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Sample records for chinchilla

  1. Aflatoxicosis en chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera

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    Sandra Cepeda A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los efectos de las aflatoxinas (AF en chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera por consumo de dietas contaminadas a diferentes concentraciones. Materiales y métodos. Un total de 20 chinchillas macho se distribuyeron en 5 grupos experimentales de 4 animales cada uno, los cuales recibieron diferentes niveles de aflatoxinas totales en el alimento durante 8 semanas: 0, 25, 50, 100 y 200 ppb. Semanalmente se determinó el consumo de alimento, el peso corporal individual y la mortalidad. Adicionalmente, al finalizar el experimento, se investigó el metabolismo hepático in vitro de la aflatoxina B1 (AFB1 en animales no expuestos al tóxico y se realizó examen histopatológico del hígado en todos los grupos. Resultados. El consumo de dietas contaminadas con aflatoxinas no causó efectos sobre el consumo de alimento ni hubo mortalidad. Solamente se observó disminución significativa (p<0.05 en la ganancia de peso corporal en los animales expuestos a 200 ppb en la dieta. Los niveles de 100 y 200 ppb (ng/g de aflatoxinas indujeron cambios leves a moderados en el hígado. El metabolismo microsomal de la AFB1 demostró la producción del epóxido de la AFB1 como único metabolito. Conclusiones. Los resultados del presente estudio demuestran que la chinchilla es altamente resistente a las aflatoxinas, pudiendo tolerar durante al menos dos meses niveles de aflatoxinas en el alimento que resultarían letales, en apenas unos pocos días, para especies sensibles como el cerdo o el perro.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chinchilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chinchilla Chinchilla lanigera Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Chinchi...lla_lanigera_L.png Chinchilla_lanigera_NL.png Chinchilla_lanigera_S.png Chinchilla_lanigera_NS.png http...://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchilla+lanigera&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchi...lla+lanigera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchi...lla+lanigera&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchilla+lanigera&t=NS ...

  3. Retention of solute and particle markers in the digestive tract of chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger).

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    Hagen, K B; Dittmann, M T; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2016-10-01

    The chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) is a herbivorous hystricomorph South American rodent for which no mean digesta retention times have been reported so far. Six animals (mean body mass ± standard deviation: 513 ± 99 g) on a diet of grass hay and lucerne-based pellets were given a pulse dose of a solute (cobalt-EDTA) and a particle (chromium-mordanted fibre, Oryctolagus cuniculus) or guinea pigs (Cavia procellus), it would be interesting to compare the digestive efficiency of chinchillas on high levels of dietary fibre to other species. PMID:26857102

  4. Surgical management of multiple metatarsal fractures in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

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    Desprez, Isabelle; Pignon, Charly; Decambron, Adeline; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2016-10-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 3-month-old sexually intact female chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was examined for sudden onset of non-weight-bearing lameness of the right hind limb. CLINICAL FINDINGS On physical examination, the right pes was swollen. An open wound on the medial aspect of the metatarsal region exposed the second metatarsal bone, and the pes was displaced laterally. Radiographs of the right pes revealed oblique displaced fractures of the 4 metatarsal bones. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Surgical treatment was elected, and enrofloxacin was administered prior to surgery. The protruding fragment of the second metatarsal bone was excised, and the third and fourth metatarsal bones were repaired with intramedullary pins and external skeletal fixation. The chinchilla was bearing weight on the affected limb 9 days after surgery with only mild lameness. The implants were removed 35 days after surgery when radiographs showed bony union of the third and fourth metatarsal bones and continued reduction of the fractures of the second and fifth metatarsal bones. Fifty-six days after surgery, the chinchilla was bearing full weight on the limb, and radiographs showed bony union of the third, fourth, and fifth metatarsal bones. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that intramedullary pinning combined with an epoxy resin external fixator may be an effective technique for metatarsal fracture repair in chinchillas. This method allowed physiologic positioning of the limb and functional hind limb use during fracture healing. Prospective studies of fracture healing in exotic small mammals are indicated. PMID:27654167

  5. Seasonal evaluations of urinary androgen metabolites and semen quality in domestic long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) under natural photoperiod.

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    Dominchin, M F; Bianconi, S; Ponzio, M F; Fiol de Cuneo, M F; Ruiz, R D; Busso, J M

    2014-02-01

    Chinchilla spp. is a South American hystricomorph rodent genus currently considered almost extinct in the wild. The high quality of chinchilla fur motivated the harvesting of chinchillas for the fur market. Reproductive biology advances come from studies on commercially exploited animals, especially Chinchilla lanigera. We studied seasonal variation of urinary androgen metabolites, sperm concentration and sperm functional activity in males of domestic Chinchilla lanigera under natural photoperiod. In Córdoba city (31° S-64° W; Argentina), within the same latitudes as those of the historic Andean distribution (tropical deserts; 15°-34° S), domestic males (n=7) were studied in May (autumn), August (winter), November (spring), and February (summer). Urine was seasonally collected (over 24h; once for season, 4 in total) to measure urinary androgen metabolites (RIA), before semen collection by electroejaculation. The results indicated that although testicular volume (relative to body weight) and values of sperm functional activity did not show seasonal changes, a seasonal variation in androgen excretion was detected, with the highest values occurring during "short" light/dark cycles (autumn-winter). In addition, viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome mean values during winter-spring were higher than in autumn or summer. This study provides information that might contribute to the assessment of testicular activity in male chinchilla subjected to genetic selection in the fur industry. In addition, since domestic chinchilla still share some genomic characteristics with their counterparts in the wild, results presented may alsocontribute to ex situ breeding program of endangered chinchilla. In conclusion, natural photoperiod cycle affects testicular activity in domestic chinchilla. PMID:24503344

  6. Morphometry of the alimentary system of the long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera

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    Mirosława Kulawik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 40 long-tailed chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera (20 females and 20 males. The study measured the length of the internal organs of the digestive system and the measurements of their mass. In order to compare the examined metric traits in the male and the female, the figures were statistically analysed. The results found that the average length of the esophagus, the greater curvature of the stomach and cecum were larger in males. After estimating the mass of internal organs it was found that in the male greater value reached mass of the stomach and duodenum with food contained in it and mass of duodenum cleared of leftover food. Research has also shown that the females were characterized by longer intestines than males. The ratio of the small intestine to the large intestine in females was 1: 1.52, in males 1: 1.58.

  7. Gross morphological features of plexus brachialis in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera

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    A. Cevik-Demirkan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the detailed features of the morphological structure and the innervation areas of the plexus brachialis in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera. The animals (5 female and 5 male were euthanased with ketamine hydrocloride and xylazine hydrocloride combination, 60 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, respectively. Skin, muscles and nerves were dissected under a stereo-microscope. The brachial plexus of the chinchilla is formed by rami ventrales of C5-C8, T1 and T2, and possesses a single truncus. The subscapular nerve is formed by the rami of the spinal nerves originating from C6 (one thin ramus and C7 (one thick and 2 thin rami. These nerves innervate the subscapular and teres minor muscles. The long thoracic nerve, before joining with the brachial plexus, obtains branches from C6 and C7 in 5 cadavers (3 male, 2 female, from C7 in 4 cadavers (2 male, 2 female and from C6-C8 in only 1 female cadaver. These nerves disperse in variable combinations to form the extrinsic and intrinstic named, nerves of the thoracic limb. An undefined nerve branch originates from the rami ventrales of C7, C8 and T1 spinal nerves enter the coracobrachial muscle.

  8. Prevalence and analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in chinchillas

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    Aoyama Naoki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger are popular as pets and are often used as laboratory animals for various studies. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major infectious agent that causes otitis media, pneumonia, septicaemia enteritis, and sudden death in chinchillas. This bacterium is also a leading cause of nosocomial infections in humans. To prevent propagation of P. aeruginosa infection among humans and animals, detailed characteristics of the isolates, including antibiotic susceptibility and genetic features, are needed. In this study, we surveyed P. aeruginosa distribution in chinchillas bred as pets or laboratory animals. We also characterized the isolates from these chinchillas by testing for antibiotic susceptibility and by gene analysis. Results P. aeruginosa was isolated from 41.8% of the 67 chinchillas included in the study. Slide agglutination and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis discriminated 5 serotypes and 7 unique patterns, respectively. For the antibiotic susceptibility test, 40.9% of isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, 77.3% to ciprofloxacin, 77.3% to imipenem, and 72.7% to ceftazidime. DNA analyses confirmed that none of the isolates contained the gene encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases; however, 2 of the total 23 isolates were found to have a gene similar to the pilL gene that has been identified in the pathogenicity island of a clinical isolate of P. aeruginosa. Conclusions P. aeruginosa is widely spread in chinchillas, including strains with reduced susceptibility to the antibiotics and highly virulent strains. The periodic monitoring should be performed to help prevent the propagation of this pathogen and reduce the risk of infection from chinchillas to humans.

  9. The Chinchilla's vestibulo-ocular reflex

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    Merwin, W. H., Jr.; Wall, Conrad, III; Tomko, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was measured and characterized in seven adult chinchillas using 0.01 to 1.0 Hz angular velocity sinusoids. Gains were less than compensatory, and were variable from day to day, but phases were highly repeatable both within and between animals. The best fitting transfer function to the average data of all animals had a dominant time constant of 7.5 sec, and an adaptation operator with a time constant of 24.0 sec. There were certain nonlinearities in the horizontal VOR of this animal, and it was difficult to elicit a robust optokinetic response. Results are discussed in relation to similar measurements in other species.

  10. Organisation of autonomic nervous structures in the small intestine of chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

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    Nowak, E

    2014-08-01

    Using histochemical, histological and immunocytochemical methods, organisation of the autonomic nerve structures in small intestine of chinchilla was investigated. Myenteric plexus was localised between circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. Forming network nodes, the small autonomic, cholinergic ganglia were linked with the bundles of nerve fibres. Adrenergic structures were visible as specific varicose, rosary-like fibres forming bundles of parallel fibres connecting network nodes. Structures of the submucosal plexus formed a finer network than those of the myenteric plexus. Moreover, in 'whole-mount' specimens, fibres forming thick perivascular plexuses were also observed. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the cholinergic and adrenergic character of the investigated structures. VAChT-positive neurones were found only in myenteric plexus, and numerous VAChT-positive and DBH-positive fibres were found in both plexuses.

  11. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions.

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    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-10-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa-a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis.

  12. Experimental otitis media in gerbils and chinchillas with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulghum, R S; Brinn, J E; Smith, A M; Daniel, H J; Loesche, P J

    1982-01-01

    To ascertain the usefulness of Mongolian gerbils as an inbred model for otitis media, 52 Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, strain MONT/Tum) were compared with 26 chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) for susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a polymicrobic culture including anaerobes (Streptococcus intermedius, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Corynebacterium sp.). Organisms were inoculated percutaneously into the supe...

  13. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Chinchillas and Degus.

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    Mans, Christoph; Jekl, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Dental disease is among the most common causes for chinchillas and degus to present to veterinarians. Most animals with dental disease present with weight loss, reduced food intake/anorexia, and drooling. Degus commonly present with dyspnea. Dental disease has been primarily referred to as elongation and malocclusion of the cheek teeth. Periodontal disease, caries, and tooth resorption are common diseases in chinchillas, but are missed frequently during routine intraoral examination, even performed under general anesthesia. A diagnostic evaluation, including endoscopy-guided intraoral examination and diagnostic imaging of the skull, is necessary to detect oral disorders and to perform the appropriate therapy. PMID:27497209

  14. Influence of Selected Extenders for Liquid Storage at 4 degrees C of Breeding Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) Semen on Sperm DNA Integrity.

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    Niedbała, Piotr; Szeleszczuk, Olga; Kuchta-Gładysz, Marta; Joneczek, Maria; Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata; Maj, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The influence of two commercial and two laboratory oriented extenders on survival rate and DNA integrity of chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) sperm was determined during liquid storage. Semen was collected using an electroejaculator from 6 adult male chinchillas. Ejaculates (n = 16) were diluted with extenders to obtain a concentration of 40 x 10 (3) sperm/5 μl. After dilution the semen samples were stored at 4"C. The percent motility, progressive motility, and morphology were assessed conventionally, whereas DNA integrity was evaluated by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (comet) assay at 0 (just after dilution), 24, 48 and 72 h. Conventional assessment of sperm quality showed that commercial extenders are characterized by the lowest sperm survival parameters out of the investigated extenders. In commercial extenders spermatozoa lost their capacity for progressive motility compared to laboratory extenders. After 24 h storage, from 21.67% to 30% of motile sperms were observed in commercial extender whereas total sperm motility was 63.33% (41.67% with progressive motility) in samples in which stallion semen extender was used. After 72 h storage, 10% of sperm were motile in stallion semen extender while no sperm movement was observed in tubes containing the commercial extender. Furthermore, a lower percentage of damaged spermatozoa in laboratory oriented extenders was demonstrated. It was also stated that along with the extended time of semen storage at 4 degrees C, commercial extenders lost their protective action. An analysis of DNA content in the heads of sperm cells and tail moment (TM) showed that the most useful extender for liquid preservation of chinchilla semen was the extender for stallions.

  15. Wiener-kernel analysis of responses to noise of chinchilla auditory-nerve fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recio-Spinoso, A; Temchin, AN; van Dijk, P; Fan, YH; Ruggero, MA

    2005-01-01

    Responses to broadband Gaussian white noise were recorded in auditory-nerve fibers of deeply anesthetized chinchillas and analyzed by computation of zeroth-, first-, and second-order Wiener kernels. The first- order kernels ( similar to reverse correlations or "revcors") of fibers with characteristi

  16. Comparing spectral resolvability in chinchillas and human listeners using phase discrimination

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    Shofner, William P.; Sparks, Kathryn; Wu, Yuanxing Esther; Pham, Ellen

    2001-05-01

    A tone complex made of harmonic components that are added in cosine-starting phase can be discriminated from complexes comprised of identical harmonics that are added with random-starting phases. Phase discrimination occurs when unresolved harmonics interact within a single auditory channel. When harmonics are resolved, there is less interaction among components resulting in poorer phase discrimination performance. Thus, phase discrimination indirectly reflects spectral resolvability. Performance in a phase discrimination task was measured in chinchillas and human listeners to compare spectral resolvability between the two groups. Subjects discriminated a cosine-phase tone complex from random-phase tone complexes in a go/no-go behavioral paradigm. Tone complexes were comprised of a 250-Hz fundamental frequency and N consecutive higher harmonics, where N was 5, 10, 20, and 40. Performance was evaluated in terms of d'. The results show that the measured d' increased as N increased, and values of d' for each N condition were similar between chinchillas and human listeners. Values of the criterion for each N condition were also similar between chinchillas and humans. The results do not support the hypothesis that spectral resolvability is poorer in chinchillas, but suggest that resolvability is similar between the two groups. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  17. Conjuntivite bacteriana secundária à doença dentária em chinchilas (Chinchilla lanigera Bacterial conjunctivitis secondary to dental disease in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera

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    Ricardo Barbosa Lucena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available São relatados três casos de conjuntivite bacteriana associada à doença dentária grave em chinchilas. Todas as chinchilas afetadas tinham histórico de emagrecimento, hipersalivação e epífora, que progrediu para exsudação ocular purulenta. Durante a necropsia, foi constatado marcado alongamento da coroa clínica dos incisivos e molares, e crescimento do ápice dentário, causando deformação óssea e compressão do canal lacrimal. Histologicamente, observou-se infiltrado de neutrófilos na conjuntiva e pálpebras. Cultivo microbiológico do exsudato ocular revelou crescimento de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva . Uma compressão do canal lacrimal pelo crescimento dentário excessivo impediu a drenagem das lágrimas, resultando em epífora. Esse é um importante fator predisponente para infecção bacteriana ocular em chinchilas.Three cases of bacterial conjunctivitis associated with severe dental disease in chinchillas are described. All affected chinchillas had a history of weight loss, ptyalism, and epiphora which progressed to suppurative ocular exsudation. At necropsy incisor and molar teeth revealed marked elongation of the clinical crown and overgrowth of the dental apexes resulting in deformation of the tear ducts. Histologically, there was neutrophilic infiltrate in the conjunctiva and eyelid skin. Microbiological culture carried out in samples from the ocular exsudate yielded Staphylococcus coagulase-positive. Compression of the lacrimal duct by dental overgrowth compromised tear draining and resulting in epiphora. This is a major predisposing factor inducing bacterial ocular infection in chinchillas.

  18. SLEEPING AND RESTING BEHAVIOR, FACTORS AND IMPLICATIONS IN BREEDING TECHNOLOGY OF CHINCHILLA

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    M. BOTHA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fallowing many papers, related to different breeding systems of the Chinchilla l., wirenetting floor and bedding cage, which results that there are no significant differencesoverview the growth indices and implicit the forage intake, we where studied thebreed’s behavior to explain all these. Adopting one of the breeding systems involvessmaller or bigger investment, this being the principal aim of this paper. Knowing thatChinchilla has an inactive period of 71,02% from 24 h, they are resting 54,05% and16,97% so-called sleeping in 24 h. From our studies results that most of inactive time(rest and sleeping they are sitting on the dust bath tray, no matter the floor type. Thatexplains there are no significant differences in outputs depending on the adoptedtechnology.

  19. Mycoflora and Natural Incidence of Selected Mycotoxins in Rabbit and Chinchilla Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Vanesa Greco; Alejandro Guillermo Pardo; Vanesa Ludemann; Pablo Eduardo Martino; Graciela Noemí Pose

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that cause a toxic response when ingested by animals or man. Demand of natural fur, such as those from rabbit and chinchilla, produced under controlled conditions, has increased worldwide. The toxicogenic mycoflora contaminating feeds for these animals was enumerated and identified. Six of the major mycotoxins implicated in animal mycotoxicosis were detected and quantified. Moulds count ranged from

  20. Regeneration of sciatic nerve in chinchilla posterity whose mothers were irradiated before mating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the sciatic curve regeneration after smooth cutting thereof in 198 young chinchillas whose mothers were subjected to whole-body single irradiation with doses of 0.05, 0.15, 0.5 or 1.5 Gy one week before mating. The statistically important data obtained may be used to estimate the risk from ionizing radiation and ensure the radiation sequrity standards

  1. Stronger efferent suppression of cochlear neural potentials by contralateral acoustic stimulation in awake than in anesthetized chinchilla

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    Cristian eAedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of sensory cells in the mammalian cochlea, inner hair cells, which make synaptic contact with auditory-nerve afferent fibers, and outer hair cells that are innervated by crossed and uncrossed medial olivocochlear (MOC efferent fibers. Contralateral acoustic stimulation activates the uncrossed efferent MOC fibers reducing cochlear neural responses, thus modifying the input to the central auditory system. The chinchilla, among all studied mammals, displays the lowest percentage of uncrossed MOC fibers raising questions about the strength and frequency distribution of the contralateral-sound effect in this species. On the other hand, MOC effects on cochlear sensitivity have been mainly studied in anesthetized animals and since the MOC-neuron activity depends on the level of anesthesia, it is important to assess the influence of anesthesia in the strength of efferent effects. Seven adult chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger were chronically implanted with round-window electrodes in both cochleae. We compared the effect of contralateral sound in awake and anesthetized condition. Compound action potentials (CAP and cochlear microphonics (CM were measured in the ipsilateral cochlea in response to tones in absence and presence of contralateral sound. Control measurements performed after middle-ear muscles section in one animal discarded any possible middle-ear reflex activation. Contralateral sound produced CAP amplitude reductions in all chinchillas, with suppression effects greater by about 1-3 dB in awake than in anesthetized animals. In contrast, CM amplitude increases of up to 1.9 dB were found in only three awake chinchillas. In both conditions the strongest efferent effects were produced by contralateral tones at frequencies equal or close to those of ipsilateral tones. Contralateral CAP suppressions for 1-6 kHz ipsilateral tones corresponded to a span of uncrossed MOC fiber innervation reaching at least the central third of the

  2. Observations on the morphology and chemical analysis of medullary granules in chinchilla hair. Research letters

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    Keogh, H.J. (South African Inst. for Medical Research, Johannesburg); Haylett, T. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Chemical Research Lab.)

    1983-02-01

    The ultrastructure of the medullary granules of white and grey chinchilla hair was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis in an attempt to clarify their structure and function. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and amino acid analysis showed them to be composed of melanin. The sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy is discussed. The metal content was qualitatively established by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and quantitatively determined on a Varian Techtron model AAs atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Amino acid analysis of the granule, was carried out on a Beckman 121 amino acid analyser. Information is provided on the amino acid composition of the medullary granules as well as its metal content.

  3. Observations on the morphology and chemical analysis of medullary granules in chinchilla hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrastructure of the medullary granules of white and grey chinchilla hair was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis in an attempt to clarify their structure and function. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and amino acid analysis showed them to be composed of melanin. The sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy is discussed. The metal content was qualitatively established by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and quantitatively determined on a Varian Techtron model AAs atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Amino acid analysis of the granule, was carried out on a Beckman 121 amino acid analyser. Information is provided on the amino acid composition of the medullary granules as well as its metal content

  4. Immunoreactivity of S100β protein in the hippocampus of chinchilla

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    Krawczyk Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate S100β protein in astrocytes of CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus proper and the dentate gyrus with the hilus yet undefined in mature males of chinchilla. The presence of S100β was determined using indirect immunohistochemical peroxidase-antiperoxidase method with specific monoclonal antibody against this protein. Most of the S100β-positive cells were detected in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and in the middle part of the hilus. In CA3 area, it was found that the most numerous cells with S100β are in stratum radiatum. In CA1 area, there were single astrocytes expressing this protein. This data demonstrates species differences and a large quantity of S100β immunoreactive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of chinchilla, which may be associated with structural reorganisation of the hippocampus and with neurogenesis, learning, and memorising process dependent on the hippocampus.

  5. Relación costo_beneficio en la termorregulación de Chinchilla lanigera Cost-benefit relationship in thermoregulation of Chinchilla lanigera

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    ARTURO CORTES

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinchilla lanigera, es un roedor endémico de Chile que habita áreas desérticas del norte de Chile. Postulamos que C. lanigera (silvestre por habitar en ambientes con escasa disponibilidad de alimento y agua, debiera poseer atributos fisiológicos que minimicen los requerimientos (costos de energía y agua. Se evaluó el metabolismo energético en atmósferas de aire y He-O2, la pérdida de agua por evaporación (EWL y temperatura corporal (Tb a diferentes temperaturas ambientales (Ta. Los resultados más relevantes muestran que la tasa metabólica basal (BMR fue 0,66 mlO2/g h y la conductancia térmica (C de 0,0376 mlO2/g h°C; valores que corresponden al 80,4% y 72,5% de la magnitud predicha para un mamífero euterio de similar tamaño corporal, respectivamente. La conductancia térmica en atmósfera He-O2 fue 0,089 mlO2/g h°C, siendo la razón C He-O2 /C = 0,089/0,038 = 2,34, el valor más alto descrito para roedores. Esto indicaría que C. lanigera, poseería la aislación térmica más alta documentada a la fecha. Además, la evaporación pulmocutánea (EWL equivale al 95% del valor esperado para heterómidos. Chinchilla lanigera presenta una clara relación de costo-beneficio y/o compromisos en su capacidad de termorregulación. En efecto, los bajos valores de C y EWL implican costos de termorregulación a altas temperaturas (riesgo de hipertermia, particularmente cuando su hábitat desértico alcanza temperaturas ž 30°C. A la vez, estos bajos valores de C, EWL y BMR constituyen beneficios fisiológicos que favorecen la economía de energía y agua en un hábitat que es xérico y poco productivoChinchilla lanigera, is an endemic rodent inhabiting desert areas of northern Chile. We postulated that wild chinchilla should has a cost-benefit relationship in thermoregulation to cope with desert habitats. We evaluated the energy metabolism in air and He-O2, evaporative water loss (EWL and body temperature (Tb at different ambient

  6. Analysis of Conformation Characters in Chinchillas of Standard and Polish Beige Strains in the Breeding Farm ‘Raba’ in Myślenice

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Socha; Dauta Wójcik; Dorota Kołodziejczyk; Aldona Gontarz

    2010-01-01

    The work aimed at the analysis of the influence of colour type on chinchilla utilitarian traits. Research concerns animal size and fur quality traits. The data for the analysis was collected from the breeding farm „Raba” in Myślenice (southern Poland). The data concerns standard and Polish beige chinchillas and covers 3 years. The analysis included the following factors: year of evaluation, animal sex, colour type and interactions of these factors. The analysis of variance proved statisticall...

  7. Reference values for chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger blood cells and serum biochemical parameters Valores de referência para os parâmetros das células e bioquímica sangüínea da chinchila (Chinchilla laniger

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    Tális de Oliveira Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Raising chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger for commercial purpose has increased significantly; however, hematological and serum biochemical reference values have not yet been determined for chinchillas raised in south Brazil. Establishing blood cells and serum biochemistry reference values might be helpful to evaluate health status of chinchillas and might be used as a tool by clinicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the reference values for blood cells and serum biochemistry of Chinchilla laniger. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture from 16 adult males, at the time they were killed to remove the fur coat, and from 8 adult males anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. Blood cell counts and serum biochemistry analysis were performed using standard techniques and the results were expressed as mean ± SEM. Analysis of blood parameters from post-mortem cardiac punctured and from anesthetized chinchillas indicated that blood samples from anesthetized chinchillas had higher PCV, Hemoglobin, MCHC and WBC (P A criação de chinchila (Chinchilla laniger com objetivos comerciais tem crescido muito nos últimos anos. No entanto, os valores de referência para os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos não foram ainda determinados para chinchilas criados no sul do Brasil. O estabelecimento dos valores de referência para esses parâmetros pode servir de auxílio para a avaliação da saúde das chinchilas e servir de auxílio diagnóstico para o clínico. Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar os valores de referência das células e da bioquímica sangüínea da Chinchilla laniger. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas por meio de punção cardíaca de 16 machos adultos no momento em que os animais foram mortos para remoção da pele, e de 8 machos adultos após anestesia com xylazina e ketamina. A contagem das células sangüíneas e a análise dos parâmetros bioquímicos foram feitas utilizando-se métodos padronizados em

  8. Experimental otitis media in gerbils and chinchillas with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulghum, R S; Brinn, J E; Smith, A M; Daniel, H J; Loesche, P J

    1982-05-01

    To ascertain the usefulness of Mongolian gerbils as an inbred model for otitis media, 52 Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, strain MONT/Tum) were compared with 26 chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) for susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a polymicrobic culture including anaerobes (Streptococcus intermedius, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Corynebacterium sp.). Organisms were inoculated percutaneously into the superior chamber of the middle ear bulla. The gerbils and chinchillas shared similar susceptibilities and responses to the inoculated organisms as determined by X-ray, otoscopic, histopathological, and microbiological determinations at 5 to 7 days. Koch's postulate studies proved the role of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in the pathology found in both animal models. The animals were also susceptible to the polymicrobic culture, although the relative virulence of the individual members of this mixture was low, suggesting that these species potentiated as a polymicrobic mixture. The Corynebacterium sp. appeared to elicit the greatest histopathological response in chronic (8-week) studies in gerbils. The gerbils were found to be useful as an alternative animal model for the study of otitis media of bacterial etiology.

  9. Effects on auditory-nerve fibers of opening the otic capsule at the apex of the chinchilla cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Spinoso, Alberto; Temchin, Andrei N.; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2015-12-01

    Vibration responses to clicks measured at the apex of chinchilla cochleae with open otic capsules have onsets much shorter than those of responses of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) corrected for synaptic and neural delays. Apical vibration responses to tones in open cochleae also differ in other respects from the responses to tones of ANFs with low characteristic frequency (CF) in normal chinchilla cochleae. To further specify the origin(s) of these differences, we recorded from chinchilla ANFs after delicately opening a small hole in the otic capsule overlying scala vestibuli in the cochlear apex. In those cochleae, the earliest ANF responses to clicks are often evoked by condensation (rather than rarefaction) clicks and responses to tones often exhibit level-dependent phase changes different from those in normal cochleae. These findings are largely consistent with, and seem to account for, apical vibration responses of cochleae with open otic capsules. An unexpected finding is that the tuning curves of ANFs with moderately high CF and normal CF thresholds often had hypersensitive tails.

  10. Surto de listeriose sistêmica em chinchilas Outbreak of systemic listeriosis in chinchillas

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    Jackeline Karsten Kirinus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A listeriose é uma doença infecciosa que afeta uma grande variedade de espécies animais, causando septicemia, encefalite e aborto. As chinchilas são os animais mais susceptíveis à infecção sistêmica por Listeria monocytogenes. Este relato descreve um surto de listeriose sistêmica em uma criação de chinchilas da região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, onde cerca de 16% das chinchilas morreram. Na necropsia, havia múltiplos focos brancos, pequenos e de distribuição aleatória nas superfícies capsular e de corte do fígado e aumento de volume do linfonodo hepático. Histologicamente, observaram-se hepatite necrossupurativa e linfadenite supurativa multifocais, com numerosos bacilos intralesionais. L. monocytogenes foi o agente etiológico do surto de listeriose sistêmica, sendo o diagnóstico confirmado por meio das lesões de necropsia e histopatológicas, das características fenotípicas e genotípicas da bactéria e da técnica de imuno-histoquímica.Listeriosis is an infectious disease, which affects a variety of animal species and cause septicemia, encephalitis and abortion. Chinchillas are the most susceptible animals to the systemic infection by Listeria monocytogenes. This report describes an outbreak of systemic listeriosis in a farm of chinchillas in the Central region of the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Mortality rate was about 16%. On necropsy, there were multiple random small white foci on the liver capsule and parenchyma and enlargement of the hepatic lymph node. Histologically, there were multifocal necro-suppurative hepatitis and suppurative lymphadenitis with numerous intralesional bacilli. L. monocytogenes was the etiology of the systemic listeriosis outbreak. The diagnosis was based on gross and microscopic lesions, genotypical and phenotypical characteristics and by immunohistochemistry technique.

  11. Effects of intratympanic gentamicin on vestibular afferents and hair cells in the chinchilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Timo P; Minor, Lloyd B; Hullar, Timothy E; Carey, John P

    2005-02-01

    Gentamicin is toxic to vestibular hair cells, but its effects on vestibular afferents have not been defined. We treated anesthetized chinchillas with one injection of gentamicin (26.7 mg/ml) into the middle ear and made extracellular recordings from afferents after 5-25 (early) or 90-115 days (late). The relative proportions of regular, intermediate, and irregular afferents did not change after treatment. The spontaneous firing rate of regular afferents was lower (P galvanic currents was unaffected for all afferents. Intratympanic gentamicin treatment reduced the histological density of all hair cells by 57% (P = 0.04). The density of hair cells with calyx endings was reduced by 99% (P = 0.03), although some remaining hair cells had other features suggestive of type I morphology. Type II hair cell density was not significantly reduced. These findings suggest that a single intratympanic gentamicin injection causes partial damage and loss of vestibular hair cells, particularly type I hair cells or their calyceal afferent endings, does not damage the afferent spike initiation zones, and preserves enough hair cell synaptic activity to drive the spontaneous activity of vestibular afferents.

  12. A functional tonB gene is required for both virulence and competitive fitness in a chinchilla model of Haemophilus influenzae otitis media

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    Morton Daniel J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for aerobic growth and possesses multiple mechanisms to obtain this essential nutrient. Methods An insertional mutation in tonB was constructed and the impact of the mutation on virulence and fitness in a chinchilla model of otitis media was determined. The tonB insertion mutant strain was significantly impacted in both virulence and fitness as compared to the wildtype strain in this model. Conclusions The tonB gene of H. influenzae is required for the establishment and maintenance of middle ear infection in this chinchilla model of bacterial disease.

  13. Enhancement and distortion in the temporal representation of sounds in the ventral cochlear nucleus of chinchillas and cats.

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    Alberto Recio-Spinoso

    Full Text Available A subset of neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN of the auditory brainstem has the ability to enhance the auditory nerve's temporal representation of stimulating sounds. These neurons reside in the ventral region of the CN (VCN and are usually known as highly synchronized, or high-sync, neurons. Most published reports about the existence and properties of high-sync neurons are based on recordings performed on a VCN output tract--not the VCN itself--of cats. In other species, comprehensive studies detailing the properties of high-sync neurons, or even acknowledging their existence, are missing.Examination of the responses of a population of VCN neurons in chinchillas revealed that a subset of those neurons have temporal properties similar to high-sync neurons in the cat. Phase locking and entrainment--the ability of a neuron to fire action potentials at a certain stimulus phase and at almost every stimulus period, respectively--have similar maximum values in cats and chinchillas. Ranges of characteristic frequencies for high-sync neurons in chinchillas and cats extend up to 600 and 1000 Hz, respectively. Enhancement of temporal processing relative to auditory nerve fibers (ANFs, which has been shown previously in cats using tonal and white-noise stimuli, is also demonstrated here in the responses of VCN neurons to synthetic and spoken vowel sounds.Along with the large amount of phase locking displayed by some VCN neurons there occurs a deterioration in the spectral representation of the stimuli (tones or vowels. High-sync neurons exhibit a greater distortion in their responses to tones or vowels than do other types of VCN neurons and auditory nerve fibers.Standard deviations of first-spike latency measured in responses of high-sync neurons are lower than similar values measured in ANFs' responses. This might indicate a role of high-sync neurons in other tasks beyond sound localization.

  14. Role of Sialic Acid and Complex Carbohydrate Biosynthesis in Biofilm Formation by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in the Chinchilla Middle Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Jurcisek, Joseph; Greiner, Laura; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Zaleski, Anthony; Apicella, Michael A.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

    2005-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an important pathogen in respiratory tract infections, including otitis media (OM). NTHI forms biofilms in vitro as well as in the chinchilla middle ear, suggesting that biofilm formation in vivo might play an important role in the pathogenesis and chronicity of OM. We've previously shown that SiaA, SiaB, and WecA are involved in biofilm production by NTHI in vitro. To investigate whether these gene products were also involved in biofilm production...

  15. Stimulus Frequency Otoacoustic Emission Delays and Generating Mechanisms in Guinea Pigs, Chinchillas, and Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina-Greene, Maria A; Guinan, John J

    2015-12-01

    According to coherent reflection theory (CRT), stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) arise from cochlear irregularities coherently reflecting energy from basilar membrane motion within the traveling-wave peak. This reflected energy arrives in the ear canal predominantly with a single delay at each frequency. However, data from humans and animals indicate that (1) SFOAEs can have multiple delay components, (2) low-frequency SFOAE delays are too short to be accounted for by CRT, and (3) "SFOAEs" obtained with a 2nd ("suppressor") tone ≥2 octaves above the probe tone have been interpreted as arising from the area basal to the region of cochlear amplification. To explore these issues, we collected SFOAEs by the suppression method in guinea pigs and time-frequency analyzed these data, simulated SFOAEs, and published chinchilla SFOAEs. Time-frequency analysis revealed that most frequencies showed only one SFOAE delay component while other frequencies had multiple components including some with short delays. We found no systematic patterns in the occurrence of multiple delay components. Using a cochlear model that had significant basilar membrane motion only in the peak region of the traveling wave, simulated SFOAEs had single and multiple delay components similar to the animal SFOAEs. This result indicates that multiple components (including ones with short delays) can originate from cochlear mechanical irregularities in the SFOAE peak region and are not necessarily indicative of SFOAE sources in regions ≥2 octaves basal of the SFOAE peak region. We conclude that SFOAEs obtained with suppressors close to the probe frequency provide information primarily about the mechanical response in the region that receives amplification, and we attribute the too-short SFOAE delays at low frequencies to distortion-source SFOAEs and coherent reflection from multiple cochlear motions. Our findings suggest that CRT needs revision to include reflections from multiple

  16. Transfection using hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the inner ear via an intact round window membrane in chinchilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xuewen; Ding Dalian [Central South University, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital (China); Jiang Haiyan [State University of New York at Buffalo, Center for Hearing and Deafness (United States); XingXiaowei [Central South University, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital (China); Huang, Suping [Central South University, State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy (China); Liu Hong [Central South University, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital (China); Chen Zhedong [Central South University, State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy (China); Sun Hong, E-mail: shjhaj@vip.163.com [Central South University, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xiangya Hospital (China)

    2012-01-15

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAT) are known to have excellent biocompatibility, and have attracted increasing attention as new candidates of non-viral vectors for gene therapy. In our previous studies, nHAT carrying a therapeutic gene and a reporter gene were successfully transfected into the spiral ganglion neurons in the inner ear of guinea pigs in vivo as well as in the cultured cell lines, although the transfection efficiencies were never higher than 30%. In this study, the surface modification of nHAT with polyethylenimine (PEI) was made (PEI-nHAT, diameter = 73.09 {+-} 27.32 nm) and a recombinant plasmid carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene was constructed as pEGFPC2-NT3. The PEI modified nHAT and the recombinant plasmid was then connected to form the nHAT-based vector-gene complex (PEI-nHAT-pEGFPC2-NT3). This complex was then placed onto the intact round window membranes of the chinchillas for inner ear transfection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was tested to evaluate auditory function. Green fluorescence of EGFP was observed using confocal microscopy 48 h after administering vector-gene complexes. There was no significant threshold shift in tone burst-evoked ABR at any tested frequency. Abundant, condensed green fluorescence was found in dark cells on both sides of the crista and around the macula of the utricle. Scattered EGFP signals were also detected in vestibular hair cells, some Schwann cells in the cochlear spiral ganglion region, some outer pillar cells in the organ of Corti, and a few cells in the stria vascularis. The density of green fluorescence-marked cells was obviously higher in the vestibular dark cell area than in other areas of the inner ear, suggesting that vestibular dark cells may have the ability to actively engulf the nHAT-based vector-gene complexes. Considering the high transfection efficiency in the vestibular system, PEI-nHAT may be a potential vector for gene therapy of

  17. Transfection using hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the inner ear via an intact round window membrane in chinchilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAT) are known to have excellent biocompatibility, and have attracted increasing attention as new candidates of non-viral vectors for gene therapy. In our previous studies, nHAT carrying a therapeutic gene and a reporter gene were successfully transfected into the spiral ganglion neurons in the inner ear of guinea pigs in vivo as well as in the cultured cell lines, although the transfection efficiencies were never higher than 30%. In this study, the surface modification of nHAT with polyethylenimine (PEI) was made (PEI–nHAT, diameter = 73.09 ± 27.32 nm) and a recombinant plasmid carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene was constructed as pEGFPC2–NT3. The PEI modified nHAT and the recombinant plasmid was then connected to form the nHAT-based vector–gene complex (PEI–nHAT–pEGFPC2–NT3). This complex was then placed onto the intact round window membranes of the chinchillas for inner ear transfection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was tested to evaluate auditory function. Green fluorescence of EGFP was observed using confocal microscopy 48 h after administering vector–gene complexes. There was no significant threshold shift in tone burst-evoked ABR at any tested frequency. Abundant, condensed green fluorescence was found in dark cells on both sides of the crista and around the macula of the utricle. Scattered EGFP signals were also detected in vestibular hair cells, some Schwann cells in the cochlear spiral ganglion region, some outer pillar cells in the organ of Corti, and a few cells in the stria vascularis. The density of green fluorescence-marked cells was obviously higher in the vestibular dark cell area than in other areas of the inner ear, suggesting that vestibular dark cells may have the ability to actively engulf the nHAT-based vector–gene complexes. Considering the high transfection efficiency in the vestibular system, PEI–nHAT may be a potential vector for

  18. Strain-specific virulence phenotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae assessed using the Chinchilla laniger model of otitis media.

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    Michael L Forbes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae [Sp] infection is associated with local and systemic disease. Our current understanding of the differential contributions of genetic strain variation, serotype, and host response to disease phenotype is incomplete. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media [OM] we investigated the disease phenotype generated by the laboratory strain TIGR4 and each of thirteen clinical strains (BS68-75, BS290, BS291, BS293, BS436 and BS437; eleven of the thirteen strains have been genomically sequenced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For each strain 100 colony forming units were injected bilaterally into the tympanic bullae of 6 young adult chinchillas under general anesthesia. All animals were examined daily for local and systemic disease by a blinded observer. Pneumatic otoscopy was used to evaluate local disease, and behavioral assessments served as the measure of systemic disease. Virulence scoring was performed using a 4-point scale to assess four clinical parameters [severity and rapidity of local disease onset; and severity and rapidity of systemic disease onset] during a 10-day evaluation period. Highly significant variation was observed among the strains in their ability to cause disease and moribundity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As expected, there was a significant correlation between the rapidity of systemic disease onset and severity of systemic disease; however, there was little correlation between the severity of otoscopic changes and severity of systemic disease. Importantly, it was observed that different strains of the same serotype produced as broad an array of disease phenotypes as did strains of different serotypes. We attribute these phenotypic differences among the strains to the high degree of genomic plasticity that we have previously documented.

  19. COMPARATIVE RESEARCHE REGARDING METABOLIC PROFILE OF THE CALIFORNIAN, NEW ZEALAND WHITE, GRAND CHINCHILLA MEAT RABIT BREEDS AND THE F1 NZCH HYBRIDS

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    DANIELA-MARCELA TOBĂ (GOINA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Precious biological characteristics of rabbits make their breeding a very profitable occupation. The rabbit meat, organoleptically same to the white meat, is rich in proteins, but low in fats. Biological researched done in direction to elucidate the biochemical systems that are the basis for organism physiological processes, have revealed that the level in which this process are develop directly influence the rabbits productivity capacity. 60 rabbit’s heads was used as biological material, distributed in: 15 Californian, 15 New Zeeland White, 15 Grand Chinchilla and 15 F1NZCH hybrids obtained from cross-breeding the New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form. Blood was sampled from the rabbit and was biochemical analyzed. The studied indices were: total protein, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total bilirubine, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose. The experimental lot formed from F1 NZCH hybrids registered a concentration of 2.1 mg/dl uric acid, and in the other three lots the concentration was under 2 mg/dl. In all four lots, uric acid value was in normal limits. The determined creatinine registered very low values, under 1 mg/dl, at the low limit of reference values. At hybrids from New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form, in equal environmental conditions, the serum biochemical analysis haven’t registered significant differences compared to pure breeds individuals.

  20. Low-frequency tone-pip-evoked otoacoustic emissions originate over a broad cochlear region in chinchillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaziak, Karolina K.; Siegel, Jonathan H.

    2015-12-01

    Otoacoustic emissions evoked with transient sounds (TEOAEs) are believed to originate within the tonotopic region of the stimulus in the cochlea via the same mechanisms as emissions evoked with single tones. However, we found that emissions evoked by low frequency ( 6 mm) in chinchillas (Charaziak and Siegel, 2014, ARO Abst., 119). Here we test whether a broad region of generation for low-frequency stimuli is also a characteristic of TEOAEs evoked with 1-kHz tone pips extracted with compression and suppression methods. The TEOAE could be revealed with moderate level suppressors with frequencies extending beyond the stimulus bandwidth (up to 12.1 kHz), with the largest responses obtained with 3.1 - 4.1 kHz suppressors. There was a consistent decline in group delays of suppressor-revealed TEOAEs with increasing suppressor frequency, as expected if higher-frequency suppressors acted on more basal TEOAE generators. Effects of mid- to high-frequency acoustic trauma on TEOAE levels confirm the notion that the suppressors interact with emission components arising near the tonotopic place of the suppressor.

  1. Chronic stimulation of the semicircular canals using a multichannel vestibular prosthesis: effects on locomotion and angular vestibulo-ocular reflex in chinchillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel Q; Rahman, Mehdi A; Fridman, Gene; Dai, Chenkai; Chiang, Bryce; Della Santina, Charles C

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation causes difficulty maintaining stable vision, posture and gait. An implantable prosthesis that partly restores vestibular sensation could significantly improve quality of life for individuals disabled by this disorder. We have developed a head-mounted multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) that restores sufficient semicircular canal function to recreate a 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR). In this study, we evaluated effects of chronic MVP stimulation on locomotion in chinchillas. Two of three animals examined exhibited significant improvements in both locomotion and aVOR.

  2. A member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides is produced in the upper airway of the chinchilla and its mRNA expression is altered by common viral and bacterial co-pathogens of otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, Glen; Ray, William C; Bevins, Charles L; Munson, Robert S; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2007-03-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a component of the innate immune system, play a major role in defense of mucosal surfaces against a wide spectrum of microorganisms such as viral and bacterial co-pathogens of the polymicrobial disease otitis media (OM). To further understand the role of AMPs in OM, we cloned a cDNA encoding a cathelicidin homolog (cCRAMP) from upper respiratory tract (URT) mucosae of the chinchilla, the predominant host used to model experimental OM. Recombinant cCRAMP exhibited alpha-helical secondary structure and killed the three main bacterial pathogens of OM. In situ hybridization showed cCRAMP mRNA production in epithelium of the chinchilla Eustachian tube and RT-PCR was used to amplify cCRAMP mRNA from several other tissues of the chinchilla URT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of chinchilla middle ear epithelial cells (CMEEs) incubated with either viral (influenza A virus, adenovirus, or RSV) or bacterial (nontypeable H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae) pathogens associated with OM demonstrated distinct microbe-specific patterns of altered expression. Collectively, these data showed that viruses and bacteria modulate AMP messages in the URT, which likely contributes to the disease course of OM.

  3. SURFACE PROTEINS AND PNEUMOLYSIN OF ENCAPSULATED AND NONENCAPSULATED STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE MEDIATE VIRULENCE IN A CHINCHILLA MODEL OF OTITIS MEDIA

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    Lance E. Keller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae infections result in a range of human diseases and are responsible for almost one million deaths annually. Pneumococcal disease is mediated in part through surface structures and an anti-phagocytic capsule. Recent studies have shown that nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp make up a significant portion of the pneumococcal population and are able to cause disease. NESp lack some common surface proteins expressed by encapsulated pneumococci, but express surface proteins unique to NESp. A chinchilla model of otitis media (OM was used to determine the effect various pneumococcal mutations have on pathogenesis in both NESp and encapsulated pneumococci. Epithelial cell adhesion and invasion assays were used to examine the effects in relation to deletion of intrinsic genes or expression of novel genes. A mouse model of colonization was also utilized for comparison of various pneumococcal mutants. It was determined that pneumococcal surface protein K (PspK and pneumolysin (Ply affect NESp middle ear pathogenesis, but only PspK affected epithelial cell adhesion. Experiments in an OM model were done with encapsulated strains testing the importance of native virulence factors and treatment of OM. First, a triple deletion of the common virulence factors PspA, PspC, and Ply, (ΔPAC, from an encapsulated background abolished virulence in an OM model while a PspC mutant had detectable, but reduced amounts of recoverable bacteria compared to wildtype. Next, treatment of OM was effective when starting antibiotic treatment within 24 hrs with resolution by 48 hrs post treatment. Expression of NESp-specific virulence factor PspK in an encapsulated strain has not been previously studied, and we showed significantly increased adhesion and invasion of human epithelial cells by pneumococci. Murine colonization was not significantly increased when an encapsulated strain expressed PspK, but colonization was increased when a capsule

  4. Surface Proteins and Pneumolysin of Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Mediate Virulence in a Chinchilla Model of Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lance E; Bradshaw, Jessica L; Pipkins, Haley; McDaniel, Larry S

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections result in a range of human diseases and are responsible for almost one million deaths annually. Pneumococcal disease is mediated in part through surface structures and an anti-phagocytic capsule. Recent studies have shown that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (NESp) make up a significant portion of the pneumococcal population and are able to cause disease. NESp lack some common surface proteins expressed by encapsulated pneumococci, but express surface proteins unique to NESp. A chinchilla model of otitis media (OM) was used to determine the effect various pneumococcal mutations have on pathogenesis in both NESp and encapsulated pneumococci. Epithelial cell adhesion and invasion assays were used to examine the effects in relation to deletion of intrinsic genes or expression of novel genes. A mouse model of colonization was also utilized for comparison of various pneumococcal mutants. It was determined that pneumococcal surface protein K (PspK) and pneumolysin (Ply) affect NESp middle ear pathogenesis, but only PspK affected epithelial cell adhesion. Experiments in an OM model were done with encapsulated strains testing the importance of native virulence factors and treatment of OM. First, a triple deletion of the common virulence factors PspA, PspC, and Ply, (ΔPAC), from an encapsulated background abolished virulence in an OM model while a PspC mutant had detectable, but reduced amounts of recoverable bacteria compared to wildtype. Next, treatment of OM was effective when starting antibiotic treatment within 24 h with resolution by 48 h post-treatment. Expression of NESp-specific virulence factor PspK in an encapsulated strain has not been previously studied, and we showed significantly increased adhesion and invasion of human epithelial cells by pneumococci. Murine colonization was not significantly increased when an encapsulated strain expressed PspK, but colonization was increased when a capsule mutant expressed PspK. The

  5. Hair-cell counts and afferent innervation patterns in the cristae ampullares of the squirrel monkey with a comparison to the chinchilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C.; Lysakowski, A.; Goldberg, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    1. The numbers of type I and type II hair cells were estimated by dissector techniques applied to semithin, stained sections of the horizontal, superior, and posterior cristae in the squirrel monkey and the chinchilla. 2. The crista in each species was divided into concentrically arranged central, intermediate, and peripheral zones of equal areas. The three zones can be distinguished by the sizes of individual hair cells and calyx endings, by the density of hair cells, and by the relative frequency of calyx endings innervating single or multiple type I hair cells. 3. In the monkey crista, type I hair cells outnumber type II hair cells by a ratio of almost 3:1. The ratio decreases from 4-5:1 in the central and intermediate zones to under 2:1 in the peripheral zone. For the chinchilla, the ratio is near 1:1 for the entire crista and decreases only slightly between the central and peripheral zones. 4. Nerve fibers supplying the cristae in the squirrel monkey were labeled by extracellular injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve. Peripheral terminations of individual fibers were reconstructed and related to the zones of the cristae they innervated and to the sizes of their parent axons. Results were similar for the horizontal, superior, and posterior cristae. 5. Axons seldom bifurcate below the neuroepithelium. Most fibers begin branching shortly after crossing the basement membrane. Their terminal arbors are compact, usually extending no more than 50-100 microns from the parent exon. A small number of long intraepithelial fibers enter the intermediate and peripheral zones of the cristae near its base, then run unbranched for long distances through the neuroepithelium to reach the central zone. 6. There are three classes of afferent fibers innervating the monkey crista. Calyx fibers terminate exclusively on type I hair cells, and bouton fibers end only on type II hair cells. Dimorphic fibers provide a mixed innervation, including calyx

  6. Virulence phenotypes of low-passage clinical isolates of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae assessed using the chinchilla laniger model of otitis media

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    Hogg Justin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi are associated with a spectrum of respiratory mucosal infections including: acute otitis media (AOM; chronic otitis media with effusion (COME; otorrhea; locally invasive diseases such as mastoiditis; as well as a range of systemic disease states, suggesting a wide range of virulence phenotypes. Genomic studies have demonstrated that each clinical strain contains a unique genic distribution from a population-based supragenome, the distributed genome hypothesis. These diverse clinical and genotypic findings suggest that each NTHi strain possesses a unique set of virulence factors that contributes to the course of the disease. Results The local and systemic virulence patterns of ten genomically characterized low-passage clinical NTHi strains (PittAA – PittJJ obtained from children with COME or otorrhea were stratified using the chinchilla model of otitis media (OM. Each isolate was used to bilaterally inoculate six animals and thereafter clinical assessments were carried out daily for 8 days by blinded observers. There was no statistical difference in the time it took for any of the 10 NTHi strains to induce otologic (local disease with respect to any or all of the other strains, however the differences in time to maximal local disease and the severity of local disease were both significant between the strains. Parameters of systemic disease indicated that the strains were not all equivalent: time to development of the systemic disease, maximal systemic scores and mortality were all statistically different among the strains. PittGG induced 100% mortality while PittBB, PittCC, and PittEE produced no mortality. Overall Pitt GG, PittII, and Pitt FF produced the most rapid and most severe local and systemic disease. A post hoc determination of the clinical origins of the 10 NTHi strains revealed that these three strains were of otorrheic origin, whereas the other 7 were from patients

  7. Caracterización litogeoquímica del granito La Chinchilla y su relación con el uranio, siella de Velasco, provincia de La Rioja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Salvatore

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El plutón La Chinchilla es un cuerpo granítico de forma subelipsoidal en planta que aflora en el sector central de la sierra de Velasco, provincia de La Rioja, Argentina, cubriendo un área aproximada de 3,75 km2. Intruye en forma neta al granito porfírico Huaco, o bien mediante contactos pegmatoides y en algunos sectores con desarrollo de stockscheider. Fueron definidas tres facies graníticas en base a sus características texturales, composición mineralógica y radioactividad natural. La facies porfírica de mayor extensión areal, la facies equigranular y la facies de borde de grano fino de escasa representación areal, todas correspondientes modalmente a monzogranitos. Los análisis químicos reflejan contenidos elevados en uranio para todas las facies, siendo la equigranular la que muestra los mayores tenores. Asimismo esta facies se encuentra levemente enriquecida en álcalis, elementos incompatibles (F, Rb, Sn y U y relaciones Th/U menores a 0,8 evidenciando un mayor grado de fraccionamiento.

  8. Suppression Measured from Chinchilla Auditory-Nerve-Fiber Responses Following Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Adaptive-Tracking and Systems-Identification Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Mark; Walls, Michael K; Heinz, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    The compressive nonlinearity of cochlear signal transduction, reflecting outer-hair-cell function, manifests as suppressive spectral interactions; e.g., two-tone suppression. Moreover, for broadband sounds, there are multiple interactions between frequency components. These frequency-dependent nonlinearities are important for neural coding of complex sounds, such as speech. Acoustic-trauma-induced outer-hair-cell damage is associated with loss of nonlinearity, which auditory prostheses attempt to restore with, e.g., "multi-channel dynamic compression" algorithms.Neurophysiological data on suppression in hearing-impaired (HI) mammals are limited. We present data on firing-rate suppression measured in auditory-nerve-fiber responses in a chinchilla model of noise-induced hearing loss, and in normal-hearing (NH) controls at equal sensation level. Hearing-impaired (HI) animals had elevated single-fiber excitatory thresholds (by ~ 20-40 dB), broadened frequency tuning, and reduced-magnitude distortion-product otoacoustic emissions; consistent with mixed inner- and outer-hair-cell pathology. We characterized suppression using two approaches: adaptive tracking of two-tone-suppression threshold (62 NH, and 35 HI fibers), and Wiener-kernel analyses of responses to broadband noise (91 NH, and 148 HI fibers). Suppression-threshold tuning curves showed sensitive low-side suppression for NH and HI animals. High-side suppression thresholds were elevated in HI animals, to the same extent as excitatory thresholds. We factored second-order Wiener-kernels into excitatory and suppressive sub-kernels to quantify the relative strength of suppression. We found a small decrease in suppression in HI fibers, which correlated with broadened tuning. These data will help guide novel amplification strategies, particularly for complex listening situations (e.g., speech in noise), in which current hearing aids struggle to restore intelligibility. PMID:27080669

  9. 卡铂对灰鼠中枢听觉系统的影响%Carboplatin results in neuron loss in the cochlear nucleus but not the inferior colliculus or auditory cortex of chinchilla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建和; 杨伟炎; 丁大连; 孙伟; Sandra McFadden; Richard Salvi

    2003-01-01

    Objective Carboplatin selectively destroys inner hair cells (IHC)and typeⅠspiral ganglion neurons in the chinchilla cochlea;however,its effects on the central auditory system are largely unknown.The aim of this study was to determine if carboplatin treatment affects neuron survival in the cochlear nucleus (CN),inferior colliculus(IC)or auditory cortex(AC)of the chinchilla.Methods Chinchillas were treated with carboplatin(100mg/kg IP).Three weeks later,they were sacrificed and perfused intracardially with fixative.Surface preparations of Corti's organ were analyzed for hair cell loss.Serial frozen sections taken from the CN, IC and AC were stained with toluidine blue,and neurons were counted in representative sections from two normal(control)and four carboplatin-treated chinchillas. Results The results showed that carboplatin destroyed approximately 80% of the IHC,but almost none of the outer hair cells (OHC). In the central auditory system, carboplatin resulted in a significant loss of neurons in the anteroventral, posteroventral and dorsal divisions of the CN, but not in the IC or AC. Conclusionon Future studies will determine if the loss of neurons in the CN is a direct result of carboplatin neurotoxicity or a secondary effect of inner hair cell and spiral ganglion neuron loss in the auditory periphery.%目的卡铂选择性破坏灰鼠的内毛细胞和Ⅰ型传入神经末梢已被人们所证实,但是,卡铂是否损害耳蜗核、下丘和听觉皮层还不清楚,本文旨在观察卡铂对灰鼠听觉中枢的毒性作用.方法采用恒低温冷冻连续脑组织切片,以中枢听觉系统神经元的密度来评价卡铂对灰鼠中枢听觉系统的影响.结果发现注射卡铂3和4周后,耳蜗背侧核和腹侧核神经元明显的减少,与正常动物比较有显著性差异.而下丘和听觉皮层神经元的变化与正常灰鼠比较无明显差异.结论说明注射卡铂3和4周后对耳蜗核有明显的毒性作用,可引起耳蜗核神

  10. Correlation between reduction of distortion product otoacoustic emission and percentage of outer hair cell missing in chinchillas%灰鼠畸变产物耳声发射改变和外毛细胞缺失程度的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于栋祯; 丁大连; 殷善开; Richard J Salvi

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨灰鼠畸变产物耳声发射(DPOAE)幅值的降低与外毛细胞缺失率之间的关系.方法 联合应用顺铂和利尿酸钠,建立灰鼠耳蜗毛细胞损伤模型.12只灰鼠在静脉注射利尿酸钠(40 mg/kg)同时,腹腔注射顺铂(0.2 mg/kg),分别于用药前和用药后的1周、2周及3周在清醒状态下检测动物DPOAE,并在施行最后1次DPOAE检测后处死动物.常规制备灰鼠耳蜗基底膜铺片并进行全耳蜗毛细胞计数.计算用药前和处死前DPOAE幅值的改变程度,通过Pearson相关分析对DPOAE幅值的降低与外毛细胞缺失程度之间的相关性进行分析.结果 顺铂和利尿酸钠引起灰鼠耳蜗外毛细胞缺失的特点是病变始发于基底膜的底回并逐渐向顶回发展,外毛细胞的缺损程度沿着基底膜从底回向顶回逐渐减轻,而不同频率DPOAE幅值降低的程度亦遵循从高频向低频发展的规律,各频率DPOAE在注射顺铂和利尿酸钠后的幅值改变与基底膜上相应部位的外毛细胞缺损程度存在一定的对应关系(r=0.796,P<0.05).外毛细胞每损失1%,可引起约0.24 dB的DPOAE幅值降低.结论 在灰鼠耳蜗损伤模型中,从DPOAE幅值的变化可以大致评估耳蜗外毛细胞的缺失程度.%Objective To explore the quantitative relationship between the reduction of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and the percentage of outer hair cell loss. Methods Coadministration of cisplatin (0.2 mg/kg) and ethacrynic acid (40 mg/kg) were used to estabhsh a cochlear lesion model in chinchillas. DPOAE was measured before and 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks later respectively after cisplatin and ethacrynic acid treatment. Animals were terminated 3 weeks after the treatment. Cochlear surface preparations were performed, and the cochlear hair cells were counted through entire length of the cochlea. The correlation between DPOAE reduction and outer hair cell missing was analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis

  11. Doenças de chinchilas (Chinchilla lanigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Lucena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As doenças de chinchilas foram estudadas através da avaliação de laudos de necropsia entre janeiro de 1997 e dezembro de 2011. Em 202 chinchilas necropsiadas, 189 (93,5% tiveram o diagnóstico determinado, e 13 (6,5% tiveram diagnóstico inconclusivo, por ausência de lesões ou autólise acentuada. Dentre as 202 chinchilas computadas, 162 eram fêmeas (80%, 37 eram machos (18%, e em quatro chinchilas (2% o sexo não foi anotado. As chinchilas tinham entre um dia a 12 anos de idade. As doenças foram agrupadas nas seguintes categorias: doenças inflamatórias, doenças causadas por intoxicações, doenças causadas por agentes físicos, doenças metabólicas, doenças parasitárias, doenças degenerativas, distúrbios circulatórios, neoplasmas, distúrbios do desenvolvimento e "outros distúrbios". As doenças inflamatórias foram as mais prevalentes (52 casos [25,7%] e foram representadas por casos de gastrite (10 casos, listeriose (5 casos, septicemia (5 casos, broncopneumonia bacteriana (4 casos, enterite necrosante (4 casos, piometra (4 casos, diarreia com isolamento de Proteus sp. (3 casos, abscessos subcutâneos e em linfonodos (2 casos, endometrite (2 casos, otite (2 casos, pielonefrite (2 casos, abscesso do ligamento redondo do fígado (1 caso, pneumonia fibrinosa (1 caso, pneumonia intersticial (1 caso, hepatite e colecistite com isolamento de Salmonella sp. (1 caso, histiocitose pulmonar (1 caso, miosite linfo-histiocítica (1 caso e um caso de dermatofitose (Trichopyton metagrophytes. O segundo grupo de doenças mais prevalentes foram as intoxicações (22,3%, representado por 45 casos de intoxicação por salinomicina. As doenças causadas por agentes físicos (21 casos [10,4%] incluíam casos de traumas causados por outros animais (8 casos, automutilação após injeção intramuscular (8 casos, prolapso de reto (3 casos e parto distócico (2 casos. A categoria de doenças metabólicas foi representada por 16 casos (7,9% de lipidose hepática. As doenças parasitárias (8 casos [4%] consistiram em infestação por pulga (4 casos, piolho (3 casos e giardíase (1 caso. Doenças degenerativas (4 casos [2,5%] incluíam insuficiência renal crônica (2 casos, necrose aleatória de hepatócitos (1 caso e necrose muscular de origem desconhecida (1 caso. Os distúrbios circulatórios incluíram dois casos (0,99% de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva. Neoplasmas foram representados por dois casos (0,99% de adenocarcinoma gástrico. Um caso de atresia ani, associado a ausência do trato reprodutor, intestino grosso e rins policíticos representou a categoria de distúrbios do desenvolvimento (0,5%. Algumas doenças não se enquadraram nas categorias acima e foram enquadradas em "outros distúrbios" (38 casos [18,8%]. Nesta categoria, doenças dentárias foi o distúrbio mais comum, diagnosticado em 9% (18 de 202 de todas as chinchilas examinadas. Seguido por casos de hipertermia (14 casos, dois casos de anemia, dois casos de metaplasia de células adiposas do córtex da adrenal, e dois casos de mucometra.

  12. Surtos de intoxicação por salinomicina em chinchilas (Chinchilla lanigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Lucena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro surtos de intoxicação por salinomicina são descrito em chinchilas de três municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Uma semana após a ingestão de ração contendo 37 ppm de salinomicina, aproximadamente duas mil chinchilas de quatro fazendas expostas diminuíram o consumo da ração. Quatrocentos e vinte sete chinchilas demonstraram apatia. Dessas, duzentos e setenta e sete desenvolveram decúbito esternal e lateral, dispneia e coma, seguidos de morte. As primeiras mortes ocorreram oito dias após a ingestão da ração. A evolução dos sinais clínicos até a morte ou eutanásia foi de 2-5 dias. Os exames bioquímicos do soro sanguíneo em quatro chinchilas revelaram níveis aumentados da alanina aminotransferase, aspartato transaminase, fosfatase alcalina, creatina cinase, glicose, triglicerídeos e colesterol total. Quarenta e cinco chinchilas foram submetidas à necropsia. Os achados macroscópicos consistiam de marcada lipidose hepática em todas as chinchilas necropsiadas; fetos em estado de decomposição em doze chinchilas que estavam prenhes. Microscopicamente, múltiplas fibras musculares esqueléticas estavam hipereosinofílicas, tumefeitas e com perda das estriações. Nas chinchilas que sobreviveram por mais dias era possível observar segmentos fragmentados de miofibras afetadas (necrose flocular e regeneração de miofibras. No fígado foi observada marcada degeneração gordurosa. Não foram observadas anormalidades microscópicas nos demais órgãos analisados. Análises à procura de aflatoxinas, resíduos de pesticidas e isolamento bacteriano foram negativos. A análise da ração por cromatografia líquida revelou 37ppm de salinomicina na ração. A ração suspeita foi administrada a 12 chinchilas, três das quais (25% morreram apresentando lesões semelhantes às observadas nas chinchilas com a doença natural. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por salinomicina foi baseado na epidemiologia, lesões histológicas características e na presença de salinomicina na ração administrada nas quatro criações envolvidas.

  13. Surface Proteins and Pneumolysin of Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Mediate Virulence in a Chinchilla Model of Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Lance E.; Bradshaw, Jessica L.; Pipkins, Haley; McDaniel, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections result in a range of human diseases and are responsible for almost one million deaths annually. Pneumococcal disease is mediated in part through surface structures and an anti-phagocytic capsule. Recent studies have shown that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (NESp) make up a significant portion of the pneumococcal population and are able to cause disease. NESp lack some common surface proteins expressed by encapsulated pneumococci, but express surface protein...

  14. SURFACE PROTEINS AND PNEUMOLYSIN OF ENCAPSULATED AND NONENCAPSULATED STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE MEDIATE VIRULENCE IN A CHINCHILLA MODEL OF OTITIS MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Lance E.; Bradshaw, Jessica L.; Haley ePipkins; McDaniel, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections result in a range of human diseases and are responsible for almost one million deaths annually. Pneumococcal disease is mediated in part through surface structures and an anti-phagocytic capsule. Recent studies have shown that nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp) make up a significant portion of the pneumococcal population and are able to cause disease. NESp lack some common surface proteins expressed by encapsulated pneumococci, but express surf...

  15. 青紫兰兔的生物净化技术探讨%Chinchilla Rabbit Biological Purification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韬奋; 瞿伟; 黄国俊; 张瑞忠; 徐平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish the SPF Chinchil a rabbit populations, to meet the needs of various types of research. Methods Approach taken by Caesarean births method for biological purification Chinchil a rabbits, conducted on behalf of breast-fed rabbits with SPF level to achieve the SPF microbial level. Results Obtained Chinchil a rabbits 88, 74 survived, the survival rate was 84.1%. Conclusion Rabbits pre-production period to judge accurately, can improve the success rate of caesarean section.%目的:为建立SPF级青紫兰兔种群,满足各类研究的需要。方法用剖腹取胎的方法,对青紫兰种兔进行生物净化,用SPF级代乳兔进行喂养,使其微生物等级达到SPF级。结果共取得青紫兰仔兔88只,存活74只,存活率为84.1豫。结论种兔预产期判断准确,可提高剖腹产手术的成功率。

  16. 青紫蓝兔体内Ghrelin的免疫组化定位%Immunohistochemical Localization of Ghrelin-containing Cells in the Chinchilla Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾翠平; 雷治海; 宁红梅; 苏娟; 张文龙; 贾晓庆

    2007-01-01

    采用免疫组织化学方法研究了Ghrelin在青紫蓝兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus)体内的分布定位.结果显示,Ghrelin免疫阳性细胞分布于下丘脑、大脑皮质、延髓、脊髓、胃、小肠和大肠.下丘脑内的阳性神经元胞体主要分布于弓状核、室旁核、腹内侧核、背内侧核和下丘脑外侧区.胃肠道内的Ghrelin免疫阳性细胞存在两种类型,即"闭合型"细胞和"开放型"细胞.实验结果表明,兔体内Ghrelin的分布与人和其他动物的分布基本相似,但也存在一些差异.

  17. Variation in response dynamics of regular and irregular vestibular-nerve afferents during sinusoidal head rotations and currents in the chinchilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Sung; Minor, Lloyd B; Della Santina, Charles C; Lasker, David M

    2011-05-01

    In mammals, vestibular-nerve afferents that innervate only type I hair cells (calyx-only afferents) respond nearly in phase with head acceleration for high-frequency motion, whereas afferents that innervate both type I and type II (dimorphic) or only type II (bouton-only) hair cells respond more in phase with head velocity. Afferents that exhibit irregular background discharge rates have a larger phase lead re-head velocity than those that fire more regularly. The goal of this study was to investigate the cause of the variation in phase lead between regular and irregular afferents at high-frequency head rotations. Under the assumption that externally applied galvanic currents act directly on the nerve, we derived a transfer function describing the dynamics of a semicircular canal and its hair cells through comparison of responses to sinusoidally modulated head velocity and currents. Responses of all afferents were fit well with a transfer function with one zero (lead term). Best-fit lead terms describing responses to current for each group of afferents were similar to the lead term describing responses to head velocity for regular afferents (0.006 s + 1). This finding indicated that the pre-synaptic and synaptic inputs to regular afferents were likely to be pure velocity transducers. However, the variation in phase lead between regular and irregular afferents could not be explained solely by the ratio of type I to II hair cells (Baird et al 1988), suggesting that the variation was caused by a combination of pre- (type of hair cell) and post-synaptic properties.

  18. 50 CFR 300.161 - Alternatives and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., chinchilla, marten, fisher, muskrat, and karakul that have been bred and born in captivity, or their products, if a signed statement certifying that the animals were bred and born in captivity accompanies...

  19. Parvovirus-derived endogenous viral elements in two South American rodent genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, Gloria; Gifford, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    We describe endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae) in the genomes of the long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) and the degu (Octodon degus). The novel EVEs include dependovirus-related elements and representatives of a clearly distinct parvovirus lineage that also has endogenous representatives in marsupial genomes. In the degu, one dependovirus-derived EVE was found to carry an intact reading frame and was differentially expressed in vivo, with increased expression in the liver.

  20. Producción científica cubana en Salud Pública. Scopus 2003-2011 Cuban scientific output in Public Health. Scopus 2003-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Zacca-González, Grisel; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Moya-Anegón, Félix De

    2014-01-01

    Zacca-González, Grisel; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Moya-Anegón, Félix. Producción científica cubana en Salud Pública. Scopus 2003-2011. XIII Congreso Internacional de Información INFO’2014. La Habana, Cuba, 14 al 18 de abril del 2014

  1. 50 CFR 14.82 - Alternatives and exceptions to the marking requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the shipper has valid wildlife import/export license issued under authority of 50 CFR part 14. For..., chinchilla, marten, fisher, muskrat, and karakul that have been bred and born in captivity, or their products, if a signed statement certifying that the animals were bred and born in captivity accompanies...

  2. Analysis of responses to noise in the ventral cochlear nucleus using Wiener kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recio-Spinoso, Alberto; van Dijk, Pim

    2006-01-01

    Responses to noise were recorded in ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons of anesthetized chinchillas and cats, then analyzed using Wiener-kernel theory. First-order kernels, which are proportional to reverse-correlation functions, of primary-like (PL) and primary-like with notch (PLN) neurons havi

  3. Ranking de Producción Científica Mexicana. Ranking 2011

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida

    2011-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Corera-Álvarez, E.(coord.), González-Molina, A., Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. Ranking de Producción Científica Mexicana. Ranking 2011. México: Foro Consultivo Científico y Tecnológico, 2011

  4. Increased biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with invasive disease or otitis media versus strains recovered from cases of respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puig, C.; Domenech, A.; Garmendia, J.; Langereis, J.D.; Mayer, P.; Calatayud, L.; Linares, J.; Ardanuy, C.; Marti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation by nontypeable (NT) Haemophilus influenzae remains a controversial topic. Nevertheless, biofilm-like structures have been observed in the middle-ear mucosa of experimental chinchilla models of otitis media (OM). To date, there have been no studies of biofilm formation in large coll

  5. Adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex for forward-eyed foveate vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Americo A; Minor, Lloyd B; Della Santina, Charles C

    2010-10-15

    To maintain visual fixation on a distant target during head rotation, the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) should rotate the eyes at the same speed as the head and in exactly the opposite direction. However, in primates for which the 3-dimensional (3D) aVOR has been extensively characterised (humans and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)), the aVOR response to roll head rotation about the naso-occipital axis is lower than that elicited by yaw and pitch, causing errors in aVOR magnitude and direction that vary with the axis of head rotation. In other words, primates keep the central part of the retinal image on the fovea (where photoreceptor density and visual acuity are greatest) but fail to keep that image from twisting about the eyes' resting optic axes. We tested the hypothesis that aVOR direction dependence is an adaptation related to primates' frontal-eyed, foveate status through comparison with the aVOR of a lateral-eyed, afoveate mammal (Chinchilla lanigera). As chinchillas' eyes are afoveate and never align with each other, we predicted that the chinchilla aVOR would be relatively low in gain and isotropic (equal in gain for every head rotation axis). In 11 normal chinchillas, we recorded binocular 3D eye movements in darkness during static tilts, 20-100 deg s(1) whole-body sinusoidal rotations (0.5-15 Hz), and 3000 deg s(2) acceleration steps. Although the chinchilla 3D aVOR gain changed with both frequency and peak velocity over the range we examined, we consistently found that it was more nearly isotropic than the primate aVOR. Our results suggest that primates' anisotropic aVOR represents an adaptation to their forward-eyed, foveate status. In primates, yaw and pitch aVOR must be compensatory to stabilise images on both foveae, whereas roll aVOR can be under-compensatory because the brain tolerates torsion of binocular images that remain on the foveae. In contrast, the lateral-eyed chinchilla faces different adaptive demands and thus enlists a

  6. Mineralización de uranio en la Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orquídea Morello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En esta contribución se describe una mineralización de uranio hallada en la sierra de Velasco, provincia de La Rioja, noroeste de Argentina. La geología de la región incluye granitos, pegmatitas y rocas metamórficas. Las rocas hospedantes de la mineralización son el granito La Chinchilla, de edad carbonífera y las metamorfitas del Complejo La Cébila, de edad precámbrica-ordovícica inferior. La mineralización es perigranítica; se encuentra diseminada, en fracturas y alojada en el contacto entre el granito y la metamorfita. En el granito La Chinchilla se identificó un óxido de U-Nb-Ta, y en las metamorfitas se reconocieron silicatos (uranofano, betauranofano, fosfatos (furcalita y meta-autunita y minerales negros de uranio (uraninita -variedad pechblenda- y coffinita.

  7. ModA2 Phasevarion Switching in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Increases the Severity of Experimental Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Kenneth L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Jennings, Michael P; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2016-09-01

    Several human-adapted bacterial pathogens use a phasevarion (ie, a phase-variable regulon) to rapidly and reversibly regulate the expression of many genes, which include known virulence factors, yet the influence of phasevarion-mediated regulation in pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we examine the impact of the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) ModA2 phasevarion on pathogenesis and disease severity in a chinchilla model of experimental otitis media. Chinchillas were challenged with NTHI variant populations that were either inoculated ON and remained ON, inoculated OFF and shifted ON, or inoculated OFF and remained OFF, within the middle ear. We show that populations that shift from OFF to ON within the middle ear induce significantly greater disease severity than populations that are unable to shift. These observations support the importance of phasevarion switching in NTHI pathogenesis and the necessity to considered phasevarion regulation when developing methods to treat and prevent infection.

  8. LABORATORY MODEL OF CHRONIC STAPHYLOCOCCAL TONSILLITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Shkodovska NYu; Zhdamarova LA; Mani Hans; Zhyravlev AS; Babych EM; Ryzhkova TA; Kalinichenko SV; Sklyar NI; Balak AK

    2013-01-01

    Investigation and development of new preparations for chronic tonsillitis (CT) treatment and prevention requires application of appropriate laboratory model. For the development of CT laboratory model chronic pyoinflammatory process was reproduced in chinchilla rabbits using Staphylococcus aureus 209 Р (АТСС 6538-Р) reference-strain. Preliminary sensitizing of animals with inactivated causative agent and repeated infection with the reference-strain made it possible to work out reproducible m...

  9. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Käfighaltung von weiblichen Laborkaninchen in Einzel- und Paarhaltung

    OpenAIRE

    Skolarski, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies on the housing of single and pair-caged female laboratory rabbits In this study the housing of laboratory rabbits in an unstructured metal cage commonly used in laboratories (laboratory cage) has been compared with the housing in a structured larger cage (environmental cage). Each cage type was tested for its suitability for housing single and paired female nonreproductive laboratory rabbits. A total of 48 chinchilla bastard laboratory rabbits were examined in four ...

  10. As Above, So Below. Astrology and the Inquisition in Seventeenth-Century New Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Avalos, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Defence date: 20 March 2007 Examining board: Prof. Peter Becker, Johannes-Kepler-Universität Linz, Institut für Neuere Geschichte und Zeitgeschichte (Supervisor) ; Prof. Víctor Navarro Brotons, Instituto de Historia de la Ciencia y Documentación "López Piñero" (External supervisor) ; Prof. Antonella Romano, European University Institute ; Prof. Perla Chinchilla Pawling, Universidad Iberoamericana History of astrology is no longer neglected. Studies on the subject now benefit from a rich...

  11. Informe de calidad y datos de producción centífica (2003-2009) en Telecomunicaciones y Sociedad de la Información.

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Informe de calidad y datos de producción centífica (2003-2009) en Telecomunicaciones y Sociedad de la Información. NIPO: 720-12-041-0

  12. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009) en Biotecnología.

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009) en Biotecnología. Madrid: Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología, 2012. NIPO: 720-12-041-0

  13. Principales Indicadores Cienciométricos de la Actividad Científica de la Universidad de Antioquia. Informe 2013

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Bustos-Gonzalez, Atilio; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Bustos-González, A. (coord.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., López-Illescas, C., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Principales Indicadores Cienciométricos de la Actividad Científica de la Universidad de Antioquia. Informe 2013. Bogotá: Universidad de Antioquia, 2013

  14. Scientific Output by Gender in Spain (Web of Science, 2004)

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; Guerrero-Bote, Vicente; Gómez-Crisóstomo, Rocío

    2007-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F., Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z., Vargas-Quesada, B., Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., Muñoz-Fernández, F.J., Guerrero-Bote, V.P., Gómez-Crisóstomo, R. (2007) Scientific Output by Gender in Spain (Web of Science, 2004) 11 International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics. Madrid, Spain, 25-27 June

  15. Colaboración y performance científico en el dominio científico de Cuba en Scopus, 2003-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Arencibia-Jorge, Ricardo; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; de Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Arencibia-Jorge, Ricardo; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; Moya-Anegón, Félix (2014). Colaboración y performance científico en el dominio científico de Cuba en Scopus, 2003-2011. XIII Congreso Internacional de Información INFO’2014. La Habana, Cuba, 14 al 18 de abril del 2014

  16. Impacto tecnológico de la investigación universitaria iberoamericana

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida

    2015-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F., Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. Impacto tecnológico de la producción universitaria iberoamericana. En: La transferencia de la I+D, la innovación y el emprendimiento en las universidades. Educación Superior en Iberoamérica. Informe 2015. Santiago de Chile: Centro Interuniversitario de Desarrollo, 2015, p. 83-94

  17. Apoptotic clearance in rabbits with experimental pulmonary emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Žunić-Božinovski Snežana; Žunić Svetlana; Mladenović-Đorđević Aleksandra; Ruždijić Sabera; Kanazir Selma

    2011-01-01

    In order to better understand pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, the model of experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema in Chinchilla rabbits was used for the estimation of apoptotic clearance of pulmonary tissue. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in three groups of animals: experimental group-E on hypercholesterolemic diet (4% edible oil solution of crystalline cholesterol), control group-C1 on standard diet for that animal species and animals on oil...

  18. Guatemalan Immigration to San Francisco Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Manz, Beatriz; Perry-Houts, Ingrid; Castaneda, Xochitl

    2000-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Central Americans, primarily from El Salvador and Guatemala, began arriving in the United States in the early 1980s, fleeing brutal military repression and counterinsurgency efforts in their home countries (Hamilton and Chinchilla-Stoltz 1991, 1998; Julian 1994; Bens 1996; Burns 1988). The Commission for Historical Clarification (CEH) concludes that 200,000 people were killed or disappeared, and that state forces and related paramilitary groups onslaught, from 1981 to 1...

  19. Spontaneous hair cell regeneration in the mouse utricle following gentamicin ototoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamoto, Kohei; Izumikawa, Masahiko; Lisa A. Beyer; Atkin, Graham M.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2008-01-01

    Whereas most epithelial tissues turn-over and regenerate after a traumatic lesion, this restorative ability is diminished in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear; it is absent in the cochlea and exists only in a limited capacity in the vestibular epithelium. The extent of regeneration in vestibular hair cells has been characterized for several mammalian species including guinea pig, rat, and chinchilla, but not yet in mouse. As the fundamental model species for investigating hereditary dise...

  20. Sound frequency-invariant neural coding of a frequency-dependent cue to sound source location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heath G; Brown, Andrew D; Koka, Kanthaiah; Thornton, Jennifer L; Tollin, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    The century-old duplex theory of sound localization posits that low- and high-frequency sounds are localized with two different acoustical cues, interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs), respectively. While behavioral studies in humans and behavioral and neurophysiological studies in a variety of animal models have largely supported the duplex theory, behavioral sensitivity to ILD is curiously invariant across the audible spectrum. Here we demonstrate that auditory midbrain neurons in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) also encode ILDs in a frequency-invariant manner, efficiently representing the full range of acoustical ILDs experienced as a joint function of sound source frequency, azimuth, and distance. We further show, using Fisher information, that nominal "low-frequency" and "high-frequency" ILD-sensitive neural populations can discriminate ILD with similar acuity, yielding neural ILD discrimination thresholds for near-midline sources comparable to behavioral discrimination thresholds estimated for chinchillas. These findings thus suggest a revision to the duplex theory and reinforce ecological and efficiency principles that hold that neural systems have evolved to encode the spectrum of biologically relevant sensory signals to which they are naturally exposed. PMID:25972580

  1. Survey of Hymenolepis spp. in pet rodents in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Noviello, Emilio; Pepe, P; Del Prete, L; Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L

    2015-12-01

    We carried out the first survey of Hymenolepis spp. infection in pet rodents in Italy. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 172 pet rodents as follows: guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus; n = 60), squirrels (Callosciurus finlaysonii, Callosciurus prevosti, Tamias striatus, Tamias sibiricus, Sciurus calorinensis; n = 52), hamsters (Phodopus campbelli, Mesocricetus auratus; n = 30), chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera; n = 13), rats (Rattus norvegicus; n = 10), and mice (Mus minutoides; n = 7). These animals were housed either in pet shops or in private houses. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to assess the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces. Eggs of Hymenolepis nana were found in 24 out of 172 (13.9 %; 95 % confidence interval = 9.3-20.2 %) pet rodents. Of those rodents, 41.6 % (10/24) were rats (mean EPG = 55.7; range = 2-200), 29.2 % (7/24) mice (mean EPG = 64.5; range = 32-120), 25.0 % (6/24) were chinchillas (mean EPG = 25.5; range = 10-50), and 4.2 % (1/24) hamsters (P. campbelli) (EPG = 86.0). In addition, Hymenolepis diminuta eggs were found in 2 out of 172 (1.2 %; 95 % confidence interval = 0.2-4.6 %) rodents examined, both of which (100 %; 2/2) were pet squirrels (C. prevosti) (mean EPG = 10; range = 4-16). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a natural infection of H. diminuta in pet squirrels.

  2. Interferencia entre bacterias comensales de faringe y patogénesis de oído medio en un modelo animas de otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Villafane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar in vivo la interacción entre bacterias comensales aisladas  de faringe de niños sanos y S. pneumoniae, en un modelo animal (Chinchilla laniger de otitis media. Metodos: estudio experimental Intervenciones: Suspensiones de los serotipos 18A y 9V de Spn fueron inyectados intra-peritonealmente en dos chinchillas y luego recuperados mediante cultivo de órganos y sangre de las mismas. Empleando suspensiones de las cepas animalizadas se inocularon intranasalmente cuatro chinchillas, y solo a dos de ellas se le inoculo una mezcla de las bacterias comensales (Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus parasanguinis. Con un otoscopio se examinó la evolución de la infección a los 7 y 14 días. Se sacrificaron los animales y se tomaron muestras de los oídos para un examen histológico. Resultados: Mediante otoscopia, se observó al día 14 que todos presentaron una membrana timpánica hiperémica sin efusión, presentándose con mayor intensidad en aquellos que recibieron el tratamiento. La histología confirmó que la administración del tratamiento no evitó que la infección evolucionara, advirtiéndose que las infectadas con el serotipo 8A y tratadas fueron las que presentaron el tejido epitelial menos comprometido respecto al resto. Conclusiones: Spn y las bacterias comensales podrían establecer una relación competitiva, y el efecto moderador en la progresión de la infección de otitis media dependería del serotipo involucrado.

  3. INTERFERENCIA ENTRE BACTERIAS COMENSALES DE FARINGE Y PATÓGENAS DE OÍDO MEDIO EN UN MODELO ANIMAL DE OTITIS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Villafañe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar in vivo la interacción entre bacterias comensales aisladas de faringe de niños sanos y S. pneumoniae, en un modelo animal (Chinchilla laniger de otitis media. Metodos: estudio experimental Intervenciones: Suspensiones de los serotipos 18A y 9V de Spn fueron inyectados intra-peritonealmente en dos chinchillas y luego recuperados mediante cultivo de órganos y sangre de las mismas. Empleando suspensiones de las cepas animalizadas se inocularon intranasalmente cuatro chinchillas, y solo a dos de ellas se le inoculo una mezcla de las bacterias comensales (Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus parasanguinis. Con un otoscopio se examinó la evolución de la infección a los 7 y 14 días. Se sacrificaron los animales y se tomaron muestras de los oídos para un examen histológico. Resultados: Mediante otoscopia, se observó al día 14 que todos presentaron una membrana timpánica hiperémica sin efusión, presentándose con mayor intensidad en aquellos que recibieron el tratamiento. La histología confirmó que la administración del tratamiento no evitó que la infección evolucionara, advirtiéndose que las infectadas con el serotipo 8A y tratadas fueron las que presentaron el tejido epitelial menos comprometido respecto al resto. Conclusiones: Spn y las bacterias comensales podrían establecer una relación competitiva, y el efecto moderador en la progresión de la infección de otitis media dependería del serotipo involucrado.

  4. Reproductive performance of different breeds of broiler rabbits under sub-temperate climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the effect of breed, season, age and weight of doe at mating on reproductive performance of 4 broiler rabbit breeds, Grey Giant, White Giant, Soviet Chinchilla, and New Zealand White, reared under standard management practices in sub-temperate climatic conditions of India. They were first mated at 6 to 7 mo of age, whereupon an extensive breeding system (re-mating after weaning was followed. Weaning was done 42 d after kindling. The data from the records on reproduction consisting of 503 matings and 377 kindlings were analysed. The parameters considered were fertility rate, litter size at birth (LSB, litter weight at birth (LWB, litter size at weaning (LSW, litter weight at weaning (LWW, doe weight at mating (DWM, gestation length and sex ratio. Among 4 breeds, the LSB, LWB and LSW were higher in Grey Giant followed by White Giant, Soviet Chinchilla and New Zealand White. The LSB and LSW in Grey Giant breed differed significantly (P<0.05 from Soviet Chinchilla and New Zealand White. Season had significant (P<0.05 effect on LSW with higher values during spring (5.68±0.24, followed by summer (5.29±0.30, winter (5.13±0.25 and autumn (4.17±0.49. The body weight of doe at service significantly influenced fertility. The fertility increased as body weight increased. The age of the doe at mating had a significant effect on LSW, with higher values for does more than 2 yr and less than 1 yr old compared to 1- to 2-yr old does. The parity did not affect any of the parameters studied. It is concluded that the factors studied affect the reproductive performance of rabbit does. Grey Giant breed showed the highest litter size at birth and weaning, and the highest litter size and weight at weaning was in spring.

  5. LABORATORY MODEL OF CHRONIC STAPHYLOCOCCAL TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkodovska NYu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and development of new preparations for chronic tonsillitis (CT treatment and prevention requires application of appropriate laboratory model. For the development of CT laboratory model chronic pyoinflammatory process was reproduced in chinchilla rabbits using Staphylococcus aureus 209 Р (АТСС 6538-Р reference-strain. Preliminary sensitizing of animals with inactivated causative agent and repeated infection with the reference-strain made it possible to work out reproducible model of chronic tonsillitis. Adequacy of chronic tonsillitis development was confirmed by the results of microbiological and pathomorphological researchers. The proposed laboratory model can be used for solving of theoretical and practical medicine and pharmacology topical problems.

  6. Chemical Separation of Fixed Tissue Using Thermolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Dua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermolysin is a metallopeptidase used to cleave peptide bonds at specific junctions. It has previously been used to cleave specific amino acid sequences found at the junction of the sensory epithelium and underlying stroma of unfixed otolithic organs of the vestibular system. We have used thermolysin to separate sensory epithelium from the underlying stroma in fixed cristae ampullares of mouse, rat, gerbil, guinea pig, chinchilla, and tree squirrel, thus removing the saddle-shaped curvature of the sensory organ and creating a flattened sensory epithelium preparation. This permits visualization of the entire sensory organ in a single mount and facilitates proper morphometric analysis.

  7. The Effects of Age, Breed, Sire, Body Weight and the Ejaculate Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks

    OpenAIRE

    G. N. Akpa; H.K. Yahaya; U.C. Martin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyse the semen of different breeds of rabbits and to determine the effects of age, breed, sire, generation and body weight on the ejaculate characteristics of rabbit bucks. Twenty rabbit bucks comprising of three breeds (New-Zealand White 8, Chinchilla 6 and Californian White 6) between the ages of 6-9 months were used to investigate the effect of age, breed, sire and generation on body weight and ejaculate characteristics of the bucks. The experiment was car...

  8. Structural and Functional Studies of the Protamine 2-Zinc Complex from Syrian Gold Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus) Spermatids and Sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Cheryl E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-08-30

    The research described in this dissertation consists of four major areas: (1) sequence analysis of protamine 2 from Muroid rodents to identify potential zinc-binding domain(s) of protamine 2; (2) structural studies of the protamine 2-zinc complex from Syrian Gold hamster sperm and spermatids to elucidate the role of zinc during spermiogenesis; (3) structural studies of an unique protamine 2-zinc complex from chinchilla sperm; and (4) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of soluble complexes of hairpin oligonucleotides with synthetic arginine-rich peptides or protamine 1 isolated from bull sperm. First, zinc was quantitated in spermatids and sperm by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to determine whether zinc is present in the early stages of spermiogenesis. The PIXE results revealed the zinc content varies proportionately with the amount of protamine 2 in both spermatid and sperm nuclei. An exception was chinchilla sperm containing twice the amount of protamine 2 than zinc. Further analyses by PIXE and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of zinc bound to protamines isolated from hamster sperm confirmed the majority of the zinc is bound to protamine and identified the zinc ligands of protamine 2 in hamster spermatids and sperm in vivo. These studies established that zinc is bound to the protamine 2 precursor in hamster spermatids and the coordination of zinc by protamine 2 changes during spermiogenesis. Finally, the sequence analysis combined with the XAS results suggest that the zinc-binding domain in protamine 2 resides in the amino-terminus. Similar analyses of chinchilla sperm by XAS were performed to clarify the unusual PIXE results and revealed that chinchilla has an atypical protamine 2-zinc structure. Two protamine 2 molecules coordinate one zinc atom, forming homodimers that facilitate the binding of protamine 2 to DNA and provide an organizational scheme that would accommodate the observed species-specific protamine stoichiometry in mammalian sperm

  9. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009)en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Nuevos Materiales y Nuevos Procesos Industriales

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009)en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Nuevos Materiales y Nuevos Procesos Industriales. Madrid: Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología, 2012. NIPO: 720-12-041-0

  10. Feed-Forward and Feed-Backward Amplification Model from Cochlear Cytoarchitecture: An Interspecies Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Yong-Jin; Steele, Charles R.; Puria, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    The high sensitivity and wide bandwidth of mammalian hearing are thought to derive from an active process involving the somatic and hair-bundle motility of the thousands of outer hair cells uniquely found in mammalian cochleae. To better understand this, a biophysical three-dimensional cochlear fluid model was developed for gerbil, chinchilla, cat, and human, featuring an active “push-pull” cochlear amplifier mechanism based on the cytoarchitecture of the organ of Corti and using the time-ave...

  11. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009) en Energía y Cambio Climático.

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009) en Energía y Cambio Climático. Madrid: Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología, 2012. NIPO: 720-12-041-0

  12. Retinal and Choroidal Damage from Long-Term Exposure to a Laser Pointer Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari M H; Piryaei A; Almasiyeh MA; Kianersi F; Ghasemi Broumand M; Rohani R

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Laser pointers are devices that produce a weak laser beam of 630-680 nmwavelength and 1-5 mW power (ClassII or III A laser). These devices generally emit a redbeam that is used by lecturers and teachers for presentations. Some children use pointers astoys and sometimes direct the beam to their own or others' eyes. Material and Methods: Following irradiation by a laser pointer beam for 8 secondsthe eyes of Chinchilla rabbits were examined by opthalmoscope, and fluorescein angiogr...

  13. Clinical hematology of rodent species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-09-01

    Pet rodents, such as rats, guinea pigs, and chinchillas, differ from more traditional companion animal species in many aspects of their hematologic parameters. Animals within this order have much diversity in size, anatomy, methods of restraint, and blood collection technique. Appropriate sample collection is often the most challenging aspect of the diagnostic protocol, and inappropriate restraint may cause a stress response that interferes with blood test results. For many of these patients, sedation is required and can also affect results as well. In most cases, however, obtaining a standard database is necessary and very possible when providing medical care for this popular group of pets. PMID:18675732

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of the mammalian inner ear

    CERN Document Server

    Szalai, Robert; Homer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A simple nonlinear transmission-line model of the cochlea with longitudinal coupling is introduced that can reproduce Basilar membrane response and neural tuning in the chinchilla. It is found that the middle ear has little effect on cochlear resonances, and hence conclude that the theory of coherent reflections is not applicable to the model. The model also provides an explanation of the emergence of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs). It is argued that SOAEs arise from Hopf bifurcations of the transmission-line model and not from localized instabilities. The paper shows that emissions can become chaotic, intermittent and fragile to perturbations.

  15. Capsular switching as a strategy to increase pneumococcal virulence in experimental otitis media model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Vishakha; Stevenson, Abbie; Figueira, Marisol; Orthopoulos, George; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Pelton, Stephen I

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that capsular switch event, in which pneumococcus acquires a new capsule operon by horizontal gene transfer, may result in emergence of strains with increased virulence in acute otitis media. Using serotype 6A strain from a patient with invasive pneumococcal disease and clonally distant serotype 6C strain isolated from asymptomatic carrier we created 6A:6C (6A background with 6C capsule) capsular transformants and applied whole genome macro-restriction analysis to assess conservation of the 6A chassis. Next, we assessed complement (C3) and antibodies deposition on surface of pneumococcal cells and tested capsule recipient, capsule donor and two 6A:6C transformants for virulence in chinchilla experimental otitis media model. Both 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants bound less C3 compared to 6C capsule-donor strain but more compared to serotype 6A capsule-recipient strain. Pneumococci were present in significantly higher proportion of ears among animals challenged with either of two 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants compared to chinchillas infected with 6C capsule-donor strain [p < 0.001] whereas a significantly decreased proportion of ears were infected with 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants as compared to 6A capsule-recipient strain. Our observations though limited to two serotypes demonstrate that capsular switch events can result in Streptococcus pneumoniae strains of enhanced virulence for respiratory tract infection.

  16. Fatigue Modeling via Mammalian Auditory System for Prediction of Noise Induced Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL remains as a severe health problem worldwide. Existing noise metrics and modeling for evaluation of NIHL are limited on prediction of gradually developing NIHL (GDHL caused by high-level occupational noise. In this study, we proposed two auditory fatigue based models, including equal velocity level (EVL and complex velocity level (CVL, which combine the high-cycle fatigue theory with the mammalian auditory model, to predict GDHL. The mammalian auditory model is introduced by combining the transfer function of the external-middle ear and the triple-path nonlinear (TRNL filter to obtain velocities of basilar membrane (BM in cochlea. The high-cycle fatigue theory is based on the assumption that GDHL can be considered as a process of long-cycle mechanical fatigue failure of organ of Corti. Furthermore, a series of chinchilla experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed fatigue models. The regression analysis results show that both proposed fatigue models have high corrections with four hearing loss indices. It indicates that the proposed models can accurately predict hearing loss in chinchilla. Results suggest that the CVL model is more accurate compared to the EVL model on prediction of the auditory risk of exposure to hazardous occupational noise.

  17. Fatigue Modeling via Mammalian Auditory System for Prediction of Noise Induced Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengfei; Qin, Jun; Campbell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains as a severe health problem worldwide. Existing noise metrics and modeling for evaluation of NIHL are limited on prediction of gradually developing NIHL (GDHL) caused by high-level occupational noise. In this study, we proposed two auditory fatigue based models, including equal velocity level (EVL) and complex velocity level (CVL), which combine the high-cycle fatigue theory with the mammalian auditory model, to predict GDHL. The mammalian auditory model is introduced by combining the transfer function of the external-middle ear and the triple-path nonlinear (TRNL) filter to obtain velocities of basilar membrane (BM) in cochlea. The high-cycle fatigue theory is based on the assumption that GDHL can be considered as a process of long-cycle mechanical fatigue failure of organ of Corti. Furthermore, a series of chinchilla experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed fatigue models. The regression analysis results show that both proposed fatigue models have high corrections with four hearing loss indices. It indicates that the proposed models can accurately predict hearing loss in chinchilla. Results suggest that the CVL model is more accurate compared to the EVL model on prediction of the auditory risk of exposure to hazardous occupational noise.

  18. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-09-02

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  19. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  20. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60% were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%. These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  1. Cochlear anatomy using micro computed tomography (μCT) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namkeun; Yoon, Yongjin; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2008-02-01

    A novel micro computed tomography (μCT) image processing method was implemented to measure anatomical features of the gerbil and chinchilla cochleas, taking into account the bent modailosis axis. Measurements were made of the scala vestibule (SV) area, the scala tympani (SV) area, and the basilar membrane (BM) width using prepared cadaveric temporal bones. 3-D cochlear structures were obtained from the scanned images using a process described in this study. It was necessary to consider the sharp curvature of mododailosis axis near the basal region. The SV and ST areas were calculated from the μCT reconstructions and compared with existing data obtained by Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM), showing both qualitative and quantitative agreement. In addition to this, the width of the BM, which is the distance between the primary and secondary osseous spiral laminae, is calculated for the two animals and compared with previous data from the MRM method. For the gerbil cochlea, which does not have much cartilage in the osseous spiral lamina, the μCT-based BM width measurements show good agreement with previous data. The chinchilla BM, which contains more cartilage in the osseous spiral lamina than the gerbil, shows a large difference in the BM widths between the μCT and MRM methods. The SV area, ST area, and BM width measurements from this study can be used in building an anatomically based mathematical cochlear model.

  2. Reproductive patterns of pedigree cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, I

    1987-07-01

    A survey of Brisbane catteries was carried out to investigate reproductive patterns of pedigree cats. Eighteen breeders supplied data on 751 litters with a total of 3171 kittens covering the Persian, Chinchilla, Siamese, Burmese and Abyssinian breeds. The overall sex ratio at birth was 100 males to 92 females. There was a significant seasonal effect on sex ratio with litters conceived during the wet season (September to February) producing more males than expected and litters conceived during the dry season producing more females than expected. Litter size and breed had no significant effect on the sex ratio. The average litter size varied with the breed with the most prolific being the Burmese (5.0) then the Siamese (4.5), Persian (3.9), Abyssinian (3.5) and Chinchilla (2.8). The average litter size was smaller for the first litter than for the subsequent 3 litters. The maximum average litter size was reached at 6 years with only a moderate decline thereafter. There was a seasonal fluctuation in births with the greatest numbers being born in spring and the least in late autumn. Longhair cats showed a more marked seasonal distribution of births than the shorthairs which reproduced for most of the year, particularly the Burmese breed. PMID:3675409

  3. Characterization of the 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex in C57BL6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Americo A; Meierhofer, Robert; Della Santina, Charles C

    2011-05-01

    We characterized the three-dimensional angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (3D aVOR) of adult C57BL6 mice during static tilt testing, sinusoidal, and high-acceleration rotations and compared it with that of another lateral-eyed mammal with afoveate retinae (chinchilla) and two primate species with forward eye orientation and retinal foveae (human and squirrel monkey). Noting that visual acuity in mice is poor compared to chinchillas and even worse compared to primates, we hypothesized that the mouse 3D aVOR would be relatively low in gain (eye-velocity/head-velocity) compared to other species and would fall off for combinations of head rotation velocity and frequency for which peak-to-peak position changes fall below the minimum visual angle resolvable by mice. We also predicted that as in chinchilla, the mouse 3D aVOR would be more isotropic (eye/head velocity gain independent of head rotation axis) and better aligned with the axis of head rotation than the 3D aVOR of primates. In 12 adult C57BL6 mice, binocular 3D eye movements were measured in darkness during whole-body static tilts, 20-100°/s whole-body sinusoidal rotations (0.02-10 Hz) and acceleration steps of 3,000°/s² to a 150°/s plateau (dominant spectral content 8-12 Hz). Our results show that the mouse has a robust static tilt counter-roll response gain of ~0.35 (eye-position Δ/head-position Δ) and mid-frequency aVOR gain (~0.6-0.8), but relatively low aVOR gain for high-frequency sinusoidal head rotations and for steps of head rotation acceleration (~0.5). Due to comparatively poor static visual acuity in the mouse, a perfectly compensatory 3D aVOR would confer relatively little benefit during high-frequency, low-amplitude movements. Therefore, our data suggest that the adaptive drive for maintaining a compensatory 3D aVOR depends on the static visual acuity in different species. Like chinchillas, mice have a much more nearly isotropic 3D aVOR than do the primates for which comparable data are

  4. FACTIBILIDAD DEL USO DE UN ELISA INDIRECTO PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Glomus clarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. de la Providencia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la factibilidad del uso de un ensayo inmunoenzimático sobre soporte sólido (ELISA, para la detección de esporas de Glomus clarum. Para ello se inmunizaron conejos de la raza Chinchilla con extractos proteicos provenientes de dichas esporas. El suero policlonal obtenido de los animales inmunizados se enfrentó a G. clarum y a las esporas de otras especies de Glomales. Se logró detectar las esporas de G. clarum con el uso del ELISA indirecto a la dilución 1/3 000, sin reacciones cruzadas con las otras especies de Glomales utilizadas en este estudio a esa misma dilución.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against DNA-binding tips of DNABII proteins disrupt biofilms in vitro and induce bacterial clearance in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Novotny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of chronic and recurrent bacterial diseases are attributed to the presence of a recalcitrant biofilm that contributes significantly to pathogenesis. As such, these diseases will require an innovative therapeutic approach. We targeted DNABII proteins, an integral component of extracellular DNA (eDNA which is universally found as part of the pathogenic biofilm matrix to develop a biofilm disrupting therapeutic. We show that a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies directed against specific epitopes of a DNABII protein is highly effective to disrupt diverse biofilms in vitro as well as resolve experimental infection in vivo, in both a chinchilla and murine model. Combining this monoclonal antibody cocktail with a traditional antibiotic to kill bacteria newly released from the biofilm due to the action of the antibody cocktail was highly effective. Our results strongly support these monoclonal antibodies as attractive candidates for lead optimization as a therapeutic for resolution of bacterial biofilm diseases.

  6. Delayed effects of ionizing radiation on the ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohne, B.A.; Marks, J.E.; Glasgow, G.P.

    1985-07-01

    The question of damage to the ear from exposure to ionizing radiation was addressed by exposing groups of chinchillas to fractioned doses of radiation (2 Gy per day) for total doses ranging from 40 to 90 Gy. In order to allow any delayed effects of radiation to become manifest, the animals were sacrificed two years after completion of treatment and their temporal bones were prepared for microscopic examination. The most pronounced effect of treatment was degeneration of sensory and supporting cells and loss of eighth nerve fibers in the organ of Corti. Damage increased with increasing dose of radiation. The degree of damage found in many of these ears was of sufficient magnitude to produce a permanent sensorineural hearing loss.

  7. Temporal resolution of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David A; Colbert, Debborah E; Gaspard, Joseph C; Casper, Brandon M; Cook, Mandy L H; Reep, Roger L; Bauer, Gordon B

    2005-10-01

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) measurements of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were measured in response to amplitude modulated tones. The AEP measurements showed weak responses to test stimuli from 4 kHz to 40 kHz. The manatee modulation rate transfer function (MRTF) is maximally sensitive to 150 and 600 Hz amplitude modulation (AM) rates. The 600 Hz AM rate is midway between the AM sensitivities of terrestrial mammals (chinchillas, gerbils, and humans) (80-150 Hz) and dolphins (1,000-1,200 Hz). Audiograms estimated from the input-output functions of the EPs greatly underestimate behavioral hearing thresholds measured in two other manatees. This underestimation is probably due to the electrodes being located several centimeters from the brain. PMID:16001184

  8. Otoacoustic Estimates of Cochlear Tuning: Testing Predictions in Macaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.; Bergevin, Christopher; Kalluri, Radha; Mc Laughlin, Myles; Michelet, Pascal; van der Heijden, Marcel; Joris, Philip X.

    2011-11-01

    Otoacoustic estimates of cochlear frequency selectivity suggest substantially sharper tuning in humans. However, the logic and methodology underlying these estimates remain untested by direct measurements in primates. We report measurements of frequency tuning in macaque monkeys, Old-World primates phylogenetically closer to humans than the small laboratory animals often taken as models of human hearing (e.g., cats, guinea pigs, and chinchillas). We find that measurements of tuning obtained directly from individual nerve fibers and indirectly using otoacoustic emissions both indicate that peripheral frequency selectivity in macaques is significantly sharper than in small laboratory animals, matching that inferred for humans at high frequencies. Our results validate the use of otoacoustic emissions for noninvasive measurement of cochlear tuning and corroborate the finding of sharper tuning in humans.

  9. Organic matter and macromineral digestibility in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as compared to other hindgut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, K B; Tschudin, A; Liesegang, A; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-12-01

    It is generally assumed that animal species differ in physiological characteristics of their digestive tract. Because investigating digestive processes is often labour-intensive, requiring lengthy adaptation and collection periods, comparisons are often made on the basis of data collated from different studies. We added a new data set on dietary crude fibre (CF) and macromineral (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg) composition and apparent digestibility (aD) of organic matter (OM) and macrominerals in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus; a total of 180 measurements with 12 individuals and 10 different diets) to a literature data collection for rodents and domestic horses (Equus caballus). Significant negative relationships between dietary CF and aD OM were obtained, but the significant difference in digestive efficiency between rabbits and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) reported from studies where both species had been investigated under identical conditions were not detectable in the larger data collection. However, the 95% confidence interval of the negative slope of the CF-aD OM relationship did not overlap between domestic horses on the one hand, and rabbits and guinea pigs on the other hand, indicating a less depressing effect of CF in horses. Akaike's information criterion indicated that aD of a macromineral did not only depend on its concentration in the diet, but also on the individual and various other diet characteristics and the presence of other macrominerals, indicating complex interactions. The data indicate similar mechanisms in the absorption of macrominerals amongst rabbits, rodents and horses, with the exception of Na and K in guinea pigs and Ca in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) that should be further corroborated. In particular, the occurrence of high aD Ca in hindgut fermenters, regardless of whether they employ a digestive strategy of coprophagy or whether they have fossorial habits, suggests that this peculiarity might represent an adaptation to hindgut

  10. Organic matter and macromineral digestibility in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as compared to other hindgut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, K B; Tschudin, A; Liesegang, A; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-12-01

    It is generally assumed that animal species differ in physiological characteristics of their digestive tract. Because investigating digestive processes is often labour-intensive, requiring lengthy adaptation and collection periods, comparisons are often made on the basis of data collated from different studies. We added a new data set on dietary crude fibre (CF) and macromineral (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg) composition and apparent digestibility (aD) of organic matter (OM) and macrominerals in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus; a total of 180 measurements with 12 individuals and 10 different diets) to a literature data collection for rodents and domestic horses (Equus caballus). Significant negative relationships between dietary CF and aD OM were obtained, but the significant difference in digestive efficiency between rabbits and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) reported from studies where both species had been investigated under identical conditions were not detectable in the larger data collection. However, the 95% confidence interval of the negative slope of the CF-aD OM relationship did not overlap between domestic horses on the one hand, and rabbits and guinea pigs on the other hand, indicating a less depressing effect of CF in horses. Akaike's information criterion indicated that aD of a macromineral did not only depend on its concentration in the diet, but also on the individual and various other diet characteristics and the presence of other macrominerals, indicating complex interactions. The data indicate similar mechanisms in the absorption of macrominerals amongst rabbits, rodents and horses, with the exception of Na and K in guinea pigs and Ca in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) that should be further corroborated. In particular, the occurrence of high aD Ca in hindgut fermenters, regardless of whether they employ a digestive strategy of coprophagy or whether they have fossorial habits, suggests that this peculiarity might represent an adaptation to hindgut

  11. Comprehensive Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced Acute Otitis Media Reveal Bacterial Aerobic Respiration in an Immunosuppressed Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Alistair; Dubois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Moseley, M Arthur; Hardison, Rachael L; Heimlich, Derek R; Stoddard, Alexander; Kerschner, Joseph E; Justice, Sheryl S; Thompson, J Will; Mason, Kevin M

    2016-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the molecular details of the interactions between bacteria and host are critical to ultimately prevent disease. Recent technological advances allow simultaneous analysis of host and bacterial protein and metabolic profiles from a single small tissue sample to provide insight into pathogenesis. We used the chinchilla model of human otitis media to determine, for the first time, the most expansive delineation of global changes in protein and metabolite profiles during an experimentally induced disease. After 48 h of infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, middle ear tissue lysates were analyzed by high-resolution quantitative two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic changes in 105 chinchilla proteins and 66 metabolites define the early proteomic and metabolomic signature of otitis media. Our studies indicate that establishment of disease coincides with actin morphogenesis, suppression of inflammatory mediators, and bacterial aerobic respiration. We validated the observed increase in the actin-remodeling complex, Arp2/3, and experimentally showed a role for Arp2/3 in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae invasion. Direct inhibition of actin branch morphology altered bacterial invasion into host epithelial cells, and is supportive of our efforts to use the information gathered to modify outcomes of disease. The twenty-eight nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae proteins identified participate in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and include cell wall-associated metabolic proteins. Quantitative characterization of the molecular signatures of infection will redefine our understanding of host response driven developmental changes during pathogenesis. These data represent the first comprehensive study of host protein and metabolite profiles in vivo in response to infection and show the feasibility of extensive characterization of host protein profiles during disease. Identification of

  12. Cell-cell junctions: a target of acoustic overstimulation in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guiliang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to intense noise causes the excessive movement of the organ of Corti, stretching the organ and compromising sensory cell functions. We recently revealed changes in the transcriptional expression of multiple adhesion-related genes during the acute phases of cochlear damage, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is an early event in the process of cochlear pathogenesis. However, the functional state of cell junctions in the sensory epithelium is not clear. Here, we employed graded dextran-FITC, a macromolecule tracer that is impermeable to the organ of Corti under physiological conditions, to evaluate the barrier function of cell junctions in normal and noise-traumatized cochlear sensory epithelia. Results Exposure to an impulse noise of 155 dB (peak sound pressure level caused a site-specific disruption in the intercellular junctions within the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. The most vulnerable sites were the junctions among the Hensen cells and between the Hensen and Deiters cells within the outer zone of the sensory epithelium. The junction clefts that formed in the reticular lamina were permeable to 40 and 500 but not 2,000 kDa dextran-FITC macromolecules. Moreover, this study showed that the interruption of junction integrity occurred in the reticular lamina and also in the basilar membrane, a site that had been considered to be resistant to acoustic injury. Finally, our study revealed a general spatial correlation between the site of sensory cell damage and the site of junction disruption. However, the two events lacked a strict one-to-one correlation, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is a contributing, but not the sole, factor for initiating acute sensory cell death. Conclusions Impulse noise causes the functional disruption of intercellular junctions in the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. This disruption occurs at an early phase of cochlear

  13. Assessment of Blood Chemistry, Weight Gain and Linear Body Measurements of Pre-Puberal Buck Rabbits Fed Different Levels of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Leaf Meals Evaluación de Química Sanguínea, Ganancia de Peso y Mediciones Corporales Lineales de Conejos Pre-Púberes Alimentados con Diferentes Niveles de Harina de Hojas de Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Ogbuewu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16 week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. leaf meal (NLM on body weight gain, linear body measurements and blood chemistry of pre-puberal buck rabbits. Four treatment diets were formulated to contain the NLM at inclusion levels of 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15%. Thirty six crossbred New Zealand white × Chinchilla pre-puberal buck rabbits aged 5 to 6 mo were divided into four groups of nine rabbits and each group was further replicated into three of three rabbits each. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments. Lymphocyte count of rabbits fed control diet (8.32 × 10(9 mm-3 was significantly higher than the group fed 15% NLM (4.60 × 10(9 mm-3. The mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell volume (MCV of the control bucks were significantly (p 0.05 among the treatment groups. The results suggest that buck rabbits could tolerate up to 15% dietary inclusion of NLM without deleterious effects on body weight gain, linear body measurements and some hematological parameters.Se realizó un ensayo de alimentación de 16 semanas para investigar el efecto de harina de hojas de neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (NML sobre ganancia de peso, mediciones corporales lineales y química sanguínea de conejos machos pre-púberes. Se formularon cuatro dietas con niveles de inclusión de NLM de 0 (control, 5, 10, y 15%. Treinta y seis conejos híbridos New Zealand white × Chinchilla, pre-púberes, de 5 a 6 meses, se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de nueve conejos, y cada grupo fue repetido en tres grupos de tres conejos cada uno. Los conejos se asignaron aleatoriamente a las cuatro dietas tratamiento. El recuento de linfocitos de los conejos alimentados con la dieta control (8,32 × 10(9 mm-3 fue significativamente mayor que el grupo alimentado con 15% NLM (4,60 × 10(9 mm-3. La hemoglobina celular media (MCH y el volumen celular medio (MCV de los conejos control fueron

  14. Dosing study on the effectiveness of salicylate/N-acetylcysteine for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Coleman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of three different doses of sodium salicylate (SAL in combination with one dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC to prevent noise-induced hearing loss was studied in chinchillas. After obtaining baseline-hearing thresholds, the chinchillas were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: three sets were injected intraperitoneally with 325 mg/kg NAC combined with 25, 50, or 75 mg/kg SAL, and a separate control group was injected with an equal volume of saline. Animals were injected twice daily for 2 days prior to and 1 hour before the noise exposure (6 hours to a 105-dB Standard Pressure Level octave band noise centered at 4 kHz. Immediate post-noise hearing thresholds were obtained followed by post-noise treatments at 1 hour then twice-daily for 2 days. Hearing tests continued at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-noise, and immediately after the last hearing test, animals′ cochleae were stained for hair cell counts. All the groups showed hearing improvement until week 2. However, at week 3, saline treated animals demonstrated a 17-33 dB SPL permanent threshold shift (PTS across the test frequencies. Hearing loss was lowest in the 50 SAL/325 NAC mg/kg group (all frequencies, P < 0.001, and although PTS was reduced in the 25 and 75 mg/kg SAL dosage groups compared to the saline group, only the 75 mg/kg SAL group was significantly different at all but 2 kHz frequency. Coupled with the hearing loss, outer hair cell (OHC loss was maximal in the 4-8 kHz cochlear region of saline treated animals. However, there was a substantial reduction in the mean OHC loss of the NAC plus 50 or 75 mg/kg (but not the 25 mg/kg SAL groups. These findings suggest that SAL in combination with NAC is effective in reducing noise damage to the cochlea, but SAL has a relatively narrow therapeutic dosing window.

  15. THE GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT BREEDS OF RABBITS KEPT UNDER WARM AND HUMID ENVIRONMENTS IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. APORI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of rabbit production in solving the problem of inadequate animal protein supply cannot be overemphasized. A study was therefore conducted to assess the growth and reproductive performances on 488 bunnies and 87 does of Blue Vienna and 474 bunnies and 80 does of Chinchilla rabbits reared under hot and humid environment in Ghana. The reproductive performance of the two breeds, in terms of litter size at birth and weaning, litter weight at birth and weaning, kindling interval, age at first kindling and gestation length as influenced by season of kindling (rainy and dry, year of kindling (2005-2012 and parity (first to sixth and over were determined. The overall least square means for litter size at birth, bunny weight at birth, litter size at weaning, bunny weight at weaning, gestation length, kindling interval, age at first kindling, pre-weaning growth rate and post-weaning growth rate of Blue Vienna were 5.6±0.1, 51.3±0.3 g, 4.4±0.1, 601.5±0.9 g, 30.0±0.1 days, 94.7±0.4 days, 159.7±0.4 days, 13.1±0.1 g/day and 15.4±0.1 g/day respectively. Those of Chinchilla were 5.9±0.1, 54.2±0.3 g, 4.8±0.1, 601.9±0.9 g, 30.1±0.1 days, 94.6±0.3 days, 159.8±0.2 days, 13.0±0.1 g/day and 15.3±0.2 g/day respectively. Year of kindling had significant (P<0.05 effect on litter size at weaning, litter weight at kindling, gestation length, age at first kindling, post weaning growth rate, body weight at 14 weeks and mortality in both breeds. Season of birth on the other hand had significant effect (P<0.05 on litter weight at birth, gestation length and mortality in both breeds. The number of times the doe has kindled (parity significantly (P<0.05 influenced all the parameters apart from kindling interval, gestation length, age at first kindling and pre-weaning growth rate performance of both breeds. The growth performances of the breeds studied were indications of their potential of being developed in future into meat types.

  16. Coal bed methane enrichment regularities and controlling factors in Bowen-Surat basin, Australia%澳洲Bowen-Surat盆地煤层气富集规律及主控因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志华; 李胜利; 于兴河; 方欣欣

    2014-01-01

    澳大利亚是世界第四大煤炭生产国和世界上最大的煤炭输出国。2000年后,澳大利亚煤层气产业快速发展。Bowen-Surat盆地是澳大利亚最大的煤层气盆地。应用石油地质综合分析方法,总结了 Bowen-Surat 盆地的石油地质特征,进而分析了该盆地煤层气富集规律:平面上,煤层气富集在Taroom槽和Chinchilla-Goondiwindi斜坡中;剖面上,煤层气富集在二叠系Blackwater群和侏罗系Walloon组煤层中。针对煤层气藏在平面和剖面上的分布特点,结合沉积体系、气源岩、煤阶、孔隙度和渗透率等因素进行相关性分析,认为有8个因素主要控制了煤层气藏的分布,即:沉积控类型,气源控范围,煤阶、埋深和孔渗控含量,构造封闭控层位。%Bowen-Surat Basin is a superimposed rifting basin located in the eastern Australian and the largest CBM basins in Australia. The paper, through a comprehensive analysis of petroleum geology methods, summarizes Bowen-Surat basin petroleum geology characteristics, and then analyzes CBM enrichment regularities. In the plane CBM is enriched in the Taroom trough and Chinchilla-Goondiwindi slopes, vertically enriched in Permian Blackwater Group and Jurassic Walloon coal measures. Aiming at the planar and vertical distribution regularities of CBM reservoirs, combining with sedimentary system, gas source rock, coal rank, porosity, permeability and other factors and making the correlation analysis, the paper concluded that there are eight main factors controlling the distribution of CBM reservoirs, i.e., sedimentary control, distribution range controlled by gas source rock, coal rank, depth, porosity and permeability, horizon controlled by structure confining.

  17. Protection from impulse noise induced internal ear damage by prior treatment with R-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine(R-PIA)%苯异丙腺苷(R-PIA)抗脉冲噪声所致内耳损伤的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长春; X.Y.Zheng; D.Henderson; S.L.Mcfadden; N.Hight; D.L.Ding

    2000-01-01

    目的 研究在脉冲噪声环境下苯异丙腺苷(R-N?6-phenylisopropyladenosine,R-PIA)对听觉系统损伤的预防和保护作用. 方法 6只灰鼠(chinchillas)在暴露于100个150 dB SPL脉冲噪声前2 h在其右耳用药(R-PIA 0.1 mmol/L,30 μl).脉冲噪声是模拟M-16来福枪而成. 结果 用R-PIA药物的右耳在噪声暴露后,其暂时性阈移(TTS)和永久性阈移(PTS)比仅用生理盐水的左耳少8~13 dB.其用药的右耳外、内毛细胞缺失率明显比左耳少(10%~50%、15%~45%).结论 R-PIA可有效地保护听觉系统免受脉冲噪声危害.

  18. Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on an experimental model of epilepsy

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    Pilija Vladimir I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The active ingredients of ginkgo biloba extracts were determined by biochemical analyses in the last ten years and they are widely used in classical medicine. The active substances of ginkgo biloba extract, mostly affect muscarinic receptors and adrenergic receptors to a lesser degree. Recently, potential effects of ginkgo biloba on NMDA receptors and on epileptogenic seizures have been considered. The main goal of this research was to investigate effects of ginkgo biloba extracts on the experimantal model of epilepsy. Material and methODS The research was carried out on chinchilla rabbits. GINGIUM solution was used with 40 mg in 1 ml of dry extract of ginkgo biloba leaves. The epileptogenic area was formed by stimulating hippocampus. Bioelectrical activity was registered 60 minutes before the epileptogenic area was formed as well as 90 minutes later. Ginkgo biloba extract was given via IM, in a single daily dose of 1ml/kg/BW. RESULTS A statistically significantly higher frequency of paroxysmal seizures was established after usage of ginkgo biloba. CONCLUSION According to the results obtained in this research, we can conclude that ginkgo biloba extracts have a proconvulsive activity.

  19. The Effect of Ginkgo Biloba (EGb 761 on Epileptic Activity in Rabbits

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    Vesna Vasic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Different animal models are used to evaluate the process of epileptogenesis. In this investigation the kindling model of epilepsy was used. The epileptic focus was induced in Chinchilla rabbits by stimulation of the hippocampus with electric stimuli. We presumed that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba affect the formation of kindling epilepsy. Bioelectric activity of the brain was registered throughout the development of kindling with and without standardized extracts from dried ginkgo leaves (EGb 761. For each animal the following has been determined: the values of the minimum current strength necessary for the origination of threshold after-discharge (AD – discharges appearing after the cessation of stimulation; duration of the threshold AD; number of stimulations necessary for the origination of full kindling; time latency for the development of full kindling; number of spontaneous epileptogenic discharges manifested in EEG two days following the formation of full kindling during 60-minute registration. The results show that the process of epileptogenesis was influenced by EGb 761. It has been established that if the animals received EGb 761, significantly weaker minimum current strength was necessary for the development of the epileptogenic focus and the AD were longer, while the number of necessary electrostimulations for the appearance of full kindling was less and the latency was shorter.

  20. Host-to-host variation of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Host-to-host variability with respect to interactions between microorganisms and multicellular hosts are commonly observed in infection and in homeostasis. However, the majority of mechanistic models used to analyze host–microorganism relationships, as well as most of the ecological theories proposed to explain coevolution of hosts and microbes, are based on averages across a host population. By assuming that observed variations are random and independent, these models overlook the role of differences between hosts. Here, we analyze mechanisms underlying host-to-host variations of bacterial infection kinetics, using the well characterized experimental infection model of polymicrobial otitis media (OM) in chinchillas, in combination with population dynamic models and a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) based inference scheme. We find that the nature of the interactions between bacterial species critically regulates host-to-host variations in these interactions. Surprisingly, seemingly unrelated phenomena, such as the efficiency of individual bacterial species in utilizing nutrients for growth, and the microbe-specific host immune response, can become interdependent in a host population. The latter finding suggests a potential mechanism that could lead to selection of specific strains of bacterial species during the coevolution of the host immune response and the bacterial species. (paper)

  1. The ABCG2 efflux transporter from rabbit placenta: Cloning and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwachs, Sandra; Kneuer, Carsten; Gohlsch, Katrin; Müller, Marian; Ritz, Vera; Honscha, Walther

    2016-02-01

    In human placenta, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast cells and mediates cellular excretion of various drugs and toxins. Hence, physiological ABCG2 activity substantially contributes to the fetoprotective placenta barrier function during gestation. Developmental toxicity studies are often performed in rabbit. However, despite its toxicological relevance, there is no data so far on functional ABCG2 expression in this species. Therefore, we cloned ABCG2 from placenta tissues of chinchilla rabbit. Sequencing showed 84-86% amino acid sequence identity to the orthologues from man, rat and mouse. We transduced the rabbit ABCG2 clone (rbABCG2) in MDCKII cells and stable rbABCG2 gene and protein expression was shown by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The rbABCG2 efflux activity was demonstrated with the Hoechst H33342 assay using the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. We further tested the effect of established human ABCG2 (hABCG2) drug substrates including the antibiotic danofloxacin or the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine on H33342 accumulation in MDCKII-rbABCG2 or -hABCG2 cells. Human therapeutic plasma concentrations of all tested drugs caused a comparable competitive inhibition of H33342 excretion in both ABCG2 clones. Altogether, we first showed functional expression of the ABCG2 efflux transporter in rabbit placenta. Moreover, our data suggest a similar drug substrate spectrum of the rabbit and the human ABCG2 efflux transporter. PMID:26907376

  2. Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperproteinaemic Activity of Extracts of Picralima nitida Seed and Tapinanthus bangwensis Leaf on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede M. Adegoke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water extract of Picralima nitida seed and aqueous extract of Tapinanthus bangwensis leaf were investigated for their antidiabetic activities on some biochemical parameters (glucose, protein associated with diabetes in both the serum and tissues of experimental animals using alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits as model. The rabbits were fasted overnight before they were given a single intraperitoneal injection of aqueous alloxan monohydrate (Sigma, USA at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight to make them diabetic. The experimental rabbits (chinchilla were grouped into six and extracts administered orally, once daily for five weeks. Groups 1 and 2 (non-diabetic received only distilled water and coconut water respectively, group 3 (diabetic received 200 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of T. bangwensis leaf, group 4 received 400 mg/kg body weight of coconut water extract of P. nitida seed, groups 5 and 6 (diabetic received only distilled water and coconut water respectively. The results revealed that the extracts independently lowered significantly (pandlt;0.05 the blood glucose and protein levels of the diabetic rabbits. Both extracts significantly (pandlt;0.05 increased the tissue protein. Overall, aqueous extract of T. bangwensis leaf and coconut water extract of P. nitida seed independently possesses insulin-like properties as demonstrated by their antidiabetic actions, hence, may be good herbal extracts in the management of diabetes.

  3. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae causes otitis media during single-species infection and during polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, Kyle A; Pang, Bing; Richardson, Stephen; Perez, Antonia; Reimche, Jennifer; King, Lauren; Wren, John; Swords, W Edward

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains lacking capsular polysaccharide have been increasingly reported in carriage and disease contexts. Since most cases of otitis media involve more than one bacterial species, we aimed to determine the capacity of a nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae clinical isolate to induce disease in the context of a single-species infection and as a polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media, we found that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx following intranasal inoculation, but does not readily ascend into the middle ear. However, when we inoculated nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae directly into the middle ear, the bacteria persisted for two weeks post-inoculation and induced symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media. During coinfection with nontypeable H. influenzae, both species persisted for one week and induced polymicrobial otitis media. We also observed that nontypeable H. influenzae conferred passive protection from killing by amoxicillin upon S. pneumoniae from within polymicrobial biofilms in vitro. Therefore, based on these results, we conclude that nonencapsulated pneumococci are a potential causative agent of chronic/recurrent otitis media, and can also cause mutualistic infection with other opportunists, which could complicate treatment outcomes. PMID:26014114

  4. Treatment of otitis media by transtympanic delivery of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Sabharwal, Vishakha; Okonkwo, Obiajulu S; Shlykova, Nadya; Tong, Rong; Lin, Lily Yun; Wang, Weiping; Guo, Shutao; Rosowski, John J; Pelton, Stephen I; Kohane, Daniel S

    2016-09-14

    Otitis media is the most common reason U.S. children receive antibiotics. The requisite 7- to 10-day course of oral antibiotics can be challenging to deliver in children, entails potential systemic toxicity, and encourages selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. We developed a drug delivery system that, when applied once to the tympanic membrane through the external auditory canal, delivers an entire course of antimicrobial therapy to the middle ear. A pentablock copolymer poloxamer 407-polybutylphosphoester (P407-PBP) was designed to flow easily during application and then to form a mechanically strong hydrogel on the tympanic membrane. U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved chemical permeation enhancers within the hydrogel assisted flux of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin across the membrane. This drug delivery system completely eradicated otitis media from nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in 10 of 10 chinchillas, whereas only 62.5% of animals receiving 1% ciprofloxacin alone had cleared the infection by day 7. The hydrogel system was biocompatible in the ear, and ciprofloxacin was undetectable systemically (in blood), confirming local drug delivery and activity. This fast-gelling hydrogel could improve compliance, minimize side effects, and prevent systemic distribution of antibiotics in one of the most common pediatric illnesses, possibly minimizing the development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27629487

  5. Antigen dose and strain variation as factors in the genetic control of the immune response to sperm whale myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary and secondary immune response to the antigen sperm whale myoglobin was investigated in DBA/2, 129 and B10.BR mice over a dose range of immunization from 10 to 2000 μg. Using an antigen excess technique, the quantity of antibody produced after secondary immunization followed a sigmoidal dose-response curve and the maximal plateau level was found to be different for each strain of mice. Furthermore, the genetic control of the immune response was investigated in twelve different inbred strains of mice following secondary immunization with 500 μg of of myoglobin. A continuous distribution for the mean antibody responses was obtained for the twelve different strains of mice. High responsiveness was associated with H-2 haplotypes d, f and k located on chromosome 17, the non-agouti gene 'a' located on chromosome 2 and the chinchilla gene 'csup(ch)' located on chromosome 7. It is concluded that either a large number of IR-genes to myoglobin are present in many loci located on different chromosomes or the antibody differences could be explained by a cross-tolerance mechanism requiring no IR-genes at all. (author)

  6. Studies of the processes of incorporation of calcium, strontium, barium and radium into bone tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline earth elements incorporation into bone tissue are investigated. The study is aimed at collecting the data on improvement of metabolism model of these elements. The study includes kinetics of calcium, strontium, barium and radium - carried out on 120 rats of Wistar strain: incorporation processes of light and heavy alkaline earth elements (strontium and barium) as a function of age of the organism - carried out on 30 rabbits of Chinchilla strain in different age groups, as well as the rate of incorporation of calcium and barium into different bone tissue areas - carried out on 68 rabbits of the same strain in one age group. The main investigative techniques are: radiochemical methods, whole-body counting technique, quantitative autoradiography and microradiography, ''tetracycline test'', computer calculation methods. The following conclusions are reached: incorporation of alkaline earth elements into bone tissue is differentiated and depends on whether or not it is a light element (Ca, Sr) or heavy one (Ba, Ra), it depends also on the area of bone tissue in which the incorporation occurs

  7. High-frequency dynamics of regularly discharging canal afferents provide a linear signal for angular vestibuloocular reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullar, T E; Minor, L B

    1999-10-01

    Regularly discharging vestibular-nerve afferents innervating the semicircular canals were recorded extracellularly in anesthetized chinchillas undergoing high-frequency, high-velocity sinusoidal rotations. In the range from 2 to 20 Hz, with peak velocities of 151 degrees/s at 6 Hz and 52 degrees/s at 20 Hz, 67/70 (96%) maintained modulated discharge throughout the sinusoidal stimulus cycle without inhibitory cutoff or excitatory saturation. These afferents showed little harmonic distortion, no dependence of sensitivity on peak amplitude of stimulation, and no measurable half-cycle asymmetry. A transfer function fitting the data predicts no change in sensitivity (gain) of regularly discharging afferents over the frequencies tested but shows a phase lead with regard to head velocity increasing from 0 degrees at 2 Hz to 30 degrees at 20 Hz. These results indicate that regularly discharging afferents provide a plausible signal to drive the angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) even during high-frequency head motion but are not a likely source for nonlinearities present in the VOR. PMID:10515990

  8. Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2006-02-01

    One of the important problems of modern medicine is treatment of infected wounds. There are many diversified expedients of treatment, but none of them obey the modern physician completely. The aim of this study is to develop and test a new combined method of photodynamic ultrasonic therapy (PDUST) for treatment of infected wounds with focus on experimental trials. PDUST is based on a combination of two methods: photodynamic (PD) therapy (PDT) with photosensitizer and low frequency ultrasonic (US) therapy with antibiotic as tools for treatment of wounds and effectively killing bacteria. The main parameters are: US frequency - 26.5 kHz; US tip elongation - 40+/-20 μm wavelength of light emitting diodes (LED) array - 660+/-10 nm; light intensity on biotissue surface - 1-2 mW/cm2; photosensitizer - an aluminum disulfonated phtalocyanine dissolved in a physiological solution in concentration 10 mg/l. The experiments were carried out with 70 male chinchilla rabbits divided into 7 groups, thus the dynamics of wounds healing were studied in different modes of PDUST. The PD and US methods supplement each other and in conjunction provide additive and especially synergetic effects. The experimental data demonstrated advantages of new technology in comparison with conventional methods in cases of treatment of extended suppurative inflammatory and profound wounds. The more detailed study of PDUST method's mechanism, which is based on low intensity of LED light, PD therapy and US influence is required.

  9. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Brockman, Kenneth L; Clark, Tyson A; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; McEwan, Alastair G; Grimmond, Sean M; Smith, Arnold L; Barenkamp, Stephen J; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system. PMID:26215614

  10. Comparison of immune response to nerve allograft segments in fetal and adult rabbits: a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağaoğlu, G; Kayikçioğlu, A; Sargon, M; Erk, Y; Mavili, E

    2000-04-01

    Fetuses, as opposed to adults, are immature immunologically and it has been proved that they can tolerate allograft materials much better than adults. In this study the rejection phenomenon of nerve allografts was compared histologically in fetuses and adults. The study was performed in 60 New Zealand rabbits (30 pregnant and 30 nonpregnant), and allograft nerve segments were obtained from Chinchilla rabbits. The animals were divided into fetal and adult groups. Each group was studied at various time periods. Nerve allografts were placed under the panniculus carnosus in the interscapular region of the fetuses and adults. In both fetal and adult groups, the nerve allograft segments were assessed histologically after 1, 7, and 30 days. The criteria used during the evaluation were the degenerative findings in the myelinated axons (large, medium, and small axons), changes in Schwann's cells, and the quantity of infiltrating cells. The changes were graded microscopically from 0 (no change) to 3 (severe destruction and cellular infiltration). Cellular infiltration was more extensive in the adult groups than in the fetal groups. Earlier fetal groups showed minimal infiltration, but the response became more extensive in the later fetal groups. This is probably related to the removal of the fetuses from their intrauterine environment. When comparing fetal and adult groups, the results were significant (p < 0.05). The fetuses tolerated the nerve allograft segments better than the adults. This may be related to the immature immune system of the fetuses.

  11. Natural evolution of experimental vitreous hemorrhage and effects of corticosteroids on its course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The course and prognosis of vitreous hemorrhage (VH are difficult to predict in spite of so far published experimental and clinical studies. Objective. The goal of this study was to follow the course and evaluate prognosis of vitreous hemorrhage. Methods. The experiment was performed on 19 Chinchilla rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, both males and females (38 eyes, weighing 2500-3000 g, which were treated with autologous blood (B from marginal ear vein - the first group, and the second group was treated with both blood and corticosteroids (B+CS. The course of vitreous hemorrhage was examined. Results. Our results have shown that the cellular reaction to vitreous hemorrhage is different, compared to hemorrhage in other types of tissue, which is due to absence of an early polymorphonuclear cellular reaction. Number of cells within vitreous body is very low. Conclusion. Vitreous hemorrhage has unusual course followed by a small number of cells (mostly poly-morphonuclear cells. This is most important fact why VH is cleared very slowly (about 6 to 9 weeks. CS has moderate influence on the acceleration of VH absorption.

  12. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Brockman, Kenneth L; Clark, Tyson A; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; McEwan, Alastair G; Grimmond, Sean M; Smith, Arnold L; Barenkamp, Stephen J; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system.

  13. Mast cells in mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropp, J J

    1976-01-01

    Mast cells, which had until recently been believed to be not present in the mammalian brain, were studied in the brains of 29 mammalian species. Although there was considerable intraspecific and interspecific variation, mast cells were most numerous within the leptomeninges (especially in those overlying the cerebrum and the dorsal thalamus - most rodents, most carnivores, chimpanzees, squirrel monkeys and elephant), the cerebral cortex (most rodents, tiger, fox, chimpanzee, tarsier, and elephant) and in many nuclei of the dorsal thalamus (most rodents, tiger, lion, and fox). In some mammals, mast cells were also numerous in the stroma of the telencephalic choroid plexuses (chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), the putamen and the claustrum (chimpanzee), the subfornical organ (pack rat, tiger, chimpanzee), the olfactory peduncles (hooded rat, albino rat), the stroma of the diencephalic choroid plexus (lion, chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), the pineal organ (chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), some nuclei of the hypothalamus (tiger), the infundibulum (hooded rat, tiger, fox) the area postrema (pack rat, chinchilla, lion, spider monkey, chimpanzee, fox) and some nuclei and tracts of the metencephalon and the myelencephalon (tiger). Neither the sex of the animal nor electrolytic lesions made in the brains of some of the animals at various times prior to sacrifice appeared to effect the number and the distribution of mast cells. Age-related changes in mast cell number and distribution were detected in the albino rat. PMID:961335

  14. THE FUNCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF A CELL-ENGINEERED CONSTRUCT FOR THE REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sevastianov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is an analysis of the functional effectiveness of a biomedical cell product consisting of a biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH, human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADMSCs, and chondrogenic induction medium in the regeneration of articular cartilage. Materials and methods. The test model of the adjuvant arthritis was used (female Soviet Chinchilla rabbits with the further development into osteoarthrosis (OA combined with the clinical, biochemical, radiological, and histochemical trials. Results. On Day 92 of the OA model it has been found that the intra-articular introduction of a BMCH with hADMSCs into the left knee joint (n = 3 30 days after the OA modeling, as opposed to the right joint (negative control, n = 3, stimulates the regenerative processes of the cartilaginous tissue structure characterized by the formation of chondrocyte «columns», the emergence of isogenic groups in the intracellular matrix and the regeneration of its structure. Upon the intra-articular introduction of a BMCH (n = 3 such effects are markedly less pronounced. Conclusions. A significant regenerative potential of a cell-engineered construct of human articular tissue (CEC ATh has been proven. It is possible to presume that biostimulating properties of CEC ATh are due to the activating effect of a biomedical cell product on the stem cell migration processes from the surrounding tissue into the injured area with their subsequent differentiation. 

  15. Retinal and Choroidal Damage from Long-Term Exposure to a Laser Pointer Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari M H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laser pointers are devices that produce a weak laser beam of 630-680 nmwavelength and 1-5 mW power (ClassII or III A laser. These devices generally emit a redbeam that is used by lecturers and teachers for presentations. Some children use pointers astoys and sometimes direct the beam to their own or others' eyes. Material and Methods: Following irradiation by a laser pointer beam for 8 secondsthe eyes of Chinchilla rabbits were examined by opthalmoscope, and fluorescein angiographywas performed 5, 10 and 15 min after the exposure. The rabbits were killed immediately or24h after exposure, the eyes were enucleated, and the histological features of sections fromfundus, retina and choroid were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results: A fluorescein block was found in the irradiated area immediately after irradiationand it increased in size with increasing time after exposure. The ultrastructural study showedacute oedema shortly after exposure, and thick collagenic bundles after 24h. Conclusion: Laser pointers with labelled power of less than 1mW are capable of producing visible and ultrastructual lesions in pigmented rabbit eyes.

  16. Hypothyroidism Affects Vascularization and Promotes Immune Cells Infiltration into Pancreatic Islets of Female Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2015-01-01

    Thyroidectomy induces pancreatic edema and immune cells infiltration similarly to that observed in pancreatitis. In spite of the controverted effects of hypothyroidism on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, the number and proliferation of Langerhans islet cells as well as the presence of extracellular matrix are affected depending on the islet size. In this study, we evaluated the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on the vascularization and immune cells infiltration into islets. A general observation of pancreas was also done. Twelve Chinchilla-breed female adult rabbits were divided into control (n = 6) and hypothyroid groups (n = 6, methimazole, 0.02% in drinking water for 30 days). After the treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and their pancreas was excised, histologically processed, and stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) or Masson's Trichrome techniques. Islets were arbitrarily classified into large, medium, and small ones. The external and internal portions of each islet were also identified. Student-t-test and Mann-Whitney-U test or two-way ANOVAs were used to compare variables between groups. In comparison with control rabbits, hypothyroidism induced a strong infiltration of immune cells and a major presence of collagen and proteoglycans in the interlobular septa. Large islets showed a high vascularization and immune cells infiltration. The present results show that hypothyroidism induces pancreatitis and insulitis. PMID:26175757

  17. A Comparative Study of Retinal Function in Rabbits after Panretinal Selective Retina Therapy versus Conventional Panretinal Photocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Gun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluates functional changes in electroretinographic findings after selective retina therapy (SRT compared to panretinal photocoagulation (PRP in rabbits. Methods. The right eyes of 12 Chinchilla rabbits received 200 laser treatment spots. The right eyes of six rabbits received SRT (SRT group, whereas the other six animals were treated using PRP on the right eye (PRP group. The eyes were investigated using full-field ERG 1 hour and 3 weeks after treatment. Histologic exam to assess the tissue response of lasers was performed on 3 weeks. Results. No significant changes in the mean ROD or CR b-wave amplitudes of the SRT lesions were evident, compared to baseline, 1 h after laser treatment (p=0.372 and 0.278, resp.. In addition, the OPs and 30 Hz flickers of the SRT lesions were not significantly altered (p=0.17 and 0.243, resp.. At 3 weeks, similar results were found. Comparing the two groups, the ROD b-wave amplitude was reduced in the PRP and SRT groups to 60.04±4.2% and 92.32±6.43% of baseline (p<0.001. Histologically, there was no visible photoreceptor alterations on week 3. Conclusions. SRT in rabbit eyes induced less functional loss than PRP in both rod-mediated retinal function and cone-mediated retinal function. In addition, SRT irradiated eyes had no functional loss compared to its control.

  18. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M.; Srikhanta, Yogitha N.; Fox, Kate L.; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; Brockman, Kenneth L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M.; Jen, Freda E.-C.; McEwan, Alastair G.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Smith, Arnold L.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system. PMID:26215614

  19. The ToxAvapA toxin-antitoxin locus contributes to the survival of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae during infection.

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    Dabin Ren

    Full Text Available Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is an opportunistic pathogen that is a common cause of acute and recurrent mucosal infections. One uncharacterized NTHi toxin-antitoxin (TA module, NTHI1912-1913, is a host inhibition of growth (higBA homologue. We hypothesized that this locus, which we designated toxAvapA, contributed to NTHi survival during infection. We deleted toxAvapA and determined that growth of the mutant in defined media was not different from the parent strain. We tested the mutant for persistence during long-term in vitro co-culture with primary human respiratory tissues, which revealed that the ΔtoxAvapA mutant was attenuated for survival. We then performed challenge studies using the chinchilla model of otitis media and determined that mutant survival was also reduced in vivo. Following purification, the toxin exhibited ribonuclease activity on RNA in vitro, while the antitoxin did not. A microarray comparison of the transcriptome revealed that the tryptophan biosynthetic regulon was significantly repressed in the mutant compared to the parent strain. HPLC studies of conditioned medium confirmed that there was no significant difference in the concentration of tryptophan remaining in the supernatant, indicating that the uptake of tryptophan by the mutant was not affected. We conclude that the role of the NTHi toxAvapA TA module in persistence following stress is multifactorial and includes effects on essential metabolic pathways.

  20. Ultrastructural changes of chorioretinal complex under sub-threshold laser exposure at wavelengths of 0.81 and 0.532 μm (experimental study

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    N. A. Fedoruk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To reveal ultrastructural changes of chorioretinal complex and their possible reversibility under sub-threshold laser exposure at wavelengths of 0.81 and 0.532 μm in 1, 8 and 30 days. Methods: Experimental study was performed on 16 chinchilla rabbits (32 eyes using laser at wavelengths of 0.532 and 0.81 μm in CW, micropulse, and transpupillary thermotherapy modes. Transmission electron microscope EM-10C (Opton, Oberkochen, Germany was used to perform ultrastructural study of retina following laser exposure. Results: In a day after sub-threshold laser exposure, ultrastructural changes were mainly detected in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, choriocapillaries, and photoreceptors. In 8 days, intracellular regeneration of RPE and partial restoration of choriocapillary blood flow and RPE macrophages were observed. In 30 days, RPE morphology, the number and the structure of photoreceptor outer segments were re-established. Mitochondria of photoreceptor inner segments regenerated as well. Conclusion: Ultrastructural changes of chorioretinal complex following sub-threshold laser radiation were reversible. Intracellular regeneration provided almost complete recovery of chorioretinal complex structure by day 30.

  1. Ultrastructural changes of chorioretinal complex under sub-threshold laser exposure at wavelengths of 0.81 and 0.532 μm (experimental study

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    N. A. Fedoruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To reveal ultrastructural changes of chorioretinal complex and their possible reversibility under sub-threshold laser exposure at wavelengths of 0.81 and 0.532 μm in 1, 8 and 30 days. Methods: Experimental study was performed on 16 chinchilla rabbits (32 eyes using laser at wavelengths of 0.532 and 0.81 μm in CW, micropulse, and transpupillary thermotherapy modes. Transmission electron microscope EM-10C (Opton, Oberkochen, Germany was used to perform ultrastructural study of retina following laser exposure. Results: In a day after sub-threshold laser exposure, ultrastructural changes were mainly detected in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, choriocapillaries, and photoreceptors. In 8 days, intracellular regeneration of RPE and partial restoration of choriocapillary blood flow and RPE macrophages were observed. In 30 days, RPE morphology, the number and the structure of photoreceptor outer segments were re-established. Mitochondria of photoreceptor inner segments regenerated as well. Conclusion: Ultrastructural changes of chorioretinal complex following sub-threshold laser radiation were reversible. Intracellular regeneration provided almost complete recovery of chorioretinal complex structure by day 30.

  2. Biología reproductiva de Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae en una población de Aucó (centro-norte de Chile Reproductive biology of Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae in a population of Aucó (north-central Chile

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    Lorena H. Suárez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus chilensis es una hierba perenne, única representante endémica de la familia Convolvulaceae en Chile. Se estudió el sistema de reproducción, fenología, morfología y longevidad floral de C. chilensis en una población natural ubicada en la localidad de Aucó, dentro de la Reserva Nacional Las Chinchillas, IV Región, Chile. Se montó un experimento de polinización controlada considerando los tratamientos de polinización natural, polinización cruzada, autopolinización manual, autopolinización automática y apomixis, evaluándose su efecto sobre la formación de frutos y el número de semillas producidas por fruto. Adicionalmente, se compararon los siguientes atributos de la progenie según tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada: peso de semilla, germinación, altura y número de hojas de plántulas de ocho semanas en condiciones de invernadero. Se encontró que C. chilensis es una especie autocompatible, parcialmente autógama (capaz de autopolinizarse sin mediador y parcialmente apomíctica (capaz de producir semillas sin participación de gameto masculino. La longevidad floral fue estimada en 5,25 h. Durante este período, aproximadamente en 1,5 h hay disponibilidad de polen en los estambres. El período de floración se extiende por 22 semanas (agosto a enero. El tratamiento de apomixis presentó el menor porcentaje de formación de frutos y la menor cantidad de semillas por flor en comparación a los tratamientos de polinización natural, cruzada manual, autopolinización automática y autopolinización manual, los cuales no mostraron diferencias entre sí en ambos atributos. El tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada no afecta el desempeño de la progenie en los atributos de semilla y plántula evaluadosThe perennial herb Convolvulus chilensis is the only endemic species of the Convolvulaceae in Chile. The breeding system, phenology, morphology and floral longevity of C

  3. Analysis of reproductive traits of broiler rabbits reared in sub-temperate climate of Kodai hills, Tamil Nadu, India

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    S. Rajapandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out at Institute Rabbit Farm of Southern Regional Research Centre, Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India having sub-temperate climate with winter temperature during night hours going below 0°C with an objective of finding the influence of different factors such as breed, year, season and parity on different reproductive traits of broiler rabbits in order to come out with the best strategies for improving the productivity. Materials and Methods: A total of 1793 records (946 White Giant and 847 Soviet Chinchilla for weight at mating (WM, weight at kindling (WK, gestation length (GL, litter size at birth (LSB and litter size at weaning (LSW, litter weight at birth (LWB, and litter weight at weaning (LWW were collected in the period between 2000 and 2009 and the data was analyzed using general linear model option of SAS 9.2. Results: The overall mean GL, WM, WK, LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW were 31.68±0.04 days, 3.65±0.01 kg, 3.84±0.01 kg, 6.91±0.08, 5.49±0.09, 387.62±4.07 g, and 4.66±0.07 kg, respectively. The breed has significantly influenced GL, WK, LSW, LWB, and LWW. The LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW were 7.05±0.11, 5.76±0.13, 399.55±5.88 g, and 4.87±0.10 kg, respectively in White Giant and corresponding values for Soviet Chinchilla were 6.78±0.11, 5.22±0.12, 375.91±5.64 g, and 4.46±0.09 kg, respectively. The year of kindling had significantly affected all the reproductive traits under study and is varying over different years. The parity significantly influenced the WM, WK, and LWW. The LWW increased from first (4.16±0.21 kg to second parity (4.86±0.19 kg and remained in the same range from third parity onward. WM was significantly higher in spring season (3.72±0.02 than the animals in rainy (3.59±0.02 and winter season (3.65±0.02. Better reproductive performance in terms of higher LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW as observed in the present study might be due to conducive environmental conditions prevailing

  4. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse

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    Derek Hood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi. The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+ bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90% of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (104-105 colony-forming units/µl in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria.

  5. Cochlear power flux as an indicator of mechanical activity.

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    Diependaal, R J; de Boer, E; Viergever, M A

    1987-09-01

    The question of whether one can conclude just from basilar membrane (BM) vibration data that the cochlea is an active mechanical system is addressed. To this end, a method is developed which computes the power flux through a channel cross section of a short-wave cochlear model from a given BM vibration pattern. The power flux is an important indicator of mechanical activity because a rise in this function corresponds to creation of mechanical energy. The power flux method is applied to BM velocity patterns as measured by Johnstone and Yates [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 584-587 (1974)] and by Sellick et al. [Hear. Res. 10, 101-108 (1983)] in the guinea pig and by Robles et al. [Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms, edited by J.B. Allen, J.L. Hall, A.E. Hubbard, S.T. Neely, and A. Tubis (Springer, New York, 1986a), pp. 121-128, and J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 80, 1364-1374 (1986b)] in the chinchilla. Before the calculations are performed, the BM data are interpolated and smoothed in order to avoid numerical errors as a result of too few and noisy data points. The choice of the smoothing method influences the computed power flux function considerably. Nevertheless, the calculations appear to make a clear distinction between the "old" data, showing broad BM tuning (Johnstone and Yates, 1974), and the "new" data, in which the response is much more peaked (Sellick et al., 1983; Robles et al., 1986a, b). The former do not give rise to a significant increase of the power flux; the latter do, although less convincingly for the Sellick et al. (1983) data than for the Robles et al. (1986a,b) data. It is thus concluded that the recently obtained, sharply tuned BM responses reflect the presence of mechanical activity in the cochlea.

  6. Sequence analysis, tissue distribution and molecular physiology of the GnRH preprogonadotrophin in the South American plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charif, Santiago Elías; Inserra, Pablo Ignacio Felipe; Di Giorgio, Noelia Paula; Schmidt, Alejandro Raúl; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel; Dorfman, Verónica Berta

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the regulator of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. GnRH and GAP (GnRH-associated protein) are both encoded by a single preprohormone. Different variants of GnRH have been described. In most mammals, GnRH is secreted in a pulsatile manner that stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The South-American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, is a rodent with peculiar reproductive features including natural poly-ovulation up to 800 oocytes per estrous cycle, pre-ovulatory follicle formation throughout pregnancy and an ovulatory process which takes place at mid-gestation and adds a considerable number of secondary corpora lutea. Such features should occur under a special modulation of the HHG axis, guided by GnRH. The aim of this study was to sequence hypothalamic GnRH preprogonadotrophin mRNA in the vizcacha, to compare it with evolutionarily related species and to identify its expression, distribution and pulsatile pattern of secretion. The GnRH1variant was detected and showed the highest homology with that of chinchilla, its closest evolutionarily related species. Two isoforms of transcripts were identified, carrying the same coding sequence, but different 5' untranslated regions. This suggests a sensitive equilibrium between RNA stability and translational efficiency. A predominant hypothalamic localization and a pulsatile secretion pattern of one pulse of GnRH every hour were found. The lower homology found for GAP, also among evolutionarily related species, depicts a potentially different bioactivity. PMID:26704854

  7. Survey of zoonotic dermatoses in client-owned exotic pet mammals in southern Italy.

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    d'Ovidio, D; Santoro, D

    2015-03-01

    Several 'exotic' mammalian species (e.g. rabbits, rodents, ferrets and hedgehogs) live in close proximity to humans as companion pets. Skin diseases (SD) are frequent causes of morbidity in exotic pet mammals, and most of those SDs have a zoonotic potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies and types of zoonotic dermatosis (ZD) in client-owned, exotic pet mammals in Southern Italy. Six-hundred and fifty-five medical records of exotic pet mammals examined between 2011 and 2012, across twenty private practice veterinary clinics around the Naples area (Italy), were retrospectively evaluated and screened for animals diagnosed with SDs (rabbits n = 455, guinea pigs n = 93, ferrets n = 64, hedgehogs n = 19, chinchillas n = 13 and rats n = 11). The records of animals diagnosed with SD, whose causative agents had a zoonotic potential, were selected for analysis. The Mann-Whitney independent test was used for statistical analysis. A P value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Eighty-two records (12.5%) of animals with ZD were identified. Of those, 56.1% (46/82) were affected by fungal infections and 42.7% (35/82) by parasitic infections. No zoonotic bacterial or viral infections were diagnosed. Dermatophytosis was significantly diagnosed more frequently in younger animals. The results of this survey indicate that exotic pet mammals may serve as active carriers for many highly contagious pathogens with zoonotic potential. Awareness and vigilance by the veterinary practitioner is crucial in the prevention of occurrences of ZDs. Children frequently come in close contact with exotic pets. To prevent the unplanned transmission of pathogen from pet to human, an active routine screening examination and preventative treatments are strongly recommended for every newly purchased pet mammal.

  8. The influence of blood on the efficacy of intraperitoneally applied phospholipids for prevention of adhesions

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    Oettinger Alexander P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of adhesions following abdominal surgery is a well known problem. In previous studies we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneally applied phospholipids in order to prevent adhesion formation. This study evaluates the influence of blood on the efficacy of intraperitoneally applied phospholipids for prevention of adhesions. Methods In 40 Chinchilla rabbits adhesions were induced by median laparotomy, standardized abrasion of the visceral and parietal peritoneum in defined areas of the ventral abdominal wall and the caecum. The animals were randomly divided into four groups. They received either phospholipids 3.0% or normal saline (NaCl 0,9% (5 ml/kg body weight. In 50% of the rabbits we simulated intraperitoneal bleeding by administration of blood (1,5 ml/kg body weight. The other half served as control group. Ten days following the operation the animals were sacrificed and adhesion formation was assessed by computer aided planimetry and histopathologic examination. Results The median adhesion surface area in the NaCl-group (n = 9 amounted to 68,72 mm2, in the NaCl+Blood-group (n = 10 147,68 mm2. In the Phospholipid (PhL-group (n = 9 the median adhesion surface area measured 9,35 mm2, in the PhL+Blood-group (n = 9 11,95 mm2. The phospholipid groups had a significantly smaller adhesion surface area (p Conclusion Again these results confirm the efficacy of phospholipids in the prevention of adhesions in comparison to NaCl (p = 0,04. We also demonstrated the adhesion preventing effect of phospholipids in the presence of intraperitoneal blood.

  9. Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel vestibular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y; Chiang, Bryce; Davidovics, Natan S; Melvin, Thuy-Anh; Cullen, Kathleen E; Della Santina, Charles C

    2011-05-01

    By sensing three-dimensional (3D) head rotation and electrically stimulating the three ampullary branches of a vestibular nerve to encode head angular velocity, a multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) can restore vestibular sensation to individuals disabled by loss of vestibular hair cell function. However, current spread to afferent fibers innervating non-targeted canals and otolith end organs can distort the vestibular nerve activation pattern, causing misalignment between the perceived and actual axis of head rotation. We hypothesized that over time, central neural mechanisms can adapt to correct this misalignment. To test this, we rendered five chinchillas vestibular deficient via bilateral gentamicin treatment and unilaterally implanted them with a head-mounted MVP. Comparison of 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) responses during 2 Hz, 50°/s peak horizontal sinusoidal head rotations in darkness on the first, third, and seventh days of continual MVP use revealed that eye responses about the intended axis remained stable (at about 70% of the normal gain) while misalignment improved significantly by the end of 1 week of prosthetic stimulation. A comparable time course of improvement was also observed for head rotations about the other two semicircular canal axes and at every stimulus frequency examined (0.2-5 Hz). In addition, the extent of disconjugacy between the two eyes progressively improved during the same time window. These results indicate that the central nervous system rapidly adapts to multichannel prosthetic vestibular stimulation to markedly improve 3D aVOR alignment within the first week after activation. Similar adaptive improvements are likely to occur in other species, including humans.

  10. The Effects of Age, Breed, Sire, Body Weight and the Ejaculate Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks

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    G.N. Akpa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyse the semen of different breeds of rabbits and to determine the effects of age, breed, sire, generation and body weight on the ejaculate characteristics of rabbit bucks. Twenty rabbit bucks comprising of three breeds (New-Zealand White 8, Chinchilla 6 and Californian White 6 between the ages of 6-9 months were used to investigate the effect of age, breed, sire and generation on body weight and ejaculate characteristics of the bucks. The experiment was carried out at the Animal Science departmental farm, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Parameters considered include semen colour, semen volume, semen ejaculate volume, semen concentration, semen pH, sperm motility, body weight and age. The mean for semen ejaculate volume, semen concentration, pH, sperm motility, body weight and age were 0.5 mL, 325.5x106 sperm cells/mL, 7.5, 86.6, 2.0 and 7.6% months, respectively. Age, breed and sire had (p≤0.05 effect on ejaculate characteristics but breed and sire had higher significant (p<0.01 effect on body weight. However, generation had no significant effect on the body weight and ejaculate characteristics except on semen pH (p<0.05. The ejaculate characteristics of the rabbit bucks were influenced by age, breed and sire. The values obtained were within the normal standards for rabbits-bucks. New Zealand White bucks proved superior in terms of ejaculate characteristics.

  11. Exposure and impact assessment of emissions from mercury recycling using domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrtová, E; Bencko, V

    1995-02-01

    A biomonitoring study using domestic rabbits (Chinchilla) aimed at the exposure and impact risks assessment of emissions released into the ambient air from a mercury-recycling plant has been carried out. Groups of rabbits were exposed to the emissions during 6 months at biomonitoring stations built up in two localities (Rudnany and Matejovce) in the distance of about 3 and 6 km around and downwind from the mercury-producing plant. The aim of the biomonitoring was to trace the translocation of inhaled inorganic Hg in body tissues and the immunotoxic impact of the emissions in the exposed mammalian organism in comparison to a non-exposed animals living outside the polluted area. The content of mercury (as a major pollutant in the ambient air in that area) in body tissues was done spectrometrically using a Trace Mercury Analyser TMA-254. Content of mercury and the other metals in the rabbits' hairs was determined by neutron activation analysis. A statistically significant increase of the inorganic Hg content in the specimens of kidneys, lungs, liver, thigh bone, heart muscle and brain was observed. Concerning the hairs, a statistically significant elevation of Hg and other elements (As, Cd, La, Zn, Na, K, W, Sr) has been found. The body tissue reaction to the increased accumulation of mercury has been investigated by a direct immunofluorescent method to search for body tissue immune complexes. The significant increase of Hg content determined in the organs (especially in kidneys and liver) of the exposed animals was also traced by the presence of immunofluorescent antibodies. In addition, the immunofluorescent antibodies in the myocardium have been proved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Differences in genotype and virulence among four multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates belonging to the PMEN1 clone.

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    N Luisa Hiller

    Full Text Available We report on the comparative genomics and characterization of the virulence phenotypes of four S. pneumoniae strains that belong to the multidrug resistant clone PMEN1 (Spain(23F ST81. Strains SV35-T23 and SV36-T3 were recovered in 1996 from the nasopharynx of patients at an AIDS hospice in New York. Strain SV36-T3 expressed capsule type 3 which is unusual for this clone and represents the product of an in vivo capsular switch event. A third PMEN1 isolate - PN4595-T23 - was recovered in 1996 from the nasopharynx of a child attending day care in Portugal, and a fourth strain - ATCC700669 - was originally isolated from a patient with pneumococcal disease in Spain in 1984. We compared the genomes among four PMEN1 strains and 47 previously sequenced pneumococcal isolates for gene possession differences and allelic variations within core genes. In contrast to the 47 strains - representing a variety of clonal types - the four PMEN1 strains grouped closely together, demonstrating high genomic conservation within this lineage relative to the rest of the species. In the four PMEN1 strains allelic and gene possession differences were clustered into 18 genomic regions including the capsule, the blp bacteriocins, erythromycin resistance, the MM1-2008 prophage and multiple cell wall anchored proteins. In spite of their genomic similarity, the high resolution chinchilla model was able to detect variations in virulence properties of the PMEN1 strains highlighting how small genic or allelic variation can lead to significant changes in pathogenicity and making this set of strains ideal for the identification of novel virulence determinants.

  13. Differences in genotype and virulence among four multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates belonging to the PMEN1 clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, N Luisa; Eutsey, Rory A; Powell, Evan; Earl, Joshua P; Janto, Benjamin; Martin, Darren P; Dawid, Suzanne; Ahmed, Azad; Longwell, Mark J; Dahlgren, Margaret E; Ezzo, Suzanne; Tettelin, Herve; Daugherty, Sean C; Mitchell, Timothy J; Hillman, Todd A; Buchinsky, Farrel J; Tomasz, Alexander; de Lencastre, Herminia; Sá-Leão, Raquel; Post, J Christopher; Hu, Fen Z; Ehrlich, Garth D

    2011-01-01

    We report on the comparative genomics and characterization of the virulence phenotypes of four S. pneumoniae strains that belong to the multidrug resistant clone PMEN1 (Spain(23F) ST81). Strains SV35-T23 and SV36-T3 were recovered in 1996 from the nasopharynx of patients at an AIDS hospice in New York. Strain SV36-T3 expressed capsule type 3 which is unusual for this clone and represents the product of an in vivo capsular switch event. A third PMEN1 isolate - PN4595-T23 - was recovered in 1996 from the nasopharynx of a child attending day care in Portugal, and a fourth strain - ATCC700669 - was originally isolated from a patient with pneumococcal disease in Spain in 1984. We compared the genomes among four PMEN1 strains and 47 previously sequenced pneumococcal isolates for gene possession differences and allelic variations within core genes. In contrast to the 47 strains - representing a variety of clonal types - the four PMEN1 strains grouped closely together, demonstrating high genomic conservation within this lineage relative to the rest of the species. In the four PMEN1 strains allelic and gene possession differences were clustered into 18 genomic regions including the capsule, the blp bacteriocins, erythromycin resistance, the MM1-2008 prophage and multiple cell wall anchored proteins. In spite of their genomic similarity, the high resolution chinchilla model was able to detect variations in virulence properties of the PMEN1 strains highlighting how small genic or allelic variation can lead to significant changes in pathogenicity and making this set of strains ideal for the identification of novel virulence determinants.

  14. Dps promotes survival of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in biofilm communities in vitro and resistance to clearance in vivo

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    Bing ePang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is a common airway commensal and opportunistic pathogen that persists within surface-attached biofilm communities. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bacterial stress-responses are activated within biofilms. Transcripts for several factors associated with bacterial resistance to environmental stress were increased in biofilm cultures as compared to planktonic cultures. Among these, a homolog of the DNA-binding protein from starved cells (dps was chosen for further study. An isogenic NTHi 86-028NP dps mutant was generated and tested for resistance to environmental stress, revealing a significant survival defects in high-iron conditions, which was mediated by oxidative stress and was restored by genetic complementation. As expected, NTHi 86-028NP dps had a general stress-response defect, exhibiting decreased resistance to many types of environmental stress. While no differences were observed in density and structure of NTHi 86-028NP and NTHi 86-028NP dps biofilms, bacterial survival was decreased in NTHi 86-028NP dps biofilms as compared to the parental strain. The role of dps persistence in vivo was tested in animal infection studies. NTHi 86-028NP dps had decreased resistance to clearance after pulmonary infection of elastase-treated mice as compared to NTHi 86-028NP, whereas minimal differences were observed in clearance from mock-treated mice. Similarly, lower numbers of NTHi 86-028NP dps were recovered from middle-ear effusions and bullar homogenates in the chinchilla model for otitis media. Therefore, we conclude that Dps promotes bacterial survival within NTHi biofilm communities both in vitro and in chronic infections in vivo.

  15. Identification and Characterization of msf, a Novel Virulence Factor in Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress-Bennett, Jennifer M; Hiller, N Luisa; Eutsey, Rory A; Powell, Evan; Longwell, Mark J; Hillman, Todd; Blackwell, Tenisha; Byers, Barbara; Mell, Joshua C; Post, J Christopher; Hu, Fen Z; Ehrlich, Garth D; Janto, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic pathogen. The emergence of virulent, non-typeable strains (NTHi) emphasizes the importance of developing new interventional targets. We screened the NTHi supragenome for genes encoding surface-exposed proteins suggestive of immune evasion, identifying a large family containing Sel1-like repeats (SLRs). Clustering identified ten SLR-containing gene subfamilies, each with various numbers of SLRs per gene. Individual strains also had varying numbers of SLR-containing genes from one or more of the subfamilies. Statistical genetic analyses of gene possession among 210 NTHi strains typed as either disease or carriage found a significant association between possession of the SlrVA subfamily (which we have termed, macrophage survival factor, msf) and the disease isolates. The PittII strain contains four chromosomally contiguous msf genes. Deleting all four of these genes (msfA1-4) (KO) resulted in a highly significant decrease in phagocytosis and survival in macrophages; which was fully complemented by a single copy of the msfA1 gene. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media and invasive disease, the KO strain displayed a significant decrease in fitness compared to the WT in co-infections; and in single infections, the KO lost its ability to invade the brain. The singly complemented strain showed only a partial ability to compete with the WT suggesting gene dosage is important in vivo. The transcriptional profiles of the KO and WT in planktonic growth were compared using the NTHi supragenome array, which revealed highly significant changes in the expression of operons involved in virulence and anaerobiosis. These findings demonstrate that the msfA1-4 genes are virulence factors for phagocytosis, persistence, and trafficking to non-mucosal sites.

  16. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D. M.; Cheeseman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (104-105 colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria. PMID:26611891

  17. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, March 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-03-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 34 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 34 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CAU is located within the Area 3 Compound at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in the vicinity of the Mud Plant Facility in Yucca Valley. Historically, CAS 03-09-07, Mud Pit, was used for disposal of excess mud from washing drilling equipment from 1968 to 1974, at which time it began to be used for excess mud disposal (currently inactive); CAS 03-44-01, Chromium Contamination Spill, was used to store additives used in the formulation of drilling mud from the early 1960s to the mid-1990s; CAS 03-47-02, Area 3 Mud Plant Pond, was used as a freshwater storage reservoir for the mud plant as well as supplied water for a number of activities including the mixing of mud, the rinsing and cleaning of tanks, and various washdowns from the 1960s through 1990s; and CAS 03-09-06, Mud Disposal Crater, was created in 1962 by an underground nuclear detonation (i.e., Chinchilla test) and was used to mix and store mud, dispose of receiving waste from the mud plant floor drains and excess drilling mud, and clean/flush mix tanks through the mid-1990s. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to identify potentially contaminated ground soil at each of the four CASs and determine the quantity, nature, and extent of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs). The investigation will include systematic and biased surface and subsurface soil and mud sampling using hand-auguring and direct-push techniques; visual, video, and/or electromagnetic surveys of pipes; field screening for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and alpha/beta-emitting radionuclides; and

  19. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  20. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  1. Changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea after modified transepithelial crosslinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Medvedev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea after conducting transepithelial crosslinking with the prior application of a 40 % glucose solution.Materials and methods. Just studied the biomechanical properties of the corneas of six rabbits breed Chinchilla (12 eyes. 4 rabbit entered in the experimental group, in which in one eye glucose solution was applied on the cornea and allowed to stay for 10 minutes, followed by the instillation of 0.1 % Riboflavin solution for 30 minutes. On a couple of the rabbit eye was applied a solution of Riboflavin without prior instillation of glucose. Then carried out the procedure of irradiation according to the conventional technology with UV with a wavelength of 370 μm and a beam energy of 3.0 mW / cm2. Two rabbits (4 eyes were included in the control group, in which crosslinking was not performed. After 1 month the euthanasia of the animals was performed with subsequent enucleation for corneal research on a tensile testing machine. In the control and experimental group compared, the relaxation curves and the following parameters were analyzed: initial stress (MPa, equilibrium stress (MPa modulus of elasticity.Results and their discussion. After the crosslinking the rise of the initial stress (in the control group and 0.7+0.1 MPa, in the experimental and 1.5+0.2 1.3+0.3 MPa, respectively. The stress relaxation is fast (equilibrium stress value is reached after 250 sec. and after the administration of glucose for approximately 75 seconds, which means a greater rigidity of experimental group of samples. In the experimental groups significantly changed and the modulus of elasticity: its value has increased approximately in 2 times in comparison with control samples. The equilibrium stress values in the experimental groups were different from the zero value that also indicates a change in the chemical structure of the samples.Conclusions. Holding transepithelial of

  2. Different tissue reaction of oesophagus and diaphragm after mesh hiatoplasty. Results of an animal study

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    Rosch Raphael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopic mesh-reinforcement of the hiatal region in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and paraesophageal hernia (PEH reduces the risk of recurrence. However, there are still controversies about the technique of mesh placement, shape, structure and material. We therefore compared tissue integration and scar formation after implantation of two different polypropylene-meshes in a rabbit model. Methods A total of 20 female chinchilla rabbits were included in this study. Two different meshes (Polypropylene PP, Polyglecaprone 25 Composite PP-PG were implanted on the abdominal diaphragm around the oesophagus. After 3 months the implanted meshes were excised en-bloc. Histological and morphological analyses were carried out accordingly proliferation rate, apoptosis and collagen type I/III ratio. Results Regarding proliferation rate of oesophagus PP (9.31 ± 3.4% and PP-PG (13.26 ± 2.54% differ in a significant (p = 0.0097 way. In the diaphragm we found a significant (p = 0.00066 difference between PP (9.43 ± 1.45% and PP-PG (18.73 ± 5.92% respectively. Comparing oesophagus and diaphragm we could prove a significant difference within PP-PG-group (p = 0.0195. Within PP-group the difference reached no statistical significance (p = 0.88. We found analogous results regarding apoptosis. Furthermore, there is a significant (p = 0.00013 difference of collagen type I/III ratio in PP-PG (12.28 ± 0.8 compared to PP (8.44 ± 1,63 in case of oesophageal tissue. Concerning diaphragm we found a significant difference (p = 0.000099 between PP-PG (8.85 ± 0.81 and PP (6.32 ± 1.07 as well. Conclusion The histologic and morphologic characteristics after prosthetic enforcement of the hiatus in this animal model show a more distinct tissue integration using PP-PG compared to PP. Additionally, different wound healing and remodelling capability influence tissue integration of the mesh in diaphragm and oesophagus.

  3. Age-Independent Cartilage Generation for Synovium-Based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Ernst B; Lippuner, Kurt; Keel, Marius J B; Shintani, Nahoko

    2015-07-01

    The articular cartilage layer of synovial joints is commonly lesioned by trauma or by a degenerative joint disease. Attempts to repair the damage frequently involve the performance of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Healthy cartilage must be first removed from the joint, and then, on a separate occasion, following the isolation of the chondrocytes and their expansion in vitro, implanted within the lesion. The disadvantages of this therapeutic approach include the destruction of healthy cartilage-which may predispose the joint to osteoarthritic degeneration-the necessarily restricted availability of healthy tissue, the limited proliferative capacity of the donor cells-which declines with age-and the need for two surgical interventions. We postulated that it should be possible to induce synovial stem cells, which are characterized by high, age-independent, proliferative and chondrogenic differentiation capacities, to lay down cartilage within the outer juxtasynovial space after the transcutaneous implantation of a carrier bearing BMP-2 in a slow-release system. The chondrocytes could be isolated on-site and immediately used for ACI. To test this hypothesis, Chinchilla rabbits were used as an experimental model. A collagenous patch bearing BMP-2 in a slow-delivery vehicle was sutured to the inner face of the synovial membrane. The neoformed tissue was excised 5, 8, 11 and 14 days postimplantation for histological and histomorphometric analyses. Neoformed tissue was observed within the outer juxtasynovial space already on the 5th postimplantation day. It contained connective and adipose tissues, and a central nugget of growing cartilage. Between days 5 and 14, the absolute volume of cartilage increased, attaining a value of 12 mm(3) at the latter juncture. Bone was deposited in measurable quantities from the 11th day onwards, but owing to resorption, the net volume did not exceed 1.5 mm(3) (14th day). The findings confirm our hypothesis. The quantity of

  4. - Un modelo descriptivo del sistema reproductor hembra del coipo (Myocastor coypus I: el ovario (A descriptive model of the female reproductive system of coypu (Myocastor coypus I: the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe, A. E.

    2005-12-01

    conformada por tejido conectivo en disposición plexiforme, en el cual las fibras se orientaron en todas direcciones. Se observaron también fibras elásticas y argentófilas. En los ejemplares estudiados fue posible identificar todos los tipos foliculares y determinar la presencia de distintos grados de atresia correspondientes a folículos en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Los folículos en crecimiento (secundarios atrésicos se caracterizaron por el engrosamiento de la zona pelúcida, la vacuolización citoplasmática de células foliculares, picnosis, vacuolización de la teca interna y tejido conectivo de sustitución. Con respecto a las estructuras consideradas como cuerpos lúteos, pudieron establecerse y caracterizarse tres grados de desarrollo de los mismos (inicial, medio y maduro así como determinarse diferentes estadíos de regresión o atresia. Todos los ovarios del coipo contuvieron cuerpos lúteos accesorios. Los mismos se diferenciaron de los verdaderos por su menor tamaño y la persistencia de un remanente ovocitario con una zona pelúcida degenerada. El diámetro medio de estas estructuras fue de 273.44 ± 78.22 mm. Las observaciones presentadas en este trabajo indican que el ovario de coipos sexualmente maduros es semejante al de otros mamíferos como la chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, el cobayo (Cavia sp., la casiragua (Proechimys guairae, el carpincho (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, la mara (Dolichotis patagonum, el aguti (Dasyprocta aguti, el puercoespín africano austral (Hystrix africaeaustralis y el puercoespín africano común (Atherurus africanus. In the present investigation mature females of coypu (Myocastor coypus were used to determine the anatomic and histomorphologic features of the ovaries. As in all mammals, the ovary was suspended from the dorsal wall of the peritoneal cavity by the mesovarium. In the studied animals, the mesovarium did not form a bursa. The ovary of the coypu is similar to the ovary of other adult hystricomorph rodents: it

  5. 酶法处理短棒状杆菌的效果分析%Analysis of effect of enzyme-digested Corynebacterium parvum product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹芳; 许弟群; 罗开梅; 郭立君

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of enzyme-digested Corynebacterium parvum product (ECCP). Methods ECPP was prepared by heating inactivation,ultrasonication and Pronase digestion,observed for structure by electron microscopy,and determined for protein,polysaccharide and nucleic acid contents. Pure BALB/c mice,Chinchilla rabbits and NIH mice were randomly divided into negative control (CK,0. 9% sodium chloride),C. parvum product (CPP,1 000 μg/ml) as well as ECPP I (ECPP 500 μg/ml) and II (ECPP 1 000 μg/ml) groups separately. The pure BALB/c mice were determined for spleen index,abnormal toxicily and serum IL-2,IFNγ and TNF-α levels,while Chinchilla rabbits for pyrogen reaction,and NIH mice for tumor-inhibiting effect. Results Compared with those of heat-inaclivated CP,the cell walls of ECPP were thin,while the intracellukr structure showed no significant change. The protein,polysaccharide and nucleic acid contents of ECPP decreased significantly as compared with those of CPP (P< 0. 01). The spleen index in ECPP II group was 2. 96,and the inhibitory effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor was observed,with a survival rate of animals of 80%. The rabbits in ECPP II group were qualified in pyrogen test. Abnormal toxicity test showed that the bodyweights of mice in ECPP II group increased significantly as compared with those in CPP group. However,the serum IL-2,IFNγ and TNF-α levels of mice in ECPP II group increased significantly. Conclusion ECPP decreased the adverse reaction and enhanced the antitumor function,which showed good antitumor effect and might be used as a novel immunomodulator of good prospect of application.%目的 探讨酶法处理短棒状杆菌(Enzyme-digested Corynebacterium parvum product,ECPP)的效果.方法 采用热灭活、超声、Pronase酶消化等方法处理短棒状杆菌(Corynebacterium parvum,CP),电镜观察其结构,并测定其蛋白、多糖及核酸含量.将BALB/c纯系小鼠、青紫蓝家兔和NIH小鼠均

  6. Water economy in rodents: evaporative water loss and metabolic water production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Cortés

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on water balance in desert-dwelling granivorous rodents use evaporative water loss (EWL and metabolic water production (MWP to evaluate the efficiency of water regulation, expressed by the model Ta @ MWP = EWL, defined by an ambient temperature (Ta value at (@ which MWP/EWL = 1. Here we evaluate and apply this model (1 - r² determining water regulation efficiency, based on the energetic cost (MR to maintain water balance (WB, that is MR-WB. To test the model, EWL was measured and MWP estimated in nine species of rodents from different localities of northern and north-central Chile (II and IV Regions: Octodon degus (Od and O. lunatus (Olu (Octodontidae, Abrothrix olivaceus (Ao, A. longipilis (Al, A. andinus (Ad, Phyllotis darwini (Pd, P. rupestris (Pr, P. magister (Pm, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Ol (Muridae and Chinchilla lanigera (Cl (Chinchillidae. Literature information on rodents from xeric and mesic habitats was also analyzed. Results indicate that: 1 Cl has the lowest EWL (0.58 mg H2O/g h, followed by Od Para evaluar la eficiencia en la regulación hídrica de roedores granívoros desertícolas se usa la pérdida de agua por evaporación (EWL y la producción de agua metabólica (MWP, estando esta expresada por el modelo Ta @ MWP = EWL, que representa el valor de una temperatura ambiente (Ta al cual (@ MWP/EWL = 1. En este trabajo se evalua este modelo (1- r² y se estima la eficiencia en la regulación de agua basados en el costo energético (MR de mantención del balance hídrico (WB, es decir MR-WB. Se midió EWL y se estimó MWP en las siguientes nueve especies de roedores de diferente localidades del norte y centro de Chile (Regiones II y IV: Octodon degus (Od y O. lunatus (Olu (Octodontidae, Abrothrix olivaceus (Ao, A. longipilis (Al, A. andinus (Ad, Phyllotis darwini (Pd, P. rupestris (Pr, P. magister (Pm, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Ol (Muridae and Chinchilla lanigera (Cl (Chinchillidae. Se analizó además información de

  7. 纤维蛋白凝胶复合骨形态发生蛋白和庆大霉素缓释药物对感染性骨缺损的修复%Fibrin glue/bone morphogenetic protein complex plus slow-release gentamicin for repairing infected bone defects in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秋明; 刘兴炎; 董晓萍; 葛宝丰; 白孟海; 陈克明

    2005-01-01

    背景:慢性骨髓炎临床处理较为棘手,手术常需分期进行,目前尚无好的方法予以一期修复.目的:探讨将纤维蛋白凝胶(FG)作为骨形态发生蛋白(BMP)及庆大霉素的共同载体,一期修复感染性骨缺损的可行性.设计:完全随机对照实验研究.单位:解放军兰州军区兰州总医院全军创伤骨科中心.材料:实验在兰州军区兰州总医院骨科研究所完成.对象为体质量1.9~2.4kg的48只成年健康青紫兰兔,雌雄不限,购自甘肃省兰州市生物制品研究所.干预:48只青紫兰兔,制作慢性骨髓炎模型,清创后造成胫骨近侧干骺端内侧1.5 cm长半环形骨缺损,采用3种方法进行处理:A组,植入FG,BMP和庆大霉素复合物;B组,植入FG/BMP复合物,C组,作为空白对照.主要观察指标:术后观察动物一般情况,做骨培养及细菌计数,X射线拍片及组织学检查.结果:A组感染控制及骨修复均良好,感染控制率、再生骨量明显优于B组.B,C两组在感染控制率上无显著差异.C组动物骨修复差.结论:FG,BMP及庆大霉素复合物具有促进成骨及抗感染的双重作用,可用于感染性骨缺损及污染严重的开放性损伤造成的骨缺损的修复.%BACKGROUND: Chronic osteomyelitis is difficult to manage clinically, and two or more operations were commonly needed. No satisfactory method for one-stage repair has been currently available.OBJECTIVE: To examine the possibility of using fibrin glue(FG) as the common carrier for both bone morphogenetic protein(BMP) and gentamicin for one-stage repair of infected bone defects.DESIGN: A completely randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Center of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Area Command of of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted using 48 healthy adult Chinchilla rabbits of either sex on normal diet with body mass of 1.9 to 2.4 kg,provided by the Institute of Biological Products, Lanzhou, Gansu Province

  8. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I as a potential lung perfusion agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miroslavov, Alexander E.; Gorshkov, Nikolay I.; Lumpov, Alexander L. [Division of Radiochemical Research, Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskii pr. 28, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Yalfimov, Anatoly N. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Central Research Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology, Leningradskaya str. 70/4, 197000, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Suglobov, Dmitrii N. [Division of Radiochemical Research, Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskii pr. 28, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ellis, Beverley L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, M13 9WL Manchester (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bev.ellis@manchester.ac.uk; Braddock, Rattana; Smith, Anne-Marie [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, School of Cancer and Imaging Science, Stopford Building, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Prescott, Mary C.; Lawson, Richard S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, M13 9WL Manchester (United Kingdom); Sharma, Harbans L. [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, School of Cancer and Imaging Science, Stopford Building, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: The use of {sup 99m}Tc-macroggregated albumin for lung perfusion imaging is well established in nuclear medicine. However, there have been safety concerns over the use of blood-derived products because of potential contamination by infective agents, for example, Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease. Preliminary work has indicated that Tc(CO){sub 5}I is primarily taken up in the lungs following intravenous administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I and its potential as a lung perfusion agent. Methods: {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I was synthesized by carbonylation of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4-} at 160 atm of CO at 170 deg. C in the presence of HI for 40 min. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC using {sup 99}Tc(CO){sub 5}I as a reference. {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I was administered by ear-vein injection to three chinchilla rabbits, and dynamic images were acquired using a gamma camera (Siemens E-cam) over 20 min. Imaging studies were also performed with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-MAA) and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4-} for comparison. {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I was administered intravenously to Sprague-Dawley rats, and tissue distribution studies were obtained at 15 min and 1 h postinjection. Comparative studies were performed using {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Results: Radiochemical purity, assessed by HPLC, was 98%. The retention time was similar to that of {sup 99}Tc(CO){sub 5}I. The dynamic images showed that 70% of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I appeared promptly in the lungs and remained constant for at least 20 min. In contrast, {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4-} rapidly washed out of the lungs after administration. As expected {sup 99m}Tc-MAA showed 90% lung accumulation. The percentage of injected dose per gram of organ {+-}S.D. at 1 h for {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 5}I was as follows: blood, 0.22{+-}0.02; lung, 12.8{+-}2.87; liver, 0.8{+-}0.15; heart, 0.15{+-}0.01; kidney, 0.47{+-}0.08. The

  9. The effects of varied antigen retrieval methods on immunohistochemistry of functional proteins in retinal paraffin section%不同抗原修复法对视网膜石蜡切片相关功能蛋白表达检测的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 胡运韬; 马汀; 马志中

    2010-01-01

    Background Antigen retrieval method is the key of improving the successful rate of immunohistochemical assay in paraffin sections.To study an available method of antigen retrieval is a goal to achieve both good immunochemistry result and preserving retinal proteins.ObjectiveThe aim of present study is to investigate tyrosin digestion,high-temperature heat pressure,water bath heating and microwave repair in antigen retrieval for retinal tissues.MethodsRetinal tissue was isolated and obtained from clean Chinchilla rabbits.Four hundreds retinal paraffin sections were prepared.Four kinds of antigen retrieval methods for retinal tissue including tyrosin digestion,high-temperature heat pressure,water bath heating and microwave repair were used respectively.The depigmentated retinal paraffin section without antigen retrieval was used as control.The positive rates of expression of CRALBP,Rhodopsin and opsin proteins were evaluated and compared among four kinds of antigen retrieval methods by immunochemistry.ResultsCRALBP,Rhodopsin and opsin protein was positively expressed in cytoplasm of retinal pigment epithelial cells and the outer segment of photoreceptor respectively.No significant difference was found in the positive expression rates of these three proteins among four kinds of antigen retrieval methods (P>0.05),but the differences in tissue integrity and background staining were statistically significant (P<0.01).The structural damage of retina included loss and pucker of scalera,crack of nucleus and abnormal background stain in high-temperature heat pressure method,water bath heating method and microwave retrieval method.However,stable CRALBP,Rhodopsin and opsin protein expression and strain effectiveness,clear background without unspecific staining and integrated tissue were seen in tyrosin digestion method.ConclusionDuring the clinical pathology analysis of retinal tissue,the application of tyrosin digestion in antigen retrieval could obtain a better

  10. Influence of breed on postweaning litter growth and litter feed efficiency of meat rabbits%品种对肉兔断奶后窝生长性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔宇; 李丛艳; 邝良德; 郑洁; 张翠霞

    2013-01-01

    本研究旨在明确影响肉兔断奶后窝生长性状和料肉比的重要因素.利用一般线性模型分析了来自5个不同肉兔品种(新西兰白兔,加利福尼亚兔,比利时兔,青紫蓝兔和福建黄兔)的909只173窝肉兔断奶后窝生长和料肉比性状.结果表明,品种和断奶数对断奶窝重(5周龄窝重),窝增重,窝上市体重(10周龄窝重),个体平均上市体重,窝采食量和料肉比的影响极显著(P<0.01).出生月份对窝采食量影响极显著(P<0.01),对断奶窝重和窝上市体重的影响显著(P<0.05).比利时兔的断奶窝重、窝增重、窝上市体重、窝采食量和平均上市体重显著高于其他品种,而福建黄兔的上述5项指标显著低于其他品种(P<0.05).断奶数与断奶窝重、窝采食量、窝增重、窝上市体重和料肉比的回归系数为正且显著.品种、断奶数和出生月份是影响肉兔断奶后窝性状和料肉比的重要因素.本研究的结果为将比利时兔作为杂交的终端父本提供重要依据.%The major factors influencing post-weaning litter growth and litter feed efficiency were analyzed with the General Linear Model (GLM) using 909 meat rabbits, from 173 litters representing 5 breeds (New Zealand White, Californian, Flemish Giant, Chinchilla, and Fujian Yellow). Breed and number weaned per litter had a significant effect on litter weaning weight at 5 weeks, litter weight gain, litter market weight at 10 weeks, average market weight, litter feed intake, and litter feed efficiency (P<0. 01). Month of birth had a significant (P<0. 01) difference on litter feed intake and on litter weaning weight and litter market weight (P<0. 05). Litter weaning weight, litter weight gain, litter market weight and average market weight were heavier and litter feed intake was higher in Flemish Giant litters than in other breed litters (P<0. 05). However, the five traits mentioned above were lower in Fujian Yellow litters than in other breed

  11. Experimental pleural empyema model in rabbits: Why, how and what are the next steps

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    Cvijanović Vlado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacgraund/Aim. The use of new therapeutic methods to prevent development of fibrothorax as the final complication of the human pleural infections requires research with experimental animals. The aim of this study was to standardize the procedures for the establishment of our own experimental model of empyema in rabbits, since it should be able to offer similar conditions found in human pleural infections. Methods. This experiment included 15 chinchilla rabbits, weighing from 2.3 to 2.8 kg. There were 12 rabbits in the experimental group, while 3 rabbits formed the control group. On the first day, we administered 0.4-0.5 mL of turpentine in the right pleural space of the rabbits from the experimental group in order to provoke sterile exudative pleurisy. After 24 h we injected 1 mL of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 mL of Escherichia coli bacteria in the same concentration of 4.5 x 108 bacteria/mL. Thoracocentesis for the pleural fluid analysis was performed 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after bacteria instillation. In these pleural samples we estimated the number of leucocytes and the values of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, glucose and pH in pleural fluid, as well as the presence of bacteria. We did not protect the animals with antibiotics, and on the day 7 of the experiment they were sacrificed with the lethal dose of barbiturate (iv. The lung from the empyemic side of all experimental animals and the lung of one control animal were histopathologically examined. Results. A total of 4 animals had a small amount of clear pleural fluids or there was no fluid obtained with thoracocentesis 24 and 48 h after the bacteria instillation. after the bacteria instillation. In the remaining 8 rabbits 24 h after bacteria administration the mean values (± SD of the parameters monitored were as follows: Le 34.75 ± 6.13 x 109/L, LDH 17,000 ± 4,69 U/L, glucose 1.23 ± 0.45 mmol/L, and pH 6.975 ± 0.15. The obtained values met the criteria for the evaluation of effusion as

  12. Estimation of General Toxicity and Immunological Safety of a Novel Therapeutic Vaccine Against Human Papillomavirus-Assosiated Diseases

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    A.E. Kukharenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study in experiment total toxicity and immunological safety of a novel domestic therapeutic vaccine against recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and anogenital condylomatosis, the vaccine injected intramuscularly. Materials and Methods. We studied acute toxicity of the vaccine by the following parameters: clinical presentation of intoxication, median lethal dose size, the change of body weight of the surviving animals; chronic toxicity — by dynamics of general condition of the animals, body weight, hematological and biochemical indices of peripheral blood, functional status of central nervous system, cardiovascular system, kidneys, as well as pathomorphological changes of viscera. Allergenicity was studied by systemic and active cutaneous anaphylactic tests. We assessed immunotoxicity by direct a hemagglutination assay and a delayed-type hypersensitivity test, as well as by neutrophilic activity using luminal-dependent chemiluminescence. Proliferative activity of В- and Т-lymphocytes to lipopolysaccharides and concanavalin А (ConА was estimated in a direct immunofluorescence test using immunocytochemical assay with anti-Ki-67 monoclonal antibodies. Results. Mean lethal doses (LD50 were not reached in white outbread rats injected intramuscularly by the tested vaccine at a maximum possible single dose (25 ml/kg. Multi-dose administration to white outbread rats and chinchilla rabbits at doses of 0.043; 0.43; 0.86 ml/kg and 0.023; 0.23; 0.4 ml/kg respectively, did not cause significant damage of functional status of basal organs and systems of experimental animals. The findings of systemic anaphylaxis and active cutaneous anaphylactic response to the vaccine in albino guinea pigs at the doses of 0.033 and 0.33 ml/kg intramuscularly indicated the vaccine to exhibit no allergenic properties. Intramuscular vaccine injected to first filial hybrid mice (СВА×С57BL/6F1 at the doses of 0.084; 2.5 and 25 ml

  13. Efficacy of Solithromycin (CEM-101) for Experimental Otitis Media Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, M; Fernandes, P; Pelton, S I

    2016-09-01

    Solithromycin (CEM-101) is a "fourth-generation" macrolide, as it has three binding site and is acid stable. The three binding sites confer activity against bacteria resistant to the older macrolides and ketolides, including multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The objective of this study was to evaluate solithromycin pharmacokinetics (PK), middle ear fluid (MEF) concentrations, and microbiologic efficacy in a chinchilla model of experimental otitis media (EOM) due to strains of S. pneumoniae or NTHi. Plasma PK (maximum concentration of drug in serum [Cmax] and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0-24]) and middle ear fluid (MEF) concentrations were determined. Isolates with specified antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were inoculated directly into the middle ear (ME). Plasma and MEF were collected for PK and MEF cultures performed to determine efficacy. Solithromycin administered at 150 mg/kg of body weight/day resulted in Cmax and AUC0-24 values of 2.2 μg/ml and 27.4 μg · h/ml in plasma and 1.7 μg/ml and 28.2 μg · h/ml in extracellular MEF on day 1. By day 3, Cmax and AUC0-24 values had increased to 4.5 μg/ml and 54 μg · h/ml in plasma and 4.8 μg/ml and 98.6 μg · h/ml in extracellular MEF. For NTHi EOM, three isolates with MIC/minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) ratios of 0.5/1 μg/ml (isolate BCH1), 2/2 μg/ml (isolate BMC1247C), and 4/4 μg/ml (isolate BMC1213C) were selected. The MEF of >85% of animals infected with BCH1 and BMC1247C was sterilized. For NTHi BMC1213, >85% of MEF cultures remained positive. For S. pneumoniae EOM, 3 isolates with MIC/MBC ratios of 0.06/0.125 μg/ml (S. pneumoniae 331), 0.125/1 μg/ml (S. pneumoniae CP-645 [MLSB phenotype]), and 0.5/2 μg/ml (CP-712 [mefA subclass mefA resistance]) were selected. Solithromycin sterilized MEF in 100% of animals infected with S. pneumoniae 331 and S. pneumoniae CP-645. ME infection persisted in 60% of

  14. 家兔MITF基因部分外显子多态性的PCR-SSCP分析%PCR-SSCP Polymorphism of Parts of Exons in MITF Gene in Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何孟颉; 李挺; 王晓明; 潘雨来; 吴信生

    2012-01-01

    小眼畸形相关转录因子MITF是色素细胞的发育成熟中的重要因子,可调控酪氨酸基因家族的表达,参与黑素生成的调控,从而影响动物的毛色.本实验采用PCR-SSCP技术,检测白色獭兔、海狸色獭兔和闽西南黑兔群体中家兔MITF基因的5个外显子和部分内含子区域的多态性,结果发现,引物1、2、5、7的扩增片段均未表现出多态,在获得的大小为255 bp的引物4扩增片段中发现一个SNP (C43T)位点,在各群体中表现为3种等位基因型AA、BB、AB.测序结果表明第4外显子扩增片段的突变位于5′端的内含子区域,不影响氨基酸序列.统计结果显示,白色獭兔群体不处在哈代温伯格平衡状态(P<0.05),其余群体则均处于平衡状态.闽西南黑兔群体表现出中度多态(0.5>PIC>0.25),其余群体为低度多态.%Microphthalmia-Associtated Transcription Factor plays an important role in the growth of pigment cells,which affects the furriery colors by controling the expression of tyrosinase gene family,and participating the regulation of melanin producting.In this study,the polymorphism five exons and parts of introns of MITF gene were detected by PCR-SSCP in three rabbit populations include White Rex rabbit,Chinchilla Rex rabbit and Minxinan Black rabbit.The results indicated that the primers 1,2,5 and 7 did not display polymorphism,and a 255 bp polymorphism segment was obtained by primer 4.The polymorphism of the segment obtained by primer 4 was controlled by A and B alleles and formed three genotypes, namely AA, BB, AB.The result of cloning and sequencing showed that there was one single nucleotide mutation (C/T) at 43bp in 5'end of the extended segment, and it did not change the encoding amino acid. Statistical results showed that the MITF gene SSCP sites in White rabbite population was at Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (PPIC>0.25),others were of low polymorphism.

  15. Biological features of the choriocapillaries after hypocrellin B photodynamic therapy%竹红菌乙素-光动力疗法对脉络膜毛细血管影响的生物学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凡光; 韩丽娜; 顾瑛; 张丽; 陈红霞

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The authors' experiments of the earlier stage proved that the hypocrellin B photodynamic therapy(HB-PDT) can cause selective injuries to choriocapillaries. It is not known whether changing the therapeutic parameters would gain a different result regarding the choriocapillaries after the hypocrellin B photodynamic treatment for a month.OBJECTIVE: To observe the features of Chinchilla rabbit choriocapillaries after HB-PDT treatment and to probe into the research prospect of using HB-PDT to treat choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and of using green light as the light source for PDT.DESIGN: A single sample study.SETTING: Laser Department of the Chinese PLA General Hospital.MATERIALS: The trial was conducted at the Laser Department and the Department of Pathology of the Chinese PLA General Hospital as well as the Department of Photoelectric Engineering of Beijing University of Science and Engineering. The materials included photosensitizing agent hypocrellin B (HB), a green laser transmitter, fundus fluorescence camera and transmission electronic microscope.METHODS: The 532 nm green laser transmitter and slit-lamp microscope were connected by light fiber. Chinchilla rabbits of 2.5 to 3.5 kg was narcotized generally and HB(1. 0 mg/kg) was injected into the marginal ear vein. HB was excited with the green laser of 532 nm. The power density of the light spot on fundus was 300 mW/cm2, and the energy density 30 J/cm2. Laser was applied immediately after HB injection and the diameter of the light spot was 2 000 μm. Direct observation of retina, fluorescein fundus angiography and observation with light microscope and electronic microscope were conducted on the 1st, 7th and 28th days respectively after PDT to find the biological features of retina and the choroid.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Non-selective injury of retina through direct observation of the fundus; obliteration of the choriocapillaries detected through fluorescein fundus angiography; the position and

  16. 重组人血管内皮抑制素注射液对激光诱导兔脉络膜新生血管的抑制作用%Inhibitory effect of recombinant human endostatin on choroidal neovascularization in a rabbit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀娟; 曲超; 樊映川

    2011-01-01

    功建立青紫蓝兔CNV模型;玻璃体腔内注射重组人血管内皮抑制素能够抑制实验性青紫蓝兔CNV的形成和发展.%Background Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a serious complication of many fundus diseases.A variety of factors are associated with CNV.Research showed that recombinant human endostatin ( rhendostatin ) can arrest the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway and inhibit the proliferation of endothelial cells and angiogenesis.Objective This study was to observe the inhibition of rh-endostatin on experimental CNV.Methods The CNV animal models were created by Argon laser with the wavelength 532 nm to irradiate the inferior retina away optical disc 1-2 DD for 25 spots in 32 eyes of 16 chinchilla rabbits.The laser parameters were as follows:power 800 mW,spot diameter 75 μm and time shutter 50 ms.The models were then divided into model control group and rh-endostatin group.Rh-endostatin was intravitreously injected via scleral incision in 16 eyes of 8 model rabbits at 1 week after photocoagulation.Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and optical coherence topography(OCT) were performed at 1,2,4 weeks after photocoagulation respectively.The eyeballs were enucleated and the retinal sections were prepared for the histopathologieal examination,and the contents of VEGF and pigment epithelial derived factor(PEDF) in rabbit vitreous,and blood serum were detected by ELISA at 2,4 weeks after photocoagulation.Results Retinal edema and exudes were seen in 1 week and scarring in 4 weeks after photocoagulation.In rh-endostatin injection group,the hyperfluorescence masses were seen in the background phase and early arterial phase in 42% (84/200) of spots in the first week.The fluorescence leakage was decreased in the rh-endostatin injection group compared with control group in the second week and ceased at the third week on the FFA after injection.Variety forms of hyperreflective zones were found below the retinal pigment

  17. Antiradiation UV Vaccine: UV Radiation, Biological effects, lesions and medical management - immune-therapy and immune-protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key Words: Ultraviolet radiation,Standard Erythema Dose(SED), Minimal Erythema Dose(MED), Sun Burns, Solar Dermatitis, Sun Burned Disease, DNA Damage,Cell Damage, Antiradiation UV Vaccine, Immune-Prophylaxis of Sun Burned Diseases, Immune-Prophylaxis of Sun Burns, Immune-Therapy of Sun-Burned Disease and Sun Burns,Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis(TEN). Introduction: High doses of UV generated by solar source and artificial sources create an exposure of mammals and other species which can lead to ultraviolet(UV)radiation- associated disease (including erythema, epilation, keratitis, etc.). UV radiation belongs to the non-ionizing part of the electromagnetic spectrum and ranges between 100 nm and 400 nm with 100 nm having been chosen arbitrarily as the boundary between non-ionizing and ionizing radiation, however EMR is a spectrum and UV can produce molecular ionization. UV radiation is conventionally categorized into 3 areas: UV-A (>315-400 nm),UV-B (>280-315 nm)and UV-C (>100-280 nm) [IARC,Working Group Reports,2005] An important consequence of stratospheric ozone depletion is the increased transmission of solar ultraviolet (UV)radiation to the Earth's lower atmosphere and surface. Stratospheric ozone levels have been falling, in certain areas, for the past several decades, so current surface ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation levels are thought to be close to their modern day maximum. [S.Madronich et al.1998] Overexposure of ultraviolet radiation a major cause of skin cancer including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) { collectively referred to as “non-melanoma" skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma as well, with skin cancers being the most common cancer in North America. [Armstrong et al. 1993, Gallagher et al. 2005] Methods and Experimental Design: Our experiments and testing of a novel UV “Antiradiation Vaccine” have employed a wide variety of laboratory animals which include : Chinchilla

  18. Interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors%介入导入Ad-p53基因联合超声辐照治疗兔VX2肝癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐劲松; 杨瑞民; 赵鹏; 张铭秋; 崔红凯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors, as well as its impact on VEGF and MMP2. Methods Forty-two Chinchilla rabbits were collected and VX2 cancer cells were injected into the left lobe of liver on the observation in rabbits. The growth of cancer was monitored by ultrasound. Thirty rabbit models were successfully made and divided into 3 groups (each n=10) randomly. Fourteen days after transplantation of cancer cells, Ad-p53 was administrated through hepatic artery (in Ad-p53 group) or combined with ultrasound wave irradiation (in Ad-p53 + US group), while the same amount of saline was given for rabbits in control group. Three days later, the tumor size was observed with ultrasound, and then all rabbits were sacrificed, the serum VEGF level was measured by ELISA, the hepatic tissue expression of p53, MMP2 and VEGF were detected respectively by immunohistochemistry, and expression level of wild type p53 was measured using Western blot. Results No difference of tumor size was found between 3 groups before therapy. All tumor sizes increased, but the tumors in Ad-p53 + US group were relatively smaller. The efficiency of Ad-p53 transfection was improved in Ad-p53 group compared with control group, which was the highest in Ad-p53 + US group. Furthermore, the serum VEGF level decreased in Ad-p53 + US group, so did the expression of MMP2 and VEGF in Ad-p53 group and Ad-p53 + US group, more obviously in Ad-p53 + US group. Conclusion Ad-p53 can suppress the growth of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbit models. The therapeutic efficacy of Ad-p53 can be improved by interventional targeting administration combining with ultrasound irradiation.%目的 探讨介入导向下联合超声辐照对兔VX2肝癌模型Ad-p53转染效率及该基因对VEGF、MMP2的影响.方法 青紫蓝兔42只,直视下手术,将VX2肿瘤细胞种植于肝左叶,以超声检测

  19. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santamaria Ulloa

    2013-07-01

    muestran estudiantes y docentes de un colegio en Costa Rica, y concluyen que tanto estudiantes como docentes tienen nociones limitadas al respecto. Chamizo, por su parte, presenta un estudio exploratorio de las muertes violentas en Costa Rica. El autor concluye que el grupo de 15 a 34 años es el más afectado por las muertes violentas y que las zonas fronterizas y costeras son las que presentan mayor riesgo.Nuestra sección de documentos históricos reproduce un trabajo elaborado hace más de 25 años por Víctor Gómez, catedrático pensionado de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Patricia Delvó hace una semblanza y una breve presentación de este trabajo que analiza la baja en la fecundidad en Costa Rica durante los años sesenta y principios de los setentas.Les invito a leer este nuevo número y aprovecho para expresarles que recibo del ahora director de Población y Salud en Mesoamérica, Ricardo Chinchilla Arley, la función editora de nuestra revista. Asumo con el compromiso de mantener la calidad y rigurosidad científica que a lo largo de 10 años ha forjado el prestigio del que hoy nos enorgullecemos. Gracias a los autores por elegirnos para publicar sus investigaciones y a ustedes, lectores, por mantenernos vigentes.