalan, N.

    1997-01-01

    Mutations were induced in Zinnia elegans Jacq. cv. Crimson Red by using gamma irradiation for plant morphology and flower colour. Significant effects were observed as shown by the increased mean value of plant height, branch number, flower number, and flower diameter up to 7.5 kR dose. Among the gamma-ray doses, only 7.5 kR produced significant morphological changes in Zinnia elegans, which may be due to additive gene effect. Four types of new flower colour mutations were induced: majenta, yellow, red and red with white spots. The number of petals (ray florets) was significantly higher in the mutants over control. Two types of structural anomalies were also identified

  2. Endocardite acuta da Staphylococcus haemolyticus meticillino sensibile, con recidiva dopo trattamento da ceppo meticillino resistente

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    Giacomo Magnani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Le endocarditi su valvole native (NVE da Stafilococchi coagulasi negativi (CoNS presentano un andamento aggressivo simile a quello da Staphylococcus aureus e sono difficili da trattare per l’alta incidenza da parte dei CoNS di resistenza a oxacillina.Viene riportato un caso di NVE da Staphylococcus haemolyticus meticillino sensibile, con risposta iniziale favorevole al trattamento con oxacillina, ma con successiva recidiva a distanza di tre mesi legata comparsa di ceppo oxacillino-resistente. L’ipotesi è che l’infezione sia stata sostenuta da una popolazione batterica con fenotipo eteroresistente, che in seguito al trattamento antibiotico ha sviluppato resistenza omogenea a oxacillina. Nell’impostare un trattamento per infezioni gravi da Stafilococchi sensibili in vitro ad oxacillina è necessario considerare sempre la presenza di un eteroresistenza.

  3. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos

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    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.

  4. Penambahan Sabut Kelapa Pada Media Tanam Dan Frekuensi Penyiraman Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elais guineensis Jacq.) Di Main Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Juanda, Chriso

    2017-01-01

    100301129 Chriso Juanda, ?Penambahan Sabut Kelapa Pada Media Tanam Dan Frekuensi Penyiraman Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Di Main Nursey? , dibawah bimbingan Charloq dan Revandy I.M. Damanik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon penambahan sabut kelapa pada media tanam dan frekuensi penyiraman terhadap pertumbuhan bibit kelapa sawit di main nursery. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari 2017 hingga Maret 2017 di PPKS Aek Pancur, Kecamat...

  5. Cryopreservation of chayote (Sechium edule JACQ.SW.) zygotic embryos and shoot-tips from in vitroplantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Engelmann, Florent

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of cryopreservation protocols for zygotic embryos and apices of chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.), a tropical plant species with recalcitrant seeds. Zygotic embryos of two cultivars, Ccocro negro (CN) and Claudio (Cl) could withstand cryopreservation, with survival percentages of 10 and 30 %, after desiccation to 23 and 19 % moisture content (fresh weight basis), respectively. Apices sampled on in vitro plantlets of cultivars Cl, 13 and JM we...

  6. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

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    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  7. OCORRÊNCIA E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DO AMIDO RESISTENTE EM AMIDOS DE MILHO E DE BANANA

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    Teixeira Maria A.V.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi estudada a ocorrência de Amido Resistente (AR em amidos de milho e de banana (naturalmente resistente e investigado o efeito das variáveis: umidade de condicionamento, tempo e temperatura de armazenamento dos géis, na formação do AR em amido normal de milho; além das características físico-químicas e a estrutura fina do AR de milho e de banana. Foi observado que o teor de AR em amidos de milho e banana (2,5% e 49,61%, respectivamente parece não estar relacionada com a composição química do grânulo. O amido de banana apresentou grânulos com certo poliformismo, padrão de raio-x tipo B, além de uma fração linear de DP 34 resistente à b-amilólise. A estrutura cristalina que mantém o grânulo do amido de banana coeso, por si só, não explicou o alto teor de AR encontrado. O amido de milho normal apresentou formas poliédricas e padrão difração em raio-x tipo A. Não foi observada a fração com DP 34 resistente à b-amilólise, apesar da sua maior coesividade quando comparado ao amido de banana. O tratamento hidrotérmico aplicado no amido normal de milho quase triplicou o teor de AR (7,15% devido à formação de estruturas cristalinas coesas. O AR de milho (7,15% de AR, constituído por fragmentos porosos, apresentou padrão de difração tipo C. A não significância do tempo de armazenamento dos géis na produção do AR e a fração linear com DP 34 resistente à b-amilólise presente nos cromatogramas, sugerem a participação da amilose na formação desta estrutura resistente.

  8. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

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    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  9. Nuevos genotipos de arroz resistentes a la Piriculariosis obtenidos por cultivo de anteras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo I Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: New blast resistant rice genotypes obtained by and anthers culture. Resumen: En la Estación Experimental del Arroz Los Palacios, perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas de Cuba (INCA, se efectuaron cruzamientos entre cuatro cultivares resistentes a la Piriculariosis y seis de buen comportamiento agronómico y las anteras de las plantas F2 fueron cultivadas in vitro para evaluar la formación de callos en tres medios líquidos: N6-1, N6-m y NL, así como la regeneración de plantas verdes y albinas, en el medio MS. Las dos primeras generaciones de las nuevas líneas obtenidas fueron evaluadas para caracteres agronómicos y la segunda generación, además, para resistencia frente a la  Piriculariosis. Las líneas que combinaron resistencia a la Piriculariosis y buenos caracteres agronómicos fueron evaluadas en condiciones de infección natural, con alta presión del patógeno. La utilización de la técnica del cultivo de anteras mostró alta dependencia del genotipo y el medio de cultivo. Con el medio NL se lograron los valores más altos para la formación de callos. Se obtuvieron nuevos genotipos resistentes a la Piriculariosis y  de alto rendimiento agrícola. Palabras clave: Arroz; Mejoramiento genético; Cultivo in Vitro de anteras Summary: Crosses were made between four blast resistant and six rice varieties of good agronomic performance, at the Los Palacios Rice Research Station of the National Agricultural Sciences Institute of Cuba (INCA and the anthers from F2 plants were in vitro culture using three liquid media: N6-1, N6m, and NL, for callus formation and after plants regenerations using MS medium. The first two generations of breeding lines were evaluated for agronomic characters and the second generations, also, for Blast resistant. The lines that combined resistance to Blast and good agronomic performance were evaluated under high pressure of natural Blast infection conditions. The success

  10. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja resistente ao glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Maria Correia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas em área cultivada com soja resistente ao herbicida glyphosate, sem a utilização de práticas complementares de manejo de plantas daninhas. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos, em condições de campo, nos anos agrícolas 2005/2006 e 2006/2007 em Jaboticabal (SP. Foram avaliadas duas cultivares de soja resistentes ao glyphosate (CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR, oito tratamentos de herbicidas (glyphosate, em aplicação única, nas doses de 0,48; 0,72; 0,96 e 1,20 kg ha-1 de equivalente ácido, associadas ou não a aplicação sequencial na dose de 0,48 kg ha-1, além de duas testemunhas, uma capinada e outra mantida infestada. As cultivares de soja influenciaram na infestação das espécies de plantas daninhas na área. Sem a aplicação de glyphosate, houve o predomínio de X. strumarium na área, desfavorecendo a ocorrência de outras espécies. Quando utilizado glyphosate, independentemente da dose, a infestação contabilizada aos 35 e 40 dias após a primeira aplicação, no primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente, foi baixa. O controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja transgênica é diretamente influenciado pela dose de glyphosate, havendo controle satisfatório com a aplicação única de 0,96 kg ha-1 ou a sequencial de 0,48 + 0,48 kg ha-1 de glyphosate. Em situação de menor infestação (2006/2007, a aplicação única de 0,48 kg ha-1 de glyphosate é suficiente para o controle das plantas daninhas. As cultivares de soja transgênica CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR influenciam diferencialmente a dinâmica das espécies de plantas daninhas, sendo o controle químico mais efetivo na situação de cultivo de M-SOY 8008 RR, em que houve menor diversidade e desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas.

  11. Haemonchus resistente a lactona macrocíclica em caprinos naturalmente parasitados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Mary Jane Tweedie de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O ivermectin, antiparasitário amplamente utilizado em caprinos jovens, foi avaliado sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais, em todas as fases parasitárias. Doze caprinos jovens, naturalmente parasitados foram utilizados no experimento, sendo um grupo de seis animais medicado com ivermectin, na dose de 200µg.kg-1 v.o. e o outro grupo utilizado como controle. Para a avaliação, utilizou-se o teste de redução na contagem de ovos (FECR, redução de larvas infectantes e carga parasitária. Amostras fecais de caprinos foram coletadas no dia da medicação (dia zero, aos sete e catorze dias. No décimo quarto dia pós-medicação, todos os caprinos foram sacrificados, para a coleta de helmintos e cálculo da carga parasitária total. A redução do número de ovos (FECR e a eficácia sobre adultos foi de 42,10 % e 32,62 %, respectivamente.O gênero Haemonchus representou 100 % da população do grupo medicado e 99,58 % do grupo controle. Estes resultados indicam que os caprinos já estavam parasitados por Haemonchus resistente ao ivermectin.

  12. Antiproliferative mechanism of the methanolic extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, Abimbola; Venables, Luanne; Odedeji, Modeola; Koekemoer, Trevor; van de Venter, Maryna; Hongbing, Liu

    2015-01-15

    Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. is a tropical tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases including cancer. To explore the ethnopharmacological claims against cancer, the cytotoxicity of the methanolic extract of the leaves, was investigated using the brine shrimp lethality assay, MTT assay using cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines, cell cycle analysis and Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. In the brine shrimp lethality assay, the extract showed cytotoxic activity with LC50 value of 31.63 µg/mL. Significant growth inhibition was observed in both cell lines with IC50 values of 2.07 ± 1.30 µg/mL and 11.84 ± 1.18 µg/mL for HeLa and MCF7, respectively. Cell cycle analysis indicated that HeLa cells were arrested in the G2/M phase while MCF7 cells arrested in the G1/G0 phase. The Annexin V-FITC/PI assay revealed phosphatidylserine translocation in both cell lines and thus apoptosis induction upon treatment with the extract. The study demonstrated the potential antiproliferative activity of Enterolobium cyclocarpum thereby supporting the traditional claim and provides basis for further mechanistic studies and isolation of active constituents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibitory effect of verbascoside isolated from Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng on prolyl oligopeptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Augusto G; Morel, Ademir F; Adolpho, Luciana; Ilha, Vinícius; Giralt, Ernest; Tarragó, Teresa; Dalcol, Ionara I

    2012-10-01

    The phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl)-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeyl)-glucopyranoside] (1) has been isolated as the main constituent of the crude extract of Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng from Southern Brazil. The crude extract, main fractions and the compound 1 were evaluated for inhibition of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). Compound 1 showed weak activity against DPP-IV with an IC(50) > 150 µM and was inactive against AChE, with a pMIQ determined by bioautography of 9.6. In contrast, 1 displayed significant inhibition of POP in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 1.3 ± 0.2 µM, similar to the positive control, baicalin, with a POP IC(50) of 12 ± 3 µM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Floret and Fruit Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok S.Y.; Ong-Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes are expected when flowers are fertilized and fruit formation is initiated.In this study,differentially expressed proteins between florets (day before pollination and day after pollination) and fruit (2 weeks after pollination) tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were identified and characterized.Proteins were extracted using phenol-based method and subjected to one-and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts showed a number of protein bands common to both types of floret and fruit tissues.Subsequently,protein extracts resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in the 4 to 7 pH range revealed about 53 expressed proteins showed significant differences during fertilization and fruit formation.The differentially expressed proteins were excised and digested with trypsin.Proteins were then identified with the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS),resulting in a 73.5% success in protein identification.The identified proteins were mainly involved in protein metabolism,biological regulation,stress response and oxidationreduction process.Further verification of the results are underway but nonetheless this study has provided some valuable information on fertilization and early fruit formation in oil palm.

  15. De novo transcriptome analyses of host-fungal interactions in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Yeoh, Keat-Ai; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong

    2016-01-19

    Basal stem rot (BSR) is a fungal disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which is caused by hemibiotrophic white rot fungi belonging to the Ganoderma genus. Molecular responses of oil palm to these pathogens are not well known although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to eradicate BSR. In order to elucidate the molecular interactions between oil palm and G. boninense and its biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum, we compared the root transcriptomes of untreated oil palm seedlings with those inoculated with G. boninense and T. harzianum, respectively. Differential gene expression analyses revealed that jasmonate (JA) and salicylate (SA) may act in an antagonistic manner in affecting the hormone biosynthesis, signaling, and downstream defense responses in G. boninense-treated oil palm roots. In addition, G. boninense may compete with the host to control disease symptom through the transcriptional regulation of ethylene (ET) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging. The strengthening of host cell walls and production of pathogenesis-related proteins as well as antifungal secondary metabolites in host plants, are among the important defense mechanisms deployed by oil palm against G. boninense. Meanwhile, endophytic T. harzianum was shown to improve the of nutrition status and nutrient transportation in host plants. The findings of this analysis have enhanced our understanding on the molecular interactions of G. boninense and oil palm, and also the biocontrol mechanisms involving T. harzianum, thus contributing to future formulations of better strategies for prevention and treatment of BSR.

  16. Nutraceutic Characteristics of the Extracts and Juice of Chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. Fruits

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    María de la Luz Riviello-Flores

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz] are a non-traditional vegetable widely consumed in Latin America, with the state of Veracruz, México being the world’s main producer, but little is known about the nutraceutical potential. This study aimed to determine the chemical compositions and antioxidant activities from the juice fruits from two commercial varieties of chayote cultivated in Mexico, as well as a proposal for the elaboration of chayote juices with stevia leaves and pineapple juice. The physicochemical properties of juice from virens levis (VL and nigrum spinosum (NS varieties were determined using standard methods. The juice of the two varieties differ significantly regarding the concentrations of total soluble solids and total sugars, but not vitamin C. The total concentration of phenolics in NS extracts was slightly higher than in VL (1005 and 856 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively, but the total flavonoid contents were similar (27 and 26 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively. Cucurbitacin D was predominant in both varieties. The radical scavenging capacities of VL and NS extracts varied slightly (IC50 = 0.45 to 0.65 mg mL−1, while the antioxidant activities were similar (~80%. The NS variety is particularly promising regarding nutraceutical application. The chayote juice combined with stevia and pineapple maintained the original nutraceutical characteristics of the fruit, but enhanced the organoleptic characteristics like density and sugar/acidity balance.

  17. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas in Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr. rhizosphere

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    Juliana Coromoto Mayz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal includes isolation, characterization and identification of Pseudomonas species existing in the rhizosphere of a legume present (colonizing or survivor in a savanna soil polluted by an oil spill, in order to explain the support of the growth of this leguminous plant through the reduction of the toxicity of spilled oil (hydrocarbonoclastic effects. The site is located at Amana del Tamarindo village entrance, Monagas State, Venezuela (9 ° 38' 52 "N, 63 ° 7' 20" E, 46 masl. An area of 50 m2 was sampled.  In concordance to the descriptions, keys, and comparison with the UOJ Herbarium exsiccatae, the legume collected was identified as Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr., which belongs to the Fabaceae family. The results of the biochemical characterization and the production of pyocyanine and fluorescein pigments allowed identifying 10 isolates as P. fluorescens, 5 as P. putida and 5 as P. aeruginosa. Samanea saman is recommended for re-vegetation of the contaminated area.

  18. Pollen viability and its effect on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at studying (1 the decline of pollen viability during storage, and (2 the effect of pollen amount on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was conducted at PT. Dami Mas Sejahtera and PT. Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART Tbk, Riau from February to August 2004. The first experiment was investigated up to six months storage period in the refrigerator, whereas in the second experiment a randomized complete block design with two factors was used: length of storage, i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months and amount of pollen, i.e. 0.022, 0.044, 0.066, 0.088, and 0.11 g mixed with powder to 10g to pollinate an inflorescence. The result showed that the viability of pollen started to decline three months after storage from about 92% to 83%, and declined to about 75% after six months of storage. Result of the second experiment showed that storage of pollen up to two months did not affect percentage of normal fruit, although the percentage of parthenocarpic fruits was decreased. This could be due to the high viability of pollen as the viability was remained high (about 90% after being stored for two months in the refrigerator. Pollen with high viability could be used in a smaller amount to pollinate a female inflorescence without affecting fruit set of about 70-76%.SD037 had a higher reproductive success than SD038 and SD39.

  19. Determinação da dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense com base em características de flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sigales de Vasconcelos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As pimentas do gênero Capsicum apresentam grande importância para o mercado de condimentos e para o uso ornamental no Brasil. A estimativa da diversidade genética é importante na escolha de progenitores de programa de melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a eficiência de descritores multicategóricos de flores para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense, do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma Capsicum, da Embrapa Clima Temperado. O experimento foi realizado no período de agosto de 2009 a março de 2010, no campo experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, em blocos ao acaso, utilizando-se 22 acessos, com dez plantas por parcela. Para a caracterização morfológica das flores, foram avaliadas cinco flores de cada planta, de dez plantas por acesso. Foram utilizados 15 descritores, sendo cinco quantitativos e dez qualitativos multicategóricos. Foram realizadas análises de comparação de médias, utilizando-se agrupamento pelos métodos UPGMA e de Tocher, para os dados quantitativos, e agrupamento pelo método de Tocher, para os dados qualitativos. Os acessos estudados apresentam ampla diversidade genética em relação a descritores de flores, existindo grande variabilidade entre os acessos avaliados, o que recomenda seu uso em programas de melhoramento genético. O uso de descritores multicategóricos de flores é eficiente para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense.

  20. The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martínez-Azorín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of A. caudata are described as a new related species: A. bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed.

  1. Perfil alimentario y plan de pastoreo para la producción lechera con pasturas Panicum maximum Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez Delgado, Jimny Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal Se condujo un experimento con el objetivo de diseñar perfiles alimentarios de vacas doble propósito al pastoreo en pasturas de PanicummaximumJacq., asociado con árboles nativos de Acacia macracanthaen la Unidad Agropecuaria San Antonio, provincia de Jaén, región Cajamarca. La toma de datos y colección de muestras se realizaron en las épocas seca, inicio de lluvias y lluviosa. Se instalaron 14 excluid...

  2. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... are regarded as waste after plants' fruits or seeds have been harvested. AMPs from ... including bacteria, fungi, viruses and oomycetes causing ..... Antibacterial effect of protein fraction from seeds of Capsicum chinense Jacq.

  3. Infeção por staphylococcus aureus meticilina-resistente da comunidade em Portugal

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    R. Nazareth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Recentemente assistiu-se à emergência de infeções na comunidade por Staphylococcus aureus meticilina-resistente (MRSA em indivíduos sem fatores de risco. O MRSA associado à comunidade (CA-MRSA parece ser mais virulento, causando desde infeções superficiais da pele e tecidos moles até fasceíte necrosante e, raramente, pneumonia.O CA-MRSA foi inicialmente identificado na Austrália no início da década de 80 e, após cerca de duas décadas, surgiu nos EUA e em vários países da Europa, Ásia e América do Sul. Não existe informação disponível acerca da prevalência em Portugal.Os autores reportam o primeiro caso de infeção por CA-MRSA em Portugal, num adulto jovem com pneumonia necrotizante grave complicada por empiema bilateral e insuficiência respiratória. Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has recently emerged as a cause of community-acquired infections among individuals without risk factors. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA appears to be more virulent, causing superficial mild skin and soft tissue infections to severe necrotizing fasciitis, and in rare cases, pneumonia.Community-associated MRSA was first reported in Australia in the early 80s, after almost two decades in the USA, and then in several countries in Europe, Asia and South America. No data exists in Portugal.We report the first case of CA-MRSA infection in Portugal, in a young adult with severe necrotizing pneumonia, complicated with bilateral empyema and respiratory failure. Palavras-chave: comunidade associada, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, pneumonia necrosante, empiema, Keywords: Community-associated, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, Necrotizing pneumonia, Empyema

  4. Amido resistente em diversas fontes não convencionais de amido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fontinha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Amido resistente (AR é aquele que não é digerido no intestino delgado, conduzindo a efeitos benéficos para a saúde, tal como a fibra dietética faz. Procedeu-se à determinação do AR em farinhas e amidos extraídos de duas variedades de castanha (Castanea sativa Mill, Longal e Martainha, da bolota de azinheira (Quercus rotundifolia e da glande do sobreiro (Quercus suber. As farinhas foram obtidas por moenda dos frutos após secagem a diferentes temperaturas, 40º C, 50º C, 60ºC e 70ºC. Posteriormente, procedeu-se ao isolamento dos amidos das farinhas, através da aplicação de dois métodos de extracção: um físico-químico e outro enzimático. Verificou-se que os teores de AR mais elevados foram os apresentados pelas farinhas dos frutos secos a 60ºC, sendo de 46,8%, 36,5%, 39,9% e 43,9%, respectivamente para as castanhas das variedades Longal e Martainha, para a bolota e para a glande. O método de extracção que apresentou valores mais elevados de AR para os amidos extraídos dos diferentes materiais foi o método físico-químico. Tudo indica que a secagem dos frutos a 60ºC e a aplicação do método de extracção do amido pelo processo físico-químico nas farinhas dos frutos secos a esta temperatura são aqueles que melhor preservam a estrutura dos amidos.

  5. Fagoterapia frente a infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Tamariz

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad de los bacteriófagos frente a infecciones localizadas y sistémicas producidas por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de tipo experimental en 45 ratones de la cepa Balb/c divididos en nueve grupos de cinco individuos. Se aislaron diez bacteriófagos nativos a partir de muestras clínicas y efluentes hospitalarios, se evaluó su capacidad lítica y su espectro de actividad, en base a lo cual se seleccionaron seis fagos para los ensayos de fagoterapia. Adicionalmente, se empleó un bacteriófago de origen comercial. La fagoterapia fue evaluada mediante profilaxis y terapia de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas causadas por la inoculación de MRSA por vía subcutánea y endovenosa respectivamente. Se probó la efectividad de tres esquemas terapéuticos: monoterapia, cóctel de fagos en múltiples dosis y de cóctel de fagos en una sola dosis. También se comparó la actividad terapéutica de los fagos frente a vancomicina y clindamicina. Resultados. El cóctel de fagos y la terapia a diversas dosis fueron efectivos para prevenir y controlar infecciones localizadas por MRSA, su actividad fue similar a la de vancomicina y clindamicina. La dosis única del cóctel de fagos no logró controlar la infección localizada; asimismo, la fagoterapia no resultó efectiva en infecciones sistémicas. Conclusiones. La fagoterapia se proyecta como una alternativa viable frente a infecciones causadas por MRSA. Se requieren estudios que evalúen aspectos relacionados con la inocuidad de los fagos frente al paciente

  6. De novo transcriptome assembly for the tropical grass Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Toledo-Silva

    Full Text Available Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different genotypes were sequenced, and the combined reads were assembled de novo into 38,192 unigenes and annotated; approximately 63% of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Functional classification through COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses showed that the unigenes from Guinea grass leaves are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including C4 photosynthesis and lignocellulose generation, which are important for cattle grazing and bioenergy production. The most abundant transcripts were involved in carbon fixation, photosynthesis, RNA translation and heavy metal cellular homeostasis. Finally, we identified a number of potential molecular markers, including 5,035 microsatellites (SSRs and 346,456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the complete leaf transcriptome of P. maximum using high-throughput sequencing. The biological information provided here will aid in gene expression studies and marker-assisted selection-based breeding research in tropical grasses.

  7. Sensibilidad al benzonidazol de cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi sugiere la circulación de cepas naturalmente resistentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Mejía-Jaramillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La enfermedad de Chagas, causada por Trypanosoma cruzi, es uno de los problemas más graves de salud pública en el continente americano. El benzonidazol es uno de los dos medicamentos utilizados para tratar la enfermedad de Chagas. Sin embargo, la variación de la sensibilidad del parásito a este medicamento es una de las principales causas del fracaso del tratamiento. Objetivo. Evaluar la sensibilidad in vitro al benzonidazol de cepas colombianas de T. cruzi de diferentes orígenes y procedencia geográfica. Materiales y métodos. Treinta y tres cepas colombianas de T. cruzi aisladas de humanos, vectores y mamíferos, se analizaron in vitro mediante el micrométodo enzimático de MTT para determinar la concentración inhibitoria 50 (CI50 al benzonidazol. Se estudió la correlación entre la sensibilidad in vitro al medicamento y diferentes parámetros biológicos y eco-epidemiológicos. Resultados. El análisis de sensibilidad al medicamento indicó que el 36 % de las cepas eran sensibles, el 48 %, parcialmente resistentes y, el 16 %, resistentes al benzonidazol. Los análisis de correlación entre las CI50 con algunos parámetros biológicos y eco-epidemiológicos, mostraron diferencias en cuanto a la sensibilidad según el origen biológico y el área geográfica de procedencia de la cepa. Conclusiones. Existe una gran variabilidad en cuanto a la sensibilidad al benzonidazol de las cepas circulantes de T. cruzi en Colombia, lo cual sugiere la presencia de cepas naturalmente resistentes en el país.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i2.458

  8. Manejo de capim pé-de-galinha em lavouras de soja transgênica resistente ao glifosato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Rosa Ulguim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de capim pé-de-galinha (Eleusine indica ao glifosato, em lavouras de soja transgênica; avaliar o efeito de aplicações de glifosato em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento; identificar práticas agronômicas associadas à seleção de biótipos resistentes; e avaliar a eficiência dos herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico, clomazona, glufosinato de amônio e glifosato nas plantas resistentes. Plantas escapes ao tratamento com glifosato foram coletadas em 24 propriedades, no Rio Grande do Sul. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, tendo-se avaliado a sua resistência ao glifosato. Os acessos resistentes foram selecionados e avaliados quanto ao efeito da aplicação do glifosato em diferentes estádios de crescimento e quanto à sensibilidade aos herbicidas. Foi aplicado um questionário aos produtores para identificação das práticas agronômicas associadas às falhas no controle. O controle de E. indica pelo glifosato é mais efetivo com a aplicação em estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Práticas agronômicas, como uso contínuo de baixas doses do herbicida, aplicação em estádios de desenvolvimento avançados das plantas daninhas (mais de um afilho e a ausência de rotação de culturas foram relacionadas às falhas de controle observadas. Os herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico e glufosinato de amônio são alternativas eficientes para o controle de E. indica.

  9. Electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-resistant mania: case reports A Eletroconvulsoterapia no tratamento da mania resistente: relatos de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Britto de Macedo Soares

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy is known to be effective in the treatment of mood disorders, more specifically for depression and mania. Although a large body of evidence confirms the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of mania, few prospective studies have been done to assess its effectiveness in treatment-resistant manic episodes. These case reports describe the initial results of a study that is being conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Electroconvulsive therapy among treatment-resistant bipolar patients. METHODS: Three manic patients (according to DSM-IV criteria who were considered treatment-resistant underwent a series of 12 bilateral Electroconvulsive therapy sessions. Before the treatment and then weekly, they were evaluated with the following rating scales: Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version. RESULTS: The 3 patients showed a satisfactory response to Electroconvulsive therapy, although some differences in the course of response were observed. CONCLUSION: These case reports suggest that Electroconvulsive therapy needs further evaluation for the treatment of resistant bipolar patients.A Eletroconvulsoterapia é uma alternativa reconhecidamente eficaz no tratamento dos transtornos do humor. Embora vários estudos tenham confirmado a eficácia desta modalidade terapêutica no tratamento da mania aguda, poucos estudos foram realizados em pacientes maníacos resistentes à farmacoterapia. Esses relatos de casos descrevem resultados preliminares de um projeto de pesquisa que tem por objetivo avaliar a eficácia da Eletroconvulsoterapia no tratamento de transtornos bipolares resistentes. MÉTODOS: Três pacientes com diagnóstico de mania (de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV, considerados resistentes ao tratamento medicamentoso, foram submetidos a 12 aplicações bilaterais de Eletroconvulsoterapia. Antes do tratamento e

  10. Aislamiento de Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente en abscesos de mama en una Maternidad Pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Boccaccio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis y los abscesos de mama representan un factor de riesgo para el abandono de la lactancia. Se incluyen dentro de las infecciones de piel y partes blandas y comparten los cambios epidemiológicos que llevan a replantear el tratamiento empírico inicial. Se estudiaron 137 casos de abscesos de mama desde enero de 2007 a diciembre de 2011. Se analizó incidencia, días postparto, factores de riesgo, datos microbiológicos y tratamiento antibiótico. Desde 2007a 2011 se observó un constante aumento de la incidencia de casos: 0.19 vs. 0.84% (p < 0.001. Días postparto de aparición del absceso 41.9 ± 35.8 días (Media ± DE, primiparidad 70.6%. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentemente encontrados fueron grietas del pezón e ingurgitación mamaria (95%. Staphylococcus aureus (SA fue el responsable de 82.3 a 95.0% de los abscesos según los años; la resistencia a oxacilina de las cepas de SA superó el 60%. Las cepas aisladas de SA meticilino resistentes (SAMR fueron sensibles a eritromicina clindamicina, gentamicina, rifampicina, ciprofloxacina y trimetroprima-sulfametoxasol en diferentes porcentajes según los años. Requirieron drenaje el 100% de los casos; en 60% el tratamiento empírico inicial fue inadecuado. Continuaron amamantando 90% de las madres. Estos datos enfatizan la necesidad de prevenir los factores de riesgo: grietas del pezón e ingurgitación mamaria. La modificación del tratamiento antibiótico inicial requiere el estudio bacteriológico de las infecciones de piel y partes blandas dado que la prevalencia de SAMR no es uniforme y varía en diferentes poblaciones y ubicaciones geográficas.

  11. Sistema de autoconstrucción sismorresistente: características resistentes y proceso constructivo

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    Orta, B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dwelling construction with soil, adobe or brick without call for technical advice is very typical in countries in process of development that are in areas of high seismic risk. To give an answer to the problem of earthquake building using these materials, providing simplicity of construction, we have worked for years in the use of the Integral Masonry System (IMS. The IMS is a system that, used combined with native materials, has earthquake resistant properties and its ease of implementation makes it suitable for self-build earthquake-resistant dwellings. This article describes the IMS, develops the constructive process applied to a type of two storey houses, and shows the seismic behaviour by means of the results obtained in the three test campaigns. The originality of the system lies in the use of a single type of prefabricated trusses, intertwined in the three spatial directions allowing create a dimensional mesh.La autoconstrucción con tierra, adobe o ladrillo es muy habitual en los países en vías de desarrollo que están en zonas de alto riesgo sísmico. Ante la necesidad de dar respuesta al problema, aportando sencillez constructiva, hemos trabajado desde hace años en el empleo del Sistema de Albañilería Integral (SAI. El SAI es un sistema que, combinado con materiales autóctonos, aporta resistencia sísmica y su facilidad de ejecución lo hace adecuado para la autoconstrucción de viviendas antisísmicas. Este artículo describe el SAI, desarrolla el proceso constructivo aplicado a una vivienda tipo de dos alturas y muestra su comportamiento sismo-resistente mediante los resultados obtenidos en tres campañas de ensayos. La originalidad del sistema radica en el empleo de un solo tipo de armaduras prefabricadas en forma de cercha que se entrelazan entre si en las tres direcciones del espacio permitiendo crear una malla tridimensional.

  12. Mastite bovina causada por Staphylococcus spp. resistentes à meticilina: revisão de literatura

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    José Givanildo Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Staphylococcus spp. são os micro-organismos mais relacionados a casos de mastite bovina. Algumas cepas destes micro-organismos têm apresentado fatores de virulência como genes de resistência a antimicrobianos com destaque para a resistência à meticilina que é um problema de saúde pública. Esta revisão de literatura tem o objetivo de compilar dados sobre a mastite bovina causada por Staphylococcus spp. resistente à meticilina (MRS. Apesar desse antimicrobiano não ser comumente utilizado no tratamento das mastites, a frequência de casos de infecção da glândula mamária causada por MRS tem variado entre 1,34 a 47,6%. Acredita-se que o contato dos humanos com animais positivos para MRS e vice-versa favoreça a transmissão deste patógeno entre as espécies, contribuindo para a variação nas taxas de infecção. A detecção de MRS pode ser realizada por meio de provas fenotípicas, moleculares ou sorológicas e as medidas de controle devem contemplar a identificação dos casos, segregação dos animais, estudo epidemiológico da fonte de infecção do rebanho, além da constante limpeza e higienização do ambiente de confinamento, equipamentos e utensílios de ordenha. Casos de mastite ocasionados por esse patógeno assumem relevância para a saúde pública, pois a ingestão de leite e/ou derivados contaminados podem desencadear a transferência de MRS para seres humanos. Com isso, é necessário um alerta constante quanto à vigilância epidemiológica em fazendas leiteiras.

  13. Estudio metabólico y molecular de cultivos bacterianos degradadores de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (PAH) y resistentes a metales pesados

    OpenAIRE

    Cecotti, Martina; Morelli, Irma Susana; Coppotelli, Bibiana

    2015-01-01

    La contaminación mixta con PAH y metales pesados conlleva dificultades debido a la potencial toxicidad del metal, limitando la supervivencia solo a los microorganismos que toleren ambos contaminantes. El estudio de cepas degradadoras de PAH y resistentes a metales pesados promete proporcionar herramientas claves para el proceso de biorremediación. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivos la selección, identificación y caracterización de cepas degradadoras de PAH y resistentes a metales pesados aislad...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina adquirido en la comunidad aislados en tres hospitales de Lima-Perú

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    Jesús Tamariz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus es un importante patógeno involucrado en una serie de infecciones e intoxicaciones, presenta múltiples factores de virulencia y su impacto se incrementa por su notable resistencia a los antimicrobianos. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquiridos en la comunidad, en hospitales de Lima- Perú. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo multicéntrico. La resistencia a meticilina se determinó por el método Oxacillin Agar Screen. El origen de la cepa fue determinado mediante los criterios de los CDC; la Leucocidina de Panton Valentine fue identificada por métodos moleculares. Resultados: Se aislaron 276 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, 160 fueron resistentes a meticilina (58%, 9 de ellas fueron identificadas como adquiridas en la comunidad (5,6%. La PVL fue identificada en 25 cepas (9,1%, 14 fueron MSSA y 11 MRSA, de éstas últimas solo 4 fueron MRSAcom, 7 fueron MRSAhosp (p<0,001. Conclusiones: El estudio revela niveles elevados de resistencia a meticilina, pero niveles bajos de MRSAcom. En nuestro medio la presencia de PVL no constituiría un marcador para la identificación de los MRSAcom. (Rev Med Hered 2010;21:4-10.

  15. EX VITRO ROOTING OF OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM TISSUE CULTURE

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    Sumaryono Sumaryono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. derived from so-matic embryos sometimes do not form well developed-roots. Root formation of unrooted-plantlets can be induced with aux-in during ex vitro acclimatization period to simplify the proce-dure and to reduce seedling production cost. Experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design to determine the effect of different types of auxin, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, and 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA at different concentrations, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mM on root development of oil palm plantlets. The plantlets used were derived from somatic embryos of MK 649 oil palm clone. The basal end of the shoots was dipped in auxin solution for 10 minutes before the shoot was cultured in a small plastic pot containing a mixed growing medium. The cultures were then placed inside a closed transparent plastic tunnel (240 cm x 100 cm x 95 cm for 12 weeks. The results showed that without auxin treatment only 15% of the shoots formed roots. Dipping in auxin solution increased significantly root frequen-cy to more than 50%. The best root formation was found on the shoots treated with 2 mM NAA by which rooting frequency was 80%. Auxin treatments also increased root quality as indi-cated by more number of primary and secondary roots. IAA, IBA, and NAA treatments at all concentrations tested increased significantly shoot height on average by 42% and shoot diame-ter by 30% compared to control treatment, but did not influ-ence root length. The best treatment for inducing roots of oil palm plantlets ex vitro was by dipping the basal end of the plant-lets in 2 mM NAA solution. The result showed that rooting of oil palm plantlets could be successfully conducted ex vitro that would eliminate sterile rooting stage thus simplify the protocol and reduce seedling production time and cost.

  16. Total number of tillers of different accessions of Panicum maximum Jacq.

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    Thiago Perez Granato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of forage grasses is due to continuous emission of leaves and tillers, ensuring the restoration of leaf área after cutting or grazing, thus ensuring the sustainability of forage. This study aimed to asses the total number tillers in different acessions of Panicum maximum Jacq. The experiment was carried in field belonging to the Instituto de Zootecnia located in Nova Odessa / SP. Evaluated two new accesses Panicum maximum, and two commercial cultivars. The cultivars tested were Aruana, Milenio, NO 2487, NO 78, and the two latter belonging to the Germoplasm Collection of the IZ. The experimental desing was in randomized complete block with four replications. The experimental area consisted of 16 plots of 10 m2 (5 x 2 m each. The experimental area was analyzed and according to the results, received dolomitic limestone corresponding 2t /ha, two months before the implementation of the experiment. Sowing was made by broad costing together with 80 kg/ha of P2O5 in the form of single superphosfate. After 60 days of implantation of the experiment it was a made a leveling of the plots to a height of about 15 cm. After this it was applied 250g of the 20-00-20 fertilizer/plot. Thirty days after the standardization it was evaluated the total number of tillers of the cultivars, using a metal frame of 0.5 x 0.5m which was thrown at random on each of the 16 plots, leaving one meter of each extremitly, and all tillers which were within the frame counted. After finished the counting of all tillers, the plots cut again at a height of approximately 15 cm. The second evaluation took place after thirty days, and it was again counted the total number of tillers following the same procedure. The results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% after transforming the data to log(x. For the first evaluation there was no statistical difference in the total number of tillers between cultivars. But, in the second evaluation, the total number of tillers of NO 78

  17. Climate influence on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Influencia del clima en la composición química y la actividad antioxidante de Justicia pectorales Jacq

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    Jonh Jairo Méndez Arteaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the altitude in the phenols and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant activity of the extracts of different polarities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq(Acanthaceae was evaluated. There was found that the plants cultivated under the Ibagué-Tolima's climate and soil conditions, can be a source of antioxidant compounds, especially in water preparations. The chromatographic analysis revealed that J. pectoralis extracts have mainly flavonoids of the flavonone type, as apigenine. A greater (or The greatest content of flavonoids was detected in the ethanolic extract of the plant samples grown at 1 265 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level (2 748,03 mg/L. The altitude level does not seem to have any influence on the functional properties, neither on the phytophenols content. The J. pectoralis Jacq can be considered one species with a high therapeutic potential and with good commercial opportunities.En este trabajo se evaluó la influencia de la altitud en el contenido de fenoles y flavonoides y la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de diferentes polaridades provenientes de Justicia pectorales (Acanthaceae. Se halló que las plantas cultivadas en las condiciones del suelo y el clima de la zona Ibagué-Tolima pueden constituirse en compuestos antioxidantes, especialmente en preparados acuosos. El análisis cromatográfico reveló que los extractos de J. pectorales poseen en lo fundamental flavonoides del tipo flavona como es la apigenina. Un mayor contenido (sino el mayor de flavonoides se detectó en el extracto etanol obtenido de las muestras de la planta cultivadas a 1 265 metros por encima del nivel del mar (2 748,03 mg/L. La altitud no parece influir en las propiedades funcionales, ni en el contenido de fitofenoles del extracto. La J. pectorales puede considerarse una especie de gran potencial terapéutico y buenas posibilidades de comercialización.

  18. Prevalencia y características de los pacientes con hipertensión arterial resistente y enfermedad renal crónica

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    Úrsula Verdalles

    2016-09-01

    Conclusión: La prevalencia de HTA resistente aumenta con la edad, el grado de ERC y la albuminuria. Estrategias como el tratamiento con antagonistas de receptores de aldosterona se asocian con un mejor control tensional en este grupo de pacientes y disminuyen su prevalencia.

  19. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

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    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  20. UJI ZPT HANTU DAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jacq DI MAIN NURSERY

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    Enny Mutryarny

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is one of Indonesia's mainstay plantation commodities and plays an important role for the national economy. Oil palm and plantations managed by state-owned enterprises, this is due to the increasing demand for palm oil in the industrial market. With the continuous development of oil palm plantations so that the provision of seeds should be considered because the success of planting in the field and the production of production is highly dependent on the quality of the seeds of oil palm plants used. Efforts that can be done to accelerate the growth of seeds Main Nursery is to provide NPK fertilizer and growth regulatory substances (ZPT Hantu that can help the absorption of nutrients and accelerate the growth of vegetative plants. The aim of this research is to get the interaction of ZPT Hantu concentration and NPK fertilizer dosage which give the best influence to the growth of oil palm seed (Elaeis guineensis Jacq in Main-nursery. The experiment was conducted experimentally with factorial Randomized Design (RAL, consisting of 2 factors ie H factor is ZPT Hantu and N factor is NPK fertilizer (16:16:16 which each consist of 3 levels. Thus obtained 9 treatment combinations with 3 replications. The observed data were analyzed by Duncan's multipoint test and Duncan's multiplexed test of 5%. Test of ZPT Hantu and NPK fertilizer significantly affect the growth of oil palm seedlings in Main Nursery that is on the parameters of seed height, stem diameter, leaf number and leaf area, whereas the combination of both only on bar diameter parameters that gives a real effect, with best treatment is combination giving ZPT Hantu 2 cc / l water and NPK 20 grams / plant.

  1. Arquitectura sismo-resistente. Un nuevo enfoque para la solución integral del problema sísmico

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    Giuliani,, Hugo

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available This work only pretend to state in general terms the reasons, foundations, objectives, action fields, basical principles and compatibilization rules of the Structural Design with the Architectural Design that have allowed us to draw an approach on Seismo-Resistant Architecture and that in the future will allow its study and scientific development.

    El presente trabajo, sólo pretende la formulación en términos generales de las razones, fundamentos, objetivos, campos de acción, principios básicos y pautas de compatibilización del Diseño Estructural con el Diseño Arquitectónico que nos han permitido plantear una Arquitectura Sismo-Resistente y que permitirá en el futuro su profundización y el desarrollo científico de la misma.

  2. Studi Sebaran Akar Tanaman Kelapa Sawit(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Pada Lahan Gambut Di Perkebunan PT. Hari Sawit Jaya Kabupaten Labuhan Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Sinuraya, Zulkasta

    2011-01-01

    ZULKASTA SINURAYA, Study Of Extended Spread of Root System of Oil Palm at Peat Soil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) at Peat Soil in PT. Hari Sawit Jaya Plantation, Kabupaten Labuhan Batu (Advisor EDISON PURBA and ABDUL RAUF). Extended spread of root system of oil palm at peat soil has unknown clearly and no study previously. Amount of roots and extended spread of root system has estimated to influenced by the thickness of peat level, physical and chemical charasteristic of peat. There is estim...

  3. Capacidad resistente de pilas metálicas tubulares circulares rellenas de hormigón (CFT en puentes integrales

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    Chacón, R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an in-depth analysis of the structural response of concrete-filled tubular structures (CFT is presented. The main objective of the study is to assess the resistance of these structural elements when subjected to lateral displacements. These displacements, together with the corresponding axial forces, represent the actions to which the integral bridges piers are subjected to. For the sake of studying this response, a numerical model is used as a simulation tool over an hypothetical matrix of CFT. These numerical studies together with a wide experimental database found in the literature have been useful for drawing conclusions concerning the cross-sectional capacity of the CFT. A design proposal for this cross-sectional capacity which accounts for confinement is given. This proposal has been compared structurally with the present formulation found in EN1994.

    Se presenta el análisis estructural de pilas metálicas tubulares rellenas de hormigón (CFT sometidas a flexo-compresión. El objetivo principal es valorar los mecanismos resistentes de las pilas cuando se someten a un desplazamiento en cabeza. Estos desplazamientos, conjuntamente con el esfuerzo axil de compresión, que en este trabajo se aproxima con un porcentaje de la resistencia plástica a compresión de los CFT, representan las acciones a las cuales se ven sometidos los elementos de este estudio. Se utiliza una herramienta numérica sobre una base hipotética de prototipos de pilas. Los resultados numéricos obtenidos así como los resultados experimentales encontrados en la literatura han permitido extraer conclusiones relativas a la capacidad seccional de los CFT. Se proponen expresiones de diseño relativas a la capacidad resistente de los CFT considerando el efecto del confinamiento y se comparan con los resultados que se derivan de la formulación de EN1994.

  4. Comparative study on the composition of free amino acids and derivatives in the two botanical origins of an edible Chinese herb "Xiebai", i.e., Allium chinense G. Don and Allium macrostemon Bunge species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Quan; Huang, Shaohui; Wu, Yuehong; Zhang, Wenqi; Wang, Fanchao; Cao, Jiawei; Sheng, Qing; Liang, Zongsuo; Liu, Lili; Ou, Wen-Bin

    2018-04-01

    Xiebai is an edible Chinese herb with various health and therapeutic benefits. To evaluate its nutritional and health values, the free amino acids and derivatives of its two botanical origins (i.e., Allium chinense G. Don and Allium macrostemon Bunge) were isolated using a solvent extraction method and analyzed using automatic amino acid analysis and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. Our data show that both plants contain abundant free amino acids, and the amount of total free amino acids in A. chinense G. Don is higher than that in A. macrostemon Bunge. The free amino acid compositions in the two plants are qualitatively similar, including nineteen proteinogenic and four non-proteinogenic amino acids. The identified proteinogenic amino acids include eight essential amino acids and five semi-essential amino acids. The sum of essential and semi-essential amino acids accounts for 64.9% and 69.7% of the total free amino acids of the two plants, respectively. The principal amino acids of both plants, from highest concentration to lowest concentration, are arginine, glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and serine. A. chinense G. Don is also rich in citrulline and lysine. In addition, two amino acid derivatives were identified from the two plants, i.e., the proline analog N‑methyl‑proline and the dipeptide H-Glu-Tyr-OH. For the first time, the presence of N‑methyl‑proline in the plants of the Allium genus and the presence of H-Glu-Tyr-OH in unprocessed food sources are reported. The influences of the identified substances on the flavor, nutrition and health values of Xiebai are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infecção ou colonização por micro-organismos resistentes: identificação de preditores Infection or colonization with resistant microorganisms: identification of predictors

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    Graciana Maria de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores preditores de infecção ou colonização por micro-organismos resistentes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo quantitativo de coorte prospectivo. Foram realizadas a análise descritiva, para conhecimento da população do estudo, e a análise discriminante, para identificação dos fatores preditores. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 85 pacientes com infecções por micro-organismos resistentes: Pseudomonas aeruginosas resistente aos carbapenêmicos (24,7%, Acinetobacter resistente aos carbapenêmicos (21,2%, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (25,9%, Enterococcus spp. resistente à vancomicina (17,6% e Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente aos carbapenêmicos (10,6%. A análise discriminante identificou transferências de outros hospitais e internação na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva como fatores preditores para ocorrência de infecção pelos grupos S. aureus resistente à meticilina, Acinetobacter resistente aos carbapenêmicos e K. pneumoniae resistente aos carbapenêmicos. Nenhuma das variáveis estudadas foi discriminante para Enterococcus spp. resistente à vancomicina e P. aeruginosas resistente aos carbapenêmico. CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores preditores encontrados foram: internação na UTI e a transferências de outros hospitais.OBJECTIVE: Identifying predictors of infection or colonization with resistant microorganisms. METHODS: A quantitative study of prospective cohort was carried out. A descriptive analysis was performed in order to know the population of the study and a discriminant analysis was performed to identify the predictors. RESULTS: In this study were included 85 patients with infections caused by resistant microorganisms: carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosas (24.7%; carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (21.2%; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp (17.6% and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (10.6%. The discriminant analysis

  6. Caracterização morfoanatômica e histoquímica de Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.f. Macbr. (Lythraceae Morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization of Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr. (Lythraceae

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    Makeli Garibotti Lusa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr. é uma planta herbácea, que ocorre preferivelmente em locais úmidos. Dentre outras espécies do gênero, esta se destaca pelo grande potencial químico e emprego frequente na medicina popular. Neste estudo, descrevem-se aspectos morfológicos, a anatomia e as características histoquímicas dos órgãos vegetativos, na fase de desenvolvimento em que a espécie é comercializada. A partir de plantas adultas, foram coletadas amostras de raiz, caule e folhas. Esse material foi processado para análise anatômica e histoquímica em microscopia de luz e para análise morfológica, em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Considerações morfoanatômicas importantes foram acrescentadas para C. carthagenensis, tais como: a ocorrência de felema aerenquimatoso com camadas suberificadas; a identificação dos tipos de tricomas ocorrentes nos órgãos vegetativos; e a caracterização do tricoma secretor, bem como do material secretado. Os grupos de metabólitos secundários presentes nos tecidos da raiz, do caule e da folha de C. carthagenensis que apresentaram reação histoquímica mais intensa foram: proantocianidinas, compostos fenólicos, polissacarídeos ácidos (especialmente mucilagem e lipídios totais.Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr. is an herb, which occurs preferably in wet places. Amongst other species of the genus, C. carthagenensis is distinguished for its great chemical potential and frequent use in popular medicine. In this study the morphological and anatomical structures were identified, as well as the histochemical characterization was done. Samples of root, stem and leaves were collected from adult plants. This material was processed for anatomical and histochemical analysis in light microscopy and for morphological analysis, in scanning electron microscopy. Important morphological and anatomical considerations were added for C. carthagenensis, such as: the occurrence of

  7. Denervação Renal com Cateter Irrigado em Hipertensos Resistentes: Uma Estratégia Promissora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Armaganijan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: A hipertensão arterial sistêmica constitui importante problema de saúde pública e significativa causa de mortalidade cardiovascular. A elevada prevalência e as reduzidas taxas de controle tensional despertaram o interesse por estratégias terapêuticas alternativas. A denervação simpática renal percutânea surgiu como perspectiva no tratamento de hipertensos resistentes. Objetivo: Avaliar a factibilidade e a segurança da denervação renal com cateter irrigado. Métodos: Dez hipertensos resistentes foram submetidos ao procedimento. O desfecho primário foi a segurança, avaliada por eventos adversos periprocedimento, função renal e anormalidade vascular renal aos 6 meses. Os desfechos secundários constituíram mudanças na pressão arterial (consultório e monitorização ambulatorial e no número de anti-hipertensivos aos 6 meses. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 47,3 (± 12 anos, 90% eram mulheres. No primeiro caso, houve dissecção de artéria renal causada por trauma da bainha, fato que não se repetiu após ajuste técnico, demonstrando efeito da curva de aprendizado. Nenhum caso de trombose/infarto renal ou óbito foi reportado. Não se observou elevação dos níveis séricos de creatinina durante o seguimento. Aos 6 meses, diagnosticou-se um caso de estenose significativa de artéria renal, sem repercussão clínica. A denervação renal reduziu a pressão arterial de consultório, em média, em 14,6/6,6 mmHg (p = 0,4 tanto para pressão arterial sistólica como para a diastólica. A redução média da pressão arterial pela monitorização ambulatorial foi de 28/17,6 mmHg (p = 0,02 e p = 0,07 para pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica, respectivamente. Houve redução média de 2,1 anti-hipertensivos. Conclusão: A denervação renal é factível e segura no tratamento da hipertensão arterial sistêmica resistente. Estudos maiores são necessários para confirmar nossos resultados.

  8. Variabilidade isoenzimática entre linhagens de amendoim resistentes à seca Isoenzimatic variability between peanut lines resistant to drought

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    Roseane Cavalcanti dos Santos

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso da técnica de eletroforese para separar múltiplas formas moleculares de enzimas tem sido bastante explorada na área biológica, cujas diferenças detectadas nos tecidos podem ser eficientemente usadas para diferenciação de cultivares em qualquer fase de seu desenvolvimento fenológico. Nesse trabalho, procedeu-se ao estudo da variabilidade isoenzimática em seis linhagens de amendoim resistentes à seca, com o objetivo de se verificar as possíveis relações da variação encontrada na base desses descritores com essa aptidão no amendoim. Estudaram-se folíolos da parte apical com 5 dias após a germinação, utilizando-se a técnica de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (7% sistema horizontal e contínuo de tampão. Os sistemas estudados foram fosfatase ácida (ACP, malato desidrogenase (MDH, leucina aminopeptidase (LAP, peroxidase (PO, e esterase (EST. A caracterização fenotípica dos genótipos permitiu a separação de quatro grupos para ACP, três para LAP, dois para MDH e seis para PO e EST. A partir da análise dos componentes principais dos grupos obtidos, observou-se que a cultivar IAC Tupã (sensível à seca foi separada das demais, especialmente da cultivar resistente Senegal 55437.The use of electrophoretic techniques to separate multiple molecular forms of enzymes has been used in the biological science, where differences in isozymes among tissues can be used efficiently on cultivar differentiation during any life cycle phase. In this paper, the variability of six drought resistant peanut lines was studied by isozymes analysis aiming to verify the possible relations between enzymatic descriptors and drought resistance character. Leaflets were analyzed by horizontal poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique and buffer continuos systems for the following systems: acid phosphatase (ACP, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, peroxidase (POX and esterase (EST. The phenotypic characterization of the

  9. Prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en infecciones de piel y partes blandas en pacientes ambulatorios

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    Verónica Bermejo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha observado un aumento en la prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SAMR en pacientes ambulatorios con infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPyPB. Los datos epidemiológicos locales disponibles son limitados. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, de consultantes con IPyPB en la División Infectología del Hospital General de Agudos Juan A. Fernández, en el período 01/10/2009 a 31/01/2011. Fueron 130; edad mediana 36 años (RIC 25.9-43.5; hombres 61.5%. El 46.9% era HIV+. Cien cultivos (76.9%, de 100 pacientes, resultaron positivos: 83 S. aureus, 8 Streptococcus spp. y 9 con otros microorganismos. De los S. aureus aislados, 62 (74.7% fueron resistentes a oxacilina, 12 (14.4% a clindamicina, 14 (16.9% a eritromicina, 5 (6% a ciprofloxacina, presentando en algunos casos más de una resistencia. Todos fueron sensibles a rifampicina y minociclina, y 98.8% (82 a trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. El 83.8% (52 de los pacientes con SAMR tenían algún factor de riesgo (FR, sin diferencias con los pacientes con otros aislamientos. La presentación clínica más frecuente de IPyPB / SAMR fue forunculosis: 56.4 (35/62 vs. 28.9% (11/38 en infecciones por otros microorganismos (p = 0.013. La resistencia a oxacilina fue similar entre pacientes HIV+ y negativos (79.1 vs. 70%, p = 0.179 (34/43 vs. 28/40. Concluimos que en la población estudiada se encontró una alta prevalencia de SAMR, independientemente de la serología para HIV o la presencia de FR. Las opciones de tratamiento empírico para este microorganismo son minociclina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol.

  10. Sepse por Staphylococus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirida na comunidade no sul do Brasil Sepsis due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil

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    Luciane Cristina Gelatti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina foi inicialmente descrito como um típico microrganismo adquirido em infecções nosocomiais. No entanto, nos últimos anos Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade é causa de infecções de pele e tecidos moles, mas infecções graves como pneumonia e sepse podem ocorrer. Este relato descreve um caso de sepse em criança, complicado com pneumonia secundária a lesão em partes moles por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade no Sul do Brasil. O paciente foi atendido em Unidade de Emergência com história de ferimento provocado por trauma em membro inferior que evoluiu para celulite, pneumonia e sepse.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was initially described as a typical microorganism acquired in nosocomial infections. However, over recent years, community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been a cause of skin and soft-tissue infections. Serious infections such as pneumonia and sepsis can also occur. This report describes a case of sepsis in a child that was complicated by pneumonia secondary to soft tissue lesions that were due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil. The patient was attended at the Emergency Unit with a history of injury caused by lower-limb trauma that evolved to cellulitis, pneumonia and sepsis.

  11. Search for methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms associated with the mantled variant phenotype in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaligot, E; Beulé, T; Baurens, F-C; Billotte, N; Rival, A

    2004-02-01

    The methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique has been employed on somatic embryo-derived oil palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) to identify methylation polymorphisms correlated with the "mantled" somaclonal variation. The variant phenotype displays an unstable feminization of male organs in both male and female flowers. Using MSAP, the methylation status of CCGG sites was compared in three normal versus three mantled regenerants sampled in clonal populations obtained through somatic embryogenesis from four genotypically distinct mother palms. Overall, 64 selective primer combinations were used and they have amplified 23 markers exhibiting a differential methylation pattern between the two phenotypes. Our results indicate that CCGG sites are poorly affected by the considerable decrease in global DNA methylation that has been previously associated with the mantled phenotype. Each of the 23 markers isolated in the present study could discriminate between the two phenotypes only when they were from the same genetic origin. This result hampers at the moment the direct use of MSAP markers for the early detection of variants, even though valuable information on putative target sequences will be obtained from a further characterization of these polymorphic markers.

  12. Conservação de sementes de marizeiro Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. utilizando diferentes embalagens e ambientes

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    Vênia Camelo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., commonly known as marizeiro in Brazil, is an important tree species, mainly because it is adapted to riparian forest conditions in semi-arid and associated ecosystems. The species occur in large areas of northeastern Brazil and in the São Francisco river valley, always restricted to seasonally flooded environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of packaging and storage periods, as well the influence of environments on the process of seed germination and vigor of Geoffroea spinosa. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Ecology - CCA/UFPB, following a completely randomized design. The seeds were distributed among two environments (natural conditions in the laboratory and cold room, packed in two types of packaging (paper bags and plastic bags for five periods of storage: 0; 15; 30; 60 and 90 days. Water content, the emergence velocity index, dry weight and length of seedlings were evaluated. The data were submitted to a polynomial regression analysis. In plastic packaging and the environment of the cold room there was less reduction of viability and vigor during storage. Seeds packed in paper bags and stored in a laboratory rapidly lost viability and vigor, after 30 days of storage.

  13. Preliminary study on biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auliana; Kaonongbua, W.

    2018-04-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the promising crop plants which has been used as raw material for producing daily products. In agricultural ecosystems, crop plants could develop a plant-fungal association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The objectives of this study were to determine the AMF biodiversity and mycorrhizal infection percentage (MIP) from field-collected soil samples of three oil palm plantations from Nong Khai, Surat Thani, and Chiang Rai provinces of Thailand. Soil characteristics (moisture content, pH, and available phosphorus) were also measured. Thirteen AMF species belonging to seven genera were identified from all soil samples, whereas Glomus spp. and Acaulospora spp. were most commonly found species. AMF biodiversity value from Chiang Rai was statistically different from other two provinces (p biodiversity. These results confirmed that AMF normally occurs in oil palm plantations, but at different levels of biodiversity possibly due to different environmental factors in each plantation. Nevertheless, this information could be useful for using AMF in plant growth promoter and pathogen resistance programs in order to achieve the agricultural sustainability, especially in oil palm plantations.

  14. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Kedsirin Ruttajorn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. The high expression of EgNDL among three oil palm varieties was significantly expressed in Pisifera (P<0.05, which is commonly used as a male parent in crosses. Computational tools were used to predict the protein and concluded that EgNDL is a putative membrane protein that may function in a signal transduction pathway during pollen development. In this context, knowledge regarding EgNDL and its potential role in plant developmental processes will benefit oil palm breeding programs.

  15. THE ROLE OF PLANTATIONS OF THE AFRICAN PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ. IN THE CONSERVATION OF SNAKES IN COLOMBIA

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    JOHN D. LYNCH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocultures of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. were studied between 2006 and 2013 so as to determine which species of snakes frequented them and to estimate the abundances of each species encountered. Thirty five species of snakes (three boas, one coral, 27 colubrids, one tropidophid, one typhlopid, and two vipers were captured within palmeras. Palm plantations are revealed to (1 augment the densities of ten species of snakes well beyond the densities found by collectors in natural and/or relatively transformed habitats and (2 to not offer benefits to at least 75% of the snake community found in the vicinities of palm plantations. The majority of snake species (60% found in palmeras are nocturnal species. The most common species (defined by having 15 or more captures were Atractus univittatus, Bothrops asper, B. atrox, Epicrates maurus, Leptodeira annulata, Liophis melanotus, Ninia atrata, Oxyrhopus petolarius, Pseudoboa neuwiedii, and Tantilla melanocephala. Palm plantations permit substantial local population sizes for a fraction (< 25% of the local snake community. Internal practices of such plantations could be modified so as to protect a larger share of the fauna by means of two practices: (1 construction and maintenance of paleras as well as (2 creating a mosaic of palm plantations enclosing "islands" of secondary forests.

  16. Synergistic Effects of n-Hexane Fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Bark Extract and Selected Antibiotics on Bacterial Isolates

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    Oluwatayo E. Abioye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents by microbial pathogens demands increased effort in the development of effective ways of treating infections and diseases. The n-hexane fraction of lyophilized crude bark extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. was prepared and, in combination with selected antibiotics, assayed for antimicrobial activity against some selected bacterial pathogens using time-kill assay. Protein leakage analysis of the combined agents was performed using Bradford protein quantification method. Determination of active compounds present in the n-hexane fraction was done using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. While time-kill assay detected 43.33% synergy; 56.67% indifference and no antagonism at 1/2 × minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 1 × MIC exhibited 55% synergy, 45% indifference and no antagonism. Protein leakages from the cells of selected bacteria ranged from 1.20 µg/mL to 256.93 µg/mL. The presence of a phenyl group, an aromatic ring and phenolic compounds in the n-hexane fraction was confirmed at 2162 cm−1–2020 cm−1, 1605 cm−1–1533 cm−1 and 1438 cm−1–1444 cm−1 spectra peaks, respectively. The observed antibiotic−n-hexane fraction synergistic interaction revealed the improved antibacterial activity of the selected antibiotics. Hence, exploration of a combination of antibiotics with plant secondary metabolites is hereby advocated in the global quest for means of combating infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  17. Study of flavonoids of Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) different edible organs by liquid chromatography photodiode array mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Tiziana; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Morelli, Ivano; Braca, Alessandra

    2004-10-20

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based method was developed for the characterization of flavonoids from Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) edible organs, a plant cultivated since pre-Colombian times in Mexico where the fruit is called chayote. Chayote is used for human consumption in many countries; in addition to the fruits, stems, leaves and the tuberous part of the roots are also eaten. Eight flavonoids, including three C-glycosyl and five O-glycosyl flavones, were detected, characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data, and quantified in roots, leaves, stems, and fruits of the plant by LC-photodiode array-MS. The aglycone moieties are represented by apigenin and luteolin, while the sugar units are glucose, apiose, and rhamnose. The results indicated that the highest total amount of flavonoids was in the leaves (35.0 mg/10 g of dried part), followed by roots (30.5 mg/10 g), and finally by stems (19.3 mg/10 g). Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  18. Cryopreservation of chayote (Sechium edule JACQ. SW.) zygotic embryos and shoot-tips from in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Engelmann, Florent

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of cryopreservation protocols for zygotic embryos and apices of chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.), a tropical plant species with recalcitrant seeds. Zygotic embryos of two cultivars, Ccocro negro (CN) and Claudio (Cl) could withstand cryopreservation, with survival percentages of 10 and 30 %, after desiccation to 23 and 19 % moisture content (fresh weight basis), respectively. Apices sampled on in vitro plantlets of cultivars Cl, 13 and JM were successfully cryopreserved using a vitrification technique. Optimal conditions included the culture of mother-plants for 22 days on medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, culture of excised apices on the same medium for 1 day, loading of apices for 20 min with 2M glycerol + 0.4M glycerol, treatment with a series of diluted PVS2 solution (60 % PVS2 followed by 80 % PVS2 solution for 15 min (cultivar Cocoro Blanco [CB]) or 30 min (cultivars CN and Cl) at each concentration), rapid freezing and thawing, washing of shoot-tips with a 1.2 M sucrose solution, followed by recovery on media with progressively decreasing sucrose concentrations until the standard concentration of 0.1 M was reached. The highest survival percentages achieved ranged between 17 and 38 %, depending on the cultivar.

  19. Effects of IAA and IBA on the in vitro rooting of stem cuttings of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw

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    José García García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out with the objective of evaluating the response of shoots of chayote [S. edule (Jacq. Sw.] to the application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on the in vitro rooting phase. The effect of three culture media, modified from the proposed of Murashige and Skoog (MS was studied: 1- 65% MS salt base, 2- 65% MS salt base + 0.05 mg l-1 of indolebutyric acid (AIB and 3- 65% MS salt base + 3.0 mg l-1-3-indole acetic acid (IAA. The variables evaluated were: number of roots, length and number of shoots per in vitro seedling. The best result were obtained when using 65% MS salt base with 3.0 mg l-1 of IAA. Significant differences (P<0.05 among treatments containing growth regulators was obtained for the variables number of roots and length of in vitro plantlets. In the UNA-730 accession root induction was obtained in a 65% MS salt base culture medium without growth regulators; however, when IAA and IBA was added the induction was 100%. The differences identified in this work with regards to the root induction were probably the combined result of genotype and specific culture conditions. Key words: auxins, chayote, growth regulators, in vitro culture

  20. Resiliencia, Personalidad Resistente y Crecimiento en Cuidadores de Personas con Demencia en el Entorno Familiar: Una Revisión

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    Violeta Fernández-Lansac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación en torno al cuidado no profesional de mayores con demencia ha proliferado a lo largo de los últimos años, constatando muchos autores que, del mismo modo en que el cuidado se asocia a un buen número de consecuencias negativas, diversos efectos positivos pueden derivarse de esta experiencia. Sin embargo, y a pesar del impacto de la corriente positiva en la actualidad, son muy escasos los estudios que valoran la personalidad resistente (hardiness, la resiliencia y el crecimiento personal en cuidadores. El presente artículo hace una revisión sistemática de las contribuciones más relevantes a este campo, a partir del análisis de nueve publicaciones. Todos estos trabajos evalúan, de un modo cuantitativo, la resiliencia, el hardiness o el crecimiento en familiares de personas con demencia. Las características y resultados de dichos trabajos serán valoradas, teniendo en consideración sus implicaciones para el estudio y la atención a los cuidadores

  1. Manejo da Planta Daninha Brachiaria plantaginea Resistente aos herbicidas Inibidores da ACCase Management of the Weed Brachiaria plantaginea Resistant to ACCase Inhibitor Herbicides

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    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o manejo de uma população da planta daninha capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase (ariloxifenoxipropionatos e ciclohexanodionas, utilizados na cultura da soja no sistema de plantio direto. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos: um utilizando herbicidas de manejo, com mecanismos de ação alternativos, comparando a eficácia destes com os inibidores da ACCase; e outro apenas com herbicidas inibidores da ACCase e aditivos misturados à calda. As sementes resistentes foram produzidas a partir de plantas comprovadamente resistentes; para comparação de resultados, foi utilizada uma população de capim-marmelada que nunca tinha sido pulverizada com inibidores da ACCase, portanto uma população suscetível. O experimento com os herbicidas de manejo foi realizado em condições de campo, porém as plantas ficaram em caixas com capacidade de 50 L, evitando-se a disseminação destas para áreas adjacentes. Concluiu-se que as plantas resistentes não apresentam resistência múltipla com herbicidas de manejo com mecanismos de ação alternativos, podendo os herbicidas glyphosate, paraquat, sulfosate, paraquat + diuron, MSMA e glufosinate ser utilizados no período entressafra das áreas com sistema de plantio direto, para manejo de populações resistentes de capim-marmelada aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase. O experimento com aditivos foi realizado em casa de vegetação, com plantas em vasos individuais, utilizando sementes das populações suscetíveis e resistentes. Os herbicidas utilizados foram inibidores da ACCase, em cuja calda foram adicionados aditivos nitrogenados, do tipo uréia e sulfato de amônio, além de um tratamento sem aditivos. Concluiu-se que os aditivos não alteraram a eficácia dos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase nas plantas provenientes tanto da população suscetível quanto da resistente.The objective of this research was to

  2. Producción de metabolitos secundarios en cultivo de raíces in vitro y suspensiones celulares de Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Idrogo, Consuelo; Kato, Massuo J.; Delgado-Paredes, Guillermo E.; Segal Floh, Eny Iochevet; Handro, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq. es un arbusto dominante en el bosque estacionalmente seco del Perú y Ecuador. Los cultivos de raíces fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones de AIB, sacarosa y combinaciones de AIB-sacarosa. Diversos explantes obtenidos de plántulas in vitro y plantas silvestres se cultivaron en diferentes combinaciones de 2,4-D, AIA, ANA y BAP, para inducir callos friables, dependiendo del tipo de explante y los reguladores de creci...

  3. Composição química quantitativa e avaliação da potencial atividade vasodilatadora de Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) MacBride

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Baier Krepsky

    2011-01-01

    Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) MacBride Lythraceae, denominada popularmente sete-sangrias, tem uso medicinal tradicional no tratamento de doenças cardiovasculares, entre outras. Como não foram encontrados estudos sobre a relação entre composição química quantitativa e atividade biológica, ou sobre identificação de metabólitos secundários polares, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição qualitativa e quantitativa de metabólitos secundários da espécie e sua potencial atividad...

  4. Produção de forragem do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Forage production of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 grazed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar a massa de forragem (MF, massa de lâmina verde (MLV, massa de colmo + bainha verde (MCV, massa de material morto (MMM, massa de forragem verde (MFV, relação folha/colmo (F/C, taxa de acúmulo de massa seca (TAMS, acúmulo de massa de forragem (AMF, índice de área foliar (IAF, porcentagem de solo descoberto (SD e porcentagem de solo coberto com liteira (SCL em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas do dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável, com novilhos da raça Nelore com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições e realizaram-se cinco avaliações. MLV, MCV, MMM, MFV, MF, IAF, TAMS e AMF aumentaram com o avanço da altura do dossel, sendo que a porcentagem de SD, SCL e material morto diminui em pastos mais altos. O manejo do capim-Tanzânia nas alturas de 40 e 60 cm, apresentou as melhores respostas de composição morfológica, garantindo boa oferta de folhas, de cobertura do solo e taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. As alturas de 20 e 80 cm não devem ser recomendadas para o manejo do capim-Tanzânia quando o objetivo for produção com qualidade e quantidade.This experiment was conducted out to evaluate the forage mass (FM, green leaf lamina mass (GLLM, green stem + leaf sheath mass (GSSM, mass of dead material (MDM, green forage mass (GMF, total forage mass (TFM, leaf/stem ratio (L/S, dry matter accumulation rate (DMAR, leaf area index (LAI, % of bare soil (BS and litter cover percentage (LCP in Tanzaniagrass pasture (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four different sward heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, and the grazing animals were Nellore steers with average weight of 340 kg. The completely

  5. Producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno Seed production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in an intensive cattle fattening system

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    G Oquend

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo Pardo sialítico del subtipo Cambisol cálcico, localizado en la Empresa Pecuaria «Calixto García», en la provincia de Holguín, se estudio la producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno, en condiciones de riego. Los tratamientos fueron cinco varieda­des del pasto guinea: A Común; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; y E Tobiatá. Los siguientes métodos se consideraron a su vez como subtratamientos: 1 Siembra con semilla gámica; 2 Plantación por macollas; y 3 Por vía de trasplante. La carga se mantuvo ajustada a 2 UGM/ha. En la producción de semillas existieron interacciones favorables entre los métodos de siembra y las variedades: semilla gámica-guinea Likoni; maco­lla-guinea Mombasa, Tanzania y Tobiatá; trasplante-guinea Común. En todo el sistema de explotación se obtuvo un aporte adicional superior a los $1 000/ha por concepto de producción de semilla, sin afectar la producción animal, en la que se obtuvieron ganancias superiores a los 800 g/animal/día y producciones pro­medio de 46 212 t de carne en pie por ciclo de ceba. Se considera factible la producción de semilla del pasto guinea en sistemas intensivos de ceba de ganado vacuno.On a sialitic Brown soil of the calcic Cambisol subtype, located at the «Calixto García» Livestock Production Enterprise, in the Holguín province, the production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. was studied in an intensive cattle fattening system, with irrigation. The treatments were five varieties of Guinea grass: A Common; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; and E Tobiatá. The following methods were considered, in turn, sub-treatments: 1 Seeding with gamic seed; 2 Planting with tillers; and 3 Transplanting. The stocking rate remained adjusted at 2 animals/ha. In seed production there were favorable interactions between the planting methods and the varieties: gamic seed-Guinea grass Likoni; tiller-Guinea grass

  6. Aislamiento e identificación de cepas de Azospirillum sp. en pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. del Valle del Cesar Isolation and identification of Azospirillum sp. in Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. of the Valle del Cesar

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    Diana M Cárdenas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de factores ambientales del Valle del Cesar y el manejo agronómico del pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq., sobre la población bacteriana del género Azospirillum en medios de cultivo semisólidos NFb y LGI, para lo cual se utilizó un diseño experimental en parcelas divididas con un arreglo factorial de 2 (épocas climáticas: lluvia y sequía x 2 (manejos agronómicos: agroecólogico y extractivo x 3 (muestras analizadas: suelo rizosférico, raíces y hojas. Los resultados no revelaron diferencias estadísticas significativas, lo que indica que esta bacteria puede mantener su población en condiciones de estrés por diferentes mecanismos fisiológicos. A partir de estas muestras se obtuvieron 16 aislamientos pertenecientes al género Azospirillum, a los cuales se les evaluó su actividad de reducción de acetileno como indicador de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno y su capacidad en la producción de compuestos indólicos como promotores del crecimiento vegetal. Se seleccionaron las cepas SRGM2, SRGM3 y SRGM4 obtenidas de muestras de suelo rizosférico de pasto guinea de la Estación Experimental Motilonia de Corpoica, municipio Agustín Codazzi, departamento del Cesar. Estos aislamientos se caracterizaron molecularmente por el gen 16S rRNA y según el análisis BLAST en la base de datos del GenBank y presentaron 93% de similitud con A. lipoferum (SRGM2 y SRGM3 y 94% con A. brasilense (SRGM4.The effect of environmental factors of the Valle del Cesar and the agronomic management of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq., on the bacterial population of the Azospirillum genus in semisolid NFb and LGI culture media was evaluated, for which an experimental design was used in divided plots with a 2 (climatic seasons: rainy and dry x 2 (agronomic managements: agroecological and extractive x 3 (analyzed samples: rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves factorial arrangement. The results did not reveal significant statistical

  7. Herbicidas alternativos para o controle de Conyza sumatrensis (Retz. E. H. Walker resistentes aos inibidores da ALS e EPSPs

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    Fernando Machado dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A buva (Conyza sumatrensis, uma das principais plantas daninhas já identificadas no sul do Brasil, vem apresentando controle insatisfatório, em resposta à aplicação dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e glyphosate. Por esta razão, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar herbicidas alternativos, visando ao controle de biótipos de C. sumatrensis, com resistência de nível baixo ao herbicida chlorimuron-ethyl e resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, entre abril e agosto de 2012, no município de Passo Fundo, RS. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo avaliados 15 tratamentos com herbicidas, além de uma testemunha sem aplicação. As variáveis consideradas foram controle percentual, aos 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT e a matéria seca da parte aérea, aos 28 DAT. Como resultados, observou-se que os biótipos foram 100% controlados, aos 28 DAT, pelos tratamentos alternativos de paraquat + diuron; ammonium glufosinate; glyphosate + 2,4-D; glyphosate + ammonium glufosinate; 2,4-D; tembotrione e tembotrione + atrazine. O biótipo 17 evidenciou menor sensibilidade aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS e os biótipos 05, 17 e 20 não foram controlados pelo herbicida glyphosate.

  8. Eficácia do sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose visceral grave, resistente ao tratamento com antimonial pentavalente

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    Cleudson Castro

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de calazar grave resistente a dez cursos de antimonial petitavalente (glucantime à base de 20mg de Sb5/kg/dia, que respondeu favoravelmente ao sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular na dose de 20mg/kg/dia por 20 dias, repetido após 20 dias. O parasitismo esplénico passou de 50 parasitos por campo a 3 parasitos em 10 campos logo após a primeira série de sulfato de aminosidine, tornando-se negativo depois de sete meses. A melhora clínica foi imediata, com redução gradual da hepatoesplenomegalia, e desaparecimento 26 meses após. Neste período aumentou 13 kg. Após o uso de aminosidine a reação de Monténégro tornou-se positiva e as células mononucleares responderam quando estimuladas com antígenos de leishmânia.A grave kala-azar infection in a 14 years old boy is described. The leishmanial infection failed to respond to ten interrupted courses of glucantime of variable duration (14-56 days at a dose of 20mg Sb5/kg/day. However a favorable response ocurred to intramuscular aminosidine sulphate (20mg/kg/day for 20 days. This same regimen was repeated 20 days later. After the first treatment splenic puncture parasite density fell from 50 amastigotes per oil immersion field to 3 amastigotes in 10 fields. A further splenic puncture 7 months after treatment was negative. The marked hepatoesplenomegaly gradually resolved over 26 months follow up and he gained 13 kilogramas in weight. After aminosidine sulphate therapy his Montenegro reaction become positive and his lymphocytes responded to leishmania antigens.

  9. Incremento de las infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en un hospital pediátrico de Cuba.

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    Alexis Monzote López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Definir la tasa de resistencia a la meticilina entre los aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus investigados y describir la susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos no betalactámicos. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional prospectivo durante el período 2010-2012 en el Hospital Pediátrico “Juan Manuel Márquez” de La Habana, que incluyó 333 aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM, recuperados a partir de diferentes muestras clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados. Para la confirmación de SARM se emplearon los métodos de difusión con discos de cefoxitina y el de microdilución en caldo para la oxacilina. La susceptibilidad a 14 antimicrobianos no betalactámicos se realizó por el método de microdilución en caldo y el de difusión en disco (Bauer-Kirby. Resultados: Se demostró una alta tasa de resistencia a la meticilina (52,4% - 59,3%. Se puso de manifiesto la emergencia de infecciones de la piel y tejidos blandos (62,5% por SARM. Se corroboró una alta resistencia a la eritromicina (82% y la ciprofloxacina (73,5%. La sensibilidad frente al cotrimoxazol, la clindamicina y la vancomicina los ratificaron como antimicrobianos de primera línea para el tratamiento. Conclusiones: Se evidencia una tendencia al incremento de las infecciones por SARM y se señala como un problema clínico epidemiológico emergente para los diferentes servicios del hospital, que demanda la implementación de un sistema para su activa vigilancia y control.

  10. POTENCIAL DEL ALMIDÓN RESISTENTE RETROGRADADO DE PAPA FRENTE A OTROS ADITIVOS FUNCIONALES USADOS EN POLLOS DE ENGORDE

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    D. Rodríguez-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El almidón resistente retrogradado (AR3 de las variedades de papa Pastusa (Solanum tuberosum grupo tuberosum y Guaneña (Solanum tuberosum grupo phureja fue evaluado como aditivo funcional con características similares a la fibra dietaria y por su potencial prebiótico en pollos de engorde. Se asignaron aleatoriamente 792 pollos machos Ross de un día de edad a uno de cinco tratamientos experimentales bajo un diseño completamente al azar. Se evaluaron niveles de suplementación de 1,0% de AR3 –Pastusa (AR3P y Guaneña (AR3G–, frente a manano-oligosacáridos (MOS, 0,5%, carboximetilcelulosa (CMC, 1%, levadura comercial (LEV, 0,5% y un control sin suplementar. Los datos se analizaron mediante el procedimiento GLM del programa SAS®. MOS y AR3P mostraron el mayor peso y ganancia de peso corporal al día 42 de edad (P<0,05, MOS presentó el menor consumo de alimento frente al tratamiento CMC (P<0,05, con una mejor conversión alimenticia comparado con CMC y el control sin suplementar (P<0,05. Los grupos AR3P y AR3G tuvieron un comportamiento intermedio para la conversión de alimento. El mayor porcentaje de eficiencia americana e índice de productividad fue para MOS, seguido de AR3P frente al control sin suplementar (P<0,05. Con referencia al ingreso neto parcial por pollo fraccionado, MOS mostró el mayor ingreso comparado con AR3G, observando para los demás tratamientos un comportamiento intermedio (P<0,05. Los resultados sugieren que el AR3P tiene potencial para ser usado como un aditivo funcional en dietas para pollos de engorde durante un ciclo comercial de producción.

  11. Evaluación fisico-química de la semilla y del aceite de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq.

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    Medina, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, physicochemical characteristics of the seed and seed oil of corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq., a wild palm from Central and South America , were evaluated. Seeds obtained from mature fruits from “El Chaparro” town, Anzoategui state, Venezuela, harvested in March 2003, were decorticated; the endospermus was transformed to meal by means of grinding and then using a sieve (425 µm, and its oil was extracted with n-hexane. The whole seed showed an average weight of 9.67 ± 0.32 (PEl objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar algunas características físicas y químicas de la semilla y del aceite crudo extraído de la semilla del fruto de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq., una palmera silvestre distribuida en Centroamérica y Sudamérica. A un lote se semillas obtenidas de frutos maduros procedentes de la población de “El Chaparro”, estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela, cosechados en Marzo 2003, se le separó el pericarpio y el endospermo. El endospermo fue transformado en harina, mediante molienda y tamizado (apertura 425 μm, y a ésta se le extrajo el aceite con n-hexano. A la semilla entera se le determinó la masa promedio (9,67 ± 0,32; P<0,05 y la proporción de pericarpio (75,39 % y endospermo (24,61 %. A la harina del endospermo de le determinó la composición proximal, presentando niveles importantes de grasa (53,13 %, proteína (13,75 % y fibra cruda (25,82 %. El aceite crudo de corozo presentó baja acidez libre (0,40 %, expresada como ácido oleico y alta resistencia a la oxidación (no se detectó peróxidos y el índice de estabilidad OSI fue de 100 h; sus índices de yodo y saponificación fueron 29,87 cg I/g y 205 mg KOH/g, respectivamente. La composición en ácidos grasos, determinada mediante cromatografía de gas, mostró mayor proporción de ácidos saturados (79,6 %, siendo el ácido láurico el de mayor concentración. La semilla de corozo es un recurso oleaginoso que puede ser útil

  12. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

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    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  13. The Role of Leaf Volatiles of Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven in the Attraction of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

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    Mitra, Saubhik; Karmakar, Amarnath; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Barik, Anandamay

    2017-07-01

    Larvae and adults of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed on the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae), commonly known as willow primrose, which is considered a biocontrol agent of the weed. Volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 4, 12, and 36 h of continuous feeding by A. cyanea larvae or adult females and after mechanical damaging were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty nine compounds were identified from undamaged plants. 2Z-Penten-1-ol, geraniol, and 1-tridecanol were present in all plants damaged by larvae. In contrast, feeding by adults caused the release of 2Z-penten-1-ol only after 12 and 36 h; whereas geraniol and 1-tridecanol appeared only after 36 h. Farnesyl acetone was detected after 12 and 36 h of feeding by larvae and after 36 h of feeding by adults. Farnesene was detected after 36 h of feeding by larvae and adults. Linalool was unique after 36 h of feeding by larvae. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays, A. cyanea females were attracted to volatiles after 36 h of feeding by larvae or adults compared to volatiles released by undamaged plants. The insects were attracted to five synthetic compounds: 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol. Synthetic blends were more attractive than individual compounds. Compared to undamaged plants, volatiles released by plants, damaged by conspecific individuals, were more attractive to A. cyanea females, due to elevated emissions of 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol.

  14. Control de plagas de la jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. con Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. en Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

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    A. Aragón-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola comprendido entre los meses de julio a diciembre de 2005, se generó en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, una metodología para el control de plagas insectiles que afectan el follaje del cultivo de jamaica. En el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó una parcela ubicada en el mismo municipio, en la que se sembrójamaica criolla -de acuerdo a la tecnología agrícola de la zona- y se controlaron las plagas, realizando cuatro aplicaciones de extracto acuoso de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq., alternándolas con cuatro aplicaciones de jabón neutro. Para verificar la efectividad del tratamiento, los parámetros evaluados fueron: porcentaje de infestación, daños causados por insectos y producción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la parcela a la cual se consideró como testigo, presentó un porcentaje de infestación del 79%; mientras que la parcela que se le aplicó el tratamiento presentó un 21% de infestación. En cuanto a los daños, en la parcela testigo se presentó en promedio 30.08% de daño por planta y la parcela donde se realizó el control sólo 14.89%. La producción en la parcela tratada fue de 793 kg/ha, presentándose un incremento en la producción con respecto al testigo, del 116%. En los tres parámetros evaluados se observó diferencia significativa ( = 0.05 entre tratamientos. Con la aplicación del tratamiento, se evitan los daños a las plantas, observándose un incremento en la producción.

  15. Chemical Characterization, Antileishmanial Activity, and Cytotoxicity Effects of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae).

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    García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N; Monzote, Lianet

    2017-09-01

    Current strategies to control leishmaniasis are mainly based on chemotherapy. However, none of the available drugs can be considered to be ideal to treat this disease. Because of the hydrophobic nature and bioactivities of their components, essential oils (EOs) can be considered as important sources for developing agents against intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania parasites. In this study, we report the chemical characterization, antileishmanial activities, and cytotoxicity effect of the EO from Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae). Chemical analysis revealed that EO from aerial part from P. carolinensis is composed of 44 compounds. The main component was selin-11-en-4α-ol, which made up 51.0%. In vitro antileishmanial studies showed that P. carolinensis EO inhibited the growth of promastigotes (IC 50  = 24.7 ± 7.1 μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC 50  = 6.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL) of Leishmania amazonensis, while cytotoxicity evaluation revealed fivefold higher values than those for the parasites. In a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, five doses of EO at 30 mg/kg by intralesional route demonstrated smaller lesion size and parasite burden (p < 0.05) compared with animals treated with Glucantime® and untreated mice. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results showed the potentialities of EO from P. carolinensis with the future possibility of a new alternative in the treatment for leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Effects of Organic, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Dwarf Chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.

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    Farima Doaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to response to greater demand for wild medicinal plants consumption, it has been recommended that wild medicinal plants can be brought into cultivation systems. Cichorium pumilum Jacq. is an annual species of Asteraceae family, that has a long history of herbal use and is especially of great value for its tonic effects upon the liver and digestive tract. The root and the leaves of chicory are digestive, hypoglycemic, diuretic, laxative and tonic. Using chemical fertilizers can be easily lost from soils through fixation, leaching or gas emission that can lead to reduced fertilizer efficiency. The applications of organic fertilizers such as compost and vermicompost can be considered as a good management practice to increase cropping system sustainability, reducing soil erosion and improving soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil microorganisms have a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter breakdown and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and sulfur. Materials and Methods: For evaluating the effects of organic, mineral and biological fertilizers on seed yield and yield components of dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq., a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (36016/ N, 59036/ E, elevation 985 m during growing season of 2011-2012. The experimental layout was factorial based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The experimental treatments were all combination of organic and chemical fertilizers (compost 4 t/ha, vermicompost 4 t/ha, urea fertilizer 130 kg/ha and control and biological fertilizer (biosulfur biofertilizer + pure sulfur 100 kg/ ha and control. Before conducting the experiment, soil sample were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm, and physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and also used compost and vermicompost were determined. All fertilizer

  17. Physico-chemical, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties and stability of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) procyanidins microcapsules with inulin and maltodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyspiańska, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) were isolated and purified. Qualitative and quantitative composition was compared with that of the extract of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Stability and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of procyanidins before and after micro-encapsulation were estimated. The effects of the carrier type (inulin and maltodextrin) and procyanidins:carrier ratio (1:1, 1:3) and the influence of storage temperature (20 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C) on the content of procyanidins were evaluated. Samples before and after micro-encapsulation contained from 651 to 751 mg of procyanidins in 1 g. Among the procyanidins, (-)-epicatechin, dimer B2, and trimer C1 dominated. The use of inulin during spray drying resulted in greater efficiency of micro-encapsulation than the use of maltodextrin. During storage of the samples at 20 °C degradation of procyanidins was observed, whereas at -20 °C and -80 °C concentrations of them increased. The microcapsules with procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn, as well as the extract of procyanidins, have valuable biological activity, and strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is better to prepare microcapsules with a greater amount of carrier, with the procyanidin/carrier ratio 1:3. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Influence of the extraction mode on the yield of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside from Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Emanuela; Collina, Simona; Rossi, Daniela; Bazzoni, Deborah; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Bracco, Francesco; Azzolina, Ornella

    2008-01-01

    The extract of Crataegus monogyna shows sedative, hypotensive, vasodilator and cardio-tonic actions. Although several papers dealing with the extraction of metabolites from Crataegus have been published, the plant productivity in terms of bioactive compounds is not easily understandable as yet. To investigate the influence of the extraction mode on the yield of bioactive compounds from Crataegus monogyna Jacq. in order to evaluate plant productivity. Samples were prepared by extraction of powdered material obtained from top branches, flowers and leaves. Soxhlet extraction, maceration and ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction at different experimental conditions were investigated for the exhaustive extraction of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside. The phytocomponents were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV/PAD, comparing HPLC retention times and UV spectra of individual peaks with those of the standards analysed under the same conditions. An easy-to-use HPLC isocratic method suitable for the quantification of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside in raw plant extracts was developed. The optimised HPLC methodology was applied to evaluate different extraction procedures. The ultrasound and microwave-assisted extraction protocols showed higher extraction efficiency than the others. In particular, the optimised microwave protocol gave rise to the highest extraction efficiency with high reproducibility. A microwave protocol combined with isocratic HPLC analysis is proposed for the rapid screening of plant materials collected in different environmental conditions in order to evaluate the productivity of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and to find out the best ecological conditions to cultivate hawthorn in Northern Italy.

  19. Positive feedback regulation of a Lycium chinense-derived VDE gene by drought-induced endogenous ABA, and over-expression of this VDE gene improve drought-induced photo-damage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Zhang, Xuqiang; Li, Xiaozhou; Jin, Chao; Guan, Wenzhu; Wang, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under light stress. We have cloned a VDE gene (LcVDE) from Lycium chinense, a deciduous woody perennial halophyte, which can grow in a large variety of soil types. The amino acid sequence of LcVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. Under drought stress, relative expression of LcVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) increased rapidly, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also rose. Interestingly, these elevations induced by drought stress were reduced by the topical administration of abamine SG, a potent ABA inhibitor via inhibition of NCED in the ABA synthesis pathway. Until now, little has been done to explore the relationship between endogenous ABA and the expression of VDE genes. Since V serves as a common precursor for ABA, these data support the possible involvement of endogenous ABA in the positive feedback regulation of LcVDE gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. Moreover, the LcVDE may be involved in modulating the level of photosynthesis damage caused by drought stress. Furthermore, the ratio of (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) and NPQ increased more in transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE gene than the wild types under drought stress. The maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis decreased more slowly during the stressed period than that in wild types under the same conditions. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE showed increased tolerance to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Personalidad resistente en maratonianos: un estudio sobre el control, compromiso y desafío de corredoras y corredores de maratón

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    Jos\\u00E9 Carlos Jaenes S\\u00E1nchez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Personalidad Resistente se refiere a una constelación de características de personalidad relacionadas con las percepciones personales de control, compromiso y desafío, que ha sido ampliamente estudiada en relación con el estrés y su impacto en contextos de salud y laborales, entre otros, pero prácticamente ignorada en el ámbito deportivo. Sin embargo, las características que incluye este constructo son muy interesantes para la práctica y el rendimiento deportivos. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido conocer las características de Personalidad Resistente de maratonianos adultos españoles. Los resultados, pioneros hasta la fecha, nos han permitido establecer que los niveles de compromiso, control y desafío de estos deportistas son moderadamente altos y que ejercen un impacto fundamental tanto a nivel motivacional (metas propuestas y resultados esperados como de rendimiento (marcas obtenidas. Se puede diferenciar entre maratonianos con mejores y peores marcas en relación con el nivel de PR, lo cual nos permite predecir el éxito de los maratonianos en función de sus características de PR. Como consecuencia, un entrenamiento adecuado en estas aracterísticas podría resultar en mejores cotas de rendimiento. Además, estos deportistas muestran mayores niveles de Personalidad Resistente que jóvenes y adultos de la población general, lo que podría ser un beneficio derivado de la práctica deportiva muy relevante en la vida cotidiana.

  1. Terapias somáticas para transtornos psiquiátricos resistentes ao tratamento Somatic therapies for treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael J Braga; Georgios Petrides

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O presente artigo é uma revisão do conhecimento atual relativo às terapias somáticas em psiquiatria, com foco em transtornos psiquiátricos resistentes ao tratamento usual. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma pesquisa computadorizada da literatura no Medline utilizando as palavras "eletroconvulsoterapia", "estimulação magnética transcraniana", "terapia magnética convulsiva", "estimulação do nervo vago" e "estimulação cerebral profunda", com todos os termos traduzidos para o idioma inglês. Refe...

  2. Estudo teórico-experimental da contribuição da armadura para a capacidade resistente de vigas parcialmente revestidas

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro de Amorim Cavalcanti

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo investigar a contribuição da armadura para a capacidade resistente de vigas mistas parcialmente revestidas, bem como sua eficiência para promover o comportamento conjunto aço-concreto, imprescindível para a obtenção de vigas mistas. O estudo engloba uma investigação experimental com ensaios de vigas sob flexão em quatro pontos e uma simulação numérica utilizando o pacote computacional DIANA®, visando obter dados do comportamento de vigas mistas parcialmente reve...

  3. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

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    Gislanne Brito Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV. Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste χ² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas.

  4. Factores psicológicos, demográficos y sociales asociados al estrés y a la Personalidad Resistente en adultos mayores

    OpenAIRE

    Zoila Edith Hernández Zamora; Yamilet Ehrenzeweig Sánchez; Axel Manuel Navarro Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Se muestran los resultados encontrados con relación al constructo Personalidad Resistente (PR) y los niveles de estrés en una muestra de 102 adultos mayores. La mayoría de los y las participantes tienen un nivel alto de PR y ninguno resultó con un nivel bajo en este constructo. Las variables asociadas significativamente con una PR alta son: sexo, independencia, escolaridad, autopercepción de salud y repercusión en el estado de ánimo de sus enfermedades. Las variables asociadas con un nivel de...

  5. Potencial de cruzamento natural entre o arroz transgênico resistente ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio e o arroz daninho

    OpenAIRE

    Noldin,J.A.; Yokoyama,S.; Antunes,P.; Luzzardi,R.

    2002-01-01

    A utilização de cultivares de arroz irrigado resistentes a herbicidas não-seletivos, como o glufosinato de amônio, pode se constituir numa alternativa de controle de arroz daninho em lavouras de arroz irrigado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a taxa e o sentido do cruzamento natural entre plantas de uma linhagem modificada geneticamente para resistência ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio (arroz GM) e ao arroz daninho. A taxa de cruzamento natural entre o arroz GM como receptor feminino ...

  6. OBTENCIÓN DE BIOCOMBUSTIBLES PRODUCTO DE LA PIROLISIS RÁPIDA DE RESIDUOS DE PALMA AFRICANA (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. OBTENÇÃO DE BICOMBUSTÍVEIS POR PIRÓLISE RÁPIDA DE RESÍDUOS DE PALMA DE DENDÊ (Elaeisg uineensis Jacq. BIOFUELS PRODUCTION BY FAST PYROLYSIS OF PALM OIL WASTES (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    JUAN C. ARTEAGA V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es la obtención de biocombustibles por medio de la pirólisis rápida de residuos de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., en un reactor de caída libre. Previamente la biomasa es sometida a un proceso de tamizado y secado, para luego ser alimentada al reactor. Producto de la pirolisis se obtiene carbonizado, gasesincondensables y un líquido condensado (bio-oil,compuesto de alcoholes, ácidos carboxílicos, alcanos y compuestos aromáticos. Las pruebas se realizaron en un rango de temperaturas entre 500-700°C y se encontró que a 600°C el rendimiento del proceso fue máximo con un 23.3% de biocombustible condensado. La composición de los gases a 600°C fue CO22,720%, H20,703 % , CH41,289%, CO 2,472 % y el resto es N2. La mayor cantidad de gases incondensables se obtuvo a 700°C pero el rendimiento del bio-oil es solo del 14.9% en peso. Los resultados evidencian que la temperatura del reactor es un parámetro importante en la composición de los gases y el rendimiento del bio-oil. Una fase posterior será evaluar costos y beneficios para re-configurar el reactor de manera tal que se optimice el rendimiento en la producción de bio-oil evaluando la posibilidad de usar los gases incondensables como fuente de energía para la pirólisis.O objetivo destetrabalhofoi a obtenção de bicombustíveis a partir da pirólise rápida de resíduos de palma de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. num reator de queda livre. Inicialmente a biomassa passou por uma serie de peneiras, havendo sido posteriormente secada e finalmente fornecida ao reator. Após da pirólise, foram obtidos um carbonizado solido, uma fração gasosa e um liquido condensado (bio-oil, o qual é composto por alcoóis, ácidos carboxílicos, e hidrocarbonetos de tipo alcanos e aromáticos. Os testes foram feitos entre 500 - 700 ºC, encontrando se o maiorrendimento para o bio-oil a 600 ºCcomum 23.3 % em peso. A composição dos gases para esta temperatura foi

  7. Avaliação da capacidade resistente última de estacas em compressão usando análises em tensão/deformação

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Ana Rita Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil - Ramo de Estruturas e Geotecnia Nesta dissertação avalia-se a capacidade resistente última de estacas em compressão usando análises em tensão/deformação. A capacidade resistente última das estacas é avaliada através do programa computacional de elementos finitos Plaxis 2D v. 8 e é comparada com a capacidade resistente última prevista por métodos de extrapolação da curva carga vs. assetamento de ensaios de carga que não ...

  8. Plantas transgênicas resistentes a insetos e organismos não-alvo: predadores, parasitóides e polinizadores - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v4i1.23

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    Marina Regina Frizzas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Plantas geneticamente modificadas resistentes aos insetos oferecem benefícios à agricultura moderna. No entanto, esta tecnologia pode afetar o controle biológico natural e a biodiversidade por meio de efeitos diretos e indiretos das plantas transgênicas sobre o valor adaptativo e comportamental de predadores, parasitóides, polinizadores e outros artrópodes não-alvo. Neste artigo, são discutidos os impactos ou os efeitos potenciais de plantas transgênicas resistentes a insetos sobre organismos não-alvo, com ênfase em artrópodes predadores, parasitóides e polinizadores, e os principais estudos com plantas transgênicas resistentes a insetos, publicados nos últimos dez anos.

  9. Diseño de dos metodologías moleculares para la rápida identificación de aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina asociados a la comunidad en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Antonio Escobar; Ingrid Tatiana Gómez; Martha Johanna Murillo; Betsy Esperanza Castro; Bibiana Chavarro; Ricaurte Alejandro Márquez; Natasha Vanegas

    2012-01-01

    Introducción. Los aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina asociado a la comunidad (SARM-AC), están aumentando la frecuencia de infecciones en personas sanas de la comunidad y en pacientes hospitalizados. En Colombia y en la región andina estos aislamientos tienen un componente genético relacionado con el clon pandémico USA300. Objetivo. Diseñar y estandarizar dos metodologías para la diferenciación rápida de aislamientos colombianos de S. aureus resistente a la me...

  10. Estudio de actinomicetos marinos aislados de la costa central del Perú y su actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus Meticilina Resistentes y Enterococcus faecalis Vancomicina Resistentes Study of marine actinomycetes isolated from the central coast of Peru and their antibacterial activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis

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    Jorge León

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el potencial antimicrobiano de actinomicetos marinos frente a cepas S. aureus meticilino-resistentes (MRSA y E. faecalis vancomicina-resistentes (VRE. Materiales y métodos. En dos medios de cultivo se sembraron 29 cepas de actinomicetos aislados de sedimento marino. Se evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria mediante pruebas de antagonismo in vitro para MRSA y VRE. Se procesó los extractos orgánicos de tres actinomicetos seleccionados para determinar la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI del compuesto activo. Resultados. La mayoría de los actinomicetos aislados correspondieron a un grupo homogéneo de blanco-grisáceos (62% con buen nivel de crecimiento en agar marino. Los porcentajes inhibitorios fueron superiores a 85% para ambos patógenos con halos de inhibición mayores a 69 y 78 mm de diámetro para MRSA y VRE respectivamente. Los extractos diclorometánicos de tres de los actinomicetos aislados (I-400A, B1-T61, M10-77 mostraron gran potencial inhibitorio de ambos patógenos, siendo M10-77 la cepa de actinomiceto de mayor actividad antibiótica frente a S. aureus ATCC 43300 resistente a meticilina y E. faecalis ATCC 51299 resistente a vancomicina con una Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI de 7,9 y 31,7 μg/ mL respectivamente. El análisis filogenético de la cepa M10- 77 presenta un 99% de similaridad con la especie marina Streptomyces erythrogriseus. Conclusiones. El sedimento marino de la costa central del Perú es fuente promisorio de cepas de actinomicetos con gran capacidad de producir compuestos bioactivos capaces de inhibir patógenos tipificados como multidrogo-resistentes tales como S. aureus meticilino resistentes y E. faecalis vancomicina resistentes.Objectives. To determine the antimicrobial potential of marine actinomycetes against drug-resistant pathogens represented by strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE. Materials and

  11. WATERMARK RESISTENTE EN EL DOMINIO DE LAS FRECUENCIAS DE IMÁGENES DIGITALES PARA SU AUTENTICACIÓN SEGURA MEDIANTE AUTÓMATAS CELULARES

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    Luz Fátima Huallpa Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un procedimiento de autenticación de imágenes digitales combinando diversos métodos relacionados con watermarks (marcas de agua digitales y métodos de cifrado, con el fin de proteger los derechos de autor de imágenes digitales. Para que este procedimiento sea robusto, imperceptible y resistente a diferentes ataques intencionales o no intencionales se trabaja en el dominio de las frecuencias de la imagen utilizando la Transformada Discreta del Coseno (Discrete Cosine Transform, DCT. Para agregar mayor nivel de protección y seguridad a la imagen marcada, se cifra el mensaje insertado a partir de una clave del autor empleando el método de Autómatas Celulares. El mensaje insertado es resistente a la compresión JPEG, a los ruidos y filtros gaussiano y salt-and-pepper. La extracción del mensaje se realiza a partir de la imagen marcada para lo cual se hace uso estricto de la clave del autor para verificar la autenticidad del mismo.

  12. Tratamiento con estatinas en pacientes pediátricos con síndrome nefrótico resistente a esteroides. Reporte de dos casos

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    C Sánchez-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome nefrótico se define por la asociación de proteinuria, hipoalbuminemia, hiperlipidemia y edema. El 80% de los pacientes pediátricos con síndrome nefrótico primario responde a la terapia con esteroides; el 20% restante requiere asociar otros medicamentos para alcanzar la remisión (ciclofosfamida, ciclosporina. La hiperlipidemia en el síndrome nefrótico es debida tanto a un incremento en la síntesis acompañada de disminución en la eliminación de los lípidos de la sangre; siendo la causa directa de esto la proteinuria. La hiperlipidemia incrementa el riesgo cardiovascular, así como el daño glomerular. Con base en esto, la hiperlipidemia persistente en el síndrome nefrótico resistente a esteroides debe ser tratada. Los inhibidores de la 3-hidroxi-3-metilglutaril-coenzima A (HMG-CoA reductasa han demostrado efecto antiinflamatorio, inmunomodulador y antiproliferativo. Por ello el papel de las estatinas en el síndrome nefrótico va más allá de su efecto hipolipemiante. Presentamos dos casos de pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de síndrome nefrótico resistente a esteroides y su evolución durante el tratamiento con ciclosporina y estatinas.

  13. Primer aislamiento en Argentina de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina adquirido en la comunidad con sensibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina y no sensibilidad a la daptomicina

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    Laura Errecalde

    Full Text Available Describimos el primer caso en Argentina de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina adquirido en la comunidad con sensibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina y no sensibilidad a la daptomicina. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino, con antecedente de insuficiencia renal crónica en hemodiálisis y osteosíntesis de cadera debido a una fractura. Se internó por síndrome febril persistente luego del desplazamiento de la prótesis por un traumatismo. Se aisló de hemocultivos S. aureus resistente a la meticilina adquirido en la comunidad. Durante el tratamiento con vancomicina y daptomicina, se observó un aumento gradual de la CIM de vancomicina de 1 µg/ml (VSSA a 2 µg/ml (h-VISA y a 4 µg/ml (VISA, y la emergencia de no sensibilidad a daptomicina (CIM = 4 µg/ml. Al suspender la vancomicina y la daptomicina, la cepa revirtió al fenotipo de sensibilidad a ambas drogas. Es mandatorio evaluar por CIM la sensibilidad a vancomicina y a daptomicina intratratamiento cuando estas drogas se usan como terapia.

  14. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

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    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  15. ESTUDO FITOQUÍMICO, TOXICOLÓGICO E MICROBIOLÓGICO DAS FOLHAS DE Costus spicatus Jacq.

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    Antônio Paulo Ribeiro Bitencourt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Costus spicatus Jacq. (cana-do-brejo, espécie pertencente à família Zingiberaceae, é utilizada na medicina popular, principalmente na região amazônica como depurativa e diurética, aliviando infecções urinárias e auxiliando na eliminação de pedras renais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar o estudo fitoquímico em busca das principais classes de metabólitos secundários, atividade microbiológica e citotóxica frente a Artemia salina do extrato bruto etanóico das folhas de Costus spicatus. O teste fitoquímico foi realizado por métodos químicos, visando determinar os seguintes metabólitos: alcalóides, fenóis e taninos, flavonóides, antraquinonas, saponinas, triterpenos, açucares redutores, polissacarídeos, ácidos orgânicos e esteróides. Quanto ao bioensaio de citotoxicidade foi realizado o teste com Artemia salina, onde se considerou a morte ou vida dos metanáuplios. O teste microbiológico foi utilizado a prática de difusão em disco com linhagens bacterianas padronizadas em concentrações de 25μg/mL, 50μg/mL e 100μg/mL do extrato bruto etanólico. Nessa perspectiva, foi possível observar a presença de alcaloides, e também, fenóis e taninos. O extrato bruto apresentou alto grau de toxicidade nas concentrações A. salina. Para avaliar a presença da atividade antimicrobiana foram medidos os halos de inibição do extrato, verificando que após 24h de incubação não houve formação significativa dos halos, onde foi possível determinar que não há efeito inibidor do extrato frente às linhagens bacterianas e nas concentrações utilizadas. Palavras-chave: Costus spicatus, screening fitoquímico, bioensaio de toxicidade, Artemia salina, ensaio microbiológico. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p75-79

  16. Komparasi Laju Pertumbuhan Miselium Jamur Tiram Putih (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer pada Komposisi Media Bibit (F3 dan Baglog yang Berbeda

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    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate comparison of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex FrKummer mycelium in the composition of different seed (F3 and baglog media . Cultivation ofoyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer has grown rapidly along with the increasein income and health awareness. Oyster mushrooms growing need for media with a particular compositionin order to grow optimally. Oyster mushroom production is determined by the quality of the seeds (F3is used, which is sourced from the media with good quality and composition. The research aimed todetermine the rate of growth of white oyster mushroom mycelium in the different composition of seedmedium (F3 (sawdust: fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 . The experiments was conducted at nurseriesand oyster mushroom development, Jl. Siulan Gang Zella No. 7 Denpasar, from June to August 2013.Each treatment contained 50 bottles, and 10 bottles only used as a sample, in environmental conditionswith temperature and humidity ranges, 20-29oC and 59-86% respectively . T-test was used todifferentiate the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium with different compositions. Theresults showed that seeds (F3 derived from the growing media composition, sawdust (1 week old:fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 (10:4:2:0,5 significantly different and better than the composition sawdust(age 1 month : fine bran: corn flour (20:2:1:0.5, with a growth rate of mycelium in a mean 6.14±0.56cm/week and 1,81±0,82 cm/week, respectively. Spawn running in baglog with media composition10:4:2:0.5 was 2.77±1.22cm/week, but with composition media 20:2:1:0.5 mycelium could not grow.Effect of temperature and humidity on the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium in seedmedia (F3 is not significantly.

  17. Denervación renal percutánea mediante el uso de catéter con balón en pacientes con hipertensión arterial resistente

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    Isabel C. Marín-Orozco

    2015-11-01

    El objetivo del presente reporte es describir detalladamente dos casos de hipertensión arterial resistente, tratados mediante ablación con radiofrecuencia con el nuevo dispositivo Vessix® de la compañía Boston Scientific.

  18. Caracterización morfológica y contenido de almidón resistente y disponible en bananos (Musa sapientum exportables del Ecuador

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    Edison Omar Martínez-Mora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La investigación tuvo como objetivo fundamental, la caracterización morfológica del almidón nativo de banano (Musa sapientum, contenido en almidón resistente (AR y disponible (AD, de las variedades de banano de exportación: Cavendish (AC, Filipino (AF, Orito (AO y Valery (AV.Material y Métodos: Se determinó tamaño y forma del gránulo de almidón a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido. La cuantificación del AR por medición de su fracción no hidrolizada, luego de un ataque de pepsina, y para la fracción del AD un ataque de amilasa pancreática a la fracción no hidrolizada. Se midió la absorbancia de las dos soluciones de AR y AD a 510nm contra el blanco del reactivo.Resultados: El tamaño de los gránulos de almidón de: AF, AV y AC fueron en promedio 28μm y para el AO, de 35μm aproximadamente. La forma que predominó fue la oval esférica. El contenido de AR y AD estuvo en el rango de 49 a 58,5% y de 41 a 50%, respectivamente.Conclusiones: El almidón resistente, análogo de la fibra y útil en la nutrición humana, se presentó en valores importantes en las muestras de las diferentes variedades de banano exportable del Ecuador, alrededor del 54%. Según los resultados, el almidón de banano de las variedades estudiadas puede ser incorporado en la elaboración de alimentos que demanden características funcionales, principalmente por su alto contenido en almidón resistente.

  19. Superfícies do ambiente hospitalar como possíveis reservatórios de bactérias resistentes: uma revisão Superficies inanimadas del ambiente hospitalario como posibles reservorios de bacterias resistentes: una revisión Surfaces of the hospital environment as possible deposits of resistant bacteria: a review

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    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo é identificar, na literatura, artigos sobre a ocorrência de contaminação das superfícies inanimadas e uma possível disseminação de bactérias resistentes no ambiente hospitalar. Realizou-se um levantamento bibliográfico de artigos publicados nas bases de dados LILACS, MEDLINE, Science Direct, SCOPUS e ISI Web of Knowledge, entre 2000 e 2008. Foram selecionados e analisados vinte e um artigos. Nos estudos analisados, realçou-se a presença de bactérias em monitores, grades de cama, mesas, torneiras, telefones, teclados de computador e outros objetos. Houve predominância de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina, Clostridium difficile, Acine-to-bacter baumannii e Enterococcus resistentes à vancomicina, sendo fator preditivo a ocupação prévia por pacientes colonizados por tais microrganismos. Verificou-se semelhança entre as cepas isoladas de pacientes colonizados e/ou infectados e as cepas do ambiente por tipificação molecular. Essas evidências reforçam a necessidade de conhecimento e controle de fontes de patógenos no ambiente hospitalar.Se objetivó identificar en la literatura artículos sobre la ocurrencia de contaminación de superficies inanimadas y la posible diseminación de bacterias resistentes en el ambiente hospitalario. Se realizó una investigación bibliográfica en las bases de datos LLILACS, MEDLINE, Science Direct, SCOPUS e ISI Web of Knowledge acerca de artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2008. Fueron seleccionados veintiún artículos. En los estudios analizados, se puso de manifiesto la presencia de bacterias en monitores, barandas de camas, mesas, canillas, teléfonos, teclados de computadora y otras. Existió predominancia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina, Clostridium difficile, Acinetobacter baumannii y Enterococcus resistentes a la vancomicina, resultando como factor predictivo el uso previo por parte de pacientes colonizados por tales

  20. Phenolic compounds, methylxanthines and antioxidant activity in cocoa mass and chocolates produced from "witch broom disease" resistant and non resistant cocoa cultivars Compostos fenólicos, metilxantinas e atividade antioxidante em massa de cacau e chocolates produzidos a partir de cultivares resistentes e não resistentes a "vassoura de bruxa"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The "witch broom disease" caused by the fungus called Moniliophthora perniciosa is one of the most important cocoa diseases in Latin America, causing around 70% production reduction in the southern Bahia. In attempt to solve the problem, many cultivars resistant to the disease have been recommended to farmers. On the other hand, the chocolate flavour is composed by many compounds whose formation depends on the genetic background, environment where cocoa is grown and processing operations. Therefore, this work aimed at determining the monomeric phenolic compounds, methylxanthines and antioxidant activity of cocoa mass and dark chocolate from cocoa cultivars resistant to "witch broom disease" and non resistant to the disease. The total phenolic compounds in cocoa mass did not vary among cultivars with values ranging from 23.95mg g-1 to 25.03mg g-1. Chocolates made from non resistant cultivars showed higher total phenolic compounds (19.11mg g-1 than SR162 and PH16 with 16.08mg g-1 and 15.46mg g-1, respectively. Epicatechin had higher content than catechin and the levels of these two compounds were higher in SR162. There were significant differences among samples of cocoa mass analyzed for caffeine. Chocolate made from SR162 had the highest amount of monomeric compounds due to its high concentration of catechin and epicatechin. The chocolate sample with the highest antioxidant activity was the SR162, followed by non resistant blend and PH16, showing relationship between the antioxidant activity and monomeric phenolics content.A "vassoura bruxa" causada pelo fungo Moniliophthora perniciosa, é uma das doenças mais importantes do cacau na América Latina, provocando uma redução de cerca de 70% na produção das amêndoas na Bahia. Para tentar resolver o problema, muitos cultivares resistentes à enfermidade têm sido recomendados para os agricultores. Por outro lado, as características do chocolate são oriundas de várias substâncias, cuja forma

  1. Diseño de dos metodologías moleculares para la rápida identificación de aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina asociados a la comunidad en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Antonio Escobar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina asociado a la comunidad (SARM-AC, están aumentando la frecuencia de infecciones en personas sanas de la comunidad y en pacientes hospitalizados. En Colombia y en la región andina estos aislamientos tienen un componente genético relacionado con el clon pandémico USA300. Objetivo. Diseñar y estandarizar dos metodologías para la diferenciación rápida de aislamientos colombianos de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina asociado a la comunidad de los asociados al hospital (SARM-AH. Materiales y métodos. Se estandarizaron dos metodologías moleculares para la identificación de aislamientos de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina asociado a la comunidad. La primera se basa en la digestión diferencial con tres enzimas de restricción de los genes cinasa de carbamato (arcC y cinasa de guanilato (gmk para los tipos de secuencia 5 (ST5 y 8 (ST8, correspondientes a aislamientos de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina asociado al hospital y asociado a la comunidad, respectivamente. La segunda se basa en la amplificación por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de cinco factores de virulencia que se encuentran de manera diferencial en estos aislamientos. Las dos metodologías fueron validadas en 237 aislamientos clínicos de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina. Resultados. Con la primera metodología se identificaron el 100 % y 93,2 % de los aislamientos de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina asociado a la comunidad y asociado al hospital, respectivamente. Con la segunda metodología se identificaron correctamente los dos tipos de aislamientos. Conclusiones. Estas dos metodologías son una buena alternativa en términos de ahorro en tiempo y dinero comparadas con otras técnicas, como la electroforesis en campo pulsado y la tipificación de secuencias multilocus para la rápida identificación de aislamientos de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina asociado a la

  2. Competitividade de biótipos de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac Competitiveness of echinochloa biotypes resistant and susceptible to quinclorac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a competitividade de dois biótipos de capim-arroz, resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac, coletados em regiões orizícolas do Estado de Santa Catarina. O experimento foi instalado em ambiente protegido, e os tratamentos constaram de diferentes densidades de plantas dos biótipos de capim-arroz comprovadamente resistente (ITJ-13 e suscetível (ITJ-17 ao quinclorac, oriundos da região arrozeira de Itajaí/SC. No centro da unidade experimental, foram semeadas três sementes do biótipo de capim-arroz, considerado como o tratamento da unidade experimental. Na periferia foram semeadas dez sementes do biótipo oposto ao do tratamento (central. Dez dias após a germinação foi efetuado o desbaste, deixando-se apenas uma planta no centro da unidade experimental e um número variável de plantas do biótipo oposto, de acordo com o tratamento (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas por vaso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Aos 40 dias após a emergência, foram avaliados altura de plantas, número de afilhos e de folhas, área foliar, massa fresca e seca e conteúdo de água de colmos e folhas. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste F, sendo efetuado teste de Duncan para comparar o efeito de densidade de plantas e teste da Diferença Mínima Significativa (DMS para avaliar diferenças entre os biótipos resistente e suscetível, além de correlação linear simples entre as variáveis avaliadas. Nas análises, utilizou-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade. Os biótipos estudados de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac são similares quando sob alta intensidade de competição, com vantagem em algumas variáveis para o biótipo suscetível sob baixa ou moderada intensidade competitiva.The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive potential of two Echinochloa sp. biotypes, resistant and susceptible to

  3. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

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    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  4. Prazosina de liberação lenta para pacientes com transtorno do estresse pós-traumático resistentes aos ISRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Pagotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Prazosina, um antagonista de receptores alfa-1 adrenérgicos, é utilizada no tratamento de pesadelos e insônia relacionados com TEPT. Apesar das evidências sugerindo sua eficácia também no tratamento de sintomas gerais de TEPT, sua curta meia-vida (2-3 horas pode limitar seus efeitos terapêuticos. OBJETIVO: Descrever quatro casos de pacientes com TEPT resistentes aos inibidores de recaptação de serotonina ou de serotonina e adrenalina (terapia convencional tratados com uma apresentação de prazosina de liberação lenta. MÉTODOS: Quatro pacientes com TEPT grave, resistentes à terapia convencional, tiveram a prazosina de liberação lenta (meia-vida de 10,8 horas adicionada as suas prescrições por pelo menos três meses. Os sintomas de TEPT foram avaliados pela PCL-C e pelos itens referentes a pesadelos e insônia da CAPS, na linha de base e no final do período de observação de cada paciente. RESULTADOS: Dois pacientes mostraram melhora dos sintomas gerais de TEPT (redução de 35,7% e 11,9% nos escores da PCL-C, e três mostraram melhora de pesadelos e insônia (nos escores da CAPS. O único paciente que recebeu doses da prazosina pela manhã e ao deitar-se foi o que mostrou a maior melhora dos sintomas gerais de TEPT. CONCLUSÃO: Possivelmente, a sustentação do bloqueio da atividade noradrenérgica no sistema nervoso central promovida pela prazosina de liberação lenta durante o dia se faz necessária para a melhora de sintomas residuais de TEPT em pacientes em tratamento convencional com antidepressivos.

  5. Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-09-27

    , osmoregulation and detoxification systems have been well .... water deficit is well known, different effects on Cx+c have been reported for ..... responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. J. Plant ...

  6. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (régime Panipo) ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (régime Paneuph) chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouakou, NGDV.; Kouba, M.; Thys, E.

    2016-01-01

    Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (Paneuph diet) in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.). A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.)...

  7. A densidade básica e característica anatômicas variam radialmente na madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae). Basic density and anatomical features vary in the radial direction in the wood of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Moura SANTOS; Israel Luiz de LIMA; Eduardo Luiz LONGUI; Diego ROMEIRO; Antonio Carlos Scatena ZANATTO; Eurípedes MORAIS; Marcelo ZANATA; Sandra Monteiro Borges FLORSHEIM

    2011-01-01

    Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP). Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os result...

  8. A densidade básica e característica anatômicas variam radialmente na madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae. Basic density and anatomical features vary in the radial direction in the wood of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Moura SANTOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP. Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os resultados foram constatadas altas correlações entre densidade básica, comprimento de fibra, espessura da parede da fibra, diâmetro de vaso e frequência de vaso com a distância da medula. A densidade básica da madeira é altamente dependente do comprimento das fibras, espessura da parede das fibras e diâmetro dos vasos, ocorrendo aumento no sentido da medula para a casca.Studies on variations in cell sizes of tree species in tropical climate are scarce. Thus, the aim was characterize the radial variation of basic density and wood anatomy of Astronium graveolens Jacq. Five specimens were collected at the Luiz Antônio Experimental Station,(SP. Sstandard methods for studying the density and wood anatomy were employed. According to the results we observed high correlation among basic density,fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel diameter and vessel frequency with distance fromthe pith. The wood density is highly dependent on fiber length, fiber wall thicknessand vessel diameter, there was an increase towards the pith to bark.

  9. Manejo de capim pé-de-galinha em lavouras de soja transgênica resistente ao glifosato Management of goose grass on transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Rosa Ulguim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de capim pé-de-galinha (Eleusine indica ao glifosato, em lavouras de soja transgênica; avaliar o efeito de aplicações de glifosato em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento; identificar práticas agronômicas associadas à seleção de biótipos resistentes; e avaliar a eficiência dos herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico, clomazona, glufosinato de amônio e glifosato nas plantas resistentes. Plantas escapes ao tratamento com glifosato foram coletadas em 24 propriedades, no Rio Grande do Sul. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, tendo-se avaliado a sua resistência ao glifosato. Os acessos resistentes foram selecionados e avaliados quanto ao efeito da aplicação do glifosato em diferentes estádios de crescimento e quanto à sensibilidade aos herbicidas. Foi aplicado um questionário aos produtores para identificação das práticas agronômicas associadas às falhas no controle. O controle de E. indica pelo glifosato é mais efetivo com a aplicação em estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Práticas agronômicas, como uso contínuo de baixas doses do herbicida, aplicação em estádios de desenvolvimento avançados das plantas daninhas (mais de um afilho e a ausência de rotação de culturas foram relacionadas às falhas de controle observadas. Os herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico e glufosinato de amônio são alternativas eficientes para o controle de E. indica.The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of goose grass (Eleusine indica to glyphosate application in transgenic soybean crops; evaluate the effect of glyphosate applications in different growth stages; identify the main agronomic practices associated with the selection of resistant biotypes; and evaluate the effect of the herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, clomazone, glufosinate ammonium, and glyphosate on resistant plants. Plants that survived glyphosate application

  10. Detección de cepas de Neisseria meningitidis resistentes a rifampicina en el Uruguay Detection of rifampicin-resistant strains of Neisseria meningitidis in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pérez Giffoni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar fenotípica y genotípicamente dos aislamientos de Neisseria meningitidis resistentes a rifampicina relacionados con dos eventos independientes de transmisión de enfermedad meningocócica grave que se presentaron en septiembre y octubre de 2010 en Montevideo, Uruguay. Se revisó también la base de datos de la vigilancia nacional de resistencia a los antimicrobianos de los últimos 10 años, para estimar la frecuencia de la particularidad de los meningococos caracterizados. La resistencia a rifampicina se estudió por el método epsilométrico. El serotipo y serosubtipo de los aislamientos se determinaron por ELISA y la caracterización genotípica se realizó por digestión del ADN con NheI y electroforesis en gel con campo pulsátil. Ambos aislamientos eran idénticos, B:2a:P1.5, y su fenotipo no figuraba en la colección de 408 cepas de N. meningitidis aisladas en el Uruguay en los últimos 10 años, con la excepción de dos aislamientos sensibles a rifampicina. Los dos aislamientos estudiados también compartían un pulsotipo único, diferente del de otros dos aislamientos resistentes a rifampicina obtenidos en 2003 y 2007. Por lo tanto, ambos eventos de transmisión fueron causados por una única cepa resistente a rifampicina, que podría haberse introducido al país desde otras regiones o haberse originado por un cambio del serogrupo C al B, como producto de la presión selectiva ejercida por vacunas administradas a la población. Es necesario mantener y extremar la vigilancia. No obstante, en vista de que hasta el momento este tipo de hallazgo ha sido esporádico, no se justifica cambiar el fármaco antimicrobiano que se administra a los contactos para la profilaxis, a menos que se identifique un caso secundario.The objective of this study was to characterize the phenotype and genotype of two isolates of rifampicin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis associated with two independent events

  11. Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Latin America Tratamento de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina na América Latina

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    Carlos M Luna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA means it is now a pathogen of worldwide public health concern. Within Latin America, MRSA is highly prevalent, with the proportion of S. aureus isolates that are methicillin-resistant on the rise, yet resources for managing the infection are limited. While several guidelines exist for the treatment of MRSA infections, many are written for the North American or European setting and need adaptation for use in Latin America. In this article, we aim to emphasize the importance of appropriate treatment of MRSA in the healthcare and community settings of Latin America. We present a summary of the available guidelines and antibiotics, and discuss particular considerations for clinicians treating MRSA in Latin AmericaA propagação global de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA significa que se trata agora de um patógeno de interesse para a saúde pública mundial. Na América Latina, o MRSA é altamente prevalente, com a proporção de S. aureus resistente à meticilina em ascensão, no entanto os recursos para o tratamento da infecção são limitados. Embora existam várias diretrizes para o tratamento de infecções por MRSA, muitas são elaboradas para a América do Norte ou a Europa e precisam ser adaptadas para sua utilização na América Latina. Neste artigo, procuramos destacar a importância do tratamento adequado do MRSA nas unidades de saúde e na comunidade na América Latina. Apresentamos um resumo das diretrizes e dos antibióticos disponíveis, e discutimos considerações específicas para os médicos que tratam de MRSA na América Latina.

  12. Caracterização dos Genes de metalo-beta-lactamase blaNDM, blaSPM e blaIMP em Pseudomonas aeruginosa Resistentes a Carbapenens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Jahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: P. aeruginosa é responsável por causar grande variedade de infecções agudas e crônicas. A resistência aos carbapenêmicos está se tornando um problema terapêutico mundial e a produção de metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL tem surgido como um dos mecanismos responsáveis por esta resistência. Objetivou-se identificar as cepas produtoras de MBL e verificar a presença dos genes codificador blaNDM, blaSPM e blaIMP em isolados de P. aeruginosa resistentes aos carbapenens. Métodos: Foram analisadas 16 cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas de diferentes sítios de indivíduos atendidos pelo Hospital do Vale do Rio Pardo-RS, no período de março 2014 a fevereiro de 2015. A identificação bioquímica foi realizada segundo protocolo da ANVISA e o antibiograma pelo método de ágar difusão em disco. A triagem fenotípica foi feita pelo teste modificado de aproximação de discos utilizando o EDTA como inibidor e a presença dos genes através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: O setor clínico com maior prevalência de isolamento de P. aeruginosa resistente aos carbapenens é a unidade de terapia intensiva (50%. Em relação aos espécimes clínicos, 62,5% dos isolados foram identificados no trato respiratório inferior. Através do teste fenotípico, 50% das amostras analisadas mostraram ser produtora da enzima MBL. Através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase foi possível identificar a presença de um dos três genes propostos, sendo eles blaSPM. Conclusão: Os isolados de P. aeruginosa mostraram serem produtores de MBL e apresentaram o gene de resistência blaSPM nesta espécie no interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Palavras Chaves: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; metalo-beta-lactamases; blaNDM, blaIMP, e blaSPM .

  13. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos Quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans and from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.Eight quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans with diarrheal disease were compared with 23 isolates from chicken and from laying hens. Samples were cultured on selective agar in microaerophilia, identified by conventional tests, and conserved in 17% glycerol at -70 °C. Clones were determined by RAPD-PCR employing the 1254 primer (Stern NJ. Five patterns were obtained. Patterns I, II, and V were found in both poultry and human isolates. Pattern I was obtained from poultry in a domestic henhouse. Pattern III was only obtained from humans whereas pattern IV was only obtained from poultry. A 95.3% of clones were found in both, humans and poultry. According to these

  14. Tuberculose multi-resistente. A propósito de um caso clínico de reinfeção exógena adquirida no meio prisional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leon Bernardo

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Os autores descrevem um caso clinic de tuberculose multi-resistente num doente recluse, toxicodependente e com SIDA que se encontrava sob terapêutiea antibacilar em virtude de anterior episodin de tuberculose “sendivel”.Comentam alguns aspectos relacionadus com o diagnostic, tratamento e evoução exógena por estirpe multi-resistente.Em conclusão, us autores salientam o interesse do DNA “fingerprinting” no diagnostic e epidemiologia da tuberculose multi-resistente e a necessidade de implementação de um efectivo programa de luta contra a tuberculose multi-resistente na comunidade prisional.REV PORT PNEUMOL 1998; IV (3: 319-325 ARSTRACT: A case of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a drug-addicted and jailed patient with AIDS is reported. The patient was in anti-tuberculosis therapy, because a question of ongoing “sensitive” tuberculosis.The authors comment some aspects of the clinical management of the patient. Exogenous reinfection with a multidrug-resistant strain was convincelly demonstrated with DNA fingerprinting.The relevance of DNA fingerprinting in the diagnosis and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is emphasized and the reformulation of the anti-tuberculosis programme in the prisional setting is warranted, in the face of ongoing transmissionREV PORT PNEUMOL 1998; IV (3: 319-325 Palavras-chave: Tuberculose multirresistente, RFLP, Key-words: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, RELP

  15. Characterization of phenolics by LC-UV/vis, LC-MS/MS and sugars by GC in Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. 'Montgomery' fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2008-12-15

    Fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. (Sapindaceae) are consumed for both dietary and medicinal purposes, but limited information is available about the phytochemistry and health value of M. bijugatus fruits. Fruit tissues of the Florida Montgomery cultivar were assessed for sugars, using gas chromatography, and for total phenolics, using UV spectroscopy. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of crude methanolic pulp, embryo and seed coat extracts were obtained at 280 nm. Phenolics were characterised by both HPLC UV/vis analysis and HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Major sugars detected in the pulp and embryo extracts were sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. The glucose:fructose ratio was 1:1 in the pulp and 0.1:1 in the embryo. Total phenolic concentrations of the fruit tissues were in the order: seed coat > embryo > pulp. Phenolic acids were identified mostly in pulp tissues. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, procyanidins and catechins were identified in embryo tissues, and higher molecular weight procyanidins were identified in seed coat tissues. This study provides new information about the phytochemistry and the potential health value of the Montgomery cultivar M. bijugatus fruit tissues.

  16. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Criterios locales para selección de semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de Chiapas, México

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    Francisco Guevara Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se identificaron y analizaron los criterios socio-antropológicos fundamentados en etnoagronomía y etnobotánica de los productores para seleccionar semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de los municipios Villa Corzo y Villaflores (Chiapas, México. En entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas a 60 productores se describieron los criterios locales para seleccionar las semillas de esta hortaliza, considerando características de color, tamaño y presencia de espinas en los frutos, así como la obtención de variedades y recomendaciones para la siembra. Sin considerar la procedencia de los productores, el cultivo del chayote se realiza independientemente del tamaño, el color o la presencia de espinas en los frutos. Más de 60% de los productores entrevistados compra las semillas y prefieren aquellas variedades que posean frutos con espinas debido a su sabor agradable. Se confirmó la validez de los estudios socio-antropológicos en sistemas agrícolas tradicionales en la zona, particularmente en etnobotánica, para entender las relaciones sociales y productivas a nivel local, y para definir sistemas productivos sostenibles a partir de los criterios propios de las familias campesinas, lo que permite documentar, analizar, validar y entender multi-criterios relacionados con la producción familiar de chayote y su posible mejoramiento.

  18. EVALUACIÓN DEL DISEÑO DE UNA PEQUEÑA MESA VIBRATORIA PARA ENSAYOS EN INGENIERÍA SISMO-RESISTENTE

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    Julián Carrillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las consecuencias catastróficas de los sismos han incentivado la realización de estudios experimentales para mitigar los efectos de los sismos sobre las estructuras. En el artículo se presenta la evaluación de los diseños mecánico, neumático, estructural, de control y de adquisición de datos, de una pequeña mesa vibratoria uniaxial para ensayos de estructuras a escala reducida. Inicialmente se eligieron los elementos mecánicos que permiten el movimiento de la mesa. Luego se validó el desempeño del sistema a partir de herramientas de simulación. Finalmente se estudió la automatización de la mesa por medio de un control con sistema de lazo abierto, implementado en un micro-controlador. La mesa vibratoria propuesta es una herramienta versátil y económica para realizar pruebas experimentales orientadas al análisis y diseño de estructuras sometidas a eventos sísmicos. El dispositivo propuesto promoverá la investigación no sólo en nuevos materiales, sino en diseño y rehabilitación de viviendas, edificios y puentes sismo-resistentes.

  19. Plantas transgênicas resistentes aos herbicidas: situação e perspectivas Resistant transgenic plants to the herbicide: situation and perspectives

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    Patrícia Andréa Monquero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Organismos geneticamente modificados (OGMs ou transgênicos podem ser plantas, animais ou microorganismos que tiveram no seu material genético a introdução de DNA proveniente de outro organismo. Em alguns casos, esse organismo poder ser outro individuo da mesma espécie, ou o mais comum, de outra espécie com o qual não há cruzamento natural. O uso dessa técnica no melhoramento de plantas permitirá aumentar a produção, reduzir perdas na pós-colheita, obter culturas mais tolerantes ao estresse ambiental, obter culturas que usem mais eficientemente nitrogênio e fósforo; aumentar o valor nutricional dos alimentos; obter plantas resistentes a herbicidas, pragas e ou doenças; desenvolver alternativas para indústrias como as de combustíveis e farmacêuticas. Alguns consumidores acreditam que OGM não é natural e que o melhoramento convencional é melhor, pois segue os princípios naturais de seleção ou usa mutações naturais. Entretanto, é possível e muito comum obter combinações indesejáveis de genes através do melhoramento tradicional. Com relação a culturas resistentes a herbicidas, várias preocupações podem ser destacadas. Essas incluem: (a deriva de herbicida para vegetação suscetível vizinha à cultura tolerante; (b cultura resistente ao herbicida pode tornar-se planta daninha de difícil controle; (c uso ilegal de sementes; (d reação pública negativa à engenharia genética; (e escape de genes para espécies nativas e (f seleção de biótipos resistentes ou de espécies tolerantes ao herbicida utilizado. A geração dos organismos geneticamente modificados tem sido alvo de polêmica e discussão nos diversos segmentos da sociedade. Porém, não se deve generalizar o uso dos transgênicos, pois cada um deve ser analisado quanto às suas vantagens, desvantagens e contribuição à melhoria da qualidade de vida.Genetically modified organisms (GMOs or transgenic may be plants, animals or microorganisms that have

  20. Tilt teste no diagnóstico diferencial da "epilepsia" resistente ao tratamento Tilt table test in the differential diagnosis of refractory "epilepsy"

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    Renata Rodrigues Teixeira de Castro

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A epilepsia é uma das causas mais freqüentes de distúrbios neurológicos em adultos jovens. Relatamos um caso em que uma paciente conviveu durante doze anos com o diagnóstico de epilepsia resistente ao tratamento, quando, na verdade, a causa de seus sintomas pôde ser encontrada com a realização do teste de inclinação (tilt teste. O cardiologista deve estar alerta para o possível diagnóstico de síncope neurocardiogênica em pacientes previamente diagnosticados como portadores de epilepsia, especialmente naqueles com difícil controle terapêutico.Epilepsy is one of the most frequent causes of neurological disorders in young adults. We report the case of a patient who lived with the diagnosis of refractory epilepsy for twelve years, when actually the cause of the symptoms could be found with the performance of a tilt table test. Cardiologists should be aware of the possible diagnosis of neurocardiogenic syncope in patients previously diagnosed with epilepsy, especially in those with difficult therapeutic control.

  1. Factores psicológicos, demográficos y sociales asociados al estrés y a la Personalidad Resistente en adultos mayores

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    Zoila Edith Hernández Zamora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se muestran los resultados encontrados con relación al constructo Personalidad Resistente (PR y los niveles de estrés en una muestra de 102 adultos mayores. La mayoría de los y las participantes tienen un nivel alto de PR y ninguno resultó con un nivel bajo en este constructo. Las variables asociadas significativamente con una PR alta son: sexo, independencia, escolaridad, autopercepción de salud y repercusión en el estado de ánimo de sus enfermedades. Las variables asociadas con un nivel de estrés bajo son: satisfacción con el apoyo familiar y de amistades, escolaridad, número de enfermedades, autopercepción de salud, influencia en el estado de ánimo de sus enfermedades y estado de ánimo. Estos resultados, además, comprueban la hipótesis de que tener una PR alta está relacionado significativamente con un nivel de estrés bajo.

  2. Secuenciación genética y mutaciones cromosómicas en cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistentes a rifampicina

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    Alexander Galindo

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Los individuos afectados con Mycobacterium tuberculosis son más de un billon y cerca de 3,5 millones enferman anualmente en el mundo. La Organizaci6n Mundial de la Salud (OMS considera que estarnos ante una emergencia global de tuberculosis que podría provocar 200 millones de casos nuevos y 70 millones de muertes antes del 2020. Se estima que en 1998 fueron reportados 8.8 millones de casos nuevos y que fallecieron por esta causa cerca de 3 millones de personas, 6% de la mortalidad global del año, La alta incidencia en la población, la convierte en la principal causa de muerte en adultos en edad productiva, es decir de 15 a 49 años. Se considera que 80% de la población está dentro del grupo de alto riesgo que puede padecer esta enfermedad y se asume que más de 50 millones de personas están infectadas con cepas resistentes (Guerrero,1998 y Rattan 1998.

  3. Comparación de los resultados de riesgo sísmico en dos ciudades con los mismos coeficientes de diseño sismo resistente

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    Mario Andrés Salgado-Gálvez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo al Reglamento NSR-10 las ciudades de Bogotá y Medellín tienen los mismos coeficientes de diseño Aa y Av que, desde una primera lectura, indicarían el mismo nivel de amenaza sísmica. Sin embargo, la selección del período de retorno para diseño sismo resistente corresponde a una decisión arbitraria y valores iguales de amenaza en ambas ciudades corresponden a una mera coincidencia, dado que, la amenaza sísmica en cada caso se ve influenciada por entornos sismo-tectónicos totalmente diferentes. La comparación de los resultados de riesgo sísmico, desde el punto de vista físico, de ambas ciudades, permite identificar la influencia de las fuentes sismogénicas, los efectos de sitio y la vulnerabilidad física en dichos análisis.

  4. Características fenotípicas da hipertensão arterial resistente na população brasileira Phenotypic characteristics of resistant hypertension in the Brazilian population

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    Ana Paula Cabral de Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hipertensão resistente (HAR é definida como a pressão arterial que permanece acima da meta pressórica, apesar do uso de três classes de anti-hipertensivos em doses otimizadas, sendo um deles um diurético. Além disso, são considerados também hipertensos resistentes os pacientes que usam quatro ou mais classes e possuem suas pressões controladas. Embora essa definição seja útil na categorização de um maior grupo de resistentes, visto esses dois subgrupos compartilharem alto risco cardiovascular, algumas importantes particularidades clínicas e fisiopatológicas necessitam ser mais bem avaliadas antes de resistentes controlados e não controlados pertencerem ao mesmo grupo. Foram comparadas algumas características cardiovasculares nesses dois subgrupos de hipertensos resistentes. Embora algumas semelhanças, o subgrupo HRNC apresenta fenótipos cardiovasculares com pior prognóstico como maior rigidez vascular e hipertrofia ventricular esquerda, além de função endotelial mais prejudicada e menor queda de pressão arterial no período noturno, entre outras. Frente às diferenças, o subgrupo HRNC está associado à maior risco cardiovascular, podendo ser considerado mais resistente ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo. Além da importância de melhor prevenção e tratamento da HAR com medidas de identificar precocemente os fatores de risco e otimizar a terapia farmacológica, algumas implicações clínicas devem ser consideradas na abordagem de pacientes controlados e não controlados como semelhantes ao grupo de resistentes.Resistant hypertension (RH is defined as blood pressure that remains above target in spite of the concurrent use of three or more classes of antihypertensive drugs at optimized doses (UCRH, with one of them being a diuretic. Moreover, patients whose blood pressure is controlled while using four or more antihypertensive medications are also considered controlled resistant hypertensive (CRH subjects. Although this

  5. Molecular analysis and dimorphism of azole-susceptible and resistant Candida albicans isolates Análise molecular e dimorfismo de isolados de Candida albicans suscetíveis e resistentes aos azólicos

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    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2011-12-01

    estudo, os efeitos de agentes antifúngicos como o fluconazol e o itraconazol sobre a formação de hifas e caracterização genotípica de isolados de C. albicans suscetíveis ou resistentes foram investigados. MÉTODOS: A produção de hifas de cinco isolados de C. albicans, sob a ação de antifúngicos foi investigada pelo cultivo da levedura em meios de crescimento e de indução de hifas. A caracterização genotípica foi realizada para 13 isolados de C. albicans pelo método de RAPD-PCR. RESULTADOS: A análise do dimorfismo mostrou que a formação de hifas foi maior nos isolados resistentes do que nos suscetíveis aos antifúngicos. O método de RAPD-PCR identificou a formação de dois diferentes grupos. No grupo A, foram agrupados quatro isolados resistentes e dois suscetíveis e no grupo B um resistente e seis suscetíveis. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando que a formação hifal foi maior em isolados resistentes na presença de azólicos, concluimos que a produção hifal está muito relacionada a suscetibilidade a estes fámacos. Estes antifúngicos podem alterar a morfologia de C. albicans em dependência da sua suscetibilidade. No método de RAPD-PCR, o encontro da maioria dos isolados resistentes classificados como pertencentes ao grupo A e suscetíveis ao grupo B demonstrou que este método apresentou um padrão semelhante entre os dois grupos, sugerindo que por este método pode ser detectado uma estreita correlação entre genótipos e amostras resistentes ao fluconazol.

  6. The Effect of Organic and Biological Fertilizers Application on Biomass Yield and Poly-phenols Contents of Dwarf Chicory Leaves (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.

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    Farima Doaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq. is an annual species from chicory genus in Asteraceae family grows in Western and Southern parts of Iran which is used as a traditional medicinal herb. To date there are a few studies on this species which have been carried out under field conditions. Dwarf Chicory can be used for cancer treatment. In many studies, the presence of phenolic and terpene lactones has been confirmed in chicory tissue. Each type of fertilizer (chemical, organic and biofertilizer has its advantages and disadvantages but due to the problems caused by the use of chemical fertilizers, organic and biological fertilizers can be used as alternatives to chemical fertilizers to increase soil fertility and produce sustainable agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic and chemical fertilizers and biological fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq. in different cuttings. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out in a factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (59°28 E and 36°15 N during 2011-2012 growing season. Plots were designed with 4 m long and 2.5 m width, 1 m apart each other. Between blocks, 1 m alley was kept. The experimental treatments were all combination of organic and chemical fertilizers (Urban compost 4 t. ha-1, vermin-compost 4 t. ha-1, urea fertilizer 130 kg. ha-1 and control and biological fertilizer (Biosulfur biofertilizer + pure sulfur 100 kg. ha-1 and control. Seed sowing was performed by hand on the middle of the furrows. Seedlings were thinned at the four-six leaf stage. The irrigation was done after seed sowing two times per week until plant establishment and then with weekly irrigation until maturity stage. Weeds were removed by hand during growing seasons. Harvesting was performed

  7. Caracterização biométrica, física e química de frutos da palmeira bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq Lodd

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    Eliana Janet Sanjinez-Argandoña

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de palmeira bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd., coletados em Dourados (MS e Presidente Epitácio (SP, foram analisados quanto ao aspecto biométrico, a composição química e as características físicas, visando a avaliar seu potencial alimentício. Os frutos de bocaiuva das regiões de procedência não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si nas características biométricas. O rendimento médio da polpa foi de 42% em relação ao fruto inteiro, sendo superior ao encontrado na literatura para outros frutos de palmeiras. As determinações físicas e químicas da polpa dos frutos das regiões de Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo caracterizam a polpa como sendo pouco ácida (pH 5,70 a 6,29. As amostras de Dourados - MS, foram consideradas mais doces (14,53% de açúcares redutores totais e com maior teor de vitamina C (34,57 mg.100 g-1 em relação às amostras de Presidente Epitácio-SP (11,46 mg.100 g-1. Porém, a intensidade da cor amarelo-laranja foi maior na polpa dos frutos de Presidente Epitácio (SP, sugerindo maior conteúdo de carotenoides.

  8. Mediational influence of spent mushroom compost on phytoremediation of black-oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemoloye, Michael Dare; Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Jayeola, Adeniyi A; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2017-09-15

    Ability of a plant to develop different adaptive strategies can also determine its capability for effective soil remediation. In this study, influence of spent mushroom compost (SMC) was tested on the phytoremediation of black oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and the response of Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass). Studies were carried out in microcosm conditions by mixing different concentration of SMC viz., 10, 20, 30 and 40% in a 5 kg of contaminated soil along with control. Seeds of M. maximus was sown in tray for two weeks and allowed to grow for height of 10 cm and transplanted in to the different experimental pots. Soil nutrient, heavy metal and PAH contents were analyzed before and after the experiment. Ecophysiological and anatomical responses due to the contaminants in the soil by M. Maximus were analyzed after 120 days. Phytomass efficiency, potential photosynthesis (Amax) and contents of chlorophylls (a and b) as well as the total chlorophyll along with anatomical evaluations were recorded. Plant alone (control) reduced the soil heavy metal and PAH contents but further improvements were observed in SMC treatments, similar results were also observed as regards to the plant's phytoremediation efficiency (PE), phytomass and potential photosynthetic rates (m mol O 2  M -2 S -1 ). The plant's root and shoot anatomical responses were enhanced in treatments compared to control, study infers that the treatment enhances the biostimulation and development of adaptive characteristics for M. maximus survival in contaminated soils and promotes its co-degradation of hydrocarbon. SMC supports remediation and as well enhances the anatomical evaluations, we therefore recommend the use of SMC on response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq for remediation of petrochemical based phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The distribution of 137Cs in maize (Zea mays L.) and two millet species (Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) cultivated on the cesium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrzejewska-Nowacka, G.; Nowacka, R.

    2004-01-01

    The plant of three species (Zea mays L., Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) were grown on the soil contaminated with 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137 Cs, in greenhouse. For all the species, the fresh-to-dry weight ratio was equal in the cesium-treated plants and in the central group after 3 weeks of culture. The shoot-to root fresh weight and dry weight ratios were decreased in maize, unchanged in Panicum miliaceum and increased in Panicum maximum, comparing to the control without cesium treatment. The shoot/soil and also root/soil transfer (TF) for 137 Cs (measured by means of Na I gamma spectrometer) were always the highest in maize, then lower in Panicum miliaceum and the lowest in Panicum maximum. All the plants seem to be hyperaccumulators of cesium. The root/soil Tf was especially high in maize, i.e. 55 (kBq kg -1 biomass)/kBq Kg -1 soil). The shoot/root concentration factor (CF) for 137 Cs was the lowest in maize, higher in Panicum miliaceum and highest in Panicum maximum. The proved ability of the investigated plants for phytoextraction of the soil cesium points to the (author). The detectability and reliin soil bioremediation. From this point of view, Panicum maximum seems to be the most useful plant because it accumulates cesium mainly in the shoot, and maize would be the least useful spices since it has the highest accumulation in root. (author)

  10. Densidade e qualidade dos estratos de forragem do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Density bulk and quality of Tanzania grass layers (Panicum maximum Jacq.cv. Tanzania-1, at different heights in grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1 (Poaceae. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT aumentou com o avanço no período experimental, enquanto a densidade de matéria seca de lâminas (DML não foi influenciada pelo período e pela altura do pasto. O estrato superior da pastagem foi a porção de maior qualidade, apresentando maior DML e maior teor de PB. Os estratos inferiores apresentaram menor qualidade, devido à maior DMT e menor DML, acarretando em maiores valores de FDA e FDN e menores teores de PB. O conteúdo de minerais das lâminas foi superior aos colmos, mantendo-se inalterado com relação aos estratos da pastagem.The effect of different sward heights (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 and 78 cm on forage quality and profile structure Tanzania grass, Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania – 1 (Poaceae is provided. Nelore steers were used in grazing at variable stocking rates with put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. Total dry matter bulk densitity (TDMD increased during experimental period, while the leaf blade dry matter bulk density (LDMD was not influenced by period on by sward height. The upper layers had the best quality with higher LDMD and CP levels. Lower layers had the worst quality, due the higher TDMD and lower LDMD. This fact caused higher ADF and NDF levels and lower CP levels. Leaf blade mineral content was higher than that of stem, and remained unaltered in relation to the different layers.

  11. Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em alturas de pastejo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205 Nutritive value of tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 handled in different pasture heights - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205

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    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas do pasto (24cm e 26cm; 43cm e 45cm; 52cm e 62cm; 73cm e 78cm e períodos de avaliação (28, 56, 84 e 112 dias em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 nos teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, Ca, P, K e Mg nas porções lâmina e colmo. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore (em pastejo contínuo com taxa de lotação variável pela técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 2 repetições. O aumento na altura de manejo provocou redução dos teores de PB e aumento dos níveis de FDA e FDN nas lâminas e nos colmos. As melhores alturas de manejo, de acordo com os resultados relativos à qualidade da forragem, variaram de 40cm e 60cm.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different pasture heights (24cm and 26cm; 43cm and 45cm; 52cm and 62cm; 73cm and 78cm and sampling periods (28, 56, 84 and 112 days in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 on content of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVMD, Ca, P, K and Mg on leaf blade and stem part. Nelore steers were used (in continuous grazing with variable stocking rates, using put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. The increments on the pasture height decreased CP content and increased ADF and NDF contents, both to the leaf blade and to the stems. The leaf blade quality was also influenced by different sampling times. The best pasture management height according to forage quality were between 40cm to 60cm.

  12. Production and bromatologic composition of grass-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submitted to different sources and doses of acidity corrective / Produção e composição bromatológica da forragem do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submetidos a diferentes fontes e doses de corretivo de acidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maximino Fernandes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried in protected (greenhouse atmosphere, in University of Engineering, UNESP of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the objective of evaluating sources (limestone and calcium silicate slag and doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 times the recommended dose of corrective in the bromatologic composition, tillering and production of dry matter of the grass mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. The lineation was completely randomized design, with four repetitions. It was evaluated the tiller number, the production of dry matter, the gross protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The corrective influenced the tillering in almost all of the countings. The limestone provided larger production of dry matter in the doses of 1,5 and 2,0 times the recommended dose. The bromatologic composition of the forage was not influenced by the corrective and doses.O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido (estufa, na Faculdade de Engenharia, UNESP de Ilha Solteira, com o objetivo de avaliar fontes (calcário e escória silicatada e doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada de corretivos na composição bromatológica, perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliou-se o número de perfilhos, a produção de matéria seca e os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. Os corretivos influenciaram o perfilhamento em quase todas as contagens. O calcário proporcionou maior produção de matéria seca nas doses de 1,5 e 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada. A composição bromatológica da forragem não foi influenciada pelos corretivos e doses utilizadas.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina: disseminação emergente na comunidade Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: emerging community dissemination

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    Luciane Cristina Gelatti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus é uma bactéria responsável por uma ampla variedade de enfermidades infecciosas. A grande preocupação está relacionada, principalmente, com os isolados resistentes à meticilina (MRSA, que, tradicionalmente, estavam limitados aos hospitais. Nos últimos anos, infecções causadas por MRSA associadas ou adquiridas na comunidade (CA-MRSA têm sido relatadas com frequência crescente em todo o mundo. Algumas características fenotípicas e genéticas são distintas entre a forma de infecção hospitalar e a comunitária. Atualmente, verifica-se um perfil de sensibilidade reduzido para diferentes antimicrobianos; sendo assim faz-se necessário um alerta aos profissionais da saúde, particularmente aos dermatologistas, para a importância da distinção entre as formas de infecções, evitando uma terapia empírica incorreta e sem sucesso.Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a broad variety of infectious diseases. The main concern is about methicillin-resistant isolates (MRSA, which are usually limited to hospitals. In recent years, community associated or acquired MRSA infections (CA-MRSA have been frequently reported and emerged in the world. Some phenotypic and genotypic characteristics are distinct between hospital and community infection. Currently, there is reduced sensibility profile to different antimicrobials, reason why it is necessary to issue an alert to healthcare professionals, dermatologists in particular, about the importance of knowing the differences between the infections, preventing wrong and unsuccessful empirical therapy.

  14. VARIABLES QUE INTERVIENEN EN LA PERSONALIDAD RESISTENTE Y LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE AFRONTAMIENTO EN ADULTOS MAYORES/ VARIABLES INTERVENING IN RESISTANT PERSONALITY AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN AGED PEOPLE

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    Zoila Edith Hernández Zamora*

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el nivel de Personalidad Resistente (PR, su relación con el nivel deestrategias de afrontamiento así como con otras variables psicológicas y sociodemográficas de una muestra de 102 adultosmayores que asisten a una estancia diurna especial para este grupo etario. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de losparticipantes tienen un nivel alto de PR y ninguna resultó con un nivel bajo en este constructo. Las variables asociadassignificativamente con una PR alta son: sexo, independencia, escolaridad, autopercepción de salud y repercusión en elestado de ánimo de sus enfermedades. En cuanto al nivel de estrategias de afrontamiento la mayoría se ubicó en el nivelmedio, no existiendo correlaciones en este aspecto con otras variables de estudio. Se recomienda hacer otras investigacionescon poblaciones de este mismo grupo etario aunque en diferentes hábitats, así como con otros grupos etarios para compararresultados.Abstract:The purpose of this research was to determine the level of Resistant Personality (RP, its relationship with the level ofmanagement strategies, as well as with other psychological and sociodemographic variables of a sample of 102 agedpersons who attend a diurnal home special for this kind of people. The results show that most of the participants have a highlevel of RP, and no one resulted with a low level in this constructo. The variables significantly associated with a high RP are:sex, independence, education, self perception of health, and repercussion on their mood of their illnesses. According to thelevel of management strategies, most of them were placed at middle level, without exixting correlations in this aspect withother variables of study. Werecommend to carry out further research with populations of this same kind of group, althoughin different habitas, as well as with other groups to compare the results.

  15. Análisis genómico del resistoma de la cepa de Acinetobacter baumannii ABIBUN 107m multi-resistente y persistente en hospitales colombianos

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    Maria Teresa Reguero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Análisis genómico del resistoma de la cepa  de  Acinetobacter baumannii  ABIBUN 107m multi-resistente  y persistente  en hospitales colombianos Título en ingles: Genomic analysis of the resistoma of the strain of Acinetobacter baumannii ABIBUN 107m multi-resistant and persistent in Colombian hospitals Título corto: Análisis genómico del resistoma de la cepa  de  Acinetobacter baumannii  Resumen: Acinetobacter baumannii es una bacteria, causante de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud como neumonía, septicemia, meningitis e infecciones urinarias entre otras. Se caracteriza por su capacidad para desarrollar y acumular rápidamente una gran variedad de mecanismos de resistencia a antibióticos. En esta investigación se realizó el análisis genómico de una cepa de A. baumannii ABIBUN 107m que forma parte de un clon persistente en hospitales colombianos, resistente a los antibióticos carbapenémicos (imipenem y meropenem,  antibióticos de elección en el tratamiento  infecciones causadas por este microorganismo. El genoma de esta bacteria fue secuenciado utilizando técnicas de alto rendimiento, ensamblado y anotado, obteniéndose un genoma constituido por  3954000 pb con 56 contigs;  consta de 4256 genes con un tamaño promedio de 912 pb;  3796 CDS  de los cuales por anotación 2884  se asignaron a COG; 57 tRNA y un porcentaje de GC de 38,74%. A. baumannii ABIBUN 107m es resistente a b-lactámicos, aminoglicósidos, quinolonas, tetraciclina, sulfonamida y colistina. En su genoma se localizaron genes asociados con el perfil de resistencia ya que presenta serin b-lactamasas (blaADC-38, blaOXA-64, blaOXA-23, blaampC-like,  blaamp(H-like, metalo b-lactamasa_B;  proteínas de unión a  penicilina de elevada masa molecular, secuencias de inserción tipo ISAba1; mutaciones en los genes de DNA girasa  y topoisomerasa IV subunidad A (gyrA y parC; enzimas modificadoras de aminoglicósidos (aph

  16. CONTROL DE Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann Y CALIDAD DE LOS FRUTOS DE ZAPOTE MAMEY Pouteria sapota (Jacq Moore & Stearn TRATADOS CON AIRE CALIENTE FORZADO

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    R. Ariza-Flores

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fue evaluar la efectividad de tratamientos térmicos con aire caliente forzado húmedo en el combate de la mosca de los zapotes (Anastrepha serpentina Wiedemann "in vivo" y determinar la tolerancia a las condiciones aplicadas de frutos de zapote mamey. Los frutos no fueron dañados internamente por el tratamiento térmico cuando fueron expuestos a 43 °C·120 min-1. Los frutos alcanzaron su madurez de consumo a los ocho días a 25 °C, presentaron cambios rápidamente en color y perdieron más peso; mientras que, a 10 °C se mantuvieron con mayor firmeza, prolongaron su vida de anaquel y mostraron mayores daños en los haces vasculares. Con respecto a la mortandad de los huevos y larvas de mosca de la fruta A. serpentina, éstas fueron del 100 % con la atmósfera controlada (CA de aire caliente a 43 °C·120 min-1, igualmente los frutos no fueron dañados por la aplicación de la CA; las larvas murieron fácilmente por el calor a 40 °C·120 min-1, mientras que los huevos fueron más resistentes ya que ocurrieron larvas emergidas a 25 °C para los ocho días de almacenados.

  17. Fluoroquinolone susceptibilities to methicillin-resistant and susceptible coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from eye infection Suscetibilidade dos Staphylococcus coagulase negativo meticilina-resistentes e suscetíveis isolados em infecções oculares

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    Adália Dias Dourado Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the fluoroquinolone susceptibilities of ocular isolate coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, identified at the Microbiology Laboratory - UNIFESP. DESIGN: Experimental laboratory investigation. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 21 strains of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS and 22 methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCoNS to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin were determined, using the E-test method standardized by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI/NCCLS. RESULTS: The MIC90s (µg/ml for the second generation of tested fluoroquinolones were higher than the fourth generation, especially for the methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci group. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci are more susceptible to quinolones than are methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and that fourth generation fluoroquinolones appear to be more potent, affecting even coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains resistant to second generation fluoroquinolones.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a suscetibilidade a fluorquinolonas dos Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (SCoN identificados no Laboratório de Microbiologia Ocular da Unifesp. MÉTODOS: Foi determinada a concentração inibitória mínima de 21 cepas de SCoN meticilina-resistentes e 22 meticilina-sensíveis para ciprofloxacina, ofloxacina, gatifloxacina e moxifloxacina, utilizando o E-test estandartizado pelo CLSI/NCCLS. RESULTADOS: Os MIC90 (µg/ml de 43 SCoN isolados para fluorquinolonas de segunda geração foram maiores do que os de quarta geração, principalmente para o grupo dos meticilina-resistentes. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo meticilina-sensíveis são mais suscetíveis às quinolonas do que os Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo meticilina-resistentes

  18. Desempenho de populações híbridas F2 de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa) com arroz transgênico (O. sativa) resistente ao herbicida amonio-glufosinate

    OpenAIRE

    Noldin, J.A.; Yokoyama, S.; Stuker, H.; Rampelotti, F.T.; Gonçalves, M.I.F.; Eberhardt, D.S.; Abreu, A.; Antunes, P.; Vieira, J.

    2004-01-01

    O arroz-vermelho e o arroz-preto constituem-se nas principais plantas daninhas infestantes da cultura de arroz irrigado, devido à dificuldade de controle seletivo desta espécie em lavouras comerciais. A utilização de cultivares geneticamente modificados resistentes a herbicidas não-seletivos constitui uma alternativa de controle do arroz-vermelho e arroz-preto em arroz irrigado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de populações híbridas F2 originárias do cruzamento entre o a...

  19. Ocorrência de raças de Bremia lactucae no Estado de São Paulo no triênio 2008 - 2010, e desenvolvimento de linhagens de alface crespa resistentes

    OpenAIRE

    Castoldi, Renata [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    A alface é a hortaliça folhosa de maior consumo no Brasil, no entanto a dificuldade em produzi-la vem aumentando, principalmente pela infestação das áreas de produção por Bremia lactucae, sendo necessário o monitoramento anual para utilização ou desenvolvimento de cultivares resistentes. Diante do exposto, os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: identificação de raças de B. lactucae no Estado de São Paulo, durante os anos de 2008, 2009 e 2010 e obtenção de linhagens de alface crespa resisten...

  20. Caracterización del gen mecA de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina aislados de tres grupos poblacionales de la ciudad de Medellín

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    Marcela Sanchez

    Full Text Available Introducción: Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM es responsable de infecciones intrahospitalarias, las que constituyen una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en nuestro medio, por lo cual la rápida identificación y tipificación molecular de la resistencia como el complejo SSCmec es esencial para entender la epidemiología de la infección. Objetivo: Caracterizar fenotípicamente la resistencia a meticilina y genotípicamente el casete cromosomal SSCmec en cepas de S. aureus aislados de individuos de la ciudad de Medellín mediante PCR múltiple. Materiales y métodos: A 41 aislamientos (hospitalarios y de la comunidad de S. aureus se les estableció la resistencia a cefoxitin mediante la técnica de Kirby-Bauer y la concentración inhibitoria mínima para oxacilina. Mediante PCR convencional se les confirmó la presencia del gen mecA. Para la tipificación del complejo SSCmec se utilizó PCR múltiple para amplificar 6 loci diferentes de este gen. Resultados: A todos los aislamientos se les confirmó resistencia a meticilina y la presencia del gen mecA, de los cuales 17 fueron clasificados como SSC mec I, 1 como SSC mec II, 21 como SSC mecIV; dos aislamientos no fue posible clasificarlos. Conclusiones: Con el uso de esta técnica clasificamos el 95% de los aislamientos del estudio, encontrando una mayor prevalencia de los SSCmec I y IV. La implementación de esta técnica permite una fácil caracterización de los aislamientos SARM y un apropiado manejo de la información de los integrantes de los comités de infecciones hospitalarios, lo cual podría impactar positivamente en el tratamiento a los pacientes y el control de enfermedades infecciosas intrahospitalarias.

  1. Incidência de infecções por enterobactérias resistentes a carbapenêmicos em pacientes previamente colonizados

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    Paula Lüttjohann Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Nos últimos anos, a incidência mundial de enterobactérias resistentes a carbapenêmicos (ERC tem aumentado. A disseminação de ERC é preocupante considerando as limitações terapêuticas e a alta mortalidade de infecções causadas por essas bactérias. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a incidência de infecções por ERC em pacientes previamente colonizados. Métodos: Estudo de coorte, retrospectivo, realizado em hospital universitário de Porto Alegre, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2014. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes com coleta de swab retal para pesquisa de ERC. Foram considerados infectados pacientes com isolado de ERC em amostra clínica que apresentaram swab retal prévio positivo para a mesma espécie. A mortalidade bruta foi analisada em 30 dias após o isolamento de ERC. Resultados: Foram coletados 2.733 swabs retais, sendo 78 (2,85% destes positivos para ERC (pacientes colonizados. Um total de 33% (26/78 dos pacientes colonizados também apresentaram ERC em amostra clínica. O tempo médio entre o isolamento de ERC em swab (colonização e em material clínico (infecção foi de 14,9 dias (± 13,6. A maior parte das amostras clínicas positivas para ERC foi em urina (46,1%; 12/26. A mortalidade foi de 61% (16/26 nos pacientes colonizados e com infecção versus 46% (24/52 nos pacientes colonizados que não desenvolveram infecção. Conclusão: Nossos dados demonstram que 1/3 de pacientes colonizados desenvolveram infecção por ERC. Foi possível observar uma mortalidade maior em pacientes infectados em relação a pacientes apenas colonizados por ERC.

  2. AMIDO DISPONÍVEL E RESISTENTE EM ALIMENTOS: ADAPTAÇÃO DO MÉTODO DA AOAC 996.11

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    M. WALTER

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Muitos métodos para a quantificação do amido disponível (AD e resistente (AR foram desenvolvidos nos últimos anos. Entretanto, a utilização de diferentes enzimas, assim como de diferentes quantidades de amostra, leva a variações no teor destas frações dificultando a comparação dos resultados obtidos. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de protease, do aumento da quantidade de amostra (de 100mg para 300mg e da substituição do tampão MOPS pH 7,0 por tampão fosfato pH 6,8 na determinação de AD e AR pela técnica da AOAC 996.11. Para tanto, utilizou-se como amostra amido de milho, arroz branco polido, banana verde e flocos de milho. A utilização de protease no processo de digestão, bem como o aumento na quantidade de amostra, influenciaram significativamente o teor de AD e AR para a maioria dos materiais analisados. Já, a substituição por tampão fosfato não resultou em variação significativa para os teores de AD e AR. Portanto, o protocolo com as três modificações, por apresentar melhor simulação das condições hidrolíticas no trato gastrintestinal, menores coeficientes de variação e custo reduzido pela substituição do tampão, seria o mais adequado à quantificação destas frações do amido.

  3. Comparación resistente de cuatro métodos de refuerzo de pilares de hormigón armado

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    Ramírez Ortiz, J. L.

    1977-05-01

    Full Text Available This report, which is a continuation of another appearing in Construction Report no. 272 (July 1975, studies the stress performance of reinforced concrete columns in insulated floors, usíng four different procedures: — Two of the reinforcement methods presently used are an improvement over those previously used in the other report. They consist of increasing the croas section with concrete which penetrates in grooves made in the original concrete or by backing the steel angles to the columns edges with angular members against the forging, but obtaining the best possible fitting between the concrete and steel by using resins. — The other two methods are new in our experiments. They consist in creating an outer liner of concrete with binder framework and in the metal solution by going through the column with the double T which transfers part of the load directy to the two strongest clips.Este trabajo, que es continuación de otro aparecido en INFORMES DE LA CONSTRUCCIÓN, número 272 (julio 1975, estudia el comportamiento resistente de pilares de hormigón armado reforzados en pisos aislados, por otros cuatro procedimientos diferentes: — Dos de los métodos de refuerzo actualmente utilizados son una mejora de los empleados en el trabajo anterior. Consisten en el recrecido de la sección transversal con hormigón que penetra en cajeras practicadas en el hormigón original o adosado de angulares de acero a las aristas del pilar con capitel de angulares contra el forjado, pero procurando el mejor ajuste entre hormigón y acero mediante resinas. — Los otros dos métodos son nuevos en nuestra experimentación. Consisten en crear una camisa exterior de hormigón con armadura de zuncho y en la solución metálica en atravesar el pilar con una doble T que transfiera parte de la carga directamente a dos presillas más robustas y, por tanto, dar menos importancia a la transmisión de esfuerzos por ei capitel que siempre es algo flexible.

  4. Enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirida en la comunidad Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disseminated disease

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    Clarisa Brezzo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR adquirido en la comunidad (SAMR-c. Paciente varón de 21 años, previamente sano, que consultó por nódulos subcutáneos compatibles con gomas. La ultrasonografía reveló múltiples abscesos subcutáneos e imágenes consistentes con piomiositis, además de derrame pleural y pericárdico. En el cultivo del material purulento obtenido por punción-aspiración con aguja fina de las lesiones se aisló S. aureus. El antibiograma por difusión mostró resistencia a cefalotina, eritromicina y clindamicina, y sensibilidad a trimetroprima-sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina y rifampicina. La meticilino resistencia se confirmó por aglutinación con partículas de látex sensibilizadas con anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra la proteína ligadora de penicilina 2A. El paciente fue tratado con ciprofloxacina y rifampicina durante cuatro semanas, con evolución favorable. La frecuencia de infecciones por SAMR-c está en aumento, observándose en personas sin factores de riesgo aparentes. Esto llevaría a fracaso en el tratamiento empírico para infecciones de la comunidad en los que se presume etiología estafilocócica.A 21 year old man, previously healthy, presented with subcutaneous nodes consistent with gummas. Ultrasonography disclosed multiple subcutaneous abscesses and images suitable with piomiositis, pleural and pericardium effusion. A puncture-aspirate with fine-needle was performed and produced purulent material, with isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion showed resistant to cefalotin, erythromycin and clindamycin, and susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Methicilin-resistance was confirmed by Staphyslide agglutination testing (Biomérieux. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin during four weeks, with a good clinical response. The

  5. Estudio para la propagación vegetativa in vitro de Anón amazónico (Rollinia mucosa (JACQ. BAILL

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    Claudia Patricia Marín Jaramillo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para lograr la producción de material vegetal de Anón amazónico Rollinia mucosa (Jacq. Baill, se buscó el establecimiento en condiciones in vitro de segmentos nodales de árboles adultos, para lo cual se aplicaron ensayos de desinfección y control de la oxidación. Aunque se logró el control de la contaminación no fue posible el establecimiento in vitro, debido a la perdida de viabilidad. Para facilitar el manejo de los problemas de contaminación durante la fase de establecimiento, se realizaron ensayos para la germinación de semillas en condiciones in vitro, pero no se logró la germinación de estas, razón por la cual se sembraron en tierra estéril. Las semillas germinaron entre los 35 y 50 días. Cuando las plántulas tuvieron dos meses de edad se tomaron explantes de hipocótilos y hojas, a los que se les realizaron ensayos de desinfección y control de oxidación. Fue posible el control de la contaminación en los explantes de hoja y de la oxidación en los de hipocótilo. Se evaluó el efecto de los reguladores de crecimiento ácido naftalenacético, ANA, bencilaminopurina, BAP, ácido diclorofenoxiacético, 2,4-D y thidiazuron, TDZ, sobre la inducción de morfogénesis en segmentos de hipocótilos, para las hojas se evalúo el efecto del BAP, del ácido 3-indol acético, AIA, y de la acción conjunta de estos dos reguladores de crecimiento. En las hojas se logró la inducción de rizogénesis, caulogénesis indirecta y producción de callo friable. En los hipocótilos fue posible la inducción de organogénesis directa, y la obtención de plántulas de aspecto norma.

  6. Estudio preliminar para el establecimiento de un protocolo de crioconservación para palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Villa Alba Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue desarrollar e implementar un protocolo de crioconservación para embriones cigóticos de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., como alternativa para complementar la conservación de genotipos de palma ante las dificultades que se presentan en la colección de campo en la actualidad. Se evaluaron las etapas de pre y poscongelación de embriones cigóticos con la metodología de desecación en silica gel a diferentes tiempos de exposición (2, 2,5 y 3 h, seguido de un congelamiento rápido y una etapa de recuperación en un medio de cultivo Murashige y Skoog (1962. Todos los tratamientos de crioconservación fueron evaluados con un fotoperíodo de 16 h luz y 8 h de oscuridad, con una temperatura media de 28 ºC. Previamente se determinó el estado de desarrollo adecuado de los embriones para crioconservar. Además, se realizó la prueba de viabilidad con Tetrazolio para embriones desnudos como un control inicial del lote de semilla solicitado. Se logró establecer un protocolo de crioconservación a partir de embriones cigóticos desnudos de palma, el cual permitió obtener plántulas de embriones congelados en nitrógeno líquido (-196 ºC; alcanzando una sobrevivencia del 84,37% para embriones crioconservados. En cuanto a la diferenciación de estructuras de los embriones crioconservados, el tratamiento de dos horas obtuvo valores para plúmula del 88,9%, radícula del 55,57% y haustorio del 66,7%. Esta metodología permitiría conservar material valioso a largo plazo como copia de seguridad complementaria de la colección de campo y reduciría los costos de mantenimiento y conservación.

  7. MANEJO POSTCOSECHA DE ZAPOTE MAMEY (Pouteria sapota (Jacq. H. E. Moore and Stearn Y SU IMPACTO EN LA CALIDAD DE LA FRUTA

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    Rafael Gómez-Jaimes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En México, la mayoría de los árboles de mamey (Pouteria sapota (Jacq. H. E. Moore and Stearn tienen una altura mayor a 10 m, lo que dificulta la operación de cosecha, por lo que es frecuente el daño en los frutos. Asimismo, su conservación en distintos empaques causa deterioro en grado diferente. Cinco técnicas postcosecha de fruto se evaluaron para medir su efecto en la calidad durante el almacenamiento: T1, cosechados sin daño alguno, empacados individualmente en cajas de cartón; T2, lanzados desde 10 m de altura, capturados en costal de yute y empacados a granel en caja de plástico; T3, lanzados desde 10 m de altura a un colchón y empacados a granel en caja de plástico; T4, lanzados desde 4 m de altura a suelo húmedo y empacados a granel en caja de plástico; y T5, lanzados desde 10 m de altura, capturados en costal de yute y empacados en un costal de yute. Los frutos se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente (25 ± 1 °C; su calidad se evaluó a 1, 3, 5, 7 y 9 días después de la cosecha (DDC. El tratamiento T1 comparado con T4 y T5 (7 y 9 DDC registró la mayor firmeza, menor actividad de pectinmetilesterasa y contenido de sólidos solubles totales (°Brix; así como los menores cambios en brillo (L* y croma (C. En ángulo de tono (H se presentaron diferencias a los 9 DDC, donde T1 mostró valores mayores que T5. No hubo diferencias en porcentaje de ácido málico y pérdida de peso entre tratamientos.

  8. Diversidade e estrutura genética de populações de Varronia curassavica Jacq. em restingas da Ilha de Santa Catarina

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    M.P. HOELTGEBAUM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Varronia curassavica Jacq. (Boraginaceae está presente na vegetação de restinga e apresenta relevantes propriedades medicinais. A espécie é explorada especialmente por comunidades locais e pela indústria farmacêutica, porém, carece de informações ecológicas e genéticas a seu respeito. Nesse contexto, o estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de caracterizar a diversidade genética de três populações de V. curassavica em áreas de restinga na Ilha de Santa Catarina. Foram coletadas folhas de 50 indivíduos adultos em cada uma das três áreas de estudo e as frequências alélicas das populações foram obtidas a partir de 14 locos alozímicos. Foram encontrados 25 alelos distintos nas três populações, sendo dois alelos exclusivos. As populações apresentaram diversidade genética média de 0,111 e índice de fixação médio de -0,060 (-0,273 até 0,222. Os níveis de diversidade são intermediários, semelhantes aos exibidos por espécies da mesma família ou de características ecológicas semelhantes. Os índices de fixação foram todos significativos e discrepantes entre as populações, sendo que duas delas apresentaram excesso de heterozigotos. A divergência genética interpopulacional foi significativa e igual a 0,079, considerada moderada e sugerindo efeitos de subdivisão populacional. Os níveis de diversidade genética encontrados e a redução populacional causada pela redução e fragmentação dos habitats em que a espécie ocorre sugerem medidas de conservação ex situ e demandam maior rigor na proteção legal de áreas de proteção permanente.

  9. Herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis

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    M.S. Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Após sucessivos anos, aplicações do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de São Paulo selecionaram biótipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrência de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma área agrícola, tornam-se necessárias mudanças nas práticas de manejo para obtenção de adequado controle das populações resistentes, bem como para a redução da pressão de seleção sobre outras espécies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza spp. resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com aplicações em diferentes estádios fenológicos da planta daninha. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, em pomares de citros em formação, sobre plantas de buva em estádio fenológico de dez folhas e no pré-florescimento. Para plantas no estádio de dez folhas, controle satisfatório foi obtido com aplicações de glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1.440 + 1.200 + 1.200 g ha-1, glyphosate + atrazina (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1 e glyphosate + diuron (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1. Quando em estádio de pré-florescimento de Conyza spp., a aplicação do herbicida amônio-glufosinato, na dose de 400 g ha-1, isolado ou associado a MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone e paraquat, foi a alternativa viável para controle dos biótipos resistentes ao glyphosate.After successive years, glyphosate applications on São Paulo-Brazil citrus orchards selected resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes at some agricultural area makes it necessary to change the management practices to reach effective control of the selected resistant populations, as well as to reduce selection pressure on the other species. Thus, this work aimed to identify the alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp., with applications at different weed phenological

  10. Knockdown resistance in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae populations in Brazil Resistência Knockdown em populações de mosca-dos-chifres do Brasil resistentes aos piretróides

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    Gustavo A. Sabatini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the kdr (knockdown resistance resistance-associated gene mutation and determine its frequency in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Haematobia irritans populations, a total of 1,804 horn flies of 37 different populations from all Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast, and South were molecular screened through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The kdr gene was not detected in 87.08% of the flies. However, the gene was amplified in 12.92% of the flies, of which 11.70% were resistant heterozygous and 1.22% were resistant homozygous. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE was found only in 1 ranch with an excess of heterozygous. When populations were grouped by region, three metapopulations showed significant deviations of HWE (Central-West population, South population and Southeast population. This indicates that populations are isolated one from another and kdr occurrence seems to be an independent effect probably reflecting the insecticide strategy used by each ranch. Although resistance to pyrethroids is disseminated throughout Brazil, only 48% of resistant populations had kdr flies, and the frequency of kdr individuals in each of these resistant populations was quite low. But this study shows that, with the apparent exception of the Northeast region, the kdr mechanism associated with pyrethroid resistance occurs all over Brazil.Com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência e determinar a frequência da mutação kdr (knock down resistance em populações de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres resistentes aos piretróides, foram analisados 1.804 indivíduos de 37 populações de todas as Regiões do Brasil. Com exceção da Região Nordeste, o kdr (knock down resistance gene foi encontrado em populações de todas as regiões. A mutação não foi detectada em 87,08% dos indivíduos. Entretanto, o gene foi amplificado de 12,92% das moscas, das quais 11,70% se mostraram heterozigotas resistentes e 1

  11. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria Atividade de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos sobre bactérias resistentes a antibióticos

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    Gislene G. F. Nascimento

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow, Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove, Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm, Ocimun basilucum (basil, Psidium guajava (guava, Punica granatum (pomegranate, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Salvia officinalis (sage, Syzygyum joabolanum (jambolan and Thymus vulgaris (thyme. The phytochemicals benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and farnesol were also utilized. The highest antimicrobial potentials were observed for the extracts of Caryophyllus aromaticus and Syzygyum joabolanum, which inhibited 64.2 and 57.1% of the tested microorganisms, respectively, with higher activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria (83.3%. Sage and yarrow extracts did not present any antimicrobial activity. Association of antibiotics and plant extracts showed synergistic antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The results obtained with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was particularly interesting, since it was inhibited by clove, jambolan, pomegranate and thyme extracts. This inhibition was observed with the individual extracts and when they were used in lower concentrations with ineffective antibiotics.Foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos frente a microrganismos sensíveis e resistentes a antibióticos, bem como observado o possível efeito sinérgico da associação entre antibióticos e extratos vegetais. Foram utilizados os extratos de plantas cujo nomes populares são: tomilho, alecrim, cravo-da-Índia, jambolão, erva cidreira, romã, goiaba, sálvia, manjericão e mil-folhas, e ainda os fitofármacos, ácido benzóico, ácido cinâmico, eugenol e farnesol. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana através do m

  12. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina.

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    Carlos Andrés Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Revisar la evolución y mecanismos moleculares de la resistencia de Staphylococcus aureus a vancomicina. Fuente de los datos. Se consultó la base de datos MEDLINE y se seleccionaron artículos tipo reportes de caso, estudios bioquímicos, de microscopía electrónica y biología molecular pertinentes. Síntesis. Después de casi 40 años de eficacia ininterrumpida de la vancomicina, en 1997 se reportaron los primeros casos de fracaso terapéutico debido a cepas de Staphylococcus aureus con resistencia intermedia, denominadas VISA (concentración inhibitoria mínima, CIM, 8 a 16 ?g/ml, así como a cepas con resistencia heterogénea hVISA (CIM global = 4 ?g/ml, pero con subpoblaciones VISA, en las cuales la resistencia está mediada por engrosamiento de la pared celular y disminución de su entrecruzamiento, lo que afecta la llegada del antibiótico al blanco principal, los monómeros del peptidoglicano en la membrana plasmática. En 2002 se aisló la primera de las 3 cepas reportadas hasta la fecha con resistencia total al antibiótico, denominadas VRSA (CIM>32 ?g/ml, en las que se encontró el transposón Tn1546 proveniente de Enterococcus spp, responsable del reemplazo de la terminación D-Ala-D-Ala por D-Ala-Dlactato en los precursores de la pared celular con pérdida de la afinidad por el glicopéptido. Conclusiones. La resistencia a vancomicina es una realidad en S. aureus, mediada en el caso de VISA por alteraciones en la pared celular que atrapan el antibiótico antes de llegar al sitio de acción, y en el caso de VRSA, por transferencia desde Enterococcus spp. de genes que llevan a la modificación del blanco molecular.

  13. Effect of drying and soaking fruits and seeds on germination of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.=Efeito da secagem e embebição de frutos e sementes na germinação de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.

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    Marcus Vinícius Vieira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated mechanisms of the dehydration and rehydration of fruits and seeds on the resulting embryo viability of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. Dehydration was performed in a forced-air oven at 37 ± 2°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 days, and after these periods, the embryo viability was evaluated by the tetrazolium test. The effect of hydration on the germination percentage and velocity index was evaluated by the imbibition of seeds with distilled water in a germinator at 30 ± 2°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 days. The seeds were then treated with fungicide and maintained in a Mangelsdorf germinator at 30 ± 2°C. Drying caused a progressive water loss in the fruits and facilitated the extraction of the seeds. Fruits subjected to drying for up to nine days had no loss of vigor; however, after dehydration for 15 days, a loss in seed viability was observed. Simple linear regression estimated the seed water content based on the fruit water content. Seed imbibition in distilled water favored an increase in dead by fungally contaminated seeds.Objetivou-se com esse estudo elucidar os mecanismos de desidratação e hidratação de frutos e sementes na viabilidade de embriões de macaúba Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. A desidratação foi realizada em estufa de circulação de ar, ajustada a 37 ± 2°C por 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias, após esses períodos, foi avaliada a viabilidade dos embriões pelo teste de tetrazólio. O efeito da hidratação na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação foi avaliado pela embebição das sementes em água destilada em germinador com temperatura a 30 ± 2°C por 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias. As sementes foram tratadas com fungicida e mantidas em germinador do tipo Mangelsdorf. A secagem promoveu perda pregressiva no conteúdo de água dos frutos e facilitou a extração das sementes. Quando os frutos foram secos por nove dias não há perda de vigor, no entanto, depois de 15

  14. Composição química do capim-Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça adubado com diferentes fontes de fósforo sob pastejo = Chemical composition of Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça fertilized with different phosphorus on grazing

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    Fábio Jacobs Dias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a composição química do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça, adubado com 140 kg ha-1 de P2O5 com diferentes fontes de fósforo, sob pastejo, no período de dezembro de 2002 a abril de 2003, com intervalo de coleta a cada 28 dias. Tratamentos: 1- termofosfato magnesiano YoorinÒ; 2-fosfato natural GafsaÒ; 3-superfosfato simples + superfosfato triplo (SS + ST; e 4-testemunha. Os teores de proteína bruta na lâmina foliar (PBf e colmo (PBc, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HCEL, lignina (LIG, extrato etéreo (EE, cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, cinzas e carboidratos não-estruturais (CNE, não foram influenciados pela adubação fosfatada. As variáveis PBc, FDNf, FDNc, LIGf, LIGc, CELf, CELc, NIDAf, EEf, EEc, Caf, Cac, Pf, Pc, CINZAc, CNEc, apresentaram efeito do período de coleta. Não ocorreu diferença nacomposição química da forragem do capim-Mombaça em função das fontes de fósforo utilizadas na adubação da pastagem. As variações qualitativas foram de baixa magnitude.This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça. Grassland was fertilized with 140 kg ha-1 of P2O5 from different phosphorus sources on grazing, in December, 2002, until April, 2003, with a collection interval of every 28 days. Treatments: 1-YoorinÒ magnesium thermophosphate; 2-GafsaÒ natural phosphate; 3-simple superphosphate + triple superphosphate (SS + TS and 4-control. Leaf (lCP and stem (sCP crude protein, acid detergent fiber nitrogen (ADFN, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL, hemicellulose (HEM, lignin (LIG, ether extract (EE, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, ash (A and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC were not influenced by phosphated fertilization. The variables sCP, lNDF, sNDF, sLIG, lLIG, sCEL, lCEL, lADFN, sEE, lEE, lCa, sCa, lP, sP, sA and s

  15. Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: composição da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal Evaluation of three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. under grazing: diet composition, dry matter intake and animal weight gain

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    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidos a pastejo rotativo foram avaliados ao longo do ano, antes e após o período de pastejo, quanto à composição botânica e química da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal. Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1 cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2 cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3 cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4 cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. As dietas selecionadas pelos animais na cv. Massai tenderam a apresentar os menores valores de digestibilidade e proteína bruta e os maiores de fibra em detergente neutro, enquanto na cv. Mombaça as dietas continham, em geral, maiores teores de sílica. Os animais selecionaram, em média, 92,4% de folhas verdes, independentemente do tratamento e da época de amostragem. Os animais consumiram semelhantes quantidades de forragem nos diversos tratamentos, apresentando, em média, consumos de 1,9; 2,8; 3,4; e 2,3 kgMS/100kgPV, respectivamente, em junho, setembro e novembro de 1998 e março de 1999. Os piores resultados quanto ao ganho de peso por animal foram verificados na cv. Massai, mas, devido a sua alta capacidade de suporte na época chuvosa, superou a cv. Mombaça e cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, em termos de ganho de peso por área. A participação de folhas, a altura do pasto, o teor de proteína bruta da dieta selecionada pelos animais e o tamanho de bocado foram os fatores que mais influenciaram positivamente o ganho de peso animal.Three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. were evaluated by measuring the botanical and chemical composition of the diet, and the dry matter intake and weight gain of the animal under rotational grazing, before and after a period of grazing. The treatments were: 1 v. Tanzânia + 50 kg N/ha, 2 v. Tanzânia + 100 kg N/ha, 3 v. Mombaça + 50 kg N/ha, and 4 v. Massai + 50 kg N/ha. Of the diets selected by the animals, v. Massai tended to show lower values for digestibility and crude protein, and higher values

  16. Effect of light intensity and growth substratum on plant development and production of secondary metabolites in Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult Efeito da intensidade de luz e substrato no crescimento da planta e produção de metabólitos secundários em Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult

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    Maria Terezinha Silveira Paulilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult. (Boraginaceae, also referred to as Cordia verbenacea DC, has been traditionally used for medicinal purposes. This study was driven to verify the behavior of the species in similar conditions to its natural environment, such as high light intensity and sandbank soil, and in conditions of low light intensity and fertilized substratum (dystroferric red nitosoil plus earthworm humus. The growth of the plant, the income of leaf crude extracts and, in the alcoholic extract, the number of substances found in thin layer cromatography and the toxicity of the substratum was observed. The results indicated that the growth of the root biomass, stem and leaves in discharge or lower light intensity was similar, but smaller in sandbank soil than in fertilized soil. The relative income of extracts in ether of petroleum and alcohol was larger in high light intensity and fertilized substratum. The light intensity and the substratum type didn't affect the number of substances detected in the alcoholic extract or the toxicity of this extract. Stains corresponding to the rosmarinic acid were only evidenced in some samples of the alcoholic extract, not allowing the verification of the effect of the treatments about its production.Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult. (= Cordia verbenacea DC., Boraginaceae, tem sido tradicionalmente utilizada com propósitos medicinais. Este estudo verificou o comportamento da espécie em condições similares ao ambiente natural, alta intensidade de luz e solo de restinga e em condição de baixa intensidade de luz e substrato adubado (solo distroférrico mais húmus de minhoca. valiaram-se o crescimento da planta, o rendimento de extratos brutos de folha, o número de substâncias encontradas em cromatografia de placa no extrato alcoólico e a toxicidade do substrato. Os resultados indicaram que o crescimento da biomassa de raiz, de caule e de folhas em alta ou baixa intensidade de luz

  17. Composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. em cinco estádios de corte Chemical composition of the hay of the Bauhinia glabra Jacq. in five periods of cut

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    Jael Soares Batista

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. aos 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias de crescimento, após o corte de uniformização. Delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições foi usado. O feno foi obtido em uma área de pastagem nativa rebaixada/raleada de 7200 m², subdividida em parcelas de 360 m². Não houve diferenças para os teores de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, hemicelulose e fósforo (P. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose, lignina e cálcio (Ca apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. Os teores médios para a composição químico-bromatológica foram: 88,90% MS, 94,17% MO, 5,51% MM, 17,97% PB, 58,12% FDN, 40,88% FDA, 17,11% hemicelulose, 27,33% celulose, 12,77% lignina, 0,29% Ca e 0,15% P. Os fenos avaliados são recomendáveis para suplementação protéica em dietas para ruminantes. Com o avançar do estádio vegetativo, aumentaram linearmente os constituintes da parede celular e o Ca.This research was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq hay at 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days of growth after uniformity cut. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and four replicates, was used. The hay was obtained from an area of native pasture lowed and cleaned of 7200 m², which were subdivided in plots of 360 m². There were no differences for the content of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose and phosphorus (P. However, differences were observed for the neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose, lignin and calcium (Ca contents among the treatments. The average contents for the chemical composition were: 88.90% DM, 94.17% OM, 5.51% ash, 17.97% CP, 58.12% NDF, 40.88% ADF, 17.11% hemicellulose, 27

  18. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de protocormos de Epidendrum secundum Jacq. (Orchidaceae em associação com fungos micorrízicos do gênero Epulorhiza Seed germination and protocorm development of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. (Orchidaceae in association with Epulorhiza mycorrhizal fungi

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    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Na natureza, as espécies de Orchidaceae estão associadas a fungos micorrízicos. A compreensão da especificidade fungo-planta nessa associação pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de programas para propagação simbiótica das orquídeas. Fungos micorrízicos Epulorhiza spp. têm sido isolados de Epidendrum secundum Jacq. com maior freqüência. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de protocormos de E. secundum associados a diferentes isolados de fungos do gênero Epulorhiza. Utilizou-se 16 fungos Epulorhiza spp. isolados de diferentes populações de E. secundum. Após 44 dias, todos os fungos testados induziram a germinação das sementes. Entretanto, observou-se diferença na eficiência desses fungos em promover o desenvolvimento dos protocormos, mesmo entre os fungos que apresentam semelhanças morfológicas. O estágio de desenvolvimento mais avançado dos protocormos e o maior índice de crescimento foram observados quando as sementes foram inoculadas com o isolado M65. Conclui-se que a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento dos protocormos de E. secundum dependem do fungo micorrízico e que, apesar da grande freqüência de associação entre essa espécie de orquídea e fungos do gênero Epulorhiza, é importante a seleção de isolados que apresentem maior eficiência simbiótica. Isolados eficientes são úteis na produção de mudas de orquídeas de importância econômica e ornamental e de espécies ameaçadas de extinção.In nature, species of Orchidaceae are always associated with mycorrhizal fungi. The comprehension of fungal-plant specificity in this association can assist with the establishment of programs that focus on symbiotic propagation of orchids. Epulorhiza mycorrhizal fungi have frequently been isolated from Epidendrum secundum Jacq. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the germination of E. secundum seeds and protocorm development associated

  19. Plantio irrigado de bananeiras resistentes à Sigatoka-negra consorciado com culturas anuais Irrigated banana resistant to black Sigatoka, with annual intercrops

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    Ildeu de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o plantio irrigado de bananeiras resistentes à Sigatoka-negra consorciado com cultura anuais, na região norte de Minas Gerais, um experimento foi instalado na Fazenda Experimental do Departamento de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Câmpus de Janaúba-MG. O experimento foi conduzido no período de abril de 2006 a julho de 2007, delineado em blocos casualizados, segundo um esquema de parcelas subdivididas 3 x 5, tendo na parcela as três variedades de bananeiras: Pacovan Ken, Caipira e Thap Maeo, e na subparcela quatro culturas intercalares: Feijão-Pérola, Quiabo-Dardo, Melancia-Crimson-Sweet e Feijão-Caupi, e a testemunha (sem cultura intercalar, com três repetições. Ao todo, foram 756 bananeiras, em 45 parcelas, com 6 plantas úteis cada, constituindo a cultura principal. As culturas intercalares ocuparam as entrelinhas da bananeira, tanto aquelas com as linhas de irrigação como sem linha de irrigação. O plantio da bananeira e das culturas intercalares foi feito no mesmo período, utilizando-se do espaçamento de 3,0 m entre as linhas e 2,0 m entre as covas de bananeira, com microaspersores espaçados de 6 m. Avaliaram-se as características vegetativas e reprodutivas das variedades de bananeiras, no primeiro ciclo. Não foi observado efeito significativo dos cultivos intercalares sobre as variedades de bananeiras, com exceção do número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e do número de dias do plantio à colheita das variedades de bananeiras. O uso do feijão-caupi promoveu atraso no ciclo de produção das três variedades de bananeiras Pacovan Ken, Caipira e Thap Maeo.To assess the irrigated cultivation of banana resistant to black Sigatoka, intercropped with annual crops in the northern region of Minas Gerais, a trial was conducted on an experimental farm of the Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, in Janaúba-MG. The experiment was carried out from April 2006 to

  20. Leptina e aldosterona na atividade simpática na hipertensão resistente, com ou sem Diabetes Tipo 2

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    Leandro Boer-Martins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A descoberta da leptina como um estimulador da atividade simpática trouxe uma nova perspectiva para os mecanismos fisiopatológicos da obesidade-hipertensão. OBJETIVO: Avaliamos a relação entre a atividade simpática aumentada e as concentrações plasmáticas de leptina e aldosterona em Hipertensos Resistentes (HR, comparando os grupos com e sem Diabetes Tipo 2 (DT2. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco pacientes HR foram avaliados por eletrocardiografia ambulatorial para análise da Variabilidade da Frequência Cardíaca (VFC nos domínios do tempo e frequência, os quais foram estratificados em dois períodos: 24 horas e período Diurno (D, compreendendo as medidas entre 14 e 18h (domínio do tempo e uma hora às 15h (domínio da frequência. RESULTADOS: O grupo DT2 (n = 10 apresentou maiores concentrações de aldosterona e leptina que o grupo não DT2 (n = 15 (26,0 ± 11,5 vs. 16,9 ± 7,0 ng/dL - p = 0,021; 81,368.7 ± 47,086.1 vs. 41,228.1 ± 24,523.1 pg/mL - p = 0,048, respectivamente. Houve correlação entre aldosterona e VFC no domínio da frequência em ambos os grupos. Não-DT2 apresentaram a aldosterona correlacionada com D baixa frequência em unidades normalizadas (BFnu (r = 0,6 [0,12 - 0,85] p = 0,018 e D alta frequência em unidades normalizadas (AFnu (r = -0,6 [-0,85 - -0,12] p = 0,018. No grupo com diabetes, a aldosterona correlacionou-se com DBFnu (r = 0,72 [0,16 - 0,93] p = 0,019 e DAFnu (r = -0,72 [-0,93 - -0,16] p = 0,019. Apesar da importância da leptina na atividade simpática aumentada na hipertensão, não houve correlação com VFC. CONCLUSÃO: A aldosterona parece estimular a atividade simpática em HR com ou sem DT2. Essa informação combinada com a eficácia clínica dos bloqueadores de receptor mineralocorticoide em HR pode reforçar a aldosterona como alvo terapêutico relevantes em HR. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  1. Crescimento diferencial de biótipos de Conyza SPP. resistente e suscetível ao herbicida glifosato Differential growth of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible biotypes of Conyza SPP

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    Murilo Sala Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar, em condição controlada e não-competitiva, o crescimento de biótipos de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis resistente e suscetível ao herbicida glifosato, a fim de quantificar os efeitos da pressão de seleção para resistência nos biótipos. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos com tratamentos organizados em esquema fatorial 9 x 2, com nove avaliações periódicas de crescimento e dois biótipos de cada espécie. As variáveis avaliadas por planta foram: área foliar; massa seca da parte aérea, das raízes e total, obtendo-se, a partir desta última, a taxa de crescimento absoluto. O biótipo de C. canadensis resistente ao glifosato possui crescimento mais lento, menor acúmulo de área foliar e de massa seca que o biótipo suscetível. Menores áreas foliar e massa seca também foram registradas para o biótipo de C. bonariensis resistente ao glifosato quando comparado ao suscetível, porém com diferenças mais sutis que aquelas constatadas para C. canadensis. O crescimento absoluto do biótipo suscetível foi superior ao do resistente em ambas as espécies. A pressão de seleção para resistência ao glifosato teve impactos negativos na habilidade de crescimento dos biótipos.This work was carried out with the objective of comparing, under controlled and non-competitive condition, the growth of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible biotypes of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; to quantify the effects of resistance selection pressure on the biotypes. Two trials were developed with treatments organized according to a factorial scheme 9 x 2, where nine were periodical growth evaluations and two were biotypes of each species. The variables evaluated per plant were: leaf area and dry mass (shoot, root and total; to determine absolute growth rate from the total dry mass. The glyphosate-resistant biotype of C. canadensis exhibits slower growth and smaller accumulation of leaf area

  2. Seleção de linhagens de melancia resistentes ao Watermelon mosaic virus e ao Papaya ringspot virus Selection of resistant watermelon lines to Watermelon mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus

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    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 20 linhagens de melancia, provenientes do cruzamento da cultivar comercial suscetível Crimson Sweet e da introdução PI 595201 resistente ao Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV e Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W. As linhagens, e os parentais foram inoculados com o WMV ou com o PRSV-W em casa-de-vegetação distintas. Aos 35 e 49 dias após a primeira inoculação (DAI, as plantas foram avaliadas por meio de uma escala de notas, em que 1 (ausência de sintomas a 5 (intenso mosaico e deformações foliares. Pelos resultados infere-se que, aos 35 DAI, as linhagens 1, 2 e 20 apresentaram resistência tanto para o WMV como para o PRSV-W, com médias de 1,95, 1,80 e 2,25 para o WMV, e de 2,50, 2,30 e 2,50 para o PRSV-W, respectivamente. As linhagens 5, 7 e 13 foram resistentes somente ao WMV e as plantas das linhagens 3, 10 e 18 para o PRSV-W. A reação das linhagens permaneceu em geral pouco alterada aos 49 DAI. A existência de linhagens resistentes somente ao WMV e somente ao PRSV-W, ao lado de linhagens resistentes a ambos os vírus, é indicativo de que as resistências ao WMV e ao PRSV-W não são controladas pelos mesmos genes.Twenty advanced watermelon breeding lines, derived from the cross between cv. Crimson Sweet (susceptible and PI 595201 (resistant to WMV and PRSV-W, were screened for resistance to both potyviruses. The twenty lines, among with Crimson Sweet and PI 595201, were inoculated with either WMV or PRSV-W, in two different greenhouse trials. Plants were evaluated for symptoms 35 and 49 days after the first inoculation (DAI, using a scale from 1 (no symptoms to 5 (severe mosaic and foliar distortion. Evaluations at 35 DAI indicated that lines 1, 2 and 20 had good levels of resistance to both WMV and PRSV-W, with ratings of 1,95, 1,80 and 2,25 for WMV, and of 2,50, 2,30 and 2,50 for PRSV-W, respectively. Lines 5, 7 and 13 were resistant to WMV only, whereas lines 3, 10 and 18 were resistant to PRSV-W only. The reaction of

  3. Presentación atípica de piomiositis tropical difusa de psoas por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente Atypical presentation of diffuse tropical pyomiositis of the psoas due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Ray Ticse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La piomiositis tropical difusa primaria es una enfermedad de presentación infrecuente en nuestro medio, con pocos casos asociados a Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente, adquirido en la comunidad (MRSA-AC. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 70 años, con tratamiento irregular para diabetes mellitus tipo 2, que fue hospitalizado por presentar un cuadro de diez días de evolución, con dolor lumbar irradiado a miembro inferior izquierdo, fiebre y flexión forzada de la cadera derecha por dolor a la movilización. El diagnóstico de piomiositis difusa de ambos psoas se realizó con resonancia magnética. Del cultivo de una colección paravertebral posterior se aisló Staphylococcus aureus resistente a oxacilina, penicilina y dicloxacilina.Diffuse tropical primary pyomyositis is an infrequent entity in our country, with few cases associated to communityacquired Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. There are no reported cases of Community-Acquired Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA- MRSA in Peru. We present the case of a 70 year old male with a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, receiving irregular treatment, who was admitted to the hospital with a history of 10 days of low back pain radiating to the left leg, fever and forced flexion of the right hip due to pain during movement. The diagnosis of diffuse pyomyositis of both psoas muscles was performed with MRI and culture of a posterior paravertebral collection, from which Staphylococcus aureus resistant to oxacillin, penicillin and dicloxacillin was isolated.

  4. Análise comparativa entre tuberculose multirresistente e tuberculose extensivamente resistente – Epidemiologia e factores preditivos

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    Ana Sofia Vilariça

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: A tuberculose extensivamente resistente (TBXDR define-se como uma forma de tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR com resistências adicionais às fluoroquinolonas e, pelo menos, a um dos antibacilares injectáveis seguintes: amicacina, canamicina e capreomicina. Foi classificada pela OMS como uma ameaça séria ao controlo da tuberculose, com consequências à escala mundial, assumindo os contornos de uma autêntica pandemia em algumas regiões do globo.Objectivo: Comparar os doentes com TBXDR versus outros perfis de TBMR no que diz respeito às características demográficas e epidemiológicas, factores etiopatogénicos e evolução no internamento.Material e métodos: Doentes internados no Serviço de Pneumologia III do Hospital de Pulido Valente no período compreendido entre Abril de 1999 e Junho de 2007, com o diagnóstico de TBMR microbiologicamente confirmado. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: sexo, distribuição etária, raça, formas de apresentação da TB, grupos de tratamento, perfil de resistência aos antibacilares, estatuto de imigrante, número e duração de tratamentos anteriores, classificação OMS, co-infecção VIH, alcoolismo e/ou toxicodependência, demora média do internamento e mortalidade intra-hospitalar. A análise estatística realizou-se no programa SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versão 15.0. Nas variáveis categoriais, as diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos foram avaliadas através do teste qui-quadrado e as variáveis numéricas através do teste t. Para a construção do modelo preditivo da presença de TBXDR (variável dependente foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística, tendo sido incluídas as seguintes variáveis independentes: classificação OMS, coinfecção VIH, estatuto de imigrante, alcoolismo e/ou toxicodepend

  5. Atributos químicos e físicos de um argissolo cultivado com Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio, sob lotação rotacionada e adubado com nitrogênio Chemical and physical attributes in an anfisol cultivated with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio, under rotational stocking and fertilized with nitrogen

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    Patrícia Sarmento

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação dos atributos químicos e físicos do solo é necessária em estudos que exploram intensivamente os sistemas de pastejo. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar as variações nos atributos físicos e químicos de um Argissolo cultivado com capim-milênio, sob pastejo, no intervalo compreendido entre outubro/2001 e maio/2002, no quinto ano de aplicação sucessiva das seguintes doses de N: 0, 150, 300 e 450 kg ha-1. Após os cinco anos de aplicação de 450 kg ha-1 de N, o teor de MO aumentou em 5 g dm-3, o que resultou em aumento da CTC. No período de outubro/2001 a maio/2002 houve diminuição nos valores de pH e de V com a aplicação de N. A densidade do solo variou pouco com a adubação nitrogenada; a percentagem de microporos aumentou e a de macroporos diminuiu na camada de 0-5 cm com o aumento das doses de N, mas a porosidade total permaneceu constante; e a resistência à penetração, quando o solo apresentava 90 g kg-1 de água, não foi afetada pelas doses de N e não foi restritiva ao crescimento das plantas.It is necessary to evaluate the soil physical and chemical attributes in studies that explore grazing systems intensively. In this work the variation in physical and chemical attributes of an Alfissol cultivated with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio under grazing were evaluated from October 2001 to May 2002, in the fifth year of consecutive N application at rates of 0, 150, 300, and 450 kg ha-1. After five successive applications of 450 kg ha-1 N, the OM content increased 5 g dm-3, which resulted in CEC increase. From October 2001 to May 2002 the pH and basis saturation degree decreased with the increasing N rates. The range in soil density with N fertilization was small; the micropore percentage increased and the macropore percentage decreased in the 0-5 cm layer with increasing N rates, but the total porosity remained constant; and the soil penetration resistance at 90 g ha-1 of water was not

  6. Colonização por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina: Que impacto na morbilidade de doentes pediátricos com fibrose quística?

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    Joana Fermeiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: Ao Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA é classicamente reconhecido um papel patogénico no âmbito da fibrose quística (FQ.Objectivos: Avaliação da evolução da prevalência e incidência da colonização por MRSA, impacto clínico no ano após o primeiro isolamento, factores de risco e padrão de resistência antimicrobiana.Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo dos doentes pediátricos colonizados por MRSA seguidos no centro de FQ do Hospital de Santa Maria de 2003 a 2007.Resultados: O MRSA foi isolado em secreções respiratórias de 12 dos 60 doentes seguidos durante este período (colonização crónica em 3 doentes. A idade média à data do primeiro isolamento foi de 9 anos e 10 meses e o tempo médio entre o diagnóstico de FQ e a aquisição de MRSA de 5 anos e 7 meses.Verificou-se um aumento da prevalência e incidência de colonização por MRSA, com um máximo atingido em 2007 (prevalência 14,3% e incidência 8,9%. Quatro doentes cumpriram antibioticoterapia profiláctica antiestafilocócica com flucloxacilina.No ano após o primeiro isolamento de MRSA, constatou-se um aumento do número de dias de internamento em 4 doentes (2 com colonização crónica e deterioração da função pulmonar em 5, incluindo a totalidade dos doentes com colonização crónica. Apenas um doente apresentou diminuição de percentil de índice de massa corporal.As resistências mais frequentemente encontradas foram à rifampicina e à clindamicina.Conclusões: Este estudo revelou ocorrência de deterioração clínica relevante em doentes com colonização crónica por MRSA, reforçando a importância da implementação de estratégias eficazes e precoces de erradicação.Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (4: 527-542 Abstract: Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA plays a well-recognised pathogenic role in cystic fibrosis (CF.Aims: To evaluate the prevalence and incidence of colonisation by MRSA

  7. Comportamiento de un cemento portland resistente a los sulfatos frente al agua desionizada y a disoluciones de sulfato de sodio y de sulfato de magnesio

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    Bermejo-Muñoz, M. Francisca

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    [es] En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de un cemento portland industrial resistente a los sulfatos cuando los lechos granulados —fabricados con dicho cemento, una vez hidratado y conservado durante 7 y 28 días en una cámara húmeda a 21 ± 2 °C y con una humedad relativa superior al 90%— se someten a la acción del agua desionizada, de una disolución de sulfato de sodio y de otra disolución de sulfato de magnesio habiendo determinado: a. la evolución de los contenidos de los iones Ca (II y SO4 (II en los dos primeros casos, y además Mg (II, en el tercero, en las disoluciones que han atravesado los lechos de cemento, así como la del pH y de la conductividad, b. la variación del contenido de los iones mencionados en los compuestos correspondientes del cemento de los lechos, una vez sometidos a la acción de las disoluciones agresivas, así como las modificaciones estructurales experimentadas, y c. las características estructurales de la nueva fase sólida formada en las fracciones recogidas de la disolución de sulfato de magnesio, que han atravesado los lechos de cemento. En estos trabajos se ha puesto de manifiesto que la cantidad de Ca(OH2 disuelta (extraída tanto por el agua desionizada, como por la disolución de sulfato de sodio, disminuye exponencialmente a medida que aumenta el volumen de estas disoluciones, que han atravesado los lechos de cemento, alcanzando un valor asintótico; este fenómeno influye en el avance de las reacciones de hidratación y en la degradación de los compuestos del cemento. En el caso de la disolución de sulfato de magnesio, se produce un intercambio entre los iones Ca (II del Ca(OH2 del cemento hidratado y el Mg (II de la disolución, el cual precipita como brucita en el lecho —llegando a colmatarlo en determinados casos— y en las fracciones de la disolución que han atravesado los lechos. La disolución del Ca(OH2

  8. Respostas morfológicas do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 irrigado à intensidade de desfolha sob lotação rotacionada Morphological responses of irrigated Tanzaniagrass (Panicum Maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 to grazing intensity under rotational stocking

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    Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando quantificar respostas morfológicas de dosséis de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 sob três intensidades de pastejo, lotação rotacionada e irrigação, foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram três intensidades de pastejo, representados pelas quantidades de massa seca verde residual pós-pastejo (T1=1000; T2=2500 e T3=4000 kg MSV/ha. Durante oito ciclos de pastejo (rebrotas de 33 dias após três dias de pastejo em cada ciclo, foram realizadas avaliações de altura média do dossel, índice de área foliar (IAF, interceptação luminosa (IL e ângulos foliares médios, em quatro dias dentro do período de rebrota (1, 11, 22 e 33 dias após a saída dos animais. A análise de correlações parciais indicou correlações entre altura e IL, bem como entre IAF e IL. Com o progresso da estação de pastejo, da primavera-verão para outono-inverno, houve reduções nos valores de IAF médio. Valores médios de IAF crítico (95% IL de 3,6 (T1, 4,0 (T2 e 4,5 (T3, foram alcançados por volta do 22º dia das rebrotas. A maior intensidade de pastejo (menor resíduo alterou a estrutura da pastagem no que diz respeito à arquitetura do dossel, evidenciada pela redução nos ângulos foliares médios (folhas mais horizontais ao longo das estações, com plantas passando a interceptar mais luz por unidade de área foliar. Os IAFs críticos medidos sugerem a necessidade de períodos de descanso menores que 33 dias em pastos de capim-Tanzânia, quando submetido a pastejo intensivo sob lotação rotacionada e irrigação.The objective of this research was to quantify morphological responses of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 under three grazing intensities in an irrigated, rotationally stocked setting. Treatments consisted of three grazing intensities represented by three post-graze forage masses (T1=1,000; T

  9. Impacts of Panicum maximum Jacq. invasion and its manual weeding on the wood plant regeneration in the understory of a restoration site Efeitos da invasão por Panicum maximum Jacq. e do seu controle manual sobre a regeneração de plantas lenhosas no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento

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    Gabriela Ribeiro de Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Responsible for considerable annual losses of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, invasive alien species cause important conservation problems, leading native species to local extinction. This study examined the relationship among the coverage of Guinea-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq., its manual weeding and the woody plant diversity of a restoration site. The site is a reforestation created using native species but due to spacing and species composition grass still dominates its understory more than 17 years after. Preliminary results showed that it is a barrier to the establishment of native species. In this study, we established 20 plots of 5m x 5m divided into two treatments, control and removal of P. maximum, to investigate the impact of manual weeding on the understory in a period of 90 days. Grass cover and canopy openness were also recorded. The grass cover had negative correlation with the abundance of plants, with the species richness and abundance of tree species. Canopy openness had a negative influence on the species richness, on abundance and richness of tree species, but not showed correlation with P. maximum. After grass removal, both abundance of seedling and species richness had no significant differences, so the manual weeding did not cause a negative impact in short time on the regeneration of the understory due to accidental native plant uprooting. However, a positive impact is expected only after a longer period of observation, after successive removals of invasive herbaceous and increased chance of colonization of the area by regenerating seedlings.Responsáveis por perdas anuais consideráveis na biodiversidade dos ecossistemas naturais, as espécies exóticas invasoras causam sérios problemas à conservação, levando muitas espécies à extinção local. Este estudo analisou o efeito da cobertura de capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq. no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento dominado há mais de 17 anos por essa gram

  10. Control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis with dicamba and 2,4-D Controle de buva (Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate com dicamba e 2,4-D

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    D.J. Soares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Auxyn type herbicides such as dicamba and 2,4-D are alternative herbicides that can be used to control glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane. With the forthcoming possibility of releasing dicamba-resistant and 2,4-D-resistant crops, use of these growth regulator herbicides will likely be an alternative that can be applied to the control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis. The objective of this research was to model the efficacy, through dose-response curves, of glyphosate, 2,4-D, isolated dicamba and glyphosatedicamba combinations to control a brazilian hairy fleabane population resistant to glyphosate. The greenhouse dose-response studies were conducted as a completely randomized experimental design, and the rates used for dose response curve construction were 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 and 960 g a.i. ha-1 for 2,4-D, dicamba and the dicamba combination, with glyphosate at 540 g a.e. ha-1. The rates for glyphosate alone were 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 and 960 g a.e. ha-1. Herbicides were applied when the plants were in a vegetative stage with 10 to 12 leaves and height between 12 and 15 cm. Hairy fleabane had low sensitivity to glyphosate, with poor control even at the 960 g a.e. ha-1 rate. Dicamba and 2,4-D were effective in controlling the studied hairy fleabane. Hairy fleabane responds differently to 2,4-D and dicamba. The combination of glyphosate and dicamba was not antagonistic to hairy fleabane control, and glyphosate may cause an additive effect on the control, despite the population resistance.Os herbicidas mimetizadores de auxinas como dicamba e 2,4-D são alternativas para o controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. Com a possível futura liberação comercial de culturas resistentes ao dicamba e 2,4-D, a aplicação destes herbicidas reguladores de crescimento será uma provável alternativa de controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar por meio de curvas de dose-resposta a efic

  11. Inhibición de la expresión del sistema agr de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina mediante el uso de polifenoles totales de hojas de aguacate mexicano ( Persea americana var. drymifolia

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    M.A. García-Moreno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción : La resistencia a los antibióticos por parte de las bacterias está provocando gran impacto negativo en la salud humana y en la producción animal. Actualmente, Staphylococcus aureus es considerada dentro de los seis principales grupos bacterianos con mayores reportes de aparición de resistencia a nivel mundial . Por otro lado , durante décadas las plantas de uso medicinal han sido fuente importante de compuestos bactericida s ; sin embargo, también se ha empezado a documentar otras moléculas con otros mecanismos antimicrobianos , como es la inhibici ón de la percepción de quórum ( anti - p ercepción de q u ó rum ( APQ . En la medicina tradicional mexicana las hojas de aguacate mexicano ( Persea americana var drymifolia han sido empleadas para tratar diversos padecimientos que involucran infecciones bacterianas, por lo que es factible contenga compuesto s que pose a n efectos antioxidantes , bactericidas y APQ, que ayuden a combat ir las infecciones de cepas resistentes. De t al manera , que e l objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto de los polifenoles totales de las hojas de Persea americana var. drymifolia y su actividad APQ sobre cepas de S. aureus resistente s a meticilina (MRSA . Método s : Se obtuvieron l os polifenoles presente s en las hojas de 18 cultivares de aguacate mexicano mediante extracción asistida por ultrasonido y fueron purificados en una columna de amberlita . E stos polifenoles fueron analizados funcionalmente y evaluados contra cepas de S. aureu s MRSA para determinar su efecto APQ sobre el sistema denominado Agr . Resultados : Los polifenoles extraídos de las hojas de aguacate de raza mexicana exhiben una fuerte actividad bactericida . D e los 18 cultivares probados, la variedad María Elena fue la que presentó el mayor efecto , exhibiendo una CMI de 116 μg∙ mL - 1 y un CMB de 133 μg∙ mL - 1 contra la cepa de MRSA μ3 . Sin embargo, también logran inhibir los niveles

  12. Eficacia de algunos biocidas contra estafilococos hospitalarios sensibles y resistentes a la meticilina en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Efficacy of biocides against hospital isolates of Staphylococcus sensitive and resistant to methicillin, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Mirta Beatriz Reynaldo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar cómo responden los estafilococos hospitalarios sensibles y resistentes a la meticilina ante la acción de diferentes antisépticos y desinfectantes empleados habitualmente en los hospitales de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Demostrar la eficacia de esas sustancias mediante la determinación de sus concentraciones bactericidas eficaces, así como analizar si existe correlación entre la resistencia a biocidas y la resistencia a la meticilina en esta población bacteriana. MÉTODOS: Se evaluó la acción de siete biocidas con 25 cepas de estafilococos nosocomiales sensibles y resistentes a la meticilina y una cepa de colección, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. Las cepas hospitalarias provienen de dos hospitales de máxima complejidad y fueron obtenidas, durante los meses de abril de 2000 a mayo de 2002, de muestras clínicas (hemocultivo, urocultivo, punta de catéter y abceso pertenecientes a pacientes de ambos sexos, internados y ambulatorios. Después del aislamiento de dichas cepas, determinamos la sensibilidad a antibióticos mediante el método de difusión en agar de Kirby y Bauer. Para estudiar la acción de los biocidas de uso hospitalario sobre estas cepas, empleamos el ensayo de Kelsey-Sykes, que permite establecer las concentraciones bactericidas eficaces de tales compuestos. RESULTADOS: Los resultados muestran que la respuesta de las cepas hospitalarias resistentes y sensibles a la meticilina varía con respecto a la cepa de colección. El digluconato de clorhexidina, la yodopovidona, la tintura de yodo débil y el glutaraldehído alcalino fueron eficaces contra la mayoría de las cepas, independientemente de su resistencia o sensibilidad a los antibióticos. CONCLUSIONES: Estas evaluaciones no indican ninguna asociación entre la resistencia a la meticilina y la resistencia a los biocidas evaluados. Asimismo, apuntan a la necesidad de seguir investigando para valorar la eficacia de los agentes qu

  13. Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1

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    Aline Marchese

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizados 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genotypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras

  14. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

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    Laila Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  15. mRNA expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in oil palm leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after treatment with Ganoderma boninense pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  16. Evaluation of shrub and tree species used for revegetating copper mine wastes in the south-western United States. [Dodonea viscosa (L. ) Jacq. , Baccharis sarothroides Gray, Cerdicium microphyllum Torr. , and Nicotiana glauca Grah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norem, M A; Day, A D; Ludeke, K L

    1982-12-01

    The revegetation work begun in 1970 at Cyprus Pima Mine, an open pit copper mine south-west of Tucson, Arizona, was evaluated to determine the effects of slope aspect and mining waste material on plant survival and growth. Only one shrub, Dodonea viscosa (L.) Jacq. (hopbush), survived on the east slope. Baccharis sarothroides Gray (desert broom) was prolific on the north aspect. Cerdicium microphyllum Torr. (palo verde) survived best on the east slope and Nicotiana glauca Grah. (desert tobacco) survived only on the north slope. The survival of the other tree species was not affected by slope aspect. Slope exposure did not affect tree size, except for Eucalyptus microtheca Muell. (tiny capsule eucalyptus) which grew larger on the north slope. E. rostrata Schlechtend (red gum eucalyptus) grew taller in overburden than in tailing on the east slope. Differences in soil material within each slope exposure did not significantly affect growth of the other tree species. In semi-arid regions, such as south-western Arizona, even slight differences in available moisture may determine the survival of a plant species in the area. (Refs. 11).

  17. INTERAÇÃO DO CALCÁRIO E DO SILICATO DE CÁLCIO E MAGNÉSIO COM GESSO AGRÍCOLA NO DESENVOLVIMENTO RADICULAR DE Panicum maximum JACQ. CV. CAPIM MOMBAÇA

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    Vinícius Faúla Aguiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar o efeito das correções do solo efetuadas com calcário e silicato de cálcio e magnésio no desenvolvimento radicular de Panicum maximum Jacq. Cultivar capim Mombaça. Foi adotado delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo estudado em quatro blocos o efeito de duas fontes de corretivo e cinco métodos de aplicação, além da testemunha. Nas análises onde foi observada significância estatística, realizou-se teste de Tukey a 5,0% de probabilidade. A unidade experimental é constituída por colunas de tubos de PVC de 15 centímetros de diâmetro por 60 cm de altura, dividida em seis anéis de 10 centímetros, totalizando 44 unidades. Depois de secas em estufa com circulação forçada de ar a 65 ºC até atingir peso constante as raízes foram pesadas em balança de precisão. O T2 resultou em maior incremento de massa seca. O crescimento radicular na faixa de 0 a 20 cm se mostrou superior às faixas de 20 a 40 e 40 a 60 cm.

  18. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment. PMID:22919345

  19. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Debasis; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water(-1)100 gm b.w.(-1)rat(-1) day(-1)) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

  20. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3 extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. (family Meliaceae seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water−1100 gm b.w.−1rat−1 day−1 for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

  1. Habilidade competitiva de plantas de arroz com biótipos de capim-arroz resistente ou suscetível ao quinclorac Competitive ability of rice plants with barnyardgrass biotypes resistant or susceptible to quinclorac

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    S.P. Tironi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a habilidade competitiva de plantas de arroz cultivar BRS Pelota com biótipos de capim-arroz resistente ou suscetível ao herbicida quinclorac. Para isso, foi instalado experimento em casa de vegetação, em delineamento completamente casualizado com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 6. As unidades experimentais constaram de vasos plásticos contendo 10 dm³ de solo, cujo pH e nível de nutrientes foram previamente corrigidos. Os tratamentos consistiram na competição entre uma planta de arroz, cultivar BRS Pelota, com populações (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas por vaso dos biótipos de capim-arroz resistente (ECH-13 ou suscetível (ECH-12 ao herbicida quinclorac. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 40 dias após emergência, sendo avaliados; massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, taxa de crescimento (TC, área foliar específica (AFE, razão de massa foliar (RMF, razão de área foliar (RAF e índice de área foliar (IAF. A interferência no desenvolvimento do cultivar de arroz BRS Pelota foi proporcionalmente maior com o aumento da população de ambos os biótipos de capim-arroz. Os biótipos apresentaram, em geral, habilidade competitiva similar.The objective of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of the rice cultivar BRS Pelota with biotypes resistant or susceptible to the herbicide Quinclorac. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized design with four replications, with the treatments arranged in a 2 x 6 factorial. The experimental units consisted of plastic pots containing 10 dm³ of soil, with pH and nutrient level being previously corrected. The treatments consisted of a competition between a rice plant, BRS Pelota cultivar, with populations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 plants per pot of the barnyardgrass biotypes resistant (ECH-13 or susceptible (ECH -12 to the herbicide Quinclorac. The evaluations were performed

  2. Características físico-quimicas, análise sensorial e conservação de frutos de cultivares de bananeira resistentes à sigatoca-negra

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    Célia Lúcia Siqueira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O cultivar Prata Anã é o mais plantada no Norte de Minas Gerais, o que demonstra estar a bananicultura regional baseada numa variedade suscetível à sigatoca-negra. Apesar de existirem cultivares resistentes em fase de recomendação para o cultivo na região, ainda são escassos os trabalhos relacionados a metodologias de conservação pós-colheita. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o período de armazenamento e as características físico-químicas e sensoriais dos cultivares de bananeira Fhia - 02 e Precioso, ambos resistentes à sigatoca-negra, e o efeito da atmosfera modificada associada à refrigeração. Foram realizados três experimentos, o primeiro em temperatura ambiente, o segundo a 12 ºC e o terceiro a 15 ºC. Esses experimentos foram instalados no delineamento em blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, tendo nas parcelas um fatorial 2 (com e sem embalagem x 2 (Fhia - 02 e Precioso e nas subparcelas as avaliações em intervalo de seis e dois dias para frutos armazenados nas temperaturas de 12, 15 e 25 ºC, com quatro repetições e três frutos por unidade experimental. Após o tratamento, os frutos foram dispostos em bandejas de poliestireno expandido (sem embalagem e embalagens de 10 e 16 µm e umidade relativa de 90%. As características avaliadas foram: tamanho, diâmetro, cor, firmeza, perda de matéria fresca, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, SST/ATT, pH e análise sensorial. O uso da embalagem associada à refrigeração permitiu armazenar os frutos por 28 dias, mantendo as características físico-químicas.

  3. Aceitação de cultivares de bananas resistentes à Sigatoka Negra junto ao consumidor da região Nordeste do Brasil Acceptance of banana cultivars resistant to Black Sigatoka by the consumer market of Northeast Brazilian region

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    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O Mal da Sigatoka Negra é devastador para as cultivares tradicionais de banana. No Brasil, cultivares resistentes estão sendo desenvolvidas, mas se a preferência do consumidor não for considerada, o programa de melhoramento pode falhar. Neste trabalho, a aceitabilidade de quatro cultivares resistentes foi acessada no Nordeste brasileiro e comparada a quatro variedades comerciais. Dois grupos de consumidores participaram: adultos jovens e donas de casa. Escala hedônica foi aplicada para aparência externa dos cachos, aceitação global e aceitação por atributos dos frutos (aparência sem a casca, aroma, sabor e textura, além de testes de preferência e intenção de compra. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e Mapa de Preferência Interno. Mulheres e jovens mostraram opiniões semelhantes. As cultivares 'Preciosa' e 'Pacovan Ken' mostraram ser as mais promissoras, sendo que a primeira já pode substituir as cultivares comerciais 'Prata' e 'Pacovan' sem prejudicar a sua aceitabilidade, mas a 'Pacovan Ken' ainda precisa ser melhorada quanto à aparência.The Black Sigatoka Disease is devastating to traditional banana cultivars. In Brazil, resistant cultivars are being developed but if the consumer's preference is not taken into account, the breeding program may not succeed. In this research the acceptability of four resistant cultivars was accessed in the Northeastern Brazilian region and compared to four commercial varieties. Two groups of consumers participated: young adults and housewives. Hedonic scale was applied to external appearance of bunches, global acceptance and acceptance of fruits' attributes (appearance without peel, aroma, flavor and texture. Preference and purchase intent were also evaluated. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Preference Mapping. Women and young adults showed similar opinions. 'Preciosa' and 'Pacovan Ken' cultivars showed to be the most promising ones. 'Preciosa' can already substitute the commercial 'Prata

  4. Alkali-resistant glass fiber reinforced high strength concrete in simulated aggressive environment; Hormigón de altas resistencia reforzado con fibras de vidrio resistentes a alcalis en ambientes agresivos simulados.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, W.H.; Cheah, C.B.; Ramli, M.; Chang, K.Y.

    2018-04-01

    The durability of the alkali-resistant (AR) glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) in three simulated aggresive environments, namely tropical climate, cyclic air and seawater and seawater immersion was investigated. Durability examinations include chloride diffusion, gas permeability, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy examination (SEM). The fiber content is in the range of 0.6 % to 2.4 %. Results reveal that the specimen containing highest AR glass fiber content suffered severe strength loss in seawater environment and relatively milder strength loss under cyclic conditions. The permeability property was found to be more inferior with the increase in the fiber content of the concrete. This suggests that the AR glass fiber is not suitable for use as the fiber reinforcement in concrete is exposed to seawater. However, in both the tropical climate and cyclic wetting and drying, the incorporation of AR glass fiber prevents a drastic increase in permeability. [Spanish] Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de la durabilidad de hormigón reforzado con fibra de vidrio resistente a álcalis (CRFVRA) en tres ambientes agresivos simulados como son, condiciones de clima tropical, ciclos de aire y agua de mar e inmersión marina. Los tests de durabilidad incluyeron la difusión de cloruros, permeabilidad de gas, difracción de rayos X (XRD) y evaluacion por microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM). Los contenidos de fibra evaluados estuvieron en el rango desde 0.6% hasta 2.4%. Los resultados revelan que la muestra que contiene el mayor porcentaje de fibra sufre una severa pérdida de resistencia en condiciones de agua de mar, y una menor disminución de resistencia bajo condiciones cíclicas. Su permeabilidad disminuyó al incrementar el contenido de fibras en el hormigón. Lo anterior sugiere que el refuerzo con fibra resistente a alcalinos no es adecuado para su uso en hormigón en ambiente de agua de mar. Sin embargo, bajo condiciones de clima

  5. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil Bacteremias por Staphylococcus coagulase negativos oxacilina resistentes em um hospital na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

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    P.A. D'Azevedo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5, S. haemolyticus (3, S. hominis (1, S. warneri (1 and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1. A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.Staphylococcus coagulase negativos (SCoN, especialmente Staphylococcus epidermidis tem se tornado causa importante de infecções da corrente circulatória nas últimas décadas. Além disso, percentuais de resistência a meticilina entre os SCoN têm aumentado significativamente, levando ao uso de glicopeptídeos nestes pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar onze casos consecutivos de bacteremia clinicamente relevantes por SCoN oxacilina resistentes em um hospital localizado na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Cinco diferentes espécies foram identificadas por diferentes métodos fenotípicos, incluindo S. epidermidis (5, S. haemolyticus (3, S. hominis (1, S. warneri (1 e S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1. Diferentes perfis

  6. Estudio teórico y experimental sobre los morteros para muros resistentes de fábrica de ladrillo para la actualización de la Norma Básica MV 201-1972

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    Monterde Comba, Guillermo J.

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical and experimental study on cement or lime and cement mortars brings up to date the contents of Chapter 3: MORTARS, of Norm MV 201-1972 "Resistant brick-work walls" which lost its validity when disappeared portland cement P-250, substituted by portland cement PA-350 with active additions, prescribed in the new Standard RC-75 "Standard of general technical prescriptions for cements acceptance" being obligatory its fulfilment.

    El presente estudio teórico y experimental sobre morteros, de cemento o de cal y cemento, constituye la puesta al día del contenido del Capítulo 3º MORTEROS, de la Norma MV 201-1972 "Muros resistentes de fábrica de ladrillo'', que perdió su vigencia con la desaparición del cemento portland P-250, sustituido por el cemento portland PA-350 con adiciones activas prescrito en el nuevo Pliego RC-75 "Pliego de prescripciones técnicas generales para la recepción de cementos" de obligado cumplimiento.

  7. Resistencia química del hormigón. X.- Influencia de la adición de escoria a un cemento portland resistente al yeso. Estudio por DRX del sistema cemento 2/escoria-agua potable filtrada

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    Sagrera-Moreno, José Luis

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    En el presente trabajo [continuación de otro en el que se dio cuenta de las variaciones que experimentan las resistencias mecánicas a flexotracción y la evolución de los coeficientes de corrosión de probetas de mortero (1:3 conservadas bajo agua potable filtrada y agua de mar artificial ASTM D 1141-75] se estudia por DRX la composición estructural de las nuevas fases sólidas formadas en los medios de curado y de conservación (agua potable filtrada en donde han estado sumergidas las series testigo de probetas de mortero (1:3 de 1 X. 1 X 6 cm hechas con un cemento portland industrial resistente al yeso, cemento 2 < > P-450-Y, y con las mezclas de cemento 2/escoria granulada (vítrea = 85/ /15-65/35-40/60 y 30/70 (en peso, durante 21 días en el primer período y 56-90-180 y 360 días en el segundo, así como la evolución de las fases cristalinas de la fracción enriquecida (cemento hidratado extraída de uno de los prismas de cada serie de probetas de mortero.

  8. Successful therapeutic response of resistant cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis to a very low dose of antimony Resposta terapêutica bem sucedida de casos resistentes de leishmaniose mucocutânea a doses muito baixas de antimônio

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    Manoel Paes de Oliveira-Neto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Two mucocutaneous leishmaniasis cases resistant to therapy are reported here. After the failure of initial therapies (antimony, amphotericin B and/or pentamidine patients received a low-dose schedule: one ampoule of meglumine antimoniate (405mg of pentavalent antimony [Sb v] by intramuscular injection, three times a week until complete healing of the lesions. One patient was cured with a total of 30 ampoules in 10 weeks and the other received 36 ampoules in 12 weeks. Both remain clinically cured after one year of follow-up.São relatados dois casos de leishmaniose mucocutânea resistentes ao tratamento. Depois das terapêuticas iniciais (antimônio, anfotericina B e/ou pentamidina, os pacientes receberam um esquema alternativo: uma ampola de antimoniato de meglumina (405mg de antimônio pentavalnte [Sb v] por via intramuscular, três vezes por semana até a cura completa das lesões. Um paciente recebeu um total de 30 ampolas durante 10 semanas e o outro, 36 ampolas durante 12 semanas. Ambos permanecem clinicamente curados até um ano após o tratamento.

  9. Competition effects with mixed stands of wheat and kochia (Kochia scoparia biotypes resistant and susceptible to acetolactase synthase inhibitor herbicides Efeitos competitivos da mistura de stands de trigo e biotipos de kochia (Kochia scoparia resistentes e susceptíveis aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactase sintase

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    P.J. Christoffoleti

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare the competitive ability of sulfonylurea resistant and susceptible kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schard compared to wheat. The results of several replacement series experiments indicate that wheat was the dominant competitor, and an average of one wheat plant reduced resistant kochia yield per plant equal to the effect of 4.8 resistant kochia or 5.4 susceptible kochia plants. Intraspeciflc competition was more important than interspecific competition for wheat, whereas the reverse was true for the resistant and susceptible kochia. The results of the niche differentiation index (NDI indicate that wheat and either resistant or susceptible kochia are only partly limited by the same resources. The resistant and susceptible kochia, however, are limited by the same resources.Experimentos foram instalados em condições de casa-de-vegetação com o objetivo de comparar a capacidade competitiva de biotipos resistentes e suscetíveis aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactase synthase da planta daninha kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schard comparada com trigo. Os resultados de diversos experimentos, utilizando a metodologia chamada de substitutiva, indicaram que o trigo foi o competidor dominante, e em média uma planta de trigo reduziu o crescimento da planta de kochia resistente igual ao efeito de 4,8 plantas de kochia resistente ou 5,4 plantas de kochia suscetível. A competição chamada de intraespecífíca foi mais importante que a competição interespecífica para o trigo, porém o inverso foi verdadeiro para os biotípos resistentes e susceptíveis de kochia. Os resultados do índice de diferenciação ecológica indicaram que trigo e qualquer um dos dois biotípos de kochia estudados foram limitados apenas parcialmente pelos mesmos recursos de crescimento. No entanto, o crescimento dos biotípos resistentes e susceptíveis de kochia foram limitados pelos mesmos fatores de crescimento.

  10. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE EXTRATO DE PIMENTA-BIQUINHO COMO FORMA DE CONSERVAÇÃO PÓS-COLHEITA RESUMO – O consumo de pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense tem aumentado nos últimos anos na forma in natura ou na forma processada. Entretanto, um dos grandes entraves n

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    Flávio Bittencourt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO – O consumo de pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense tem aumentado nos últimos anos na forma in natura ou na forma processada. Entretanto, um dos grandes entraves na sua cadeia produtiva é a ocorrência de perdas consideráveis dos frutos após a colheita, o que indica a necessidade do desenvolvimento de alternativas para a sua conservação pós-colheita. Desta forma, objetivou-se desenvolver extrato de pimenta-biquinho como forma de conservação da hortaliça e disponibilizar matéria-prima para a elaboração de produtos derivados, com alto valor agregado, principalmente em períodos de entressafra. Para o preparo do extrato, as pimentas foram lavadas, sanitizadas, branqueadas (80oC/3min, trituradas e concentradas até 12oBrix. Avaliou-se o rendimento, extrato seco, umidade, pH, acidez  titulável, oBrix, cor (L*, a*, b*, índices chroma e hue, teor de vitamina C e carotenoides, contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras, mesófilos aeróbios, bactérias láticas, coliformes totais e termotolerantes e pesquisa de Salmonella sp., durante 90 dias de armazenamento.  Não houve variação de umidade, extrato seco, oBrix e  acidez  mas, observou-se  variação do pH. Os valores de L* indicaram baixa luminosidade e os valores de a* e b* indicaram a tendência do extrato para coloração vermelha e amarela. A concentração de vitamina C e de carotenoides foi considerável e, estável. A contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras variou de 2,0 a 4,1 Log UFC/g e de mesófilos aeróbios de <1,0 a 4,3 Log UFC/g. Por outro lado, a contagem de bactérias láticas foi <1,0 Log UFC/g, de coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes foi < 3 NMP/g e constatou-se ausência de Salmonella sp. em 25 g do extrato. O extrato de pimenta-biquinho é uma excelente alternativa para o processamento da hortaliça em períodos de entressafra e para prevenção de perda de matéria-prima pela agroindústria e em outras indústrias que

  11. Enjeux et amélioration de la réduction de l'acidité dans les fruits mûrs du palmier à huile, Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. (synthèse bibliographique

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    Domonhédo, H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of acidity in mature oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. fruits: stakes and oil quality improvement. A review. Introduction. Palm oil acidification determines the quality and stability of this important foodstuff. This review article analyzes the causes of acidification, and its effects on the quality and stability of palm oil. The stakes involved in the reduction of acidity in fruits and the approaches used are also analyzed, especially reduction via genetic improvement. Literature. Acidification is mainly due to the action of an endogenous lipase of the fruit's mesocarp, but it can also be caused by microbial lipase or autocatalytic hydrolysis. Many factors, particularly plant material, conditions of harvest and post-harvest bunch treatment, and conditions of oil extraction and storage have an appreciable impact on acidification. Acidification reduces the quality and market value of palm oil and causes important oil losses due to the removal of free fatty acids in the mill. The genetic background of individuals of low oil acidity has been identified. The variability of this trait makes varietal selection possible. One gene implicated in palm oil acidification has been identified, but other genes or genetic factors may also be involved. Conclusions. Such research has led to the recent commercialization of the first oil palms with low acidity. This will improve oil quality, increase yield and facilitate the management of harvest and post-harvest operations, especially for smallholder farmers. There is a need to identify all the genetic factors responsible for the degradation of triglycerides in the Elaeis genus. The validation of genomic tools would allow the marker-assisted selection of oil palm varieties with low acidity.

  12. Butanol fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don leaves enhance pancreatic β-cell functions, stimulates insulin secretion and ameliorates other type 2 diabetes-associated complications in rats.

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    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Habila, James Dama; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-05-13

    Ethnopharmacological surveys have reported that Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don (Leguminosae) is among the plants commonly used in the traditional management of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria and Togo. This study investigated the anti-diabetic activity of the butanol fraction of P. biglobosa leaves (PBBF) in a type 2 diabetes (T2D) model of rats and a possible bioactive compound in the fraction. T2D was induced by feeding rats with a 10% fructose solution ad libitum for two weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 40mg/kg body weight streptozotocin and the animals were orally treated with 150 and 300mg/kg BW of the PBBF for five days in a week. Another group of rats was non-diabetic but similarly administered with 300mg/kg BW of the PBBF. Food and fluid intakes, body weight changes and blood glucose levels were monitored during the experiment while other relevant diabetes-associated parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. The PBBF treatments significantly (P<0.05) decreased the blood glucose levels and improved the glucose tolerance ability compared to untreated diabetic rats. Furthermore, the treatments were found to improve pancreatic β cell function (HOMA-β), stimulate insulin secretions, decrease insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), restore liver glycogen, ameliorate serum dyslipidaemia and prevent hepatic and renal damages compared to untreated diabetic rats. Phytochemical analysis of the fraction led to the isolation of lupeol which inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase in non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibition patterns respectively. It was concluded that PBBF possessed remarkable anti-T2D activity which is mediated through modulation of β-cell function and stimulation of insulin secretion and the lower dose (150mg/kg BW) was found optimum for anti-T2D activity compared to the high dose (300mg/kg BW) in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

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    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  14. Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

  15. Padrão estomático de Capsicum ssp. resistentes e suscetíveis a Oidiopsis haplophylli Stomatal patterns of Capsicum genotypes resistant or susceptible to Oidiopsis haplophylli

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    Milton Luiz Paz Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando relacionar a reação de Capsicum spp. resistentes e suscetíveis à Oidiopsis haplophylli com o padrão dos respectivos complexos estomáticos, foram analisados em dois ensaios, 5 e 15 genótipos de Capsicum spp. em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Avaliou-se a abertura do ostíolo, a morfometria do estômato (comprimento, largura e área, o número de estômatos.mm-2 e a freqüência de estômatos (unidades de estômatos por células da epiderme nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial da epiderme foliar de plantas cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação. A variável abertura ostiolar não explicou a reação dos genótipos ao oídio, nem na face adaxial (R²=0,16 nem na abaxial (R²=0,13. Entretanto, o número de estômatos.mm-2 explicou a reação ao oídio em 84 % (face adaxial ou 74 % (face abaxial. Para a freqüência de estômatos, o modelo ajustou-se melhor na face adaxial (R² = 0,76, do que na face abaxial (R²=0,48. Maiores números e freqüências de estômatos em ambas as faces foliares ocorreram em pimentão 'Magali' (altamente suscetível, com valores significativamente maiores do que em 'HV-12' (altamente resistente. Sugere-se que a suscetibilidade de genótipos de Capsicum a O. haplophylli está parcialmente relacionada a mecanismos de defesa estruturais pré-formados, como o número e freqüência de estômatos, os quais se relacionam com o número de sítios de infecção. Por outro lado, para alguns genótipos, esta relação não foi significativa, indicando que outros mecanismos de resistência também estejam envolvidos.This work reports the reaction of Capsicum genotypes to the powdery mildew pathogen with variables of the stomatal complex, from samples of five to 15 Capsicum genotypes in a complete randomized experiments. Ostiolum size, stomatal morphometry (length, width and surface area, the number of stomata.mm-2, and the frequency of stomata (stomatal units per unit of epidermal cells were evaluated on both leaf

  16. Antimicrobial activity of surfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis R14 against multidrug-resistant bacteria Atividade antimicrobiana de surfactantes produzidos por Bacillus subtilis R14 frente a bacterias multidroga-resistentes

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    Paulo André Vicente Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    14, frente a bactérias multidroga-resistentes. Durante o cultivo em meio quimicamente definido, a tensão superficial do meio foi reduzida de 54 mN/m no início do crescimento microbiano para 30 mN/m depois de 20 h. Uma concentração de surfactante bruto de 2 g/L foi obtida depois de 40h de cultivo. Uma caracterização preliminar sugeriu que dois surfactantes foram produzidos. A avaliação antimicrobiana destes compostos foi realizada frente a vinte e nove bactérias. O perfil de multidroga-resistência foi previamente definido para Enterococcus faecalis (11 cepas Staphylococcus aureus (6 cepas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7 cepas e Escherichia coli IC18. Todas as cepas foram sensíveis aos surfactantes, em particular Enterococcus faecalis. Os resultados demonstraram que os lipopeptídios têm um amplo espectro de ação, incluindo microrganismos multidroga-resistentes.

  17. Competitiveness of ALS inhibitors resistant and susceptible biotypes of Greater Beggarticks (Bidens subalternans Competitividade de biótipos de Picão-Preto (Bidens subalternans Resistente e euscetível aos inibidores da ALS

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    F.P. Lamego

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of ALS-inhibiting herbicides has led to the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. Greater beggarticks is one of the most troublesome weeds found in the soybean production system in Brazil. Recently, a greater beggarticks biotype that is resistant (R to ALS inhibitors due to Trp574Leu mutation in the ALS gene was identified. Also, the adaptive traits between susceptible (S and R to ALS inhibitors biotypes of greater beggarticks were compared. Specifically, we aimed to: (1 evaluate and compare the relative growth rates (RGR between the biotypes; (2 analyze the seed germination characteristics of R and S biotypes under different temperature conditions; and (3 evaluate their competitive ability in a replacement series study. The experiments were conducted at the University of Arkansas, USA, in 2007 and at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2008. Plant proportions for replacement series studies were respectively 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, with a total population of 150 plants m-2. There was no difference in RGR between R and S biotypes. The R-biotype germination rate was lower than that of the S biotype. However, at low temperature conditions (15 ºC, the reverse was observed. In general, there is no difference in the competitive ability between R and S greater beggarticks biotypes.O uso contínuo de herbicidas inibidores da ALS tem levado à evolução de plantas daninhas resistentes mundialmente. Picão-preto é uma das mais importantes plantas daninhas no sistema de produção de soja no Brasil. Recentemente, foi identificado um biótipo de picao-preto resistente (R aos inibidores da ALS devido à mutação Trp574Leu no gene ALS. Também, foram comparadas características adaptativas entre biótipos de picao-preto suscetível (S e R aos inibidores da ALS. Especificamente, os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (1 avaliar e comparar o crescimento

  18. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in a cohort of a daycare center Portadores nasofaríngeos de neumococo antibiótico-resistente en niños asistentes a guardería

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    Demóstenes Gómez-Barreto

    2002-01-01

    neumococo resistentes, determinar los serotipos y el perfil de sensibilidad a varios fármacos antimicrobianos. Material y métodos. Estudio prospectivo de una cohorte de niños de guardería, hecho de septiembre de 1997 a septiembre de 1999 entre 53 niños asistentes a la guardería del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, atendida por 20 empleados. Todos los participantes fueron seguidos en forma prospectiva, tomándose exudado nasofaríngeo cada cuatro meses. Los S. pneumoniae aislados se tipificaron y sometieron a pruebas de sensibilidad a diversos fármacos. Las razones de momios y la prueba exacta de Fisher o ji cuadrada se efectuaron a través de tablas de contingencia; se utilizaron intervalos de confianza a 95% para las razones de momios. Para el análisis se empleó el programa estadístico EPI INFO, versión 6.04 a. Resultados. S. pneumoniae se recuperó de 45/53 niños en una o más de las tomas. Se aisló un total de 178 cepas. El promedio de portador fue de 47%. Sólo siete adultos adquirieron un neumococo durante el estudio. Los tipos 6, 14, 19 y 23 representaron 77% del total. Se encontró elevada resistencia a la penicilina y eritromicina. Conclusiones. El estado de portador nasofaríngeo de S. pneumoniae, es un proceso dinámico. La colonización ocurre durante los primeros meses de vida y comprende solamente unos cuantos serotipos de neumococo. El estado portador disminuye conforme avanza la edad. Se encontró alta proporción de portadores con cepas resistentes de neumococo. Los niños que recibieron varios cursos de antimicrobianos, fueron los que mostraron mayor riesgo de presentar estado portador.

  19. Sobre puntos de la gramática particularmente resistentes al cambio: cuatro (largos siglos en la evolución de las relativas oblicuas de lugar. Un análisis variacionista

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    José Luis Blas Arroyo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la utilización del paradigma variacionista y el empleo de un corpus integrado por textos de inmediatez comunicativa, mayoritariamente de carácter epistolar, en esta investigación se analiza un caso de la sintaxis particularmente resistente al cambio: la alternancia entre soluciones pronominales (que y, en menor medida, cual y adverbiales (donde en las relativas oblicuas locativas desde el siglo XVI hasta la primera mitad del XX. De los tres análisis de regresión independientes realizados, uno por cada periodo  (siglos XVI, XVIII y XX, se deriva un avance paulatino, aunque moderado, de las formas pronominales a lo largo de los siglos y la progresiva disminución del adverbio donde. Con todo, algunos factores lingüísticos se revelan especialmente persistentes en la explicación de la variabilidad (semántica, función sintáctica y categoría del antecedente, junto al priming estructural y la sintaxis de la cláusula regente, lo que dificulta la progresión del cambio. Con respecto a los factores extralingüísticos, la frecuencia de los relativos pronominales en los contextos comunicativos más distantes, así como su uso preferente por parte de las élites sociales y las generaciones adultas, muestra que estas formas se han adscrito a lo largo de la historia a los registros más formales y prestigiosos.

  20. Seleção de acessos de tomateiro resistentes à pinta-preta pela análise de agrupamento das curvas de progresso da doença

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    Bruno Soares Laurindo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar acessos resistentes à pinta-preta (Alternaria tomatophila por meio da análise de agrupamento das curvas de progresso da doença em tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum. Foram avaliados 134 acessos de tomateiro do Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (BGH-UFV, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, além das testemunhas suscetíveis 'Débora' e 'Santa Clara'. As plantas foram inoculadas com uma mistura de conídios de diferentes isolados de Alternaria spp. e avaliadas regularmente quanto à severidade da doença a cada três dias após a inoculação, no total de seis avaliações. Ajustou-se o modelo logístico aos dados de severidade da pinta-preta, e as estimativas obtidas para a incidência final da doença (B1 e a taxa de progresso da doença (B3 foram submetidas à análise de variância multivariada (Manova. As médias dessas estimativas, para cada acesso, foram submetidas à análise de agrupamento. Foram formados 24 grupos distintos com base no agrupamento das curvas de progresso da doença, o que possibilitou identificar os acessos BGH-2143, BGH-2235, BGH-2270 e BGH-2118 de tomateiro como potenciais fontes de resistência à pinta-preta.

  1. Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards

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    L. Vargas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado há mais de 15 anos em pomares de maçã na região de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetação nas linhas da cultura. São realizadas, em geral, três a quatro aplicações por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada é de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial. O azevém (Lolium multiflorum é uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensível ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos a ocorrência de plantas de azevém que, após receberem o tratamento com glyphosate, não manifestam sintomas significativos de toxicidade sugere que elas adquiriram resistência ao produto. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de azevém ao glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e 11.520 g e.a. ha-1, e os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop e diclofop foram empregados como produtos-padrão, aplicados em dois estádios vegetativos do azevém. No experimento em casa de vegetação, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas do biótipo considerado resistente e de um sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação foram avaliados tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.880, 720 + 720 e 720 + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1, em aplicações únicas e seqüenciais, mais os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron, atrazine + simazine, trifluralin e metolachlor. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 15, 30 e 45 DAT (dias após tratamento. Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma

  2. Efecto de la concentración de almidones resistentes de la papa común (Solanum tuberosum) y criolla (Solanum phureja) sobre la digestibilidad de nutrientes, energía metabolizable e integridad del tracto gastrointestinal de pollos de engorde

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Aguilar, Daniel Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    El almidón resistente retrogradado (AR3) de las variedades Pastusa (Solanum tuberosum grupo andigena) y Guaneña (Solanum tuberosum grupo phureja) fue evaluado como aditivo funcional con características similares a la fibra dietaria. En un primer experimento se comparó con manano oligosacáridos (MOS) a tres niveles de inclusión (0.5%, 1.0% y 1.5%) y un control sin suplementar, donde 600 pollos machos Ross de un día de edad fueron repartidos aleatoriamente a 10 tratamientos ex...

  3. Desempenho de populações híbridas F2 de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa) com arroz transgênico (O. sativa) resistente ao herbicida amonio-glufosinate Performance of F2 hybrid populations of red rice (Oryza sativa) with ammonium-glufosinate-resistant transgenic rice (O. sativa)

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    J.A. Noldin; S. Yokoyama; H. Stuker; F.T. Rampelotti; M.I.F. Gonçalves; D.S. Eberhardt; A. Abreu; P. Antunes; J. Vieira

    2004-01-01

    O arroz-vermelho e o arroz-preto constituem-se nas principais plantas daninhas infestantes da cultura de arroz irrigado, devido à dificuldade de controle seletivo desta espécie em lavouras comerciais. A utilização de cultivares geneticamente modificados resistentes a herbicidas não-seletivos constitui uma alternativa de controle do arroz-vermelho e arroz-preto em arroz irrigado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de populações híbridas F2 originárias do cruzamento entre o a...

  4. Influência da adição de diferentes fontes de fibras (farinha de trigo de grão inteiro e amido resistente) e de transglutaminase nas características tecnológicas, estruturais e sensoriais de massas alimentícias

    OpenAIRE

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O interesse dos consumidores por alimentos com características funcionais tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A farinha de trigo de grão inteiro (FTGI) contém constituintes com efeitos benéficos a saúde (fibras, minerais, vitaminas, antioxidantes e aminoácidos). O amido resistente (AR) também tem sua contribuição à saúde, atuando como fibra alimentar. Massas alimentícias, cuja produção brasileira cresce a cada ano, constituem uma excelente forma de aplicação dessas matérias-primas. Contud...

  5. Costo efectividad del tratamiento de denervación renal vs. mejor tratamiento médico estándar disponible en el control de la hipertensión resistente en Colombia

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    Juan E. Valencia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Mediante la adaptación a Colombia del modelo realizado por BresMed y previo análisis de transferibilidad, se realizó un análisis de costo-efectividad del tratamiento de denervación renal vs. mejor tratamiento estándar en el control de la hipertensión resistente y los eventos cardiovasculares relacionados. Métodos: Se construyó un modelo de Markov con 32 estados de salud y siete resultados finales: accidente cerebrovascular, infarto del miocardio, enfermedad coronaria, falla cardiaca, enfermedad renal crónica terminal, mortalidad cardiovascular y muerte. Se consideró un horizonte de toda la vida, la perspectiva desde el pagador y una tasa de descuento del 3%. Para el cálculo de las probabilidades de sufrir eventos se utilizaron las ecuaciones de riesgo de Framingham y las efectividades se tomaron del estudio clínico SYMPLICITY HTN-2. Los costos se extrajeron del entorno local y las tasas de mortalidad del Observatorio global de salud de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Los resultados incluyeron los costos de cada alternativa de tratamiento, así como los años de vida ajustados a calidad ganados. Se realizaron análisis determinístico y probabilístico. Resultados: El tratamiento de denervación renal produjo 12,48 años de vida ajustados a calidad ganados a un costo de US $46.509 vs. 11,68 años de vida ajustados a calidad ganados del mejor tratamiento estándar a un costo de US $41.199, con un costo incremental por años de vida ajustados a calidad ganados de US $6.612. Tanto el análisis de sensibilidad univariado como el probabilístico, mostraron la robustez de los resultados. Conclusiones: El tratamiento de denervación renal, con un costo incremental por años de vida ajustados a calidad ganados de $6.612, muy por debajo de 1 PIB per cápita de Colombia, mostró ser altamente costo-efectivo.

  6. Avaliação da tolerância à vancomicina em 395 cepas hospitalares de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à oxacilina Evaluation of the tolerance to vancomycin in 395 oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from Brazilian hospitals

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    Geraldo A. Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de tolerância à vancomicina em cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à oxacilina (Orsa isoladas de quatro hospitais da cidade de São Paulo. Foram estudadas 395 cepas Orsa isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados entre outubro de 1998 e maio de 2000. A determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e da concentração bactericida mínima (CBM para vancomicina foi realizada conforme padronizado pelo National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. A tolerância à vancomicina foi definida como a razão CBM/CIM > ou = 32. Do total de cepas estudadas, 10,4% apresentaram CIM de 0,5µg/ml para vancomicina; 41,3%, CIM de 1µg/ml; 42,2%, CIM de 2µg/ml; e 6,1%, CIM de 4µg/ml. Em média, 49,1% dos Orsa apresentaram tolerância à vancomicina. Em conclusão, a tolerância à vancomicina entre as cepas Orsa foi considerada elevada. Conseqüentemente, aumentam as chances de falhas no tratamento com vancomicina, além de aumentar o risco da emergência de Staphylococcus aureus vancomicina-intermediário.The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of tolerance to vancomycin in oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Orsa strains isolated from four hospitals in the city of São Paulo. From October/1998 to May/2000 we analysed 395 Orsa strains isolated from hospitalized patients. MIC and MBC to vancomycin were determined as standardised by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Tolerance was defined as the ratio MBC/MIC > or = 32. The results showed that 10.4% of the Orsa strains presented a MIC of 0.5µg/mL for vancomycin, 41.3% presented a MIC of 1µg/mL, 42.2% a MIC of 2µg/mL and 6.1% a MIC of 4µg/mL. On average, 49,1% of the Orsa presented tolerance to vancomycin. We conclude that the tolerance to vancomycin amongst the Orsa strains was considered high. These high levels of tolerance augment the chances of failure in the treatment with

  7. Controle químico de biótipos de buva (Conyza canadensis e Conyza bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate Chemical Control of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza Canadensis and hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis biotypes

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    Micheli Satomi Yamauti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, SP para avaliar a resposta de biótipos de buva resistentes aos herbicidas glyphosate, bromacil + diuron, diuron e paraquat isolados e em mistura, e o efeito de uma aplicação seqüencial com glyphosate. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e sete tratamentos.. Os herbicidas foram aplicados com pulverizador costal, à pressão constante (mantido por CO2 comprimido, munido com barra com três bicos do tipo TT110015 com um consumo de calda equivalente a 150 L ha-1. O controle foi avaliado visualmente, através de escala percentual de notas. Para o controle geral das plantas daninhas os melhores resultados foram obtidos com diuron isolado e com glyphosate em mistura com bromacil + diuron, enquanto para o controle da buva não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. Depois da aplicação seqüencial, o melhor tratamento para o controle de buva foi com diuron e bromacil+diuron.Studies were conducted at Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, SP to evaluate the response of glyphosate-resistant horseweed and hairy fleabane biotypes to herbicides glyphosate, bromacil + diuron, diuron e paraquat isolated and in mixture and effect of a sequential application of glyphosate. The experimental design was of complete randomized blocks with four replication and seven treatments. The herbicides were applied with costal sprayer, constant pressure with three nozzles TT110015, the equivalent spray volume was 150 L ha-1. The control was visually evaluated, trough percentile note scale. The best results were obtained to general control of weed with diuron isolated and glyphosate in mixture with bromacil + diuron while to glyphosate-resistant horseweed and hairy fleabane there was no difference between the treatments. After sequential application to Conyza sp control, the best treatment was obtained associated with diuron and bromacil+diuron.

  8. Infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en un hospital de agudos Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in a hospital for acute diseases

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    S. Palombarani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SAMR es uno de los principales agentes asociados a infecciones intrahospitalarias; sin embargo, en los últimos años ha surgido como un patógeno emergente de la comunidad, causando infecciones graves, principalmente en jóvenes. Se describen 33 casos de infecciones por SAMR de origen comunitario, diagnosticadas entre mayo de 2005 y junio de 2006 en el HIGA "Eva Perón". Se estudiaron retrospectivamente los aislamientos; se confirmó la resistencia a meticilina mediante la detección del gen mecA, se investigó la presencia de genes que codifican dos factores de virulencia (leucocidina de Panton-Valentine -LPV- y g-hemolisina y el tipo de casete mec mediante PCR. Todos los pacientes se encontraban sanos previamente. Cuatro pacientes menores de 12 años presentaron bacteriemia, uno con neumonía grave y los 3 restantes con infección osteoarticular; todos los pacientes mayores de 12 años presentaron infecciones de piel y partes blandas sin compromiso sistémico. Se constató la presencia de casete mec tipo IV en todos los aislamientos; la resistencia a meticilina no se acompañó de resistencia a otros antimicrobianos; los aislamientos fueron portadores de genes que codifican para LPV y para g-hemolisina. Es importante considerar la presencia de estas cepas de origen comunitario a fin de elaborar estrategias para su correcto tratamiento.Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most prevalent pathogens associated with nosocomial infections. However, most recently, MRSA has arisen as an emerging community pathogen, causing serious infections, mainly among young patients. We herein describe 33 cases of infections caused by community-acquired MRSA (CMRSA, diagnosed between May 2005 and June 2006, at "Eva Perón" Hospital. The isolations were retrospectively studied. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by means of the detection of the mecA gene, and the genes for two virulence

  9. Inflamación Granulomatosa Crónica: Métodos de detección de bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes en biopsias embebidas en parafina

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    Javier Andres Bustamante Rengifo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available La detección de bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes (BAAR en frotis resulta un aporte significativo al diagnóstico y tratamiento de individuos con inflamación granulomatosa crónica (IGC. Con el objetivo de evaluar la presencia de BAAR en diferentes tejidos de pacientes con IGC demostrada y comparar la frecuencia de los extendidos positivos para BAAR con el grado de formación de granulomas y necrosis, se diseño un estudio retrospectivo, en el que se seleccionaron 57 bloques embebidos en parafina que contenían biopsias de pleura, pulmón, pericardio, ganglio linfático y lóbulo cerebral, correspondientes a 30 pacientes (63.3% hombres, mayores de 18 años, con IGC demostrada y remitidos al departamento de patología del Hospital Universitario del Valle entre el 2002-2008, a cada muestra se le realizaron 3 cortes y se sometieron a tinciones de H/E, Zielh Neelsen y Auramina. La detección de BAAR en frotis fue similar para ambas tinciones especiales en pacientes con IGC necrotizante, reflejando una excelente concordancia en el diagnostico (kappa=0.89, IC95%[0.68-1.0]. Sin embargo, la tinción con Auramina fue superior a la tinción Ziehl Neelsen para la detección de BAAR en pacientes con IGC no necrotizante (kappa=0.65, IC95%[0.23-1.0]. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la presencia de BAAR y el tipo de inflamacion, sexo y localización anatómica comprometida. En general, fue buena la concordancia entre los métodos histológicos empleados. Además, se hizo evidente la importancia de implementar el uso de técnicas moleculares mínimamente afectadas por el escaso número de bacilos presentes en las muestras, que finalmente ayudan en el reconocimiento del microorganismo.

  10. Root growth and lignification of glyphosate susceptible and resistant soybean at low temperaturesCrescimento e lignificação de raízes de soja convencional e resistente ao glifosato, em baixa temperatura

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    Patricia da Costa Zonetti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature stress affects plant growth, including primary and secondary metabolism. Glyphosateresistant soybean contains a modified DNA, which encodes a different type of secondary metabolism enzyme related to lignin synthesis compared to conventional glyphosate-susceptible cultivars. Thus, this soybean cultivar might respond differently to low temperatures, compared to glyphosate-susceptible cultivars. This work aimed to investigate how decreasing temperatures influence the growth and lignin content of the glyphosate-resistant soybean compared to its susceptible parental cultivars. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C (±2°C, using a 12-h photoperiod. After 96 h, taproot growth, fresh and dry biomass, and lignin levels were determined. The results indicate that lower temperatures decreased seedling and root growth in both types of cultivars; however, glyphosate-resistant soybean exhibited greater root length, biomass, and lignin content compared to the glyphosate-susceptible parental cultivar. O estresse causado pela baixa temperatura, dentre outras implicações, afeta o crescimento do vegetal assim como o seu metabolismo secundário. Pelo fato da soja RR apresentar variante enzimática de uma das principais vias do metabolismo secundário, ligada à síntese de lignina, pode apresentar comportamento diferenciado, sob baixa temperatura, se comparada com sua linhagem parental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar possíveis diferenças no crescimento e nos conteúdos de lignina nas raízes de soja cultivar transgênica resistente ao glifosato e cultivar parental em resposta a redução de temperatura. Após três dias de germinação das sementes, as plântulas foram mantidas em solução nutritiva, a 10, 15, 20 e 25°C (±2°C, com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. Após 96 horas, foi avaliado o comprimento relativo da raiz primária, biomassa fresca e seca das raízes e os teores de lignina

  11. Ocorrência de linhagens de Pseudomonas aeruginosa cloro resistentes em águas de diferentes origens = Ocurrence of chlorine resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different water sources

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    Glícia Maria Torres Calazans

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa é conhecida por sua versatilidade metabólica e extrema capacidade de adaptação a diferentes ambientes, inclusive aquáticos. Para desinfecção de águas, o cloro e agentes que contêm cloro continuam sendo os mais usados no mundo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cloro de linhagens de P. aeruginosa, isoladas de amostras de águas de diversos ambientes. Foram testados diferentes tempos de contato (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutos e soluções aquosas de cloro, com concentrações definidascom base na legislação vigente no país para água potável: 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 ppm. O teste de resistência ao cloro foi desenvolvido por meio da exposição direta das bactérias às soluções. Os resultados revelaram que P. aeruginosa, isoladas de diferentes fontes de água, têm ahabilidade de sobreviver a diferentes concentrações de cloro. Na concentração de 1 ppm, a maioria das linhagens não foi inibida. As linhagens mais resistentes ao cloro também apresentaram relação de multirresistência à maioria dos antibióticos testados.The nutritional versatility and the adaptability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to different environments, including water, are well known. Chlorine and other chlorine agents are used as water disinfecting all around the world. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible chlorine resistance amongst P. aeruginosa strains isolated from different aquatic sources by using different contact time (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes in solutions with known chlorine concentrations according current legislation in the country to potable water: 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 ppm. The chlorine resistance test was done by direct exposure of P. aeruginosa under a solution with known chlorine concentration. Results showed that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from different aquatic sources are able tosurvive in different chlorine concentrations. At 1 ppm, most of them were not inhibited. It was also observed

  12. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina causante de infecciones comunitarias y de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud en pacientes pediátricos del Hospital Universitario de Santander

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    Mayra Alejandra Machuca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM es un agente frecuente de infección en la población pediátrica. Aunque inicialmente las cepas de SARM estaban restringidas a los hospitales, se han reportado a nivel mundial brotes de infección por SARM en individuos sin factores de riesgo y, actualmente, SARM es una causa frecuente de infecciones hospitalarias y comunitarias. Objetivo. Describir la relación entre las características moleculares de aislamientos de SARM (casete cromosómico estafilocócico mec SCCmec y leucocidina Panton-Valentine y el origen de la infección y su presentación clínica en pacientes pediátricos del Hospital Universitario de Santander en Bucaramanga, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 43 aislamientos de SARM obtenidos de niños hospitalizados. La clasificación del SCCmec (I-V y la subclasificación del SCCmec-IV se realizaron en todos los aislamientos. Además, los genes de la leucocidina Panton-Valentine se detectaron mediante amplificación por PCR. Las características moleculares fueron asociadas con las características clínicas de cada paciente. Resultados. Entre los 43 SARM tipificados, el SCCmec-IVc fue el más frecuente con 77 %, seguido por el SCCmec-I con 16 % y el SCCmec-IVa con 2 %. Tres aislamientos no pudieron ser tipificados. Los genes de la leucocidina Panton Valentine se detectaron en 88 % de los SARM en aislamientos portadores del SCCmec-IVc/IVa y el SCCmec-I. Los SARM SCCmec-IV positivos para la leucocidina Panton-Valentine se asociaron con infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad (47 % y en el hospital (53 % con compromiso de piel y tejidos blandos, y en los casos más graves, con compromiso osteoarticular. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren la presencia de cepas SARM-CO (SCCmec-IV positiva para PVL causantes de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad y en el medio hospitalario en pacientes pediátricos en Colombia.

  13. Anatomopatologia e imunofluorescência direta e indireta das lesões de pênfigo foliáceo endêmico resistentes à corticoterapia Pathology, direct and indirect immunofluorescent test of lesions of pemphigus foliaceous resistent to corticotherapy

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    Vitor Manoel Silva dos Reis

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available São estudados 16 doentes de pênfigo foliáceo endêmico (PFE, sob tratamento com corticosteróides, que ainda apresentavam lesões eritemato-pápulo-verrucosas, geralmente hiperpigmentadas, que foram caracterizadas como lesões resistentes à corticoterapia (LRC. O estudo destas lesões foi feito através de anatomopatologia e de imunofluorescência direta (IFD. Anatomopatologicamente essas lesões mostraram tendência à hiperplasia epitelial e clivagem em níveis variáveis na epiderme o que difere dos achados nas lesões recentes do PFE e coincide com os achados nas lesões crônicas do PFE da era pré-corticóide. A IFD da pele lesada foi positiva para IgG em 93,75% dos casos, como ocorre nas fases iniciais do PFE, tendo sido negativa no único caso em que não houve clivagem. Adicionalmente, em oito desses doentes, foram estudados a IFD da pele sã e a imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. A IFD foi positiva em três destes casos e a IFI foi negativa nos oito.A group of 16 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus under corticotherapy and still showing erythematous, papulous, verrucous, in general hyperpigmented lesions, which were characterized as cortico therapy resistant lesions, were studied. Such study was made through anatomopathology and direct immunofluorescence (DIF. Anatomopathologically, such lesions showed tendencies to epitelial hyperplasia and cleavage in variable levels at the epidermis what differs from the early lesions of EPF and coincides with the chronic injuries of the EPF of the pre-corticoid era. The DIF of the injured skin was positive for IgG in 93.75% of cases, as it happens in the early stages of EPF, being negative in a simple case in which there was not cleavage. In addition, in eight of those patients, the DIF of the healthy skin and the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF were studied. The DIF was positive in three of these cases and in all eight the IIF was negative.

  14. Cambios a lo largo del tiempo en la distribución de los complejos de clones dominantes de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina en Medellín, Colombia

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    Ana M. Ocampo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Parte del éxito de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM como patógeno se debe a la rápida diseminación de linajes pandémicos con perfiles variables de virulencia y sensibilidad antimicrobiana. En Colombia se han identificado clones asociados al hospital como el pediátrico (CC5-ST5-SCCmecIV, el brasilero (CC8-ST239-SCCmecIII y el chileno/cordobés (CC5-ST5-SCCmecI. Asimismo, se describió el USA300 (CC8-ST8-SCCmecIV, tradicionalmente asociado a la comunidad, causante de infecciones hospitalarias. Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento en el tiempo de los clones de SARM provenientes de un hospital universitario de Medellín en aislamientos recolectados con una década de diferencia. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 398 aislamientos de SARM, 67 recolectados en 1994 y 331 recolectados entre 2008 y 2010. La identificación y la sensibilidad a la meticilina se confirmaron mediante los genes nuc y mecA. La caracterización molecular incluyó la tipificación de spa, SCCmec, la electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE, y la tipificación por secuenciación de locus múltiples (Multilocus Sequence Typing, MLST. Resultados. Al analizar los aislamientos de SARM de 1994 se encontró que pertenecían a un único linaje, el CC5-SCCmecIV, mientras que los aislamientos de 2008 a 2010 presentaron dos linajes dominantes: el CC8-SCCmecIVc, con cepas de los tipos spa t008 y t1610, estrechamente relacionadas con el clon USA 300, y el CC5-SCCmecI, con las de tipo spa t149, relacionadas con el clon chileno; no se detectaron cepas del linaje encontrado en 1994. Conclusiones. En este estudio se demuestra una dinámica en el tiempo de las cepas de S. aureus, y se señala la importancia de la vigilancia local y la difusión de los resultados, sobre todo en países como el nuestro, donde SARM es prevalente y la comprensión de su epidemiología es limitada.

  15. Resistencia química del hormigón. V.-Acción del agua de mar: Influencia de la adición de escoria a un cemento portland resistente al yeso. Evolución de las resistencias mecánicas a flexotracción y del coeficiente de corrosión

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    Gaspar-Tébar, Demetrio

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    En el presente trabajo (segundo de otro amplio en el que se estudia la influencia que ejercen diversas adiciones a tres cementos portland, desde un punto de vista de su comportamiento químico-resistente, frente a la acción de distintos medios potencialmente agresivos y que será objeto de otras publicaciones se da cuenta de la evolución que experimenta la resistencia química por el método de Koch-Steinegger y de las variaciones de las resistencias mecánicas a flexotracción de las probetas de mortero (1:3 de 1 X 1 X 6 cm hechas con un cemento portland industrial resistente al yeso (cemento 2 <> P-450-Y y con las mezclas cemento 2/escoria granulada (vítrea = 85/15 - 65/35 - 40/60 y 30/70 (en peso, sumergidas en agua potable filtrada, unas series de 12 probetas, y en agua de mar artificial (ASTM D 1141-75, otras series análogas, durante 56-90-180 y 360 días, después de haberlas curado 24 horas en un recinto saturado de humedad y hasta 21 días bajo agua potable filtrada.

  16. Contribución al estudio de la resistencia química de los cementos. Comportamiento mecánico de un cemento portland resistente al yeso (1.ª Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzales-Vila, Victoriano

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, first part of a work where an account of the evolution of the mechanical resistances of various series of mortar and concrete tests submitted to the action of different agressive solutions will be given, sets up the chemical resistant behaviour of a sulphate resistant portland cement (with a content calculated —Bogue— null of C3A, of 10,8% of C4AF and of 81,7% of C3S + C2S against the CaSO4.2 H2O through the Le Chatelier-Anstett methods, and described in the ASTM C 452-73 and against the following agressive solutions: saturated solution calcium sulphate, Na2SO4 (2,1 g/l, MgSO4.7H2O (3,22 g/l, MgSO4.7 H2O (32,2 g/l, saturated of calcium sulphate + MgSO4.7H2O (3,22 g/l, saturated of calcium sulphate + MgSO4.7H2O (32,2g/l, Na2SO4 (3,5 g/l + NaCl (20,0 g/l, artificial sea water and, also, filtered drinking water, through of the Wittekindt and Kock Steinegger methods, during diverse periods, which allowed to establish a classification, according to his behaviour, of the studied cement against those agressive solutions.

    En el presente trabajo, primera parte de otro en el que se dará cuenta de la evolución de las resistencias mecánicas de diversas series de probetas de mortero y de hormigón sometidas a la acción de distintas disoluciones agresivas, se estudia el comportamiento químico-resistente de un cemento portland industrial resistente al yeso (con un contenido calculado, Bogue, nulo de C3A, del 10,8% de C4AFy del 81,7% de C3S + C2S frente al CaSO4.2 H2O por los métodos de Le Chatelier-Anstett y el descrito en la norma ASTM C 452-73 y frente a las siguientes disoluciones agresivas: disolución saturada de sulfato de calcio, de Na2SO4 (2

  17. Alta prevalência de crianças portadoras de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes à penicilina em creches públicas High prevalence of children colonized with penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in public day-care centers

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    Patrícia A. G. Velasquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar a prevalência de Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococos na nasofaringe de crianças sadias atendidas em creches municipais da cidade de Umuarama (PR. Avaliar a susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos pneumococos isolados. MÉTODOS: Secreção da nasofaringe de 212 crianças foi coletada no período de abril a outubro de 2008. Após semeadura dos espécimes em ágar sangue e incubação a 37 °C por 24-48 horas, as colônias suspeitas de pertencerem a S. pneumoniae foram identificadas pela α-hemólise, sensibilidade à optoquina e bile solubilidade. A susceptibilidade à penicilina foi investigada pelos testes de disco-difusão e de diluição. A susceptibilidade aos demais antimicrobianos indicados no tratamento das infecções pneumocócicas foi realizada por disco-difusão RESULTADOS: A prevalência de pneumococos na nasofaringe foi de 43,4% (92/212, sendo maior em crianças com idade entre 2 e 5 anos (p = 0,0005. Não houve diferença significativa entre os sexos. Resistência intermediária e resistência plena à penicilina foram encontradas respectivamente em 34,8 (32/92 e 22,8% (21/92 dos isolados. Sessenta e sete amostras (72,8% foram resistentes ao sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, oito (8,7% à eritromicina e seis (6,5% à tetraciclina. Uma amostra apresentou resistência à clindamicina (1,1%, e outra ao cloranfenicol (1,1%. Todas as amostras foram sensíveis a levofloxacina, ofloxacina, rifampicina, telitromicina, linezolide e vancomicina. Nove amostras foram consideradas multirresistentes, por apresentarem resistência a três ou mais classes de antimicrobianos. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo registrou uma alta prevalência de crianças portadoras sadias de amostras de S. pneumoniae resistentes à penicilina que podem constituir importantes reservatórios desse patógeno na comunidade.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci in the nasopharynx of healthy children enrolled

  18. Profundidade de localização do herbicida imazetapir + imazapique no solo sobre a fitotoxicidade em de plantas de arroz não resistente Depth of placement of the herbicide imazethapyr + imazapic in soil profile on non-tolerant rice injury

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    Angela Da Cas Bundt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas imazetapir e imazapique, usados em cultivares de arroz Clearfield®, possuem alta persistência e mobilidade no solo, ocasionando danos em genótipos de arroz não resistentes cultivados em rotação. Tais herbicidas podem lixiviar e atingir maiores profundidades ao longo do perfil. Esse posicionamento em profundidade pode ser um fator de seletividade e explicar parcialmente os diferentes resultados encontrados na literatura sobre o efeito residual do herbicida no solo. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da profundidade de localização no solo e da mistura formulada pelos herbicidas imazetapir e imazapique (75 e 25g e.a. L-1 na fitotoxicidade em genótipos de arroz não resistentes. Nesse sentido, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em solo com 15% de argila e 1,2% de matéria orgânica, em casa-de-vegetação, no campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel, em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. O experimento I consistiu de estudo preliminar visando a determinar a profundidade máxima de localização do herbicida no solo que causa danos ao arroz não resistente, e o herbicida foi alocado nas profundidades de 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 e 70cm. O experimento II também consistiu na alocação do herbicida em profundidades ao longo do perfil do solo de 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 e 18cm. As variáveis analisadas foram fitotoxicidade, massa da matéria seca e estatura das plantas. O herbicida resultante da mistura formulada de imazetapir com imazapique localizado próximo à superfície do solo causa danos intensos em plantas de arroz não resistente, porém, quando alocado em profundidades maiores que 20cm da superfície do solo, não prejudica o desenvolvimento de genótipos de arroz não resistentes a essa mistura de herbicidas.The herbicides imazethapyr and imazapic, used in Clearfield® rice, have high mobility and persistence in the soil, causing injury to non-resistant rice grown in rotation. These herbicides can leach and reach greater

  19. Estudo das variáveis operacionais dos processos de separação na produção de biodiesel, a partir do óleo de palma bruto (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq) em escala de laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    CASTRO, Douglas Alberto Rocha de

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho investigaram-se de forma sistemática as variáveis operacionais de processo envolvidas nas operações de separação aplicadas no pré-tratamento do óleo de palma bruto (Elaeis guineensis, jacq) e na purificação do biodiesel produzido via transesterificação etanólica utilizando NaOH como catalisador, em escala de laboratório. Na etapa de pré-tratamento foram investigados os processos de Filtração e Decantação, sendo a filtração do produto da neutralização realizada a 40ºC, 50ºC e 60...

  20. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  1. Fulminante, rituximab-resistente, mucocutane pemphigus vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gostyński, A.; Ammatuna, E.; Huls, G.; Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M.; Jonkman, M. F.; Horváth, B.

    2017-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies against desmoglein 1 and 3. First line treatment for pemphigus consists of systemic corticosteroids and anti-CD20 therapy (rituximab) to eliminate B-cells. Since 2005, more than 100 patients with pemphigus have been treated with

  2. Potencial de cruzamento natural entre o arroz transgênico resistente ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio e o arroz daninho Outcrossing potential of glufosinate-resistant rice to red rice

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    J.A. Noldin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de cultivares de arroz irrigado resistentes a herbicidas não-seletivos, como o glufosinato de amônio, pode se constituir numa alternativa de controle de arroz daninho em lavouras de arroz irrigado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a taxa e o sentido do cruzamento natural entre plantas de uma linhagem modificada geneticamente para resistência ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio (arroz GM e ao arroz daninho. A taxa de cruzamento natural entre o arroz GM como receptor feminino e o arroz daninho como doador de pólen foi de 0,22 e 0,02%, respectivamente para os ecótipos de arroz daninho com glumas de cor palha e com glumas pretas. No caso inverso, quando o arroz daninho foi o receptor feminino e o arroz GM o doador de pólen, a taxa de cruzamento foi de 0,26 e 0,14%, para o arroz daninho com glumas palha e com glumas pretas, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram que ocorreu cruzamento natural entre o arroz GM e o arroz daninho em percentuais que variaram de 0,14 e 0,48%, respectivamente para o arroz preto e para o arroz vermelho. A fim de minimizar a possibilidade de hibridação, medidas de controle eficientes devem ser adotadas no sentido de prevenir a coincidência de floração das plantas de arroz daninho com a das plantas de arroz GM cultivado.The broad spectrum non-selective herbicide ammonium glufosinate, combined with genetically modified glufosinate-resistant rice cultivars (GM rice, may comprise a rice weed control system for red rice and other weeds that infest Brazilian rice fields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for outcrossing and gene flow of GM rice to red rice. Natural outcrossing between adjacent field plots (1 m x 1 m was measured during the 1999/2000 production season in Brazil. The outcrossing rate of the GM rice as the female parent to red rice, as the pollen donor, was 0.22% for strawhull and 0.02% for the blackhull red rice, respectively. In the reciprocal

  3. Durabilidad del hormigón: Acción del agua de mar sobre un cemento portland resistente a los sulfatos. Influencia de la adición de escorias y de cenizas volantes

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    Gaspar Tebar, Demetrio

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, is part of a long time ICCET investigation programs studies the variation of the mechanical resistance to flexotraction 1: 3 normalized mortar with 1 x 1 x6cm dimension, using sulphate-resistent portland cement mixed with 15-35-60 and 70% parts of a furnace slag, a fiy ash or silica sand. The samples were submitted to the action of AS.T.M. artificial sea water and filtered potable water during several time periods (3 years for the first and second addition and 1 year for the third after the cured period (1 day at 100% R.H. and 21 days inside filtered potable water. The evolution of the ionic concentration of the aggressive solutions were studied and also the new phases formed with its new structural composition. Finally, and account is given of the researches and first results about the behavior of the mortars and concretes made with two different industrial cements and submitted to the natural sea water at a selected area of the marine Huelva-Port.

    En este artículo, que forma parte de un Proyecto de Investigación del ICCETa largo plazo, se estudia la variación de las resistencias mecánicas —a flexotracción— de las probetas de mortero normalizado (1:3, de 1x1x6 cm, mezclando un cemento portland resistente a los sulfates y sus mezclas (cemento/adición = 85/15 - 65/35 - 40/60 y 30/70, en peso, con una escoria, ceniza volante y arena silícea. Se someten a la acción de agua del mar artificial ASTM y de agua potable filtrada durante diversos períodos de tiempo (hasta 3 años para las dos primeras adiciones, y hasta 1 año para la tercera después de la fase de curado (1 día en cámara húmeda y 21 días bajo agua potable filtrada. Se estudia la evolución de la concentración iónica de los medios en donde han estado sumergidas dichas probetas de mortero, las características químicas de las nuevas fases sólidas formadas y la composición estructural de estas nuevas fases sólidas. Por último, se da cuenta

  4. Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate: coberturas de inverno e herbicidas em pré-semeadura da soja Management of glyphosate resistant Conyza bonariensis: winter cover crops and herbicides in soybean pre-seeding

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    F.P. Lamego

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Conyza bonariensis tornou-se a principal planta daninha da cultura da soja no Sul do Brasil, em decorrência da evolução para resistência ao herbicida glyphosate. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes coberturas de inverno e da associação de manejo de dessecação pré-semeadura da soja, visando ao controle de C. bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate. Um experimento foi conduzido em campo, na safra 2010/2011. Os tratamentos foram conduzidos em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em que as coberturas de inverno foram alocadas nas parcelas principais: aveia-preta, nabo, ervilhaca, azevém, trigo e pousio. Nas subparcelas, foram alocados os tratamentos de manejo de dessecação pré-semeadura da soja: glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + 2,4-D (1.050 g e.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + 2,4-D (1.050 g e.a ha-1/paraquat (200 g i.a ha-1 + diuron (100 g i.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (80 g i.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (80 g i.a ha-1/paraquat (200 g i.a ha-1 + diuron (100 g i.a ha‑1 e roçada. O nabo foi a espécie de cobertura que produziu o maior volume de massa seca durante o inverno, enquanto a ervilhaca foi a que apresentou maior efeito supressor sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de C. bonariensis. Associações de glyphosate com 2,4-D ou chlorimuron-ethyl, seguidas da aplicação sequencial de paraquat + diuron, causaram maior redução na infestação de C. bonariensis.Conyza bonariensis became the main weed in soybean crop in Southern Brazil, as a consequence of the evolution of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different winter cover crops and the association of burn-down herbicides on the control of glyphosate-resistant C. bonariensis. A field experiment was conducted in the 2010/2011 season. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot scheme, with the winter

  5. Seleção de famílias de feijoeiro resistente à antracnose e à mancha-angular Selection of common bean families resistant to anthracnose and angular leaf spot

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    Marcelo Geraldo de Morais Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar famílias de feijoeiro com resistência a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum e Phaeoisariopsis griseola e com outros fenótipos agronômicos desejáveis. As famílias utilizadas foram obtidas do cruzamento entre a linhagem H91, portadora de três alelos de resistência à antracnose, com três famílias F2:5 resistentes à mancha-angular, derivadas da cultivar Jalo EEP 558. Foi utilizado o delineamento látice quadrado em todos os experimentos. Inicialmente, foram avaliadas 144 famílias F2:3, no inverno de 2004, em Lavras, MG, com base no tipo de grão. Foram selecionadas 80 famílias F2:4 e avaliadas com a testemunha BRSMG Talismã, no período das águas de 2004/2005, no mesmo local. Considerando-se o tipo de grão e a resistência à mancha-angular e antracnose, foram mantidas 48 famílias F2:5, que foram avaliadas na seca de 2005, em Lavras e Lambari, MG. Essas 48 famílias passaram por inoculação das raças 2047, 73 e 1545 de C. lindemuthianum, para verificação da presença dos alelos de resistência Co-4², Co-5 e Co-7, respectivamente. Foram identificados genótipos da maioria das 48 famílias, quanto à reação à antracnose, das quais se destacaram quatro, em relação ao tipo de grão semelhante ao 'Carioca', de porte ereto, produtividade elevada e resistência à mancha-angular.The objective of this work was to select common bean families resistant to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Phaeoisariopsis griseola and, also, with superior agronomical traits. Families used were obtained from crosses of H91 lineage, bearer of three alleles resistant to anthracnose, and F2;5 families derived from the cultivar Jalo EEP 558, which is resistant to angular leaf spot. Square lattice design was used in all experiments. Initially the F2:3 families (144 were evaluated in the winter of 2004, in Lavras county, MG, Brazil, based on grain type. Eighty families (F2:4 were selected and evaluated with the check

  6. Híbridos pré-comerciais resistentes a Tuta absoluta obtidos de linhagem de tomateiro rica em acilaçúcares Pre-commercial hybrids obtained from an acylsugar-rich tomato inbred line, resistant to Tuta absoluta

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    Gabriel M Maciel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial agronômico de híbridos de tomateiro a partir da linhagem TOM-687, rica em acilaçúcares e de resistência comprovada a pragas. O experimento foi instalado na HortiAgro, município de Ijaci, MG. Foi constituído de 30 genótipos (5 híbridos comerciais, 1 linhagem pré-comercial (TOM-687, e 24 híbridos nos quais TOM-687 foi utilizada como um dos pais, os quais foram conduzidos em tutoramento com haste dupla, no espaçamento de 1,30 x 0,50 m, totalizando 15.385 plantas por hectare. Foram realizadas nove colheitas, entre as datas de 01/11/08 a 28/11/08. Foram avaliadas as características de massa média por fruto (g fruto-1 e produção por hectare (t ha-1. Os 24 híbridos que tiveram TOM-687 como um dos pais apresentaram potencial produtivo similar ao das testemunhas comerciais Débora Max, Bravo, Bônus, Kombat e Atyna. Dos 24 híbridos experimentais, quatro (TEX-298, TEX-310, TEX-315 e TEX-316 foram avaliados quanto à resistência à traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta e mostraram-se mais resistentes do que as testemunhas comerciais.This experiment was designed to assess the agronomic potential of tomato hybrids obtained from the tomato line TOM-687, an acylsugar-rich line with confirmed resistance to an array of tomato pests. The experiment was carried out at the HortiAgro Sementes research station, in Ijaci, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The treatments comprised 30 genotypes (5 commercial hybrid checks, 1 high acylsugar line (TOM-687, and 24 hybrids in which TOM-687 was one of the parents. Plants were trained to two stems, in a spacing of 1.30 m between rows x 0.50 m between plants within a row, totaling 15,385 plants per hectare. Nine harvests were performed between November 1st, 2008 and November 28th,2008. Traits assessed were mean fruit weight (g fruit-1 and total yield (t ha-1. All 24 hybrids with TOM-687 as a parent showed yields similar to those of the commercial check

  7. Frecuencia de portadores nasales de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en personal de salud de hospitales de Nicaragua Frequency of nasal carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health workers in Nicaraguan hospitals

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    Mercedes Cáceres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la frecuencia de portadores nasales de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina (SARM y el patrón de resistencia antimicrobiana de esas cepas obtenidas de trabajadores de la salud de cuatro hospitales de Nicaragua. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, en el período del 1 de junio de 2009 al 30 de septiembre de 2010. Los hisopados nasales de los trabajadores de la salud que aceptaron voluntariamente participar en el estudio fueron cultivados en medio agar base de detección de resistencia a oxacilina (ORSAB. La identificación de los aislados de S. aureus se realizó por métodos cotidianos y la resistencia a meticilina se determinó por la presencia del gen mecA con la técnica de reacción en cadena de polimerasa. El patrón de resistencia antimicrobiana se detectó por difusión en disco. Cada participante firmó un consentimiento informado con anterioridad a la toma de la muestra. RESULTADOS: Participaron en el estudio 569 trabajadores de la salud, de los cuales 208 eran del hospital de León, 155 de dos hospitales de Chinandega y 206 del de Managua. La frecuencia de portadores nasales de SARM fue de 9,6% en León, 11,6% en Chinandega y 6,7% en Managua. El perfil de resistencia de las cepas SARM fue similar en los cuatro hospitales y todas las cepas fueron sensibles a vancomicina. Del total de cepas SARM aisladas, 15% fueron multirre-sistentes. El porcentaje de resistencia a eritromicina fue el más alto, seguido del de clindamicina. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados del estudio se pueden considerar una advertencia sobre la circulación de cepas SARM entre el personal de salud de los hospitales participantes y aportan información relevante en relación al perfil de resistencia de las cepas SARM.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of nasal carriers of strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and the antimicrobial resistance pattern of these strains, obtained from health

  8. Utilização do inseticida Methomyl na seleção de genótipos de aveia resistentes à helmintosporiose User of Methomyl insecticide for the selection of spot blotch resistant oat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Luise Handel

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A helmintosporiose é uma moléstia que afeta a cultura da aveia, reduzindo seu rendimento e qualidade de grão. A seleção de genótipos resistentes com utilização de filtrados tóxicos do fungo Helminthosporium sativum é eficaz, pois delimita a variabilidade do patógeno e reduz a interferência do ambiente na expressão do genótipo. Contudo, a obtenção dos filtrados tóxicos deste fungo é um processo lento e delicado. Dessa forma, a possibilidade do uso de substâncias sintéticas que simulem seu efeito, inibindo o transporte de elétrons da cadeia respiratória, é de grande interesse. O inseticida Methomyl é eficaz para simular o efeito da toxina do fungo que causa a helmintosporiose em milho, tendo o presente trabalho visado testar sua eficiência na cultura da aveia. Para isso, foi avaliado o crescimento de calos e raízes de aveia expostas ao Methomyl, quando crescimentos maiores indicaram maior resistência ao produto, e possível resistência à moléstia. Os resultados indicam que o Methomyl afeta o crescimento de raízes e calos de aveia e pode ser utilizado para separar os grupos de genótipos com e sem resistência à helmintosporiose. Assim, UFRGS 14, com maior sensibilidade aos filtrados tóxicos de H. sativum em outros estudos, também apresentou crescimento mais afetado pelo Methomyl em todos os experimentos aqui conduzidos.Spot Blotch is a plant disease which causes yield losses in oat and other cereals. Selection for resistant genotypes using Helminthosporium sativum toxic filtrates is an efficient technique, which reduces the pathogen variability and the influence of the environment over the genotype expression. The filtrates extraction is time consuming and a difficult process, and the possibility of using a synthetic product to simulate its action of inhibiting the cell electron transport chain would be useful. The Methomyl insecticide is an efficient product to simulate the effects of the fungus that causes spot

  9. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq. associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (régime Panipo ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (régime Paneuph chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

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    Kouakou, NGDV.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet was conducted involving 16 rabbits and 16 weaned guinea pigs fed ad libitum. Paneuph was significantly better ingested (P0.05 for guinea pigs. Poison milk was better ingested than the leaves and stems of sweet potato (P0.05. The ADC of DM, OM and MAT of Paneuph exceeded 80% and were higher than those of Panipo in rabbits and guinea pigs (P<0.05. Based on the results obtained, the effects of the distribution of the Guinea grass associated with the poison milk during rabbits growing have to be further studied before recommending this new diet to farmers in areas where poison milk and Guinea grass are present and rabbit breeding enough developed.

  10. Endocarditis due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus raffinosus successfully treated with linezolid: case report and review of literature Endocarditis por Enterococcus raffinosus resistente a vancomicina exitosamente tratada con linezolid: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura

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    A. Jasovich

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus raffinosus is scarcely found in clinical samples and even less frequently as etiologic agent of endocarditis. We are herein presenting one case of mitral prosthetic-valve endocarditis in a 77-y-o male due to a vancomycinresistant Enterococcus raffinosus isolate, successfully treated with 6 weeks of linezolid, and a two-year follow up.Enterococcus raffinosus es una especie poco frecuente en materiales clínicos y menos aún como agente etiológico de endocarditis. En este trabajo se presenta un caso de endocarditis de válvula mitral protésica en un paciente de 77 años debida a Enterococcus raffinosus resistente a vancomicina y que fue exitosamente tratada con linezolid durante 6 semanas, con un seguimiento de 2 años.

  11. Potential use of Piper nigrum ethanol extract against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae Utilização em potencial do extrato alcoólico de Piper nigrum como larvicida em Aedes aegypti resistente a piretróides

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    Naomi Kato Simas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of Piper nigrum ethanol extract, biomonitored by assays on pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae yielded isolation of the larvicidal amides piperolein-A and piperine. Comparing LC50 values, the ethanol extract (0. 98 ppm was the most toxic, followed by piperolein-A (1. 46ppm and piperine (1. 53ppm.O fracionamento do extrato etanólico de Piper nigrum biomonitorado por ensaios em larvas de Aedes aegypti resistentes a piretróides resultou no isolamento das amidas larvicidas piperoleína-A e piperina. Comparando-se os valores de CL50, o extrato etanólico (0. 98ppm foi o mais tóxico, seguido pela piperoleína-A (1. 46ppm e piperina (1. 53ppm.

  12. Crescimento de raízes de biótipos de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac em competição Root growth of Echinochloa biotypes resistant and susceptible to quinclorac under competition

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    L.O.B. Schuch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial competitivo de biótipos de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac no ambiente do solo, como forma de inferir qual deles possui maior potencial de extração de recursos. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, constando de diferentes populações de plantas dos biótipos de capim-arroz resistente (R e suscetível (S ao herbicida quinclorac, oriundos da região arrozeira de Itajaí/SC. Foi estabelecida uma planta do biótipo de capim-arroz considerado como tratamento, no centro da unidade experimental; na periferia, foram semeadas dez sementes do biótipo oposto ao do tratamento central, sendo posteriormente estabelecido o número de plantas de acordo com o tratamento (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Aos 40 DAE, foram avaliados o comprimento, volume, massa fresca, massa seca e conteúdo de água das raízes das plantas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, em caso de significância, efetuou-se o teste de Duncan, para avaliar o efeito do aumento na população de plantas, e o teste da Diferença Mínima Significativa (DMS, para avaliar diferenças entre biótipo resistente e suscetível, além da matriz de correlação. A imposição de competição no ambiente das raízes pode afetar mais o biótipo resistente ao quinclorac que o suscetível, sendo esta característica essencial para a sobrevivência do biótipo, principalmente sob escassez do recurso.The objective of this work was to evaluate the competitive potential of Echinochloa plants resistant and susceptible to quinclorac in the soil, to evaluate whether there are potential differences in extracting nutrients from the soil. The trial was carried out under greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of amounts of Echinochloa plants resistant or susceptible to quinclorac. At the

  13. Prevalence of mef and ermB genes in invasive pediatric erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Argentina Prevalencia de los genes mef y ermB en aislamientos invasivos de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a eritromicina recuperados de pacientes pediátricos en Argentina

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    A. Corso

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1993-2001, a total of 1,499 pneumococci isolates were recovered through the Argentinean surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in children under 6 years of age, 3.5% of which were erythromycin resistant. Among the 50 erythromycin-resistant strains available, 58% (n=29 harbored mefA/E genes (15 mefA, 30%; and 14 mefE, 28%, 34% (n=17 ermB, and 6% (n=3 both mefA/E plus ermB genes, while one isolate was negative for all the acquired genes studied. The England14-9 (42%, Poland6B-20 (20% and Spain9v-3 (16% clones were responsible for the emergence of pneumococcal macrolide resistance in pediatric population from Argentina.En el marco del programa de vigilancia regional SIREVA, se analizaron 1499 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causantes de enfermedad invasiva en menores de 6 años, recuperados entre 1993 y 2001. Se detectó un 3,5% de resistencia a eritromicina. De los 50 aislamientos resistentes a eritromicina que pudieron ser estudiados, el 58% (n=29 tenían los genes mefA/E (15 mefA, 30% y 14 mefE, 28%, el 34% (n=17 el gen ermB y el 6% (n=3 la combinación de genes mefA/E y ermB. Sólo un aislamiento fue negativo para todos los genes analizados. Los clones internacionales England14-9, Poland6B-20 y Spain9v-3 representaron el 78% del total de aislamientos resistentes (42, 20 y 16%, respectivamente y se consideraron los responsables de la emergencia de la resistencia a macrólidos entre los neumococos que afectan a la población pediátrica de Argentina.

  14. Efficient micropropagation of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... and P. nebula. In the absence of light, there was a higher percentage of responsive explants. Histological observations using thin sections revealed direct PLB regeneration from both protocorm and leaf explants without mediation of the callus, and PLBs developed from the epidermal cell layers of E.

  15. Crassocephalum rubens (Juss. Ex Jacq.) S. Moore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    two species and can be valorised for a balanced nutrition of populations. Efforts should be made for ..... maintenance of fluid balance, formation of hormones and enzymes ..... women, nursing mothers, infants convulsing patients and elderly to ...

  16. Reproductive Biology of Varronia curassavica Jacq. (Boraginaceae

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    MARCIA P. HOELTGEBAUM

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Varronia curassavica, a subshrubby medicinal species associated with restinga in the Atlantic Forest, has been exploited by local people and the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, restingas have experienced a continuous process of degradation, and thus, with species and ecosystem both at risk, efforts to support conservation actions are required. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects of V. curassavica reproductive biology. To accomplish this, morphological characterization was performed by monitoring flowering events. The availability of nectar and pollen, as well as the frequency and behavior of floral visitors and dispersers, was also evaluated. This species exhibits both heterostyly and protogyny. Anthesis is diurnal, and flowers last less than a day. The high number of flower and fruit abortions suggests that mechanisms, such as self-incompatibility intra-morphs and easily detached flowers, contribute to reduced fruit production. The high diversity of floral visitors indicate a generalist pollination syndrome. Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera were the main pollinators, and nectar was the main resource sought by these insects. Fruits were dispersed by birds and ants. It can be concluded that the interaction of V. curassavica with several species is a key factor in its own survival and for maintaining the biological diversity of restinga.

  17. Reproductive Biology of Varronia curassavica Jacq. (Boraginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeltgebaum, Marcia P; Montagna, Tiago; Lando, Ana Paula; Puttkammer, Catarina; Orth, Afonso Inácio; Guerra, Miguel P; Reis, Maurício S Dos

    2018-01-01

    Varronia curassavica, a subshrubby medicinal species associated with restinga in the Atlantic Forest, has been exploited by local people and the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, restingas have experienced a continuous process of degradation, and thus, with species and ecosystem both at risk, efforts to support conservation actions are required. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects of V. curassavica reproductive biology. To accomplish this, morphological characterization was performed by monitoring flowering events. The availability of nectar and pollen, as well as the frequency and behavior of floral visitors and dispersers, was also evaluated. This species exhibits both heterostyly and protogyny. Anthesis is diurnal, and flowers last less than a day. The high number of flower and fruit abortions suggests that mechanisms, such as self-incompatibility intra-morphs and easily detached flowers, contribute to reduced fruit production. The high diversity of floral visitors indicate a generalist pollination syndrome. Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera were the main pollinators, and nectar was the main resource sought by these insects. Fruits were dispersed by birds and ants. It can be concluded that the interaction of V. curassavica with several species is a key factor in its own survival and for maintaining the biological diversity of restinga.

  18. Biocatalytic potential of vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversion of vanillin to vanillylamine is a key step in the biosynthetic route towards capsaicinoids in pungent cultivars of Capsicum sp. The reaction has previously been annotated to be catalysed by PAMT (putative aminotransferase; [GenBank: AAC78480.1, Swiss-Prot: O82521]), however, the enzyme has previously not been biochemically characterised in vitro. Results The biochemical activity of the transaminase was confirmed by direct measurement of the reaction with purified recombinant enzyme. The enzyme accepted pyruvate, and oxaloacetate but not 2-oxoglutarate as co-substrate, which is in accordance with other characterised transaminases from the plant kingdom. The enzyme was also able to convert (S)-1-phenylethylamine into acetophenone with high stereo-selectivity. Additionally, it was shown to be active at a broad pH range. Conclusions We suggest PAMT to be renamed to VAMT (vanillin aminotransferase, abbreviation used in this study) as formation of vanillin from vanillylamine could be demonstrated. Furthermore, due to high stereoselectivity and activity at physiological pH, VAMT is a suitable candidate for biocatalytic transamination in a recombinant whole-cell system. PMID:24712445

  19. Effect of Phellodendron chinense Schneid Extract on Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis, Interstitial fibrosis, Prostate specific antigen, Prostate index ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index ... Center of Harbin Province (certificate no. ... subsequently catheterized with a lubricated.

  20. Avaliação da sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de 87 amostras clínicas de enterococos resistentes à vancomicina Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 87 clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci

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    I.H. Saraiva

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS. 1 Avaliar o padrão de sensibilidade in vitro de amostras clínicas de enterococos resistentes à vancomicina (ERV, aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados no seu tratamento, bem como a antimicrobianos alternativos. 2 Avaliar a acurácia do E test, em comparação aos outros testes de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos (microdiluição em caldo e difusão em disco. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS. Foram analisadas 87 amostras clínicas de ERVs selecionadas de 1.936 isolados de enterococos coletados em 97 hospitais norte-americanos, no último trimestre de 1992. A identificação em nível de espécie foi feita pelos sistemas API 20S, Vitek e uma versão modificada do método convencional proposto por Facklam e Collins. A avaliação da sensibilidade in vitro aos antimicrobianos foi realizada pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo, E test e métodos de difusão em disco. As amostras foram testadas, tanto para antimicrobianos normalmente utilizados no tratamento de infecções enterocócicas (vancomicina, teicoplanina, ampicilina, penicilina, gentamicina e estreptomicina, como também para drogas alternativas potencialmente úteis (cloranfenicol, doxiciclina, esparfloxacina, ciprofloxacina, clinafloxacina, eritromicina, espectinomicina, trospectomicina, trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol e novobiocina. RESULTADOS. A avaliação dos testes de sensibilidade das 87 amostras de ERV revelou resistência, a ampicilina em torno de 86%, o mesmo sendo observado para penicilina. Em relação aos aminoglicosídeos, obtivemos alto grau de resistência, em torno de 82% e 85%, para gentamicina e estreptomicina, respectivamente. Apesar de pertencer à mesma classe da vancomicina, a teicoplanina foi ativa contra 29% das amostras de ERV. Entre os antimicrobianos alternativos testados, os que apresentaram maiores taxas de sensibilidade foram o cloranfenicol, a doxiciclina e a trospectomicina (82%, 92% e 94% de isolados suscetíveis, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO. O

  1. Contribución al estudio de la resistencia química de los cementos. Comportamiento mecánico de un cemento portland resistente al yeso (2.ª parte

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    Gaspar-Tébar, Demetrio

    1985-12-01

    /serie/edad/disolución, hechas con un cemento portland industrial resistente al yeso (P-450-Y, según RC-75, sumergidas en agua potable filtrada y en las siguientes disoluciones agresivas: saturada de sulfato de calcio, de MgSO4.7 H2O (3,22 g/l, de MgSO42O (32,2 g/l, saturada de sulfato de calcio más MgSO4.7 H2O (3,22 g/l, saturada de sulfato de calcio más MgSO4.7 H2O (32,2 g/l y agua de mar artificial ASTM D 1141-75 durante 56 - 90- 180 - 360 - 540 - 720 - 900 y 1.080 días, después del período de curado (1 + 21 días. Así misino, se estudia la variación de dichas resistencias mecánicas a flexotracción y compresión de probetas de mortero (1 : 3 de 4 X 4 X 16 cm, a tracción centrifuga de probetas de mortero de 7 X 7 X 28 cm y a flexotracción y compresión de probetas de hormigón de 10 X 10 X 40 cm, hechas con el cemento mencionado (P-450-Y, cuando se sumergen en agua potable y en cinco disoluciones agresivas [disolución saturada de sulfato de calcio, disolución de Na2SO4 (2,1 g/l, disolución de MgSO4.7 H2O (3,22 g/l, disolución de Na2SO4 (3,5 g/l + NaCl (20,0 g/l y agua de mar artificial ASTM D 1141-75] durante 6 – 12 – 18 – 24 - 30 - 36- 42 – 48 - 54 y 60 meses, después del periodo de curado (1 + 30 días. Los resultados obtenidos han permitido establecer una graduación del cemento estudiado según su comportamiento, frente a las mencionadas disoluciones agresivas.

  2. Análise comparativa entre tuberculose multirresistente e tuberculose extensivamente resistente - Epidemiologia e factores preditivos Comparative analysis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis - Epidemiology and predictive factors

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    Ana Sofia Vilariça

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A tuberculose extensivamente resistente (TBXDR define -se como uma forma de tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR com resistências adicionais às fluoroquinolonas e, pelo menos, a um dos antibacilares injectáveis seguintes: amicacina, canamicina e capreomicina. Foi classificada pela OMS como uma ameaça séria ao controlo da tuberculose, com consequências à escala mundial, assumindo os contornos de uma autêntica pandemia em algumas regiões do globo. Objectivo: Comparar os doentes com TBXDR versus outros perfis de TBMR no que diz respeito às características demográficas e epidemiológicas, factores etiopatogénicos e evolução no internamento. Material e métodos: Doentes internados no Serviço de Pneumologia III do Hospital de Pulido Valente no período compreendido entre Abril de 1999 e Junho de 2007, com o diagnóstico de TBMR microbiologicamente confirmado. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: sexo, distribuição etária, raça, formas de apresentação da TB, grupos de tratamento, perfil de resistência aos antibacilares, estatuto de imigrante, número e duração de tratamentos anteriores, classificação OMS, co-infecção VIH, alcoolismo e/ou toxicodependência, demora média do internamento e mortalidade intra-hospitalar. A análise estatística realizou -se no programa SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versão 15.0. Nas variáveis categoriais, as diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos foram avaliadas através do teste qui -quadrado e as variáveis numéricas através do teste t. Para a construção do modelo preditivo da presença de TBXDR (variável dependente foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística, tendo sido incluídas as seguintes variáveis independentes: classificação OMS, coinfecção VIH, estatuto de imigrante, alcoolismo e/ou toxicodependência e número e duração de tratamentos anteriores. Resultados: Foram contabilizados 132 doentes com TBMR, dos quais 69 (52

  3. Características clínicas y sociodemográficas de los casos con tuberculosis resistente en el municipio de Armenia, Quindío (Colombia Clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of tuberculosis with antimicrobial resistance in Armenia, Quindio (Colombia

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    Nelson Enrique Arenas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar los factores sociodemográficos y clínicos de los pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis resistente en el municipio de Armenia durante el período 2006-2009. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo con base en la notificación de pacientes con tuberculosis resistentes durante el período de estudio. Los datos fueron tomados de los registros consignados en las fichas de notificación y las tarjetas individuales de tratamiento categoría IV. Resultados: Entre 2006 y 2009, 678 pacientes ingresaron en el programa de control de la tuberculosis. De ellos, 14 casos (2,0% fueron resistentes al menos a un medicamento, y entre estos, 7 (50% fueron multirresistentes. El 21% estuvo asociado a infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. La tasa de fallecimientos en pacientes con tuberculosis con farmacorresistencia múltiple fue del 71%. Se encontró amplificación de la resistencia en 2 casos, quienes presentaron deterioro en el estado de salud y deceso. Conclusión: La situación en Armenia de resistencia a antituberculosos es de proporción similar a la del resto del país. Se encontraron factores de riesgo conocidos en los casos de resistencia (coinfección con virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, farmacodependencia, abandono social en la mayoría de casos, pero también de resistencia primaria y sin factores de riesgo con farmacorresistencia múltiple y una alta mortalidad, lo que llama la atención para mejorar la vigilancia y el control de los casos en tratamiento en la ciudad.Objective: To analyze the socio-demographic and clinical diagnosis of patients with resistant tuberculosis in the municipality of Armenia in the period 2006-2009. Methods: We performed a retrospective descriptive study based on the notification of patients with resistant tuberculosis during the study period, data were taken from registrations under notification forms and individual treatment cards category IV. Results: 678

  4. Modificação da concentração de amido resistente em feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp por tratamento hidrotérmico e congelamento Modification of the concentration of resistant starch in macassar bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp hydrothermal process and freezing

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    Silvana Magalhães Salgado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância das propriedades funcionais do amido resistente para a saúde, o elevado consumo de feijão macassar no Nordeste brasileiro e os efeitos do processo térmico e da estocagem sobre a estrutura do amido, foi realizado este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes tratamentos hidrotérmicos (cocção sob pressão e sem pressão e do armazenamento a 20ºC por 15 e 30 dias, sobre a formação de amido resistente do feijão macassar em dois estádios de maturação (verde e seco. Para analisar os fatores combinados foi realizado um planejamento fatorial do tipo 2³ com três variáveis independentes (fatores e uma variável dependente (resposta. Todas as variáveis exerceram efeitos significativos na produção de AR e a maior formação foi registrada para o feijão seco devido à hidratação prévia a cocção sem pressão, além do tempo de armazenamento congelado de 30 dias. No que diz respeito às analises físicas, após os tratamentos hidrotérmicos, ocorreram transformações nos padrões de cristalinidade e no aspecto morfológico dos feijões.Considering the importance of the functional properties of resistant starch for health, the high consumption of the macassar bean in the northeast of Brazil and the effects of the thermal process and storage on the structure of the starch, this work was implemented to evaluate the influence of different hydrothermal treatments (cooking under pressure and whithout pressure and of storage at 20ºC for 15 and 30 days, on the formation of resistant starch in the macassar bean, in two stages of maturation (green and dryed. To analyse the combined factors, a factorial design type 2³ was realized with three independent variables (factors and one dependent variable (response. All the variables exercised significant effects on the production of the resistant starch and the highest formation was registered for the dried bean due to the previous hydration before

  5. Competição entre plantas de arroz e biótipos de capim-arroz (Echinochloa spp. resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac Competition between rice plants and Echinochloa spp. biotypes resistant or susceptible to quinclorac

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    L. Galon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a competitividade interespecífica de biótipos de capim-arroz resistente (R e suscetível (S ao herbicida quinclorac com a cultura do arroz irrigado. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação e os tratamentos consistiram em manter uma planta de arroz cv. BRS Pelota no centro da unidade experimental, variando-se na periferia as densidades de capim-arroz em: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas do biótipo R (ITJ-13 ou S (ITJ-17 oriundos da região de Itajaí-SC. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 com quatro repetições. Aos 40 dias após a emergência, foram avaliados as massas fresca e seca e o conteúdo de água de folhas, colmos e total da parte aérea do arroz e do capim-arroz. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos para todas as variáveis estudadas quando a cultura do arroz foi cultivada na presença de biótipos de capim-arroz R ou S. Esse efeito foi aditivo na proporção de 1 planta m-2. Entretanto, a capacidade competitiva dos biótipos de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac, com as plantas de arroz, apresentou comportamento similar quando se variou a densidade de plantas por área.This work aimed to evaluate the interspecific competitiveness of Echinochloa spp. biotypes resistant or susceptible to the herbicide quinclorac. The trial was installed under greenhouse conditions, with the biotypes resistant (ITJ-13 and susceptible (ITJ-17 to quinclorac under competition with the rice plants. The treatments consisted of maintaining one rice plant at the center of the experimental unit, surrounded by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 Echinochloa plants, according to the treatment. The trial was arranged in a completely randomized blocks design and factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replications. Forty days after emergence, fresh dry weights and water content of the shoots were evaluated. There was a significant effect for all the variables

  6. Análisis clínico-epidemiológico de la portación intestinal de enterococos resistentes a vancomicina en una unidad de terapia intensiva Clinical and epidemiologic analysis of intestinal tract colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an intensive care unit

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    A.M. Togneri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available En un período de cinco meses y 25 días se investigó la portación intestinal de enterococos resistentes a vancomicina (EVR. Se estudiaron 124 pacientes (73% de 171 admitidos en la unidad de terapia intensiva (UTI, 35 de los cuales (28% resultaron ser portadores. Los aislamientos de EVR (n=35 fueron identificados como Enterococcus faecium (n=18, Enterococcus gallinarum (n=16 y Enterococcus raffinosus (n=1. Todos los aislamientos estudiados fueron resistentes a vancomicina (VAN (CIM90= 512 µg/ml y teicoplanina (CIM90= 32 µg/ml y portaban el gen vanA. Los estudios de tipificación molecular mostraron un alto grado de homología entre los aislamientos de E. faecium (un clon dominante y E. gallinarum (dos tipos clonales, sugiriendo su diseminación a modo de brote. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con la edad y el sexo de los pacientes no portadores (p>0,05, pero si con el tiempo de hospitalización y el uso de esquemas antibióticos de amplio espectro (pIntestinal tract colonization with vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE was studied during five months and 25 days. Out of 171 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit, 124 (73% were included in this study. Thirty five of them (28% were recognized as colonized with VRE. VRE isolates (n = 35 were identified as Enterococcus faecium (n=18, Enterococcus gallinarum (n=16, and Enterococcus raffinosus (n=1. All of them were resistant to vancomycin (MIC90= 512 µg/ml and to teicoplanin (MIC90= 32 µg/ml, having the vanA gene. By means of molecular methods a high homology was found among E. faecium and E. gallinarum isolates, respectively, suggesting their spread as a kind of outbreak. No significant differences in age or sex were found among colonized and non-colonized patients (p>0.05. On the other hand, the hospitalization time and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics were associated with colonization. From this study we highlight the importance of enhancing all measures of

  7. Estudo comparativo entre métodos de coloração para a pesquisa do bacilo álcool-ácido resistente em secreções pulmonares A comparative study between two staining methods employed in the search of alcohol acid resistant bacilli in pulmonary secretions

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    Clara Pechmann Mendonça

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentação do resultado comparativo entre dois métodos de coloração Osol e Ziehl-Neelsen para a pesquisa do bacilo álcool-ácido resistente, em 337 amostras secreção pulmonar. Foi realizada uma avaliação cultural de 287 amostras, mostrando que o método de Osol apresenta-se melhor nas baciloscopias discordantes e que há tendência em apresentar maior riqueza de germe.The comparative results obtained with the study of two staining methods, the Ziehl-Neelsen and the Osol ones, are presented. The study was performed with the alcohol acid resistant bacilli of 337 pulmonary secretion specimens. Evaluation cultures of 287 of these specimens were made. The Osol method proved to be better than the Ziehl-Neelsen one when dealing with discordant baciloscopic evidence. There tended to be a larger ammount of bacilli, too, when the former was used.

  8. Caracterização morfológica e avaliação de cultivares de bananeira resistentes a Sigatoka Negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet no sudoeste goiano Morphologic characterization and evaluation of banana cultivars resistant to the Black Sigatoka disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet in the Southwest of the State of Goiás, Brazil

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    Silvia Correa Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinco cultivares de bananeira resistentes a Sigatoka Negra foram cultivadas na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no município de Jataí, localizado na região Sudoeste do Estado. O objetivo foi introduzir genótipos resistentes a Sigatoka Negra no Estado, bem como fazer a caracterização morfológica desses materiais nessas condições climáticas. O trabalho foi realizado por meio da avaliação, em três ciclos produtivos, dos seguintes componentes de produção: intervalo em dias entre o plantio e o florescimento, número de folhas no florescimento e na colheita, número de pencas por cacho, frutos por cacho e frutos por penca, comprimento do cacho e dos frutos e peso do engaço, das pencas e do cacho. As cultivares falsa FHIA-18 e Caipira produziram em média aos 393 dias, apresentando maior precocidade em relação às demais cultivares. Como era esperado, a FHIA-21, que é uma bananeira tipo Terra, apresentou um ciclo maior (488 dias. O clima e a altitude de Jataí-GO podem ter contribuído para o aumento do ciclo das cinco cultivares quando comparado com outras regiões. Para as características de produção, a FHIA-01 e a falsa FHIA-18 se destacaram das demais. Para o número de pencas, a Thap Maeo se destacou nos três ciclos, mostrando a característica deste genótipo. As maiores alturas na floração foram observadas nas cultivares FHIA-21 e Thap Maeo, que também foram as que mais sofreram com os efeitos do vento.Five banana cultivars resistant to the Black Sigatoka Disease were grown at the experimental field of the Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG, located in the Southwest region of the State of Goiás (Brazil. This work aimed the introduction of Black Sigatoka resistant cultivars as well as the characterization of the morphological aspects of such cultivars at that climatic region. The following characteristics were evaluated, in the first three cycles: days between planting and flowering, leaf number at

  9. Behavior of Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes during the course of infection and immune response development in resistant versus susceptible hosts Comportamento de promastigoteas metacíclicos de Leishmania major durante o curso da infecção e da resposta imune em hospedeiros resistentes versus suscetíveis

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    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known on the epitopes derived from metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania that are important on the regulation or destruction of the parasite, as targets of immune attack in the vertebrate host. In this study we investigated an alternative method to obtain metacyclic promasigotes of Leishmania major, as evaluated by the course of infection and delayed-type hipersensitivity (DTH in resistant versus susceptible inbred mice. Non-infective (procyclic promastigotes of L. major recently transformed from tissue amastigotes were attached to a negatively charged glass-wool column, whereas metacyclic promastigotes were not bound to columns and could be easily recovered. Optimal chromatography conditions were validated through statistical analyses. Parasite average yield from glass wool columns and promastigote viability were estimated by light microscopy. Metacyclic promastigotes yielded 43.5% to 57.5%. Different patterns of cutaneous lesions were obtained in BALB/c (susceptible and C57BL/6 (resistant mice, the former with highly infective lesions induced by metacyclic promastigotes. DTH responses proved to be higher in groups of C57BL/6 mice which were infected with metacyclic promastigotes. These results indicate that the new method could be integrated with the investigation of metacyclogenesis of Leishmania in vivo.Pouco se conhece sobre os epítopos derivados de promastigotas metacíclicos de Leishmania que são importantes para a regulação ou destruição do parasita, como alvos de ação imunológica no hospedeiro vertebrado. Neste estudo, nós investigamos um método alternativo para obter promastigotas metacíclicos de Leishmania major, pela avaliação do curso da infecção e reação de hipersensibilidade do tipo retardado (HTR em hospedeiros resistentes e susceptíveis. Promastigotas não-infectantes (procíclicos de L. major, recentemente isolados de amastigotas, foram selecionados pela adesão a colunas de lã de vidro

  10. Prevalência da adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo em hipertensos resistentes e validação de três métodos indiretos de avaliação da adesão Prevalence of anti-hypertensive treatment adherence in patients with resistant hypertension and validation of three indirect methods for assessing treatment adherence

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    Katia Vergetti Bloch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo estimou a adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo farmacológico utilizando-se três métodos indiretos em uma coorte de hipertensos resistentes no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 2005. Os métodos foram: avaliação pelo paciente; avaliação do médico; teste de Morisky-Green (TMG adaptado para a língua portuguesa. Foi realizada validação preditiva comparando-se a diferença tanto de pressões de consultório como de monitorização de 24 horas (MAPA, em duas ocasiões, de pacientes com e sem adesão. As médias de pressões entre os grupos foram comparadas usando-se testes não-paramétricos. Foram entrevistados 200 pacientes com idade média de 63 anos (DP = 10,3, 73,5% do sexo feminino. A prevalência de adesão foi de 51% pelo TMG, 52% pelo médico e 80,5% pelo paciente. Ocorreram reduções das pressões arteriais de consultório e na MAPA dos pacientes com adesão por todos os métodos, mas não para os não-aderentes. O emprego de mais de um método para avaliação da adesão mostrou que indivíduos não-aderentes pelos três métodos (11,9% tiveram pior evolução dos níveis tensionais. Esse achado sugere que a hipertensão resistente não pode ser atribuída unicamente à baixa adesão.This study estimated adherence to anti-hypertensive medication using three indirect methods and their combinations in a cohort of patients with resistant hypertension in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2005. The methods used were: self-reported adherence; physicians' adherence evaluation; and the Morisky-Green test (MGT translated into Portuguese. The predictive validation was performed comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, measured on two different occasions, from patients classified as adherent or not. The means were compared using non-parametric tests. Two hundred patients were interviewed. Mean age was 63 years (SD = 10.3, and 73.5% were female. Adherence prevalence was 51% using MGT, 52% according to the physician

  11. Identificação de híbridos de citros resistentes à mancha-marrom-de-alternária por meio de fAFLP e testes de patogenicidade Alternaria brown spot resistant citrus hybrid identification by means of fAFLP and pathogenicity tests

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    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar híbridos, oriundos de hibridações controladas entre 'Folha Murcha' x 'Ponkan' e testá-los quanto à resistência a Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri. As plântulas foram obtidas via cultura in vitro de embriões. Utilizou-se o marcador molecular fAFLP para identificação dos híbridos e, em seguida, realizou-se o teste de patogenicidade nos híbridos com isolados de Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri, em condições de laboratório. Os pares de primers EcoRI AAG - MseI CAG e EcoRI ACC - MseI CAA foram os mais eficientes na identificação dos híbridos, os quais identificaram 48,5% de híbridos. Os híbridos F64, F108, F111, F113, F131 e F139 são potencialmente resistentes a Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri.The objective of this work was to identify hybrids obtained from controlled crossings between 'Folha Murcha' x 'Ponkan', and to check their resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri. The seedlings were obtained by in vitro embryo culture. The fAFLP marker technique was used to identify the hybrids, then laboratory pathogenicity test of the hybrids was accomplished with Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri isolates. The pairs of primers EcoRI AAG - Msel CAG and EcoRI ACC - Msel CAA were the most efficient for hybrids identification, and distinguished 48.5% of hybrids. Hybrids F64, F108, F111, F113, F131 and F139 showed potential resistance to the Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri.

  12. A case of familial transmission of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying the lnu(A gene in Santa Fe city, Argentina Caso de transmisión familiar de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina adquirido en la comunidad portador del gen lnu(A en la ciudad de Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Emilce de los A Méndez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen causing skin and soft tissue infections as well as necrotizing pneumonia. We describe a case of familial transmission of CA-MRSA between a 6-month-old boy and his mother in Santa Fe City, Argentina. Both isolates showed an identical antimicrobial susceptibility profile, carried type IV SCCmec and harboured the pvl and the lnu(A genes. Isolates showed indistinguishable SmaI-PFGE patterns confirming their genetic relationship. These results corroborate the intrafamilial transmission of CA-MRSA and might associate this strain with the repetitive events of furunculosis within the family.Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina adquirido en la comunidad (SARM-AC es reconocido como un patógeno importante que causa infecciones de piel y partes blandas y neumonía necrotizante. Describimos un caso de transmisión familiar de SARM-AC entre un nino de 6 meses de edad y su madre en la ciudad de Santa Fe, Argentina. Ambos aislamientos mostraron idéntico perfil de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos, tenían el SCCmec tipo IV, y contenían los genes pvl y lnu(A. Los aislamientos presentaron patrones de SmaI-PFGE indistinguibles entre sí, lo cual confirmó su relación genética. Estos resultados corroboran la transmisión intrafamiliar de SARM-AC; asimismo, este aislamiento podría asociarse con los eventos repetitivos de furunculosis en la familia.

  13. Detecção do gene mecA em estafilococos coagulase negativa resistentes à oxacilina isolados da saliva de profissionais da enfermagem Detection of mecA gene in oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from the saliva of nursing professionals

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    Juliana de Oliveira Rosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Estafilococos coagulase negativa estão frequentemente associados às infecções nosocomiais e os profissionais da saúde podem ser reservatório e dissemina-los no hospital e comunidade. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar espécies de estafilococos coagulase negativa isolados da saliva de profissionais da enfermagem, determinar o perfil de resistência e detectar o gene mecA. Foram selecionados 100 estafilococos coagulase negativa, sendo 41 identificados como Staphylococcus epidermidis, 25 Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 18 Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 8 Staphylococcus cohnii, 4 Staphylococcus lugdunenses, 3 Staphylococcus capitis, e 1 Staphylococcus Simulans. Desses, 32% apresentaram resistência à oxacilina, 84,4% à mupirocina, 32% à cefoxitina, e todos sensíveis a vancomicina. Dos estafilococos coagulase negativa resistentes à oxacilina, 93,7% desenvolveram-se no agar oxacilina (6µg/ml e o gene mecA foi detectado em 75%. Os resultados sinalizam que maiores investimentos devem ser direcionados a identificação das espécies de estafilococos coagulase negativa nas instituições de saúde e na comunidade.Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently associated with nosocomial infections, and healthcare professionals can be reservoirs and spread them in hospitals and in the community. The aim of this study was to identify species of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from the saliva of nursing professionals, determine the resistance profile and detect the mecA gene. One hundred coagulase-negative staphylococci were selected: 41 were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, 25 as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 18 as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, eight as Staphylococcus cohnii, four as Staphylococcus lugdunenses, three as Staphylococcus capitis and one as Staphylococcus simulans. Of these, 32% presented oxacillin resistance, 84.4% mupirocin resistance and 32% cefoxitin resistance, and all were vancomycin sensitive. Among the

  14. Ocorrência de linhagens de Pseudomonas aeruginosa cloro resistentes em águas de diferentes origens - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.488 Ocurrence of chlorine resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different water sources - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.488

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    Ulrich Vasconcelos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa é conhecida por sua versatilidade metabólica e extrema capacidade de adaptação a diferentes ambientes, inclusive aquáticos. Para desinfecção de águas, o cloro e agentes que contêm cloro continuam sendo os mais usados no mundo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cloro de linhagens de P. aeruginosa, isoladas de amostras de águas de diversos ambientes. Foram testados diferentes tempos de contato (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutos e soluções aquosas de cloro, com concentrações definidas com base na legislação vigente no país para água potável: 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 ppm. O teste de resistência ao cloro foi desenvolvido por meio da exposição direta das bactérias às soluções. Os resultados revelaram que P. aeruginosa, isoladas de diferentes fontes de água, têm a habilidade de sobreviver a diferentes concentrações de cloro. Na concentração de 1 ppm, a maioria das linhagens não foi inibida. As linhagens mais resistentes ao cloro também apresentaram relação de multirresistência à maioria dos antibióticos testados.The nutritional versatility and the adaptability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to different environments, including water, are well known. Chlorine and other chlorine agents are used as water disinfecting all around the world. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible chlorine resistance amongst P. aeruginosa strains isolated from different aquatic sources by using different contact time (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes in solutions with known chlorine concentrations according current legislation in the country to potable water: 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 ppm. The chlorine resistance test was done by direct exposure of P. aeruginosa under a solution with known chlorine concentration. Results showed that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from different aquatic sources are able to survive in different chlorine concentrations. At 1 ppm, most of them were not inhibited. It was also

  15. Evaluación de cuatro métodos para la detección de Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente de muestras clínicas en un hospital regional Evaluation of four methods for detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical specimens at a regional hospital in Mexico

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    Gabriel Acosta-Pérez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar la prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente (MRSA en aislados clínicos y determinar la concordancia entre los métodos de detección de MRSA en un laboratorio con recursos y personal limitado. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 140 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus aisladas de muestras clínicas de diferentes departamentos mediante pruebas convencionales: producción de β-lactamasa, sensibilidad a oxacilina con MIC-Vitek 2-XL, ChromID MRSA, difusión en agar para discos de 30 μg de cefoxitina, detección de PBP2a y PCR para el gen mecA. Se determinó el índice kappa de Cohen, para evaluar la concordancia entre los diferentes métodos utilizados. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia encontrada fue de 90.7%. La sensibilidad y especificidad para los diferentes métodos de detección fue: difusión en disco para cefoxitina 97 y 92% respectivamente, MIC Vitek 2-XL 97 y 69%, ChromoID MRSA 97 y 85% y detección de PBP2a 98 y 100%. CONCLUSIONES: Todos los métodos son muy buenos para la detección de MRSA; la elección en el uso de cada método dependerá de la infraestructura de cada laboratorio.OBJETIVE: To estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in clinical isolates and to compare different methods for detection of MRSA in a lab with limited available personnel and resources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 140 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients in several departments were assayed for β-lactamase production, MIC-Vitek 2 oxacillin, ChromID MRSA, disk diffusion in agar for cefoxitin 30 μg and PBP2a detection. The results of conventional tests were compared with the "gold standard" PCR test for mecA gene. Cohen´s kappa index was also calculated in order to evaluate the intra assay agreement between the used methods. RESULTS: The found prevalence was 90.7%. Sensitivity and specificity were: disk diffusion for cefoxitin 97 and 92% respectively, MIC Vitek 2-XL 97 and 69%, Chromo

  16. Desempenho de populações híbridas F2 de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa com arroz transgênico (O. sativa resistente ao herbicida amonio-glufosinate Performance of F2 hybrid populations of red rice (Oryza sativa with ammonium-glufosinate-resistant transgenic rice (O. sativa

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    J.A. Noldin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O arroz-vermelho e o arroz-preto constituem-se nas principais plantas daninhas infestantes da cultura de arroz irrigado, devido à dificuldade de controle seletivo desta espécie em lavouras comerciais. A utilização de cultivares geneticamente modificados resistentes a herbicidas não-seletivos constitui uma alternativa de controle do arroz-vermelho e arroz-preto em arroz irrigado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de populações híbridas F2 originárias do cruzamento entre o arroz transgênico resistente ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio (arroz GM e o arroz-vermelho ou arroz-preto. As populações híbridas F2 resultantes do cruzamento entre o arroz transgênico e o arroz-vermelho e preto são viáveis, mas não apresentam vantagem competitiva aparente em comparação com o arroz-vermelho e arroz-preto não-hibridizado, respectivamente. Nas populações híbridas F2, as características morfológicas, como capacidade de perfilhamento, número de folhas produzidas e estatura média das plantas, foram em parte reduzidas e em parte não foram afetadas pela introgressão do gene BAR. A duração média do período entre o transplante e 50% da fase de floração aumentou nos híbridos F2 entre arroz-vermelho e arroz GM, comparado com os parentais arroz-vermelho e arroz GM. Nos híbridos com arroz-preto, observou-se o contrário: as plantas reduziram o ciclo médio em relação a este. O degrane natural médio observado nos quatro cruzamentos foi inferior ao apresentado pelos dois parentais (arroz-vermelho e arroz-preto-aspecto este também desfavorável à persistência do arroz-vermelho no ambiente. A esterilidade média de espiguetas aumentou e a produção de sementes viáveis foi inferior ou no máximo similar àquela observada no arroz-vermelho e no arroz-preto. A dormência de sementes foi pouco afetada, quando comparadas as populações híbridas F2 portadoras do gene BAR com os parentais arroz-vermelho e arroz

  17. Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirido na comunidade: um problema mundial

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    Síntia de Souza Evangelista

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: descrever a epidemiologia dos casos de CA-MRSA no Brasil de forma a compreender sua ocorrência, fatores de risco associados e formas de manejo em relação à situação mundial. Método: revisão integrativa e para seleção dos estudos utilizou-se as bases de dados: Scopus, Science direct, Isi Web of Knowledge, PUBMED e BVS. Resultados: foram identificados dez artigos nacionais que descreveram 21 casos de CA-MRSA principalmente em crianças, adolescentes e adultos com quadro de infecção de pele e tecidos moles evoluindo para infecções graves relacionados ao clone Oceania Southwest Pacific Clone (OSPC que resultaram em hospitalização. Conclusão: apesar do CA-MRSA ser considerado um micro-organismo de relevância mundial verificou-se a escassez de dados publicados sobre sua epidemiologia no Brasil, o que dificultam o delineamento da realidade do país frente ao CA-MRSA.

  18. Voces resistentes: del poder foucaultiano al cepillo benjaminiano

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    Manchado, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] El artículo propone entrecruzar, a partir de sus principales conceptos y proposiciones teóricas, a dos de los más importantes intelectuales del siglo XX: Walter Benjamin y Michel Foucault.Tanto Benjamin como Foucault propusieron pensar el orden social y, a partir de ello, elaboraron una maquinaria crítica que posibilitó definir cómo las prácticas y discursos que sofocan los cambios sociales son, al mismo tiempo, el propio dominio desde el cuál emprender una acción transformadora.En ese sentido, nuestro objetivo es, a pesar de las divergencias y distancias que reconocemos entre ambos autores, indagar aquellos discursos que nos permitan examinar sus convergencias respecto de cómo piensan la dinámica del cambio social. Para ello, reflexionamos acerca de las nociones de poder, derecho, violencia, verdad, discurso, sujeto, revolución e intelectual -entre otras- para observar de qué manera Benjamin y Foucault posibilitan pensar múltiples dimensiones de acción política transformadora en el sistema capitalista actual. [en] This article seeks to compare the main concepts and theoretical propositions of two of the most important intellectuals of the 20th century: Walter Benjamin and Michel Foucault.Both, Benjamin and Foucault, proposed to think the social order and, from there, they elaborated a critical machinery that made possible to define how the practices and discourses that suffocate social changes are, at the same time, the starting point for revolutionary action.In this regards, our aim is, in spite of the differences and distances that we recognize between both authors, to investigate those discourses that allow us to examine their convergences concerning how they think the dynamics of social change.With this purpose, we reflect about the notions of power, right, violence, truth, discourse, subject, revolution, intellectual, among others, to observe in which way Benjamin and Foucault make possible to think multiple dimensions of the revolutionary political action in the current capitalist system.

  19. Surveillance van meticilline resistente Staphylococcus aureus in Nederland in 1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenay HME; van Leeuwen WJ; van Klingeren B; Rost JA; Schot CS

    1991-01-01

    Follow-up studies on the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Dutch hospitals were continued in 1990. The number of MRSA-isolates in 1990 compared to 1989 is approximately the same. Phage-type pattern and antibiogram were determined for 168 MRSA-isolates from 42

  20. La Planta única como tipo resistente a la escala

    OpenAIRE

    Colmenares Vilata, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    El sistema capitalista ha generado dos de los modelos espaciales de indiferencia funcional más extremos: por un lado, el espacio tecnificado y repetido del edificio de oficinas en altura, encarnado por la ?planta tipo? y, por otro, el espacio diáfano y extenso del gran contendor, que responde a la lógica de lo que llamaremos ?planta única?. En los edificios construidos para la industria automovilística y bélica americana se encuentra el germen de un tipo que servirá de modelo para los nuevos ...

  1. Tratamento clínico da epilepsia resistente

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    Benito Pereira Damasceno

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 34 casos de epilepsia de difícil controle, encaminhados ao Grupo de Trabalho de Epilepsia (GTE do Instituto de Neurologia de Goiânia de 1984 a 1986. Todos eram submetidos a reavaliação neurológica. Vinte e três dos 34 pacientes tinham crises parciais complexas. A maioria foi tratada com carbamazepina, difenil-hidantoína e ácido valpróico, em forma monoterápica ou associada entre si. Obteve-se redução de mais de 80% da freqüência das crises em 22 pacientes (64,7%, além de leve melhora da qualidade de vida. Os autores concluem sobre as vantagens de uma equipe especializada, multidisciplinar, na abordagem da epilepsia rebelde e ressaltam a necessidade de: a. um correto diagnóstico das crises, seguido do uso da medicação apropriada, por tempo suficiente (mínimo de 0 meses e em dose adequada (até a dose máxima tolerável, abandonando-a só depois do controle de sua concentração sérica; b. um bom engajamento do paciente e de sua família no tratamento.

  2. Forekomst af resistente bakterier og forbrug af antibiotika til hunde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene

    2007-01-01

    ), Pasteurella multocida (n=25), Bordetella bronchiseptica (n=14), Proteus spp. (n=29), og E. coli (n=449). I undersøgelsen anvendtes data fra VetStat databasen. Størstedelen af de antibiotika, der bruges til hunde er bredspektrede. Penicilliner med udvidet spektrum, cephalosporiner samt sulphonamider...

  3. Surveillance van meticilline resistente Staphylococcus aureus in Nederland in 1991

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenay HME; van Leeuwen WJ; Schot CS; Rost JA; van Klingeren B

    1992-01-01

    The surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureaus (MRSA) in Dutch hospitals was continued in 1991. In this year 211 MRSA-isolates were received from fifty-three hospitals. Phage-pattern and antibiogram were determined for all MRSA-isolates. Sixty-six different phage-types were

  4. Bacteremias por Staphylococcus coagulase negativos oxacilina resistentes em um hospital escola na cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci bacteremia at a teaching hospital in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Fabiane Rigatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Neste estudo, objetivou-se caracterizar a prevalência e o perfil de suscetibilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase negatives resistentes à oxacilina isoladas de culturas de sangue, em um hospital escola, localizado na Cidade de Santa Maria. Além disso, buscou-se comparar ao teste genotípico de referência, diferentes metodologias fenotípicas para a caracterização da resistência mediada pelo gene mecA. MÉTODOS: Após identificação (MicroScan® - Siemens, os isolados foram submetidos a testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana a partir da difusão do disco e automação (MicroScan® - Siemens. A presença do gene mecA foi evidenciada através da técnica molecular de reação em cadeia da polimerase. RESULTADOS: A espécie prevalente foi Staphylococcus epidermidis (67%. O gene mecA foi detectado em 90% das cepas e conforme análise dos perfis de sensibilidade, observou-se um índice elevado de resistência a várias classes de antimicrobianos. Contudo, todos os isolados mostraram-se uniformemente sensíveis à vancomicina e tigeciclina. O disco de cefoxitina foi a metodologia fenotípica que melhor correlacionou-se com o padrão ouro. CONCLUSÕES: A análise da significância clínica de SCN isolados de hemoculturas e a detecção precisa da resistência à oxacilina representam fatores decisivos para a instituição correta da antibioticoterapia. Apesar da vancomicina constituir o tratamento usual na maioria dos hospitais brasileiros, tem a redução de seu emprego recomendada.INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and susceptibility profile to oxacillin-resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococci strains isolated from blood cultures in a teaching hospital, located in Santa Maria, RS. In addition, different methodologies for phenotypic characterization of mecA-mediated oxacillin resistance were compared with genotypic reference testing. METHODS: After identification (MicroScan® - Siemens, the

  5. Mortality among critically ill patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a multicenter cohort study in Colombia Mortalidad en pacientes gravemente enfermos con bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina: un estudio multicéntrico de cohortes en Colombia

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    Juan S. Castillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bacteremia emergence, its prognosis, and mortality-determining factors in critically ill patients in Colombia. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study conducted in 2005-2008 at 16 public and private reference health care institutions in Bogotá, Colombia, that form part of a national epidemiological surveillance network and a hospital network with 4 469 beds. Methicillin-resistant emergence and mortality were analyzed using descriptive and time-to-event analysis; a multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was built to test the association between methicillin resistance and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 372 patients were studied: 186 with MRSA bacteremia, randomly matched with 186 with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA bacteremia. Previous surgery, antibiotic exposure, and hospital-acquired infections were independently associated with methicillin resistance. MRSA caused longer hospital stays among survivors (median 24 versus 18 days, P = 0.014. Mortality predictors were: patient age, creatinine level over 1.21mg/dl at ICU admission, severe sepsis, and inotropic requirement. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy and antimicrobial therapy change were independent protective factors, as was male gender. CONCLUSIONS: Methicillin resistance per se was not a mortality-independent prognostic factor. Previous conditions, such as age, baseline renal impairment, severe sepsis, and inotropy demand explained the observed mortality. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy remained a protective factor. A call to improve infection control measures in Colombia is mandatory.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados con la aparición de bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (MRSA, su pronóstico y los factores determinantes de la mortalidad en pacientes gravemente enfermos en Colombia. M

  6. Análise de crescimento de biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of resistant and susceptible wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de analisar comparativamente o crescimento de três biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla - EPHHL resistentes (R (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque e Rio Pardo e um suscetível (S (Porto Alegre aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, por meio do cálculo da taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e dos índices que a compõem. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três repetições e tratamentos organizados em fatorial 2 x 4 x 4, em que o fator A correspondeu às duas estações de crescimento (outono e primavera, o fator B aos quatro biótipos de EPHHL e o fator C às quatro épocas de determinação dos índices de crescimento das plantas de leiteira - no primeiro experimento, aos 15, 25, 35 e 45, e, no segundo, aos 23, 33, 43 e 53 dias após a emergência (DAE. No experimento realizado no outono não houve interação entre época de avaliação e biótipo nem efeito simples de biótipo. No experimento realizado na primavera, a razão de peso foliar (RPF do biótipo de Não-Me-Toque foi superior em média à dos demais biótipos; a razão de área foliar (RAF foi superior no biótipo de Não-Me-Toque aos 23 e 53 DAE; e não houve diferenças da TAL e TCR entre os biótipos. Esses resultados sugerem produtividade semelhante entre os biótipos R e S e, portanto, sua equivalência competitiva.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to compare the development of three ALS inhibitor herbicides resistant (R wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque and Rio Pardo - RS - Brazil and one susceptible (S (Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil using relative growth rate (RGR and related indices. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, with three replications, in a 2 x 4 x 4 factorial, where factor A was two growth seasons (fall and spring; factor B, four biotypes of wild poinsettia

  7. Durabilidad del hormigón: Influencia de la adición de escoria a un cemento Portland resistente a los sulfates. Acción del agua de mar y de una disolución saturada de yeso

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    Gaspar-Tebar, Demetrio

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the influence of addition of different quantities of slag and compares this with the addition of fine particled silica sand. The mortar samples (1:3 of 1 x 1 x 6 cm —prepared with a sulphate-resistent portland cement, mixed with a selected slag and with silica sand were subjected to the action of artificial sea water ASTM and to a saturated plaster disolution for different periods of time (3 years for the first and 1 year for second ones. The performance of the following factors was determined: the mechanical resistence (to flexotraction, the Koch-Steinegger corrosion coefficients, the structural composition of the new solid phases formed in the cured medium and the preservation-attack. The following were also examined: the hidrated-attacked cement paste and its mixes with the slag and the silica sand taken from the mortar sample, and the variation in concentration of Ca (II and Mg (II ions. The performance in mechanical resistence of samples of mortar measuring 4 x 4 x 16 cm and of concrete measuring 10 x 10 x 40 cm were also studied in this way. These samples were made with the aforementioned cement and subjected to the action of the said disolutions for different periods of time (up till 5 years. Finally, an account is given of work which has been started on this subject at a selected area at the Autonomous Port of Huelva.

    En este artículo se estudia la influencia de la adición de distintas cantidades de escoria, comparándola con la adición de arena silícea, finamente molida, cuando las probetas de mortero (1:3 de 1 x 1 x 6 cm —preparadas con un cemento portland resistente a los sulfates, con sus mezclas con una escoria seleccionada y con la arena silícea— se someten a la acción del agua de mar artificial ASTM y de una disolución saturada de yeso durante diversos períodos de tiempo (hasta 3 años las primeras y 1 año las segundas, determinando la evolución de las resistencias mecánicas (a

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus DNA electrophoretic pattern: temporal changes in an endemic hospital environment Patrón electroforético del ADN de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina: cambios temporales en un medio hospitalario endémico

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    Gleice Cristina Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the analysis of geographical and temporal distribution of DNA profiles determined by pulsedfield gel electrophoresis (PFGE of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains isolated from hospitalized patients in a tertiary care university hospital in Brazil. METHODS: Ninetynine samples of MRSA obtained from 89 patients in the period 1999- 2004 were studied. MRSA strains were isolated from central venous catheters (33 isolates and bloodstream infections (66 strains. PFGE with 20 units of SmaI restriction endonuclease was used for genomic typing. RESULTS: Analysis of DNA PFGE of 99 strains of MRSA revealed 26 profiles and their respective related profiles. The mean time interval for detecting MRSA infection was 26 days from hospital admission. Forty-nine patients (57.6% had a recent hospitalization. The DNA PFGE MRSA profiles were distributed in three clonal groups-I, II, and III-according to the period of time when the MRSA strains were isolated. DNA PFGE MRSA profiles were spread homogeneously through all hospital wards. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the distribution of DNA PFGE MRSA profiles were largely temporal, with clonal groups being replaced over time, without predominance in any hospital ward or any specific area of the hospital.OBJETIVO: Analizar la distribución geográfica y temporal de los perfiles de ADN determinados mediante electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM aisladas de pacientes internados en un hospital universitario de atención terciaria en el Brasil. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 99 muestras de SARM obtenidas 89 de pacientes en el período 1999-2004. Las cepas de SARM se aislaron de infecciones de catéteres venosos centrales (33 aislados y del torrente sanguíneo (66 cepas. Para la tipificación genómica se empleó PFGE con 20 unidades de endonucleasa de restricción SmaI. RESULTADOS: El análisis del ADN de 99 cepas de SARM

  9. Seleção de linhagens de feijão rosinha de boa cocção, resistentes à antracnose e mancha angular Selection of pink grain common bean lines with good cooking ability, resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot

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    Diego Velásquez Faleiro e Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivares de feijoeiro com grão rosinha foram de grande importância, no passado, e ainda hoje, mesmo com a preferência pelo grão carioca, há nichos de mercado para feijões do grupo Rosinha. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi selecionar linhagens de feijoeiro comum com grão rosinha, alta produção de grãos, rápido cozimento e resistentes à antracnose e à mancha angular. A partir de cinco famílias F8 superiores, provenientes do cruzamento entre os genitores Rosinha Maria da Fé e ESAL 693, foram extraídas 143 linhagens as quais foram avaliadas na safra das águas de 2005/2006 em Lavras (MG. Dessas, manteve-se 99 linhagens que foram avaliadas em Lavras e Lambari (MG, na safra da seca de 2006. As 24 linhagens selecionadas foram novamente avaliadas nos dois locais, no inverno de 2006. Os caracteres avaliados foram produção e tipo de grão, tempo de cocção, reação à mancha angular e também, foi realizado o teste de resistência ao patótipo 65 de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Nas linhagens, observaram-se variabilidade genética para todos os caracteres avaliados, altas estimativas dos coeficientes de herdabilidade, assegurando elevados ganhos com a seleção. Foram selecionadas quatro linhagens com alta produção, tipo de grão ideal, com rápido tempo de cocção e resistência à mancha angular e à antracnose.Common bean cultivars with pink grain type used to be very important, although there is still some market spot for them. The objective of the research was to select common bean lines with pink grain, high grain yield with good cooking ability, and resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot. One hundred and forty three lines were selected from five F8 segregant families derived from the cross Rosinha Maria da Fé x ESAL 693. Those lines were evaluated in the rainy season of 2005/2006 at Lavras county, MG State. Ninety nine lines were kept and tested in the dry season of 2006 at Lavras and Lambari. The 24

  10. Evaluación de poblaciones segregantes producidas a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate cultivado y la accesión silvestre PI134418 de Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum resistente al pasador del fruto. Evaluation of segregating populations from crosses between cultivated tomato and PI134418 wild accession of Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum with resistance to the fruit borer.

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    Edwin F. Restrepo S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la evaluación de poblaciones segregantes producidas a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate S. lycopersicum L. cv. maravilla y la accesión silvestre PI134418 de S. habrochaites var. glabratum resistente al pasador del fruto N. elegantalis. Se encontró que hay dominancia de los alelos que disminuyen la expresión del caraacute;cter peso promedio de fruto. El método del retrocruzamiento resultó maacute;s eficiente que el de la autofecundación, para contrarrestar la dominancia de los alelos que codifican por el tamaño pequeño del fruto. Los tricomas y el número promedio de frutos por racimo no ejercieron ningún efecto sobre el ataque de los frutos por parte del pasador; mientras que el peso promedio de fruto sí tuvo efecto importante sobre dicho ataque, de tal manera que el insecto tiende a producir mayor daño a medida que se incrementa el peso promedio de fruto. Las poblaciones RC1 y RC2 se comportaron como las típicas segregantes para los caracteres evaluados y exhibieron amplia variabilidad en los mismos. El método del retrocruzamiento fue efectivo para romper la asociación negativa entre el peso promedio de fruto y la resistencia al insecto. El peso promedio de algunos de los frutos en los recombinantes RC2 fluctuó entre 45.1 y 68.6 g y mostraron resistencia al pasador.Evaluation of segregating populations from crosses between cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum L. cv. maravilla and PI134418 wild accession of Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum with resistance to the fruit borer N. elegantalis was made. There was dominance of alleles that decrease the expression of the character mean fruit weight. The backcrossing method was more efficient than selfing in order to counteract the dominance of alleles that encode by small fruit size. The thrichomes and the mean number of fruit per bunch did not produce any effect on the fruit attack by the fruit borer; while that mean fruit weight had important effect on this attack

  11. Estudio de parámetros hídricos foliares en trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y su uso en selección de genotipos resistentes a sequía Leaf water parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their use in the selection of drought resistant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO ORTIZ

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Los parámetros hídricos foliares ys (potencial de solutos, CRA (contenido relativo de agua y AO (ajuste osmótico permiten caracterizar la respuesta de las plantas frente al estrés hídrico e identificar aquellos genotipos mejor adaptados. Sin embargo, estos parámetros presentan una gran influencia del medioambiente lo que dificulta su análisis. En este trabajo se planteó la hipótesis de que es posible caracterizar y seleccionar genotipos resistentes a sequía en base a la evolución de los parámetros hídricos foliares en campo. Se cultivaron 31 genotipos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en dos ensayos de campo, uno regado y otro no regado que recibió sólo 218,3 mm de lluvia invernal. El diseño fue de bloques al azar con dos repeticiones. Entre los 77 y 121 días después de la emergencia (DC 41 a DC 77 se realizaron cinco muestreos de CRA y psis en hojas bandera hidratadas (psish en cada repetición de cada ensayo (con un total de 10 observaciones por ensayo. Las repeticiones se muestrearon en días alternos, con un intervalo de 24 h entre las 12:00 y las 14:00 h. A la cosecha se midió biomasa, rendimiento y componentes de rendimiento. Las observaciones de CRA y ysh fueron altamente afectadas por factores ambientales (ca. 80 % de la suma de cuadrados y no estuvieron correlacionadas entre repeticiones de un mismo ensayo. Con fines de análisis se consideró cada observación como independiente (10 observaciones de cada parámetro hídrico foliar por genotipo y se realizaron regresiones lineales del valor de cada parámetro hídrico foliar de cada genotipo sobre el promedio de todos los genotipos en el momento de muestreo. Cada genotipo se caracterizó por el valor medio del parámetro hídrico foliar y la pendiente de la regresión. Además se estimó el ajuste osmótico (AO de cada genotipo utilizando tres métodos propuestos en la literatura. Se hicieron dos selecciones de genotipos, una consideró la pendiente y el promedio de ysh

  12. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV Screening of Capsicum spp. to the deforming mosaic virus from pepper (PepDMV

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    Catherine Pardey R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.A total of 235 accessions of Capsicum sp from the gene bank of the Colombian National University campus Palmira’s were screened under controlled glasshouse conditions for their reaction to pepper deforming mosaic virus. Only 5.5 % 8139 of the accessions inoculated showed resistance to the Virus, as determined by symptom expression and serological (PTA-ELISA and RT-PCR. The resistant genotypes included varieties of C. annuum, C frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  13. Economic potential of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

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    Juan Sierra Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to highlight the economic importance of the optimal use of products and byproducts of oil palm. In Colombia, productive crops per hectare can generate, over one year, an average of 3.14 tons of oil, and up to 21.68 t of solid and liquid waste when the plant is on a productive stage. These data allowed the researcher to estimate that more than nine million of t of solid and liquid waste was produced from the 450 131 ha present in 2014, in Colombia; the produced biomass was used to generate energy and steam, releasing carbon dioxide back again into the environment. These residues have great potential in many industries, some to be developed, therefore, it is of special importance to try to maximize the use of waste produced by oil palm production, to generate economic and environmental benefits. An example of this is the palm kernel cake, with a nutritional potential in animal feed, fiber in the biocompound industry, biomass and stipe in the timber industry, glycerol, biodiesel, and liquid effluents in the chemical and biotechnological industry. The use of these raw materials may help to establish a positive balance in the cultivation of this species of oil palm in the country.

  14. Inheritance of pigmentation patterns in Talinum triangulare (Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The backcross segregated into ratio of 1 light pink: 1 white for petal and filament colours; and a ratio 1 deep pink: 1light pink for stigma colour. The segregation patterns for petal and filament colour in all the generations indicate incomplete dominance of deep pink colour over white colour showing that the same gene ...

  15. The regulation of starch accumulation in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decrease the starch level. These observations are discussed in relation to the photosynthetic characteristics of P. maximum. Keywords: accumulation; botany; carbon assimilation; co2 fixation; growth conditions; mesophyll; metabolites; nitrogen; nitrogen levels; nitrogen supply; panicum maximum; plant physiology; starch; ...

  16. Volatile constituents from Samanae saman (Jacq.) Merr. Fabaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... Key words: Samanae saman, Fabaceae, volatile oil, fatty acids, terpenoids, palmitic acid, 1,8-cineole. .... Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses (GC/MS) ... this study, is an important constituent of most vegetable.

  17. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae

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    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.

  18. In vitro antibacterial activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) root bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... There is global resurgence in the use of herbal prepa- rations and in some developing countries like Nigeria; it is being gradually integrated into the primary and secondary health care systems. Nearly all societies have used herbal materials as sources of medicines and the deve- lopment of these herbal ...

  19. Molecular markers linked to apomixis in Panicum maximum Jacq.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... The objective of this work was to identify molecular markers linked to apomixis in ... Four RAPD markers linked to apomixis were identified and mapped in this .... Data analysis. The amplification of the potential markers was analyzed as binary, with 1 for presence and 0 for absence of the marker. The binary.

  20. Kinetics of high-Level of ß-glucosidase production by a 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant of Humicola lanuginosa in submerged fermentation Cinética de produção de ß-glucosidase por um mutante de Hemicola lanuginosa resistente a 2-deoxiglucose em fermentação submersa

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    Syed Ali Imran Bokhari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant (M7 of Humicola lanuginosa was obtained by exposing conidia to γ-rays and permitting expression in broth containing 0.6% 2-deoxyglucose (DG and cellobiose (1% before plating on DG esculin-ferric ammonium citrate agar medium from which colonies showing faster and bigger blackening zones were selected. Kinetic parameters for enhanced ß-glucosidase (BGL synthesis by M7 were achieved when corncobs acted as the carbon source. The combination between corncobs and corn steep liquor was the best to support higher values of all product formation kinetic parameters. Effect of temperature on the kinetic and thermodynamic attributes of BGL production equilibrium in the wild organismand M7was studied using batch process at eight different temperatures in shake-flask studies. The best performance was found at 45ºC and 20 g L-1 corncobs in 64 h. Both growth and product formation (17.93 U mL-1 were remarkably high at 45ºC and both were coupled under optimum working conditions. Product yield of BGL from the mutant M7 (1556.5 U g-1 dry corncobs was significantly higher than the values reported on all fungal and bacterial systems. Mutation had thermo-stabilization influence on the organism and mutant required lower activation energy for growth and lower magnitudes of enthalpy and entropy for product formation than those demanded by the wild organism, other mesophilic and thermo-tolerant organisms. In the inactivation phase, the organisms needed lower values of activation energy, enthalpy and entropy for product formation equilibrium, confirming thermophilic nature of metabolic network possessed by the mutant organism.Um mutante de Hemicola lanuginosa resistente a 2-deoxiglucose(M7 foi obtido através de exposição de conídios a raios γ, permitindo a expressão em caldo contendo 0,6% de 2-deoxiglucose (DG e celobiose (1% antes da semeadura em ágar DG esculina citrato de ferro amoniacal, da qual foram selecionadas as col

  1. Resistencia química del hormigón. XXIII. Influencia de la adición de escoria a un cemento portland resistente al yeso. Estudio de la concentración iónica del sistema cemento 2/escoria-agua potable filtrada

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    Sagrera-Moreno, José Luis

    1984-06-01

    Ca (II y SO4 (II de los medios (agua potable filtrada en donde han estado sumergidas las probetas de mortero (1: 3 hechas con un cemento portland industrial resistente al yeso (cemento 2 <> P-450-Y y con las mezclas cemento 2/escoria - 85/15 - 65/35 - 40/60 y 30/70, en peso, durante el período de curado (21 días y, posteriormente, durante 56 - 90 - 180 y 360 días (períodos de conservación, en esta etapa. Así mismo, se estudia la composición química de las nuevas fases sólidas formadas en dichos medios; la composición estructural de dichas fases sólidas se determinó por DRX (calcita, en ambos periodos y, además, aragonito durante el período de conservación de las series de probetas hechas sólo con cemento 2, de ello se dio cuenta en (2. En este sistema cemento 2/escoria-agua potable filtrada se ha puesto de manifiesto que se produce un incremento del contenido de Ca (II en la disolución y en las mencionadas fases sólidas, así como del valor del pH, que dependen de la mezcla utilizada para fabricar las diversas series de probetas y del tiempo de conservación. Las cantidades de Ca (II que se encuentran en las distintas soluciones (agua potable filtrada son, normalmente, menores de 0,1 X 10-2 moles, mientras que en las nuevas fases sólidas son superiores a dicha cantidad y, por regla general, a 0,5 X 10-2moles. El ion SO4 (II no se ha detectado en las nuevas fases sólidas, habiéndose encontrado en pequeñas cantidades en las distintas fases líquidas (agua potable filtrada. El contenido de dichos iones es, normalmente, del mismo orden que el del agua potable filtrada en los medios en donde han estado sumergidas las diversas series de probetas, excepto en aquellos medios en donde han estado las probetas que tienen los mayores contenidos de escoria (60 y 70%, en peso.

  2. Acción del agua de mar sobre un cemento portland de alta resistencia inicial y sobre un cemento portland resistente a los sulfatos: influencia de la adición de escoria. Estudio de la concentración iónica

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    Gaspar-Tébar, Demetrio

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    En este trabajo se estudia la variación del pH, así como la de la concentración de los iones Ca (II, Mg (II, SO4 (II y Cl (I del agua de mar artificial (ASTM D 1141-75, en donde las probetas de mortero (1 : 3 de 1 X 1 X 6 cm fabricadas con un cemento portland industrial de alta resistencia inicial (cemento 1, con un cemento portland industrial resistente a los sulfatos (cemento 2 y con las mezclas cemento (1 ó 2/escoria = 85/15, 65/35, 40/60 y 30/70 (en peso han estado sumergidas, durante 56 - 90 - 180 y 360 días, después del período de curado (1 día en cámara húmeda y 21 días en agua potable; así mismo se estudia la evolución del contenido de Ca (II, Mg (II y SO4 (II en la nueva fase sólida formada en el agua de mar artificial mencionada en donde han estado las probetas de mortero. En el agua de mar artificial se produce un aumento de la concentración de Ca (II y del valor del pH, una disminución de las cantidades de Mg (II, SO4 (II y Cl (I, así como la formación de una nueva fase sólida, que son función de las mezclas cemento/escoria utilizadas para elaborar las probetas de mortero y del tiempo de conservación-ataque. El contenido de Ca (II, que procede del Ca(0H2 disuelto del cemento hidratado, en el agua de mar artificial responde, prácticamente, a las cantidades calculadas a partir del Ca (II correspondientes al medio (agua de mar artificial en donde han estado las probetas fabricadas con los dos cementos estudiados, sin adición de escoria. La evolución de los contenidos de Ca (II y de Mg (II en el agua de mar artificial, en donde han estado las probetas, están íntimamente ligados, de tal modo que si la concentración de uno de ellos aumenta, la del otro disminuye y viceversa. Hay un sistema cemento/escoria - agua de mar artificial, para una mezcla determinada, en donde tiene lugar el equilibrio Ca (II que pasa a la disolución ⇌ Mg (II que

  3. First evaluation in Argentina of the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay for multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection from clinical isolates and specimens Primera evaluación en Argentina de GenoType® MTBDRplus para la detección de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrogo-resistente desde aislamientos y especímenes clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén R Imperiale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB and multidrug and extensively drug-resistant (DR TB are important public health problems that are spreading worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType® MT BDRplus assay from smear-positive clinical specimens and isolates and to explore its possible application in routine work. Clinical samples were previously decontaminated using NaOH-N-acetyl-L-cystein or NaOH-ClNa hypertonic solution for Ziehl-Neelsen staining and cultures. The leftover sediments of smear-positive samples were stored at -20 ºC, 70 of which were selected to be included in this study according to their DR profile. Thirty DR Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were also assessed. Sequencing was used as gold standard to detect mutations conferring isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF resistance. Valid results were obtained in 94.0 % of the samples and 85.5 % (53/62 of the INH-R samples were properly identified. Mutations in the katGS315T gene and inhA C-15T gene promoter region were present in 59.7 % (37/62 and 25.8% (16/62 of the INH-R samples, respectively. The system could also identify 97.7 % (41/42 of the RIF-R samples; the mutations found were rpoBS531L (66.7 %, 28/42, D516V (19.0 %, 8/42, H526Y and S531P/W (4.8 %, 2/42 each one, and S522L/Q (2.4 %, 1/42. A 98.8 % concordance between the GenoType assay and sequencing was obtained. GenoType® MT BDRplus has demonstrated to be easy to implement and to perform in clinical laboratories and useful for a rapid detection of DR M. tuberculosis from decontaminated sputa and clinical isolates. Therefore, this assay could be applied as a rapid tool to predict INH-R and/or RIF-R in DR risk cases.La tuberculosis (TBC, y la TBC multi y extensivamente drogo-resistentes (DR son importantes problemas de salud pública mundial. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la sensibilidad y especificidad del sistema GenoType® MT BDRplus a partir de esputos (baciloscop

  4. Resistencia química del hormigón. XXIV. Influencia de la adición de escoria a un cemento portland resistente al yeso. Estudio de la concentración iónica del sistema cemento 2/escoria-agua de mar artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar-Tébar, Demetrio

    1984-12-01

    , the Ca (II content in the ASTM artificial sea-water is taken into account, the dissolving process of the Ca (II compounds in the cement (average values may be added. The Mg (II ion has virtually disappeared from the ASTM artificial sea-water, in which were submerged the series of mortar samples made up of cement 2 and of the mixture containing 15% slag, in weight; in these environments, it has precipitated in the form of brucite. In the other environments, it is found in various quantities, according to the mixture used in making up the samples. The greatest quantities of SO4 (II and Cl (I ions that have disappeared from the artificial sea-water correspond to the environments containing the mortar samples made up of cement 2 and the mixtures with 15% and 35% slag for the first, and 35%, 60% and 70% slag in the case of the second. In the new solid stages, SO4 (II ions have been detected in quantities of less than 0.07 X 10-2 moles.

    En el presente trabajo, continuación de otros, se estudia la evolución de la cantidad de fase sólida formada en el agua de mar artificial ASTM D 1141-75 en donde han estado sumergidas las series de probetas (1:3 hechas con un cemento portland resistente al yeso (cemento 2< > P 450-Y y con las mezclas cemento 2/escoria = 85/15, 65/35, 40/60 y 30/70, en peso, durante 56-90-180 y 360 días (períodos de conservación-ataque, en esta etapa, después del período de curado (1 día en cámara húmeda y 21 días bajo agua potable filtrada. Así mismo, se estudia la variación del pH y de la concentración de los iones Ca (II, Mg (II, SO4 (II y Cl (I de dicha agua de mar artificial ASTM, así como el contenido de los iones Ca (II, Mg (II y SO4 (II de las mencionadas fases sólidas. La composición estructural de dichas fases sólidas y de la fracción enriquecida extraída de la probetas de mortero se determinó por DRX; de ello se dio cuenta en (3. En los casos estudiados se ha

  5. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element to plants. Ethylene is an ..... 1 mM DTT, 0.1 mM Na3VO4) at room temperature for. 30 min ..... a time-dependent manner following exposure to Cu and .... copper and cadmium. .... signaling mechanisms.

  6. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHUNFENG GUAN

    Around the world water and soil are increasingly being con- taminated with cadmium (Cd) due to some anthropogenic activities, such as nickel–Cd battery ... This process in turn affects the distribution of the activity of. Ca2+-binding proteins ..... diflorum Shinn enhances its tolerance to salt and high light intensity. Mol. Breed.

  7. Evaluación microbiológica y epidemiológica de los clones de Acinetobacter baumannii resistentes a los carbapenemes aislados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos de un Hospital Universitario de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Microbiological and epidemiological evaluation of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clones isolated at an intensive care unit of a University Hospital in Buenos Aires city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Rodriguez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre junio y diciembre de 2004 se estudiaron 33 aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii resistentes a los carbapenemes, aislados de materiales clínicos de 29 pacientes internados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital de Clínicas de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. La distribución clonal de esos aislamientos fue la siguiente: clon I (n = 14, clon IV (n = 7, clon III (n = 6, clon VI (n = 3, clon II (n = 2 y clon X (n = 1.Veintiún aislamientos se recuperaron de materiales del tracto respiratorio inferior, 11 de ellos pertenecieron al clon I. Casi todos los aislamientos pertenecientes al clon III (5/6 se recuperaron de materiales no respiratorios, y todos los del clon IV se recuperaron de pacientes que no recibieron imipenem. En los aislamientos pertenecientes a los clones I y III se observó una mayor adherencia a catéteres, principalmente en los asociados con bacteriemias. La mayoría de los aislamientos de los clones I y IV sobrevivieron en materiales inertes durante un período superior a los 5 días. La totalidad de los aislamientos del clon III fueron sensibles a colistina, gentamicina y levofloxacina, mientras que los del clon I y la mayoría de los del clon IV sólo fueron sensibles a colistina y tetraciclinas.From June to December 2004, thirty-three carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates recovered from twenty nine patients at the intensive care unit in Hospital de Clínicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, were studied. The isolates were categorized by molecular methods as: clone I (n = 14, clon IV (n = 7, clone III (n = 6, clone VI (n = 3, clone II (n = 2 and clone X (n = 1. Twenty one isolates were recovered from lower respiratory tract samples, 11 of which belonged to clon I. Clone III isolates were mainly recovered from non-respiratory samples (5/6. Clone IV isolates were recovered from patients not receiving previous imipenem therapy. The majority of the isolates belonging to clones I and IV were able to

  8. Reação de acessos de pimentão e pimentas ao oídio (Oidiopsis taurica Reaction of sweet and hot pepper accesses to powdery mildew (Oidiopsis taurica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally F. Blat

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O oídio causado pelo fungo Oidiopsis taurica é uma das principais doenças no gênero Capsicum spp. Seus danos podem causar desfolha de até 75% e perdas de até 40% em produção. Seu controle através de fungicidas tem se mostrado ineficaz, sendo a resistência genética a melhor alternativa. Poucas fontes de resistência já foram identificadas em Capsicum annuum. Neste trabalho avaliou-se os acessos da coleção de Capsicum spp. do banco de germoplasma da USP/ESALQ quanto às suas reações ao oídio e identificar novas fontes de resistência. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em condições severas de ocorrência do patógeno. Durante a fase de frutificação foi feita a avaliação das reações, através de uma escala de notas, de 1 (resistente a 5 (altamente suscetível. Dos 156 acessos testados, 53 foram considerados resistentes, sendo representados por 5 acessos em C. annuum, 31 em C. baccatum e 17 em C. chinense. Dentre os acessos resistentes em C. annuum, a variedade dihaploide HV-12 mostrou-se como a mais resistente. Duas novas fontes de resistência se destacaram em C. annuum, #124 e Chilli. Esses acessos mostraram um mecanismo diferenciado de resistência, apresentando uma reação de hipersensibilidade ao patógeno. Os híbridos comerciais Reinger, Nathalie, Margarita, Magali R e Magda foram classificados como suscetíveis a altamente suscetíveis. Grande parte dos acessos resistentes de C. baccatum e C. chinense apresentaram desfolha em conseqüência do mecanismo de hipersensibilidade.Powdery mildew caused by Oidiopsis taurica is one of the major diseases of Capsicum spp., causing damage due to defoliation of up to 75% and yield losses of up to 40%. Disease control with fungicide is inefficient, genetic resistance being the best way of control. Few resistant sources have been identified in Capsicum annuum. Capsicum spp. collection accesses of USP/ESALQ germplasm bank were screened in their reaction and

  9. Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae = Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemari Pilati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas emcâmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-seque a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais comcistólitos.Celtis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná Riverfloodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root is tetrarch or diarch. Hypocotyl has secondary growth with deep-origin periderm. Epicotyl also shows secondary growth with periderm of subepidermic origin. Cotyledons and eophyll are dorsiventral leaves with cystolith.

  10. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray M. Baas-Espinola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids (CAP are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val and phenylalanine (Phe in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources′ participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids.

  11. Fast analysis of capsaicinoids in Naga Jolokia extracts (Capsicum chinense) by high-performance liquid chromatography using fused core columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipcovich, Tea; Barbero, Gerardo F; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2018-01-15

    A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with a C18 reverse-phase fused-core column has been developed for the determination and quantification of the main capsaicinoids (nornordihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin) present in Naga Jolokia peppers. A fused-core Kinetex™ C18 column (50×2.1mm i.d.; 2.6μm) was used for the analysis. The chromatographic separation was obtained with a gradient method in which the mobile phase was water (0.1% acetic acid) as solvent A and acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) as solvent B. The separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 3min with a total analysis time (sample-to-sample) of 10min. The robustness of the method was evaluated. The method showed excellent repeatability and intermediate precision expressed as coefficient of variance of less than 2%. The developed method was employed for the quantification of the major capsaicinoids present in different peppers and commercial products containing chilli peppers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterias resistentes a antibióticos en ecosistemas acuáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Barrios, Rosa Leonor; Severiche Sierra, Carlos Alberto; Jaimes Morales, José Del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this revision the subject of antibiotic resistant bacteria in aqueous ecosystems is analyzed in detail, characterizing the outlook of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. A discussion on the dissemination of antibiotics in the environment is made, studying the sources of antibiotics in aqueous ecosystems and, finally, the environmental effects of antibiotic resistant bacteria contamination are analyzed. Antibiotics are probably the most successful family of drugs ...

  13. Neurossífilis resistente a altas doses de penicilina: registro de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nitrini

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso de paciente com neurossífilis que apresentou deterioração clínica e persistência de alterações do líquido cefalorraqueano após repetidas tentativas terapêuticas com altas doses de penicilina. Tratamento com cloranfenicol resultou em estabilização do quadro clínico e melhora laboratorial.

  14. Definición e impacto de las depresiones resistentes/refractarias al tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Tamayo, Jorge M.; Rosales-Barrera, Juan I.; Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J.; Rojas-Malpica, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    El trastorno depresivo mayor (TDM) se acompaña de altas tasas de morbilidad médica, baja productividad, disminución de la esperanza de vida, altas tasas de suicidio y ha sido considerado como la primera causa de discapacidad laboral en las Américas. Por ello, la atención al paciente deprimido implica, entre otras cosas, el diagnóstico oportuno y el tratamiento adecuado del padecimiento. Aunque un número creciente de agentes antidepresivos está disponible para tratar la depresión, aproximadame...

  15. Señales entre hongos patógenos y plantas hospederas resistentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camarena Gutiérrez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos parásitos obligados obtienen sus nutrimentos de células vivas. Durante su ciclo de vida, se forman tres tipos de estructuras intracelulares (hifa de invasión, haustorio M y haustorio D y cada uno puede afectar de manera diferente la membrana de la célula huésped que le rodea, también cómo afectar otros componentes celulares. Cada estructura intracelular también previene que se disparen defensas no específicas de la planta por la actividad del hongo, posiblemente interfiriendo el sistema de señales más que la expresión de defensa.

  16. Estudo de uma cepa humana de Schistosoma mansoni resistente a agentes esquistossomicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi isolada uma cepa de Schistosoma mansoni proveniente de dois pacientes tratados com hycanthone, por duas vezes, na dose de 2,5mg/kg, i.m., em janeiro e em abril de 1970, e com niridazole (25mg/kg dia x 5 oral, em abril de 1971. O número de ovos por grama de fezes nestes pacientes antes do tratamento era de 2675 e 1025, respectivamente e, após o terceiro tratamento, em torno de 100 ovos/g. Miracídios obtidos das fezes destes pacientes, infectaram caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata, que passaram a eliminar cercárias (cepa WW. Estas foram utilizadas para infecção experimental de camundongos albinos. Os animais infectados foram tratados com esquemas múltiplos de hycanthone, niridazole e oxamniquine. Estudos comparativos das cepas WW e LE (esta última mantida rotineiramente em nossos laboratórios mostraram diferenças acentuadas quando à sensibilidade aos esquistossomicidas usados. De fato, com hycanthone, na dose de 80mg/kg, i.m. houve 100% de alteração do oograma nos camundongos infectados com a cepa L.E. e de 0,0% nos infectados com a cepa WW. Com a oxamniquine e niridazole as diferenças foram menores, mas, ainda assim, suficientes para indicar maior resistência da cepa WW a estes esquistossomicidas. Esta é a primeira vez na literatura, que se demonstra resistência em cepas de S. mansoni provenientes de pacientes tratados.There has been isolated a Schistosoma mansoni strain from two patients submitted to two courses of treatment with hycanthone (2,5mg/kg, i.m., in January and April, 1970, and to one course with niridazole (25mg/kg/day x 5, per os, in April, 1971. Before treatment, the number of eggs in the faeces of those patients was, per gram, 2,675 and 1,025, respectively; after completion of treatment, such number had come down to around 100 eggs/gram. Miracidia hatched from the patients faeces could infect Biomphalaria glabrata snails, which elimmated cercariae (WW strain that were used for experimental infection of albino mice. The infected animais were, afterwards, treated with hycanthone, niridazole and oxamniquine under various schedules. Comparative studies of WW and LE strains (the latter being routinely kept in our laboratories revealed marked differences in their sensitivity to the schistosomicides employed. Actually, after treatment with hycanthone, at the dosage of 80 mg/kg, i.m., a 100% oogram changes were observed in the intestinal wall of mice inoculated with LE strain, whereas no alterations could be detected in the mice infected with WW strain. As regards oxamniquine and niridazole the changes were smaller although still quite sufficient to indicate greater resistance of WW strain to these schistosomicides. It is worth while remembering that, in the pertaining literature, it is the first time that resistance in S. mansoni strains from treated patients has been demonstrated.

  17. Sistema de autoconstrucción sismorresistente: características resistentes y proceso constructivo

    OpenAIRE

    Orta, B.; Adell, J.; Bustamante, R.; Martínez-Cuevas, S.

    2016-01-01

    La autoconstrucción con tierra, adobe o ladrillo es muy habitual en los países en vías de desarrollo que están en zonas de alto riesgo sísmico. Ante la necesidad de dar respuesta al problema, aportando sencillez constructiva, hemos trabajado desde hace años en el empleo del Sistema de Albañilería Integral (SAI). El SAI es un sistema que, combinado con materiales autóctonos, aporta resistencia sísmica y su facilidad de ejecución lo hace adecuado para la autocons...

  18. Sistema de autoconstrucción sismorresistente: características resistentes y proceso constructivo

    OpenAIRE

    Orta, B.; Adell, J.; Bustamante, R.; Martínez-Cuevas, S.

    2016-01-01

    The dwelling construction with soil, adobe or brick without call for technical advice is very typical in countries in process of development that are in areas of high seismic risk. To give an answer to the problem of earthquake building using these materials, providing simplicity of construction, we have worked for years in the use of the Integral Masonry System (IMS). The IMS is a system that, used combined with native materials, has earthquake resistant properties and its ease of imple...

  19. Methicillin-resistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in der Veterinärmedizin : ein "New Emerging Pathogen"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walther, Birgit; Friedrich, Alexander W; Brunnberg, Leo; Wieler, Lothar H; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2006-01-01

    The problem of nosocomial infections is of increasing importance in veterinary medicine. As an example, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a typical example, as these pathogens are the most important agents of nosocomial

  20. Bekæmpelse af resistente hospitalsbakterier - mindre antibiotika og mere infektionsforebyggelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a global problem. Drug resistance may spread rapidly due to mobile resistance genes shared by many species. The selection of resistant bacteria is promoted by ever increasing human and veterinarian use of antibiotics. A new paradigm in fighting drug-resistant...... hospital bacteria is needed to stop the vicious circle of drug-resistance and bring back antibiotic susceptible bacteria. Less antibiotics and more infection control by an improved compliance with hand hygiene is the choice left to minimize the spread of hospital infections with drug resistant bacteria....

  1. Observations on the germination of three species of Citharexylum Jacq. used for ecological restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Suarez, Bibiana

    2011-01-01

    High-quality plant material is needed to allow the development of large-scale projects in ecological restoration. For this reason, three native species from the Andean forest were prioritized to study their germination: Citharexylum montanum, Citharexylum sulcatum and Citharexylum subflavescens. Pyrenes of these species were subjected to different pre-germination methods such as: scarification and hydration, hydration for 96 hours and hydration for 72 hours respectively for each species mentioned.The total percentage of germination, day of initiation of germination and mean germination time (MGT) were assessed for each species. As a result, total germination percentage was low for all species; C. subflavescens was the species that presented the highest value (41.3%). Only the treatment of scarification and hydration applied to C. montanum favored the germination percentage. The fastest time for germination initiation was 20 days for the species C. subflavescens and C. montanum. Due to the fact that the three species showed heterogeneous germination, the mean germination time (MGT) was high for all species. The observations suggest that physical scarification prior to hydration promotes both the percentage and the day of initiation of germination in Citharexylum.

  2. Metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite (elaeis guineensis jacq.) afectadas por marchitez letal

    OpenAIRE

    Pèrez, Angela Patricia; Cayòn, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    La enfermedad conocida como “marchitez letal” se presenta
    en plantaciones de la zona baja del río Upía, en palmas de siete
    años de sembradas. No se conoce el posible agente causal o
    factores que predisponen a las palmas a la enfermedad, y no se
    ha registrado hasta la fecha en otras zonas palmeras del país. Se
    analizó el metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite
    con síntomas iniciales de la enfermedad, palmas sospechosas&...

  3. Genomic selection prediction accuracy in a perennial crop: case study of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, David; Denis, Marie; Sánchez, Leopoldo; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Nouy, Bruno; Omoré, Alphonse; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Suryana, Edyana; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2015-03-01

    Genomic selection empirically appeared valuable for reciprocal recurrent selection in oil palm as it could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms, despite small populations and low marker density. Genomic selection (GS) can increase the genetic gain in plants. In perennial crops, this is expected mainly through shortened breeding cycles and increased selection intensity, which requires sufficient GS accuracy in selection candidates, despite often small training populations. Our objective was to obtain the first empirical estimate of GS accuracy in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), the major world oil crop. We used two parental populations involved in conventional reciprocal recurrent selection (Deli and Group B) with 131 individuals each, genotyped with 265 SSR. We estimated within-population GS accuracies when predicting breeding values of non-progeny-tested individuals for eight yield traits. We used three methods to sample training sets and five statistical methods to estimate genomic breeding values. The results showed that GS could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms in Group B but only for family effects in Deli. Presumably, this difference between populations originated from their contrasting breeding history. The GS accuracy ranged from -0.41 to 0.94 and was positively correlated with the relationship between training and test sets. Training sets optimized with the so-called CDmean criterion gave the highest accuracies, ranging from 0.49 (pulp to fruit ratio in Group B) to 0.94 (fruit weight in Group B). The statistical methods did not affect the accuracy. Finally, Group B could be preselected for progeny tests by applying GS to key yield traits, therefore increasing the selection intensity. Our results should be valuable for breeding programs with small populations, long breeding cycles, or reduced effective size.

  4. Evaluation of methods and marker Systems in Genomic Selection of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Qi Bin; Teh, Chee Keng; Ong, Ai Ling; Chew, Fook Tim; Mayes, Sean; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Tammi, Martti; Yeoh, Suat Hui; Appleton, David Ross; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2017-12-11

    Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide markers as an attempt to accelerate genetic gain in breeding programs of both animals and plants. This approach is particularly useful for perennial crops such as oil palm, which have long breeding cycles, and for which the optimal method for GS is still under debate. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different marker systems and modeling methods for implementing GS in an introgressed dura family derived from a Deli dura x Nigerian dura (Deli x Nigerian) with 112 individuals. This family is an important breeding source for developing new mother palms for superior oil yield and bunch characters. The traits of interest selected for this study were fruit-to-bunch (F/B), shell-to-fruit (S/F), kernel-to-fruit (K/F), mesocarp-to-fruit (M/F), oil per palm (O/P) and oil-to-dry mesocarp (O/DM). The marker systems evaluated were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RR-BLUP, Bayesian A, B, Cπ, LASSO, Ridge Regression and two machine learning methods (SVM and Random Forest) were used to evaluate GS accuracy of the traits. The kinship coefficient between individuals in this family ranged from 0.35 to 0.62. S/F and O/DM had the highest genomic heritability, whereas F/B and O/P had the lowest. The accuracies using 135 SSRs were low, with accuracies of the traits around 0.20. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.24, as compared to 0.20 achieved by other methods. The trait with the highest mean accuracy was F/B (0.28), while the lowest were both M/F and O/P (0.18). By using whole genomic SNPs, the accuracies for all traits, especially for O/DM (0.43), S/F (0.39) and M/F (0.30) were improved. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.32, compared to 0.31 achieved by other methods. Due to high genomic resolution, the use of whole-genome SNPs improved the efficiency of GS dramatically for oil palm and is recommended for dura breeding programs. Machine learning slightly outperformed other methods, but required parameters optimization for GS implementation.

  5. [Comparative study on the erect and fallen types of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) DC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Tang, X; Li, Z; Xiao, P

    1997-03-01

    Based on botanica characters, phenophase, yield and content of active constituents, the erect and fallen types of platycodon grandiflorum were compared. The results show that the comprehensive characters of erect type are better than those of fallen type and the erect type is therefore good for popularization. Some specific characters of the fallen type are better than those of the erect type, and the fallen type is therefore to be preserved as one of the germ plasm resources.

  6. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  7. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) ...

  8. Radical activity evaluation in African Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) using phosphorous - 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    Low lands, wet and tropical, its are producing potential of oil palm, since this plant is notoriously bearable to poor soils in nutrients. Oil palm cultivation is relatively new at Colombia, commercial sowings date hardly of 1950s and in spite of this, tenacity and futuristic vision of some entrepreneurs have permitted that this activity, in few existence years, may have had a growing dynamics and strengthening of agricultural sector. The objective of this Thesis, it's to evaluate field conditions of radical activity, making an analysis in utilization efficiency of monoammonium phosphate labeled with 32P that was produced at INEA (today Ingeominas) with an activity of 1mCi/gram. Furthermore, its are intended to define differences of absorption in 1,9 and 17 leaves continuing the palm leaves phyto taxis, with the objective to determine the number of leaf for foliate analysis. The work was carried out in a 6-year-old age cultivation belonging to Uni palma company, located at Cumaral Municipality (Meta Department), situated to 500 meters on sea level, being a representative batch of African palm cultivation at Colombia's Eastern Plains. Soil is classified as Oxi sol, with ph of 4.5 and with high iron and aluminum indices. It was used the Isotopic Tracers methodology, the one which was highly effective, inasmuch as was determined that greater radical activity is found 2.5 meters of plant foot, with a percentage absorption average of 60.8 with respect to other treatments. Due to fact that were not found differences in phosphorus absorption between leaves 1,9 and 17, is recommended for foliate analysis to make use of any number of leaf. Efficiency of use of monoammonium phosphate was decreased (2.0710), something which makes necessary to promote tending studies to improve its behavior, more yet taking into account high cost of fertilizers and environmental pollution risks

  9. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive saponin from mahogany seed (Swietenia mahogany Jacq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziiroh, E.; Harijono; Kamilia, K.

    2018-03-01

    Mahogany is frequently used for medicines for cancer, tumor, and diabetes, as it contains saponin and flavonoid. Saponin is a complex glycosydic compound consisted of triterpenoids or steroids. Saponin can be extracted from a plant by using a solvent extraction. Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) is a non-conventional extraction method that use micro waves in the process. This research was conducted by a Complete Random Design with two factors which were extraction time (120, 150, and 180 seconds) and solvent ratio (10:1, 15:1, and 20:1 v/w). The best treatment of MAE were the solvent ratio 15:1 (v/w) for 180 seconds. The best treatment resulting crude saponin extract yield of 41.46%, containing 11.53% total saponins, and 49.17% of antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, the treatment of maceration method were the solvent ratio 20:1 (v/w) for 48 hours resulting 39.86% yield of saponin crude extract, 9.26% total saponins and 56.23% of antioxidant activity. The results showed MAE was more efficient (less time of extraction and solvent amount) than maceration method.

  10. Germination and Seedling Development of Seeds from Different Parkia biglobosa (Jacq G. Don Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana O. ADEYEMI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daylight, continuous illumination and acid scarification on the seed germination and seedling vegetative growth (epicotyl and hypocotyl lengths, and number of secondary roots of different Parkia biglobosawere investigated in the Plant Physiology Laboratory University of Ilorin, Ilorin Kwara State Nigeria. Seeds from two out of the twenty six Parkia tree samples (trees B and T germinated within 24 hours of planting in the daylight germination study while seeds from another tree (Q did not germinate until the third week after planting (3WAP. Some seeds have higher germination percentage both in the daylight (preliminary germination study and in the continuous light (illuminated study. The treatment with concentrated Sulphric acid (conc. H2SO4was effective in breaking the seed dormancy as seeds from eight (8 trees produced one hundred percent (100% germination. At p= 0.05 the length of epicotyl and hypocoty1 lengths were significantly different as seedling vegetative growth were long in the seedlings from the daylight experiment than the continuous light experiment. The vegetative growths of the seedlings from the scarified seed were longer at 15min of scarification in all except in trees F and Z. It was observed that the time of scarification affect the both seed germination and seedling development.

  11. Natural (13) C distribution in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and consequences for allocation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Darlan, Nuzul Hijri; Rodrigues, Rosario Lobato; Fresneau, Chantal; Mauve, Caroline; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Sketriené, Diana; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm has now become one of the most important crops, palm oil representing nearly 25% of global plant oil consumption. Many studies have thus addressed oil palm ecophysiology and photosynthesis-based models of carbon allocation have been used. However, there is a lack of experimental data on carbon fixation and redistribution within palm trees, and important C-sinks have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we carried out extensive measurement of natural (13) C-abundance (δ(13) C) in oil palm tissues, including fruits at different maturation stages. We find a (13) C-enrichment in heterotrophic organs compared to mature leaves, with roots being the most (13) C-enriched. The δ(13) C in fruits decreased during maturation, reflecting the accumulation in (13) C-depleted lipids. We further used observed δ(13) C values to compute plausible carbon fluxes using a steady-state model of (13) C-distribution including metabolic isotope effects ((12) v/(13) v). The results suggest that fruits represent a major respiratory loss (≈39% of total tree respiration) and that sink organs such as fruits are fed by sucrose from leaves. That is, glucose appears to be a quantitatively important compound in palm tissues, but computations indicate that it is involved in dynamic starch metabolism rather that C-exchange between organs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chemical composition, in vitro gas production and astringency in the foliage of Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merrill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Barroso, J.A.; Obispo, N.; Gil, J.L.; Cegarra, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the chemical composition, astringency, in vitro gas production and ruminal degradability of the edible fraction of Samanea saman, during 2009, five samplings (February, April, May, June and October) were conducted on plants located in a semideciduous tropical forest in Venezuela. In each sampling 10 different plants were considered, each as a replicate evaluated in a completely randomized design. OM (94,1 ± 1,5%), CP (20,1 ± 1,5%), hemicellulose (17,5 ± 3,7%), cellulose (10,5 ± 2,5%), lignin (11,1 ± 1,8%), and total phenols (2,8 ± 1,1%) did not show variations (P<0,05). From May to October, the highest values (P<0,05) of EE (5,3 ± 0,8%), NDF (44,8 ± 3,3%), ADF (16,7 ± 1,9%), and Ca (1,3 ± 0,2%) were observed; while total (P<0,05) and condensed tannins (P<0,01) increased in October (3,75% and 0,99%, respectively). Astringency was not detected from February to May, and had limited values from June to October (0,4 ± 0,2 g Eta/100 g DM). No differences were observed in b (0,04 ± 0,01 mL/h), To (1,2 ± 0,2 h) and T½ (21,3 ± 3,3 h) with the highest gas potential production in February (63,3 mL/g DM). The OM and NDF degradability was reduced (P<0,05) in April (44,7% and 24,7%, respectively), without differences during the remaining months (51,2 ± 3,4% and 37,7 ± 3,3%, respectively). The edible biomass of S. saman could be used as a nutrient source in silvopastoral systems, with a low condensed tannin content of low biological activity, which causes a positive impact on the non-ammonia nitrogen flow from the rumen. (author)

  13. Induction and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. pro-embryogenic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLUCIA S. PADUA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oil palm is one of the most economically valuable oil seed plants, but the expansion of plantations has been limited by availability of seedlings, as the conventional propagation is through seeds, which have low germination rates. One possible solution for the large-scale production is the use of somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects auxins 2,4-D and picloram on the induction of pro-embryogenic masses in E.guineenesis hybrid leaf explants and characterize, regarding embryogenic characteristics, with cytochemical and ultrastructural analisys. Specifically, in vitro plantlets leaves fragments were inoculated in Y3 culture medium supplemented by 2.4-D or picloram at different concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 mg l–1. After 90 days the presence/ absence of cell masses were evaluated. Both growth regulators efficiently induced cellular masses regardless of the concentrations applied. As the cell masses were not homogeneously formed, they were classified according to color and shape into four types: TYPE 1 - elongated and translucent, TYPE 2 – uneven and translucent, TYPE 3 - globular and beige TYPE 4 – globular and white. Based on the anatomical and ultrastructural features, TYPE 2, 3 and 4 cell masses were considered to have the highest embryogenic potential and therefore may be most suited to large-scale vegetative propagation of oil palm.

  14. In vitro ROOTING OF TENERA HYBRID OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PLANTS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlúcia Souza Souza Pádua

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oil palm is a woody monocot of economic importance due to high oil production from its fruits. Currently, the conventional method most used to propagate oil palm is seed germination, but success is limited by long time requirements and low germination percentage. An alternative for large-scale propagation of oil palm is the biotechnological technique of somatic embryogenesis. The rooting of plants germinated from somatic embryos is a difficult step, yet it is of great importance for later acclimatization and success in propagation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the auxins indole acetic acid (IAA and indole butyric acid (IBA on the rooting of somatic embryos of Tenera hybrid oil palm. Plants obtained by somatic embryogenesis were inoculated in modified MS medium with 10% sucrose and 0.6% agar and supplemented with IAA or IBA at concentrations of 5 µM, 10 µM, and 15 µM, and the absence of growth regulators. After 120 days, the presence of roots, root type, length of the longest root, number of roots, number of leaves, and shoot length were analyzed. Growth regulators were favorable to rooting; plants cultivated with IBA growth regulator at 15 µM showed higher rooting percentage (87% and better results for the parameters of number of roots (1.33 and shoot length (9.83.

  15. Optimasi Dosis Pupuk Dolomit pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. Belum Menghasilkan Umur Satu Tahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sudradjat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kelapa sawit merupakan komoditi perkebunan utama karena sebagai sumber devisa negara dan menyediakan lapangan kerja. Indonesia adalah negara produsen terbesar kelapa sawit di dunia dengan luas areal mencapai 10.1 juta hektar. Peningkatan produktivitas dicapai dengan intensifikasi antara lain dengan melakukan rasionalisasi pemupkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis optimum pupuk dolomit pada tanaman kelapa sawit belum menghasilkan umur satu tahun. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kebun Pendidikan dan Penelitian Kelapa Sawit IPB-Cargill, Jonggol, Bogor dari bulan Maret 2013 sampai Maret 2014. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Faktorial Tunggal,  dosis pupuk dolomit,  yang disusun dalam lingkungan Acak Kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis pupuk dolomit yang diuji  terdiri atas 0, 200, 400, dan 600 g tanaman-1 tahun-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pupuk dolomit meningkatkan secara nyata terhadap peubah tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, jumlah daun, dan kandungan khlorofil daun, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap kandungan Mg dalam jaringan daun. Berdasarkan tanggap peubah tinggi tanaman, dosis optimum pupuk dolomit untuk tanaman kelapa sawit pada umur satu tahun adalah 306.4 g dolomit tanaman-1tahun -1. Kata kunci: dolomit, dosis optimum, kelapa sawit, respons fisiologi, respons morfologi.

  16. Selection of full-sib families of Panicum maximum Jacq under low light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Mochi Victor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silvopastoral system is a viable technological alternative to extensive cattle grazing, however, for it to be successful, forage grass genotypes adapted to reduced light need to be identified. The objective of this study was to select progenies of Panicum maximum tolerant to low light conditions for use in breeding programs and to study the genetic control and performance of some traits associated with shade tolerance. Six full-sib progenies were evaluated in full sun, 50% and 70% of light reduction in pots and subjected to cuttings. Progeny genotypic values ​​(GV increased with light reduction in relation to plant height (H and specific leaf area (SLA. The traits total dry mass accumulation (DM and leaf dry mass accumulation (LDM had GV higher in 50% shade and intermediate in 70% shade. The GV of tiller number (TIL and root dry mass accumulation (RDM decreased with light reduction. The highest positive correlations were obtained for the traits H and RDM with SLA and DM; the highest negative correlations were between TIL and SLA and RDM, and H and LDM. The progenies showed higher tolerance to 50% light reduction and, among them, two stood out and will be used in breeding programs. It was also found that it is not necessary to evaluate some traits under all light conditions. All traits had high broad sense heritability and high genotypic correlation between progenies in all light intensities. There is genetic difference among the progenies regarding the response to different light intensities, which will allow selection for shade tolerance

  17. Micropropagación de chayote (sechium edule jacq. Sw. a partir de brotes vegetativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Abdelnour

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El chayote (Sechium edule es una importante fuente de divisas para los países exportadores, entre los que Costa Rica mantiene el liderazgo mundial. Entre los factores más limitantes para su producci ón se encuentra el material de siembra, tradicionalmente la semilla, que por su naturaleza no permite la obtención de una producción morfológicamente homogénea de frutos (color, forma y textura de la epidermis motivo de los altos porcentajes de rechazo en las plantas empacadoras. El establecimiento de una metodología de propagación vegetativa de la especie ayudaría a resolver los problemas de heterogeneidad. Por lo anterior, la presente investigación se dirigió a desarrollar un método de micropropagación a partir de brotes vegetativos. Se evaluó el efecto de varios desinfectantes y concentraciones de reguladores de crecimiento en las etapas de establecimiento, multiplicación y enraizamiento de dos cultivares comerciales. Se observó que una desinfección con hipoclorito de calcio al 4% permitió el mayor porcentaje de explantes establecidos asépticamente bajo condiciones in vitro (49%. También se observó que durante las etapas posteriores de la micropropagación, los requerimientos de reguladores de crecimiento fueron muy bajos (0,1 mgL-1 de BA en la etapa de brotación de yemas y de 0,1 a 0,2 mgL-1 de AIB durante el enraizamiento o no se requirieron (etapa de multiplicaci ón de microestacas.

  18. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1, 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2, scopoletin (3, α-amyrin (4, phytol (5, and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6. The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans, Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1–6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC50 value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC50 of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

  19. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot

  20. Spatial undergrowth species composition in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Germer, Jörn Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The area planted to oil palm expanded during the last decades substantially, making it become the world's second most important oil crop. Despite its economic significance the oil palm remains remarkably unknown. Little attention is paid also to the oil palm undergrowth, though important in stabilizing the agro-ecosystem in plantations. Comprehensive knowledge of undergrowth species adapted to specific ecological niches in oil palm plantations is essential to investigate their function in ...

  1. Metabolism of carbohydrates in oil palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) affected by lethal wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez C, Ángela Patricia; Cayón S, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    La enfermedad conocida como "marchitez letal" se presenta en plantaciones de la zona baja del río Upía, en palmas de siete años de sembradas. No se conoce el posible agente causal o factores que predisponen a las palmas a la enfermedad, y no se ha registrado hasta la fecha en otras zonas palmeras del país. Se analizó el metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite con síntomas iniciales de la enfermedad, palmas sospechosas de presentar la enfermedad y palmas sanas dentro y fuera de un foc...

  2. Reproductive Strategy of the Polyploid Species Varronia curassavica Jacq. in Restinga Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeltgebaum, Marcia Patricia; Londoño, Diana Marcela Morales; Lando, Ana Paula; Dos Reis, Maurício Sedrez

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the breeding strategies of Varronia curassavica, an important medicinal species associated with Brazilian restinga. This was accomplished by combining phenological and genetic data. Every 2 weeks over a period of 2 years, we measured flowering and fruiting phenology to evaluate the activity and intensity of phenophases (n = 60). We evaluated the mating system, pollen ovule ratio and genotypes from progeny and mother plants using 8 nuclear microsatellite loci. We observed flowering and fruiting of V. curassavica at low intensity throughout the entire year, but with 2 distinct peaks, one of which was seasonal, corresponding to the period of gradual increase of temperature and photoperiod. Overlapping of flowering and fruiting strategies favors gene flow among different groups of individuals and between populations by attraction of fauna throughout the year. Analysis of the mating system indicates that V. curassavica is a typical outcrossed species (t^ = 0.98; pollen/ovule ratio = 7087.50). Combining phenology with genetic studies improved our understanding of the reproductive strategies of this species. The typical outcrossing system of V. curassavica reflects the existence of functional self-incompatibility mechanisms still unaffected by changes in genetic balance by polyploidy. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Rooting in vitro of zygotic embryos of Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd ex Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fiori Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrocomia aculeata is a potential specie for the energy industry, however, the latency in its seeds delay germination, affecting performance. The experiment was performed in the Biology Laboratory of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of the National University of Asunción; the objective was to establish a protocol for zygotic embryogenesis and rooting of this species. A completely randomized design was used, applying Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test with 5% error probability, subject to verification of assumptions of distribution The treatments consisted of MS medium (Murashige and Skoog supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP of 1, 2 and 4 ppm, MS medium with 2 g/L of active carbon (AC and simple MS mediums. 45 zygotic embryos were initially cultivated on MS medium supplemented with 2 g/L of AC and exposed to initial darkness for 20 days, then subcultured in the mentioned treatments. Root length was the measured variable, assessed in two periods of 20 days. There was no significant effects in the treatments with BAP, the CA suppressed explants oxidation; whereas the best results showed treatments 1 (MS + 1 ppm BAP and 4 (MS + CA 2g/L with 6 and 5 cm of root length respectively, after 40 incubation days.

  4. Evaluation Of The Radical Activity In African Palm (Elaeis Guineensis JACQ) Using Match-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado R, Conrado G.

    1995-01-01

    The low, humid and tropical lands, are potential producers of palm of oil, since this plant is notoriously tolerant to the poor floors in nutritious. The palm of oil cultivation is relatively new, commercial seeding hardly dates of 1950 and in spite of this, the futurist vision of some managers they have allowed that this activity, in few years of existence, have had a growing dynamics of the agricultural sector. The objective of this study, was to evaluate under field conditions the radical activity, making an analysis in the efficiency of use of the mono-ammonic phosphate with 32P that it took place in the INEA with a lmCi/gram activity. it is Also to determine the differences of absorption in the leaves 1,9 and 17 following the phylotaxia of the palm leaves, in order to determine the leaf number for the analysis to foliate. The work was carried out in a 6 year-old cultivation belonging to the company Unipalma, located in the municipality of Cumaral, department of the goal, located to 500 msnm, being a representative lot where African palm is cultivated in the oriental plains. I am accustomed to classified as an Oxi sol, with pH of 4.5 and with high iron contents and aluminum. In this work the methodology isotopic was used of tracer. The study checked that the methodology was highly effective, since it was determined that the biggest radical activity is 2.5 m of the foot of the plant, with a percentage average of absorption of 60.8 with regard to the other treatments. Because they were not differences in match absorption among the leaves 1, 9 and 17, it is recommended for the analysis to foliate to make use of the any leaf number. As for the efficiency of use of the mono-ammonic phosphate it was low (2.0710), it becomes necessary to promote studies tendentious to improve their behavior, stiller keeping in mind the high cost of the fertilizers and the risks of ecological contamination

  5. Incidence, progression and intensity of Bud Rot in Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in San Lorenzo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rivas Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BUD rot (BR is the most serious disease of oil palm in Latin America; in Equator has caused more than 150 million USD of losses. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence, progression and disease intensity of BR in E. guineensis. Incidence and disease progression was determined from data of oil palm enterprises: Palesema, PDA, Palpailón, Energy & Palma y Alespalma during 2006-2013. Disease intensity was determined at 2013. Incidence was 66.75 % and disease intensity was 46 %. Based on projections of accumulative incidence a polynomial equation was built that predicted 78.30 % of cumulative incidence for 2014, indicating exponential growth of BR from 2009 to 2013. Magnitude of damages based on incidence, disease progression and infection index indicated the occurrence of a lethal form of BR in San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas, Equator.

  6. Genotype selection of Pouteria sapota (Jacq. H.E. Moore & Stearn, under a multivariate framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Mercuri Pinto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The pouteria sapota, also popularly known as sapote or mamey sapote, is a fruit tree of sapotaceae family originally from the tropical region of Central America with a great importance due to the almost complete utilization of the tree (fruit, seeds and wood by industries. Thus, the study of its features becomes indispensable for selecting the most promising genotypes to increase the profitability of its production. In this study, it was used a dataset of 63 sapote trees placed in the botanical garden of Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE, located in Turrialba, Costa Rica. 17 quantitative characteristics were measured from trees, in order to evaluate the yield potential through the application of two multivariate statistical techniques: factor analysis (FA and cluster analysis (CA. Firstly, the FA was performed and the 17 initial characteristics were reduced to four common factors that might describe particular characteristics like “fruit”, “seed”, “wood” and “leaf”. Thereafter, a CA was performed, with scores of FA, allowing the formation of five groups of trees with different traits. This methodology revealed the most promising trees in the economic point of view for every industry that uses the tree as raw material.

  7. Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis and Microbial Inhibitory Activities of Pacific Rain Tree (Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr. Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kennard S. Jacob

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crop diseases and human health are always at stake and the emerging problem on the use of synthetic anti-pathogens and medicine is one of the most difficult to combat. The first step towards determining such capabilities among plants is to determine their phytochemicals. Methods: Eight preliminary phytochemical tests was done on Samanea saman which includes, test for alkaloids saponins, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and resins. Powdered pods were subjected to ethanol and aqueous extraction. Extracts were also tested for its antifungal and anti-microbial properties against Fusarium oxysporum, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Results: Out of the eight phytochemical tests done, seven (7 were found to be present both on the ethanol and aqueous extracts namely, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and resins. However, flavonoids is absent. The statistical results exhibited that there is a significant difference on the inhibitory effects against in-vitro bioassay of Fusarium oxysporum which is known to cause crop wilts and the two bacterial pathogens E. coli and S. aureus. Conclusions: The presence of such phytochemicals in Samanea saman pods revealed that it can be a basis of new, natural and non-synthetic treatments. This finding suggests that its pods can be used as antibacterial and antifungal source.

  8. Aspectos Estruturais e Fitoquímicos de partes vegetativas de Costus spicatus (Jacq. Sw. (Costaceae

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    L.S. Paes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As folhas de Costus spicatus são amplamente empregadas na medicina popular para o tratamento de várias doenças entre elas: malária, hepatite e doença do aparelho urinário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar aspectos da anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos (folhas, caules, raízes e rizomas associados à triagem fitoquímica visando contribuir com informações relevantes para o desenvolvimento de estudos taxonômicos e farmacológicos. A análise anatômica por meio da microscopia óptica e de varredura evidenciou folha anfi-hipoestomática, com estômatos e tricomas tectores filamentosos simples. O mesofilo é constituído por parênquima clorofiliano, que se divide em duas regiões intercaladas por cordão de fibras e feixes vasculares. O caule é do tipo atactostélico como no rizoma. A raiz é poliarca. Os testes histoquímicos indicaram a presença de amido, proteínas estruturais, alcaloides, cristais de oxalato de cálcio. A prospecção química com extratos hidroalcoólico e aquoso constatou a presença de saponinas, taninos, alcaloides, compostos fenólicos e heterosídeos cianogênicos.

  9. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

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    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this study was 16 species belongs to six families.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq. grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture

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    Thiago José de Souza Barboza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time.

  11. Involvement of metabolites in early defense mechanism of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) against Ganoderma disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusaibah, S A; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Idris, A S; Sariah, M; Mohamad Pauzi, Z

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of interaction between the oil palm and its key pathogen, Ganoderma spp. is crucial as the disease caused by this fungal pathogen leads to a major loss of revenue in leading palm oil producing countries in Southeast Asia. Here in this study, we assess the morphological and biochemical changes in Ganoderma disease infected oil palm seedling roots in both resistant and susceptible progenies. Rubber woodblocks fully colonized by G. boninense were applied as a source of inoculum to artificially infect the roots of resistant and susceptible oil palm progenies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure an array of plant metabolites in 100 resistant and susceptible oil palm seedling roots treated with pathogenic Ganoderma boninense fungus. Statistical effects, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify key-Ganoderma disease associated metabolic agitations in both resistant and susceptible oil palm root tissues. Ganoderma disease related defense shifts were characterized based on (i) increased antifungal activity in crude extracts, (ii) increased lipid levels, beta- and gamma-sitosterol particularly in the resistant progeny, (iii) detection of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, benzo [h] quinoline, pyridine, pyrimidine (iv) elevation in antioxidants, alpha- and beta-tocopherol (iv) degraded cortical cell wall layers, possibly resulting from fungal hydrolytic enzyme activity needed for initial penetration. The present study suggested that plant metabolites mainly lipids and heterocyclic aromatic organic metabolites could be potentially involved in early oil palm defense mechanism against G. boninense infection, which may also highlight biomarkers for disease detection, treatment, development of resistant variety and monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. afectadas por marchitez letal

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    Pèrez Angela Patricia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad conocida como “marchitez letal” se presenta
    en plantaciones de la zona baja del río Upía, en palmas de siete
    años de sembradas. No se conoce el posible agente causal o
    factores que predisponen a las palmas a la enfermedad, y no se
    ha registrado hasta la fecha en otras zonas palmeras del país. Se
    analizó el metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite
    con síntomas iniciales de la enfermedad, palmas sospechosas
    de presentar la enfermedad y palmas sanas dentro y fuera de
    un foco. Se tomaron muestras de hojas, raíces y estípite para
    determinar las concentraciones de almidón, azúcares reductores,
    no reductores y totales. La concentración de azúcares
    reductores tuvo un incremento en las palmas con síntomas
    iniciales y sospechosos; los azúcares totales presentaron mayor
    concentración en las palmas sospechosas de tener la enfermedad
    con respecto a las palmas con síntomas iniciales. Los azúcares
    no reductores en los diferentes órganos evaluados tuvieron
    una concentración muy baja. Los resultados observados en la
    alteración del metabolismo de los carbohidratos en las palmas
    enfermas probablemente sugieren que los fitoplasmas estén
    asociados a la enfermedad.

  13. HONGOS CAUSANTES DE ENFERMEDADES POSTCOSECHA EN CHAYOTE (Sechium edule (Jacq. SW. Y SU CONTROL IN VITRO

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    Siul D. Romero-Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  14. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils containing gasoline using Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) in greenhouse pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoory, Asia Fadhile; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Anuar, Nurina

    2017-05-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the phytotoxic effects on the plant Ludwigia octovalvis in order to assess its applicability for phytoremediation gasoline-contaminated soils. Using plants to degrade hydrocarbons is a challenging task. In this study, different spiked concentrations of hydrocarbons in soil (1, 2, and 3 g/kg) were tested. The results showed that the mean efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal over a 72-day culture period was rather high. The maximum removal of 79.8 % occurred for the 2 g/kg concentration, while the removal rate by the corresponding unplanted controls was only (48.6 %). The impact of gasoline on plants included visual symptoms of stress, yellowing, growth reduction, and perturbations in the developmental parameters. The dry weight and wet weight of the plant slightly increased upon exposure to gasoline until day 42. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated change to the root and stem structure in plant tissue due to the direct attachment with gasoline contaminated compared to the control sample. The population of living microorganisms in the contaminated soil was found to be able to adapt to different gasoline concentrations. The results showed that L. octovalvis and rhizobacteria in gasoline-contaminated soil have the potential to degrade organic pollutants.

  15. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo da erva-baleeira (Varronia curassavica Jacq.

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    D. S. BRANDÃO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo é fundamental para a conservação e manejo de uma espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fenologia da floração, a antese, registrar os insetos visitantes no período de floração, determinar as características morfométricas das flores e o sistema reprodutivo da erva-baleeira, em um ambiente de Cerrado do Norte de Minas Gerais. Entre maio a dezembro de 2012 foi caracterizado o comportamento fenológico da floração. Na análise da fenologia floral foi determinado: o crescimento da inflorescência, o número de flores e frutos por inflorescências. Utilizou-se seis acessos que tiveram dez inflorescências marcadas em cada acesso, totalizando 60 inflorescências. A antese foi determinada utilizando quatro inflorescências em duas plantas. Os visitantes florais foram observados in loco e capturados em três dias consecutivos de coleta. As características morfométricas foram determinadas com paquímetro utilizando 20 flores, sendo cinco flores de quatro acessos. Para determinar o sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, utilizando 50 flores, sendo 10 flores de cinco acessos em pré-antese. Nas condições de Montes Claros, o crescimento das inflorescências de erva-baleeira ocorreu entre meados de agosto e início de outubro, totalizando 45 dias. O florescimento foi observado entre meados de setembro e final de outubro, enquanto a frutificação ocorreu de meados de outubro a início de dezembro, sendo que ambos ocorreram de forma irregular. A antese floral de erva-baleeira, neste estudo, ocorre entre 7:00 e 11:00 horas. Os insetos visitantes pertencem as ordens Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera e Hymenoptera. As flores apresentaram o diâmetro de 2,13 ± 0,05 (mm, o comprimento de 3,29 ± 0,08 (mm, diâmetro do ovário de 0,70 ± 0,02 (mm, o comprimento do ovário de 2,48 ± 0,12 (mm, o diâmetro da antera de 0,67 ± 0,01(mm e o comprimento da antera de 0,93 ±0,02 (mm, quatro óvulos e cinco anteras por flor. A razão P:O foi de 576,542, indicando que a espécie é alógama facultativa.

  16. Kajian Penyebaran Kumbang Tanduk (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) Pada Areal Pertanaman Kelapa Sawit(Elais guinensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Robbin Gafur

    2011-01-01

    Robbin gafur siregar, Study of Spreading of Oryctes rhinoceros beetle on Palm Oil Plantations, with the conseling prof. Dr. Ir. Darma Bakti and Ir. Marheni, MP. Spreading of Oryctes rhinoceros is influenced by environment factor. Research aimed to know the spreading of Oryctes rhinoceros on palm oil.This research was held in Afdeling VII, Kebun Rambutan PTPN III Tebing Tinggi, since Juli to September 2010. The research by using Linier regration to find spreading influence with environment fa...

  17. AISLADOS BACTERIANOS CON POTENCIAL BIOFERTILIZANTE PARA PLÁNTULAS DE TOMATE

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    José Noh Medina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aislaron rizobacterias en diversos medios de cultivo y se resembraron en medios selectivos para estudiar su capacidad de solubilización de fosfato y de producción de ácido indolacético (AIA, con el fin de probarlas como promotoras del crecimiento vegetal en plántulas de tomate. Se obtuvieron 83 aislados bacterianos del rizoplano de plantas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq., maíz (Zea mays y calabaza (Cucurbita pepo, de los cuales 15 sintetizaron AIA con un rango de concentración de 0.17 a 12.51 µg L-1 y 33 solubilizaron fosfato inorgánico. El uso de los aislados KCH3 y TSACH2 inoculados a las semillas de tomate, y que solubilizaron fosfato in vitro, incrementaron significativamente la biomasa de la parte aérea de las plántulas de tomate (42 y 32% respectivamente, permitiendo obtener plántulas más vigorosas que las plántulas sin inoculación de rizobacterias. Ambos aislados mostraron potencial para ser utilizados como biofertilizantes en la producción de plántulas de tomate.

  18. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

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    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  19. Neumonía necrosante por Staphylococcus aureus extrahospitalario resistente a la meticilina:reporte de dos casos en Colombia

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    Ana María Perilla

    2009-12-01

    Ambos desarrollaron falla renal aguda, por lo que fueron manejados con linezolide, con adecuada respuesta clínica. Con la caracterización molecular de los aislamientos se confirmó la presencia del gen mecA que porta el casete SCCmec tipo IV y la producción de la toxina leucocidina Panton-Valentine.

  20. Reconstrucción de Wampo: el reflote de los significados mapuche como práctica resistente.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja Nicole Mancilla Ivaca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se propone que el proyecto cultural La Ruta del Wampo, financiado por Fondart, es una estrategia de resistencia de actores locales, mapuche y no mapuche, en la comuna de Panguipulli, frente a las transformaciones que diversos proyectos de extracción de recursos naturales pretenden hacer con su territorio. Sugerimos que se vive una nueva colonización de la zona por empresas hidroeléctricas. A partir de descubrimientos arqueológicos recientes se comprueba el carácter ancestral del uso de una embarcación mapuche, el wampo, y se posibilita la recuperación de la memoria de las significaciones asociadas al agua y los bosques a través de la navegación ancestral. Estratégicamente, los actores locales se articulan entre ellos y se vinculan a instituciones del estado para la puesta en valor cultural y económico de la práctica, posicionándose como agentes folkcomunicacionales. Esto lo hacen mediante su homologación con otras formas pratimonializantes de la museología, así como también de la industria turística. De este modo se le asigna un valor para la racionalidad económica, desde una significación que tiene sentido para dichas instituciones estatales, que se posiciona como una estrategia folkcomunicacional. Así desde una primera vinculación al turismo para la resistencia se comienzan a gestar asociaciones con otros actores con intereses en común que apuntan directamente al conflicto socioambiental.

  1. Impacto del uso de piperacilina / tazobactam, sobre KPN resistente a ceftazidima en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica C. Mercado U.; Francisco Nápoles R.; María del Rayo Morfin O.; Eduardo Rodríguez N.; Pedro A. Martínez A.; Arturo Plascencia H.

    2005-01-01

    La frecuencia de resistencias a diversas bacterias mediadas por beta lactamasas de espectro extendido, varía ampliamente entre países, hospitales, tipo de unidad y tipo de paciente. Como medida de control para brotes de KPN, se estudió la sustitución de cefalosporinas de tercera generación en una UCI de población adulta con antibióticos β-lactámicos/inhibidores de β-lactamasas, entre ellos piperacilina/tazobactam. Se ha demostrado que al eliminar la presión ejercida por cef...

  2. Actividad antibacteriana de algunas especies medicinales de Eupatorium contra bacterias patógenas resistentes a antibióticos

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    Edgar García-Sánchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six samples arising from hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from four medicinal Eupatorium species were screened against Gram positive and Gram negative resistant bacteria associated with nosocomial infections by disk diffusion method. The best antibacterial extracts were selected by correspondence analysis. The hexane extracts showed high inhibition against clinical isolated bacteria. The qualitative chemical analysis was realized in the best antibacterial hexane extracts. The main components identified were triterpenes and benzopyran compounds which of extensively had been reported their antibacterial activities. Our results showing that medicinal Eupatorium species studied in this work have metabolites secondary antibacterial particularly against antibiotic resistant strains, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and validate their uses in traditional medicine

  3. Raquitismo resistente a la vitamina D y osteomalacia en las afecciones de los túbulos renales

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    José M. Forero

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones renales que se han encontrado en la mayoría de las enfermedades del riñón tales como glomérulo nefritis crónica, pielonefritis, enfermedades vasculares; producen disminución del filtrado glomerular.

  4. Raquitismo resistente a la vitamina d y osteomalacia en las afecciones de los túbulos renales

    OpenAIRE

    Forero, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Las lesiones renales que se han encontrado en la mayoría de las enfermedades del riñón tales como glomérulo nefritis crónica, pielonefritis, enfermedades vasculares; producen disminución del filtrado glomerular.

  5. Mechanical And Microstructural Evaluation Of A Wear Resistant Steel; Avaliacao mecanica e microestrutural de um aco resistente ao desgaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.L.F. dos; Vieira, A.G.; Correa, E.C.S.; Pinheiro, I.P., E-mail: falletti@hotmail.co [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the analysis of the mechanical properties and the microstructural features of a high strength low alloy steel, containing chromium, molybdenum and boron, subjected to different heat treatments, was conducted. After austenitizing at 910 deg C for 10 minutes, three operations were carried out: oil quenching, oil quenching followed by tempering at 200 deg C for 120 minutes and austempering at 400 deg C for 5 minutes followed by water cooling. The analysis was performed through tensile and hardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The bainitic structure led to high strength and toughness, both essential mechanical properties for wear resistant steels. The occurrence of allotriomorphic ferrite and retained austenite in the samples also increased the wear resistance. This phenomenon is related to the fact that both structures are able to be deformed and, in the case of the retained austenite, the transformation induced plasticity TRIP effect may take place as the material is used. (author)

  6. Bactérias gram negativas resistentes a antimicrobianos em alimentos Gram-negative bacteria resistant to antibiotics in foods

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    José Cavalcante de Albuquerque Ribeiro Dias

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 154 espécimens de alimentos, representados por hortaliças (alface, leite e merenda escolar, obteve-se o isolamento e identificação de 400 amostras de bacilos Gram negativos. Esta amostragem se distribuiu em 339 enterobactérias (Escherichia, Shigella, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia e Proteus e 61 de gêneros afins (Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Aeromonas e Pseudomonas. Submetendo-se as culturas aos antimicrobianos: sulfadiazina (Su, estreptomicina (Sm, tetraciclina (Tc, cloranfenicol (Cm, canamicina (Km, ampicilina (Ap, ácido nalidíxico (Nal e gentamicina (Gm, observou-se apenas seis estirpes sensíveis a todas as drogas e sensibilidade absoluta à Gm. A predominância dos modelos Su (27,6% e Su-Ap (39,6% incidiu nas enterobactérias, enquanto que, 18,0% para Ap e 9,8% para Su-Ap foram detectados nos gêneros afins. Para caracterização da resistência foram realizados testes de conjugação e a totalidade das culturas não revelou transferência para o gene que confere resistência ao ácido nalidíxico. Relevantes são as taxas de amostras R+ observadas nos bacilos entéricos, oscilando em torno de 90% (leite e merenda escolar e alface, em torno de 70%From 154 food samples, including vegetables (lettuce, milk and meals served at school it was possible to isolate and identify 400 Gram negative bacilli distributed among 339 enteric bacteria (Escherichia, Shigella, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia and Proteus and other 61 non enteric bacilli (Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas. Submitting this cultures to the drugs sulfadiazine (Su, streptomycin (Sm, tetracycline (Tc, chloramphenicol (Cm, kanamycin (Km, ampicillin (Ap, nalidixic acid (Nal and gentamycin (Gm it was observed only six stocks susceptible to all drugs and total sensibility to Gm. Among enteric bacteria the profiles Su (27,6% and Su-Ap (39,6% predominated, while for the non enteric bacilli percentages of 18.0 for Ap and 9.8 for Su-Ap were detected. Aiming to better characterization of resistance, experiments of conjugation were made with standard strains of Escherichia coli K 12. Great concern was raised by the recognition of these cultures due to the elevated R+ taxes for the enteric bacilli that were close to 90% (milk and food at school and about 70% in relation to lettuce.

  7. Eficacia resistente de pilares de hormigón armado de baja calidad reforzados por dos procedimientos diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Ortiz, J. L.

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the possibility of the strengthening of bad quality reinforced concrete columns, in isolated stories, by two usual methods: the increase of the cross section with concrete, ?nd the backing up of rolled steel angles to the edges of the column. The experimental work has consisted in the manufacturing, strengthening and testing of eighteen reinforced concrete columns with a low quality concrete. At a certain height above their bases a widening has been provided to represent the presence of a flat slab. From the compression tests data and conclusions concerning the strength efficiency of the two types of strengthening have been obtained, also information on the distribution of forces between the original columns and the strengthening, as well as on the deformations, cracking and type of failure.La investigación trata sobre la posibilidad de refuerzo en pisos aislados de pilares de hormigón armado de baja calidad, por dos métodos usuales: el recrecido de la sección transversal con hormigón y el adosado de angulares de acero a las aristas del pilar. La experimentación ha consistido en la fabricación, refuerzo y ensayo de dieciocho pilares de hormigón armado de baja calidad. A una cierta altura sobre sus bases se dispuso un ensanchamiento para representar la presencia de un forjado plano. De los ensayos de compresión se han sacado datos y conclusiones referentes a la eficacia de los dos procedimientos de refuerzo, distribución de esfuerzos entre pilar original y refuerzo, deformaciones, agrietamientos y forma de rotura.

  8. LA PLANTA ÚNICA COMO TIPO RESISTENTE A LA ESCALA / the single plan as a type resistant to scale

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    Silvia Colmenares Vilata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El sistema capitalista ha generado dos de los modelos espaciales de indiferencia funcional más extremos: por un lado, el espacio tecnificado y repetido del edificio de oficinas en altura, encarnado por la ‘planta tipo’ y, por otro, el espacio diáfano y extenso del gran contendor, que responde a la lógica de lo que llamaremos ‘planta única’. En los edificios construidos para la industria automovilística y bélica americana se encuentra el germen de un tipo que servirá de modelo para los nuevos espacios de consumo de bienes y servicios de la ciudad post-industrial. En ella, la identificación del rascacielos con el centro y del contenedor con la periferia sigue vigente, porque la densidad necesaria del primero y la ocupación extensiva del segundo hacen que resulte imposible invertir los términos. Sin embargo, ambos representan el desarrollo estrictamente pragmático de los principios de la ‘planta libre’ como sistema operativo genérico, dando lugar a construcciones de gran tamaño que ponen a prueba la resistencia a la escala del propio tipo. Tomando como referencia la neutralidad característica de la ‘planta única’ el texto analiza el comportamiento frente al cambio de tamaño de sus dos configuraciones complementarias: la gran sala hipóstila y la gran sala diáfana. SUMMARY The capitalist system has generated two of the most extreme spatial models of functional indifference: on the one hand, the technified and repeated space of the high-rise office building, incarnated by the “typical plan” and, on the other, the diaphanous and extensive space of the large container, which responds to the logic of what we will call “single plan”. In the buildings constructed for the American automobile and military industries is the germ of a type that would serve as a model for the new spaces for consumption of goods and services of the post-industrial city. In that city, the identification of the skyscraper with the centre and the container with the periphery is still valid, because the necessary density of the first and the extensive occupation of the second mean that it is impossible to invert the terms. However, both represent the strictly pragmatic development of the principles of the “free plan” as a generic operating system, giving rise to large constructions that test the resistance to the scale of the type itself. Taking the characteristic neutrality of the “single plan” as a reference, the text analyses the behaviour with regard to the change of size of its two complementary configurations: the large hypostile hall and the clear-span pavillion.

  9. Isolamento e estudo experimental de duas novas culturas de bacilos ácido-alcool resistentes de muco nasal de leprosos

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    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available The A. described on December 14, 1951, his first culture of acid-fast bacillus isolated from nasal mucus of a leprous girl. in this paper the A. describes two new strains of acid-fast bacilli gotten also from nasal mucus of other two leprous girls, L3 cases. The first patient (layse S had her mucus treated by petroff's method on December 16, 1952 and sown onto three tubes of loewenstein medium and in glycerin broth. After two weeks incubation at 37°C all three tubes of Loewenstein showed many punctiforme and pin-head yellowish colonies, whose microscopic examination proved to be of a pure acid-fast bacillus culture. This sample inoculated in rats and mice produced, after 55 days incubation, small tumors from which the culture was easily recovered. On April, 9, 1953 a new sample of nasal mucus of the same patient was sown in three tubes of Loewenstein. After two weeks incubation at 37°C all 3 tubes showed germination of small yellowish colonies of acid-fast bacilli. Within four months being gotten two samples of identical cultures in all smeared tubes of Loewenstein medium sown, proved that such cultures were not an ordinary ambient contamination. Second patient: - Maria N. After various sowing of different kinds of material from her, february 26, 1953 her nasal mucus treated by soda and sown onto Loewenstein medium, after 25 days incubation showed in only one tube, one small round colony, at first white, becoming creamy after three months. Transplants in various media grew at first slowly and after 2 or 3 generations grew faster. The "Layse" strain produced pellicle in glycerin broth and Dubos medium; the "Maria N." strain did not produce as yet. Both strains (Layse I and II, and Maria N. gave weak positive Dubos test in half-an-hour and negative after 24 hours reading. Both were strongly positive when stained by Gram, Ziehl-Neelsen and Fontes methods. Both strains gave also positive fluoroscopy. These cultures are being studied. The A. concludes that, according to his experience, the slower growing cultures of acid-fast bacilli isolated from leprosy material, are the more suitable for experimental work. Aknowledgement. The A. thanks to Miss MARIA DE LOURDES SANTANA for her valuable collaboration in the studies of the described cultures.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina (SARM positivos para PVL aislados en individuos sanos de Montería-Córdoba

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    Sara Pineda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PVL positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSAs strains isolated from healthy individuals in Montería,Córdoba. Objective. To study SARM and PVL producing strains in healthy individuals of Montería city. Materials and methods.This was a descriptive, prospective and transversal study. A total of 253 samples from pharyngeal swabs in three communities werestudied: 91 prisoners of the jail of Montería (19-58 years old, 100 young adult students of the University of Cordoba (17-30 years oldand 62 children in school age (4-9 years old of the primary school of the University of Cordoba. Individuals analyzed had not beenhospitalized, had not received any antimicrobial treatment and did not show any clinical signs or symptoms in the last months. Theisolates were identified by conventional microbiological tests and the antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for different antibioticswith MicroScan™ kit 1A (SIEMENS. For the detection of the nuc, mecA and PVL genes, we followed the protocols of Brakstad et al.,Oliveira et al. and Gerard et al. respectively. Results. Of the 253 analyzed samples, 62 (24.5% were positive for S. aureus, out of those4 (6.45% were resistant to methicillin and 2 (25% of them were PVL positive; 58 (93.54% were sensitive to methicillin and 6 (75%positive for PVL. Conclusions. Results obtained in this study show the colonization by SARM-AC of healthy individuals. Colonizationwas higher in young adults and children in school-age.

  11. Colchones del tipo caja de huevos: ¿un reservorio de staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la meticilina?

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    Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Andrade, Denise de; Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo de; Cunha, Keith Cássia; Rigotti, Marcelo Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as condições microbiológicas de colchões caixa de ovo em uso hospitalar com a finalidade de identificar a presença de Staphylococcus aureus e seu fenótipo de resistência à meticilina (MRSA). Coletaram-se as amostras microbiológicas nos colchões por meio de placas de contato PetrifilmTM em posições pré-estabelecidas. Totalizou-se 180 placas coletadas em 15 colchões, das quais 139 (72,2%) foram positivas para Staphylococcus aureus. Desse total, 77 (55,4%) e 6...

  12. Colchões do tipo caixa de ovo: um reservatório de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Andrade, Denise de; Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo de; Cunha, Keith Cássia; Rigotti, Marcelo Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as condições microbiológicas de colchões caixa de ovo em uso hospitalar com a finalidade de identificar a presença de Staphylococcus aureus e seu fenótipo de resistência à meticilina (MRSA). Coletaram-se as amostras microbiológicas nos colchões por meio de placas de contato PetrifilmTM em posições pré-estabelecidas. Totalizou-se 180 placas coletadas em 15 colchões, das quais 139 (72,2%) foram positivas para Staphylococcus aureus. Desse total, 77 (55,4%) e 6...

  13. Efecto del amperaje en las propiedades de recubrimientos duros resistentes a la abrasión aplicados por soldadura

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    Héctor Iván Monsalve Gil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del amperaje en la microestructura, la dureza y la resistencia al desgaste abrasivo de dos aleaciones para recubrimientos duros con base hierro, alto Cr y C. Se aplicaron dos y tres capas de cada electrodo mediante el proceso SMAW sobre platinas de acero ASTM A36. La resistencia al desgaste abrasivo se calculó midiendo la masa perdida después de un ensayo de acuerdo al estándar internacional ASTM G65. La microestructura fue analizada usando microscopio óptico y microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM y el porcentaje de dilución fue calculado en forma gráfica para un cordón de soldadura. Los resultados muestran que al disminuir la entrada de calor se reduce el porcentaje de dilución y se promueve la formación de carburos primarios. La más alta resistencia al desgaste abrasivo se obtiene cuando la microestructura estuvo compuesta de carburos primarios y una matriz eutéctica.

  14. An automatic driving system for a Baker's garlic [Allium chinense] planter: Development of the infrared beam guidance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Takeda, H.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a tractor attachment type semi-automatic Baker's garlic (shallot) planter to save hard labor requirement during planting. The velocity of the tractor in operation is so slow (2 to 3m/min) that the tractor driver is forced to tie his hands for a long time. This is an obstacle to its diffusion, because farm managers have to drive their own tractors by themselves in most Japanese farmhouses, yet they have to do other jobs during the planting season. We designed a new automatic driving system that consists of one infrared beam radiator and two infrared beam receivers to solve this problem. The infrared radiator is located in front of the tractor and shows the infrared guideline of tractor path. The infrared receivers are equipped on the front of the tractor and detect the infrared from the radiator. The receivers are arranged symmetrically at 4.5 degree from the center of the tractor. So the misalignment of the tractor creates a difference in sensitivity and it is possible to distinguish the tractor direction against the infrared beam. This system was tested under the sand dune field conditions with the tractor that was converted to automatic driving. The results show the system can effectively steer about 80 m automatically with an almost straight path, and the error from the starting point is within 0.1 m

  15. Ensayo de disolución para las tabletas de Tilo ® elaboradas con extracto seco de Justicia pectoralis Jacq Dissolution Assay for Tilo ® tablets prepared with dry extract of Justicia pectoralis Jacq

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    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el ensayo de disolución es una técnica analítica de empleo común en un laboratorio farmacéutico. Un proceso tecnológico para la elaboración de tabletas fue desarrollado. El ingrediente farmacéutico activo usado fue Tilo ® extracto seco. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar y validar un ensayo de disolución para evaluar la estabilidad y la calidad de dicho producto. Método: se utilizaron muestras de un lote experimental, un lote placebo y lotes pilotos de tabletas de Tilo ® de 100 mg. Se evaluaron como medios de disolución agua destilada y solución de ácido clorhídrico 0,1 mol/L, realizándose perfiles de disolución a 50, 75 y 100 rpm, empleándose los dos tipos de aparatos establecidos en la literatura para este ensayo (cesta y paleta. El contenido de cumarina fue analizado por HPLC. El ensayo fue validado según la USP. Resultados: los resultados mostraron que el agua destilada fue un medio de disolución adecuado, alcanzándose porcientos de disolución de la droga por encima del 85 % a los 30 minutos, no existiendo diferencias significativas entre los tipos de aparatos recomendados por la USP. Mientras que, los perfiles de disolución a diferentes tiempos y velocidades de agitación mostraron una liberación gradual del principio activo en el tiempo, donde a medida que se incrementa la velocidad de agitación, se incrementa el porcentaje de disolución de la droga en el medio. La validación del ensayo demostró que el mismo era específico y preciso. Conclusiones: se estableció como ensayo de disolución las siguientes condiciones de trabajo: Aparato: paleta, 100 rpm; medio: agua destilada, 500 mL; tiempo: 60 minutos y Temperatura: 37 ± 0,5 ºC.Introduction: dissolution testing is one of the most common analytical techniques performed in a pharmaceutical analytical laboratory. A technological process for the production of tablets was developed. The active pharmaceutical ingredient used was Tilo ® dry extract. Objective: to develop and to validate the dissolution assay aimed at evaluating the stability study and the quality of this product. Methods: some samples from the experimental batch, the placebo batch and the pilot batches were used in this study. Distilled water and 0,1 mol/L chlorhidric acid were evaluated as dissolution media. The dissolution profiles at 50, 75 and 100 rpm and two types of dissolution devices (basket and paddle recommended for the USP were evaluated. Coumarin content was analyzed by HPLC method. The dissolution assay was validated according to the United States Pharmacopeia. Results: the results showed that the distilled water was an appropriate dissolution medium, where percentages of released drug higher to 85 % in 30 minutes were obtained; there were no significant differences among the types of dissolution devices recommended by the USP. The dissolution profiles at different shaking times and speeds showed gradual release of the active principle. As the shaking speed increases, the percentage of the drug dissolution increases in the medium. The assay was considered specific and precise. Conclusions: a type II (paddle dissolution device, 500 ml of distilled water at 37 ± 0,5 ºC and 100 rpm, were established as parameters of the dissolution assay.

  16. Phytochemical analysis and anti-oxidant activities of Albuca bracteata Jacq. and Albuca setosa Jacq bulb extracts used for the management of diabetes in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Samuel Odeyemi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This implies that the bulb of Albuca bracteata may serve as a natural source of antioxidants, which together with the numerous phytochemicals present, could account for its folkloric use as a medicinal plant.

  17. Pollen morphology and study of the visitors (Hymenoptera, Apidae of Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae in Central Amazon Morfologia polínica e estudo dos visitantes (Hymenoptera, Apidae de Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae na Amazônia Central

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceae family has a wide distribution, mainly in the tropical and subtropical areas of South America. Solanum L. is one of the most important genera of the family with approximately 1,200 species. The objective of this work was to study the floral biology, pollen morphology as well as to investigate the bee visitors of S. stramoniifolium. Preliminary data indicate the presence of one species of stinging bee and four species of stingless bees as visitors to S. stramoniifolium. The pollen of S. stramoniifolium is tricolporate and psilate or without ornamentation. In a word, S. stramoniifolium constitutes a potential source of pollen for different species of bees with and without sting, providing an interesting field for germination studies, insect-plant interactions and floral biology that are already under way.A família Solanaceae tem ampla distribuição, principalmente nas áreas tropicais e subtropicais da América do Sul. Solanum L. é um dos mais importantes gêneros desta família com aproximadamente 1.200 espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de estudar a biologia floral com enfoque na morfologia polínica e no registro de algumas abelhas visitantes de S. stramoniifolium. Dados preliminares indicam a presença de uma espécie de abelha com ferrão e quatro espécies sem ferrão como visitantes de S. stramoniifolium. O pólen de S. stramoniifolium é tricolporado e psilado, ou seja, sem ornamentação. Conclui-se, após o estudo da biologia floral, que S. stramoniifolium constitui fonte potencial de pólen para diferentes espécies de abelhas com e sem ferrão, representando interessante campo para estudos de germinação, interações inseto-planta e biologia floral.

  18. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae- Papilionoidae na região de Petrolina, Pernambuco Floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae-Papilionoidae in region of Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos da biologia da polinização e do sistema de reprodução de Gliricidia sepium foram estudados no período de março a dezembro de 1999, entre 05:30 e 17:00h., em uma população introduzida na Embrapa Semi-Árido (Petrolina, estado de Pernambuco. Quinze indivíduos da população foram marcados e acompanhados quinzenalmente para as observações dos estudos fenológicos. Para o estudo da morfologia e biologia florais, flores e inflorescências foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação dos frutos. Os visitantes florais foram observados ao longo do período do experimento, anotando-se a freqüência, o horário e a duração de suas visitas. G. sepium apresenta floração anual do tipo "cornucópia", com pico desta fenofase no mês de agosto. As flores estão reunidas em racemos axilares, com desenvolvimento centrípeto, ocorrendo a antese de 5 a 45 flores/dia. As flores apresentam a formação típica das papilionáceas, com corola de cor magenta, com a parte central do estandarte de cor creme, o qual funciona como guia de néctar. A antese é diurna, ocorrendo por volta da 06:00h, e a duração das flores é de aproximadamente 10 horas. Abelhas Apidae e Anthophoridae e lepidópteros Hesperiidae são os visitantes mais freqüentes, sendo Xylocopa griscesens, X. frontalis e Eulaema nigrita consideradas como principais polinizadores desta espécie. Quanto ao sistema de reprodução, G. sepium é xenôgama obrigatória, produzindo frutos e sementes somente após polinização cruzada (51,6%.The aspects of floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium were studied from March to October of 1999, from 5:30am to 5:00pm, in an introduced population at Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit set. The visitors of flowers were observed during all time of the experiment, when frequency, time and duration of their visits were registered. G. sepium has a cornucopia pattern of flowering and the peak of this phenophase occurs in August. The flowers are grouped in axilar racemes, with centripetal development, and the anthesis occurs at 5 to 45 flowers/day. The flowers have the typical organization of papilionaceae, corolla of magenta color and the central region of flag of cream color, which functions as nectar guide. The anthesis is diurnal, occurring at around 6:00am, and the lifetime of flowers is around 10 hours. Apidae and Anthophoridae bees and Hesperiidae moths are the most frequent visitors. Xylocopa griscesens, X. frontalis and Eulaema nigrita were considered the main pollinators of this species. G. sepium is a species which produces fruits only after cross-pollination (51.6%.

  19. Comportamiento de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum Jacq. bajo condiciones de pastoreo en un suelo de mediana fertilidad

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    R Machado

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum en suelos de mediana fertilidad. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones y parcelas de 20 m². Las rotaciones (pastoreo racional simulado se efectuaron entre 60 y 70 días (época de seca y entre 32 y 40 días (época de lluvia. Se detectó una aceptable variabilidad entre tratamientos (70,7 %. Los indicadores más variables fueron: la disponibilidad, el porcentaje de utilización, el porcentaje de hojas y la altura de las plantas. Se aplicó un análisis de conglomerados y se formaron dos grupos: tipos gigantes (grupo 1 y tipos medianos (grupo 2. Los tratamientos del grupo 1 alcanzaron una disponibilidad media de 5,0 t MS/ha/rotación y superaron en 0,7 t MS/ha/rotación a los del grupo 2. Sin embargo, estos últimos mostraron menores síntomas de clorosis (34,0 %, fueron más tolerantes a los microorganismos patógenos (25,0 % y menos afectados por la sequía (42,0 %, y presentaron mayor vigor (3,8 como media de los tres años. Se concluye que en la variabilidad tuvieron un papel fundamental la disponibilidad, la altura, el porcentaje de hojas y el porcentaje de utilización. El resto de los indicadores fue relativamente poco variable, pero también permitió enjuiciar el comportamiento de estos materiales. Se recomiendan los tipos medianos CIH-6, SIH-810 y CIH-22 como variedades precomerciales para condiciones similares a las aquí utilizadas, e incluir el tipo gigante SIH-759 en ensayos en los que se emplee el corte o el pastoreo con mayor intensidad

  20. Characterization of effluent from food processing industries and stillage treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. and Panicum maximum (Jacq.

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    N.A. Noukeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

  1. Autotetraploidia e número cromossómico em uma cultivar de Panicum maximum Jacq. (Gramineae / Poaceae

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    Caetano Creuci Maria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento citológico e em especial o nível de ploidia de uma cultivar de P. maximum, denomi­nada Tanzânia, que, na realidade, é um ecótipo selvagem de origem africana. Foi empregada a metodologia convencional para estudos meióticos. As inflorescências foram fixadas em álcool acético 3:1 por 24 horas, transferidas para álcool a 70% e conservadas sob refrigeração. A técnica de esmaga­mento foi usada no preparo das lâminas. O corante foi o carmim propiônico a 1%. Foi considerado um mínimo de 200 células por planta. De forma geral, anormalidades meióticas ocorreram em 20% das células mães de pólen analisadas. Em todas as plantas avaliadas, o número de cromossomos observado nas diacineses foi 36. Entre 109 diacineses onde se realizou a contagem do número de cromossomos e se verificou os tipos de associações cromossômicas, 99 apresentaram multivalentes, com predomínio de tetravalentes. Tal ocorrência indica autotetraploidia, onde 2n=4x=36.

    Palavras-chave: associações cromossômicas multivalentes, autotetraplóide, cv. Tanzânia, número cromossômico.

  2. Pengaruh Perbandingan Media Tanam Gambut dan Pupuk P Terhadap Pertumbuhan Vegetatif Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Eiaeis guineensis Jacq.) di Main Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Tirtana, Andang

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research knowing peat land exploiting as media grow and phosphate palm oil seed in Main Nursery. This research executed at green house Faculty of Agriculture North Sumatra of University, Medan started in February 2004 up to May 2004 The research uses the Factorials Group Random Sampling, with two treatment factors. Factor I, treatment media composition peat land, which 4 level, that is Go = top soil ( 100 %), Gx = peat land: top soil ( 25%:75%), G2 = peat land: top s...

  3. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Nisha T. Govender

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated and infected (inoculated seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and peroxidase (POD genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD, growth (weight and height, and disease severity (DS. Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5–34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%.

  4. Rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq.) cv. Tanzania usando la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4

    OpenAIRE

    Bertín Maurilio Joaquín Torres; Miguel Angel Moreno Carrillo; Santiago Joaquín Cancino; Alfonso Hernández Garay; Jorge Pérez Pérez; Armando Gómez Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron, T1=testigo, T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a.) aplicados al inicio de antesis, T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis, T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados ante...

  5. Rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania usando la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertín Maurilio Joaquín Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron, T1=testigo, T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis, T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis y T6=12 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados únicamente al inicio de antesis. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento de semilla total (RST, rendimiento de semilla pura (RSP, número de panículas m-2, longitud de panícula, semillas producidas y cosechadas por panícula, peso de 1,000 semillas y germinación. Se detectaron diferencias (P0.05 entre tratamientos. Se concluye que la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 incrementó el rendimiento de semilla de P. maximum cv. tanzania, independientemente de la concentración y momento de aplicación. La calidad de la semilla, no fue afectada por ninguno de los tratamientos evaluados.

  6. Rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq.) cv. Tanzania usando la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Torres, Bertin Maurilio; Moreno Carrillo, Miguel Angel; Joaquín Cancino, Santiago; Hernández Garay, Alfonso; Pérez Pérez, Jorge; Gómez Vázquez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: T1=testigo; T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a.) aplicados al inicio de antesis; T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis; T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis; T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados ante...

  7. Ensayo de disolución para las tabletas de Tilo ® elaboradas con extracto seco de Justicia pectoralis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el ensayo de disolución es una técnica analítica de empleo común en un laboratorio farmacéutico. Un proceso tecnológico para la elaboración de tabletas fue desarrollado. El ingrediente farmacéutico activo usado fue Tilo ® extracto seco. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar y validar un ensayo de disolución para evaluar la estabilidad y la calidad de dicho producto. Método: se utilizaron muestras de un lote experimental, un lote placebo y lotes pilotos de tabletas de Tilo ® de 100 mg. Se evaluaron como medios de disolución agua destilada y solución de ácido clorhídrico 0,1 mol/L, realizándose perfiles de disolución a 50, 75 y 100 rpm, empleándose los dos tipos de aparatos establecidos en la literatura para este ensayo (cesta y paleta. El contenido de cumarina fue analizado por HPLC. El ensayo fue validado según la USP. Resultados: los resultados mostraron que el agua destilada fue un medio de disolución adecuado, alcanzándose porcientos de disolución de la droga por encima del 85 % a los 30 minutos, no existiendo diferencias significativas entre los tipos de aparatos recomendados por la USP. Mientras que, los perfiles de disolución a diferentes tiempos y velocidades de agitación mostraron una liberación gradual del principio activo en el tiempo, donde a medida que se incrementa la velocidad de agitación, se incrementa el porcentaje de disolución de la droga en el medio. La validación del ensayo demostró que el mismo era específico y preciso. Conclusiones: se estableció como ensayo de disolución las siguientes condiciones de trabajo: Aparato: paleta, 100 rpm; medio: agua destilada, 500 mL; tiempo: 60 minutos y Temperatura: 37 ± 0,5 ºC.

  8. Repeatability, number of harvests, and phenotypic stability of dry matter yield and quality traits of Panicum maximum jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of superior forage genotypes is based on agronomic traits assayed in repeated measures. The questions are how repeatable the performance of individual genotypes is and how many harvests are needed to select the best genotypes. The objectives were to estimate repeatability coefficients of dry matter yield (DMY and forage quality, their phenotypic stability and the number of harvests needed for an accurate selection. Two randomized complete block design experiments data with 24 genotypes each, undergoing 12 and 16 harvests, over a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively, were used. The DMY repeatability estimates ranged from 0.42 to 0.55, suggesting a low heritability. The mean numbers of repeated measures were 5 and 7 harvests for 0.80 and 0.85 accuracy, respectively. The inclusion of the first two harvests negatively affects the estimates. Repeatability for quality traits ranged from 0.30 to 0.69, indicating low to moderate heritability.

  9. EL RIEGO Y FERTILIZACIÓN EN LA CALIDAD POSTCOSECHA DEL ZAPOTE MAMEY [Pouteria sapota (Jacq. H. E. Moore & Stearn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Vallejo-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del riego y fertilización sobre la calidad en postcosecha del zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota. Árboles de 20 años de edad provenientes de semilla fueron sometidos a dos frecuencias de riego por gravedad: tradicional (cada 10 días y controlado a 20 milibares (cada 3 días; además, se evaluaron cuatro mezclas de nitrógeno (N, fósforo (P y potasio (K: 0, 1, 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK al año, divididas en seis aplicaciones bimestrales. Las variables evaluadas en pulpa de frutos en madurez fisiológica (MF y madurez comercial (MC fueron: acidez, sólidos solubles totales (SST, firmeza, color (L,a,b, fenoles y carotenoides totales, pérdida de peso (PP y concentración de NPK. El riego controlado a 20 mb mejoró la apariencia física de la pulpa (aumento del brillo en MC e incrementó la concentración de carotenoides. La fertilización, también aumentó la concentración de carotenoides en frutos, mejorando su calidad y además, la pérdida de peso por transpiración fue menor respecto a los frutos de árboles no fertilizados. 2 kg de NPK causó mayor luminosidad en MC y 1.5 kg de NPK produjeron frutos con pulpa más roja. La disminución de la firmeza en frutos con MF causado por la fertilización con 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK, condiciona a un manejo cuidadoso del producto durante su cosecha y evitar heridas y golpes que afecten el proceso normal de maduración.

  10. Chloroplast Genome of the Folk Medicine and Vegetable Plant Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn.: Gene Organization, Comparative and Phylogenetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Li, Yuan; Yang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Boyang

    2018-04-09

    The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Talinum paniculatum (Caryophyllale), a source of pharmaceutical efficacy similar to ginseng, and a widely distributed and planted edible vegetable, were sequenced and analyzed. The cp genome size of T. paniculatum is 156,929 bp, with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,751 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 86,898 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,529 bp. The genome contains 83 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and four pseudogenes. Fifty one (51) repeat units and ninety two (92) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were found in the genome. The pseudogene rpl23 (Ribosomal protein L23) was insert AATT than other Caryophyllale species by sequence alignment, which located in IRs region. The gene of trnK-UUU (tRNA-Lys) and rpl16 (Ribosomal protein L16) have larger introns in T. paniculatum , and the existence of matK (maturase K) genes, which usually located in the introns of trnK-UUU , rich sequence divergence in Caryophyllale. Complete cp genome comparison with other eight Caryophyllales species indicated that the differences between T. paniculatum and P. oleracea were very slight, and the most highly divergent regions occurred in intergenic spacers. Comparisons of IR boundaries among nine Caryophyllales species showed that T. paniculatum have larger IRs region and the contraction is relatively slight. The phylogenetic analysis among 35 Caryophyllales species and two outgroup species revealed that T. paniculatum and P. oleracea do not belong to the same family. All these results give good opportunities for future identification, barcoding of Talinum species, understanding the evolutionary mode of Caryophyllale cp genome and molecular breeding of T. paniculatum with high pharmaceutical efficacy.

  11. Pollen morphology and study of the visitors (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae) in Central Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Alexandre Coletto da; Kinupp,Valdely Ferreira; Absy,Maria Lucia; Kerr,Warwick Estevam

    2004-01-01

    The Solanaceae family has a wide distribution, mainly in the tropical and subtropical areas of South America. Solanum L. is one of the most important genera of the family with approximately 1,200 species. The objective of this work was to study the floral biology, pollen morphology as well as to investigate the bee visitors of S. stramoniifolium. Preliminary data indicate the presence of one species of stinging bee and four species of stingless bees as visitors to S. stramoniifolium. The poll...

  12. Hubungan Metilasi DNA dengan Ekspresi Gen MADS-box pada Buah Mantel Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Anischan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The presence of mantled fruit on large-scale clonal production of oil palm had trully decreased the oil productivity. Mantled phenotype is likely to be that of an epigenetic change involving DNA methylation and the MADS-box transcription factor gene which encoded floral organ homeotic transformation. The objectives of this research were to quantify the degree of methylation which determined fruit abnormality through Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC and to study its correlation with the MADS-box EgAGL6, EgAG2, and EgAGA genes expressed on mantled fruit derived from oil palm clonal plants which have been quantified using Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR. This research was arranged in two replications for each gene and cDNA. The expression of the target genes were compared to EF1-α1 as the reference gene. Through the Least Significant Difference (LSD Test at 95% confidence level of qPCR result, EgAGL6 expression was significantly lower in mantled fruit which decreased from 1.88 fold in Abn m to 0.46 fold in Abn. EgAG2 expression was increased non-significantly from 0.91 fold in Abn m to 1.13 fold in Abn, while EgAGA expression was higher in mantled which increased significantly from 1.48 fold in Abn m to 1.71 fold  in Abn. Nuclease S1 digestion and UPLC revealed the genome-wide increase in DNA methylation on mantled fruit (18.33-19.55% compared to its normal counterparts (5.67%. This increased in global DNA methylation was showed by the significant decreased in EgAGL6 transcript level of mantled fruit. This gene assumed to be involved in the development of mantled fruit. Keywords: DNA-methylation, MADS-box genes, Mantled fruit, Quantitative Real-Time PCR

  13. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nisha T; Mahmood, Maziah; Seman, Idris A; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense , is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated) and infected (inoculated) seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi)] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD), growth (weight and height), and disease severity (DS). Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5-34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%.

  14. Radiosensibility curve with 60 Co in guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) cv. 'K-249'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajonchere, G.; Mesa, A.R.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez-Quiroz, E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to select the adequate radiosensibility criterion and useful dosis were studied the effects of gamma radiation on the embryogenic callus of guinea cv. K-249. The application dosages were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 Gy and the measures evaluated were: increase of fresh mass of the callus in fresh medium, number of shoots, plantlets and total by callus and by gram of callus in regeneration medium. It was determined that the curves shaped with the number of shoots, plantlets and total by callus and by gram of callus were more radiosensible than that shoped with increase of fresh mass of the callus; as criterion of radiosensibility in this cultivar the total number of shoots and plantlets from gram of callus was selected for it's simplicity and veracity as much as in the evaluation and in the results. The useful dosis that determined one GR 10, 20, 50 and 70 percent were 16, 20, 29 and 160 Gy respectively. Albino shoots were also observed whose values were randomizely showed and it was observed albinism in 0 dosis. (author) [es

  15. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

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    Ahmad Parveez eGhulam Kadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA, producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including PCR, Southern blot and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile Blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  16. Actividad in vitro de la mezcla de alcaloides de Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq Staff. Apocynaceae sobre amastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis

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    Amanda Moreno Rodríguez

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose é considerada uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade a nível mundial, principalmente nos países tropicais. As formas cutânea e mucocutânea são causadas, entre outras espécies, por Leishmania braziliensis. Na procura de compostos leishmanicidas de origem natural, foi estudada a atividade da mistura de alcalóides de Ervatamia coronaria (Apocynaceae contra amastigotas de L. braziliensis em 6 concentrações diferentes (1, 10, 20, 25, 50 e 100 µg/mL. Foram tratados macrófagos de ratos da linha J774, infectados com promastigotas de L. braziliensis, com a mistura de alcalóides 1 hora após-infecção e diariamente por 3 dias sem mudança de meio. As experiências de citotoxicidade foram efetuadas sobre os macrófagos com azul tripam. Todos os cultivos foram feitos de forma triplicada e os grupos de controle não foram submetidos à mistura de alcalóides. Foi obtido que o composto adicionado exerce atividade doses/dependente sobre a parasita. No entanto, as concentrações mais altas (50 e 100 µg/mL, adicionado durante 3 dias, mostraram os maiores índices de infecção, provavelmente devido a diminuição no número de macrófagos, sobre os quais não foi observado efeito tóxico do tratamento durante 24 horas DL50/24h = 233,52 µg/mL. Os resultados dessa pesquisa revelaram uma nova atividade farmacológica de alcalóides da espécie Ervatamia coronaria sobre a forma amastigota de Leishmania braziliensis, com IC50 = 2,6 e 12,4 µg/mL sem mostrar toxicidade sobre a célula hospedeira.

  17. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Weng-Wah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST analysis on oil palm. Results In this study, six cDNA libraries from oil palm zygotic embryos, suspension cells, shoot apical meristems, young flowers, mature flowers and roots, were constructed. We have generated a total of 14537 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from these libraries, from which 6464 tentative unique contigs (TUCs and 2129 singletons were obtained. Approximately 6008 of these tentative unique genes (TUGs have significant matches to the non-redundant protein database, from which 2361 were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology categories. Predominant transcripts and differentially expressed genes were identified in multiple oil palm tissues. Homologues of genes involved in many aspects of flower development were also identified among the EST collection, such as CONSTANS-like, AGAMOUS-like (AGL2, AGL20, LFY-like, SQUAMOSA, SQUAMOSA binding protein (SBP etc. Majority of them are the first representatives in oil palm, providing opportunities to explore the cause of epigenetic homeotic flowering abnormality in oil palm, given the importance of flowering in fruit production. The transcript levels of two flowering-related genes, EgSBP and EgSEP were analysed in the flower tissues of various developmental stages. Gene homologues for enzymes involved in oil biosynthesis, utilization of nitrogen sources, and scavenging of oxygen radicals, were also uncovered among the oil palm ESTs. Conclusion The EST sequences generated will allow comparative genomic studies between oil palm and other monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, development of gene-targeted markers for the reference genetic map, design and fabrication of DNA array for future studies of oil palm. The outcomes of such studies will contribute to oil palm improvements through the establishment of breeding program using marker-assisted selection, development of diagnostic assays using gene targeted markers, and discovery of candidate genes related to important agronomic traits of oil palm.

  18. SÍNTOMAS ASOCIADOS A LA DEFICIENCIA DE BORO EN LA PALMA ACEITERA (Elaeis guineensis JACQ. EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es brindar información fisiológica relativa a las funciones, la disponibilidad, la economía y la deficiencia de boro en las plantas, con énfasis en la palma aceitera cultivada en Coto, Costa Rica. Se exponen las generalidades sobre la química del boro en el suelo y en las plantas, y se discuten sus posibles funciones estructurales, metabólicas y morfogenéticas. Se resalta su papel en la formación y la estabilidad de la pared celular, el transporte de azúcares, el control de los niveles de auxinas y en el desarrollo reproductivo. Se compara la susceptibilidad relativa de las hojas y las raíces a la deficiencia de boro. Se describen los síntomas de la deficiencia de boro observados en la palma aceitera, los posibles mecanismos causales y los métodos apropiados para su diagnóstico. Se discuten además las terapias, formulaciones químicas y métodos agronómicos disponibles para su corrección.

  19. The Susceptibility of Some Oil Palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq Progenies to Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti and Mariau, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    S.O.N. Dimkpa

    2010-01-01

    Damage by the oil palm leaf miner C. lam eensis has been observed in all oil palm growing countriesin Africa causing wide spread defoliation and result to considerable reduction in the yield of fresh fruit bunches(ffb). The understanding of the susceptibility levels of different oil palm progenies to the oil palm leaf minerC. lameensis become highly imperative in the development and incorporation of host plant resistance in theintegrated pest management strategy for the management of the oil ...

  20. Cytokinin Differences in In Vitro Cultures and Inflorescences from Normal and Mantled Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ooi, S. E.; Novák, Ondřej; Doležal, Karel; Ishak, Z.; Ong-Abdullah, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2013), s. 865-874 ISSN 0721-7595 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cytokinin * Elaeis guineensis * Inflorescence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2013

  1. Preliminary studies on nitrogenous fertilization of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq) with the use of N-15 as tracer element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basantes, Emilio; Calvache, Marcelo

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out at INIAP-Santo Domingo Experimental Station to study the effect of total and partial fertilization with N and to determine the absorption of N applied 2 and 3 m from the trunck. The obtained results point out that in 5 year old oil palm partial fertilization, and that in 8 year old oil palms fertilizer applied about 3 meters from the trunck was 44 percent better used by the plant. The absorbed 1 5 N is stored in the new leaves and transported preferably from the old tissues to other plant organs; where from severe N-defficiency in these tissues can cause yellowing leaves and dryness of leaves

  2. Characterization of promoter of EgPAL1, a novel PAL gene from the oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Chong Yu Lok; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Abu Seman, Idris; Abdullah, Mohd Puad

    2018-02-01

    The oil palm EgPAL1 gene promoter and its regulatory region were functional as a promoter in the heterologous system of Arabidopsis according to the cis-acting elements present in that region. The promoter was developmentally regulated, vascular tissue specific and responsive to