WorldWideScience

Sample records for chimneys

  1. Integrating a solar chimney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akerboom, R.; Gkerou, V.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. This designer’s manual presents an overview of integration methods of a solar chimney during refurbishment of office buildings and describes step by step the design methods. A lot of research has been made t

  2. Fairy chimneys in Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

  3. Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat stored in the exiting condenser cooling water is delivered to the air flow through a water-air cross flow heat exchanger. A converging thermal chimney structure is then applied to increase the velocity of the airflow. The accelerated air can be used to turn on the turbine-generator installed on the top the thermal chimney so that electricity can be generated. This system is effective in generating electricity from otherwise wasted heat.

  4. Helical industrial chimneys in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López Patiño, Mª Gracia

    2013-01-01

    The industrial chimney has been the symbol of the Industrial Revolution par excellence. Transcending both regionalism and traditional forms of construction, some specimens found in Spain, dating mainly from the early twentieth century, follow unique schools of construction with regard to the mastery with which the brick is handled. All this was achieved without being endorsed by famous architects; rather they were the product of master masons, skilled in their craft and relishing ...

  5. Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilde Giani Gallino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC, observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic  eye” when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration, attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.

  6. Increasing natural ventilation using solar chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakielska Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At a time when much attention is paid to the problem of energy saving is looking for new technical solutions, among others in the construction industry. At present, searching new solutions is a worldwide trend in creating buildings. Those solutions enable a comfortable use of building structures in harmony with natural environment and ensure reducing energy consumption. Solar chimneys, which facilitate the gravity ventilation by using solar energy, may be a solution to the problem. In hot climates solar chimney has been applied in the process of passive cooling of a building. In temperate zones and cold is used to assist natural ventilation. The problem of the solar chimney is not popular in Poland. Construction in Bydgoszcz two research positions, enabled the analysis of the impact of solar chimneys on the thermal comfort of rooms. This article presents experimental studies on solar chimney located in Poland. The analysis of the flow of air in the room during the day have been measured using two testmodels situated on the 3.1 building of UTP University of Science and Technology at 7 Kaliska street in Bydgoszcz.

  7. The solar chimney. Electricity from the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiel, W. [Schlaich, Bergermann und Partner, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Current energy production from coal and oil is damaging to the environment and non-renewable. Many developing countries cannot afford these energy sources, and nuclear power stations are an unacceptable risk in many locations. Inadequate energy supplies can lead to high energy costs as well as to proverty, which commonly results in population explosions. Sensible technology for the use of solar power must be simple and reliable, accessible to the technologically less developed countries that are sunny and often have limited raw materials resources, should not need cooling water or produce waste heat and should be based on environmentally sound production from renewable materials. The solar chimney meets these conditions and makes it possible to take the crucial step towards a global solar energy economy. Large scale solar chimneys can be built now without any technical problems and at defined costs. (orig.)

  8. Design manual for HANARO in-chimney bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Y. G.; Whang, S. Y.; Wu, J. S.; Jun, B. J

    2000-06-01

    As a supplementary structure supporting the irradiation facilities, the in-chimney bracket holds guide tubes whose holding position in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. Also, the bracket grips the upper part of the guide tubes when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. The irradiation test will be successfully conducted since this bracket reduces the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and the dynamic response to seismic load. The installation position of the bracket is 60 cm below the top of the chimney, i.e., thermo siphoning hole position. To evaluate the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses were performed for the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE. The analysis results show that the stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when the in-chimney bracket is installed at the upper part of the reactor chimney. This bracket had been designed and manufactured based on the dimensions of the as-built chimney. In the process of design and preliminary installation, chimney measurement tools, dummy chimney, and installation tools were developed and the installation procedure was prepared and verified through the installation rehearsal.

  9. Free-standing inflatable solar chimney: experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobieff, Peter; Mammoli, Andrea; Fathi, Nima; Putkaradze, Vakhtang

    2014-11-01

    Solar chimneys (or solar updraft towers) offer an attractive way to use solar energy for production of baseload power. In a power plant of this type, sunshine heats the air under a wide greenhouse-like roofed collector surrounding the central base of a tall chimney. The heated air drives an updraft flow through the tower, whose energy is harvested with turbines. For a sufficiently large plant of this type, the thermal mass of the heated ground under the collector is sufficient to drive the flow even when the sun is down. The primary challenge in building the solar chimney power plant is the construction of the chimney that generates the updraft, which must be very tall (hundreds of meters for a commercial-sized plant). Here we present a study of an inflatable chimney which is a self-supporting, deformable, free-standing stack of gas-filled tori. The structure is stabilized via a combination of shape, overpressure, and buoyancy. Theoretical considerations suggest that filling the tori with air rather than with a light gas may be advantageous for stability. The chimney shape is optimized for deformation under wind loading. A prototype chimney has demonstrated the viability of the concept, with experimental results in good agreement with theoretical predictions. This research is partially supported by the UNM Research Allocations Comittee (RAC) and UNM Center for Emerging Energy Technologies (CEET).

  10. Inspection of chimneys for Carolina Power and Light Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabon, T.R. [Carolina Power and Light Co., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Regular inspection and appropriate examination, with immediate follow-up repairs, are paramount to properly maintain chimneys. Chimneys are required to operate the units. Failure of a chimney could result in loss of life and could damage the unit(s). The previous program of performing visual inspections only, without the benefit of nondestructive testing and core examination, was unsatisfactory. The cost of examination with follow-up repairs is a sound investment compared to the cost associated with an extended outage for major repairs or replacement. The basic operating conditions for which the chimneys were designed have changed significantly. Originally, the chimneys were to operate with dry, hot gases; possess a high natural updraft and temperatures above acid dew point; and maintain negative pressure inside the liner--such that small liner cracks did not create a concern. The present conditions of operation are significantly different. These are wet, lower gas temperatures, acid saturated gases, less natural draft, and sometimes positive pressure inside the liner. There is now exfiltration of flue gas through any present liner cracks, breech seals, and open mortar joints into the annular space. The concrete sheath is not durable against exposure to flue gas.

  11. Corrosion at system chimneys made of CrNi-steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajonk, Gunther [Institute of Materials Testing of Northrhine-Westfalia, D-44285 Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Names like 'chimney' und 'funnel' usually identify flue gas devices made of bricks. Much less known is the fact that chimney elements are still manufactured from alloys. The following article describes the particular demands ruled by legislation on building pro-ducts, just as the consequences resulting from corrosion loads by flue gas condensates. Difficulties caused by manufacturing and construction are primarily discussed. Furthermore a test procedure is introduced that allows to catch and correlate corrosion loads and technical designs systematically to corrosion behaviour and service life of flue gas devices. For the first time a tool for active quality assurance has been given by this test rig allowing to recognize construction errors systematically. This way, manufacturers of system chimneys and flue liners are enabled to optimize their products applications going ahead to the respective requests of the market. (authors)

  12. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National...) to establish management direction for the land and resources within Chimney Rock National Monument... establishing Chimney Rock National Monument (the Monument) requires preparation of a management plan....

  13. 77 FR 59275 - Establishment of the Chimney Rock National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... areas near and far, these lands support a growing travel and tourism sector that is a source of economic..., retirees, and businesses that will further diversify the local economy. In 1970, Chimney Rock was listed on... to create any new impacts that would interfere with the proper care and management of the...

  14. INTEGRATED MODEL OF A SOLAR CHIMNEY EQUIPPED WITH AXIAL TURBINES

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An integrated model of solar chim??ney (solar collector; turbine; tower) is presented; validated against data of the Manzanares plant; extended to the case of a 1000m tower. The model includes off-design performance of collector/turbine.

  15. Research on gas transport in chimneys: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearst, J.R.

    1986-03-18

    The results of the AGRINI and TIERRA experiments have led us to study three general topics: collapse phenomenology, CO/sub 2/ content measurement, and gas transport in chimneys. Our results so far are fragmentary, but we have been able to come to some tentative conclusions: (1) a layer of strong material between depths of 24 and 32 m, and perhaps some relatively strong material deeper, may have caused the AGRINI crater shape. This layer was absent at the nearby LABAN and CROWDIE events. We were unable to locate the layer with a surface penetrometer or surface seismic methods, but it may be possible to measure strength vs depth in situ by examining the penetration depth of a projectile. (2) We can probably improve our knowledge of the in situ CO/sub 2/ content by calibrating a commercial carbon/oxygen logging system for NTS conditions. (3) It is possible to measure the response of the gas in a chimney to changes in atmospheric pressure. There can be significantly different gas transport in chimneys with the same pressure response, depending on the porosity and the distribution of the porosity. It is possible to perform an inexpensive experiment to study the gas transport in an existing chimney.

  16. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

  17. The impact of the combined chimney outlet size and extended solar wall-roof chimney on airflow patterns using numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AboulNaga, M.M.; Alteraifi, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper investigates airflow patterns and behavior of combined roof and extended solar wall-roof chimney incorporated into a typical room with an inlet and outlet. Numerical simulations using the Fluid Dynamics software Package, FIDAP, are exploited to describe and analyze the airflow patterns inside the room, and in the extended solar wall-roof chimneys. FIDAP simulation analyses and results of the airflow streamline, velocity vectors, and temperature distributions are presented. Maximum velocity vector, temperatures, and smooth streamlines were found for better performance at separation of 0.25m. At 0.25m separation, in both wall and roof solar chimneys, the maximum chimney outlet flow rate and smooth streamline were found when the wall chimney is 2.00m high, which corresponds to a wall chimney inlet of 1.60m. Results show that the maximum relative speed in the combined chimneys is higher than the solar roof chimney alone. These findings suggest that the exploitation of an extended solar roof-wall chimney could enhance nighttime natural ventilation and the cooling of buildings. The system is limited to cool low-rise buildings in hot-arid regions such as Al-Ain City, UAE, where energy use is enormous.

  18. The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J.

    2012-02-15

    For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a

  19. Formation of Chimneys in Mushy Layers: Experiment and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Anthony M; Worster, Grae

    2011-01-01

    In this fluid dyanmics video, we show experimental images and simulations of chimney formation in mushy layers. A directional solidification apparatus was used to freeze 25 wt % aqueous ammonium chloride solutions at controlled rates in a narrow Hele-Shaw cell (1mm gap). The convective motion is imaged with schlieren. We demonstrate the ability to numerically simulate mushy layer growth for direct comparison with experiments.

  20. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  1. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable k – ε model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  2. Solar chimney design: Investigating natural ventilation and cooling in offices with the aid of computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Nikolaos

    Solar chimney design is investigated as a means of improving natural ventilation and passive cooling in office buildings. Existing scientific research and built precedents are generally limited literature review findings on various features of solar chimneys were categorised and used to develop a building simulation strategy. Using UK climatic data, simulations were performed on several computer models in order to investigate solar chimney performance during a single day period and an entire cooling season. Passive cooling with a solar chimney is possible but actual reduction in temperatures in most cases examined could be negligible. Cooling potential is increased on still, warm days, while the prospects for night cooling are further improved. A solar chimney may help reduce considerably the occurrence of resultant temperatures at or above the 25 C and 28 C thresholds. Solar chimney width, height, apertures and integral use of thermal mass are the most significant parameters for cooling. Simulation results showed that a solar chimney can increase significantly natural ventilation rates. Total ventilation rates may be increased by at least 22%. During still days a solar chimney can enhance ventilation rates by 36% or more. Stack ventilation through a solar chimney is typically 20% of cross ventilation during night time this may increase to at least 40-45% and on still days it may reach 100% of typical cross ventilation rates. Solar chimney induced stack ventilation and cross ventilation are interrelated. Resultant air flow patterns may have an important effect on convective heat transfers and thermal comfort. Climate and microclimate conditions should be an integral part of solar chimney design. Key aspects and recommendations regarding solar chimneys, passive cooling and natural ventilation are provided for design guidance and feedback in further research.

  3. Growth history of hydrothermal chimneys at EPR 9―10°N: A structural and mineralogical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xiaotong; ZHOU Huaiyang

    2005-01-01

    Based on structural and mineralogical characteristics of four hydrothermal chimney samples collected by submersible Alvin, growth history and formation environment of hydrothermal chimney at EPR 9―10°N are established. It is shown that there occur two types of hydrothermal chimney with different deposition environments at EPR 9―10°N according to differences in their shape, structure and mineral assemblage: type I chimney forms in an environment with high temperature, low pH and strong reducing hydrothermal focus flow and type II chimney forms in a relatively low temperature, high pH and rich Zn hydrothermal environment. Growth of type I chimney begins with the formation of anhydrite. Subsequently deposition of Cu-Fe-Zn sulphide in various directions of chimneys decides the final structure of this type of chimney. According to observation and analysis of mineral assemblages, the formation process of type I chimney could be divided into three stages from early, middle to late. Changes of temperature and major chemical reaction type in the process of hydrothermal chimney formation are also deduced. Different from type I chimney, quenching crystalline of pyrite and/or crystalline of sphalerite provide the growth foundation of type II chimney in the early stage of chimney formation.

  4. The Balkan Theme in The Secret of Chimneys

    OpenAIRE

    Graham St. John Stott; Aysar Yaseen

    2016-01-01

    In The Secret of Chimneys (1925) Agatha Christie uses the all too familiar Balkan stereotypes of backwardness and brigandage, but not – as was usually the case at the time – as an Other to illustrate British virtue, but as a mirror to British vice. It is Britain, not the fictional Herzoslovakia, that is a nation of brigands. Herzoslovakia remains relatively unknown, as none of the novel’s scenes take place there, but it is described by disinterested observers as democratic and prosperous. In ...

  5. Methane seepage in the Shenhu area of the northern South China Sea: constraints from carbonate chimneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hongxiang; Zhang, Mei; Mao, Shengyi; Wu, Nengyou; Lu, Hongfeng; Chen, Duofu

    2016-06-01

    Two authigenic carbonate chimneys were recovered from the Shenhu area in the northern South China Sea at approximately 400 m water depth. The chimneys' mineralogy, isotopic composition, and lipid biomarkers were studied to examine the biogeochemical process that induced the formation of the chimneys. The two chimneys are composed mostly of dolomite, whereas the internal conduits and semi-consolidated surrounding sediments are dominated by aragonite and calcite. The specific biomarker patterns (distribution of lipids and their depleted δ13C values) indicate the low occurrence of methanotrophic archaea ANME-1 responsible for the chimneys' formation via anaerobic oxidation of methane. A significant input of bacteria/planktonic algae and cyanobacteria to the carbon pool during the precipitation of the carbonate chimneys is suggested by the high contributions of short-chain n-alkanes (69% of total hydrocarbons) and long-chain n-alcohols (on average 56% of total alcohols). The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonate mixtures vary from 3.1‰ to 4.4‰ in the dolomite-rich chimneys, and from 2.1‰ to 2.5‰ in the internal conduits, which indicates that they were precipitated from seawater-derived pore waters during a long period covering the last glacial and interglacial cycles. In addition, the mixture of methane and bottom seawater dissolved inorganic carbon could be the carbon sources of the carbonate chimneys.

  6. Solar ventilation: The use of solar chimneys for natural ventilation of buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquoy, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written for the TIDO-course AR0532 Smart & Bioclimatic Design Theory. A very old principle is the system of the solar chimney for ventilation, which in recent years has regained interests. This essay will explore the potentials of solar chimneys in a modern application.

  7. Marketable solar chimney passive solar system components: research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pascali, P.; Andreotti, P.; Scudo, G.; Silingardi, A.; Gabbi, L.; Grasselli, C.; Cattivelli, F.; Farruggia, S.; Giannotti, A.M. (Ist. Cooperativo per l' Innovazione, Rome (Italy); Milan Politecnico (Italy); Coopsette scrl, Castelnovo Sotto (Italy))

    1989-02-01

    The report describes research to develop a marketable passive solar system incorporating a solar chimney in which heated air rises and produces a natural convection air flow within a double envelope construction. The equipment consists of a heat capturing element, another element to distribute and accumulate heat and a control system. Research activities involved: the study of feasible configurations and performance requirements; the design of a selected configuration; a computerized simulation of the system; and the development of two prototype modules to be lab tested at a facility equipped with real time data acquisition systems. The coordinated effort strove to obtain a multi-use system capable of providing summer cooling, as well as, winter heating and a system which would be accepted by both the construction industry and potential home buyers.

  8. Chimney Effect Assessment of the Double-skin Facade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhong-zhu; LI Peng; CHOW Tin-tai; REN Jian-xing; WANG Wen-huan

    2009-01-01

    The mathematic model of heat transfer through ventihted double glazing was verified with themeasured data,which were from a test chamber equipped with glass face temperature,solar radiation,ambient temperature,and wind speed measurement facility.Mter the model validation,the double-skin facade assess-ment was carried out through simulation with ESP-r software integrating thermal simulation and air low net work module.The air flow situation in the air gap was analyzed on the basis of the hourly air velocity simulation data within typical winter week,summer week,spring week and autumn week.The differences of chimney ef-fect in different seasons were discussed,and the thermal loads resulted from the ventilated and unventihted dou-ble skin facade were presented.

  9. Persistent type I endoleak after endovascular treatment with Chimney technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Azevedo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR is increasingly used in the treatment of acute type B aortic dissection. Type Ia endoleaks are a common complication of the procedure, but its clinical significance as well as the best treatment strategy remain poorly defined. We present a case of a type Ia endoleak following TEVAR in the treatment of acute type B aortic dissection. Chimney technique approach was used in an attempt to seal the endoleak. Although technical success was suboptimal, the patient remained clinically stable and event free. Data regarding the natural course and management of type Ia endoleaks following TEVAR for aortic dissection are sparse. Future research is required to establish the clinical and technical determinants of the need to treat these endoleaks as well as the best treatment strategy.

  10. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, Francesco, E-mail: f.torella@liverpool.ac.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); Chan, Tze Y., E-mail: tze.chan@rlbuht.nhs.uk; Shaikh, Usman, E-mail: usman.shaikh@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); England, Andrew, E-mail: a.england@salford.ac.uk [University of Salford, Department of Radiography (United Kingdom); Fisher, Robert K., E-mail: robert.fisher@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Richard G., E-mail: richard.mcwilliams@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix{sup ®} endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible.

  11. Full scale monitoring of the twin chimneys of the rovinari power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayati I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the structural identification and monitoring of two twin chimneys in very close arrangement. Due to twin arrangement, important interference effects are expected to modify the chimney response to wind action, causing vortex shedding and state-dependent excitation associated to the oscillatory motion of the leeward chimney, in and out of the windward chimney wake. The complexity of the physics of this problem is increased by the dependency of the aerodynamics of circular cylinders on Reynolds number; however, there is a weakness of literature about cylinders behaviour at critical and super-critical range of Reynolds number, due to experimental limitations. Also the International Committee on Industrial Chimneys (CICIND does not provide, at present, any specific technical guideline about twin chimneys whose interaxis distance is less or equal two times the diameter, as in this case. For this reason a Tuned Mass Damper (TMD has been installed in order to increase the damping of the chimney, as merely suggested. This work aims at assessing the effectiveness of the installed TMD and characterizing the tower dynamic behaviour itself due to the wind excitation, as well as providing full scale measurements for twin cylinders configuration at high Reynolds numbers.

  12. Formation of a series of chimney-ladder compounds in the Ru-Re-Si system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simkin, B.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ishida, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Okamoto, N.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kishida, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: k.kishida@materials.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Inui, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Rhenium-alloyed ruthenium sesquisilicide alloys have been prepared over the wide composition range Ru{sub 1-{delta}}Re {sub {delta}}Si{sub 1.5}, 0 {<=} {delta} {<=} 0.85. The phase relationships of these alloys have been investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Alloys with {delta} {>=} 0.03 are multi-phase, composed of a series of (Ru,Re)Si {sub y} chimney-ladder phases with compositions of Ru{sub 1-x}Re {sub x}Si{sub 1.5386+0.1783x} (0.14 {<=} x {<=} 0.76) and B20-type monosilicide (Ru,Re)Si as a secondary phase. These chimney-ladder structures are considered to form to stabilize the high-temperature Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3} chimney-ladder phase through the substitution of Ru with Re. The solubility limit of Re in a series of chimney-ladder phases is as large as 76% Re (x = 0.76) and the Si/(Ru + Re) ratio of the chimney-ladder phases increases with increasing Re content. The observed deviation of the chimney-ladder structure from the idealized composition and the possibility of adjusting the semiconducting properties of these chimney-ladder structures are discussed in terms of the valence electron concentration per metal atom.

  13. Numerical simulation and comparison of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants: the case for Lanzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Li, Huashan; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) generates updraft wind through the green house effect. In this paper, the performances of two SCPP styles, that is, the conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and the sloped solar chimney power plant (SSCPP), are compared through a numerical simulation. A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is built to predict the performances of the SCPP. The model is validated through a comparison with the reported results from the Manzanares prototype. The annual performances of the CSCPP and the SSCPP are compared by taking Lanzhou as a case study. Numerical results indicate that the SSCPP holds a higher efficiency and generates smoother power than those of the CSCPP, and the effective pressure in the SSCPP is relevant to both the chimney and the collector heights.

  14. Reasons for the self-envelopment of chimneys of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, L.A.; Gorlin, S.M.; Gavrilov, E.I.; Prochorov, V.B. (Moskovskij Ehnergeticheskij Inst. (USSR); Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Mekhaniki)

    1978-03-01

    It is shown that self-envelopment of chimneys is due to the formation of 'dilution zones' on the outer surface of the chimneys as a result of wind flow, into which the flue gases emitted from the chimneys are drawn. The main influencing parameter for the process of self-envelopment is the hydrodynamic or flow parameter I - i.e., the ratio between the dynamic flue gas pressure and the dynamic wind pressure. Self-envelopment happens when this ratio becomes smaller than 2.4. With the aid of the investigations carried out, the duration of self-envelopment may be calculated for any concrete chimney if the operating conditions of the power plant and the changes of wind velocity with time are known.

  15. The Balkan Theme in The Secret of Chimneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham St. John Stott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In The Secret of Chimneys (1925 Agatha Christie uses the all too familiar Balkan stereotypes of backwardness and brigandage, but not – as was usually the case at the time – as an Other to illustrate British virtue, but as a mirror to British vice. It is Britain, not the fictional Herzoslovakia, that is a nation of brigands. Herzoslovakia remains relatively unknown, as none of the novel’s scenes take place there, but it is described by disinterested observers as democratic and prosperous. In London, however, the Foreign Office plans to overthrow its government to secure oil rights promised by a royal heir-in-exile to a London-based financial consortium. Keywords: Christie, Balkans, Romania, oil, brigandsAgatha Christie’s The Secret of Chimneys (1925 has been faulted for being on the one hand a frothy mix of Anthony Hope and P. G. Wodehouse (Thompson 143 and on the other a mishmash of popular ethnic, national and regional stereotypes – including those of the Balkans (Todorova 122. It is, however, a far more subtle work than such accounts suggest. Though the influence of Hope and Wodehouse can certainly be seen in the novel’s story of princes in disguise (reminiscent of The Prisoner of Zenda and a country house setting that would have reminded readers of Blandings, its main plot addresses an important theme –and in exploring it Christie takes the Balkans very seriously. Oil has been found in the Republic of Herzoslovakia and the Foreign Office, represented by George Lomax, has secured the pledge of the exiled Prince Michael Obolovitch “to grant certain oil concessions” to a consortium led by Herman Isaacstein if the Obolovitchs are restored to power. In other words: to secure those concessions the British Government has committed itself to the overthrow of Herzoslovakia’s government. The Foreign Office’s interest in the Balkans might not have surprised Christie’s readers. The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company had held a monopoly on

  16. The “all'antica” shape of Venetian chimneys: the obelisk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Lupo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main façade of some of the most important palaces built in Venice along the Grand Canal in the 16th and 17th centuries is crowned by two tall obelisks. The rich architectural Venetian historiography considers them as ornaments. Instead, in origin – as is demonstrated in this essay – they were used as chimneys: the shape of an obelisk is the translation into the "all'antica" style of the, well-known, "Carpaccio" chimney. In the development of the Venetian architectural culture referring to "Antiquity", the problem of architectural chimneys developed in two different ways: the first tried, with every artifice, to remove the chimney from the view of the facade; the second conceived an architectural paradigm where the chimney became a fundamental element of the composition. The two opposite solution now face each other on the Grand Canal, and highlight two different ways of conceiving the principles of "utilitas" and "venustas”.   Key words: Venice, Venetian Palaces, Renaissance, Treatises, Chimney

  17. Beautiful heat: a master chimney sweep talks about burning issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hederich, M.P.

    2001-07-01

    Fire has played a major role in mankind's life from the beginning. Used for heating and cooking, its various uses have evolved to include controlled explosions shortly after the development of gunpowder, and the generation of electricity made other uses possible. The author, a certified solid fuel technician and chimney sweep, as well as a licensed technician for natural gas and propane, has written this book to enable the reader to enjoy safe and dependable wood fires year round by taking the necessary steps. The first recommendation made is against the homeowner installing himself/herself any solid fuel system. It is a job better left to the professionals, considering the substantial product and regulation knowledge and experience required. Specific information related to solid fuel burning technology is included in this book, to be used as a guide. Part 1 of the book deals with the fuel, touching on issues such as energy and the environment, wood combustion and air pollution, buying firewood, wood ashes, cleaning your heating system and others. Part 2 is devoted to the heating system. It introduces topics ranging from the systems advisor to the location and installation of the system, the principles of space heating, high efficiency wood burning, inspections, to name just a few. 22 refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Development of the lined masonry chimney oil appliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the development of the lined masonry chimney venting tables form the output of the Oil Heat Analysis Program 9OHVAP. These new tables are different from the prior format, offered in the Proceedings of the 1995 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, paper No. 95-4. Issues expressed by representatives of the oil heat industry at last years conference during the Venting Technology Workshop resulted in subsequent discussions. A full day meeting was held, co-sponsored by BNL and the Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA), to address revision of the format of the venting tables prior to submission to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 Technical Committee. The resulting tables and text were submitted to NFPA during the first week of October, 1995. Since then minor changes were made reflecting the addition of data obtained by including intermediate firing rates (0.4, 0.65, and 0.85 gph) not included in the original tables which were developed in increments of 0.25 gph. The new tables address the specific question; {open_quotes}If remediation is required, what is the recommendation for the sizing of a metal liner and the appropriate firing rate range to be used with that liner?{close_quotes}

  19. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eHe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  20. Mineralization of a Proterozoic Sulfide Black Smoker Chimney and Thermophilous Microorganisms in Eastern Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xuehui; LIAN Wei; YUAN Congjian; YAN Fei; YUAN Jiazhong

    2008-01-01

    A sulfide black smoker chimney exists in the Gaobanhe seabed exhalation massive sulfidedeposit in the Xinglong-Kuancheng secondary fault basin of the Proterozoic Yanliao rift trough inHebei Province, taking the shape of mounds, individually about 2-3 cm high. Abundant fossils ofthermophilous bacteria and algae in perfect preservation are found in the ore surrounding the blacksmoker chimney. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular biomarker studies on themicroorganismal ore fabric show that the microorganism in the sulfide ore is in fact a sedimentaryproduct of probiotic bacteria and algae. In the special food chain based on black smoker chimney atancient seabed- thermophilous bacteria, the thermophilons bacteria and algae reproduce in largequantity. Intermittently erupting of fluid from the chimney creats conditions for formation of sulfidedeposit. In the process of exhalation action of hot fluid, thermophilous bacteria and algae grow andreproduce around the sulfide black smoker chimney, absorbing mineralizing substances brought bythe fluid. Massive sulfide deposits are formed in this process of absorption of seabed black smokerchimney exhalation-mineralizing fluid puisation.thermophilous microorganism.

  1. New energy from an old chimney; Nieuwe energie uit een oude schoorsteen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J. [BAM Techniek, Benningbroek (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    A new purpose has been found for the unused monumental stack chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology. The idea is to use the chimney to provide free cooling. Using advanced simulation and analysis methods, the feasibility of the concept was studied. The results show that it is indeed possible to use the chimney effectively to provide free cooling to the neighbouring Ceres (Central Energy and Control Station) building [Dutch] De ongebruikte monumentale schoorsteen van de Universiteit Eindhoven is nieuw leven ingeblazen door hem in te zetten voor vrije koeling. Een studie naar de haalbaarheid hiervan is uitgevoerd met behulp vangeavanceerde simulatie en analysetechnieken. Het is gebleken dat de schoorsteen inderdaad effectief kan worden ingezet voor het leveren van koeling aan het naastgelegen Ceres (Centraal Energie en Regelstation) gebouw.

  2. Performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant in the southwestern region of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbi, Salah [Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering and Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic National School of Algiers, 10, Avenue Hassen Badi, El-Harrach (Algeria); Bouhdjar, Amor [Development Center of Renewable Energies, Bouzeriah, Algiers (Algeria); Chergui, Toufik [Applied Research Center in Renewable Energies, Adrar (Algeria)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, we present the performance analysis of a solar chimney power plant expected to provide the remote villages located in Algerian southwestern region with electric power. Solar energy and the psychometric state of the air in the south of Algeria are important to encourage the full development of solar chimney power plant for the thermal and electrical production of energy for various uses. We are interested in Adrar where solar radiation is better than other areas of Algeria. The obtained results show that the solar chimney power plant can produce from 140 to 200 kW of electricity on a site like Adrar during the year, according to an estimate made on the monthly average of sunning. This production is sufficient for the needs of the isolated areas. (author)

  3. Modeling microbial reaction rates in a submarine hydrothermal vent chimney wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Douglas E.; Dale, Andrew W.; Aguilera, David R.; L'Heureux, Ivan; Amend, Jan P.; Regnier, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The fluids emanating from active submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys provide a window into subseafloor processes and, through mixing with seawater, are responsible for steep thermal and compositional gradients that provide the energetic basis for diverse biological communities. Although several models have been developed to better understand the dynamic interplay of seawater, hydrothermal fluid, minerals and microorganisms inside chimney walls, none provide a fully integrated approach to quantifying the biogeochemistry of these hydrothermal systems. In an effort to remedy this, a fully coupled biogeochemical reaction-transport model of a hydrothermal vent chimney has been developed that explicitly quantifies the rates of microbial catalysis while taking into account geochemical processes such as fluid flow, solute transport and oxidation-reduction reactions associated with fluid mixing as a function of temperature. The metabolisms included in the reaction network are methanogenesis, aerobic oxidation of hydrogen, sulfide and methane and sulfate reduction by hydrogen and methane. Model results indicate that microbial catalysis is generally fastest in the hottest habitable portion of the vent chimney (77-102 °C), and methane and sulfide oxidation peak near the seawater-side of the chimney. The fastest metabolisms are aerobic oxidation of H2 and sulfide and reduction of sulfate by H2 with maximum rates of 140, 900 and 800 pmol cm-3 d-1, respectively. The maximum rate of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is just under 0.03 pmol cm-3 d-1, the slowest of the metabolisms considered. Due to thermodynamic inhibition, there is no anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate (AOM). These simulations are consistent with vent chimney metabolic activity inferred from phylogenetic data reported in the literature. The model developed here provides a quantitative approach to describing the rates of biogeochemical transformations in hydrothermal systems and can be used to constrain the

  4. Quantifying metabolic rates in submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys: A reaction transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, D.; Dale, A.; Aguilera, D.; Amend, J. P.; Regnier, P.

    2012-12-01

    The fluids emanating from active submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys provide a window into subseafloor processes and, through mixing with seawater, are responsible for steep thermal and compositional gradients that provide the energetic basis for diverse biological communities. Although several models have been developed to better understand the dynamic interplay of seawater, hydrothermal fluid, minerals and microorganisms inside chimney walls, none provide a fully integrated approach to quantifying the biogeochemistry of these hydrothermal systems. In an effort to remedy this, a fully coupled biogeochemical reaction transport model of a hydrothermal vent chimney has been developed that explicitly quantifies the rate of microbial catalysis while taking into account geochemical processes such as fluid flow, solute transport and oxidation-reduction reactions associated with fluid mixing as a function of temperature. Methanogenesis, hydrogen oxidation by oxygen and sulfate, sulfide oxidation by oxygen and methane oxidation by oxygen and sulfate are the metabolisms included in the reaction network. Model results indicate that microbial catalysis is fastest in the hottest habitable portion of the vent chimney except for methane oxidation by oxygen, which peaks near the seawater-side of the chimney at 20 nmol /cm^3 yr. The dominant metabolisms in the chimney are hydrogen oxidation by sulfate and oxygen and sulfide oxidation at peak rates 3200 , 300 and 900 nmol /cm^3 yr, respectively. The maximum rate of hydrogenotrophic methanogensis is just under 0.07 nmol /cm^3 yr, the slowest of the metabolisms considered. Due to thermodynamic inhibition, there is no anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate (AOM). The model developed here provides a quantitative approach to understanding the rates of biogeochemical transformations in hydrothermal systems and can be used to better understand the role of microbial activity in the deep subsurface.

  5. A Semi-Empirical Model for Tilted-Gun Planar Magnetron Sputtering Accounting for Chimney Shadowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, J. K.; Metting, C. J.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approaches to composition and thickness profiles of sputtered thin-film samples are the key to expediting materials exploration for these materials. Here, an ICME-based semi-empirical approach to modeling the thickness of thin-film samples deposited via magnetron sputtering is developed. Using Yamamura's dimensionless differential angular sputtering yield and a measured deposition rate at a point in space for a single experimental condition, the model predicts the deposition profile from planar DC sputtering sources. The model includes corrections for off-center, tilted gun geometries as well as shadowing effects from gun chimneys used in most state-of-the-art sputtering systems. The modeling algorithm was validated by comparing its results with experimental deposition rates obtained from a sputtering system utilizing sources with a multi-piece chimney assembly that consists of a lower ground shield and a removable gas chimney. Simulations were performed for gun-tilts ranging from 0° to 31.3° from the vertical with and without the gas chimney installed. The results for the predicted and experimental angular dependence of the sputtering deposition rate were found to have an average magnitude of relative error of for a 0°-31.3° gun-tilt range without the gas chimney, and for a 17.7°-31.3° gun-tilt range with the gas chimney. The continuum nature of the model renders this approach reverse-optimizable, providing a rapid tool for assisting in the understanding of the synthesis-composition-property space of novel materials.

  6. On the form of the power equation for modeling solar chimney power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Nima; Vorobieff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recently several mathematical models of a solar chimney power plant were derived, studied for a variety of boundary conditions, and compared against CFD calculations. The importance of these analyses is about the accuracy of the derived pressure drop and output power equation for solar chimney power plant systems (SCPPS). We examine the assumptions underlying the derivation and present reasons to believe that some of the derived equations, specifically the power equation in this model, may require a correction to be applicable in more realistic conditions. The analytical resutls are compared against the available experimental data from the Manzanares power plant.

  7. Nonlinear mushy-layer convection with chimneys: stability and optimal solute fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Andrew J; Orszag, Steven A

    2012-01-01

    We model buoyancy-driven convection with chimneys -- channels of zero solid fraction -- in a mushy layer formed during directional solidification of a binary alloy in two-dimensions. A large suite of numerical simulations is combined with scaling analysis in order to study the parametric dependence of the flow. Stability boundaries are calculated for states of finite-amplitude convection with chimneys, which for a narrow domain can be interpreted in terms of a modified Rayleigh number criterion based on the domain width and mushy-layer permeability. For solidification in a wide domain with multiple chimneys, it has previously been hypothesised that the chimney spacing will adjust to optimise the rate of removal of potential energy from the system. For a wide variety of initial liquid concentration conditions, we consider the detailed flow structure in this optimal state and derive scaling laws for how the flow evolves as the strength of convection increases. For moderate mushy-layer Rayleigh numbers these flo...

  8. A Cost Effective Desalination Plant Using a Solar Chimney with Recycled Aluminum Can Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singuru Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work was to use solar energy for desalination of water. A solar chimney desalination system, which includes the solar chimney, solar collector, evaporation system, and passive condenser, was designed and built. The air enters into collector and gets heated and released at the bottom of chimney. Due to draught effect dry air goes upward. The air is humidified by spraying salt water into the hot air stream using a mistifier at the middle of chimney. Then, the partial vapours contained in the air are condensed to give desalinated water. The performance of the integrated system including power and potable water production was estimated and the results were discussed. With a 3.4 m height setup, experimental test rig was capable of evaporating 3.77 L water daily condensing 2.3 L water. It is compact in nature as it is easy to assemble and dissemble. It can be used for purifying rain water in summer under rain water harvesting. Because of using country wood, recycled Al cans, and GI sheet in fabrication, it is lower in cost.

  9. Experimental and numerical characterization of wind-induced pressure coefficients on nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ricciardi@irsn.fr; Gélain, Thomas; Soares, Sandrine

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Experiments on scale models of nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts were performed. • Pressure coefficient fields on buildings are shown for various wind directions. • Evolution of pressure coefficient vs U/W ratio is given for various chimney exhausts. • RANS simulations using SST k–ω turbulence model were performed on most studied cases. • A good agreement is overall observed, with Root Mean Square Deviation lower than 0.15. - Abstract: Wind creates pressure effects on different surfaces of buildings according to their exposure to the wind, in particular at external communications. In nuclear facilities, these effects can change contamination transfers inside the building and can even lead to contamination release into the environment, especially in damaged (ventilation stopped) or accidental situations. The diversity of geometries of facilities requires the use of a validated code for predicting pressure coefficients, which characterize the wind effect on the building walls and the interaction between the wind and chimney exhaust. The first aim of a research program launched by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), was therefore to acquire experimental data of the mean pressure coefficients for different geometries of buildings and chimneys through wind tunnel tests and then to validate a CFD code (ANSYS CFX) from these experimental results. The simulations were performed using a steady RANS approach and a two-equation SST k–ω turbulence model. After a mesh sensitivity study for one configuration of building and chimney, a comparison was carried out between the numerical and experimental values for other studied configurations. This comparison was generally satisfactory, averaged over all measurement points, with values of Root Mean Square Deviations lower than 0.15 for most cases.

  10. Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM10 and benzo(a)pyrene in Xuan Wei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, L.W.; Lan, Q.; Yang, D.; He, X.Z.; Yu, I.T.S.; Hammond, S.K. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School for Public Health

    2009-07-15

    This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu} m or less (PM10) and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 mu m or less (PM10) by 66% and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

  11. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  12. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented.

  13. The effect of radiation and height of solar air chimney to improve performance of green buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Gorgin karaji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, energy due to the complexity and increasing evolution of the global society , played a major role in the economy and politic. forecasts the prospects for the energy sector and adopt the right strategy is the main factor for sustainable development of each country due to various factors affecting consumption Heating energy of building has great impact in saving solutions in buildings, reduce consuming energy in the household sector. Climate and weather, architecture, materials, using efficient heating systems and equipment with capacity requirements are mainly effective in heating load of building also control of the heating system is mainly effective in amount of consuming heating energy. Use of solar receptors is considerable debate that install often on the roof and south side of the building which has the most potential to absorb solar energy, furthermore it has considerable influence on heating load of building. Case study is a simple physical model of the solar chimney is similar to the Trombe wall. One side of the chimney is provided with a glass cover which with the other three solid walls of the chimney form a channel through which the heated air could rises and flow by natural convection. This article, from the viewpoint of purpose is applied- developmental that has been done with analytic methods. Study conditions are for Kermanshah with outside winter design temperature -10.56 °C. These equations are solved by matrix inversion. Thermal efficiency of solar air chimney which is calculated due to temperature of glass, wall and air mass flow rate and heat momentary, will be presented. By study of researches, significant relationship was observed between experimental data so empirical research in this area is continuing.

  14. Numerical analysis of an oscillating water column converter considering a physical constraint in the chimney outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Mateus das Neves; Seibt, Flávio Medeiros; Rocha, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; Santos, Elizaldo Domingues dos; Isoldi, Liércio André

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a 2D numerical study of an Oscillating Water Column (OWC) converter considering physical constraints in its outlet chimney to represent the turbine pressure drop. Two strategies were adopted. The first considers different dimensions for a physical constraint similar to an orifice plate, being the analysis performed in a laboratory scale. After that, other physical restriction with geometry similar to a rotor turbine was investigated in a real scale by means a dimensional va...

  15. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatures. Three basements were used: concrete, black concrete and black pebbles basements. The study was conducted in Baghdad from August to November 2009. The results show that the best chimney efficiency attained was 49.7% for pebbles base. The highest collected air temperature reached was 49ºC when using the black pebbles basement also.also, the maximum basement temperature measured was 59ºC for black pebbles. High increaments in collected air temperatures were achieved in comparison with the ambient air temperatures for the three basement kinds. The highest temperature difference reached was 22ºC with the pebble ground.

  16. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  17. Seismic chimneys in the Southern Viking Graben - Implications for palaeo fluid migration and overpressure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Jens; Berndt, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Detailed understanding of natural fluid migration systems is essential to minimize risks during hydrocarbon exploration and to evaluate the long-term efficiency of the subsurface storage of waste water and gas from hydrocarbon production as well as CO2. The Southern Viking Graben (SVG) hosts numerous focused fluid flow structures in the shallow (pipes. Seismic pipes are known to form large clusters. Seismic chimneys have so far been described as solitary structures. Here, we show that the study area in the SVG hosts more than 46 large-scale vertical chimney structures, which can be divided in three categories implying different formation processes. Our analysis reveals that seal-weakening, formation-wide overpressure and the presence of free gas are required to initiate the formation of vertical fluid conduits in the SVG. The presence of numerous vertical fluid conduits implies inter-stratigraphic hydraulic connectivity, which significantly affects the migration of fluids in the subsurface. Chimney structures are important for understanding the transfer of pore pressure anomalies to the shallow parts of the basin.

  18. Tellurium-bearing minerals in zoned sulfide chimneys from Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposits of the Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Large, R. R.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Herrington, R. J.; Stanley, C. J.

    2013-02-01

    Tellurium-bearing minerals are generally rare in chimney material from mafic and bimodal felsic volcanic hosted massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, but are abundant in chimneys of the Urals VMS deposits located within Silurian and Devonian bimodal mafic sequences. High physicochemical gradients during chimney growth result in a wide range of telluride and sulfoarsenide assemblages including a variety of Cu-Ag-Te-S and Ag-Pb-Bi-Te solid solution series and tellurium sulfosalts. A change in chimney types from Fe-Cu to Cu-Zn-Fe to Zn-Cu is accompanied by gradual replacement of abundant Fe-, Co, Bi-, and Pb- tellurides by Hg, Ag, Au-Ag telluride and galena-fahlore with native gold assemblages. Decreasing amounts of pyrite, both colloform and pseudomorphic after pyrrhotite, isocubanite ISS and chalcopyrite in the chimneys is coupled with increasing amounts of sphalerite, quatz, barite or talc contents. This trend represents a transition from low- to high sulphidation conditions, and it is observed across a range of the Urals deposits from bimodal mafic- to bimodal felsic-hosted types: Yaman-Kasy → Molodezhnoye → Uzelga → Valentorskoye → Oktyabrskoye → Alexandrinskoye → Tash-Tau → Jusa.

  19. Authigenic carbonate crusts and chimneys along the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Güliz; Namık Çaǧatay, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Sea of Marmara is located on the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) fault zone that is a major continental transform plate boundary. It has ca. 1250 m-deep Tekirdag, Central and Cinarcik basins that are separated by two NE-SW trending Central and Western Highs. Extensive cold seeps occur along the active fault segments of the NAF in the deep basins and highs, which are associated with authigenic carbonate crusts, carbonate chimneys and mounds, black sulphidic sediments, and local gas hydrates and oil seepage. The cold seep sites were observed and sampled during the Nautile submersible and Victor 6000 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives carried out during MARNAUT and MARSITE cruises in 2007 and 2014, respectively. Here, we report the mineralogical and stable isotopic composition of the authigenic carbonates and discuss their environmental conditions and mechanisms of formation. The carbonate crusts range up to 5 cm in thickness and the chimneys and mounds are up to 2 m high. Some chimneys are active emitting fresh to brackish water at ambient bottom water temperatures (˜ 14° C). The carbonate crusts occur as a pavements, and are commonly covered with black sulphidic sediments and bacterial mats that accommodate a rich chemosynthetic community of bivalves, sea urchins and marine annelid worms (Polychaeta). The authigenic carbonates commonly consist mainly of aragonite, but in a few instances contain subequal amounts of aragonite and calcite. High Mg-calcite is usually a minor to trace component, except in one sample in which it is present as a cement of mudstone. In the active methane emission zones, the sulphate/methane boundary occurs at or close to the seafloor, whereas elsewhere in the Sea of Marmara, the same boundary is located at 2-5 m below the seafloor. This, together with very light stable carbon isotope values (δ13C=-29.8 to - 46.3 ‰ V-PDB), indicates that the anaerobic oxidation of high methane flux emitted from the active faults is the major process

  20. Retrieval columns of SO2 in industrial chimneys using DOAS passive in traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia Mejía, Rubén; de la Rosa Vázquez, José Manuel; Sosa Iglesias, Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    The optical Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a technique to measure pollutant emissions like SO2, from point sources and total fluxes in the atmosphere. Passive DOAS systems use sunlight like source. Measurements with such systems can be made in situ and in real time. The goal of this work is to report the implementation of hardware and software of a portable system to evaluate the pollutants emitted in the atmosphere by industrial chimneys. We show SO2 measurements obtained around PEMEX refinerys in Tula Hidalgo that enables the identification of their pollution degree with the knowledge of speed wind.

  1. Early Results of Chimney Technique for Type B Aortic Dissections Extending to the Aortic Arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen [Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Department of General Surgery (China); Tang, Hanfei; Qiao, Tong; Liu, Changjian; Zhou, Min, E-mail: 813477618@qq.com [The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Vascular Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital (China)

    2016-01-15

    ObjectiveTo summarize our early experience gained from the chimney technique for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) extending to the aortic arch and to evaluate the aortic remodeling in the follow-up period.MethodsFrom September 2011 to July 2014, 27 consecutive TBAD patients without adequate proximal landing zones were retrograde analyzed. Chimney stent-grafts were deployed parallel to the main endografts to reserve flow to branch vessels while extending the landing zones. In the follow-up period, aortic remodeling was observed with computed tomography angiography.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100 %, and endografts were deployed in zone 0 (n = 3, 11.1 %), zone 1 (n = 18, 66.7 %), and zone 2 (n = 6, 22.2 %). Immediately, proximal endoleaks were detected in 5 patients (18.5 %). During a mean follow-up period of 17.6 months, computed tomography angiography showed all the aortic stent-grafts and chimney grafts to be patent. Favorable remodeling was observed at the level of maximum descending aorta and left subclavian artery with expansion of true lumen (from 18.4 ± 4.8 to 25 ± 0.86 mm, p < 0.001 and 27.1 ± 0.62 to 28.5 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and depressurization of false lumen (from 23.7 ± 2.7 to 8.7 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.001, from 5.3 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001). While at the level of maximum abdominal aorta, suboptimal remodeling of the total aorta (from 24.1 ± 0.4 to 23.6 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.06) and true lumen (from 13.8 ± 0.6 to 14.5 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.08) was observed.ConclusionBased on our limited experience, the chimney technique with thoracic endovascular repair is demonstrated to be promising for TBAD extending to the arch with favorable aortic remodeling.

  2. Replacive sulfide formation in anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Catharina; Bach, Wolfgang; Plümper, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal flow within the oceanic crust is an important process for the exchange of energy and mass between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Infiltrated seawater heats up and interacts with wall rock, causing mineral replacement reactions. These play a large role in the formation of ore deposits; at the discharge zone, a hot, acidic and metal-rich potential ore fluid exits the crust. It mixes with seawater and forms chimneys, built up of sulfate minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4), which are subsequently replaced by sulfide minerals. Sulfide formation is related to fluid pathways, defined by cracks and pores in the sulfate chimney. Over time, these systems might develop into massive sulfide deposits. The big question is then: how is sulfate-sulfide replacement related to the evolution of rock porosity? To address this question, sulfide-bearing anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field (Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) were studied using X-ray tomography, EMPA, FIB-SEM and -TEM. The apparently massive anhydrite turns out highly porous on the micro scale, with sulfide minerals in anhydrite cleavage planes and along grain boundaries. The size of the sulfide grains relates to the pores they grew into, suggesting a tight coupling between dissolution (porosity generation) and growth of replacive minerals. Some of the sulfide grains are hollow and apparently used the dissolving anhydrite as a substrate to start growth in a pore. Another mode of sulfide development is aggregates of euhedral pyrite cores surrounded by colloform chalcopyrite. This occurrence implies that fluid pathways have remained open for some time to allow several stages of precipitation during fluid evolution. To start the replacement and to keep it going, porosity generation is crucial. Our samples show that dissolution of anhydrite occurred along pathways where fluid could enter, such as cleavage planes and grain boundaries. It appears that fluids ascending within the inner

  3. A novel large filamentous deltaproteobacterium on hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimneys of the Southern Mariana Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Unusual large filamentous bacteria (LFB) have been found on the deep seafloor environments. They play a significant role in geochemical cycling in the dark environments. However, our knowledge of the spatial distribution and phylogenetic diversity of the LFB on the deep seafloor are still limited due to the inaccessibility to these environments. Here, we report the discovery of a novel LFB on a hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimney in a deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Southern Mariana Trough. Light and electron microscopic observation showed that the width and total length of the LFB were >8 μm and >100 μm, respectively, of which morphology was similar to that of other known LFB such as "cable bacteria" of the Desulfobulbaceae. Analyses of a 16S rRNA gene clone library and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this LFB belongs to the Desulfobulbaceae. The 16S rRNA gene of the LFB showed 94% similarity to those of the reported cable bacteria and cultured deltaproteobacterial species, suggesting that the LFB is a novel cable bacterium of the Desulfobulbaceae. The novel LFB potentially play a role in sulfur cycling on sulfide chimneys at the hydrothermally ceasing or even ceased deep-sea hydrothermal fields.

  4. Functional Assessment of the Hautmann Ileal Neobladder with Chimney Modification Using Uroflowmetry and a Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Seong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary diversion reconstruction is essential after radical cystectomy and neobladder reconstruction is accepted as a fine option. This study included 51 patients, who underwent radical cystectomy with orthotopic neobladder reconstruction by a Hautmann ileal neobladder with chimney modification from 2006 to 2014. Functional outcomes were evaluated using a questionnaire and uroflowmetry. Perioperative complications were analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up period was 36.1 months. Eighty-six percent of patients voided without clean intermittent catheterization (CIC assistance. CIC was used 1-2x per day or every time they voided in 8% and 6% of patients, respectively, and 71% of patients were continent. The percentages of patients who used 1, 2, 3-4, and ≥5 pads per day were 15%, 6%, 2%, and 6%, respectively. Daytime and nighttime continence were achieved in 86% and 69% of patients, respectively. Daily mucus leakage was reported in 69% of patients. The mean maximum neobladder capacity, voided volume, postvoid residual volume, and maximum flow rate were 413.2 mL, 370.6 mL, 43.7 mL, and 20.8 mL/s, respectively. Eighteen early and 5 late complications developed in 13 and 5 patients, respectively. Reoperations were needed in 7 patients. The Hautmann ileal neobladder with chimney modification provided satisfactory results regarding functional outcomes.

  5. Thermal Analyses of Combined Utilization Process of Seawater by Solar Chimney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yiping; FANG Zhenlei; ZHU Li

    2009-01-01

    It is promising to simultaneously develop multiple products through the combined utilization of sea-water by solar chimney technology. A small scale experimental system was set up. The collector temperature, the seawater temperature, and the temperature and humidity of the airflow under the collector were measured. Thermal network analysis of the system was carried out. The results show that the airflow is nearly saturated at the entrance of the chimney, and the mean dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures of the airflow have increased by 8.4℃ and 9.6℃ respectively. The radiation heat transfer between the collector and the sky is the biggest heat loss in the system, which is up to 29.1% on average of the solar energy. However, the water evaporation heat is about 23.6% on average of the solar energy. To reduce the heat loss and enhance the water evaporation, it is necessary to reduce the emissivity and thermal conductivity of the collector and increase the evaporation areas.

  6. Computational fluid dynamics for modeling the turbulent natural convection in a double air-channel solar chimney system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Guillén, I.; Xamán, J.; Álvarez, G.; Arce, J.; Hernández-Pérez, I.; Gijón-Rivera, M.

    2016-03-01

    This study reports the modeling of the turbulent natural convection in a double air-channel solar chimney (SC-DC) and its comparison with a single air-channel solar chimney (SC-C). Prediction of the mass flow and the thermal behavior of the SC-DC were obtained under three different climates of Mexico during one summer day. The climates correspond to: tropical savannah (Mérida), arid desert (Hermosillo) and temperate with warm summer (Mexico City). A code based on the Finite Volume Method was developed and a k-ω turbulence model has been used to model air turbulence in the solar chimney (SC). The code was validated against experimental data. The results indicate that during the day the SC-DC extracts about 50% more mass flow than the SC-C. When the SC-DC is located in Mérida, Hermosillo and Mexico City, the air-changes extracted along the day were 60, 63 and 52, respectively. The air temperature at the outlet of the chimney increased up to 33%, 38% and 61% with respect to the temperature it has at the inlet for Mérida, Hermosillo and Mexico City, respectively.

  7. Diversity and Abundance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Hydrothermal Vent Chimneys of the Juan de Fuca Ridge▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufang; Xiao, Xiang; Jiang, Lijing; Peng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Huaiyang; Meng, Jun; Wang, Fengping

    2009-01-01

    The abundance and diversity of archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes from hydrothermal vent chimneys at the Juan de Fuca Ridge were investigated. The majority of the retrieved archaeal amoA sequences exhibited identities of less than 95% to those in the GenBank database. Novel ammonia-oxidizing archaea may exist in the hydrothermal vent environments. PMID:19395559

  8. Prototype implementation and experimental analysis of water heating using recovered waste heat of chimneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khaled

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses a waste heat recovery system (WHRS applied to chimneys for heating water in residential buildings. A prototype illustrating the suggested system is implemented and tested. Different waste heat scenarios by varying the quantity of burned firewood (heat input are experimented. The temperature at different parts of the WHRS and the gas flow rates of the exhaust pipes are measured. Measurements showed that the temperature of 95 L tank of water can be increased by 68 °C within one hour. Obtained results show that the convection and radiation exchanges at the bottom surface of the tank have a considerable impact on the total heat transfer rate of the water (as high as 70%.

  9. A study of the microbial mineralization in submarine black smoker chimneys from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun; LI Jianghai; CHU Fengyou

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of microfossil records discovered in the seafloor black smoker chimney are reported from the Okinawa Trough.They are well preserved and can be divided into four types of filamentous microfossils.It suggests that the fossils may be derived from sulfur or iron oxidation chemolithotrophic prokaryotes and fungi.Based on the comparison studies of the microbial mineralization processes,two steps of biomineralization were hypothesized:(1)biology controlled mineralization;and(2)biology induced mineralization.At the early stage of the mineralization,the biology controlling mineralization is dominating;at the later stage,the biology inducing mineralization is the main mechanism.The composition of the fluids and the species of the microbes will determine the types of the minerals formed.

  10. A First Approach to Natural Thermoventilation of Residential Buildings through Ventilation Chimneys Supplied by Solar Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of natural ventilation is a good solution to improve buildings from an energetic point of view and to fulfill the requirements demanded by the thermohygrometric comfort and the air quality in enclosed spaces. Some past researches demonstrated how some devices, useful to this purpose, follow the principles of solar chimneys and are able to move air masses while exploiting the Archimedes thrust. The natural ventilation must be supplied by a flow moving upward, generated by a heat source performing at temperatures slightly higher than the one present in the environment. To have a minimum energetic effect, the heat can be extracted from solar ponds; solar ponds are able to collect and store solar energy in the geographical regions characterized by sufficient values of solar radiation. Thus it is possible, in summer, to provoke a nocturnal natural ventilation useful for the air change in indoor spaces (in those climatic areas where, during the night, there is a temperature gradient.

  11. Biosignatures in chimney structures and sediment from the Loki's Castle low-temperature hydrothermal vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Andrea; Eickmann, Benjamin; Lang, Susan Q; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Strauss, Harald; Früh-Green, Gretchen L

    2014-05-01

    We investigated microbial life preserved in a hydrothermally inactive silica–barite chimney in comparison with an active barite chimney and sediment from the Loki's Castle low-temperature venting area at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) using lipid biomarkers. Carbon and sulfur isotopes were used to constrain possible metabolic pathways. Multiple sulfur (dδ34S, Δ33S) isotopes on barite over a cross section of the extinct chimney range between 21.1 and 22.5 % in δ34S, and between 0.020 and 0.034 % in Δ33S, indicating direct precipitation from seawater. Biomarker distributions within two discrete zones of this silica–barite chimney indicate a considerable difference in abundance and diversity of microorganisms from the chimney exterior to the interior. Lipids in the active and inactive chimney barite and sediment were dominated by a range of 13C-depleted unsaturated and branched fatty acids with δ13C values between -39.7 and -26.7 %, indicating the presence of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The majority of lipids (99.5 %) in the extinct chimney interior that experienced high temperatures were of archaeal origin. Unusual glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraethers (GMGT) with 0–4 rings were the dominant compounds suggesting the presence of mainly (hyper-) thermophilic archaea. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons with δ13C values as low as -46 % also indicated the presence of methanogens and possibly methanotrophs.

  12. Metal sources of black smoker chimneys, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Pb isotope constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Huiqiang, E-mail: hqyao11@yahoo.com [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Huaiyang, E-mail: zhouhy@tongji.edu.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Peng Xiaotong [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Bao Shenxu [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Zijun; Li Jiangtao [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sun Zhilei; Chen Zhiqiang; Li Jiwei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Guangqian [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Hydrothermal chimney sulfides, vent cap chimney samples, Fe-oxide and basalts from sediment-starving Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Endeavour segment, exhibit a range of Pb isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.658-18.769; {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 15.457-15.566; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 37.810-38.276). The data array is not parallel to the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs indicating a possible sediment component within the sulfides. By assuming that the potential end-member sediment component has a {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.70) similar to Middle Valley sediment, it is suggested the potential end-member sediment component may have {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.90; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 38.82. Basalt-derived Pb for the Endeavour segment hydrothermal system involves about 50/50 leaching of E-MORB and T2-MORB. Detailed observations show the Mothra field derives more Pb from T2-MORB than the Main Endeavour field does. According to the binary mixing model, the results show little Pb (<1.5%) or no Pb derivation from sedimentary sources. However, the high NH{sub 4}{sup +}, CH{sub 4} and Br/Cl ratios in hydrothermal fluids are consistent with a sediment component within the segment. Reconciling the Pb isotope data with the chemistry data of hydrothermal fluids, it is suggested that the sediment component may be located in a lower temperature recharge zone where Pb could not be mobilized from the sediment.

  13. Origin of pockmarks and chimney structures on the flanks of the Storegga Slide, offshore Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W.; Holbrook, W.S.; Hill, T.M.; Keaten, R.; Mienert, J.; Haflidason, H.; Johnson, J.E.; Winters, W.J.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    Seafloor pockmarks and subsurface chimney structures are common on the Norwegian continental margin north of the Storegga Slide scar. Such features are generally inferred to be associated with fluid expulsion, and imply overpressures in the subsurface. Six long gravity and piston cores taken from the interior of three pockmarks were compared with four other cores taken from the same area but outside the pockmarks, in order to elucidate the origins and stratigraphy of these features and their possible association with the Storegga Slide event. Sulfate gradients in cores from within pockmarks are less steep than those in cores from outside the pockmarks, which indicates that the flux of methane to the seafloor is presently smaller within the pockmarks than in the adjacent undisturbed sediments. This suggests that these subsurface chimneys are not fluid flow conduits lined with gas hydrate. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates and Bathymodiolus shells obtained from a pockmark at >6.3 m below the seafloor indicate that methane was previously available to support a chemosynthetic community within the pockmark. AMS 14C measurements of planktonic Foraminifera overlying and interlayered with the shell-bearing sediment indicate that methane was present on the seafloor within the pockmark prior to 14 ka 14C years B.P., i.e., well before the last major Storegga Slide event (7.2 ka 14C years B.P., or 8.2 ka calendar years B.P.). These observations provide evidence that overpressured fluids existed within the continental margin sediments off Norway during the last major advance of Pleistocene glaciation. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  14. Determining real temperature of steel chimney surface using thermograpy method. (Polish Title: Wyznaczenie rzeczywistej temperatury powierzchni kominów stalowych metodą termograficzną)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Anna; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2013-12-01

    Assembly and technical evaluation of a steel chimney both require determining shape of its axis. Because permissible deflection of the top of a steel chimney shaft relative to the base according to the PN-B-06200 norm is: 30 mm when height 50 m, geodetic measurements should be performed with high accuracy. Additionally, the measurements should be performed when deflection of the chimney is not influenced by sun and wind. Deflection measured in a sunny weather is influenced by elastic deflection caused by uneven temperature distribution in the chimney shaft. In practice, the measurements should be done before the sunrise or on a cloudy day. However, during chimney assembly it is often not possible to choose conditions of measurement. For steel chimneys of cylindrical shape without thermal insulation inside, the direction of elastic deflection is not very different from the direction of sun's rays, and its value can be calculated from dimensions of the chimney and temperature differences on its circumference. The problem discussed in this article is measuring the real temperature of the outer surface of a chimney in a possibly fast and accurate way. Thermography allows acquiring the surface temperature distribution quickly (in a few minutes). The accuracy of the measured values is influenced by: emissivity coefficient of the chimney surface, air temperature and humidity and background temperature. The biggest problem is determining background temperature if the surroundings consist of a few objects with different temperatures. The equivalent background temperature was determined from thermo graphic and contact temperature measurements of a specially prepared sample. The sample was produced from the same material as the steel chimney, covered with the same paint and the measurements were performed near the chimney, so the surroundings were similar to the surroundings of the chimney. Conducted experiment shows that on a sunny day the background temperature cannot be

  15. Experimental investigations on turbulent mixing of hot upward flow and cold downward flow inside a chimney model of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Samiran, E-mail: samiran_sengupta@yahoo.co.in [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ghosh, Aniruddha [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, C. [Research Reactor Maintenance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vijayan, P.K. [Reactor Design & Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, R.C. [Reactor Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulated mixing of hot upward and cold downward flows in a chimney of a reactor. • Experiments in chimney model (2:9 scale) at Reynolds number (Re)—1.5 to 4.5 × 10{sup 5}. • Hot upward flow comes out of the chimney when bypass flow ratio (R) is zero. • Increase in ratio (R) reduces jet height, vortex spread height and temperature front height. • Effects of Re, chimney height and temperature differential are not significant. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to study the turbulent mixing of hot upward flow and cold downward flow inside a scaled down model of chimney structure of a pool type nuclear research reactor. Open pool type nuclear reactors often use this type of chimney structures to prevent mixing of radioactive core outlet water directly into the reactor pool so that radiation field at the reactor pool top can be kept to a lower limit. The chimney structure is designed to facilitate guiding of the radioactive water towards the two outlet nozzles of the chimney and simultaneously allows drawing water from the reactor pool through the chimney top opening. The present work aims at studying flow mixing behaviour of hot and cold water inside a 2/9th scaled down model of the chimney structure experimentally. The ratio between the cold downward flow and the hot upward flow is varied between 0 and 0.15 to predict the extent of suppression of the hot upward flow within the chimney region for various bypass flow ratios. The Reynolds number of the hot upward flow considered in the experiment is about 1.5 × 10{sup 5} which corresponds to a flow rate of about 500 l min{sup −1}. The upward jet height and the temperature distribution were predicted from the experiment. It was observed that increase in bypass flow ratio reduces the upward jet height of hot water. Experiments were also carried out by increasing the flow rate to 1000 and 1500 l min{sup −1} corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 3 × 10{sup 5} and 4.5 × 10{sup 5

  16. Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Tall Reinforced Concrete Chimney with Piled Raft and Annular Raft under Along-Wind Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Jayalekshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D soil-structure interaction (SSI analysis of 300 m high reinforced concrete chimneys having piled annular raft and annular raft foundations subjected to along-wind load is carried out in the present study. To understand the significance of SSI, four types of soils were considered based on their flexibility. The effect of stiffness of the raft was evaluated using three different ratios of external diameter to thickness of the annular raft. The along-wind load was computed according to IS:4998 (Part 1-1992. The integrated chimney-foundation-soil system was analysed by commercial finite element (FE software ANSYS, based on direct method of SSI assuming linear elastic behaviour. FE analyses were carried out for two cases of SSI (I chimney with annular raft foundation and (II chimney with piled raft foundation. The responses in chimney such as tip deflection, bending moments, and base moment and responses in raft such as bending moments and settlements were evaluated for both cases and compared to that obtained from the conventional method of analysis. It is found that the responses in chimney and raft depend on the flexibility of the underlying soil and thickness of the raft.

  17. Dioxin emissions from coal combustion in domestic stove: Formation in the chimney and coal chlorine content influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradiz Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion experiments conducted in domestic stove burning hard coal demonstrated a predominant influence of the coal chlorine content on the PCDD/F emissions, together with a pronounced effect of the flue gas temperature. PCDD/F concentrations of over 100 ng TEQ/m3, three orders of magnitude higher than in a modern waste incinerator, were measured in the flue gases of a domestic stove when combusting high chlorine coal (0.31 %. The PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gases dropped below 0,5 ng TEQ/m3, when low chlorine coal (0.07 % was used. When low chlorine coal was impregnated with NaCl to obtain 0.38 % chlorine content, the emission of the PCDD/Fs increased by two orders of magnitude. Pronounced nonlinearity of the PCDD/F concentrations related to chlorine content in the coal was observed. The combustion of the high chlorine coal yielded PCDD/F concentrations in flue gases one order of magnitude lower in a fan cooled chimney when compared to an insulated one, thus indicating formation in the chimney. The influence of flue gas temperature on the PCDD/F emissions was less pronounced when burning low chlorine coal. The predominant pathway of the PCDD/F emissions is via flue gases, 99 % of the TEQ in the case of the high chlorine coal for insulated chimney.

  18. The Inventory Of High Objects Applying Laser Scanning, Focus On The Cataloguing A Reinforced Concrete Industrial Chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawałkiewicz, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    There are many surveying methods to measure the inclination of a chimney with the use of classical protractor instruments (Theo 010A/B, T2 Wild), electronic theodolites (TC2002 Wild-Leica), electronic total stations, including mirrorless ones, allowing to define indirectly the course of the construction's axis on the selected observation levels. The methods are the following: indentations, direct projection, double-edged method, polar method with the option of mirrorless measurement. At the moment a very practical and quick measurement technology, significantly eliminating the influence of human errors on the observation results, is laser scanning. The article presents the results of the scanning of 120-metres high reinforced concrete industrial chimney of the Cement Plant "Ożarów", with the application of modern scanning total station VX Spatial Station by Trimble, as an alternative to the methods applied so far. The advantage of scanning is the possibility to obtain a point cloud, which, apart from the information on the course of the chimney axis in the space, provides detail information on the real shape and deformations of the coating of the object's core.

  19. A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP, Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR, direct current (DC resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC resistivity, induced polarization (IP and ground conductivity (GC measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC, which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

  20. Microbial carbon cycling in Lost City hydrothermal chimneys and other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazelton, W. J.; Lang, S. Q.; Morrill, P. L.; Twing, K. I.; Crespo-Medina, M.; Morgan-Smith, D.; Früh-Green, G. L.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic rocks formed in the Earth's mantle and uplifted into the crust represent an immense but poorly described reservoir of carbon. The biological availability of this rock-hosted carbon reservoir is unknown, but the set of geochemical reactions known as serpentinization can mobilize carbon from the subsurface and trigger the growth of dense microbial communities. Serpentinite-hosted ecosystems such as the chimney biofilms of the Lost City hydrothermal field can support dense populations of bacteria and archaea fueled by the copious quantities of H2 and methane (CH4) released by serpentinization (1-5). The metabolic pathways involved, however, remain unknown, and conventional interpretations of genomic and experimental data are complicated by the unusual carbon speciation in these environments. Carbon dioxide is scarce due to the highly reducing, high pH conditions. Instead, the predominant forms of carbon are CH4 and formate (5). Despite its natural abundance, however, direct evidence for CH4-derived biomass is lacking (1,4,5), and the role of formate is potentially significant but largely unexplored (1,5). To gain a more generalized perspective of carbon cycling in serpentinite-hosted ecosystems, we have recently investigated fluids and rocks collected from serpentinizing ophiolites in California, Canada, and Italy. Our results point to potentially H2-utilizing, autotrophic Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic-anoxic transition zones and anaerobic Clostridia inhabiting anoxic, subsurface zones (1,6). The carbon sources utilized by the Clostridia are unknown, but preliminary metagenomic evidence is consistent with a fermentation-style metabolic strategy that may be conducive to an oxidant-limited, subsurface environment. Curiously, despite the abundance of H2 and CH4 in these continental springs, none of the geochemical, genomic, or experimental results obtained thus far contain any evidence for biological methanogenesis (1,6). This is in stark

  1. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; PARK, Youn Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper two main events and their causes have been investigated and a potential alternative supporting system will be provided. The first event to be addressed is the Station Blackout (SBO) caused by the inherent unreliability of the Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) and Alternative AC (AAC) power sources. Different parameters affect The EDG unreliability; for instance, mechanical, operational, maintenance and surveillance. Those parameters will be analyzed and linked to plant safety and Core Damage Frequency (CDF). Also the AACs, the SBO diesel generators, will be studied and their operational requirements similarity with the EDGs will be discussed. The second event to be addressed is the Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) caused by the degradation of heat exchange effectiveness, that is, the poor heat transfer to the Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). Different causes to such case were observed; intake lines blockages due to ice and foreign biological matters formation and oil spill near the heat sink causing the oil leakage to the heat exchangers tubes. The later cause, oil spill, has been given a special attention here due its potential effects for different nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world; for example, Finland and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the Finnish case, the Finnish nuclear regulator (STUK) took already countermeasures for such scenario by introducing alternative heat sink, cooling towers, for the primary used heat sink, sea water, for one of its nuclear power plants. The abundance of the solar irradiation in the UAE region provides a perfect condition for the implementation of solar power applications. Utilizing this unique characteristic of that region may provide promising alternative and diverse options for solving potential safety related issues of their NPPs. The Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) could be employed to serve as a supporting system to provide emergency power, in the case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in the case of

  2. Performance Investigation of a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer for Different Inlet Areas with a Fixed Outlet Area

    OpenAIRE

    J. K. Afriyie; Bart - Plange, A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the performance of a direct-mode solar crop dryer with a solar chimney. Tests were performed for three differently inclined drying-chamber roofs, each with three inlet areas for a given exit area. Cassava was used as the test crop. The results show that the increase in the inlet area for a given exit area can improve the ventilation in the dryer. However, this does not necessarily improve the drying performance of the direct-mode dryer. A wide inlet area for a given exit a...

  3. Endovascular Treatment of a Symptomatic Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Chimney and Periscope Techniques for Total Visceral and Renal Artery Revascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: cariati.maurizio@sancarlo.mi.it [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Sciences (Italy); Mingazzini, Pietro; Dallatana, Raffaello [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy); Rossi, Umberto G. [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Sciences (Italy); Settembrini, Alberto [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Santuari, Davide [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy)

    2013-05-02

    Conventional endovascular therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with involving visceral and renal arteries is limited by the absence of a landing zone for the aortic endograft. Solutions have been proposed to overcome the problem of no landing zone; however, most of them are not feasible in urgent and high-risk patients. We describe a case that was successfully treated by total endovascular technique with a two-by-two chimney-and-periscope approach in a patient with acute symptomatic type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with supra-anastomotic aneurysm formation involving the renal and visceral arteries and a pseduaneurismatic sac localized in the left ileopsoas muscle.

  4. Development of a practical training program based on BNL`s input to new NFPA Lined Masonary Chimney Venting Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, G. [Agway Energy Products, Tully, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes how we developed a practical training program for technicians and sales personnel from the BNL studies that evolved into the Lined Chimney Venting Tables. One of the topics discussed is our search for solutions to the reoccurring problems associated with flue gas condensation on newly installed oil fired appliances. The paper will also discuss our own experiences in applying the new venting tables and working through the questions that arise when we encounter installations beyond the scope of the present tables.

  5. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Solar Chimney Power Plant with Inclined Collector Roof Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Gholamalizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization of a solar chimney power plant with an inclined collector roof using genetic algorithms. Five design parameters that affect the system performance are the collector radius, collector inlet height, collector outlet height, chimney height and diameter. A multi-objective design to simultaneously optimize three conflicting objectives including system efficiency, power output and expenditure is used. Based on this approach, obtaining the best combination of the possible geometrical parameters, performance of two built pilot power plants in Kerman (Iran and Manzanares (Spain are optimized thermo-economically. The heights of the zero-slope collectors of the Kerman and Manzanares systems are 2 m and 1.85 m, respectively. The results show that in the Kerman pilot the optimal collector inlet and outlet heights are 1.5 m and 2.95 m, respectively, while those optimal heights in the Manzanares prototype are 1.5 m and 4.6 m, respectively. It is found that selecting the optimal collector roof configuration in addition to the other design parameters has a significant effect in the system optimization process.

  6. REE and Sr-Nd isotope characteristics of hydrothermal chimney at Jade area in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanguang; MENG Xianwei; FU Yunxia

    2004-01-01

    Hydrothermal chimney is a product of hydrothermal activity on the seabed. Chimney samples dredged from Jade hydrothermal area in Izena depression of the Okinawa Trough, are characterized by relatively enriched light rare earth elements (LREE) and strongly positive Eu anomalies. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd of these samples are exactly between those of seawater and of acidic pumice, averaged at 0.708928 and 0.512292, respectively. These characteristics imply that the main source of hydrothermal sulfide at Jade area is possibly the undersurface acidic rocks. The mineralizing mechanism can be summarized as follows: Large amount of mineralized material would be leached out and LREEenriched hydrothermal solution would be subsequently produced as a result of thermo-chemical exchange reaction between acidic volcanic rocks and heated seawater that penetrated in advance from upper water mass. The spurting out from the seabed and quickly crystallizing in the seawater of hydrothermal solution are responsible for the formation of Cu-Zn sulfide and barite-amorphous SiO2 minerals that are characterized by enriched LREE and positively strong Eu anomalies.

  7. Microbial Diversity of Carbonate Chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field: Implications for Life-Sustaining Systems in Peridotite Seafloor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Cimino, P.; Kelley, D. S.; Baross, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel peridotite-hosted vent environment discovered in Dec. 2000 at 30 N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This field contains multiple large (up to 60 m), carbonate chimneys venting high pH (9-10), moderate temperature (45-75 C) fluids. The LCHF is unusual in that it is located on 1.5 my-old oceanic crust, 15 km from the nearest spreading axis. Hydrothermal flow in this system is believed to be driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions involving iron-bearing minerals in the underlying seafloor. The conditions created by such reactions, which include significant quantities of dissolved methane and hydrogen, create habitats for microbial communities specifically adapted to this unusual vent environment. Ultramafic, reducing hydrothermal environments like the LCHF may be analogous to geologic settings present on the early Earth, which have been suggested to be important for the emergence of life. Additionally, the existence of hydrothermal environments far away from an active spreading center expands the range of potential life-supporting environments elsewhere in the solar system. To study the abundance and diversity of microbial communities inhabiting the environments that characterize the LCHF, carbonate chimney samples were analyzed by microscopic and molecular methods. Cell densities of between 105 and 107 cells/g were observed within various samples collected from the chimneys. Interestingly, 4-11% of the microbial population in direct contact with vent fluids fluoresced with Flavin-420, a key coenzyme involved in methanogenesis. Enrichment culturing from chimney material under aerobic and anaerobic conditions yielded microorganisms in the thermophilic and mesophilic temperature regimes in media designed for methanogenesis, methane-oxidation, and heterotrophy. PCR analysis of chimney material indicated the presence of both Archaea and Eubacteria in the carbonate samples. SSU rDNA clone libraries constructed from the

  8. The Guaymas Basin hiking guide to hydrothermal mounds, chimneys and microbial mats: complex seafloor expressions of subsurface hydrothermal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eTeske

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal mats, mounds and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and selected geochemical data; many of these distinct habitats await characterization of their microbial communities and activities. Microprofiler deployments on microbial mats and hydrothermal sediments show their steep geochemical and thermal gradients at millimeter-scale vertical resolution. Mapping these hydrothermal features and sampling locations within the southern Guaymas Basin suggest linkages to underlying shallow sills and heatflow gradients. Recognizing the inherent spatial limitations of much current Guaymas Basin sampling calls for a wider survey of the entire spreading region.

  9. 燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术创新和应用探讨%Discussion on technology innovation of coal -fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆虎; 吴金土

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the existing coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion technolo-gy, summed up the basic reason desulfurization chimney corrosion failures, technological innovation ideas pro-posed chimney desulfurization corrosion.And briefly describes the use of self-vulcanized butyl rubber anti-corrosion lining for coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney antiseptic feasibility and success stories.%通过对现行燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术分析,总结了脱硫烟囱防腐失效的原因,提出了脱硫烟囱防腐的技术创新思路。简要介绍了采用自硫化丁基橡胶防腐衬里对燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱进行防腐的可行性和成功案例。

  10. Analysis of the Chimney Effect in Thermal Design of High-Power LED Lamps Radiator%烟囱效应在大功率LED灯具散热器设计中的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李本红; 刘海林

    2014-01-01

    The chimney effect could enhance the convection and heat transfer. This study has designed a high-power LED lamps radiator based on chimney effect. The effect of the chimney designed in radiator was analyzed by finite element analysis method. The cooling performance of radiator was explored by changing the chimney height, flue aperture,and chimney number. The results show that the best chimney flue aperture size is 6mm. The chimney height can design to 40 mm ~50 mm based on the height of the radiator design. With the design conditions permitting,the more the chimney number the better the thermal performance of radiator heat.%烟囱效应具有强化对流、增强换热的能力。本研究设计了一款基于烟囱效应的大功率LED灯具散热器,采用有限元分析法分析烟囱效应在散热器散热过程中的作用效果。分别探讨了烟囱的高度、烟道孔径以及烟囱个数对散热器散热性能的影响。研究表明,本研究中烟囱烟道孔径的最佳尺寸为6mm。烟囱的高度可依据散热器的高度设计取40 mm~50 mm。在设计条件允许的前提下,烟囱个数越多散热器散热效果越好。

  11. S- and Sr-isotopic compositions in barite-silica chimney from the Franklin Seamount, Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea: constraints on genesis and temporal variability of hydrothermal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Durbar; Banerjee, Ranadip; Balakrishnan, S.; Paropkari, Anil L.; Mukhopadhyay, Subir

    2016-08-01

    Isotopic ratios of strontium and sulfur in six layers across a horizontal section of a hydrothermal barite-silica chimney from Franklin Seamount of western Woodlark Basin have been investigated. Sr-isotopic ratios in barite samples (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70478-0.70493) are less radiogenic than seawater (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70917) indicating that substantial leaching of sub-seafloor magma was involved in the genesis of hydrothermal fluid. The SO2 of magma likely contributed a considerable amount of lighter S-isotope in fluid and responsible for the formation of barite, which is isotopically lighter (δ34S = 19.4-20.5 ‰) than modern seawater (δ34S ~ 21 ‰). The systematic changes in isotopic compositions across the chimney wall suggest temporal changes in the mode of mineral formation during the growth of the chimney. Enrichment of heavy S- and Sr-isotopes (δ34S = 20.58 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70493) in the outermost periphery of the chimney indicates that, at the initial stage of chimney development, there was a significant contribution of seawater sulfate during barite mineralization. Thereafter, thickening of chimney wall occurred due to precipitation of fluid carrying more magmatic components relative to seawater. This led to a gradual enrichment of lighter isotopes (δ34S = 20.42-19.48 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70491-0.704787) toward the inner portion of the chimney wall. In contrast, the innermost layer surrounding the fluid conduit is characterized by heavier and more radiogenic isotopes (δ34S = 20.3 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7049). This suggests there was increasing influence of percolating seawater on the mineral paragenesis at the waning phase of the chimney development.

  12. Interpretation of seismic reflection data from the Piledriver Event Area, Nevada Test Site; A case study for evaluation of technique for characterization of void and chimney features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonander, K.E. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A remote sensing geophysical method is needed to properly characterize the void and chimney characteristics of underground nuclear tests. Various techniques were considered and a seismic reflection survey was selected. This survey was then fitted to the conditions at the test site so as to give optimum results. The data was then reduced via DOS computer and analyzed for content. The planned survey using a 50 ft offset did not show any useful information, however, a second survey with a variable longer offset was also conducted which was capable of determining the depth to the top and the bottom of the chimney with reasonable accuracy. Measurements of the horizontal spread of the structure, though, were inconclusive.

  13. Growth of gas hydrate mounds and gas chimneys of the eastern margin of Japan Sea as revealed by MBES, SSS and SBP of AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.; Satoh, M.; Hiromatsu, M.; Tomaru, H.; Machiyama, H.

    2010-12-01

    A series of PC, ROV and SCS surveys to study the origin and evolution of gas hydrate systems along the eastern margin of Japan Sea have identified a number of shallow GH accumulations on the mounds, 300m to 500m in diameter and 30m to 40m high, on the Umitaka spur and Joetsu knoll in Joetsu basin with the WD of 880m to 1200m (Matsumoto et al., 2005; 2009). All of the hydrate mounds develop on gas chimneys as recognized by seismic profiles, and some are associated with gigantic methane plumes, 600m to 700m high. Multi Beam Echo Sounder (MBES), Side Scan Sonar (SSS) and Sub-Bottom Profiler (SBP) of AUV Urashima have revealed ultra-high resolution topographic features and subsurface structures of the mounds and adjacent areas during the JAMSTEC YK10-08 cruise, July 2010. AUV Urashima ran over the spur and knoll at 50m to 80m above seafloor at a cruising speed of 2.4 knots. MBES and SSS mosaics demonstrate two types of mounds. One is a low swell with smooth surface and weak reflectance, while the other is characterized by rough and uneven topographic features with strong SSS images due to incrustation by methane-induced carbonate concretions and gas hydrates. SBP provides clear stratigraphic and structural relations down to 50mbsf to 80mbsf and recognizes three stratigraphic units as I: upper massive unit (5-10m thick), II: middle evenly bedded unit (15-25m thick) and III: lower slightly bedded unit (> 15-25m thick). Gas chimneys grow up toward the seafloor through Units III, II, and I. When the ceiling of gas chimney stays within Unit III or II, the mound above the chimney is either low swell or nearly flat, while the swell grows up higher when the ceiling reaches to Unit I or the seafloor. Eventually, the ceiling breaks through the seafloor and protrudes to form GH mound up to 40m to 50m high, and then start to decay probably due to mechanical collapse and chemical dissolution of gas hydrates. The ceiling of gas chimneys is often represented by high amplitude, uneven

  14. Use of Oriented Spray Nozzles to Set the Vapor-Air Flow in Rotary Motion in the Superspray Space of the Evaporative Chimney-Type Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrego, K. V.; Davydenko, V. F.; Koznacheev, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper considers the problem of upgrading the thermal efficiency of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers due to the rotary motion of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space. To set the vapor-air flow in rotary motion, we propose to use the momentum of the sprayed water. It has been shown that the existing parameters of spray nozzles permit setting up to 30% of the water flow momentum in translatory motion, which is enough for changing considerably the aerodynamics of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space and improving the operation of the cooling tower. The optimal angle of axial inclination of the spray cone has been estimated. Recommendations are given and problems have been posed for engineering realization of the proposed technologies in a chimney-type cooling tower.

  15. Numerical analysis of the actual airflow in a solar chimney; Analise numerica do escoamento real de ar em uma chamine solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Andre G.; Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Valle, Ramon M.; Brasil, Cristiana S. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ferreira@demec.ufmg.br; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; ramon@demec.ufmg.br; tite@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the turbulent natural convection of the airflow in a solar chimney, under actual solar radiation conditions. The solar chimneys are devices that consist of a transparent radial cover and of a tubular tower positioned in its center. The ground absorbs part of the incident solar radiation on the cover, heating the air in the greenhouse and inducing an upward airflow on the tower. It was developed a model that allows the evaluation of the ground temperature as a function of an energetic balance involving the incident solar radiation. The flow is described by the conservation laws for mass, momentum and thermal energy and the transport equations for the turbulence model (k and e ). A computational code using the Finite Volume Method in Generalized Coordinates was developed to solve these equations. Outlet dimensionless parameters are presented as functions of the radiation time and conditions, besides the unsteady behavior of the ground surface temperature. (author)

  16. Experimental Study Using the Passive Solar Chimney for Evaporative Cooling With PCM and CFM as a Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib K. Murtadha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a test room was built in Baghdad city, with (2*1.5*1.5 m3 in dimensions, while the solar chimneys (SC were designed with aspect ratio (ar bigger than 12. Test room was supplied by many solar collectors; vertical single side of air pass with ar equals 25, and tilted 45o double side of air passes with ar equals 50 for each pass, both collectors consist of flat thermal energy storage box collector (TESB that covered by transparent clear acrylic sheet, third type of collector is array of evacuated tubular collectors with thermosyphon in 45o instelled in the bottom of TESB of vertical SC. The TESB was made from metallic iron sheets as a shell and fuelled by paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM. The PCM supported by copper foam matrix (CFM to enhance thermal conductivity of wax. When heat is released from TESB to the air, a buoyancy force will be generated in chimney gaps. Then a difference in pressure between inside and outside test room leads to induce the air flow to test room through wet corrugated cellulose pad, where evaporative cooling (EC occurs. Results of experimental work, that achieved in June, for 12 to24 hour in the test day, refer to effectiveness using EC to decrease the room temperature comparing. The system reduces test room temperature of up to 8.5~9.2 oC in 11:00 am to 3:00 pm and at highest effectiveness of EC, while minimum reduces in temperature of up to 3.5 oC in 8:00pm to 3:00 am. Also, the results showed the affectivity to using the TESB, during the night time for ventilation and EC, with lower effectiveness than from day time. The range of EC effectiveness equals 30.5-37.5 with a natural vent, while The maximum air change per hour (ACH equals (3.8-6.187, and the maximum mass flow rate is equal to (36.651 kg.hr-1 at experimental evaluation of the system’s discharge coefficient value 0.371.

  17. Theoretical study on air flow in a solar chimney with real insulation conditions; Estudo teorico do escoamento de ar em uma chamine solar com condicoes reais de insolacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Andre Guimaraes; Cortez, Marcio Fonte-Boa; Molina Valle, Ramon; Brasil, Cristiana Santiago [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG, (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ferreira@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the turbulent air flow with real conditions of insulation inside a solar chimney. The flow is described by the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, besides the transport equations of the quantities in the turbulence model (k and epsilon). Dimensionless parameters are presented at way out the device, as function of time and the insulation conditions, represented by the soil and the roof heating.

  18. Insights into Focused Fluid Conduit Formation from Comparing Seismic Chimneys and Pipes with Field Observations of Fluid Flow Manifestations in the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, J.; Berndt, C.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of focused fluid flow in sedimentary basins builds on field geological observations and the interpretation of reflection seismic data, where fluid conduits manifest as anomalous amplitude patterns known as seismic chimneys or pipes. Seismic data is the most effective method for the analysis of entire fluid flow systems by constraining subsurface geometries, fluid accumulations and permeability barriers, but seismic data cannot provide information about the internal architecture, interaction with the bedrock and flow processes due to its coarse resolution. Field geological investigations of fluid conduit outcrops are capable of filling observation gaps on a sub-seismic scale and help constrain formation dynamics as well as hydraulic properties of fluid conduits and the bedrock. Here, we show that it is possible to correlate specific amplitude patterns of seismic chimneys with field observation of focused fluid conduits from the Colorado Plateau. The migrating fluids (gas, water, fluidized sediment) and their formation dynamics, which can be associated with different types of conduits (fractures, fluidizations, injections), result in distinguishable seismic signatures. These constrains improve the qualitative interpretation of seismic chimneys by adding information about migration and formation characteristics. A further integration of field geological and seismic investigation of focused fluid flow structures may help to quantify their hydraulic properties and how these evolve with time, which has important implications for the hydrocarbon prospection and the subsurface storage of wastewater and CO2.

  19. Assessing and evaluating the dioxin exposure of chimney sweeps in Bavaria; Ermittlung und Bewertung der Dioxin-Belastung von Kaminkehrern in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, G. (comp.) [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-03-01

    In sum, the present investigation establishes recognizable differences in internal exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs between chimney sweeps and the control group. But the concentrations found are in the range established by other studies for the exposure of the general population to PCDDs/PCDFs. Clinically relevant differences between chimney sweeps and control persons can also not be established by comparison with the scientific literature, despite different methods of analysis. Nonetheless there is reason to pay enhanced attention to safety at work and personal hygiene in chimney sweeps' places of work as a measure of precaution. (orig.) [German] Insgesamt kann festgestellt werden, dass sich in dieser Untersuchung erkennbare Unterschiede fuer die innere Belastung mit PCDD/F zwischen den Kaminkehrern und dem Kontrollkollektiv zeigen. Die hier bestimmten Konzentrationen liegen aber in den Konzentrationsbereichen, wie sie in anderen Studien zur PCDD/F-Belastung fuer die Allgemeinbevoelkerung gefunden wurden. Klinisch relevante Unterschiede zwischen den Kaminkehrern und Kontrollen lassen sich auch bei Vergleich mit der wissenschaftlichen Literatur trotz unterschiedlicher Analytik nicht erkennen. Dennoch sollten sie aus praeventiven Gruenden Anlass geben, Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen und persoenliche Hygiene an den Arbeitsplaetzen der Kaminkehrer vermehrt zu beachten. (orig.)

  20. Thermoelectric properties of ternary and Al-containing quaternary Ru{sub 1-x}Re{sub x}Si{sub y} chimney-ladder compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, Kyosuke [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: k.kishida@materials.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ishida, Akira; Koyama, Tatsuya; Harada, Shunta; Okamoto, Norihiko L.; Tanaka, Katsushi; Inui, Haruyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The thermoelectric properties of ternary and Al-containing quaternary Ru{sub 1-x}Re{sub x}Si{sub y} chimney-ladder phases have been studied as a function of the Re concentration with the use of directionally solidified alloys. The Ru{sub 1-x}Re{sub x}Si{sub y} chimney-ladder phases exhibit n- and p-type semiconducting behaviors, respectively, at low and high Re concentrations, at which the X(=Si)/M(=Ru + Re) ratios are respectively, larger and smaller than those expected from the VEC (valence electron concentration) = 14 rule. The absolute values of both Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity increase as the extent of the deviation from the VEC = 14 rule increases, i.e. as the alloy composition deviates from that corresponding to the p-n transition (x {approx} 0.5), indicating that the carrier concentration can be controlled by changing the extent of compositional deviation from the ideal VEC = 14 composition. The highest values of the dimensionless figure of merit obtained are 0.47 for ternary (x = 0.60) and 0.56 for Al-containing quaternary alloys. The reasons for the systematic compositional deviation from the ideal VEC = 14 compositions observed for a series of chimney-ladder phases are discussed in terms of atomic packing.

  1. Framework for the Energetic Assessment of South and South-East Asia Fixed Chimney Bull’s Trench Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Niccolò Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major sources of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission in South and South-East Asia is brick manufacturing. One of the most commonly implemented technologies for brick manufacturing in this region is the fixed chimney Bull’s trench kiln (FCBTK. This type of technology largely depends on manual labour and is very inefficient when compared to more modern technologies. Because the adoption of more advanced technologies is hindered by the socio-economical background, the much needed innovations in the brick sector are necessarily related to improving/modifying the FCBTK already operational. However, few scientific studies have been conducted on FCBTK probably due to the basic level of technological development. Such studies are however important to systematically and methodologically assess the challenges and solutions in FCBTK. In this study we develop a thermo-energetic model to evaluate the importance of the parameters pertained to FCBTK construction and operation. The prospective of this study is to build an initial thermo-energetic framework that will serve as a basis to investigate possible energetic improvements.

  2. Novel barite chimneys at the Loki´s Castle Vent Field shed light on key factors shaping microbial communities and functions in hydrothermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Helene eSteen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki’s Castle Vent Field (LCVF. This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4 structures (≤ 1m high covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM, 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus sp. Strain ST04, Isolated from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimney on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Holden, James F.; Seo, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hakdong; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Wooki; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2012-01-01

    Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level (polysaccharide utilization at high temperature and ATP generation by a Na+ gradient), the genome of strain ST04 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence analysis results of Pyrococcus sp. ST04 and report the major findings from the genome annotation, with a focus on its saccharolytic and metabolite production potential. PMID:22843576

  4. Additional income with open chimneys and stove. Nostalgia, romanticism and thermal comfort; Zusatzgeschaeft mit Oefen und Kaminen. Nostalgisch-romantische Gefuehle und behagliche Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, G. [Buderus Heiztechnik GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Stoves and open fireplaces are coming into fashion again with the trend towards nostalgia and design awareness. Further, wood-fuelled chimneys and stoves are viewed as romantic, and they also provide high thermal comfort. Heating systems experts can get additional income from this trend. (orig.) [German] Kamine und Oefen sind bei vielen Hausbesitzern und Bauherrn wieder in Mode. Dieser Trend ist zum einen Teil eines gestiegenen Nostalgie- und Designbewusstseins. Zum anderen gelten vor allem holzbefeuerte Kamine und Oefen als romantisch und ihre Waerme aufgrund des hohen Strahlungsanteils als behaglich. Fuer den aktiven Heizungsfachhandwerker laesst sich aus dieser Modestroemung ein lukratives Zusatzgeschaeft ableiten. (orig.)

  5. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Ida H; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B; Thorseth, Ingunn H

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  6. Numerical analysis of the turbulent natural convection in a solar chimney; Analise numerica da conveccao natural turbulenta em uma chamine solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasil, Cristiana S.; Valle, Ramon M.; Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Ferreira, Andre G. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: tite@demec.ufmg.br; ramon@demec.ufmg.br; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; ferreira@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the turbulent natural convection in a solar chimney operating in steady flow, with prescribed conditions of temperature in the ground. The solar radiation heats the air under the cover, which flows to the tower without artificial pumping. The hot air produced may be used to dry several agricultural products. The numerical analysis of the natural convection in this kind of dryer has fundamental importance on the design and building of this device. The mathematical model includes the conservation laws for mass, momentum and thermal energy and the transport equations for the turbulence model variables (k and e ). The k- e model of turbulence with wall functions was used. A computational code using the Finite Volume Method in Generalized Coordinates was developed to solve the system of equations that describes thermal and hydro dynamically the flow. The velocity and temperature fields are shown to the flow in the solar chimney. With geometrical alterations on the device, one can obtain a detailed description of the flow, which allow the guideline for a suitable configuration to build an experimental prototype. (author)

  7. Analysis on the optimization geometry of the solar chimney power plant systems%太阳能热气流发电流道优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    职更辰; 陈威

    2013-01-01

    以西班牙太阳能热气流电站为原型进行数值模拟,得出了太阳能烟囱内的速度场、压力场和温度场分布;研究了集热棚坡度、分流板高度和弧度等因素对系统发电性能及涡轮机位置的影响.研究结果表明:集热棚坡度增加时,烟囱的抽吸作用增强,空气流速增加,有利于提高太阳能热气流发电的输出功率;当集热棚坡度约为0.5°时,其作用最为明显,对于提高系统发电性能最为有利;增加分流板有利于气流发电站的优化,当分流板高度略微高于集热棚高度时,优化效果较好;分流板弧度越小,越有利于系统的优化;集热棚坡度对涡轮机位置有影响,改变分流板的几何因素对涡轮机位置没有影响.%An Spanish solar chimney power plant was considered as a prototype to establish a numerical simulation in this paper, and the distribution of velocity, pressure and temperature fields in the solar chimney were derived; Thereby the impact of changing of geometric factors, which included the slope of the collector shed, the height and radians of the shunt board and so on, on the system power performance and the location of turbine were studied. Research results showed that, as the slope of the collector shed beginning to increase, the drawing action of the chimney increased and the velocity of air enhanced, which would help to improve the generator output of solar chimney; When the collector shed gradient increased to about 0.5 degrees, the strengthening of chimney drawing was the most obvious, which was the most advantageous for improving the system's power generation performance; The airflow power station performed better while increasing the number of manifold; When the manifold height was slightly higher than that of the collector shed, the system performed well; The slighter the curvature of manifold, the better the system presented. The slope of the collector shed affects location of the turbine, but the turbine

  8. 太阳能烟囱强化自然通风的研究现状%Research Status on Solar Chimney for Natural Ventilation Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏亚欣; 柳仲宝

    2011-01-01

    Natural ventilation is an energy efficient passive cooling technology and it uses wind or thermal buoyancy to deliver fresh air into the buildings in order to maintain a good indoor air quality. Comparing with mechanical ventilation, natural ventilation has obvious energy-saving advantages. Solar Chimney (SC) is a vertical or inclined channel that utilizes solar radiation to cause a temperature rise and density drop for the air flowing through the chimney, therefore enhances the natural ventilation. First, two types of typical solar chimney, namely, Trombe wall-type and inclined roof-type solar chimney, and their basic principle to enhance natural ventilation are briefly introduced. Then, the parameters that influence the performance of natural ventilation of the solar chimney are discussed in detail. The major methods and result are listed based on the review of the research works on solar chimney by different authors. The height and depth (the distance between the glass cover and absorber wall) of SC influence the natural convection flow process and the temperature rise of air in the SC channel and furthermore influence the ventilation rate of the SC strongly. The ventilation air I.e. The air flow rate increases with the increase of SC depth. The air flow rate decreases when the SC depth exceeds an optimal value. A reverse flow appears near the top of the SC channel when the ratio of SC depth to height is larger than 2.5 and the increase of natural ventilation rate is limited. The effect of the SC structure and its inclined angle on ventilation is related to the geographical location and climate conditions. The modeling of SC ventilation includes the mathematical modeling that is based on the energy conservation analysis on the heat transfer process of the air on the wall surfaces and the numerical simulation of the flow process that is based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. Based on the literature review, the issues that need to be improved in solar

  9. In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

  10. 焦炉烟囱 NO x排放控制刍议%Comment on control of NOx emission from chimney of coke oven battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡承祐

    2013-01-01

    The new national standard“ Emission standard of pollutants for coking chemical industry”regulates the requirement for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery .The techni-cal measures on design of heating system of coke oven battery and treatment of oven flue gas after it is discharged from the battery for control of NO x emission are expounded in this paper .The author also makes brief description of technology on denitrification of flue gas by using SCR process and sug -gests that in order to meet the requirement of the national standard for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery located in the “special region”, flue gas discharged from the coke oven battery should be further treated by using SCR denitrification technology with learning experience of Tokyo Gas gained from test of pilot plant and engineering .%新的国家标准《炼焦化学工业污染物排放标准》提出了焦炉烟囱的NOx 排放控制要求。本文从焦炉加热系统的设计和对焦炉烟道废气的后处理2个层面论述了焦炉烟囱NOx 排放控制的技术措施,简要介绍了SCR烟气脱硝技术,提出了借鉴日本东京煤气公司的中试与工程经验,采用SCR脱硝技术对焦炉烟道废气进行后处理,以达到国家标准对“特别地区”焦炉烟囱的NOx排放控制要求。

  11. 150 m高烟囱爆破拆除振动测试%Monitoring on Vibration caused by Explosive Demolition of 150 Meters Height Chimney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春海; 张永哲; 梁向前

    2013-01-01

    在包头第三热电厂150 m钢筋混凝土烟囱爆破拆除工程中,测量了爆破缺口内炸药爆炸和烟囱倒塌触地引起的地面质点振速和主振频率.经分析得出结论:在烟囱等高耸建筑物的爆破倒塌过程中,炸药爆炸产生的振动强度小于烟囱倒塌触地引起的振动强度;(构)筑物落地冲击振动的频率一般比爆破引起的振动频率要低;铺设缓冲材料、挖减振沟等措施可减小触地冲击引起的地面振动强度.%To demolish a 150-meter high reinforced concrete chimney in Baotou power plant with blasting technology,the velocities and dominant frequencies of ground particles vibration induced by explosive and chimney touchdown were detected.Conclusions from the explosive demolition of high building showed that the intensity of ground vibration caused by charge explosion was usually much lower than by the collapse impact of high parts on the ground; the frequency of touchdown vibration was lower than that of blasting vibration.The intensity of the touchdown vibration was reduced by using some technological measures such as laying buffering material and damping ditch.

  12. Reason for the black smoke discharged from the chimney of stamp-charging battery and improvement%捣固焦炉烟囱冒黑烟的原因及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞民

    2014-01-01

    分析了捣固焦炉烟囱冒黑烟的原因和主要影响因素,通过优化捣固操作、缩小煤箱宽度和改进配煤结构等措施,推焦电流由150~170A 降低到105~120A,杜绝了焦炉烟囱冒黑烟现象。%The reasons and main influencing factors for the black smoke discharged from the chimney of stamp-charging battery,and corresponding measures such as optimizing operation,narrow the coal bunker and adjusting coal blending structure and so on are taken. As a result,the pushing current is reduced to 105 ~ 120A from 150 ~ 170A,and no black smoke is discharged from the chimney any more.

  13. Analysis on the influence of wind pressure on solar thermal wind and chimney power system%风压对太阳能热风发电系统的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义胜; 杨燕; 魏毅立; 庞赟佶; 杨靖辉

    2011-01-01

    根据太阳能热风发电系统的工作特征,以内蒙古乌海金沙沙漠太阳能热风发电系统为模型,模拟计算了不同形式的太阳能热风发电系统;对比不同系统内的气流分布,研究讨论了风压对气流流动和气流速度大小的影响.模拟结果表明:半圆形集热棚系统更具优势,其利用率较高,塔囱底部的平均气流速度可达24:38m/s.该研究分析为乌海金沙沙漠太阳能热风发电站的建设提供了技术指导.%According to the working characteristics of solar thermal wind and chimney power system, the different forms of the system is simulated with the desert solar thermal wind and chimney power system in Wuhai of Inner Mongolia as the model. By contrast with the different distributions of the air flow in the system, it studied the influence of wind pressure on the flowing and the velocity of air flow. The results are as follows: the semi-circular collector system shows its advantages and its utilization ratio is higher. In addition, the average flow speed at the bottom of the chimney is up to 24.38 m/s. This conclusion will provide technical guidance for the construction of solar thermal wind and chimney power system in the desert of Wuhai.

  14. A study of the various baffles used in the Marcoule chimneys and the search for a new model (1961); Etude des differents deflecteurs utilises pour les cheminees de Marcoule et recherche d'un nouveau type de deflecteur (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Parigi, H. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Marseille, 13 (France); Salaun-Penquer, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    1961-07-01

    The baffle placed at the top of a chimney determines the shape of the smoke pall for low exit-velocities. The G. 1 type baffle was studied taking into account the characteristics of its collar: totally hollow - partially hollow - solid; on a ribbed chimney or on a plain chimney. The Pu type baffle was also tested. The search for a new type of baffle was limited to variants of the blade - type baffle: - a porous envelope device; - a cone - shaped device and - a deflector of the cupel type. Only the blade-type baffle was rejected, efficient solutions are proposed using the other types or their combinations. (authors) [French] Le deflecteur place au sommet d'une cheminee conditionne l'allure du panache pour les rejets a faible vitesse de sortie. Le deflecteur type Gl a ete etudie en tenant compte de son embase: totalement evidee - partiellement evidee - pleine; sur une cheminee striee et sur une cheminee lisse. Le deflecteur type Pu a ete egalement teste. La recherche d'un nouveau type de deflecteur a porte sur les deflecteurs a aubage: - un dispositif a enveloppe poreuse; - un dispositif en ogive et - le deflecteur en coupelle. Seul le deflecteur a aubage a ete rejete, des solutions efficaces sont proposees avec les autres types ou leur combinaison. (auteurs)

  15. Structural Analysis and Treatment on a Chimney with Corroded Double Inner Steel Cylinders%套筒式烟囱钢内筒腐蚀受损的分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 方林; 曹舟; 金国芳

    2012-01-01

    针对某电厂套筒式烟囱建成使用仅4年,钢内筒就严重腐蚀受损的工程案例,利用有限元分析方法对该烟囱进行分析计算(包括腐蚀受损前后两种工况),研究结构动力特性.经对比分析腐蚀前后两种结构在竖向和横向荷载作用下的应力水平和稳定性,对腐蚀受损进行评估,并提出相应的处理方案.%An inner steel cylinder of a telescopic chimney has severely corroded only 4 years after the com-struction. In this paper. The finite element model (including before corrosion and after corrosion) dynamic a-nalysis of the telescopic chimney was caried out. Several comparisons in the stress level and stability of the chimney under both vertical load and lateral dynamic load were presented. Assessments of the corrosion and corresponding method for treating this problem were also proposed here.

  16. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Pfister, Roman [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine III, Cologne (Germany); Deppe, Antje-Christin [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Matoussevitch, Vladimir [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cologne (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  17. Chimney Height Optimization for the Ultra Low Emission Power Plant%超低排放电厂烟囱高度优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊宏亮

    2015-01-01

    After today's large-scale coal-fired power plants taking a series of strict air pollution control measures, the emissions of major air pollutants achieve ultra-low emission requirements. SCREEN3 estimation model is used to predict the maximum concentration of landing and the emergence distance of air pollutants under different stack heights, the chimney height is optimized and proved, which provides reference for the EIA.%现今大型燃煤火力发电厂采取一系列严格的大气污染防治措施后,主要大气污染物排放达到超低排放要求。在此前提下,利用SCREEN3估算模式预测不同烟囱高度下主要大气污染物最大落地浓度及出现距离,对烟囱高度进行了优化论证,为工程环评提供参考。

  18. 湿法脱硫系统混凝土烟道内防腐蚀方案%Anticorrosion Scheme for Concrete Chimney in Flue Gas Desulphurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何思立; 李建三; 龙乃健; 曾松峰

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of bare common concrete,bare ceramsite concrete and test blocks with modified epoxy liner anticorrosion coating was studied in concrete chimney of flue gas desulphurization systems.Blister of the coating and other obvious changes did not appear on the epoxy liners after 6 months test.No any corrosion indication happened to the rebar in concrete block with epoxy liner anticorrosion coating,indicating a good protection to the rebar in concrete block.After 6 months test,the chlorine element in concrete block with epoxy liners was not found by the analysis result of energy dispersive spectrometer,and the content of sulfur did not increase compared with the untested concrete block.The results showed that the epoxy liner anticorrosion coating could prevent the permeation of harmful corrosives and provide the concrete block with very good protection.The results of engineering application experiment also proved the very good protection of epoxy liner anticorrosion scheme for concrete chimney in flue gas desulphurization systems.%采用改性环氧配套衬里的方案制备防腐蚀层。对普通混凝土试样与陶粒砼试样及防腐蚀层在脱硫系统烟道内的现场腐蚀行为进行试验研究。试验6个月后环氧配套衬里层没有鼓泡烧蚀,未观察到明显的变化。采用环氧配套衬里防腐蚀层的混凝土试块,在试验6个月后其内部的钢筋未发现腐蚀现象,表明环氧配套衬里对混凝土中的钢筋起到了较好的保护作用。试验6个月后环氧配套衬里混凝土样的能谱结果均未检测到氯元素,硫元素的含量同未试验的对比测试样相比也未增加,表明环氧配套衬里对混凝土起到了很好的保护作用。工程应用结果表明,改性环氧配套衬里的防腐蚀方案能够对湿法脱硫系统的混凝土烟道起到很好的防腐蚀保护作用。

  19. 太阳能烟囱自然通风的一维非稳态模型%A One-dimensional Unsteady Model for Natural Vventilation in a Solar Chimney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳仲宝; 苏亚欣

    2011-01-01

    Solar chimney is effective to enhance the natural ventilation. A one-dimensional unsteady model was proposed for the natural ventilation in solar chimney. The model takes into account the thermal resistances of the glass cover and the absorber wall and the real solar radiation variation in one day. Numerical solution was carried out based on Crank-Nicolson difference scheme. The transient temperature variation in the glass cover, the absorber wall, the air in the channel and the mass flow rate were discussed. The results showed that the air mass flow rate in the chimney increased as the solar radiation increased. However, the maximum air mass flow rate appeared at 2:00 pm due to the influence of the thermal inertia of the absorber wall.%太阳能烟囱是利用太阳能强化自然通风的技术。在考虑了集热墙与玻璃盖板的热阻和太阳辐射在一天中的波动等因素的基础上,建立了一个太阳能烟囱自然通风的一维非稳态模型,采用Crank-Nicolson差分方法对模型进行了数值求解,讨论了集热墙、玻璃盖板、通道内的空气以及空气质量流量等参数对时间的分布特点。结果表明,随着太阳辐射强度的增加,烟囱诱导空气的质量流量逐渐增加。但是受到集热材料热惰性的影响,最大空气流量值出现在午后2小时。

  20. Influence of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide, a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, on the anticonvulsant and acute side-effect potentials of clobazam, lacosamide, and pregabalin in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure model and chimney test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Zagaja, Miroslaw; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2015-08-01

    The influence of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA - a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist) on the anticonvulsant potency and acute adverse-effect potentials of clobazam, lacosamide, and pregabalin was determined in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure model and chimney test in mice. ACEA (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly enhanced the anticonvulsant potency of pregabalin in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model by decreasing the median effective dose (ED50 ) of pregabalin from 125.39 to 78.06 mg/kg (P clobazam and lacosamide in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. On the other hand, ACEA (2.5 mg/kg) did not affect acute adverse effects of clobazam, lacosamide or pregabalin, and the median toxic doses (TD50 ) for the studied anti-epileptic drugs in combination with ACEA did not differ from the TD50 values as determined for the drugs administered alone in the chimney test. In conclusion, ACEA ameliorates the pharmacological profile of pregabalin, when considering both the anticonvulsant and the acute adverse effects of the drug in preclinical study on animals. The combination of pregabalin with ACEA can be of pivotal importance for patients with epilepsy as a potentially advantageous combination if the results from this study translate into clinical settings.

  1. Welcome to my Chimney street

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ice

    2006-01-01

    Welcome tomyChimneystreetWelcome tomyChimneystreet(二)出去了还在。我们是在7月搬进烟囱街的,我还记得当时的情景……yes.Should we bringeverything with us?我们样样东西都带走吗?Bathtub?No.浴缸也带走?How aboutcentralheating pipe?No.暖气管呢?Yes,we willofcourse,because theybelong tous.Then wewon’tbringlights?那电灯一定不带走了?英语木屋You see,they forgot to takelights’switch away,well,incase one switch does notwork,we have one in store.瞧,他们忘记把电灯开关拿走了,那好,万一有个开关坏了,我们便有备用的。What?你说什么?You see!You have said we shouldbring lights with us.Lights and switches oftengo hand in hand.你看吧...

  2. Analysis on the Application of Natural Ventilation of Solar Chimneys in Building Energy Conservation%太阳能烟囱自然通风在建筑节能中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国栋

    2015-01-01

    自然通风技术和新能源开发利用,是现代建筑节能中普遍采用的改善室内热环境和降低空调能耗的主要技术手段,太阳能烟囱将上述两种手段有机结合起来,是一种基于建筑物高度引起的压力差的自然通风设备.它利用太阳辐射作为动力,为空气流动提供浮升力,将热能转化为动能.本文对某项目中用于室内自然通风的太阳能烟囱进行数值模拟.利用如Realizableκ-ε湍流模型、离散坐标辐射模型以及SIMPLEC算法对建筑内的风速和温度等分布进行分析计算.对比不同的建筑设计参数诸如通风量、进风口面积出与风口面积等参数的影响,来阐明"烟囱效应"对室内环境的影响.%Using natural ventilation technology and utilizing new energy resources are the main energy saving techniques used in modern buildings to improve the indoor thermal environment and to reduce air conditioning energy consumption. The solar chimney is the combination of above two methods, based on the natural ventilation the building. It uses solar radiation as the driving force to help the air flow, and to convert the thermal energy to the kinetic energy of the air. In this paper, the numerical simulation of a solar chimney application in a project is performed. Realizableκ-εturbulence model, discrete-ordinates radiation model and SIMPLEC algorithm are used to calculate and analyse the temperature and air velocity distribution inside the building. By comparing the effect of different building design parameters such as air flow velocity, air intake and outlet areas to elucidate how "chimneys effect" affects the environment inside the building.

  3. Entransy dissipation based performance analysis for solar chimney power plant system with vertical collectors%基于火积耗散法的立式集热板太阳能热气流发电系统传热性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳; 刘峰; 王莉; 巢军; 李庆领

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the principle of entransy dissipation and the principle of minimum thermal resist-ance in heat transfer theory,the expression of entransy dissipation rate of the solar chimney power plant system with vertical collectors was derived and the heat transfer performance of this system was analyzed. The results show that,the structure dimensions of the chimney are the main factors affecting the perform-ance of the solar chimney power plant system with vertical collectors.However,the height and width of the solar chimney are limited by the height and space between the windows of high buildings,thus the thick-ness of the solar chimney is the foremost factor to decrease the entransy dissipation of the solar power plant system.Under conditions with constant chimney height and width,the thermal resistance of entransy dissipation of the solar system reached the minimum when the solar chimney thickness was 0.959 8 m,indi-cating the performance of the system achieved the optimum.%基于火积耗散及火积耗散热阻极值定律推导出立式集热板太阳能热气流发电系统的火积耗散率表达式,并对系统的传热性能进行分析.结果表明:立式集热板太阳能热气流发电系统的烟囱尺寸是影响系统传热性能的主要因素,但是烟囱的高度和宽度受高层建筑的高度及窗户间距的限制,因此烟囱厚度成为系统火积耗散热阻的主要影响因素;在烟囱高度和宽度不变的条件下,厚度取0.9598 m 时系统火积耗散热阻最小,系统性能最优.

  4. Ca2Mg(NO3)6×12H2O-structural investigations on a new compound retrieved from chimney deposits of a combined heat and power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Tessadri, Richard; Tribus, Martina; Schmidmair, Daniela; Perfler, Lukas; Haefeker, Udo

    2014-10-01

    Phase analysis of incrustations retrieved from chimney deposits of a combined heat and power plant in Malchow/Germany by X-ray powder diffraction gave evidence for the existence of a previously unknown hydrous calcium magnesium nitrate. Optical investigations of the sample showed the presence of colorless platy crystals with a maximum diameter of about 250 μm embedded in a partly polycrystalline and partly glassy matrix. Aided by EDX-analysis and Raman spectroscopy, a single-crystal diffraction study performed at ambient conditions demonstrated that the material represents a phase with composition Ca2Mg(NO3)6×12H2O. Basic crystallographic data are as follows: trigonal symmetry, space group type R , a = 10.5583(5) Å, c = 19.5351(10) Å, V = 1885.97(16) Å3, Z = 3, ( R(| F|) = 0.0248). The magnesium ions are coordinated by water molecules to form distorted Mg(H2O)6-octahedra. The calcium atoms are surrounded by nine ligands. The resulting CaO9 tricapped trigonal prisms involve oxygen atoms from additional water moieties as well as from three different bidentate nitrate groups, respectively. Hydrogen bonds link one octahedron with two adjacent prisms into trimers. The trimers in turn are stacked in columns running parallel to [001]. Further hydrogen bonding between neighboring columns results in the formation of a three-dimensional network. To our best knowledge, Ca2Mg(NO3)6×12H2O represents a new structure type. However, column-like topologies with rods consisting of different types of polyhedra have been also observed in other trigonal hydrous nitrates. The structural relationships between these compounds are discussed. It is interesting to note that in previous phase equilibrium studies on the ternary system Ca(NO3)2-Mg(NO3)2-H2O no other hydrous double salt has been described. Finally, the results of the structure analysis allowed a qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of the crystalline part of the chimney deposit by the Rietveld method.

  5. Experimental study on heat storage layers of solar chimney power generation systems%太阳能烟囱发电系统蓄热层的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左潞; 郑源; 沙玉俊; 李振杰; 刘文明

    2011-01-01

    搭建了3台带有不同石块蓄热介质蓄热层的太阳能烟囱发电系统对比试验装置,在实际天气条件下,对该装置的运行性能进行了测试,并对试验结果进行了对比分析.结果表明:石块蓄热层具有储存热量的能力,随着蓄热层深度的增加,蓄热层内温度随外界影响就越小.系统内热气流的温升主要在集热棚的中前段,不同时间层热气流温升幅度不同.辐射强度、辐射时间和其他环境因素及集热棚集热性状都会对热气流温升产生一定的影响.石块蓄热材料的热容量和导热系数对蓄热层的平均温度和蓄热量影响较大,热容量大,蓄热层的平均温度日夜变化幅度相对较小,对于太阳能烟囱发电系统的发电峰谷差的调整有利.用同种石块作为集热和蓄热材料时,应合理选择石块材料的粒径和孔隙率,适当增大粒径和孔隙率可增强蓄热层的蓄热能力,有利于提高蓄热层的平均温度.没有太阳辐射时,蓄热层储存的热量能更好地加热气流.%Three solar chimney power generation systems with heat storage layers of different stone heat storage media were constructed. The operation performances of the systems under actual weather conditions were tested, and the resuts were compared and analyzed. The test results show that the stone heat storage layer has heat storage capacity. With the increaesing depth of the storage layer, the effects of the environment on the temperature of the heat storage layer is smaller and smaller. The temperature rise of heat air flow in the system is mainly in the middle and front parts of the heat collector and its amplitude is different at different time levels. The radiation intensity, irradiation time, other environmental factors and heat storage characteristics of heat collectors all have certain influences on the temperature rise of heat air flow. The heat capacity and conductivity of stone heat storage materials have great

  6. Un-landing Construction Technology of Entire Suspension Steel Inside Tube of Chenjiagang Power Plant Chimney%陈家港电厂烟囱整体悬吊钢内筒非落地施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瓅玮; 王德闯

    2011-01-01

    The steel inside tube of the chimney of Chenjiagang power plant is the first entire suspension steel inside tube in China. Because of the special form with high requirement of safety and quality, the method of hydraulic synchronous lifting is taken. The installation of steel inside tube, transferring of lifting points and tube hanging are introduced in detail. Through finite element analysis, the weak points of the lifting points and tube during construction are checked, and all the stiffness and strength can meet requirement. Meanwhile, according to the characteristics of thin wall, large weight and un-landing of steel inside tube, the idea that transferring lifting points in the air is put forward. By continuously monitoring, un-landing construction is completed successfully.%陈家港电厂烟囱钢内筒是国内首例整体悬吊式钢内筒.由于整体悬吊形式的安全质量要求高,采用了液压同步提升方案.重点介绍了钢内筒安装、吊点转换、筒体悬挂等施工工艺.通过运用有限元分析,对施工过程中吊点和简体的薄弱点进行验算,得出所有吊点的强度和刚度均满足要求.同时,根据钢内筒筒壁薄、质量大、不能落地的特点,提出了空中转换吊点的理念,通过施工中的不断监测,顺利完成了钢内筒的非落地施工.

  7. “烟囱”支架技术在胸主动脉腔内修复术中保护左侧锁骨下动脉的应用%Application of chimney technique for preserving the left subclavian artery in thoracic endovascular aortic repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许福彬; 迟德财; 姜维良

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate short- and mid-term results of the left subclavian artery (LSA) chimney stentimplantation (CSI) during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), and to summarize the experience of this technique.MethodsFrom June 2013 to October 2015, 49 patients[43men; mean age of (57.4±13.3) years, range from 40 to 83 years] who underwent TEVAR and LSACSI were enrolled. The patients suffered from Stanford type B aortic dissection in 27 cases (n27), 15 cases of penetrating aortic ulcer (n15), 3 cases of aortic arch aneurysm (n3), and 4 cases of pseudoaneurysm of the aortic arch (n4). Elective settings were performed in 79.6% and emergent in 20.4% of all patients. Follow-up was performed at postoperative 1 month, 6 months and 1 year.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100% (49/49), and 55 thoracic aortic stents were used. 51 chimney stents, including 49 uncovered and 3 covered stents, were implanted in 49 LSAs. The rate of overall immediate endoleak was 18.4% (9/49); type I endoleak was observed in 9 patients. The difference in the rate of immediate endoleak related to the anatomy between the outer and the inner curvature was no statistically signiifcant (4% vs 9%,P0.121). Chimney stent compression was observed in 3 patients and another stent was deployed inside the ifrst one. Perioperative complications as left upper limb ischaemia and so on were zero (0%). The follow-up time was 12 months. The mortality rate during follow-up was 6.1%(3/49). Complications during follow-up included endoleak (n0), retrograde type A aortic dissection (n1), stenosis (n2, 4.1%) of the chimney stent.ConclusionThe short- and mid-term results showe that it is feasible to preserve the patency of LSA in TEVAR with the chimney technique for thoracic aortic pathologies close to LSA. However, TEVAR combined with LSACSI is not advocated for lesions located at the outer curve of the aortic arch due to a high possibility of endoleak. The conclusion can not be gotten on which kind of

  8. CHIMNEY TECHNOLOGY IN STANFORDB TYPE OF ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM AND AORTIC DISSECTION INVOLVING THE CLINICAL APPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERY PROSTHESIS%烟囱技术在 StanfordB 型主动脉夹层和腹主动脉瘤累及肾动脉修复术的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王厚生

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type chimney technology in StanfordB abdominal aortic aneurysm and aortic dis‐section involving the renal artery (juxtarenal aortic aneurysms ,JAA) application feasibility and safety of repair .Methods Jan 2010 to jan 2013 ,21 cases of diagnosis and treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection StanfordB type involving patients with renal artery ,w hich StanfordB type ,including 13 cases of aortic dissection ,abdominal aortic aneurysm involvement of 8 cases of renal artery .All patients were performed CT enhanced scan ,before they are confirmed by femoral artery puncture aortic angiogra‐phy ,coated stents improperness internal isolation in parallel "chimney" technology to protect important branch artery .Results All patients were successfully repair the aorta and guarantee important branch such as subclavian artery and renal artery flow .Conclusion The clinical application of "chimney" technology solves the lumen of isolated from surgery to repair the aortic lesions at the same time avoid the other im‐portant branch of isolated vascular perfusion ,and to solve the primary disease of coated stent provides ef‐fective proximal anchoring area , even can help eliminate the leakage , to ensure the operation curative effect .%目的:探讨烟囱技术在StanfordB型主动脉夹层和腹主动脉瘤累及肾动脉(juxtarenal aortic aneurysms ,JAA)修复术的应用的可行性和安全性。方法2010年01月至2013年01月诊治21例StanfordB型主动脉夹层和腹主动脉瘤累及肾动脉的患者,其中StanfordB型主动脉夹层13例,腹主动脉瘤累及肾动脉8例。所有患者均行先C T 增强扫描,后经股动脉穿刺主动脉造影证实,植入覆膜支架行腔内隔绝术并行“烟囱”技术保护重要分支动脉。结果所有患者均成功修复主动脉并保证重要分支动脉如锁骨下动脉和肾动脉通畅。结论“烟囱”技术的临床应用解决了腔内隔绝术修复主动

  9. 太阳能烟囱与露点间接蒸发冷却复合空调节能系统分析%Analysis of an Energy Saving Air Conditioning System Integrated with Solar Chimney and Dew-point Evaporative Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪诚明

    2014-01-01

    太阳能烟囱是一种热压作用下的自然通风设备,它利用太阳辐射作为动力,为空气流动提供浮升力,将热能转化为动能。露点间接蒸发冷却技术利用空气的干球温度和不断降低的湿球温度之差进行换热,可以将空气温度冷却到低于环境湿球温度且接近露点温度。本文介绍了太阳能烟囱与露点间接蒸发冷却技术的研究现状,提出一套太阳能烟囱与露点间接蒸发冷却复合的空调节能系统。分析表明,该系统可合理的利用太阳能解决室内通风降温问题,投资和运行费用都很低,节能环保效果显著。%Solar chimney is a kind of natural ventilation application under the action of hot pressing, it using solar radiation as power, providing buoyancy lift for air flow, transfer the thermal energy into kinetic energy.The technol-ogy of dew-point evaporative cooling using the temperature difference of air between dry bulb temperature and low-ing wet bulb temperature to transfer heat.Its able to cool air to temperature below ambient wet bulb temperature and approaching dew-point temperature.This paper review the research status of solar chimney and dew-point evapora-tive cooling.The analysis results showed that the proposed system is a reasonable way to solve the indoor ventilation and cooling problems.its investment and operating cost is lower, and has a remarkable energy saving and environ-ment protection effect.

  10. Social Criticism in The Chimney Sweeper by William Blake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓芸

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on social criticism in William Blake's poems,both entitled"The Chimnet SWeeper"by analy-zing social background at that time and different Views in these two poems.It also tries to embody a fuller effect in thesc two separate poems.

  11. Chimney technique for mitral valve replacement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rocafort, Álvaro; Aroca, Ángel; Polo, Luz; Rey, Juvenal; Villagrá, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Severe mitral stenosis is unusual in children, but it represents an important challenge for surgeons because of the scarcity of solutions. Several mitral percutaneous and surgical valvuloplasties are performed repetitively to delay mitral valve replacement. Most of the time these procedures show discouraging results. When mitral valve replacement is performed, the annulus may not be large enough to fit a substitute. We present, to our best knowledge, a new technique to implant a large prosthesis in a small annulus without negatively affecting the opening of the leaflets.

  12. 77 FR 59275 - Establishment of the Chimney Rock National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 188 / Thursday, September 27, 2012 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8868 of September 21, 2012 Establishment of... multi-room ``great house'' built in the late eleventh century to command observations of the...

  13. Korsten : tellimata tellised = Chimney : an outside job / Andres Aule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Aap Kaur Suvi kavandatud Tallinna linnainstallatsioonide festivali "LIFT11" installatsioonist "Korsten", mis pidi seisnema Tauno Kangro skulptuuri "Lõbus korstnapühkija" ümber ajutise telliskorstna ehitamises. Lift11 jättis selle installatsiooni ära, kuid ootamatult sai "Korsten" kodanikualgatusena 8. IX 2011 teoks

  14. WHAT ABOUT THE CHIMNEY? ETHNOGRAPHIC REPORTS ABOUT PUBLIC POLICIES AND THE INDIGENOUS LAND OF PANAMBIZINHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of colonization of the region of Mato Grosso is linked to the process of establishment of reservationa (confinement in the locus now known as south of Mato Grosso do Sul. The war daily fought between landowners and indigenous on account of the demarcation of territories claimed by Kaiowá, Guarani and Terena, in our view, cannot be dissociated from the macro-sociological and diachronic context of development of the southern region of the young state of Mato Grosso do Sul. In this scenario, the Indigenous Land of Panambizinho, yet to be regulated, apparently isn’t excused from problems that come from State deeds, given that the means of living destined to the Kaiowá are inhuman. As continuation to the research initiated in 2008, this article contributes through field work to broader discussions about indigenous societies and public policies, having as thread the experience the Kaiowá from Panambizinho had with the governmental iniciative entitled "Carteira Indígena", the arrival of ecological stoves by UNDP and the propositions from the Second Indigenous’ Mental Health Seminar that occurred in Dourados.

  15. Inlet throttling effect on the boiling two-phase flow stability in a natural circulation loop with a chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, M.; Inada, F.; Yasuo, A.

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate an effect of inlet restriction on the thermal-hydraulic stability. A Test facility used in this study was designed and constructed to have non-dimensional values that are nearly equal to those of natural circulation BWR. Experimental results showed that driving force of the natural circulation at the stability boundary was described as a function of heat flux and inlet subcooling independent of inlet restriction. In order to extend experimental database regarding thermal-hydraulic stability to different inlet restriction, numerical analysis was carried out based on the homogeneous flow model. Stability maps in reference to the core inlet subcooling and heat flux were presented for various inlet restrictions using the above-mentioned function. Instability region during the inlet subcooling shifted to the higher inlet subcooling with increasing inlet restriction and became larger with increasing heat flux.

  16. Combining interventions: improved chimney stoves, kitchen sinks and solar disinfection of drinking water and kitchen clothes to improve home hygiene in rural Peru L’association d’interventions - améliorer les cuisinières à bois, mettre en place des éviers, désinfecter l’eau domestique et le linge de cuisine par le solaire – permet d’améliorer l’hygiène dans les foyers ruraux du Pérou Intervenciones combinadas: mejorar las cocinas a leña, instalar fregaderos y desinfectar el agua para beber y los paños de cocina con energía solar para mejorar la higiene en hogares rurales en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Gil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Home based interventions are advocated in rural areas against a variety of diseases. The combination of different interventions might have synergistic effects in terms of health improvement and cost effectiveness. However, it is crucial to ensure cultural acceptance. The aim of the study was to develop an effective and culturally accepted home-based intervention package to reduce diarrhoea and lower respiratory illnesses in children. In two rural Peruvian communities we evaluated the performance and acceptance of cooking devices, household water treatments (HWT and home- hygiene interventions, with qualitative and quantitative methods. New ventilated stove designs reduced wood consumption by 16%. The majority of participants selected solar water disinfection as HWT in a blind tasting. In-depth interviews on hygiene improvement further revealed a high demand for kitchen sinks. After one year of installation the improved chimney stoves and kitchen sinks were all in use.  The intervention package was successfully adapted to local customs, kitchen-, home- and hygiene management. High user satisfaction was primarily driven by convenience gains due to the technical improvements and only secondarily by perceived health benefits.Les interventions à domicile sont recommandées dans les zones rurales pour éviter diverses maladies. L’association de différentes interventions entraîne une synergie en termes d’amélioration de la santé et de rapport coût-efficacité. Il est cependant crucial d’obtenir l’adhésion de la population. Le but de l’étude était d'élaborer un programme d’interventions à domicile, efficaces et acceptées par la population, visant à réduire la diarrhée et les affections des voies respiratoires basses chez l’enfant. Nous avons évalué, dans deux communautés rurales du Pérou, l’efficacité et l’acceptation d’appareils de cuisson, des traitements de l’eau domestique (HWT et d’interventions d

  17. Additive interactions between retigabine and oxcarbazepine in the chimney test and the model of generalized tonic-clonic seizures in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagaja Mirosław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy are usually treated with two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The search for therapeutically efficacious AED combinations is still a challenging issue for clinicians and epileptologists throughout the world.

  18. Microbial Diversity in Samples of High Temperature Vent Chimneys From the 71 °N Hydrothermal Fields at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbu, B. O.; Daae, F.; Ovreaas, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    To get a first insight into the diversity of microorganisms present in the recently discovered active hydrothermal fields along the Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed with DNA extracted from the walls of active smoker pipes from different locations. Enrichments targeting different physiological groups of microorganisms were prepared both under aerobic, micro-aerobic, and strictly anaerobic conditions. Different combinations of substrates and electron acceptors, pH, and temperatures were used. The enrichment cultures were monitored by use of PCR in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Species dominating in the enrichments were isolated, and their 16S rRNA genes were analyzed. The clones obtained from DNA amplified with primers specific for Archaea represented members of the orders Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, Desulfurococcales, and Thermoproteales, as well as some unidentified groups. Three major fractions of the clones showed highest similarity to hyperthermophiles belonging to the families Pyrodictiaceae and Desulfurococcaceae, and an unidentified group which was given the name "Arctic Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Archaea" (ARHVA). The major fraction of the clones obtained by use of PCR primers specific for Bacteria affiliated with various genera of Aquificales. Clones representing Proteobacteria, Deferribacteres, Bacteroidetes, Deinococcus- Thermus, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes were also detected. Many clones were relatively distantly related to sequences in the GenBank database. Different types of both thermophiles and hyperthermophiles were enriched and isolated. The isolates were phylogenetically affiliated to Thermotogales, Thermales, Nautilales, Aquificales, Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, and Desulfurococcales. The cultivation experiments documented the presence of microorganisms mediating various metabolic processes including fermentation, reduction of sulfate, ferric iron, nitrate, oxygen and elemental sulfur. The information gained from the clone libraries and enrichment cultures revealed that already well-characterized phylogenetic groups, as well as clusters unique for these hydrothermal fields, were present.

  19. Chimney stoves modestly improved indoor air quality measurements compared with traditional open fire stoves: results from a small-scale intervention study in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, S M; Commodore, A A; Hattendorf, J; Lanata, C F; Gil, A I; Verastegui, H; Aguilar-Villalobos, M; Mäusezahl, D; Naeher, L P

    2013-08-01

    Nearly half of the world's population depends on biomass fuels to meet domestic energy needs, producing high levels of pollutants responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We compare carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and kitchen concentrations in households with study-promoted intervention (OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves) in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. We determined 48-h indoor air concentration levels of CO and PM2.5 in 93 kitchen environments and personal exposure, after OPTIMA-improved stoves had been installed for an average of 7 months. PM2.5 and CO measurements did not differ significantly between OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves. Although not statistically significant, a post hoc stratification of OPTIMA-improved stoves by level of performance revealed mean PM2.5 and CO levels of fully functional OPTIMA-improved stoves were 28% lower (n = 20, PM2.5, 136 μg/m(3) 95% CI 54-217) and 45% lower (n = 25, CO, 3.2 ppm, 95% CI 1.5-4.9) in the kitchen environment compared with the control stoves (n = 34, PM2.5, 189 μg/m(3), 95% CI 116-261; n = 44, CO, 5.8 ppm, 95% CI 3.3-8.2). Likewise, although not statistically significant, personal exposures for OPTIMA-improved stoves were 43% and 17% lower for PM2.5 (n = 23) and CO (n = 25), respectively. Stove maintenance and functionality level are factors worthy of consideration for future evaluations of stove interventions.

  20. Application of Bismaleimide (BMI) Composite Materials in Chimney Anti-corrosion%双马来(BMI)复合材料在烟囱防腐中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯东东; 吴泽明; 杨洪

    2015-01-01

    湿法脱硫后烟囱防腐是节能减排成功的关键环节.试验通过分子设计和复合材料优化,开发出性能优异的烟囱防腐用双马来(BMI)复合材料.该材料具有很强的抗腐蚀性、极低的吸水率和高抗渗性、高强度和抗冲击(刷)性、耐高温和抗温变性、高黏结强度和高韧性、阻燃性、耐久性、整体性以及施工便捷等特点,并已成功运用于烟囱防腐工程中.

  1. Diagnóstico de la resistencia de las chimeneas de los ciclones del Regenerador D-402 // Diagnostic of Regenerator D-402 Cyclones Chimneys Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Pichardo-Martínez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe el modo en que se han empleado las técnicas de modelación encorrespondencia con el método de los Elementos Finitos, para la determinación de los esfuerzosmáximos que surgen en la zona de unión entre las chimeneas de los ciclones secundarios y laCámara Plenum del Regenerador D-402, de la Refinería de Petróleo “Ñico López”. El conjunto semodeló utilizando el software ABAQUS, donde se aplicaron las cargas críticas que pueden aparecer,en condiciones reales de trabajo.Palabras claves: modelación por elementos finitos, diagnóstico resistencia ciclones, regenerador d-402._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe paper describe the way modeling techniques have been employed, according to FiniteElements Analysis, for determining maximum stresses appearing in secondary cyclones chimneysand Plenum Chamber union of D-402 Regenerator, located in “Ñico López” Petroleum Refinery.ABAQUS software was applied for modeling. Critical loads taking place on real conditions weresimulated.Key words: finite elements analysis, cyclones resistance diagnostics, regenerator d-402

  2. Microtexture and distribution of minerals in hydrothermal Barite-Silica chimney from the Franklin seamount, SW Pacific: Constraints on mode of formation.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, D.; Kota, D.; Das, P.; SuryaPrakash, L.; Khedekar, V.D.; Paropkari, A.L.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    have formed due to a paragenetic shift from a high-temperature active phase to a cooler waning stage of formation. A paragenetic shift is also probably responsible for the change in mineral formation mechanism that resulted in the textural variation...

  3. 双管自立式钢结构烟囱设计简介%Statements on the Self-supporting Steel Chimney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡洪良; 杨薇

    2008-01-01

    本文就某电厂采用的新型烟囱结构形式--双管自立式烟囱结构进行了简要的介绍.双管自立式烟囱外形美观且受力简洁,既能满足功能上的要求,又能成为电厂的一大亮点.

  4. Automatic control of gaseous effluents emitted through the RP-10 reactor chimney; Control automatico de efluentes gaseosos emitidos por chimenea en el reactor RP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Y, Walter; Anaya G, Olgger; Ovalle S, Edgar [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    2002-07-01

    The ventilation system of the reactor, has a way in which should work in the event of a nuclear accident. Formerly the change to this emergency way was carried out in manual form manual, when the radioprotection official, detected during the control of the places that the radiation levels had been overcome, informing to the responsible of the control room, so that they change the ventilation system to the emergency way. Considering that this procedure was not the most appropriate for the retarded time in taking the measures correctives, we are decided to carry out in the design and implementation of an automatic system that it acquires the data of the radiation levels of the effluents that are evacuating to the environment, of the SEM1000 equipment and when the reference level is overcome, automatically the designed system will change the operation way the ventilation system to emergency, closing the exit to the exterior and putting it in the recirculation way, for it is used a micro controller PIC 16F877. On the other hand it has been taken to the control room the sign of the SEM1000, as a repeater with the same characteristics of the presentation of data of this equipment. (author)

  5. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a head-of-hollow... not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core chimney drain may be... is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  6. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  7. Numerical simulation of sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete in power plant chimney%电站烟囱混凝土硫酸腐蚀的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐志永; 金保升; 孙克勤; 仲兆平

    2005-01-01

    研究了电站烟囱C30混凝土在80℃、质量分数为15%硫酸溶液浸泡条件下的腐蚀规律,根据Fick扩散方程和反应速率方程,提出一个简化的移动边界腐蚀模型.采用定时间步长和变坐标步长的差分求解方法,对移动边界腐蚀模型进行求解,并采用相应的人工腐蚀实验来对模型进行验证.计算结果表明,随着时间的推移,在固定的时间步长内移动界面的位移变缓,腐蚀深度随时间的延续而增加,符合腐蚀的变化规律.计算结果与实验数据有较好的吻合性,该模型可以用于混凝土在硫酸腐蚀下腐蚀速度的预测,指导实际的工程设计.

  8. THE STUDY OF SEA DESALINATION AND HOT WIND ELECTRIC POWER INTEGRATED SYSTEM BY SOLAR CHIMNEY%太阳能烟囱发电和海水淡化综合系统的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一平; 王俊红; 朱丽; 杨智勇; 方振雷

    2006-01-01

    提出了太阳能烟囱海水淡化及热风发电综合系统.以天津地区的气候条件为准,估算出此系统每平方米集热棚面积可年产1.0kWh的电量和0.74t的淡水.对建立的小型冷凝实验验证系统中的冷空气风速、冷凝水产量及温度场进行了测量,给出了高浓度不凝气体-水蒸气间壁冷凝换热的水蒸气冷凝速率模型和理论风速计算公式,用来关联不凝气体浓度、温度等对冷凝换热的影响,为将来综合系统的优化提供理论依据.并根据实验数据对冷凝系统进行了初步设计.

  9. DIRECTIONAL CONTROL BLASTING OF A 120 M REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEY OF ANSHAN IRON AND STEEL COMPANY%鞍钢120m钢筋混凝土烟囱定向控制爆破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂臣; 王明林; 马群

    2000-01-01

    本文针对鞍钢120m高钢筋混凝土烟囱的结构特征和难以定向倾倒的狭窄场地条件,为确保烟囱爆破倾倒方向准确,倾倒过程安全、平稳,提出控制瞬时结构对称、合理选择爆破切口、圆心角等参数的对策.

  10. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall...

  11. Push-Pull Ventilation in a Painting Shop for Large Steel Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers.......This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers....

  12. Preliminary concept Post-Piledriver Exploratory Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M. D.

    1966-10-13

    This is the concept for a series of post-shot investigations at the Piledriver site, Area 15, Nevada Test Site (NTS), to gain information on: Chimney geometry and associated wall rock conditions resulting from a deeply buried (1500 ft) nuclear explosion in granite; The characteristics and distribution of rubble and radioactivity in the chimney; and Data pertinent to in-situ leaching.

  13. Solar updraft tower - structural optimisation under dynamic wind action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eck, S.; Coenders, J.L.; Doomen, R.

    2015-01-01

    A solar updraft tower is a type of power plant which uses solar irradiation to generate electricity. It consists of three elements: a solar air collector, wind turbines and a chimney. The proposed concepts for this chimney schematise it as a 1-km-tall reinforced concrete shell, which are vulnerable

  14. A Story of Tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING ZHITAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chimneys were, for a short period of time, the symbols of industrialization and urbanization.They were soon reduced to symbols of pollution and backwardness. But today the site of a chimney at the World Expo's Urban Best Practices Area (UBPA) in Shanghai is still a place to marvel.

  15. Based on the Solar Chimney Power Generation and Desalination Sir Heat Pump System Technology Research%基于太阳能烟囱发电与空气能热泵系统的海水淡化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 邓宝

    2014-01-01

    水资源对社会和经济发展具有重要的作用,目前我国的淡水资源十分紧张.提出了一种基于太阳能烟囱发电与空气能热泵联合进行海水淡化系统,该系统充分利用太阳能,将太阳能烟囱与太阳池相结合,保证了海水淡化的稳定性,并且产生电能,提供空气能系统利用,在空气能热泵系统进行海水淡化的同时还可以提供一定的冷量,可用于高温场所的降温,实现了自然资源循环高效、无污染的综合利用,为我国沿海、岛礁淡水资源的开发提供了参考.

  16. Anti-cor osion Performance of FiberglassR einforced Plastic (FRP) under Stimulta ed Conditions of Chimney in Power Plant%模拟火电烟囱工况下乙烯基酯树脂基FRP 的腐蚀性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯敏; 梁高; 王剑平; 张学双

    2014-01-01

    本文利用含1500 ppm H2 SO4、250 ppm H2 SO3以及250 ppm HCl的混合溶液在65℃加热浸泡试样,再在180℃、200℃高温烘烤试样的实验方法来模拟火电玻璃钢烟囱在运行过程中的腐蚀情况,研究用于火电玻璃钢烟囱设备生产的2种乙烯基酯树脂901和907与相应的纤维增强材料组合的复合材料的耐受性能。结果表明:试样的空泡和分层随实验周期的延长而加剧,空泡和分层的程度与选用的树脂及纤维增强材料的种类相关;酚醛环氧乙烯基酯树脂907比溴化双酚A型环氧乙烯基酯树脂901有更好的耐蚀耐温性能;碳纤维与玻璃纤维复合使用比单纯使用玻璃纤维(C型)的试样具有更好的耐分层和空泡的性能。%Anti-Corrosion performance of specimen made of two types of resin 901 and 907 composited with different types of veil were studied under stimulated conditions which consist of 65℃ soaking in a solution contain 1 500 ppm H2 SO4 ,250 ppm H2 SO3 and 250 ppm HCl and 180℃,200℃baking.Results show that blistering appears to have resulted from a combination of time of exposure to the chemical solution ,the number of shock cycles ,the number and type of veils ,and the thermal shock temperature conditions;FRP based on brominated novolac epoxy vinyl ester resin appears to have better re-sistance to the degradation than FRP based on brominated epoxy vinyl ester resin .Also,a combination of carbon and C-glass veil appeared to perform better than a single C-glass veil alone .

  17. A Study on Micro-morphology and Elemental Analyses of Particulate Matter Collected at Exhaust Pipe of Automobiles and Coal Burning Chimney by SEM-EDX%汽车尾气管和燃煤烟囱颗粒物微形貌及其X-射线能谱析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈满荣; 张卫国; 俞立中

    2016-01-01

    用扫描电镜及X-射线能谱(SEM-EDX)分析方法,对山西省朔州市区汽车尾气管末端和燃煤烟囱上部颗粒物样品的微形貌和化学元素进行了分析.结果显示,尾气管颗粒单体为球、团状,聚集体微形为棉絮状、层叠状集合体;烟囱颗粒物为不规则片状单粒和银耳状、层叠状集合体.二者EDX特征峰显示颗粒物的主要元素为:O、Si、Al、Fe、Pb、Na、Mg、Ca、P、Ti、Cd等.研究表明,汽车尾气颗粒物中的元素,O、Si 、Al平均含量最高.其比例之和为所测得元素含量的76.19%.Pb平均含量位居第4;燃煤烟囱颗粒物中O平均含量最高,其次是S、Cl、si、Pb,其中Pb的平均含量高于汽车尾气颗粒物中Pb的平均含量.样品磁化率的测试对区分这2种颗粒物,防治大气颗粒物(PM)污染有一定的技术指导意义.

  18. Finite-sample-size effects on convection in mushy layers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Jin-Qiang; Wells, Andrew J; Wettlaufer, John S

    2012-01-01

    We report theoretical and experimental investigations of the flow instability responsible for the mushy-layer mode of convection and the formation of chimneys, drainage channels devoid of solid, during steady-state solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride. Under certain growth conditions a state of steady mushy-layer growth with no flow is unstable to the onset of convection, resulting in the formation of chimneys. We present regime diagrams to quantify the state of the flow as a function of the initial liquid concentration, the porous-medium Rayleigh number, and the sample width. For a given liquid concentration, increasing both the porous-medium Rayleigh number and the sample width caused the system to change from a stable state of no flow to a different state with the formation of chimneys. Decreasing the concentration ratio destabilized the system and promoted the formation of chimneys. As the initial liquid concentration increased, onset of convection and formation of chimneys occurred at larger value...

  19. The hillsides would allow to produce electric power from renewable source; Les flancs de montagne pourraient permettre de produire de l'electricite d'origine renouvelable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laby, F

    2006-09-15

    A solar tower is a renewable energy plant, designed to channel the air warmed by the sun, in order to produce electric power by the use of turbines. It is composed of a giant greenhouse with a chimney in its center. The capacity of this system is proportional to the chimney high. That is the reason why french engineers proposed to use the hillsides to build chimneys of many kilometers high. The project and some technical informations are provided in this paper. (A.L.B.)

  20. Accurate measurement of air supply. Radial blower with a mass flow sensor; Fuer eine exakte Luftzuteilung. Radialgeblaese mit Massenstromsensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartauer, Siegbert [ebm-papst Landshut GmbH, Landshut (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fire is alive, which has always made it an interesting object for interior decoration, e.g. open chimneys or chimneys with glass windows. Modern gas-fuelled chimneys combine the soothing vision of open flames with efficient room heating. For low pollution and low consumption, fire needs fuel and oxygen in an optimum ratio. Conventional ''atmospheric'' burners must be adjusted on site, but variations of temperature and atmospheric pressure will still vary the air supply. As an optimum alternative, the contribution presents a new radial blower with an integrated mass flow sensor. (orig.)

  1. Application of grey model on analyzing the passive natural circulation residual heat removal system of HTR-10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tao; PENG Changhong; WANG Zenghui; WANG Ruosu

    2008-01-01

    Using the grey correlation analysis, it can be concluded that the reactor pressure vessel wall temperature has the strongest effect on the passive residual heat removal system in HTR (High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor),the chimney height takes the second place, and the influence of inlet air temperature of the chimney is the least. This conclusion is the same as that analyzed by the traditional method. According to the grey model theory, the GM(1,1) and GM(1, 3) model are built based on the inlet air temperature of chimney, pressure vessel temperature and the chimney height. Then the effect of three factors on the heat removal power is studied in this paper. The model plays an important role on data prediction, and is a new method for studying the heat removal power. The method can provide a new theoretical analysis to the passive residual heat removal system of HTR.

  2. 46 CFR 151.25-1 - Cargo tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... continuously swept with air by means of blowers or other mechanical devices requiring power. (d) Ventilated... without the use of blowers or other mechanical devices requiring power (e.g., “chimney-effect”...

  3. Low flow rates and high air throughput: Cross-flow blowers; Niedrige Stroemungsgeschwindigkeiten bei hohem Luftdurchsatz: Querstromventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J. [ebm-papst Landshut GmbH (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Cross-flow blowers are everywhere, in electric towel driers, heaters, night storage heaters, floor heating systems, and open chimneys. With a diameter of only 30 mm, they are compact and effective. (orig.)

  4. 1925 Clarkston Valley, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Location: east of Helena. Affected area: 803,000 square kilometers. Damage: $0.3 million. Chimneys fell in every direction from the shaking. In addition, brick and...

  5. Surface and subsurface expressions of gas seepage to the seabed – examples from the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroot, B.M.; Klaver, G.T.; Schüttenhelm, R.T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Expressions of gas seepage observable within North Sea seismic and acoustic data include seabed pockmarks, seepage plumes in the water column, acoustic blanking, shallow enhanced reflectors, and shallow seismic chimneys. Three areas were selected for a marine survey in

  6. 16 CFR 1406.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of using solid fuel as well as its original fuel. (c) A chimney is a vertical or nearly vertical... W. Shelton, Wood Heat Safety, Garden Way Publishing, Charlotte, Vermont (1979), p. 160. (l) A...

  7. Oil heat venting technology and NFPA standard 31 revision year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.F. [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The revision of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 for the year 2000 offers an opportunity to update the Appendix which currently offers recommendations for basic metal relining of masonry chimneys up to and including 25 feet. The paper discusses the proposed update of the existing recommendations to include flexible (rough) metal liners. In addition, the discussion addresses the inclusion of additional information for unlined (non-conforming), lined (conforming to NFPA 211) masonary chimneys, insulated metal chimneys, chimney heights beyond what are now published, as well as power venting both forced and induced draft. Included in the paper is a discussion of the existing Oil Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP Version 3.0) and issues that need resolution to make it a better vent system model.

  8. Solar-air power plant. Interim report, January 1, 1980-November 1, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I.

    1982-01-01

    The chimney conversion efficiency of transferring solar energy into wind energy for the proposed solar-air power plant has been investigated. The application of a chimney as the air-cooling system for a large-scale photovoltaic concentration power plant to transfer solar energy into electricity has also been studied. Several conclusions in reference to this basic research project and suggestions for further research phases are also summarized in this report.

  9. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang, Jiakuan; Wang, Jinbo; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries. (author)

  10. Effectiveness of various ventilation systems in reducing exposure to biomass related particles: A real-life experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Majdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to indoor air pollution, in particular particulate matter from biomass-fueled fires, has been identified as a major public health problem. Here, we test the effectiveness of simple ventilation systems in reducing concentrations of particulate matter in a standard experimental kitchen, built of traditional materials in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Continuous sampling for total particles, particulate matter <10 μm and <2.5 μm were sampled in a purpose-built rural kitchen using four ventilation scenarios: no ventilation, open window, open window and chimney and chimney only. The levels of pollutants were recorded and the effectiveness of different ventilation scenarios in reducing the exposure was compared. Results: For each size of particle, any type of ventilation showed a decrease in concentrations (P < 0.001, compared to the unventilated scenario of 70% or more. The lowest concentrations were observed when only a chimney was used; opening a window did not significantly alter the effectiveness of the chimney. Additionally, the changes in pollutant levels over time showed the least variation and lowest mean values when a chimney only was used. Conclusions: Simple ventilation systems, especially installation of a chimney, proved to be effective in significantly decreasing the exposure to biomass fuel-related indoor particulate matter exposure. The application of such technology may help in tackling this important public health issue.

  11. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: zhxpmark@hotmail.com; Yang Jiakuan; Wang Jinbo; Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries.

  12. Wood burning stoves and small boilers - particle emissions and reduction initiatives; Braendeovne og smae kedler - partikelemissioner og reduktionstiltag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Capral Henriksen, T.; Lundhede, T. [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus (Denmark); Breugel, C. van; Zoellner Jensen, N. [Miljoestyrelsen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    Pollution from burning wood in private households, and the environmental and health consequences of this is determined in practice by a complicated interaction between a number of factors, including firing habits, fuel, type of stove/boiler, chimney and location of the chimney in relation to the surroundings. This report maps out the technologies used today for burning wood in private households, how these technologies contribute to particle emissions and which technologies may potentially reduce emissions of particles from burning wood in households in Denmark. Moreover, the possible emissions reductions and the financial costs incurred by consumers from different initiatives have been estimated. This report does not deal with possible initiatives for improvement of firing habits, fuel quality and chimneys. (au)

  13. Post-piledriver concept letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G. C.

    1967-07-01

    This is the concept for a series of post-shot investigations at the Piledriver site, Area 15, Nevada Test Site (NTS), to gain information on: Chimney geometry and associated wall rock conditions resulting from a deeply buried (1500-ft) nuclear explosion in granite; The characteristics and distribution of rubble and radioactivity in the chimney; and Data pertinent to in-situ leaching. These categories define the three phases of this proposal in chronological order. The technical programs under Phases II and III will depend on the results of Phase 1. Presently, it is not known whether or not there has been a collapse of the Piledriver cavity. If collapse occurred, the predicted dimensions of the chimney, based on Hardhat experience, are expected to be 250 ft in diameter and 560 ft high. For the purpose of this discussion, it is assumed this condition exists.

  14. Newly discovered hydrothermal system on the Alarcón Rise, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Martin, J. F.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Alarcón Rise lies at the mouth of the Gulf of California, and is the last segment of the East Pacific Rise before the plate boundary redirects into the gulf. As part of MBARI's expedition to the gulf in 2012, the neovolcanic zone of the entire ridge segment was mapped by MBARI's mapping AUV. 110 potential hydrothermal chimneys were identified in the new high resolution maps, and 70 were visited with the ROV Doc Ricketts, after having been sought in vain without the maps on an expedition in 2003. Two active vent fields were found, and have been named Meyibó and Ja sít from local native languages. They lie 2.5km apart at ~2300m depth, and are associated with a large, young sheet flow 1/3 of the way along the ridge from the south, on the most inflated part of the ridge. The southern field, Meyibó, contains 14 active chimneys (confirmed with ROV observations) nestled in grabens of several highly fractured cones surrounded by the sheet flow, and generally aligned with its discontinuous, 8km-long fissure system. The northern field, Ja sít, is a broad cluster of 8 active chimneys (also confirmed) rising above the sheet flow's channel system, more than 150m from the fissure. The chimneys stand as tall as 18 m. The most vigorous vent "black smoke" (mineral-rich fluid) >300°C and others are bathed in "white smoke". The active chimneys are populated with bacterial mat and dense clumps of Riftia pachyptila with tubes as long as 1.5m. Abundant limpets, Bythograea thermydron and galatheid crabs, and the pink vent fish Thermarces cerberus were on and near the giant tube worms. Alvinellid worms were observed at 2 chimneys. Some cracks in nearby lava flows vented clear fluid and were populated with tubeworms or Calyptogena magnifica clams. Several chimneys exhibited signs of waning activity: dead tubeworms were still attached and only a minor portion of the edifice supported bacterial mat and live tubeworms. Inactive chimneys are more numerous (48 were confirmed with ROV

  15. Control of Quaternary sea-level changes on gas seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboulot, Vincent; Thomas, Yannick; Berné, Serge; Jouet, Gwénaël.; Cattaneo, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Gas seeping to the seafloor through structures such as pockmarks may contribute significantly to the enrichment of atmospheric greenhouse gases and global warming. Gas seeps in the Gulf of Lions, Western Mediterranean, are cyclical, and pockmark "life" is governed both by sediment accumulation on the continental margin and Quaternary climate changes. Three-dimensional seismic data, correlated to multi-proxy analysis of a deep borehole, have shown that these pockmarks are associated with oblique chimneys. The prograding chimney geometry demonstrates the syn-sedimentary and long-lasting functioning of the gas seeps. Gas chimneys have reworked chronologically constrained stratigraphic units and have functioned episodically, with maximum activity around sea level lowstands. Therefore, we argue that one of the main driving mechanisms responsible for their formation is the variation in hydrostatic pressure driven by relative sea level changes.

  16. Exhaust gas system for space heating equipment. Abgassystem fuer Raumheizgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, D.; Kramp, A.

    1980-11-06

    The invention concerns an exhaust gas system for space heating equipment, particularly for equipment operated by liquid gas and used in caravans and similar vehicles. According to the invention, the exhaust gas system consists of a double walled pipe and a damming valve. This exhaust gas system makes it possible to cool the exhaust gas and therefore prevents too much heating at the outlet of the exhaust chimney and the penetration through the appropriate roof. If the outlet opening of the exhaust chimney should be blocked, the exhaust gases are taken to the outside through the space between the double-walled pipe via the damming valve. The usual non-return valve only operates if there is direct return flow in the exhaust chimney and therefore in the inner exhaust gas pipe of the double-walled pipe. This considerably increases the working safety of the whole system of space hating.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition reactor. [providing uniform film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, S. S.; Maserjian, J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved chemical vapor deposition reactor is characterized by a vapor deposition chamber configured to substantially eliminate non-uniformities in films deposited on substrates by control of gas flow and removing gas phase reaction materials from the chamber. Uniformity in the thickness of films is produced by having reactive gases injected through multiple jets which are placed at uniformally distributed locations. Gas phase reaction materials are removed through an exhaust chimney which is positioned above the centrally located, heated pad or platform on which substrates are placed. A baffle is situated above the heated platform below the mouth of the chimney to prevent downdraft dispersion and scattering of gas phase reactant materials.

  18. Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, A; Jørgensen, S L; Bernasconi, S M; Pedersen, R B; Thorseth, I H; Früh-Green, G L

    2012-11-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems harbor rich microbial communities ranging from aerobic mesophiles to anaerobic hyperthermophiles. Among these, members of the archaeal domain are prevalent in microbial communities in the most extreme environments, partly because of their temperature-resistant and robust membrane lipids. In this study, we use geochemical and molecular microbiological methods to investigate the microbial diversity in black smoker chimneys from the newly discovered Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent field on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) with vent fluid temperatures of 310-320 °C and pH of 5.5. Archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) and H-shaped GDGTs with 0-4 cyclopentane moieties were dominant in all sulfide samples and are most likely derived from both (hyper)thermophilic Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol has been detected in low abundances in samples derived from the chimney exterior indicating the presence of Thaumarchaeota at lower ambient temperatures. Aquificales and members of the Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial groups detected. Our observations based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes and biomarker lipid analysis provide insight into microbial communities thriving within the porous sulfide structures of active and inactive deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Microbial cycling of sulfur, hydrogen, and methane by archaea in the chimney interior and bacteria in the chimney exterior may be the prevailing biogeochemical processes in this system.

  19. Avoiding Wildfire Damage: A Checklist for Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetation is fuel for a wildfire, though some trees and shrubs are more flammable than others. To reduce the ... the sides of the house. • Prune branches and shrubs within 15 feet of chimneys and stove pipes. • Remove tree limbs within 15 feet of the ground. • Thin ...

  20. Faster than "g", Revisited with High-Speed Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of modern high-speed cameras in physics teaching provides a tool not only for easy visualization, but also for quantitative analysis of many simple though fast occurring phenomena. As an example, we present a very well-known demonstration experiment--sometimes also discussed in the context of falling chimneys--which is commonly…

  1. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael Bryld Wessel; Nielsen, Lars H.; Boldreel, Lars Ole;

    2009-01-01

    and subsidence rates increased after the Middle Miocene times due to eastward tilting of Central Vietnam and the adjacent offshore area. Potential direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs) in the Phu Khanh Basin include common amplitude anomalies, gas chimney-like features and seafloor gas seeps. In addition, oil...

  2. Effects of occupation on risks of avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerheim, K; Martinsen, J I; Lynge, E;

    2010-01-01

    ratios (SIRs) were computed. Variation in risk across occupations was generally larger in men than in women. In men, the most consistent cluster with high risk of numerous cancer types included waiters, cooks and stewards, beverage workers, seamen, and chimney sweeps. Two clusters of occupations...

  3. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systemes Bio-Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impact of the French 2910 decree concerning pollution emission (emission levels of boilers, turbines, engines and dryers) on the calculation of chimney stack height, gas ejection minimum speed and influence of obstacles, is reviewed. The energy efficiency improvement of 400 kW to 50 MW boilers and the implementation of a cogeneration plant are also described

  4. Use of satellite information for analysis of aerosol substance propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhenin, A. A.; Raputa, V. F.; Yaroslavtseva, T. V.

    2015-11-01

    With satellite data on pollution of snow cover and data of meteorological observations, some fields of dust sedimentation from high chimneys of the Iskitim cement plant are studied. In the absence of snowfalls, a possibility to analyze of the areas of pollution, which are formed in time intervals from several days to several weeks in the vicinities of industrial enterprises, is shown.

  5. Nevada Training Initiative Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    1) N N N Hospitals and nursing homes............................ Y 25 30 N N N Churches, auditoria , and concert halls................ Y 25 30 N N...brac Those carefully balanced or on edges can fall; fine glass, e.g., large goblets, can fall and break. Other Dust falls in chimneys. 2 - 4 Glass

  6. Final Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Environmental Assessment for Realignment of Nellis Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    N N Churches, auditoria , and concert halls .................. Y 25 30 N N N Government services ............................................. Y Y 25...Those carefully balanced or on edges can fall; fine glass, such as large goblets, can fall and break. Other Dust falls in chimneys. 2 - 4 Glass

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for Republic of Singapore Air Force F-15SG Beddown at Mountain Home AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    auditoria , and concert halls .................. Y 25 30 N N N Government services ............................................. Y Y 25 30 N N... balanced or on edges can fall; fine glass, such as large goblets, can fall and break. Other Dust falls in chimneys. 2 - 4 Glass, plaster, roofs

  8. Active control of multi-modal propagation of tonal noise in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The active control of tonal noise propagating in ducts at frequencies where many modes are able to propagate is considered. The final objective of the work reported is to cancel the prominent 450-500 Hz blade passing frequency of the rotary suction fans found in chimney stacks of power stations. ...

  9. Detection of active hydrothermal vent fields in the Pescadero Basin and on the Alarcon Rise using AUV multibeam and CTD data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Troni, G.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Martin, J. F.; Thomas, H. J.; Thompson, D.; Conlin, D.; Martin, E. J.; meneses-Quiroz, E.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.; Angel Santa Rosa del Rio, M.

    2015-12-01

    The MBARI AUV D. Allan B. collected high resolution bathymetry, sidescan, and subbottom profiles along the neovolcanic zone of the Alarcon Rise and across the southern Pescadero Basin during 2012 and 2015 MBARI expeditions to the Gulf of California (GOC). The combination of high resolution multibeam bathymetry and seawater temperature data has proven effective in identifying active high temperature vent fields, as validated by inspection and sampling during ROV dives. The AUV carries a 200 kHz multibeam sonar, 110 kHz chirp sidescan sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp subbottom profiler, and a conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) sensor for ~17-hour duration missions. Flying at 5.4 km/hr at 50 m altitude, the processed AUV bathymetry has a 0.1 m vertical precision and a 1 m lateral resolution. Chimneys taller than 1.5 m are sufficiently distinctive to allow provisional identification. The CTD temperature data have a nominal 0.002°C accuracy. Following calculation of potential temperature and correcting for average local variation of potential temperature with depth, anomalies greater than 0.05 °C can be reliably identified using a spike detection filter. MBARI AUV mapping surveys are typically planned using a 150 m survey line spacing, so the CTD data may be collected as much as 75 m away from any vent plume source. Five active high temperature vent fields were discovered in the southern GOC, with the Auka Field in the southern Pescadero Basin, and the Ja Sít, Pericú, Meyibó, and Tzab-ek Fields along the Alarcon Rise. In all five cases, hydrothermal vent chimneys are readily identifiable in the multibeam bathymetry, and temperature anomalies are observed above background variability. Other apparent hydrothermal chimneys were observed in the bathmetry that did not exhibit water temperature anomalies; most of these were visited during ROV dives and confirmed to be inactive sites. The maximum water column anomalies are 0.13°C observed above the Meyibó field and 0.25

  10. Regional Mapping and Resource Assessment of Shallow Gas Hydrates of Japan Sea - METI Launched 3 Years Project in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of METI launched a 3 years shallow gas hydrate exploration project in 2013 to make a precise resource assessment of shallow gas hydrates in the eastern margin of Japan Sea and around Hokkaido. Shallow gas hydrates of Japan Sea occur in fine-grained muddy sediments of shallow subsurface of mounds and gas chimneys in the form of massive nodular to platy accumulation. Gas hydrate bearing mounds are often associated with active methane seeps, bacterial mats and carbonate concretions and pavements. Gases of gas hydrates are derived either from deep thermogenic, shallow microbial or from the mixed gases, contrasting with totally microbial deep-seated stratigraphically controlled hydrates. Shallow gas hydrates in Japan Sea have not been considered as energy resource due to its limited distribution in narrow Joetsu basin. However recently academic research surveys have demonstrated regional distribution of gas chimney and hydrate mound in a number of sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of Japan Sea. Regional mapping of gas chimney and hydrate mound by means of MBES and SBP surveys have confirmed that more than 200 gas chimneys exist in 100 km x 100 km area. ROV dives have identified dense accumulation of hydrates on the wall of half collapsed hydrate mound down to 30 mbsf. Sequential LWD and shallow coring campaign in the Summer of 2014, R/V Hakurei, which is equipped with Fugro Seacore R140 drilling rig, drilled through hydrate mounds and gas chimneys down to the BGHS (base of gas hydrate stability) level and successfully recovered massive gas hydrates bearing sediments from several horizons.

  11. Investigation of hydrogen recombination under natural convection conditions; Untersuchungen zur Wasserstoffrekombination unter Naturkonvektionsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Berno

    2015-09-04

    Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners (PAR) are installed inside the containment of nuclear power plants in order to prevent the build-up of flammable mixtures and to mitigate the effects of hydrogen deflagrations, which can occur in the event of a severe accident combined with the release of hydrogen. In order to simulate the operating behaviour of PARs, the computer program REKO-DIREKT is being developed at the Forschungszentrum Juelich in collaboration with the Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology at the RWTH Aachen. For the validation of the code, data from experimental facilities operated at Juelich are used. This work focusses on the analysis of the chimney effect through the PAR housing as well as the optimization of the chimney model of REKO-DIREKT. Therefore experimental investigations are carried out in the REKO-4 facility under natural convection conditions. This facility is equipped with numerous measuring devices, e.g. katharometers for in-situ measuring of the hydrogen concentration and the optical flow measurement technique Particle-Image-Velocimetry. In preliminary assessments the equipment is being qualified in order to determine the measurement accuracy. In the following experimental investigations, a small-scale PAR is used, that is built in a modular way allowing it to be equipped with different chimney geometries. The experimental results produce a database that shows the central correlation between the hydrogen concentration, the catalyst temperature and the inlet velocity. The results include the variation of the recombiner's chimney height and experiments at different operating pressures. After optimization of the chimney model, the simulation program is validated against experiments in the large-scale facility THAI in Eschborn, which have been performed subsequent to this thesis in the context of the OECD/NEA-THAI project. Finally, the influence of a downward-directed, near-wall flow on the operational behaviour of the small

  12. Focused fluid flow in the Baiyun Sag, northern South China Sea: implications for the source of gas in hydrate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Duanxin; WU Shiguo; DONG Dongdong; MI Lijun; FU Shaoying; SHI Hesheng

    2013-01-01

    The origin and migration of natural gas and the accumulation of gas hydrates within the Pearl River Mouth Basin of the northern South China Sea are poorly understood.Based on high-resolution 2D/3D seismic data,three environments of focused fluid flow:gas chinmeys,mud diapirs and active faults have been identified.Widespread gas chimneys that act as important conduits for fluid flow are located below bottom simulating reflections and above basal uplifts.The occurrence and evolution of gas chimneys can be divided into a violent eruptive stage and a quiet seepage stage.For most gas chimneys,the strong eruptions are deduced to have happened during the Dongsha Movement in the latest Miocene,which are observed below Pliocene strata and few active faults develop above the top of the Miocene.The formation pressures of the Baiyun Sag currently are considered to be normal,based on these terms:1) Borehole pressure tests with pressure coefficients of 1.043-1.047; 2) The distribution of gas chimneys is limited to strata older than the Pliocene; 3) Disseminated methane hydrates,rather than fractured hydrates,are found in the hydrate samples; 4) The gas hydrate is mainly charged with biogenic gas rather than thermogenic gas based on the chemical tests from gas hydrates cores.However,periods of quiet focused fluid flow also enable the establishment of good conduits for the migration of abundant biogenic gas and lesser volumes of thermogenic gas.A geological model governing fluid flow has been proposed to interpret the release of overpressure,the migration of fluids and the formation of gas hydrates,in an integrated manner.This model suggests that gas chimneys positioned above basal uplifts were caused by the Dongsha Movement at about 5.5 Ma.Biogenic gas occupies the strata above the base of the middle Miocene and migrates slowly into the gas chimney columns.Some of the biogenic gas and small volumes of thermogenic gas eventually contribute to the formation of the gas

  13. Deposition of Biogenic Iron Minerals in a Methane Oxidizing Microbial Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wrede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The syntrophic community between anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria forms thick, black layers within multi-layered microbial mats in chimney-like carbonate concretions of methane seeps located in the Black Sea Crimean shelf. The microbial consortium conducts anaerobic oxidation of methane, which leads to the formation of mainly two biomineral by-products, calcium carbonates and iron sulfides, building up these chimneys. Iron sulfides are generated by the microbial reduction of oxidized sulfur compounds in the microbial mats. Here we show that sulfate reducing bacteria deposit biogenic iron sulfides extra- and intracellularly, the latter in magnetosome-like chains. These chains appear to be stable after cell lysis and tend to attach to cell debris within the microbial mat. The particles may be important nuclei for larger iron sulfide mineral aggregates.

  14. In situ X-ray monitoring of convection effects on segregation freckle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, N.; Eckert, S.; Boden, S.; Gerbeth, G.

    2012-07-01

    Visualizations of the solidification process under the influence of thermo-solutal convection were obtained by means of X-ray radioscopy within a Hele-Shaw cell filled with Ga-25wt%In alloy. The density-driven melt flow causes the formation of vertical segregation channels ("chimneys") in the mushy zone. The development of the chimneys and the probability of their surviving depend sensitively on the spatial and temporal properties of the flow field. The second part of this study concerns the case when the natural convection is superimposed by an electromagnetically driven flow perpendicular to the dendrites growth direction. The main effects of forced melt flow are a modification of the dendritic structure and flow-induced redistribution of the solute concentration.

  15. Deposition of biogenic iron minerals in a methane oxidizing microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Christoph; Kokoschka, Sebastian; Dreier, Anne; Heller, Christina; Reitner, Joachim; Hoppert, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The syntrophic community between anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria forms thick, black layers within multi-layered microbial mats in chimney-like carbonate concretions of methane seeps located in the Black Sea Crimean shelf. The microbial consortium conducts anaerobic oxidation of methane, which leads to the formation of mainly two biomineral by-products, calcium carbonates and iron sulfides, building up these chimneys. Iron sulfides are generated by the microbial reduction of oxidized sulfur compounds in the microbial mats. Here we show that sulfate reducing bacteria deposit biogenic iron sulfides extra- and intracellularly, the latter in magnetosome-like chains. These chains appear to be stable after cell lysis and tend to attach to cell debris within the microbial mat. The particles may be important nuclei for larger iron sulfide mineral aggregates.

  16. Numerical modelling of the process of heat transference, of the convective flow induced and the power generated in a wind power station; Modelizacion numerica del proceso de transferencia de calor, del flujo convectivo inducido y de la potencia generada en una central eolico solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, F. J.; Kaiser, A. S.; Zamora, B.; Lucas, M.; Viedma, A.

    2008-07-01

    A thermodynamic analysis for solar chimney power plant has been carried out by numerical simulation. A numerical model has been developed using the general purpose code Fluent to study heat transfer and convective flow within the chimney power plant. The {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model has been employed. A heat transfer, mass flow and power production numerical analysis has been carried out on different hours during the day, assuming steady state conditions. The numeric values obtained are 10% different from experimental measures. Once model has been validated, a numeric study about flow within power plant, heat transfer and mass flow has been carry out, and the non-dimensional parameters obtained have been compared with studies about free convection. (Author)

  17. Técnicas actuales para el proyecto y la construcción de las grandes chimeneas industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Solar Bermejo, José

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to make known the deep change met within the design of great-height industrial chimneys. The main characteristics of this kind of work are described, as well as the project with the informatic means used in structural, thermodynamic and smoke dispersion calculations for the optimal design of an industrial chimney.Este trabajo trata de dar a conocer el profundo cambio experimentado en el diseño de las chimeneas industriales de gran altura. Se describen las características principales de este tipo de obras, y el proyecto con los medios informáticos empleados en los cálculos estructurales, termodinámicos y de dispersión de humos, para el dimensionamiento óptimo de una chimenea industrial.

  18. Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.

  19. Drilling successful from ROV Ventana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakes, Debra S.; McFarlane, James A. R.; Holloway, G. Leon; Greene, H. Gary

    Cores of granite and deformed sediment from the walls of Monterey Canyon were successfully recovered from December 30 to 31, 1992, by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Ventana using a small-diameter, double-barrel drill with a diamond bit. This HSTR (Holloway-Stakes-Tengdin-Rajcula) drill was developed to drill cores horizontally from sulfide/sulfate walls of active black smokers. The drill was first successfully used by the submersible Alvin in October 1991 to drill into massive sulfide chimneys, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Eos, June 30, 1992, p. 273), and it was subsequently used with equal success on the chalcopyrite-rich chimneys from 21°N and 9°N on the East Pacific Rise. The recent December dives, however, marked the first time that drilling has ever been attempted from the smaller ROV and the first time coring into the harder igneous rock substrate has been attempted.

  20. Effects of woodsmoke exposure on airway inflammation in rural Guatemalan women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Guarnieri

    Full Text Available More than two-fifths of the world's population uses solid fuels, mostly biomass, for cooking. The resulting biomass smoke exposure is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD among women in developing countries.To assess whether lower woodsmoke exposure from use of a stove with a chimney, compared to open fires, is associated with lower markers of airway inflammation in young women.We carried out a cross-sectional analysis on a sub-cohort of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in rural Guatemala, RESPIRE.We recruited 45 indigenous women at the end of the 18-month trial; 19 women who had been using the chimney stove for 18-24 months and 26 women still using open fires.We obtained spirometry and induced sputum for cell counts, gene expression of IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-9 and 12, and protein concentrations of IL-8, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin. Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO and 48-hr personal CO tubes were measured to assess smoke exposure.MMP-9 gene expression was significantly lower in women using chimney stoves. Higher exhaled CO concentrations were significantly associated with higher gene expression of IL-8, TNF-α, and MMP-9. Higher 48-hr personal CO concentrations were associated with higher gene expression of IL-8, TNF- α, MMP-9 and MMP-12; reaching statistical significance for MMP-9 and MMP-12.Compared to using an open wood fire for cooking, use of a chimney stove was associated with lower gene expression of MMP-9, a potential mediator of airway remodeling. Among all participants, indoor biomass smoke exposure was associated with higher gene expression of multiple mediators of airway inflammation and remodeling; these mechanisms may explain some of the observed association between prolonged biomass smoke exposure and COPD.

  1. Berkeley Lighting Cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gadgil, Ashok [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-24

    A lighting cone is a simple metal cone placed on the fuel bed of a stove during ignition to act as a chimney, increasing the draft through the fuel bed. Many stoves tend to be difficult to light due to poor draft through the fuel bed, so lighting cones are used in various parts of the world as an inexpensive accessory to help with ignition.

  2. -

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus KARAKUYU; Hasan Said TORTOP

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thought experiments on students? conceptual understanding of Newton?s Laws of Motion and Logical Thinking Ability. The sample of this study consisted of 20 students from eleventh grade in High School. Students did six taught experiments during instruction in cooperative learning environment which included strong man, flies in the jar, dynamics, solar chimney, tunnel through the earth and magnet car. One group pre-post tests quasi exp...

  3. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  4. Isobolographic analysis of interaction between drugs with nonparallel dose-response relationship curves: a practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant and acute adverse-effect potentials of topiramate (TPM) and gabapentin (GBP)-two second-generation antiepileptic drugs administered alone and in combination in the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures and chimney test in mice. The anticonvulsant and acute adverse effects of the combination of TPM with GBP at the fixed ratio of 1:1 were determined using the type I isobolographic analysis for nonparallel dose-response relationship curves (DRRCs). To ascertain any pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed interaction between TPM and GBP, total brain concentrations of both drugs were determined. The isobolographic analysis of interaction for TPM and GBP, whose DRRCs were not parallel in both MES and chimney tests, was accompanied with a presentation of all required calculations allowing the determination of lower and upper lines of additivity. The isobolographic analysis revealed that TPM combined with GBP at the fixed-ratio combination of 1:1 interacted supraadditively (synergistically) in terms of suppression of MES-induced seizures, and simultaneously, the combination produced additive interaction with respect to motor coordination impairment (adverse effects) in the chimney test. The evaluation of pharmacokinetic characteristics of interaction for the combination of TPM with GBP revealed that neither TPM nor GBP affected their total brain concentrations in experimental animals, and thus, the observed interaction in the MES test was pharmacodynamic in nature. In conclusion, the combination of TPM with GBP, because of supraadditivity in the MES test and additivity in terms of motor coordination impairment in the chimney test as well as lack of pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs, fulfilled the criterion of a favorable combination, worthy of recommendation in further clinical practice.

  5. Catalytic Diversity in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems on Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ryan D.; Barge, Laura; Chin, Keith B.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Flores, Erika; Hammer, Arden C.; Sobron, Pablo; Russell, Michael J.; Kanik, Isik

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal systems formed by serpentinization can create moderate-temperature, alkaline systems and it is possible that this type of vent could exist on icy worlds such as Europa which have water-rock interfaces. It has been proposed that some prebiotic chemistry responsible for the emergence of life on Earth and possibly other wet and icy worlds could occur as a result ofredox potential and pH gradients in submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents (Russell et al., 2014). Hydrothermal chimneys formed in laboratory simulations of alkaline vents under early Earth conditions have precipitate membranes that contain minerals such as iron sulfides, which are hypothesized to catalyze reduction of CO2 (Yamaguchi et al. 2014, Roldan et al. 2014) leading to further organic synthesis. This CO2 reduction process may be affected by other trace components in the chimney, e.g. nickel or organic molecules. We have conducted experiments to investigate catalytic properties of iron and iron-nickel sulfides containing organic dopants in slightly acidic ocean simulants relevant to early Earth or possibly ocean worlds. We find that the electrochemical properties of the chimney as well as the morphology/chemistry of the precipitate are affected by the concentration and type of organics present. These results imply that synthesis of organics in water-rock systems on ocean worlds may lead to hydrothermal precipitates which can incorporate these organic into the mineral matrix and may affect the role of gradients in alkaline vent systems.Therefore, further understanding on the electroactive roles of various organic species within hydrothermal chimneys will have important implications for habitability as well as prebiotic chemistry. This work is funded by NASA Astrobiology Institute JPL Icy Worlds Team and a NAI Director's Discretionary Fund award.Yamaguchi A. et al. (2014) Electrochimica Acta, 141, 311-318.Russell, M. J. et al. (2014), Astrobiology, 14, 308-43.Roldan, A. (2014) Chem. Comm. 51

  6. Study the air pollution due to Dorud Cement Plant (in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mokhtari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cement industry is one of the most important industries in the country. Dorud Cement Plant is one of the largest and oldest Iran's cement factories, which is working in the center of the city of Dorud. In this study, aimed to investigate air pollution resulting from Dorud cement plant, the parameters of CO, CO2, O2, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, dry dust particles, particles weight and environmental particulates of PM10 and PM2.5 were measured with conventional methods of measuring emissions from industrial chimneys and by using automatic measuring equipment, and the rates of emissions from the chimneys of the plant were calculated during a working year. These measurements were made over three months, from February 20, 2015 to May 21, 2015, at 3 stations of Link1-k1, Link2-k1 and Link3-k1, which are the chimneys of the three-lines of the plant. It was found in this study that the chimney No. 3 enters the maximum contaminant into the environment. The results also showed that based on the standards defined for the cement industry, Dorud cement plant meets the relative optimal conditions in terms of comparing performance with the standards, and the emissions from the factory are less than the enacted standards for this industry. Also, the preventive measures and equipment for reducing emissions established in this industrial unit have a relative utility. In this study, the factors including type of raw materials used, old production lines and old factory equipment, type of producing cement and proximity to the city were determined as main reasons for the emissions produced by this industry. Also, some management solutions such as the use of environment designing inside the manufacturing process of the plant and outside the plant, using flame-reducing, construction of a new phase and relocating the plant were suggested to reduce emissions from Dorud cement plants.

  7. Archeological Testing of the North Bend Site (16SMY132) and Survey of the Todd Area Levee, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    the mill, fed into the roller mill, and pressed twice to extract the juice. The residual fiber , called bagasse , was "carried out to a huge brick chimney...National Register Criteria, 36 CFR Section 60.4 (d), which states, properties that "have yielded or may be likely to yield information important in...Geomorphic Region ............... 19 Figure 10. Diagrammatic cross section of the natural levee of Bayou Sale ......... 23 Figure 11. Map showing the property

  8. Historical Architectural Survey of Delaware Water Gap National Recreational Area 1975. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    roof 2. Small frame shed Architectural Significance: Both house and carriage house are good examples of their genre . The house is in excellent...Significance: A good house, sturdily built, and an excellent example of its genre but of no special significance Evaluation: Recommended for Category...parallels the bargeboards in what appears to be an attempt at the High Gothic fretted decorations Two original brick chimneys Standing-seam metal roof on

  9. Thermal Design and Performance of the Electrical Distribution Feed Box of the LHC prototype cell

    CERN Document Server

    Calzas-Rodriguez, C; Hauviller, Claude; Poncet, Alain; Sacré, P; Serio, L

    2002-01-01

    The Electrical Distribution Feed Box (DFBS) is a 4.5 K saturated liquid helium cryostat constructed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Prototype Cell (String 2). The thermal design of the DFBS is presented, with emphasis on the modelling of the cooling of the current lead chimneys via the helium bath boil-off gas and on the design of the lambda plate. The expected performance is compared to measurements done during the first operation phase of the LHC prototype cell.

  10. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    With reference to the paradigme shift regarding the formation of dioxins in municiplan solid waste incinerators experimental results are taken into account which lead to the suspicion that the same mechanism of de-novo-synthesis also applies to fireplace chimneys. This can explain the dioxin...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  11. Toxic emissions and devalued CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    With reference to the paradigme shift regarding the formation of dioxins in municiplan solid waste incinerators experimental results are taken into account which lead to the suspicion that the same mechanism of de-novo-synthesis also applies to fireplace chimneys. This can explain the dioxin...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  12. El encofrado deslizante en la construcción de chimeneas industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrio García, Nicolás

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available This works describes the application of the slipforming system for the construction of cylindric and conical civil works in special for the big staks of chimneys.Este artículo describe el funcionamiento del encofrado deslizante tanto para obra cilíndrica como para ejecuciones troncocónicas. En especial se comenta su aplicación a la construcción de Chimeneas Industriales.

  13. Installation complete / Aet Ader, Kadri Klementi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ader, Aet

    2015-01-01

    Linnainstallatsioonidest avalikus ruumis. "Gas Pipe" Venezia Arhitektuuribiennaalil (Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Neeme Külm, Ingrid Ruudi, 2008). "Artificial Queue" (Andra Aaloe, Aet Ader, Flo Kasearu, Grete Soosalu, 2010). "To the Sea" (autorid Tomomi Hayashi, Mihkel Sagar, 2011). "Chimney" (tundmatu autor, 2011). "Straw Theatre" (Salto Arhitektid, 2011). "A Path in the Forest" (Tetsuo Kondo, Mitsuru Maekita, Mutsuro Sasaki, Yoshiyuki Hiraiwa, 2011). "O" (Aet Ader, Andra Aaloe, Kaarel Künnap, Grete Soosalu, Flo Kasearu, 2011)

  14. Final Environmental Assessment: C-17 Program Changes Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Y N(1) N(1) N N N Hospitals and nursing homes ............................... Y 25 30 N N N Churches, auditoria , and concert halls...Those carefully balanced or on edges can fall; fine glass, such as large goblets, can fall and break. Other Dust falls in chimneys. 2 - 4 Glass...that will be used aa a guideline for the balance of the cultural resources part of the project. Where appropriate, your comments and those of the

  15. 圣诞老人的传说%The Legend of Santa Clavs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭菲

    2011-01-01

    Christmas is the most important festival of a year in many western countries. Children believe that on Christmas Eve (圣诞节前夕) Santa Claus will slide (滑) down their chimneys (烟囱) to bring them gifts. So they hang stockings (长筒袜) by the fireplace, hoping that Santa Claus will fill them with candy and toys.

  16. Project Rio Blanco: additional production testing and reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballou, L.B.

    1976-11-01

    Additional subsurface investigations of the Rio Blanco detonation region and adjacent reservoir have been underway since the last technical meeting at IAEA. The lowermost explosion cavity has been reentered and a production test from it was performed. A dry gas volume of 7.6 x 10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ (27 Mmscf) was withdrawn. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of this gas show that (1) the yield of the bottom explosive was 31 +- 2 kt; (2) the cavity/chimney volume was 2.4 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3/ (8.4 x 10/sup 5/ ft/sup 3/); (3) about 7 percent of the tritium produced is associated with the gas; and (4) a slight (approximately 0.1 percent) gas contribution from the middle explosion region was noted. The reservoir/chimney model implies an unstimulated reservoir flow capacity of 0.15 mdarcy-m (0.50 md-ft) connected to the bottom chimney region. A cavity radius of 21 +- 3 m (70 +- 10 ft) was deduced. Unstimulated reservoir production parameters were investigated in a well offset 190 m (625 ft) from the emplacement hole. Insufficient productivity was obtained in the Mesaverde formation (in which the bottom explosive was detonated) to evaluate reservoir properties. The productive sandstones in the Fort Union formation adjoining the top detonation region were individually evaluated. Their aggregate flow capacity was determined to be 0.14 +- 0.2 mdarcy-m (0.45 +- 0.08 md-ft). A numerical simulation model which incorporates these data is described. The lack of a high-permeability connection between the three explosion regions remains unexplained. The two chimney reentry wells have been cemented to the surface and abandoned. The offset well has been plugged in a way which preserves the option for additional subsurface investigation in the future. Project facilities have been removed and the site restored to conditions which minimize environmental impact.

  17. Markets - domestic comfort; Marches - Confort domestique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-03-01

    Established in 'Charente' and employing 150 workers, the firm 'Cheminees de Chazelles' is one of the first French firms of design/manufacturing and distribution of chimneys and closed fires, particularly at gas (propane or natural gas). The gas fire brings to the consumer the aesthetics, the safety and the comfort without the disadvantages of the wood fire. (O.M.)

  18. New combustion, environment regulations: the answers for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on the point of view from Gaz de France (GdF) company concerning the potential consequences of the use of natural gas in combustion systems with respect to the new regulations about combustion and environment. Details concerning the measures relative to the limitation of pollutants in small combustion installations (2 - 20 MW) are given (chimney height, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and dusts content in exhaust gases). (J.S.)

  19. Reducing childhood illness - fostering growth : an integrated home-based intervention package (IHIP) to improve indoor-air pollution, drinking water quality and child nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Hartinger Peña, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    Child mortality attributable to pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition accounts globally for the majority of 8.8 million annual deaths. More than half of these deaths are preventable. Available and effective interventions include safe water supply, household water treatment, improved chimney stoves and personal- and home-hygiene and -health messages. In Peru, the current health services reform is focused on shifting responsibilities to peripheral levels; thus, empowering community organisation...

  20. Big Cost to Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATT; YOUNG

    2006-01-01

    If tobacco multinationals had their way, China might more closely resemble a chimney. So what are the costs of a potentially smokier future in China? Aside from health costs, there could be economically (and educationally) severe ones, according to a new study published in Social Science & Medicine by a Yale professor. Dr. Hong Wang analyzed how the cost of smoking impacts China's critical economic strengths: human capital investment (defined by education and healthcare), risk-taking capacity (defined by...

  1. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) single particle analysis of metallurgy plant emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, J; Deboudt, K; Anderson, A; Blondel, A; Eliet, S; Flament, P; Fourmentin, M; Healy, R M; Savary, V; Setyan, A; Wenger, J C

    2016-03-01

    The chemical composition of single particles deposited on industrial filters located in three different chimneys of an iron-manganese (Fe-Mn) alloy manufacturing plant have been compared using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). Very similar types of particles were observed using both analytical techniques. Calcium-containing particles dominated in the firing area of the sintering unit, Mn and/or Al-bearing particles were observed at the cooling area of the sintering unit, while Mn-containing particles were dominant at the smelting unit. SEM-EDX analysis of particles collected downstream of the industrial filters showed that the composition of the particles emitted from the chimneys is very similar to those collected on the filters. ATOFMS analysis of ore samples was also performed to identify particulate emissions that could be generated by wind erosion and manual activities. Specific particle types have been identified for each emission source (chimneys and ore piles) and can be used as tracers for source apportionment of ambient PM measured in the vicinity of the industrial site.

  2. Magnet News

    CERN Multimedia

    Foussat, A; Ruber, R

    Central Solenoid Test The Central Solenoid (CS) and its associated Proximity Cryogenic System have been designed by KEK in collaboration with CERN. Following construction and extensive tests at the Toshiba manufacturing site in Yokohama, Japan, the equipment has been shipped to CERN. The CS is now being prepared for the integration in a common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter, after which a full on-surface test has to be completed before final installation 100m underground in the ATLAS cavern. For this purpose a provisional set-up for the re- commissioning of the final Proximity Cryogenics, the connecting Chimney and the Central Solenoid has been established. During the month of May the Proximity Cryogenics and Chimney with superconducting bus lines have been tested (figure1). The equipment was cooled down to 4.5K and a current of 9000 amperes was applied to the chimney. This is almost 20% above the nominal operational current of 7400 amperes. A number of tests and simulations have been successfully perf...

  3. Optimization of vaporization flue circulatory system for converter in Anyang Iron and Steel Group Co., Ltd%安钢转炉汽化烟道循环系统优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗大春; 周友军; 李军强; 马正锋

    2012-01-01

    The vaporization flue circulatory systems were reformed to solve the leakage problems of the fixed chimney cap and the tail flue of the 150 t converter in Anyang Iron & Steel Group Co. , Ltd. An extra pump was added into the old high - pressure pump system to enhance the circulatory cooling water flow, and the natural circulation system of the tail flue was changed for the forced high-pressure circulation system and combined with the forced circulation system of the fixed chimney cap. This optimization measure extended the service life of the fixed chimney cap for more than six months, and decreased the water leakage of tail flue by almost 80%.%针对安钢150 t转炉汽化烟道循环系统固定烟罩、尾部烟道频繁漏水问题,安钢对转炉汽化烟道循环系统进行改造.将原系统设计的l用1备高压泵改为2用1备增加循环冷却水量,并将尾部烟道高压自然循环改为强制循环并入固定烟罩强制循环系统,延长固定烟罩使用寿命6个月以上,减少尾部烟道漏水80%以上.

  4. Linking DNA adduct formation and human cancer risk in chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Miriam C

    2016-08-01

    Over two centuries ago, Sir Percival Pott, a London surgeon, published a pioneering treatise showing that soot exposure was the cause of high incidences of scrotal cancers occurring in young men who worked as chimney sweeps. Practicing at a time when cellular pathology was not yet recognized, Sir Percival nonetheless observed that the high incidence and short latency of the chimney sweep cancers, was fundamentally different from the rare scrotal cancers typically found in elderly men. Furthermore, his diagnosis that the etiology of these cancers was related to chimney soot exposure, was absolutely accurate, conceptually novel, and initiated the field of "occupational cancer epidemiology." After many intervening years of research focused on mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, briefly described here, it is clear that DNA damage, or DNA adduct formation, is "necessary but not sufficient" for tumor induction, and that many additional factors contribute to carcinogenesis. This review includes a synopsis of carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation in experimental models and in the human population, with particular attention paid to molecular dosimetry and molecular cancer epidemiology. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:499-507, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Geology, sulfide geochemistry and supercritical venting at the Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field, Cayman Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.

    2015-09-01

    The Beebe Vent Field (BVF) is the world's deepest known hydrothermal system, at 4960 m below sea level. Located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean, the BVF hosts high temperature (˜401°C) "black smoker" vents that build Cu, Zn and Au-rich sulfide mounds and chimneys. The BVF is highly gold-rich, with Au values up to 93 ppm and an average Au:Ag ratio of 0.15. Gold precipitation is directly associated with diffuse flow through "beehive" chimneys. Significant mass-wasting of sulfide material at the BVF, accompanied by changes in metal content, results in metaliferous talus and sediment deposits. Situated on very thin (2-3 km thick) oceanic crust, at an ultraslow spreading centre, the hydrothermal system circulates fluids to a depth of ˜1.8 km in a basement that is likely to include a mixture of both mafic and ultramafic lithologies. We suggest hydrothermal interaction with chalcophile-bearing sulfides in the mantle rocks, together with precipitation of Au in beehive chimney structures, has resulted in the formation of a Au-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit. With its spatial distribution of deposit materials and metal contents, the BVF represents a modern day analogue for basalt hosted, Au-rich VMS systems.

  6. Metagenomic comparison of two Thiomicrospira lineages inhabiting contrasting deep-sea hydrothermal environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Brazelton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most widespread bacteria in oxic zones of carbonate chimneys at the serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, belong to the Thiomicrospira group of sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs. It is unclear why Thiomicrospira-like organisms thrive in these chimneys considering that Lost City hydrothermal fluids are notably lacking in hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe metagenomic sequences obtained from a Lost City carbonate chimney that are highly similar to the genome of Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2, an isolate from a basalt-hosted hydrothermal vent in the Pacific Ocean. Even though T. crunogena and Lost City Thiomicrospira inhabit different types of hydrothermal systems in different oceans, their genomic contents are highly similar. For example, sequences encoding the sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation pathways (including a carbon concentration mechanism of T. crunogena are also present in the Lost City metagenome. Comparative genomic analyses also revealed substantial genomic changes that must have occurred since the divergence of the two lineages, including large genomic rearrangements, gene fusion events, a prophage insertion, and transposase activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show significant genomic similarity between Thiomicrospira organisms inhabiting different kinds of hydrothermal systems in different oceans, suggesting that these organisms are widespread and highly adaptable. These data also indicate genomic processes potentially associated with the adaptation of these lineages into strikingly different habitats.

  7. Savings on natural gas consumption by doubling thermal efficiencies of balanced-flue space heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico, Luis E. [Conicet, and Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Gonzalez, Alejandro D. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medio Ambiente (Inibioma-Conicet), 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    Natural gas is a relatively clean fossil fuel for space heating. However, when it is not used efficiently high consumption can become an environmental problem. In Argentina, individual balanced-flue space heaters are the most extensively used in temperate and cold regions. This furnace is a simple device with a burner set into a metal chamber, separated from the indoor ambient by an enclosing cabinet, and both inlet and outgas chimneys are connected to the outdoor ambient. In previous studies, we measured the performance of these commercial devices, and found very low thermal efficiency (in the range of 39-63% depending on the chimney configuration). The extensive use of these devices is possible due to the availability of unlimited amount of subsidised natural gas to households and businesses. In the present work, we developed a prototype with simple and low cost modifications made on commercial models, and measured the improvements on the thermal efficiency. Findings showed better infrared radiation, enhanced indoor air convection, and passive chimney flow regulation leading to thermal efficiency in the range of 75-85%. These values represent an improvement of 100% when compared to marketed models, and hence, the specific cost of the heater per unit of useful heating power delivered was actually reduced. Considering the large market presence of these furnaces in both residential and business sectors in Argentina, the potential benefits related to gas consumption and environmental emissions are very significant. (author)

  8. Prefabricación y elevación de placas de hormigón armado en grandes chimeneas industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Solar Bermejo, José

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The chimneys designed and constructed during the last years, in Spain, must be considered according to the model of chimneys with a ventilated and accesible air space between the brick lining and the concrete shaft. The lining is independent of the shaft and normally is built in sections. Each brick lining section rest on reinforced concrete slabs supported by the shaft corbels. Traditionally these concrete slabs have been concreted in situ and carried out by an auxiliary work platform suspended on the top of the chimney. In the system developed by Karman and Agroman, the concrete slabs are prefabricated, one upon the other, on the floor of the chimney and afterwards lifted to the required level and placed on the shaft corbels. In this article, we try to describe our experiences in this field, as well as the results of such chimneys construction by this system.Las chimeneas proyectadas y construidas en los últimos años en España, se consideran de acuerdo al modelo de chimeneas con una cámara ventilada y accesible entre el conducto cerámico y el fuste de hormigón. El conducto se construye normalmente por tramos. Cada tramo apoya en placas de hormigón armado soportadas por ménsulas del fuste. Tradicionalmente estas placas de hormigón han sido construidas in situ con auxilio de una plataforma auxiliar suspendida de la coronación de la chimenea. En el método desarrollado por Karman y Agromán, las placas son prefabricadas, una sobre otra, en el suelo de la chimenea y después son elevadas hasta su nivel definitivo apoyándolas en las ménsulas del fuste. En este artículo se trata de describir nuestras experiencias en este campo, asi como los resultados obtenidos con este método de construcción.

  9. A comparative study of human exposures to household air pollution from commonly used cookstoves in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, R; Phillips, M; Mosquin, P; Elledge, M; Bronstein, K; Nandasena, S; Thornburg, V; Thornburg, J; Rodes, C

    2017-01-01

    Solid fuel burning cookstoves are a major source of household air pollution (HAP) and a significant environmental health risk in Sri Lanka. We report results of the first field study in Sri Lanka to include direct measurements of both real-time indoor concentrations and personal exposures of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in households using the two most common stove types in Sri Lanka. A purposive sample of 53 households was selected in the rural community of Kopiwatta in central Sri Lanka, roughly balanced for stove type (traditional or improved 'Anagi') and ventilation (chimney present or absent). At each household, 48-h continuous real-time measurements of indoor kitchen PM2.5 and personal (primary cook) PM2.5 concentrations were measured using the RTI MicroPEM(™) personal exposure monitor. Questionnaires were used to collect data related to household demographics, characteristics, and self-reported health symptoms. All primary cooks were female and of an average age of 47 years, with 66% having completed primary education. Median income was slightly over half the national median monthly income. Use of Anagi stoves was positively associated with a higher education level of the primary cook (P = 0.026), although not associated with household income (P = 0.18). The MicroPEM monitors were well-received by participants, and this study's valid data capture rate exceeded 97%. Participant wearing compliance during waking hours was on average 87.2% on Day 1 and 83.3% on Day 2. Periods of non-compliance occurred solely during non-cooking times. The measured median 48-h average indoor PM2.5 concentration for households with Anagi stoves was 64 μg/m(3) if a chimney was present and 181 μg/m(3) if not. For households using traditional stoves, these values were 70 μg/m(3) if a chimney was present and 371 μg/m(3) if not. Overall, measured indoor PM2.5 concentrations ranged from a minimum of 33 μg/m(3) to a maximum of 940 μg/m(3) , while personal exposure

  10. DESAIN KONSEP TANGKI PENAMPUNG BAHAN BAKAR PASSIVE COMPACT MOLTEN SALT REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hadiwinata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR merupakan pengembangan dari reaktor MSR. Desain reaktor PCMSR membutuhkan tempat khusus penampung sementara bahan bakar pada saat terjadi insiden, misalnya kecelakaan yang menyebabkan peningkatan suhu bahan bakar. Tangki penampung bahan bakar tersusun dari 3 bagian yang saling terhubung yaitu bagian penampung cairan bahan bakar, cerobong (chimney, dan penukar kalor. Dalam penelitian ini, tangki dimodelkan secara lump dan dilakukan variasi daya awal reaktor dan ketinggian cerobong. Syarat batas model ditetapkan suhu bahan bakar maksimum 1400 °C, yang didasarkan pada titik didih larutan garam LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara menghitung rugi tekanan total dan transfer kalor untuk variasi daya awal antara 1800-3000 MWth dan ketinggian cerobong antara 1-10 m. Hasil penelitian menunjukan semakin besar daya reaktor, maka tinggi tangki penampung bahan bakar dan tinggi alat penukar kalor yang dibutuhkan akan semakin besar, tejadi kenaikan suhu fluida pendingin dan suhu udara pendingin, dan menyebabkan kenaikan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, sedangkan laju aliran masa udara menurun. Peningkatan ketinggian cerobong menyebabkan ketinggian tangki penampung bahan bakar dan ketinggian alat penukar kalor semakin menurun, penurunan suhu fluida pendingin, tetapi suhu udara meningkat, dan menyebabkan peningkatan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, tetapi laju aliran masa udara akan semakin menurun. Kata kunci: PCMSR, cerobong, alat penukar kalor, variasi daya.   The Passsive Compact Molten Salat Reactor (PCMSR reactor is developed from MSR reactor. The PCMSR reactor design requires special place to temporarily storage for reactor fuel when incident occurs, such as when there is an accident which caused the temperature of the fuel increases. The tank consist of three interconnected parts, the reservoir liquid fuel, chimney, and the heat exchanger. In this research, the tank system is modeled based on

  11. From Geochemistry to Biochemistry: Simulating Prebiotic Chemistry Driven by Geochemical Gradients in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Planetary water-rock interfaces generate energy in the form of redox, pH, and thermal gradients, and these disequilibria are particularly focused in hydrothermal vent systems where the reducing, heated hydrothermal fluid feeds back into the more oxidizing ocean. Alkaline hydrothermal vents have been proposed as a likely location for the origin of life on the early Earth due to various factors: including the hydrothermal pH / Eh gradients that resemble the ubiquitous electrical / proton gradients in biology, the catalytic hydrothermal precipitates that resemble inorganic catalysts in enzymes, and the presence of electron donors and acceptors in hydrothermal systems (e.g. H2 + CH4 and CO2) that are thought to have been utilized in the earliest metabolisms. Of particular importance for the emergence of metabolism are the mineral "chimneys" that precipitate at the vent fluid / seawater interface. Hydrothermal chimneys are flow-through chemical reactors that form porous and permeable inorganic membranes transecting geochemical gradients; in some ways similar to biological membranes that transect proton / ion gradients and harness these disequilibria to drive metabolism. These emergent chimney structures in the far-from-equilibrium system of the alkaline vent have many properties of interest to the origin of life that can be simulated in the laboratory: for example, they can generate electrical energy and drive redox reactions, and produce catalytic minerals (in particular the metal sulfides and iron oxyhydroxides - "green rust") that can facilitate chemical reactions towards proto-metabolic cycles and biosynthesis. Many of the factors prompting interest in alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth may also have been present on early Mars, or even presently within icy worlds such as Europa or Enceladus - thus, understanding the disequilibria and resulting prebiotic chemistry in these systems can be of great use in assessing the potential for other environments in the Solar

  12. A quantitative assessment of methane cycling in Hikurangi Margin sediments (New Zealand) using geophysical imaging and biogeochemical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Dale, Andrew W.; Haffert, Laura; Haeckel, Matthias; Koch, Stephanie; Crutchley, Gareth; De Stigter, Henko; Chen, Duofu; Greinert, Jens

    2016-12-01

    Takahe seep, located on the Opouawe Bank, Hikurangi Margin, is characterized by a well-defined subsurface seismic chimney structure ˜80,500 m2 in area. Subseafloor geophysical data based on acoustic anomaly layers indicated the presence of gas hydrate and free gas layers within the chimney structure. Reaction-transport modeling was applied to porewater data from 11 gravity cores to constrain methane turnover rates and benthic methane fluxes in the upper 10 m. Model results show that methane dynamics were highly variable due to transport and dissolution of ascending gas. The dissolution of gas (up to 3761 mmol m-2 yr-1) dwarfed the rate of methanogenesis within the simulated sediment column (2.6 mmol m-2 yr-1). Dissolved methane is mainly consumed by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) at the base of the sulfate reduction zone and trapped by methane hydrate formation below it, with maximum rates in the central part of the chimney (946 and 2420 mmol m-2 yr-1, respectively). A seep-wide methane budget was constrained by combining the biogeochemical model results with geophysical data and led to estimates of AOM rates, gas hydrate formation, and benthic dissolved methane fluxes of 3.68 × 104 mol yr-1, 73.85 × 104 mol yr-1, and 1.19 × 104 mol yr-1, respectively. A much larger flux of methane probably escapes in gaseous form through focused bubble vents. The approach of linking geochemical model results with spatial geophysical data put forward here can be applied elsewhere to improve benthic methane turnover rates from limited single spot measurements to larger spatial scales.

  13. Microcontroller-Based Fault Tolerant Data Acquisition System For Air Quality Monitoring And Control Of Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochukwu Chiagunye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The design applied Passive fault tolerance to a microcontroller based data acquisition system to achieve the stated considerations where redundant sensors and microcontrollers with associated circuitry were designed and implemented to enable measurement of pollutant concentration information from chimney vents in two industry. Microsoft visual basic was used to develop a data mining tool which implemented an underlying artificial neural network model for forecasting pollutant concentrations for future time periods. The feed forward back propagation method was used to train the ANN model with a training data set while a decision tree algorithm was used to select an optimal output result for the model from its two output neurons.

  14. The seismic property of reef flat in the Changxing-Feixianguan Formation, Northwest Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu; TANG Jianming; GUO Xusheng; ZHAO Shuang

    2007-01-01

    The development of a carbonate reservoir is dominated by its primary sedimentary environment. Gener-ally, a good reservoir must be the oolite of a bank or bioclas-tics of an organic reef in a marginal mesa, which must deposit on the slope of the mesa. Therefore, the analyses of sequence stratigraphy are the key for predicting the presence of carbonate reservoirs. A typical sequence pattern can be seen in the Puguang gas field. As an independent lithologicalbody, the mechanical property of a reef flat is very different from the surrounding rock, causing stress to concentrate.Stress centralization will, in turn, cause a lot of fractures and faults to develop, and ultimately, result in a gas chimney,which is a seismic smear zone beneath or above the reef flat.Known gas fields, such as the Puguang gas field, also possess gas chimneys. Sequence stratigraphy patterns in the marginal mesa and gas chimney near the reservoir are very obvious in all known fields in southeast and east Sichuan Province.By analyzing the seismic features of all known gas fields, a model to predict carbonate reservoirs has been set up. Using this prediction model, we have found that there is a typical reef flat of the marginal mesa in the Malubei structure of Tongnanba structural belts whose sequence stratigraphy pat-tern is very much like that of the Puguang gas field; and in the Cangxi-Jiulongshan structure, there is another reef flat which is symmetrical to the Malubei reef The Cangxi reef flat pos-sesses the largest platform edge shallow facies domestically found, and has a typical prograding sequence. Its gas chimney is very obvious too. Because the Cangxi reef flat is in the very vicinity of the hydrocarbon kitchen and the depression is much bigger than that of the Puguang gas fields, we predict that there may be a gigascopic gas field in Cangxi County.There may also be a large gas field in the Malubei structure.

  15. Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear

  16. Surveying techniques in vibration measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuras Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the actual dynamic characteristics of engineering structures, it is necessary to perform direct measurements. The paper focuses on the problem of using various devices to measure vibration, with particular emphasis on surveying instruments. The main tool used in this study is the radar interferometer, which has been compared to: robotic total station, GNSS receivers and sensors (accelerometer and encoder. The results of four dynamic experiments are presented. They were performed on: industrial chimney, drilling tower, railway bridge and pedestrian footbridge. The obtained results have been discussed in terms of the requirements imposed by the standard ISO 4866:2010.

  17. Utilização de zeólita preparada a partir de cinza residuária de carvão como adsorvedor de metais em água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fungaro Denise Alves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ashes produced in coal-fired power plant could be converted into zeolites and can be used as low-cost adsorbents for the treatment of effluents contaminated with high levels of toxic metals. The capacity of synthetic zeolites for the removal of cadmium, zinc and copper ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated under different operating conditions. Zeolite from bottom chimney showed higher removal efficiency for metals ions than zeolite from feed hopper and mixing mill. The results indicated that the treated bottom ash could be applied in environmental technology as an immobilizer of pollutants.

  18. Verification of Conditions for use of Combustion Products‘ Heat

    OpenAIRE

    Kažimírová Viera; Čerešňa Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Presented contribution deals with the verification of conditions for use of combustion products‘ heat, generated by combustion of wood in a fireplace used in a household. It is necessary to know the temperature behaviour of the fireplace to determine the adequacy of the technical solution for using combustion products‘ heat. The combustion products‘ temperature at the upper part of the chimney is 80-120 °C. The dew point value was established to be below 51 °C. The average observed value of c...

  19. Õhtutähele : [luuletused] / William Blake ; tlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blake, William

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Õhtutähele ; Korstnapühkija ; Taevatõusmispüha : "See oli taevatõusmispäev, reas sajad lastepaarid..." ; Saviklomp ja kivike ; Taevatõusmispüha : "Kas on see mõni püha pilt..." ; Korstnapühkija ; Haige roos ; Armastuse aed ; London. Saatesõna lk. 12. Orig.: To the Evening Star ; The chimney sweeper ; Holy thursday (1789) ; The clod and pebble ; Holy thursday (1794) ; Holy thursday (1794) ; The sick rose ; The garden of love ; London

  20. Genetic Optimization and Simulation of a Piezoelectric Pipe-Crawling Inspection Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Geoffrey A.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

    2004-01-01

    Using the DarwinZk development software, a genetic algorithm (GA) was used to design and optimize a pipe-crawling robot for parameters such as mass, power consumption, and joint extension to further the research of the Miniature Inspection Systems Technology (MIST) team. In an attempt to improve on existing designs, a new robot was developed, the piezo robot. The final proposed design uses piezoelectric expansion actuators to move the robot with a 'chimneying' method employed by mountain climbers and greatly improves on previous designs in load bearing ability, pipe traversing specifications, and field usability. This research shows the advantages of GA assisted design in the field of robotics.

  1. The Old Home Place: An Archaeological and Historical Investigation of Five Farm Sites along the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-15

    the porch columns intact. Because of their instability, the two chimneys were pushed over into the interior of the ruin. Other than this, there was no...Clinkscales 12.00 I roaster Mary Boyd 1.00 1 kitchen scales Mary Boyd 1.50 1 griddle pan W.D. Mann 1.80 , waffle iron Mrs. R.C. Parnell .75 Biscuit pan...Library 150 00 Lot Husks 1? 0 00 Slab [?] and contents 140 00 14 hundred bushels corn 1 Set dining tables 60 00 @ 1.60 per bush 875 00 1 Tea Table 15 00

  2. Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria Found at Slow-Spreading Ridge: a Case Study of Capelinhos Hydrothermal Vent (Lucky Strike, MAR 37°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, P. A.; Rommevaux, C.; Lesongeur, F.; Emerson, D.; Leleu, T.; Chavagnac, V.

    2015-12-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria becomes increasingly described in different geological settings from volcanically active seamounts, coastal waters, to diffuse hydrothermal vents near seafloor spreading centers [Emerson et al., 2010]. They have been mostly identified and described in Pacific Ocean, and have been only recently found in hydrothermal systems associated to slow spreading center of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) [Scott et al., 2015]. During the MoMARSAT'13 cruise at Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (MAR), a new hydrothermal site was discovered at about 1.5 km eastward from the lava lake and from the main hydrothermal vents. This active venting site, named Capelinhos, is therefore the most distant from the volcano, features many chimneys, both focused and diffuses. The hydrothermal end-member fluids from Capelinhos are different from those of the other sites of Lucky Strike, showing the highest content of iron (Fe/Mn≈3.96) and the lowest chlorinity (270 mmol/l) [Leleu et al., 2015]. Most of the chimneys exhibit rust-color surfaces and bacterial mats near diffuse flows. During the MoMARSAT'15 cruise, an active chimney, a small inactive one, and rust-color bacterial mat near diffuse flow were sampled at Capelinhos. Observations by SEM of the hydrothermal samples revealed the presence of iron oxides in an assemblage of tubular "sheaths", assembled "stalks", helical "stalks" and amorphous aggregates. These features are similar to those described from the Loihi iron-mats deposits and argue for the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Cultures under micro-aerobic and neutral pH conditions allowed us to isolate strains from the small inactive chimney. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolates and environmental samples will soon be performed, which should confirm the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria and reveal the organization of bacterial communities in this original and newly discovered hydrothermal site of the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Emerson

  3. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  4. Stack disposal and reduction of radioactive gaseous effluents. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the release and dilution of radioactive gaseous waste into the atmosphere via chimney or stack disposal. Measurement, analysis, and monitoring of gas wastes and aerosols are discussed, as well as environmental impacts. Articles also refer to monitoring data from a variety of nuclear facilities including power reactors, experimental reactors and laboratories, and nuclear processing plants. Solid and liquid radioactive waste disposal are referenced in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. THE EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON THE MAXIMUM MATABOLIC RATE AND SPECIFIC DYNAMIC ACTION IN ATLANTIC COD Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    John Fleng Steffensen' and Anders Drud Jordan Aquaculture 2010 - San Diego - Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture. Hypoxia is an increasing problem in coastal near areas and estuaries. Hypoxia can also be a problem in aquaculture systems with a high degree of recirculating water...... and protein synthesis leading to the deposition and turnover of tissue components. Oxygen consumption of juvenile cod was measured with computerized intennittent respirometry at 10 0 C. A specially designed Plexiglas respirometer with a "chimney" in either end allowed feeding without disturbing and stressing...

  6. New regulations, combustion, environment: responses for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction Commerciale

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French regulations concerning low- to medium-power combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on natural gas fired boilers, are discussed: lower pollutant emission limits are set for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes. The decree gives new regulations concerning plant location, combustion control systems, plant monitoring and maintenance, and air pollution control measures such as chimney stack height and emission limits. The French national gas utility promotes environmental high performance boilers

  7. Vertical Transport of Aerosol Particles across Mountain Topography near the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. J.; Schill, S.; Freeman, S.; Bertram, T. H.; Lefer, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Transport of aerosol particles is known to affect air quality and is largely dependent on the characteristic topography of the surrounding region. To characterize this transport, aerosol number distributions were collected with an Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS, DMT) during the 2015 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) in and around the Los Angeles Basin in Southern California. Increases in particle number concentration and size were observed over mountainous terrain north of Los Angeles County. Chemical analysis and meteorological lagrangian trajectories suggest orographic lifting processes, known as the "chimney effect". Implications for spatial transport and distribution will be discussed.

  8. Integración de recursos en una práctica de laboratorio de Física

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el desarrollo e implementación de una práctica de laboratorio diseñada para cursos de Física básica a nivel universitario con modalidad blended learning. La propuesta surge de las dificultades de los estudiantes que se reflejan en las evaluaciones integradoras para analizar movimientos según el modelo de cuerpo rígido y de la posibilidad de adaptar dos recursos de Internet: la experiencia Falling Chimney que se describe en el Manual del Laboratorio de Física de la Universidad de C...

  9. Building energy modeling for green architecture and intelligent dashboard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Justin

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of the carbon emissions in the United States. Energy efficiency in this sector is key to reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions. This work studied the passive technique called the roof solar chimney for reducing the cooling load in homes architecturally. Three models of the chimney were created: a zonal building energy model, computational fluid dynamics model, and numerical analytic model. The study estimated the error introduced to the building energy model (BEM) through key assumptions, and then used a sensitivity analysis to examine the impact on the model outputs. The conclusion was that the error in the building energy model is small enough to use it for building simulation reliably. Further studies simulated the roof solar chimney in a whole building, integrated into one side of the roof. Comparisons were made between high and low efficiency constructions, and three ventilation strategies. The results showed that in four US climates, the roof solar chimney results in significant cooling load energy savings of up to 90%. After developing this new method for the small scale representation of a passive architecture technique in BEM, the study expanded the scope to address a fundamental issue in modeling - the implementation of the uncertainty from and improvement of occupant behavior. This is believed to be one of the weakest links in both accurate modeling and proper, energy efficient building operation. A calibrated model of the Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation's LEED Gold, 3,400 m2 building was created. Then algorithms were developed for integration to the building's dashboard application that show the occupant the energy savings for a variety of behaviors in real time. An approach using neural networks to act on real-time building automation system data was found to be the most accurate and efficient way to predict the current energy savings for each scenario. A stochastic study examined the impact of the

  10. Methodology of adjustment point in the post treatment of gaseous effluents; Metodologia del punto de ajuste en el post tratamiento de efluentes gaseosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizuet G, J.; Molina, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jvg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The methodology to determine the adjustment points of the monitoring system of gaseous discharges is based on the stipulations of the 10CFR20, which are expressed in terms of limit concentrations for the outstanding radionuclides, and of dose limits for the individuals members of the public. Besides the points of liberation properly said, like they are the chimneys of the reactor buildings and of turbine, the points of adjustment of the monitoring instrumentation that watches in real time the discharge of the Treatment system of output gases, to the HVAC of the waste building; they also undergo to the same methodology, with the approaches previously described. (Author)

  11. Mushroom-Shaped Structures as Tracers of Buoyant Flow in the Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    D'Avillez, M A; Avillez, Miguel A. de; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac

    2001-01-01

    Recent HI emission observations of the Southern Galactic hemisphere have revealed a mushroom-like structure extending from z=-70 to -450 pc, composed of a stem and a cap. Similar structures occur in three-dimensional simulations of a dynamic galactic disk driven by isolated and clustered supernovae. Using these simulations, we show that hot gas in the Galactic disk that is not evacuated through chimneys expands into the cooler gas of the thick disk, forming mushroom-shaped structures. This new class of objects traces buoyant flow of hot gas into the thick disk.

  12. WAT Office building, Karlsruhe, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, the WAT (Wasser-und Abfalltechnik GmbH) office building, with various energy-saving features, was erected in Karlsruhe, Germany. The office building, net area 1,500 m{sup 2}, incorporates: facade-integrated solar air collectors preheating the ventilation air; exhaust air extraction through a solar chimney; heat recovery from ventilation air; concrete floors with integrated air ducts and no suspended ceilings. During the design phase, TRNSYS was used to determine the performance of the building and the solar system. (author)

  13. Evidences of microbial mediation in the formation of MDAC in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, V. H.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Birguel, D.; Peckmann, J.; Niemann, H.; Santos, L.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J.; Ivanov, M.

    2006-12-01

    The study of methane-derived authigenic carbonates (MDAC) in the Gulf of Cadiz allowed the identification and collection of different types of authigenic carbonates: (I) dolomite crusts, dolomite nodules, chimneys or filled burrows and (II) aragonitic slabs or pavements. Both correspond to the cementation of sediments by the precipitation of authigenic carbonates, and the different lithologic types correspond to different geochemical environment of formation. Authigenic carbonates yielded 13C values indicating methane as the major carbon source with ratios as low as -46.9(per mil PDB). Likewise, the crusts and chimneys can be interpreted as a record of extensive methane seepage in this particular area of the Gulf of Cadiz. SEM observations revealed large amounts of structures and textures that clearly indicate microbial activity. In the cement of the dolomite chimneys, which consists of minor aggregates of rhombohedric calcite, high-Mg calcite and dolomite, SEM observations allowed the identification of a large variety of microbial-induced fabrics, such as: (1) microbial filaments; (2) high Mg-calcite and dolomite crystal aggregates calcifying and mimetizing filaments and flattening themselves against dolomite and calcite minerals; (3) rods with brush-like terminations; (4) dumbbell-like and cauliflower structures. The identification of microbial and mucous biofilms is frequent in aragonite pavements, occurring as a coating, draped between the aragonite fibres and needles of the stromatolitic layers. Also, aragonite batons, ball-capped batons and nanograins are observed. Specific 13C-depleted biomarkers indicators of archaea involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as PMI, squalane, crocetane/phytane have been identified in dolomite chimney samples. The aragonite crusts showed even better preserved biomarkers. PMI is accompanied by unsaturated derivatives with 1 to 3 double bonds. Several bacterial lipid biomarkers, also with 13C-depleted compositions

  14. COMPUTATIONAL FLOW MODELLING OF FORMULA-SAE SIDEPODS FOR OPTIMUM RADIATOR HEAT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. DE SILVA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Formula SAE vehicles, over the program’s history have showcased a myriad of aerodynamic packages, each claiming specific quantitative and qualitative features. This paper attempts to critique differing aerodynamic sidepod designs and their effect upon radiator heat management. Various features from inlet size, sidepod shape and size, presence of an undertray, suspension cover, gills and chimneys are analysed for their effects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analyses are performed in the FLUENT environment, with the aid of GAMBIT meshing software and SolidWorks modelling.

  15. Numerical Analysis of Lead-Bismuth-Water Direct Contact Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yumi; Takahashi, Minoru

    Direct contact boiling heat transfer of sub-cooled water with lead-bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi) was investigated for the evaluation of the performance of steam generation in direct contact of feed water with primary Pb-Bi coolant in upper plenum above the core in Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water fast reactor. An analytical two-fluid model was developed to estimate the heat transfer numerically. Numerical results were compared with experimental ones for verification of the model. The overall volumetric heat transfer coefficient was calculated from heat exchange rate in the chimney. It was confirmed that the calculated results agreed well with the experimental result.

  16. Injury to Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. ) forest in the vicinity of the smelting works at Hitachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okanoue, M.

    1958-03-01

    In the summer of 1965, smoke from a smelter at Hitachi caused injury to a national forest approximately one to three km distant. The smelter had been equipped with control devices and no previous injuries had been reported. An investigation of meteorological conditions at the time of the emission revealed the presence of a temperature inversion between Mt. Kamimine (594 m) and Sukegawa (52 m). However, these inversions are not uncommon in the area. Presumably, poisonous gas was emitted from the smelter chimney as a result of equipment malfunction just at the time of unfavorable meteorological conditions.

  17. The Impact of Heat Release in Turbine Film Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Film Gauge ITB = Inter-Turbine Burner PFR = Plug Flow Reactor PSR = Perfectly Stirred Reactor SLPM = Standard Liters Per Minute TFG = Thin Film...Plug Flow Reactors ( PFRs ), a mixer, and a final PFR . The gas inlets of the PSR were the mass flow rates of air and propane to model the = 0.6, 0.8...0.95, 1.5, and 1.7 conditions. The exhaust flow then moved through a PFR representing the ceramic chimney of the actual rig. The heat loss in this

  18. Mineralizing Filamentous Bacteria from the Prony Bay Hydrothermal Field Give New Insights into the Functioning of Serpentinization-Based Subseafloor Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Gérard, Martine; Lecourt, Léna; Lang, Susan Q.; Pelletier, Bernard; Payri, Claude E.; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas, Linda; Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Erauso, Gaël; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2017-01-01

    Despite their potential importance as analogs of primitive microbial metabolisms, the knowledge of the structure and functioning of the deep ecosystems associated with serpentinizing environments is hampered by the lack of accessibility to relevant systems. These hyperalkaline environments are depleted in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), making the carbon sources and assimilation pathways in the associated ecosystems highly enigmatic. The Prony Bay Hydrothermal Field (PHF) is an active serpentinization site where, similar to Lost City (Mid-Atlantic Ridge), high-pH fluids rich in H2 and CH4 are discharged from carbonate chimneys at the seafloor, but in a shallower lagoonal environment. This study aimed to characterize the subsurface microbial ecology of this environment by focusing on the earliest stages of chimney construction, dominated by the discharge of hydrothermal fluids of subseafloor origin. By jointly examining the mineralogy and the microbial diversity of the conduits of juvenile edifices at the micrometric scale, we find a central role of uncultivated bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes in the ecology of the PHF. These bacteria, along with members of the phyla Acetothermia and Omnitrophica, are identified as the first chimneys inhabitants before archaeal Methanosarcinales. They are involved in the construction and early consolidation of the carbonate structures via organomineralization processes. Their predominance in the most juvenile and nascent hydrothermal chimneys, and their affiliation with environmental subsurface microorganisms, indicate that they are likely discharged with hydrothermal fluids from the subseafloor. They may thus be representative of endolithic serpentinization-based ecosystems, in an environment where DIC is limited. In contrast, heterotrophic and fermentative microorganisms may consume organic compounds from the abiotic by-products of serpentinization processes and/or from life in the deeper subsurface. We thus propose that

  19. Reclaiming Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    'Air-O-Space' heater, based on spacecraft heat, requires no fuel other than electricity to run fan. Installed in chimney flue, heat pipes transfer heat from waste hot gases (but not the gases themselves) to fresh air blown across the other end of the pipes. It can transport roughly 500 times the heat flux of the best solid conductors with a temperature drop of less than 3 degrees per foot. This instrument has also been used by Kin-Tek Laboratories Inc. to produce an instrument to calibrate gas analyzers for air-pollution monitoring.

  20. Mitigation of the effects of sulphur pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, B.; Wilson, R.

    1976-07-05

    As an introduction to the discussion of mitigation of the effects of SO/sub 2/, its health effect on man and the use of sulfates as indicators of the health hazard are first considered. The use of tall chimney stacks and intermittent control and other schemes to reduce the SO/sub 2/ release to the atmosphere are discussed. The problems of administration and forecasting are analyzed and legal problems associated with SO/sub 2/ control are reviewed. In an appendix an analysis of federal jurisdiction over interstate pollution and possible avenues of litigation open to the states is presented. (JSR)

  1. An Interpretation of the Origin of Distribution Anomalies of △C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅燕华; 周立发

    2001-01-01

    Zonal distribution of seepage hydrocarbon-induced altered carbonates over oil/gas reservoirs is a common phenomenon observed in the field. The authors considered that the con tinuous production of CO2 within the "alteration chimney" gives rise to a significant difference in physical and chemical properties between its interior and the surrounding country rocks.And it is this difference that has promoted the erosion and precipitation of carbonates, t hus leading to the zonal distribution of seepage hydrocarbon-induced altered carbonates over oil/gas reservoirs. This may be a reasonable interpretation of the phenomenon described above.

  2. An Interpretation of the Origin of Distribution Anomalier of △C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Zonal distribution of seepage hydrocarbon-induced altereb carbonates over oil/gas reservoirs is a common phenomenon observed in the field.The authors considered that the continuous production of CO2 within the “alteration chimney ”gives rise to a significant difference in physical and chemical properties between its interior and the surrounding country rocks.And it is this difference that has promoted the erosion and precipitation of carbonates,thus leading to the zonal distribution of seepage hydrocarbon-induced altered carbonates over oil/gas reservoirs.This may be a reasonable interpretation of the phenomenon described above.

  3. Elemental speciation of different stages of silver metal recovery process using PEDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustuendag, Zafer [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: zustun@science.ankara.edu.tr; Kalfa, Orhan Murat [Gazi University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Erdogan, Yunus [Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, Kuetahya (Turkey); Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    The silver ore, anode mud, chimney power, concentrator sample and waste damp samples obtained from the Guemueskoey Silver Plant have been analyzed for their elemental constituents. The prepared samples were analyzed using a polarized energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (PEDXRF) spectrometer. The result of the analysis shows the presence of many elements including rare earth elements (from Na to Th). The accuracy and precision of the technique for chemical analysis is demonstrated by analyzing USGS standards, GEOL, SILVER, K07-CoO Cobalt oxide, GBW 7109 Ijolite Sy and GBW-7309 Sediment.

  4. Analysis and optimization of the heat transfer coefficient of a finned heat exchanger submitted to natural convection; Analise e otimizacao do coeficiente de transferencia de calor de um trocador aletado submetido a conveccao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Alan Carlos Bueno da

    1997-07-01

    A heat transfer (condenser) of a domestic freezer was tested in a vertical channel in order to study the influence of the chimney effect in the optimization of the heat transfer coefficient. The variation of the opening of the channel, position and the heating power of the heat exchanger in the heat transfer coefficient was considered. The influence of the surface emissivity on the heat transfer by thermal radiation was studied with the heat exchanger testes without paint and with black paint. The air velocity entering the channel was measured with a hot wire anemometer. In order to evaluate the chimney effect, the heat exchanger was testes in a open ambient. This situation simulates its operational conditions when installed on the freezer system. The variables collected in the experimental procedures was gathered in the form of dimensionless parameters as Nusselt, Rayleigh, Grashof and Prandtl numbers, and dimensional parameters of the convection. The results showed that the highest heat transfer value occurred when both a specific position and a specific channel opening were used. The experiments pointed out that the radiation contribution must be considered in heat transfer calculations. The conclusions showed that different channel openings can improve the heat transfer coefficient in this heat transfer exchanger. (author)

  5. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  6. Spin excitations in hole-overdoped iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horigane, K.; Kihou, K.; Fujita, K.; Kajimoto, R.; Ikeuchi, K.; Ji, S.; Akimitsu, J.; Lee, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the overall features of magnetic excitation is essential for clarifying the mechanism of Cooper pair formation in iron-based superconductors. In particular, clarifying the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity is a central challenge because magnetism may play a key role in their exotic superconductivity. BaFe2As2 is one of ideal systems for such investigation because its superconductivity can be induced in several ways, allowing a comparative examination. Here we report a study on the spin fluctuations of the hole-overdoped iron-based superconductors Ba1-xKxFe2As2 (x = 0.5 and 1.0; Tc = 36 K and 3.4 K, respectively) over the entire Brillouin zone using inelastic neutron scattering. We find that their spin spectra consist of spin wave and chimney-like dispersions. The chimney-like dispersion can be attributed to the itinerant character of magnetism. The band width of the spin wave-like dispersion is almost constant from the non-doped to optimum-doped region, which is followed by a large reduction in the overdoped region. This suggests that the superconductivity is suppressed by the reduction of magnetic exchange couplings, indicating a strong relationship between magnetism and superconductivity in iron-based superconductors. PMID:27615691

  7. Ambient vibration monitoring of slender structures by microwave interferometer remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Vassilis

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines the potential of microwave radar interferometry for monitoring the dynamic behaviour of large civil engineering works. It provides an overview of the method, its principles of operation with particular emphasis given on the IBIS-S system. Two areas of application are considered and the results of the analyses are presented and discussed. The first experimental study involves the monitoring of the dynamic response of a tall power plant chimney due to wind load. The second example examines the dynamic behaviour of a long cable-stayed bridge. In this case, the focus is placed on the effects that individual traffic events impose on the vibration response of the main span of the bridge deck and the bridge pylons. Analysis of the results provides detailed displacement time-histories and the dominant frequencies observed at the top of the chimney and along the bridge deck and the top of the towers. Also, cross-comparisons and discussions with the results obtained at the same structures using different sensor configurations are provided.

  8. Design study of lead bismuth cooled fast reactors and capability of natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oktamuliani, Sri, E-mail: srioktamuliani@ymail.com; Su’ud, Zaki, E-mail: szaki@fi.itb.ac.id [Nuclear and Reactor Physics Laboratory, FMIPA, ITB, Physics Buildings, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary study designs SPINNOR (Small Power Reactor, Indonesia, No On-Site Refueling) liquid metal Pb-Bi cooled fast reactors, fuel (U, Pu)N, 150 MWth have been performed. Neutronic calculation uses SRAC which is designed cylindrical core 2D (R-Z) 90 × 135 cm, on the core fuel composed of heterogeneous with percentage difference of PuN 10, 12, 13% and the result of calculation is effective neutron multiplication 1.0488. Power density distribution of the output SRAC is generated for thermal hydraulic calculation using Delphi based on Pascal language that have been developed. The research designed a reactor that is capable of natural circulation at inlet temperature 300 °C with variation of total mass flow rate. Total mass flow rate affect pressure drop and temperature outlet of the reactor core. The greater the total mass flow rate, the smaller the outlet temperature, but increase the pressure drop so that the chimney needed more higher to achieve natural circulation or condition of the system does not require a pump. Optimization of the total mass flow rate produces optimal reactor design on the total mass flow rate of 5000 kg/s with outlet temperature 524,843 °C but require a chimney of 6,69 meters.

  9. Termite mounds harness diurnal temperature oscillations for ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hunter; Ocko, Samuel; Mahadevan, L

    2015-09-15

    Many species of millimetric fungus-harvesting termites collectively build uninhabited, massive mound structures enclosing a network of broad tunnels that protrude from the ground meters above their subterranean nests. It is widely accepted that the purpose of these mounds is to give the colony a controlled microclimate in which to raise fungus and brood by managing heat, humidity, and respiratory gas exchange. Although different hypotheses such as steady and fluctuating external wind and internal metabolic heating have been proposed for ventilating the mound, the absence of direct in situ measurement of internal air flows has precluded a definitive mechanism for this critical physiological function. By measuring diurnal variations in flow through the surface conduits of the mounds of the species Odontotermes obesus, we show that a simple combination of geometry, heterogeneous thermal mass, and porosity allows the mounds to use diurnal ambient temperature oscillations for ventilation. In particular, the thin outer flutelike conduits heat up rapidly during the day relative to the deeper chimneys, pushing air up the flutes and down the chimney in a closed convection cell, with the converse situation at night. These cyclic flows in the mound flush out CO2 from the nest and ventilate the colony, in an unusual example of deriving useful work from thermal oscillations.

  10. 核电厂气载放射性物质取样和监测标准分析%Analysis of Sampling and Monitoring Standards for Nuclear Power Plant Airborne Radioactive Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪涛; 孙瑜; 王骄亚; 李磊; 凌君

    2014-01-01

    本文对比分析ISO 2889—2010和ANSI N13.1—1999中核电厂气载放射性物质的取样和监测要求,同时结合国内核电厂烟囱中气载放射性物质取样和监测现状,讨论了新标准执行的难点。分析结果给出了在新标准的应用中,目前烟囱气载放射性物质取样与监测设计需关注的几点。%The comparison and analysis for the requirements of airborne radioactive material sampling and monitoring in ISO 2889—2010 and ANSI N13.1—1999 were carried out .Combined with the domestic nuclear power plant chimney airborne radioac‐tive material sampling and monitoring of the status‐quo ,difficulties in implementation of the new standard were discussed .Some concerns for chimney airborne radioactive material sampling and monitoring design in the application of new standards were given .

  11. Growth and contribution of stocked channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818): the importance of measuring post-stocking performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was sought to quantify post-stocking growth, survival, and contribution of advanced size (178 mm total length [TL]) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings, something rarely done. Channel catfish populations were evaluated before (May 2010) and after (May to August 2011 and 2012) stocking. Relative abundance, stocking contribution, and growth were different (P < 0.05) in the two study impoundments (lakes Lone Chimney and Greenleaf, Oklahoma). For fish stocked in Lake Lone Chimney, stocking contribution was lower (3–35%), and average length and weight of stocked fish by age-2 reached 230 mm TL and 85 g, whereas the stocking contribution (84–98%) and growth in length (340 mm TL) and weight (280 g) were higher by age-2 in Lake Greenleaf. Given these unambiguous differences of post-stocking performance, benchmark metrics that represent population-level information such as relative abundance and average length and weight of the sample masked these significant differences, highlighting the importance of marking hatchery-fish and then following them through time to determine the effectiveness of stocking. These results suggest that stock enhancement programmes would benefit from studies that quantify post-stocking performance of hatchery fish.

  12. The Fragmenting Superbubble Associated with the HII Region W4

    CERN Document Server

    West, J L; Normandeau, M; Landecker, T L; West, Jennifer L.; English, Jayanne; Normandeau, Magdalen

    2006-01-01

    New observations at high latitudes above the HII region W4 show that the structure formerly identified as a chimney candidate, an opening to the Galactic halo, is instead a superbubble in the process of fragmenting and possibly evolving into a chimney. Data at high Galactic latitudes (b > 5 degrees) above the W3/W4 star forming region at 1420 and 408 MHz Stokes I (total power) and 1420 MHz Stokes Q and U (linear polarization) reveal an egg-shaped structure with morphological correlations between our data and the H-alpha data of Dennison, Topasna, & Simonetti. Polarized intensity images show depolarization extending from W4 up the walls of the superbubble, providing strong evidence that the radio continuum is generated by thermal emission coincident with the H-alpha emission regions. We conclude that the parts of the HII region hitherto known as W4 and the newly revealed thermal emission are all ionized by the open cluster OCl 352. Assuming a distance of 2.35 kpc, the ovoid structure is 164 pc wide and ext...

  13. Arsenic speciation in food chains from mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vivien F.; Jackson, Brian P.; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Navratilova, Jana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Kirshtein, Julie; Voytek, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic concentration and speciation were determined in benthic fauna collected from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vents. The shrimp species, Rimicaris exoculata, the vent chimney-dwelling mussel, Bathymodiolus azoricus, Branchipolynoe seepensis, a commensal worm of B. azoricus and the gastropod Peltospira smaragdina showed variations in As concentration and in stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) signature between species, suggesting different sources of As uptake. Arsenic speciation showed arsenobetaine to be the dominant species in R. exoculata, whereas in B. azoricus and B. seepensis arsenosugars were most abundant, although arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate and inorganic arsenic were also observed, along with several unidentified species. Scrape samples from outside the vent chimneys covered with microbial mat, which is a presumed food source for many vent organisms, contained high levels of total As, but organic species were not detectable. The formation of arsenosugars in pelagic environments is typically attributed to marine algae, and the pathway to arsenobetaine is still unknown. The occurrence of arsenosugars and arsenobetaine in these deep sea organisms, where primary production is chemolithoautotrophic and stable isotope analyses indicate food sources are of vent origin, suggests that organic arsenicals can occur in a foodweb without algae or other photosynthetic life.

  14. Sustainable wood use, decarbonisation of energetic metabolism and forest development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Air pollution from wood stoves with PAH, primary particles and chlorinated dioxins (reported according to national estimates of  Danish NERI) is presented as an insoluble problem because of dioxin de-novo-synthesis in chimneys, as it is known from municipal waste incinerators. A trade-off of this......Air pollution from wood stoves with PAH, primary particles and chlorinated dioxins (reported according to national estimates of  Danish NERI) is presented as an insoluble problem because of dioxin de-novo-synthesis in chimneys, as it is known from municipal waste incinerators. A trade......-off of this local pollution against alleged positive impacts of wood (as all biomass) combustion on global climate change because of 'zero carbon dioxide emissions' is rejected, although this resetting to zero is part of the Danish Law on CO2-quota of 2004. These emissions are, on the contrary, aggravated pr. unit...... of energy, when substituting for fossil fuels, whereas compensatory binding of carbon dioxide by tree growth over many decades is referred to an insecure future under global warming. Harvested wood products should rather not be used in atmospheric burners, but in product form. Otherwise an accelerated...

  15. Spin excitations in hole-overdoped iron-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horigane, K; Kihou, K; Fujita, K; Kajimoto, R; Ikeuchi, K; Ji, S; Akimitsu, J; Lee, C H

    2016-09-12

    Understanding the overall features of magnetic excitation is essential for clarifying the mechanism of Cooper pair formation in iron-based superconductors. In particular, clarifying the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity is a central challenge because magnetism may play a key role in their exotic superconductivity. BaFe2As2 is one of ideal systems for such investigation because its superconductivity can be induced in several ways, allowing a comparative examination. Here we report a study on the spin fluctuations of the hole-overdoped iron-based superconductors Ba1-xKxFe2As2 (x = 0.5 and 1.0; Tc = 36 K and 3.4 K, respectively) over the entire Brillouin zone using inelastic neutron scattering. We find that their spin spectra consist of spin wave and chimney-like dispersions. The chimney-like dispersion can be attributed to the itinerant character of magnetism. The band width of the spin wave-like dispersion is almost constant from the non-doped to optimum-doped region, which is followed by a large reduction in the overdoped region. This suggests that the superconductivity is suppressed by the reduction of magnetic exchange couplings, indicating a strong relationship between magnetism and superconductivity in iron-based superconductors.

  16. Vertical motions in the disk of NGC 5668 as seen with optical Fabry-Perot spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Vicente, J

    2000-01-01

    We have observed the nearly face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5668 with the TAURUS II Fabry-Perot interferometer at the William Herschel Telescope using the $H\\alpha$ line to study the kinematics of the ionized gas. From the extracted data cube we construct intensity, velocity and velocity dispersion maps. We calculate the rotation curve in the innermost 2 arcmin and we use the residual velocity field to look for regions with important vertical motions. By comparing the geometry of these regions in the residual velocity field with the geometry in the intensity and velocity dispersion maps we are able to select some regions which are very likely to be shells or chimneys in the disk. The geometry and size of these regions are very similar to the shells or chimneys detected in other galaxies by different means. Moreover, it is worth noting than this galaxy has been reported to have a population of neutral hydrogen high velocity clouds (Schulman et al. 1996) which, according to these observations, could have been origina...

  17. 230Th/238U dating of hydrothermal sulfides from Duanqiao hydrothermal field, Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weifang; Tao, Chunhui; Li, Huaiming; Liang, Jin; Liao, Shili; Long, Jiangping; Ma, Zhibang; Wang, Lisheng

    2016-11-01

    Duanqiao hydrothermal field is located between the Indomed and Gallieni fracture zones at the central volcano, at 50°28'E in the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). Twenty-eight subsamples from a relict chimney and massive sulfides were dated using the 230Th/238U method. Four main episodes of hydrothermal activity were determined according to the restricted results: 68.9-84.3, 43.9-48.4, 25.3-34.8, and 0.7-17.3 kyrs. Hydrothermal activity of Duanqiao probably started about 84.3 (±0.5) kyrs ago and ceased about 0.737 (±0.023) kyrs ago. The periodic character of hydrothermal activity may be related to the heat source provided by the interaction of local magmatism and tectonism. The estimated mean growth rate of the sulfide chimney is Dragon Flag field is much more recent than that of Duanqiao or Mt. Jourdanne fields. The massive sulfides are younger than the sulfides from other hydrothermal fields such as Rainbow, Sonne and Ashadze-2. The preliminarily estimated reserves of sulfide ores of Duanqiao are approximately 0.5-2.9 million tons.

  18. 台车加热炉的节能技术改造%Energy-Saving Technical Renovation on Car-Bottom Heating Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫同印; 邱峰; 孙翰文

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese 1st successfully application of coke oven gas burning, air single-regenerative, completely use of flue-gas, no-chimney on furnace body type with the combustion system of extreme energy saving technology renovation on car-bottom heating furnace is introduced. The energy-saving efficiency of this technique is 15% more than the heating furnaces those are widely use air single-regenerative, auxiliary chimney on furnace body type ones and 40% more than the ordinary burner with recuperator type ones. So, this technique raises the regenerative combustion technologies to a higher level.%介绍了中国首例燃焦炉煤气,空气单蓄热、全烟气利用,取消了炉体烟囱的燃烧系统近极限节能台车式加热炉改造后运行状况.比目前普遍采用的空气单蓄热、炉体带辅助烟道的加热炉节能15%以上,获得了比常规烧嘴配有换热器的加热炉节能40%以上的良好效果,将蓄热式燃烧技术提高到一个新水平.

  19. The origin of collapse features appearing in a migrating parabolic dune along the southern coast of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyilan, Erin P.; Avis, Peter G.; Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Morris, Charles C.

    2015-12-01

    Dune decomposition chimneys are collapse features formed when migrating dunes encroach on a forest and buried trees subsequently decay, leaving a temporarily stable open hole. The recent appearance of holes on the stoss slope of Mount Baldy at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore provided an opportunity for study of such features. Mount Baldy is a large parabolic dune that is rapidly migrating onshore over a late Holocene landscape with stabilized relict parabolic dunes that supported oak (Quercus spp.) trees visible on the 1939 aerial photo. Individual holes were mapped to locations on the dune surface that would directly overlie the arm of a buried relict parabolic dune. Analyses of buried trees and surrounding sediment indicated that saprotrophic wood decay fungi continue to actively decompose trees after burial and biomineralization of a calcium-carbonate-rich cement occurs at the contact between organic material and sands. Scanning electron microscopy of the cement showed neoformed authigenic minerals and organic structures consistent in morphology with fungal hyphae. We propose that, within the dune, portions of the decayed trees progressively collapse and infill, and open holes are temporarily stabilized by the calcium-carbonate-rich cement. Further, holes can exist undetected at the surface, covered by a thin veneer of sand. Migrating dune systems are observed in many coastal and inland areas. Ongoing work must address the relative contributions of individual environmental factors on the formation of dune decomposition chimneys, including the biomineralization of cement, sand mineralogy, rate of dune movement, tree species, climate, and the composition of fungal communities.

  20. Localized fluidization in a granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, P; Badiane, M

    2013-04-01

    We present here experimental results on the progressive development of a fluidized zone in a bed of grains, immersed in a liquid, under the effect of a localized upward flow injected through a small orifice at the bottom of the bed. Visualization inside the model granular medium consisting of glass beads is made possible by the combined use of two optical techniques: refractive index matching between the liquid and the beads and planar laser-induced fluorescence. Gradually increasing the injection rate, three regimes are successively observed: static bed, fluidized cavity that does not open to the upper surface of the granular bed, and finally fluidization over the entire height of the granular bed inside a fluidized chimney. The phase diagram is plotted and partially interpreted using a model previously developed by Zoueshtiagh and Merlen [F. Zoueshtiagh and A. Merlen, Phys. Rev. E 75, 053613 (2007)]. A typical sequence, where the flow rate is first increased and then decreased back to zero, reveals a strong hysteretic behavior since the stability of the fluidized cavity is considerably strengthened during the defluidization phase. This effect can be explained by the formation of force arches within the granular packing when the chimney closes up at the top of the bed. A study of the expansion rate of the fluidized cavity was also conducted as well as the analysis of the interaction between two injection orifices with respect to their spacing.

  1. Reduction of Heat Emission to Surroundings From Improved Wood Burning Stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariya Kaneesamkandi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from emissions and inefficiency, heat generation from wood stoves to the surroundings is another undesirable effect causing health repercussions especially in the small dwellings of tropical regions. The present research addresses this problem. Steady state temperature measurements on the surface of the improved wood burning stove is used to determine this loss in which chimney draft control plays an important role. Experimental results were in good agreement with that of the model simulated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code. A modified model in which changes were introduced to reduce the radiation and convection losses from the stove to the surrounding regions was simulated. Firstly, the radiation losses from the fire was reduced by reducing the size of fuel supply port. Secondly, a waste heat recovery system was introduced which resulted in lower stove body temperature. This was done by optimizing the use of the draft produced by the chimney.Results of the modified model of the stove showed a reduction of this loss by 12.08%. Stoves currently used under the national project for rural energy development was used for this purpose. Apart from improving the stove efficiency, this development will have a positive impact on the acceptability of the improved wood stove in rural households and also help to further reduce fuel consumption.

  2. Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Marcello Bracale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. A 72-year-old female with a 6 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR.

  3. Geophysical Evidence for the Occurrence of Gas Hydrate in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea off Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, D.-G.; Kim, G.-Y.; Kang, D.-H.; Ryu, B.-J.

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of multi-channel seismic reflection data collected from the Ulleung Basin, East Sea reveals five types of seismic indicators that imply the existence of gas hydrate including the bottom simulating reflector (BSR), seismic chimney/column, acoustic blanking, enhanced reflections, and gas seepage. The BSR, the most common seismic indicator in the Ulleung Basin, is of high amplitude and good continuity in the southern slope, whereas it is of low amplitude and poor continuity in the northern basin. Seismic chimney/column of reduced reflectivity and velocity pull-up is commonly seen in the central basin and northeastern part of the study area and suggests that imply the probability of gas hydrate or gas fluids. Acoustic blanking of reduced reflectivity partly occurs on the central basin consisting of turbidite/pelagic sediment. Acoustic blanking related to column structures is common in the southeastern slope of the study area. Enhanced reflection below the BSR is seen in the western slope of the area and suggests the existence of free gas due to strong negative amplitude. Gas seepages combined with dome structures and pockmark are widely distributed on the southern slope, consisting of debris flow deposits.

  4. SImulated Dodewaard ASsembly: Developments in loop-design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, R. van de

    1992-03-01

    A computer program was written to calculate void-fraction, flow rate, system circulation time and pressure drops for SIDAS under natural circulation conditions. In this program the thermohydraulic behaviour of the loop is simulated. Taking into account for the large uncertainty in two-phase frictional pressure drops, the chimney length is calculated, together with the length of the tubes which connect the downcomer at assembly height with the assembly inlet in a roundabout way. Tube diameter is chosen such that the frictional pressure losses are negligible. Using the results, it was decided to construct the chimney `telescopically` (consisting of a fixed part and a movable part) in order to influence the driving force. Calculations of the enthalpy of the condensed vapour flow for various system conditions have shown that it is impractical to use this flow to lower the temperature of the total downcomer flow at the necessary subcooling temperature. It is therefore decided to use the condensor flow only for lowering the total downcomer flow enthalpy at saturation enthalpy and to establish the necessary subcooling separately by cooling of the flow in the connecting tubes. (orig.).

  5. Timing, Formation and Mobility of Melano Granophyric Liquids in the Skaergaard Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R. B.; Sorensen, B.; Müller, A.

    2009-12-01

    Melano granophyric rocks are common throughout the cumulus stratigraphy of the Skaergaard intrusion. According to most studies, they comprise the end products of parental Skaergaard melt differentiation. Previous studies suggest that granophyre solidified at 690 to 720 C, long after the main body of the intrusion had solidified at c. 1040 C. However, much uncertainty associates T of formation of the melano granophyric melts. To approach this T we studied the mineralogy of melano granophyric chimney structures in the Middle Zone (MZ), and in gabbroic pegmatites from the Lower Zone, MZ and the Upper Zone (UZa-c). 19 vertical chimney structures perpendicularly intersect the cumulus layering in the upper third of MZ. Each chimney is 1-4 m in diameter and only the upper 2-3 m's are exposed. Melano granophyre also host the uppermost part of gabbroic pegmatite and occur in isolated clots (c. 0.1-0.3 m in diameter) in the cumulus stratigraphy 1-2 m above the pegmatites. Finally, there are several sub conformable bodies in the UZc where large proportions are composed of melano granophyre. The largest body is 50 m thick and can be followed laterally for > 200 m's. Whether in chimney structures, in clots or in gabbroic pegmatite, the melano granophyre feature the same mineral assemblage. Most conspicuously, they carry 5-20 cm black columnar crystals of ferro-hedenbergite with augite rims. In thin sections, the ferro-hedenbergite component form minute platelets much like ferro-hedenbergite in the UZc and, similarly, the texture is taken as evidence for the ferro-bustamite to ferro-hedenbergite inversion that occurs at c. 970 C after ferro-bustamite formed at c. 1040 C. Otherwise the melano granophyres are dominated by euhedral plagioclase, quartz, fayalite, hastingsitic hornblende, apatite and ilmenite and granophyric quartz, alkali feldspar and albite. With 700-2000 ppm, Zr is an important accessory that either form euhedral or skeletal crystals or symplectites. Titanium in

  6. Gold-silver-tellurium mineral assemblages in different ore styles of the Southern Urals VHMS deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikov, V. V.; Zaykov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Tesalina, S. G.; Herrington, R. J.; Buschmann, B.; Becker, K.; Petersen, S.; Orgeval, J. J.; Leistel, M.

    2003-04-01

    VMS deposits of the South Urals generally show a continuum in degradation and reworking ranging from pristine steep-sided hydrothermal sulphide mounds to deposits dominated by layered strata of clastic sulphides. Four different deposits with varying degrees of degradation in order of increased reworking: (Yaman-Kasy longrightarrow Molodezhnoe longrightarrow Alexandrinskoe longrightarrow Balta-Tau) have been ranged. The influence of sulphide mound destruction and of sea-floor alteration on mineral assemblages was investigated In the pristine Yaman-Kasy sulphide mound gold and silver occur as altaite+tellurium+hessite-stuetzite+sylvanite and later galena+native gold+pyrite assemblages in chalcopyrite+isocubanite-rich linings of former chimney conduits. Chalcopyrite-dominated conduit fragments in clastic ore facies contain native tellurium+gold intergrowths. In the weakly reworked Molodezhnoe deposit gold-silver assemblages only occur in sea-floor altered clastic sulphides on the slope of massive sulphide mounds in bornite- and tennantite-rich ores in association with Cu-Ag sulfides such as jalpaite, mckinstryite, and stromeyerite and rare Au-Ag-tellurides (petzite). The Alexandrinskoe deposit is dominated by clastic ores and here native gold and rare hessite occur together with galena in tennantite-sphalerite-dominated veins of the footwall as well as in drusy sphalerite forming conduits of vent chimneys. An assemblage of electrum+galena+tennantite was observed in secondary chalcopyrite in the outer walls of chimneys. Native gold+stromeyerite are common in bornite-rich clastic sulphides while an assemblage of Ag-sulphosalts+electrum is common in barite-rich ores. In the reworked Balta-Tau deposit Ag-sulphosalts+electrum-kustelite occur often together with tennantite+galena+barite banded ores. Gold-silver-telluride mineralisation in these VMS deposits changes with degree of reworking from Au-tellurides, and native gold+galena+pyrite in pristine sulphide mounds to

  7. Submarine Hydrothermal Sites in Arc Volcanic-Back Arc Environment: Insight from Recent Marine Geophysical Investigations in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, L.; Ligi, M.; Bortoluzzi, G.; Petersen, S.; Plunkett, S.; Muccini, F.; Canese, S.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Carmisciano, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration processes involve mineralogical and chemical changes, which are reflected in a major modification of potential field patterns observed over hydrothermal areas. Basalt-hosted hydrothermal sites exhibit characteristic responses with magnetic lows and minima of the gravity field. Near bottom AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) based potential field surveys have become a very effective technique in deep sea exploration. Here we present results of recent ship-borne and near seafloor magnetic and gravity investigations at deep (Marsili and Palinuro seamounts) and shallow (Panarea, Basiluzzo and Secca del Capo) hydrothermal sites in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea including multibeam bathymetry, seafloor reflectivity and seismic profiles. At Marsili seamount, a large Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides-rich chimney field is located at the summit (500 m depth). This site is correlated with pronounced magnetic and gravity lows (0 A/m and 2.0 g/cm3). Deep tow magnetic survey (Cruise MAVA11) revealed strong association between the complicated magnetization pattern and the main volcano-tectonic features of the ridge. Hydrothermal manifestations at Palinuro seamount occur mainly on the western sector within the rim of a caldera structure at depth of 600m. Recent AUV based magnetic surveys (Cruise POS442, 2012 using AUV "Abyss") detailed a magnetization low interpreted to represent the local distribution of subseafloor hydrothermal alteration (potentially massive sulfide deposits), and also mapped previously undiscovered inactive chimney fields. Hydrothermal sites observed at the arc-related volcanic islands (Panarea, Basiluzzo, Eolo and Secca del Capo) are confined to shallow depths (less then 300m) and associated with large ochreaceous mounds, vents and chimney fields such as those observed E of Basiluzzo Island. At this site a recent magnetic survey (Cruise PANA13_ASTREA) combined with Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) investigations revealed that the submarine geothermal

  8. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-01

    The Gasbuggy site is in northern New Mexico in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County (Figure 1-1). The Gasbuggy experiment was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation, a tight, gas-bearing sandstone formation. The 29-kiloton-yield nuclear device was placed in a 17.5-inch wellbore at 4,240 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), approximately 40 ft below the Pictured Cliffs/Lewis shale contact, in an attempt to force the cavity/chimney formed by the detonation up into the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The test was conducted below the southwest quarter of Section 36, Township 29 North, Range 4 West, New Mexico Principal Meridian. The device was detonated on December 10, 1967, creating a 335-ft-high chimney above the detonation point and a cavity 160 ft in diameter. The gas produced from GB-ER (the emplacement and reentry well) during the post-detonation production tests was radioactive and diluted, primarily by carbon dioxide. After 2 years, the energy content of the gas had recovered to 80 percent of the value of gas in conventionally developed wells in the area. There is currently no technology capable of remediating deep underground nuclear detonation cavities and chimneys. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must continue to manage the Gasbuggy site to ensure that no inadvertent intrusion into the residual contamination occurs. DOE has complete control over the 1/4 section (160 acres) containing the shot cavity, and no drilling is permitted on that property. However, oil and gas leases are on the surrounding land. Therefore, the most likely route of intrusion and potential exposure would be through contaminated natural gas or contaminated water migrating into a producing natural gas well outside the immediate vicinity of ground zero. The purpose of this report is to describe the current site conditions and evaluate the potential health risks posed by the most plausible

  9. Application of Crunch-Flow Routines to Constrain Present and Past Carbon Fluxes at Gas-Hydrate Bearing Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marta

    2014-01-31

    In November 2012, Oregon State University initiated the project entitled: Application of Crunch-Flow routines to constrain present and past carbon fluxes at gas-hydrate bearing sites. Within this project we developed Crunch-Flow based modeling modules that include important biogeochemical processes that need to be considered in gas hydrate environments. Our modules were applied to quantify carbon cycling in present and past systems, using data collected during several DOE-supported drilling expeditions, which include the Cascadia margin in US, Ulleung Basin in South Korea, and several sites drilled offshore India on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. Specifically, we completed modeling efforts that: 1) Reproduce the compositional and isotopic profiles observed at the eight drilled sites in the Ulleung Basin that constrain and contrast the carbon cycling pathways at chimney (high methane flux) and non-chimney sites (low methane, advective systems); 2) Simulate the Ba record in the sediments to quantify the past dynamics of methane flux in the southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin; and 3) Provide quantitative estimates of the thickness of individual mass transport deposits (MTDs), time elapsed after the MTD event, rate of sulfate reduction in the MTD, and time required to reach a new steady state at several sites drilled in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin off India. In addition we developed a hybrid model scheme by coupling a home-made MATLAB code with CrunchFlow to address the methane transport and chloride enrichment at the Ulleung Basins chimney sites, and contributed the modeling component to a study focusing on pore-scale controls on gas hydrate distribution in sediments from the Andaman Sea. These efforts resulted in two manuscripts currently under review, and contributed the modeling component of another pare, also under review. Lessons learned from these efforts are the basis of a mini-workshop to be held at Oregon State University (Feb 2014) to instruct

  10. Physical controls on mixing and transport within rising submarine hydrothermal plumes: A numerical simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Breier, John A.

    2014-10-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the turbulent flow and species transport of deep-sea high temperature hydrothermal plumes. The model solves numerically the density weighted unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation and the species transport equation. Turbulent entrainment and mixing is modeled by a k-ε turbulence closure model. The CFD model explicitly considers realistic vent chimney geometry, vent exit fluid temperature and velocity, and background stratification. The model uses field measurements as model inputs and has been validated by field data. These measurements and data, including vent temperature and plume physical structure, were made in the ABE hydrothermal field of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center. A parametric sensitivity study based on this CFD model was conducted to determine the relative importance of vent exit velocity, background stratification, and chimney height on the mixing of vent fluid and seawater. The CFD model was also used to derive several important scalings that are relevant to understanding plume impact on the ocean. These scalings include maximum plume rise height, neutrally buoyant plume height, maximum plume induced turbulent diffusivity, and total plume vertically transported water mass flux. These scaling relationships can be used for constructing simplified 1-dimensional models of geochemistry and microbial activity in hydrothermal plumes. Simulation results show that the classical entrainment assumptions, typically invoked to describe hydrothermal plume transport, only apply up to the vertical level of ~0.6 times the maximum plume rise height. Below that level, the entrainment coefficient remains relatively constant (~0.15). Above that level, the plume flow consists of a pronounced lateral spreading flow, two branches of inward flow immediately above and below the lateral spreading, and recirculation flanking the plume cap region. Both turbulent kinetic energy

  11. Endotension: rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm Endotensão: ruptura de aneurisma de aorta abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aortic endovascular exclusion technique called 'chimney' consists of placing stents through abdominal aortic visceral branches and a prosthesis that excludes the thoraco-abdominal aneurysm. Stents and an aortic endoprosthesis are placed in the renal arteries. This method is primarily used when open surgery is too risky. The mechanism that provides aneurysm sac increase without the visible presence of endoleaks has not been fully elucidated. The expansion of the aneurysm sac, due to endotension, is difficult to diagnose, even with the use of advanced imaging tests. Its diagnosis is made by exclusion. We present a case of a late complication in a high-risk patient after a 'chimney' endovascular procedure. Following the surgery, the patient presented a ruptured aneurysm sac without a visible endoleak. A second intervention was not feasible due to the high risk of occluding all of the branches, and complicated by previous 'chimney'. Endotension is a possible cause of aneurysm rupture and death.A técnica de exclusão endovascular conhecida como 'chaminé' consiste na colocação de stent em ramos viscerais e de endoprótese excluindo o aneurisma toracoabdominal. São colocados stents revestidos nas artérias renais e uma endoprótese aórtica, que o método utilizado quando a cirurgia aberta tem risco muito alto. O mecanismo que causa a expansão aneurismática sem a presença detectável de vazamento pelos métodos de imagem não está completamente esclarecido. A expansão do saco aneurismático por endotensão é de difícil diagnóstico, mesmo com o uso de técnicas de imagem avançadas, como tomografia computadorizada e eco-Doppler, sendo o diagnóstico por exclusão. Apresenta-se um caso de complicação tardia após o tratamento endovascular pela técnica da 'chaminé'. Após a cirurgia, o paciente apresentou ruptura sem endoleak visível. Outro procedimento endovascular foi impossibilitado pela técnica da 'chaminé', que dificulta novos

  12. Investigation into extremely acidic hydrothermal fluids off Kueishan Tao, Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chentung A; WANG Bingjye; HUANG Jungfu; LOU Jiannyuh; KUO Fuwen; TU Yuehyuan; TSAI Hsienshiow

    2005-01-01

    Kueishan Tao (24°51'N, 121 °55′E) is located at a tectonic junction of the fault system extension of Taiwan and the southern rifting end of the Okinawa Trough. A cluster of over 30 vents, at a water depth of about 10~20 m off the eastern tip of the tao emits hydrothermal fluids and volcanic gases such as H2S. A sulfur chimney or mound, formed by condensation of the sulfur contained in the hydrothermal fluid, can usually be seen around the vents. The tallest chimney reaches 6 m. Vents discharging a yellowish fluid have temperatures between 92 and 116 ℃ and flow rates as high as 158 t/h; vents discharging a whitish fluid have lower temperatures of between 48 and 62 ℃ and lower flow rates of about 7.0 t/h. These world-record, breaking low pH (as low as 1.52) fluids are totally different from those found in the black and white-chimneys of the mid-ocean ridges. Magnesium and SiO2 data indicate that these hydrothermal fluids probably originate from a depth of 915~1 350 m below the surface.While the ratios of major ions relative to the sodium of these hydrothermal fluids are quite similar to open ocean water, the ratios of SO4 and chloride to sodium seem to be higher for some of the vents. It is suggested that the volcanic gases contribute SO4 and ohlorine to the fluids, hence increasing their ratios relative to sodium. Some hydrothermal fluids, however, are found to be depleted of the major elements which can have been caused by phase separation. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the fluids are much lower than those found in the mid-ocean ridges, while the aluminium content is higher. Four species of benthos (Xenograpsus testudinatus, a snail, a sea anemone, and a Sipuncala), 1 species of algae (Corallinaceae), and 1 species of fish (Siganus fusescens) were recorded near the hydrothermal vents. A mitoehondria DNA sequence comparison of Xenograpsus testudinatus with 6 other decapod species shows the greatest number of nitrogen base differences in the

  13. Massive Dissociation of Subsurface Gas Hydrates and Collapse of Gas Hydrate Mounds during the LGM in the Eastern Margin of Japan Sea: Evidence from Benthic Forams and U/Th ages of Authigenic Carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.; Takeuchi, E.; Sanno, R.

    2008-12-01

    A number of gigantic methane plumes, ca. 600 m high, and massive blocks of gas hydrate, ca. 0.5 m x 1.0 m, have been observed on the Umitaka spur and Joetsu knoll, eastern margin of Japan Sea. Large pockmarks and mounds, ca. 0.5 km in diameter, develop on the spur and knoll. The mounds exhibit rough morphological features characterized by small valleys of 5m wide, steep cliffs, crater-like depressions of 10 m in diameter, and scattered carbonate nodules and crusts of various size and shape with occasional gas hydrate blocks and veins and gas venting. To the contrary, pockmarks are inactive, partly filled by well-stratified mud without any indication of gas venting. 2D and 3D seismic surveys have recognized widely distributed BSRs at around 150 mbsf over the spur and knoll. Seismic profiles delineated deep gas chimney structures below the pockmarks and mounds. Unusual pull-up structures within gas chimneys indicate massive accumulation of gas hydrate. All these findings are likely to suggest that massive hydrate deposits both in gas chimneys at depths and hydrate mounds on the spur and knoll were collapsed and floated up to the sea surface, leaving big holes (= pockmarks) on the seafloor. Quantitative analysis of foraminiferal assemblage has revealed that the well laminated, burrow-free 17 to 22 ka sediments are substantially barren for benthic forams but for unusual species which has been believed to survive under high methane environments. Shells of such a few benthic formas from around 20 ka sediments are anomalously depleted in C-13. U-Th ages of authigenic carbonates of CH4-induced carbonate nodules and crusts are likely to center around 20 ka. Above line of evidences all suggest that gas hydrate system was collapsed and methane fluxes were enhanced during the last glacial maximum (LGM), presumably due to low stand of sea level and pressure release. Broken gas hydrate blocks are expected to float up to the sea surface to supply significant amount of methane to

  14. Structural shell analysis understanding and application

    CERN Document Server

    Blaauwendraad, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical description of the properties of a shell is much more elaborate than those of beam and plate structures. Therefore many engineers and architects are unacquainted with aspects of shell behaviour and design, and are not familiar with sufficiently reliable shell theories for the different shell types as derived in the middle of the 20th century. Rather than contributing to theory development, this university textbook focuses on architectural and civil engineering schools. Of course, practising professionals will profit from it as well. The book deals with thin elastic shells, in particular with cylindrical, conical and spherical types, and with elliptic and hyperbolic paraboloids. The focus is on roofs, chimneys, pressure vessels and storage tanks. Special attention is paid to edge bending disturbance zones, which is indispensable knowledge in FE meshing. A substantial part of the book results from research efforts in the mid 20th century at Delft University of Technology. As such, it is a valua...

  15. Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in mid-okinawa trough backarc basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H; Gamo, T; Kim, E S; Tsutsumi, M; Tanaka, T; Ishibashi, J; Wakita, H; Yamano, M; Oomori, T

    1990-06-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich fluid bubbles, containing approximately 86 percent CO(2), 3 percent H(2)S, and 11 percent residual gas (CH(4) + H(2)), were observed to emerge from the sea floor at 1335- to 1550-m depth in the JADE hydrothermal field, mid-Okinawa Trough. Upon contact with seawater at 3.8 degrees C, gas hydrate immediately formed on the surface of the bubbles and these hydrates coalesced to form pipes standing on the sediments. Chemical composition and carbon, sulfur, and helium isotopic ratios indicate that the CO(2)-rich fluid was derived from the same magmatic source as dissolved gases in 320 degrees C hydrothermal solution emitted from a nearby black smoker chimney. The CO(2)-rich fluid phase may be separated by subsurface boiling of hydrothermal solutions or by leaching of CO(2)-rich fluid inclusion during posteruption interaction between pore water and volcanogenic sediments.

  16. The use of renewable energy in the form of methane via electrolytic hydrogen generation using carbon dioxide as the feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Kumagai, Naokazu; Izumiya, Koichi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Shinomiya, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yusuke; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kato, Zenta

    2016-12-01

    The history reveals the continuous increase in world energy consumption and carbon emissions. For prevention of intolerable global warming and complete exhaustion of fossil fuels we need complete conversion from fossil fuel consumption to renewable energy. We have been performing the research and development of global carbon dioxide recycling for more than 25 years to supply renewable energy to the world in the form of methane produced by the reaction of carbon dioxide captured from chimney with hydrogen generated electrolytically using electricity generated by renewable energy. We created the cathode and anode for electrolytic hydrogen generation and the catalyst for carbon dioxide methanation by the reaction with hydrogen. The methane formation from renewable energy will be the most convenient and efficient key technology for the use of renewable energy by storage of intermittent and fluctuating electricity generated from renewable energy and by regeneration of stable electricity. Domestic and international cooperation of companies for industrialization is in progress.

  17. Heating with wood. A guide to clean and proper heating; Heizen mit Holz. Ein Ratgeber zum richtigen und sauberen Heizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Anja [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany); Kemper, Bernd-Michael [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg (LUBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    When correctly used, wood is an eco-friendly fuel. By using well-processed wood from local sources in a properly handled modern fireplace, you can enjoy the cosy warmth from your wood-burning stove or boiler without causing significant environmental damage. The environment and your neighbours will be grateful for this. This brochure is intended to give you tips on how to properly operate a wood-based heating system - in technical terms referred to as a small combustion installation. Especially the burning of poor quality wood in old and insufficiently maintained stoves and unfavourable combustion conditions will result in the emission of unnecessarily high levels of greenhouse gases having adverse effects on the climate, and pollutants detrimental to your health. Particularly in urban agglomerations and valleys, the air quality is affected by wood heating systems due to low chimneys. Often, neighbours will feel annoyed.

  18. Air Pollution Simulation based on different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhaimin

    2017-01-01

    Simulation distribution of pollutants (SOx and NOx) emitted from Cirebon power plant activities have been carried out. Gaussian models and scenarios are used to predict the concentration of pollutant gasses. The purposes of this study were to determine the distribution of the flue gas from the power plant activity and differences pollutant gas concentrations in the wet and dry seasons. The result showed that the concentration of pollutant gasses in the dry season was higher than the wet season. The difference of pollutant concentration because of wind speed, gas flow rate, and temperature of the gas that flows out of the chimney. The maximum concentration of pollutant gasses in wet season for SOx is 30.14 µg/m3, while NOx is 26.35 µg/m3. Then, The simulation of air pollution in the dry season for SOx is 42.38 µg/m3, while NOx is 34.78 µg/m3.

  19. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection in Open-Ended Channels with Application to Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timchenko V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical and experimental investigations of the flow and heat transfer in open-ended channel formed by the double skin façade have been undertaken in order to improve understanding of the phenomena and to apply it to passive cooling of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Both uniform heating and non-uniform heating configurations in which heat sources alternated with unheated zones on both skins were studied. Different periodic and asymmetric heating modes have been considered for the same aspect ratio 1/15 of wall distance to wall height and for periodicity 1/15 and 4/15 of heated/unheated zones and heat input, 220 W/m2. In computational study three dimensional transient LES simulation was carried out. It is shown that in comparison to uniformly heating configuration, non-uniformly heating configuration enhances both convective heat transfer and chimney effect.

  20. Is high-pressure water the cradle of life?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule [Universite de Strasbourg-3, Departement Chimie, 72 route du Rhin, 67400 Illkirch (France)

    2003-06-25

    Several theories have been proposed for the synthesis of prebiotic molecules. This letter shows that the structure of supercritical water, or high-pressure water, could trigger prebiotic synthesis and the origin of life deep in the oceans, in hydrothermal vent systems. Dimer geometries of high-pressure water may have a point of symmetry and a zero dipole moment. Consequently, simple apolar molecules found in submarine hydrothermal vent systems will dissolve in the apolar environment provided by the apolar form of the water dimer. Apolar water could be the medium which helps precursor molecules to concentrate and react more efficiently. The formation of prebiotic molecules could thus be linked to the structure of the water inside chimney nanochannels and cavities where hydrothermal piezochemistry and shock wave chemistry could occur. (letter to the editor)

  1. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  2. Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwhuis, Wilco; Peters, Ivo R; Brunet, Philippe; van der Meer, Devaraj; Snoeijer, Jacco H

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of `star drops'. This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage of this work is that we inject the airflow at a constant rate below the drop, thus eliminating thermal effects and allowing for a better control of the flow rate. We perform experiments with drops of different viscosities and observe stable states, oscillations and chimney instabilities. We find that for a given drop size the instability appears above a critical flow rate, where the latter is largest for small drops. All these observations are reproduced by numerical simulations, where we treat the drop using potential flow and the gas as a viscous lubrication layer. Qualitatively, the onset of instability agrees with the experimental results, although the typical flow rates are too large by a factor 10. Our results...

  3. The history and future trends of ocean warming-induced gas hydrate dissociation in the SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Chand, Shyam; Bünz, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The Barents Sea is a major part of the Arctic where the Gulf Stream mixes with the cold Arctic waters. Late Cenozoic uplift and glacial erosion have resulted in hydrocarbon leakage from reservoirs, evolution of fluid flow systems, shallow gas accumulations, and hydrate formation throughout the Barents Sea. Here we integrate seismic data observations of gas hydrate accumulations along with gas hydrate stability modeling to analyze the impact of warming ocean waters in the recent past and future (1960-2060). Seismic observations of bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) indicate significant thermogenic gas input into the hydrate stability zone throughout the SW Barents Sea. The distribution of BSR is controlled primarily by fluid flow focusing features, such as gas chimneys and faults. Warming ocean bottom temperatures over the recent past and in future (1960-2060) can result in hydrate dissociation over an area covering 0.03-38% of the SW Barents Sea.

  4. Twisting phonons in complex crystals with quasi-one-dimensional substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Weathers, Annie; Carrete, Jesús; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Delaire, Olivier; Stewart, Derek A; Mingo, Natalio; Girard, Steven N; Ma, Jie; Abernathy, Douglas L; Yan, Jiaqiang; Sheshka, Raman; Sellan, Daniel P; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song; Zhou, Jianshi; Shi, Li

    2015-04-15

    A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain the low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.

  5. Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, P. G.; Lane, A. L.; Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a non-contact, optical life detection instrument that can detect organic chemical biosignatures in a number of different environments, including dry land, shallow aqueous, deep marine or in ice. Hence, the instrument is appropriate as a biosignature survey tool both for Mars exploration or in situ experiments in an ice-covered ocean such as one might wish to explore on Europa. Here, we report the results we obtained on an expedition aboard the Russian oceanographic vessel Akademik Mstislav Keldysh to hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean using our life detection instrument MCDUVE, a multichannel, deep ultraviolet excitation fluorescence detector. MCDUVE detected organic material distribution on rocks near the vent, as well as direct detection of organisms, both microbial and microscopic. We also were able to detect organic material issuing directly from vent chimneys, measure the organic signature of the water column as we ascended, and passively observe the emission of light directly from some vents.

  6. Static analysis of masonry kilns built with fictile tubules bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivito, Renato S.; Scuro, Carmelo; Codispoti, Rosamaria

    2016-12-01

    Industrial archeology is a branch that studies all the testimony (tangible and intangible, direct and indirect) related to the process of industrialization since its origins. This technical field is based on an interdisciplinary approach, it has the task of deepening the story, understanding the technological development made by man over the centuries. The present work focused attention on the study and analysis of a masonry kiln, built with the technique of hollow clay fictile tubules. The study, in particular, has been carried out analyzing the stress state caused by the wind on the structure. The kiln is constituted by a particular geometric configuration that develops in height due to the presence of chimney over the dome.

  7. ‘Working from home: the life and art of Giovanni Baratta’: Francesco Freddolini, Giovanni Baratta 1670-1747. Scultura e industria del marmo tra la Toscana e le corti d’Europa, LermArte documenti 10, Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Montagu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This monograph describes the life and work of a major marble sculptor who, after his initial training and a period of work in Florence, returned to his native city of Carrara. There he developed the family workshop, where he was able to control the making of marble sculpture from the quarries through the transportation by ship to the installation. With the aid of many assistants, including his brothers and cousins who were also sculptors, he produced not only figurative sculpture but ornamental marble doorways, chimney-pieces, and columns with their bases and capitals. He had gained the patronage of the king of Denmark and the Duke of Marlborough, Madama Reale in Turin, and (through his friendship with Filippo Juvarra the king of Spain, but he seldom moved from his home, preferring to export his sculpture to many cities in Italy and abroad.

  8. Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M. Y.; Vander Wal, R. L.; Zhou, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute calibration of laser-induced incandescence (LII) is demonstrated via comparison of LII signal intensities with gravimetrically determined soot volume fractions. This calibration technique does not rely upon calculated or measured optical characteristics of soot. The variation of the LII signal with gravimetrically measured soot volume fractions ranging from 0.078 to 1.1 ppm established the linearly of the calibration. With the high spatial and temporal resolution capabilities of laser-induced incandescence (LII), the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the soot field within a gravimetric chimney were characterized. Radial uniformity of the soot volume fraction, f(sub v) was demonstrated with sufficient averaging of the single laser-shot LII images of the soot field thus confirming the validity of the calibration method for imaging applications. As illustration, instantaneous soot volume fractions within a Re = 5000 ethylene/air diffusion flame measured via planar LII were established quantitatively with this calibration.

  9. Field Studies Target 2012 Haida Gwaii Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Thomas; Rogers, Garry; Cassidy, John; Dragert, Herb; Hyndman, Roy; Leonard, Lucinda; Nykolaishen, Lisa; Riedel, Michael; Schmidt, Michael; Wang, Kelin

    2013-05-01

    At 8:04 P.M. Pacific daylight time (PDT) on 27 October 2012 (03:04 universal time (UT), 28 October), Canada's second largest instrumentally recorded earthquake rocked Haida Gwaii (formerly Queen Charlotte Islands) and the mainland coast of British Columbia. The M 7.7 event off the west coast of Moresby Island caused a tsunami with local runup of more than 7 meters and amplitudes up to 0.8 meter on tide gauges 4000 kilometers away in Hawaii. Shaking was felt as far away as the Yukon, Alberta, Washington, and Montana, up to 1500 kilometers away. Little damage was caused, as the immediate region is an uninhabited National Park Reserve. The closest point of the rupture zone, as defined by aftershocks (Figures 1a and 1c), was 50 kilometers from the nearest community, Queen Charlotte, where damage was confined to a few chimneys and slumped roads.

  10. Microvasculature in the terminal air spaces of the lungs of the Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Inomata, Tomo; Shirouzu, Hiroshi

    2004-12-01

    Lungs were obtained from five adult Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) and examined by means of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of corrosion casts. The alveolar septa of these whales are thick with a connective tissue core and a bi-layer capillary bed. A double capillary network is regularly found in the alveolar duct and alveolar septa. Occasionally, septa adjacent to alveoli and alveoli themselves show only a single capillary layer. The distance between the two capillary layers has a tendency to decrease toward the end of airspaces, suggesting an end result of capillary fusion. Vascular replicas of venous vessels have annular furrows at regular intervals of 50 to 100 microm, which are caused by focal aggregations of collagen fibers circularly oriented and located immediately underneath the endothelium. The first valves appear in the collecting venules gathering alveolar capillaries. These valves are quite characteristic of flap-, funnel-and/or chimney like structures.

  11. New records of recently described chemosymbiotic bivalves for mud volcanoes within the European waters (Gulf of Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. RUEDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemosymbiotic bivalves are important members of cold seep communities and information on their distribution in theEuropean waters is still quite scarce. This study reports the presence of living populations and shell remains of some recently described bivalves such as Lucinoma asapheus, Solemya elarraichensis and Acharax gadirae as well as Bathymodiolus sp. in the mud volcanoes of the Spanish Atlantic waters. Living populations of these species were thus far only found in Anastasya, Aveiro and Almazán mud volcanoes, together with other chemosymbiotic metazoa (Siboglinum spp., suggesting the presence of moderate seepage activity. In other mud volcanoes (Albolote, Gazul, the benthic communities are dominated by sessile filter feeders on authigenic carbonates (chimneys, slabs and only the shell remains of some chemosymbiotic bivalves were found, indicating earlier or very low seepage conditions. The present study elaborates on the known distribution of L. asapheus and S. elarraichensis to the European waters of the Gulf of Cádiz.

  12. Transitional dispersive scenarios driven by mesoscale flows on complex terrain under strong dry convective conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Palau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By experimentation and modelling, this paper analyses the atmospheric dispersion of the SO2 emissions from a power plant on complex terrain under strong convective conditions, describing the main dispersion features as an ensemble of "stationary dispersive scenarios" and reformulating some "classical" dispersive concepts to deal with the systematically monitored summer dispersive scenarios in inland Spain. The results and discussions presented arise from a statistically representative study of the physical processes associated with the multimodal distribution of pollutants aloft and around a 343-m-tall chimney under strong dry convective conditions in the Iberian Peninsula. This paper analyses the importance of the identification and physical implications of transitional periods for air quality applications. The indetermination of a transversal plume to the preferred transport direction during these transitional periods implies a small (or null physical significance of the classical definition of horizontal standard deviation of the concentration distribution.

  13. Simulations of dispersion and deposition of coarse particulate matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the dispersion and deposition of coarse anthropogenic particulate matter (PMc, aerodynamic diameters> 10 mm), a FORTRAN simulator based on the numerical integrator of Bulirsch and Stoer has been developed. It calculates trajectories of particles of several shapes released into the atmosphere under very general conditions. This first version, fully three-dimensional, models the meteorology under neutral stability conditions. The simulations of such pollutants are also important because the standard software (usually originating in the United States Environmental Protection Agency-EPA-) describe only the behavior of PM10 (diameter less than 10 mm). Bulirsch and Stoer integrator of widespread use in astrophysics, is also very fast and accurate for this type of simulations. We present 2D and 3D trajectories in physical space and discuss the final deposition in function of various parameters. PMc simulations results in the range of 50-100 mm and densities of 5.5 g cm-3 emitted from chimneys, indi...

  14. Old bulgarian architecture - an university of solar energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrinova, Annie [Bulgarian Solar Energy Society, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-01

    The impressing involvement of the ancient Bulgarian houses in the surroundings and their composition reveal nearly all aspects of Solar Energy (SE) and energy efficiency(EE) tools' application. In this paper are concerned (and richly illustrated), namely: direct/indirect gains, thermal mass, convectional loops, sun spaces (atrium case), solar chimney, synthesis exterior/interior; etc. The joint effect is highly convincing in the SE and EE knowledge of ancient anonymous master-builder. The SE conception is obviously always well considered, readable, well planned and its combined effect is not accidental at all. Such investigation could be of great importance for a new meaning (not only in Bulgaria) to History of Architecture. Investigations like this could motivate a future unwritten yet Bioclimatic history of world architecture. (orig.)

  15. {sup 29}Si-NMR study of the absorbent for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Hideshi; Kanuka, Nariyasu; Kanai, Ryu-ichi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The flue gas from a coal fired boiler contains a high concentration of SO{sub 2} which should be removed before emitted from a chimney for protection of environment from pollution. A wet desulfurization system is commonly adopted for flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in the absorbent, but needs a large amount of water. As dry FDD systems, a duct injection and a slurry spraying are adopted. The efficiency, however, is not so high as compared to a wet FGD system. Recently, the SO{sub 2} absorbent which exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in a dry FGD process was prepared from a coal fly-ash, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaSO{sub 4} by hydrothermal reaction. In this project, we studied the structural changes of the absorbent during the hydrothermal reation and sulfur dioxide absorption by silicon 29-MASNMR.

  16. 石灰岩介质中地下核试验熔岩的矿物研究及其形成过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡华昌; 王道德

    1984-01-01

    The melt rocks produced during an underground nuclear explosion in the limestone medium may be classified into three types in the light of thin-section examinations and chemical compositions. One of them is the carbonate melt rock which is distributed widely and very large in quantities. About 20 kinds of monominerals were identified by X-ray powder and electron microprobe techniques. Some minerals, such as moissanite, brownkillerite, Ca12Ah14O33, etc., are rare or have not yet been discovered in nature. In addition, this paper presents the four stages of formation of the melt rocks, i.e., the vaporization-liquefaction stage, the initial crystallization-cavity stripping stage, the crystallization stage, and the chimney formation-thermal metamorphism stags. Furthermore, preliminary theoretical analysis was carried out of the physico-chemical process of mineral formation.

  17. Geology of the Alarcón Rise Based on 1-m Resolution Bathymetry and ROV Observations and Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Martin, J. F.; Paduan, J. B.; Portner, R. A.; Bowles, J. A.; Castillo, P. R.; Dreyer, B. M.; Guardado-France, R.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.; Rivera-Huerta, H.; Santa Rosa-del Rio, M.; Spelz-Madero, R.

    2012-12-01

    Alarcón Rise is a ~50 km-long segment of the northernmost East Pacific Rise, bounded on the north and south by the Pescadero and Tamayo Fracture Zones. In April 2012, the MBARI AUV D. Allan B. completed a 1.5-3.1-km wide bathymetric map along the neovolcanic zone between the two fracture zones during 10 surveys. A single AUV survey was also completed on Alarcón Seamount, a near-ridge seamount with 4 offset calderas. Bathymetric data have 1 m lateral and 0.2 m vertical resolution. The maps guided 8 dives of the ROV Doc Ricketts on the ridge and 1 on the seamount. The morphology of the rise changes dramatically along strike and includes an inflated zone, centered ~14 km from the southern end, paved by a young sheet flow erupted from an 8-km-long en echelon fissure system. A young flat-topped volcano and an older shield volcano occur near the center of the ridge segment. Areas nearer the fracture zones are mainly pillow mounds and ridges, some strongly cut by faults and fissures, but others have few structural disruptions. More than 150 of the 194 lava samples recovered from the neovolcanic zone are aphyric to plagioclase-phyric to ultraphyric N-MORB with glass MgO ranging up to 8.5%. The basal cm from 87 short cores contain common limu o Pele and adequate foramifers to provide minimum radiocarbon ages for the underlying lava flows. A rugged lava dome of rhyolite (based on glass compositions) is surrounded by large pillow flows of dacite, centered ~8 km from the north end of the Rise. Pillow flows are steeply uptilted for 2-3 km north and south of the dome, possibly reflecting intrusion of viscous rhyolitic dikes along strike. Near the southern end of this deformed zone, an andesite flow crops out in a fault scarp. Mapping data also reveal the presence of about 110 apparent hydrothermal chimney structures as tall as 18 m, scattered along roughly the central half of the Rise. Subsequent ROV dives observed 70 of these structures and found active venting at 22 of them

  18. Evaluation of Efficiency in Steam Generator of C3 Power Plant at Cap Des Biches in Dakar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to determine the efficiency of the power plant boiler steam C3 Cape deer and to evaluate the impact of it. We chose to calculate the return by the empirical formula of Martin which is based on two important parameters which are the temperature at the exit of the chimney and the ambient temperature. The calculation of these efficiencies allowed us to make comparative studies with data from the manufacturer and we have detected anomalies. On this basis we made a number of recommendations for improvement of the groups in normal, the application will lead to an optimization of the real exploitation of groups and a performance improvement. We gave various reasons for poor performance of steam generators and recommendations that can be used both in production efficiency on compliance with operating instructions. Solutions have been proposed after diagnosis with particular emphasis on compliance with operating instructions and maintenance schedule.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-18, 184-B Powerhouse Debris Pile, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-11-30

    The 100-B-18 Powerhouse Debris Pile contained miscellaneous demolition waste from the decommissioning activities of the 184-B Powerhouse. The debris covered an area roughly 15 m by 30 m and included materials such as concrete blocks, mixed aggregate/concrete slabs, stone rubble, asphalt rubble, traces of tar/coal, broken fluorescent lights, brick chimney remnants, and rubber hoses. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Observations on the effects of some air pollutants on Zea mays leaf tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cireli, B.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of pollutants contained in factory chimney gases of a cement factory on corn seedlings were studied. Plants exposed to pollutants showed growth inhibition and appeared lighter green than control plants. Under the light microscope, large intercellular areas were observed between atypical epidermal, palisade, and spongy cells. Contents of palisade and spongy parenchyma cells were accumulated at certain regions of the cell and chloroplasts changed in shape. Electron microscopic examination of control plants showed mesophyll cells with normal ultrastructure. In the gas exposed plants, breaking of the cell wall at certain points was observed as well as cytoplasm accumulation at certain regions of the cell and occurrence of large vacuolar structures within the cytoplasm. It may be concluded that air pollutants, affecting metabolic activities within the cell, give rise to anatomical and cytological modifications in the palisade parenchyma. 21 references, 5 figures.

  1. Elements of an algorithm for optimizing a parameter-structural neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrówczyńska Maria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of processing information provided by measurement results is one of the most important components of geodetic technologies. The dynamic development of this field improves classic algorithms for numerical calculations in the aspect of analytical solutions that are difficult to achieve. Algorithms based on artificial intelligence in the form of artificial neural networks, including the topology of connections between neurons have become an important instrument connected to the problem of processing and modelling processes. This concept results from the integration of neural networks and parameter optimization methods and makes it possible to avoid the necessity to arbitrarily define the structure of a network. This kind of extension of the training process is exemplified by the algorithm called the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH, which belongs to the class of evolutionary algorithms. The article presents a GMDH type network, used for modelling deformations of the geometrical axis of a steel chimney during its operation.

  2. Passive options for solar cooling of buildings in arid areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Emad H. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Menofiya University, Gamal Abdul Nasser St., Shebin El-kom, Menofiya (Egypt)

    2006-07-15

    The major heat load of buildings and workshops, made of metal structures, is the solar energy supplied through the roof. Several passive modifications have been introduced to the roof in order to reduce the temperature of indoor air in arid areas. An experimental investigation, employing passive modifications, has been carried out to study the reduction in air temperature. The results show that the inside air temperature falls to within 6 and 3{sup o}C, respectively, from the ambient temperature when the ceiling is painted white, or provided with a layer of thermal insulation. Using evaporative cooling or a solar chimney leads to an inside temperature within 1{sup o}C of the ambient temperature. (author)

  3. Structure and Evolution of Hot Gas in 30 Dor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q D

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the structure and evolution of hot gas in the 30 Dor nebula, based on recent X-ray observations. Our deep ROSAT HRI image shows that diffuse X-ray emission arises in blister-shaped regions outlined by loops of HII gas. X-ray spectroscopic data from ASCA confirm the thermal nature of the emission and indicate that hot gas temperature decreases from the core to the halo of the nebula. The structure of the nebula can be understood as outflows of hot and HII gases from the parent giant molecular cloud of the central OB association. The dynamic mixing between the two gas phases is likely responsible for the mass loading to the hot gas, as required to explain the observed thermal structure and X-ray luminosity of the nebula. Such processes should also be important in the formation of similar giant HII regions and in their subsequent evolution into supergiant bubbles or galactic chimneys.

  4. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Shiradkar, Narendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 to 1000 V. The two main factors, i.e., open circuiting of the dc circuit and of the bypass diodes and ground faults that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems, have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as designing the PV array mounting system to minimize the chimney effect, having proper bypass and blocking diodes, and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  5. [Molybdenum as an air pollutant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, R; Junker, E; Hoheiser, H

    1990-07-01

    Investigations into the reasons for the retarded growth and discolouration of a small area of a field of rape situated on the outskirts of Vienna revealed higher than normal levels of molybdenum in the soil (up to 430 micrograms/l) and in the water (up to 9.7 mg/l). The source of the pollution was traced to a neighbouring industrial plant that was emitting the metal via the chimney stack. A review of the literature on the toxic effects of molybdenum in general and as an air pollutant in particular is provided. This shows that, in contrast to animals, this effect is relatively small in humans and plants. Nevertheless, the occupation-related inhalation of the metal has been shown to be associated with pneumoconiosis and gout-like symptoms.

  6. Spiral precipitation patterns in confined chemical gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudin, Florence; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Brau, Fabian; De Wit, A

    2014-12-09

    Chemical gardens are mineral aggregates that grow in three dimensions with plant-like forms and share properties with self-assembled structures like nanoscale tubes, brinicles, or chimneys at hydrothermal vents. The analysis of their shapes remains a challenge, as their growth is influenced by osmosis, buoyancy, and reaction-diffusion processes. Here we show that chemical gardens grown by injection of one reactant into the other in confined conditions feature a wealth of new patterns including spirals, flowers, and filaments. The confinement decreases the influence of buoyancy, reduces the spatial degrees of freedom, and allows analysis of the patterns by tools classically used to analyze 2D patterns. Injection moreover allows the study in controlled conditions of the effects of variable concentrations on the selected morphology. We illustrate these innovative aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple geometrical model, a new class of self-similar logarithmic spirals observed in a large zone of the parameter space.

  7. Research on Climate Change and Its Impacts Needs Freedom of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Mölders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change captured my interest as a teenager when, at the dining table, my dad talked about potential anthropogenic climate changes. He brought up subjects such as “climate could change if the Siberian Rivers were to be deviated to the South for irrigation of the (semi arid areas of the former Soviet Union”. Other subjects were afforestation in the Sahel to enhance precipitation recycling, deforestation in the Tropics that could have worldwide impacts on climate, the local climate impacts of the Merowe High Dam in its vicinity and downstream, Atlantropa, a new ice age, and the increase in days with sunshine after the introduction of the high-chimney policy in the Rhein-Ruhr area, just to mention a few.

  8. The Fatigue Behavior of Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    2009-01-01

    of the investigation, fatigue test series with a total of 540 fatigue tests have been carried through on various types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel or high-strength steel. The fatigue tests......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading has been studied in a number of investigations at the Technical University of Denmark. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part...... and the fracture mechanics analyses have been carried out using load histories, which are realistic in relation to the types of structures studied, i.e. primarily bridges, offshore structures and chimneys. In general, the test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude...

  9. The Fatigue Behavior of Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    2008-01-01

    of the investigation, fatigue test series with a total of 540 fatigue tests have been carried through on various types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel or high-strength steel. The fatigue tests......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading has been studied in a number of investigations at the Technical University of Denmark. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part...... and the fracture mechanics analyses have been carried out using load histories, which are realistic in relation to the types of structures studied, i.e. primarily bridges, offshore structures and chimneys. In general, the test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude...

  10. Fatigue in Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    1999-01-01

    types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 360-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-1010 MPa. The fatigue tests and the fracture mechanics analyses......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series have been carried through on various...... have been carried out using load histories, which are realistic in relation to the types of structures studied, i.e. primarily bridges, offshore structures and chimneys. In general, the test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue...

  11. Inspección y mantenimiento de chimeneas industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinilla Rodríguez, Fernando

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article various aspects relating to the inspection of stacks are considered briefly. This work intends to justify the necessity of a periodical inspection to avoid unnecessary risk. A chimney without a regular inspection can be a danger for the for surrounding area, and the repairing of its damage can reach a very high cost.En este artículo se consideran brevemente diferentes aspectos relativos a la inspección de chimeneas. Este trabajo intenta justificar la necesidad de una inspección periódica para evitar riesgos innecesarios. Una chimenea que no sea inspeccionada con regularidad, puede llegar a ser un peligro para el área que la rodea y la reparación de sus daños puede alcanzar un coste muy elevado.

  12. Social-Economic Criteria about the Application of Shell Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoermes González Haramboure

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available TaThis paper provide arguments about the relevance of research and application of shell foundations,from a literature review that sets the theoretical and practical development attained by Cuban civilengineering in this field. It identifies several Cuban buildings with great social and economic importance,where the use of shell foundations helped to reduce the construction cost, and construction difficultiesattributed to its execution were refuted. Are mentioned the main theoretical contributions and studiesthat established equations and calculation methods applied to shells for «tower» structures foundations.By comparison in terms of volumes of materials, costs, volumes of fuel consumed and CO2 emittedinto the atmosphere in cement production, this article concludes on economic and environmentaladvantages of implementing shell foundations with respect to traditional flat base foundations in elevatedtanks type «Güira» and chimneys for sugar industries.

  13. Combustion Quality Estimation in Power Station Boilers using Median Threshold Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sujatha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of combustion quality in power station boilers is of great importance in the present scenario as it plays an important role in controlling the air pollution. The harmful gases like NOx and CO from the chimney causes air pollution. The amount of NOx and CO concentration in flue gas can be maintained within admissible limits by analyzing the flame colour. The colour of the flame is affected by combustion quality. When complete combustion takes place the amount these gases at the exit are within tolerance. Hence if the quality of combustion was estimated from the flame using image processing technique, it is possible to minimize the air pollution. This new strategy developed uses median threshold for feature reduction and various clustering algorithms to estimate the quality of combustion.

  14. Galactic Worm 123.4-1.5 A Mushroom-shaped HI Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    English, J; Mashchenko, S Y; Irwin, J A; Basu, S; Johnstone, D; English, Jayanne; Mashchenko, Sergey Y; Irwin, Judith A; Basu, Shantanu; Johnstone, Doug

    2000-01-01

    The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory's Synthesis Telescope providesthe highest resolution data (1 arcmin and 0.82 km/s) to date of an HI wormcandidate. Observed as part of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey,mushroom-shaped GW 123.4-1.5 extends only a few hundred parsecs, contains ~10^5solar masses of neutral hydrogen, and appears unrelated to a conventional shellor chimney structure. Our preliminary Zeus-2d models use a single off-planeexplosion with a modest (~10^{51} ergs) energy input. These generic simulationsgenerate, interior to an expanding outer blast wave, a buoyant cloud whosestructure resembles the morphology of the observed feature. Unlike typicalmodel superbubbles, the stem can be narrow because its width is not governed bythe pressure behind the blast wave nor the disk scale height. Using this typeof approach it should be possible to more accurately model the thin stem andother details of GW 123.4-1.5 in the future.

  15. Athletics hall, Odenwald school, Heppenheim, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, M. [Trans Solar GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This building, completed in 1995, is a good example of how to use a glazed foyer, not only as a climatic buffer zone, but also for preheating the inlet air by solar gains. The completely glazed west-oriented foyer is used as a huge air collector to preheat ventilation air during the heating period. The glass superstructure across the hall stores a movable curtain, serves as a skylight and enhances the natural ventilation of the hall due to the chimney effect. The stiffening ribs of the floor are also used as an air duct to the hall and as an installation duct. Photovoltaic-powered fans are used to move solar preheated air into the hall. (author)

  16. Summer-house package, Slettestrand, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, S.O. [Danish Technical Inst., Taastruup (Denmark). Solar Energy Centre

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this system is to keep buildings dry by blowing solar-heated ambient air into the building during hours of sunshine. Several hundred of these mass-produced solar air systems have been sold, chiefly in Denmark and Spain. In Denmark, the Summer- House Package is mostly used to keep summer houses and week-end cottages dry during the winter, in order to prevent moisture damage to furniture, etc. In Spain it is used to dehumidify dwellings. For space heating gas is often burned in furnaces without chimneys, which generates much moisture in the building and consequently damages the walls. Yearly repainting of the house interior can be avoided by the installation of this system. Mass-production 'do-it-yourself' building kits make the system very inexpensive. (author)

  17. Synthesis and serotonin receptor activity of the arylpiperazine alkyl/propoxy derivatives of new azatricycloundecanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarski, A J; Kuran, B; Kossakowski, J; Kozioł, A; Jagiełło-Wójtowicz, E; Chodkowska, A

    2009-01-01

    A set of 36 arylpiperazine derivatives with two novel complex terminal imide fragments, 8,11-dimethyl-3,5-dioxo-4-azatricyclo[5.2.2.0(2,6)]undec-8-en-1-yl acetate and 1,11-dimethyl-4-azatricyclo[5.2.2.0(2,6)]undecane-3,5,8-trione, were synthesized and tested for their affinity for 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors. The Fujita-Ban analysis showed that the influence of structural modifications on the affinity for both receptor subtypes is additive and that the activity of similar compounds could be predicted with high accuracy. Compounds 46, 48 and 18 out of 14 screened in a functional model of anxiety and depression demonstrated antidepressant activity in the forced swimming tests in mice, and were devoid of neurotoxic effects (chimney test in mice).

  18. LABAN containment data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-05-01

    The LABAN event was detonated in hole U2ff of the Nevada Test Site. The device had a depth-of-burial of 326 m in the alluvium of Area 4, about 240 m above the standing water level (SWL). Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes and Narver. Detonation time was 06:33 PDT on August 3, 1983. About 75 minutes later the chimney began collapsing to the surface. A major collapse event occurred 5 minutes later with episodes continuing for the next 20 minutes. No radiation arrivals were detected in the emplacement hole at depths less than 106 m and the LABAN containment was considered successful.

  19. On the instability of a modified cup-burner flame in the infrared spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Bitala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the modification of a standardised cup-burner apparatus. The replacement of the original glass chimney is performed by shielding a nitrogen co-flow enabled measurement at a wavelength of 3.9 μm. This modification, together with a special arrangement of the measuring system (spectral filtering, data acquisition and post-processing, permitted the observation of various types of hydrodynamic instabilities, including transition states. The advantages of our arrangement are demonstrated with an ethylene non-premixed flame with high sooting tendency. Two known modes of hydrodynamic instability (varicose and sinuous that occur in buoyant flames were studied and described quantitatively. Based on the intensity of the infrared emissions, we identified and qualitatively described the modes of periodic hydrodynamic instability that are accompanied by flame tip opening, which has not been observed for this type of flame.

  20. The logical clarinet: numerical optimization of the geometry of woodwind instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Noreland, Daniel; Laloë, Franck; Vergez, Christophe; Guillemain, Philippe; Guilloteau, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    The tone hole geometry of a clarinet is optimized numerically. The instrument is modeled as a network of one dimensional transmission line elements. For each (non-fork) fingering, we first calculate the resonance frequencies of the input impedance peaks, and compare them with the frequencies of a mathematically even chromatic scale (equal temperament). A least square algorithm is then used to minimize the differences and to derive the geometry of the instrument. Various situations are studied, with and without dedicated register hole and/or enlargement of the bore. With a dedicated register hole, the differences can remain less than 10 musical cents throughout the whole usual range of a clarinet. The positions, diameters and lengths of the chimneys vary regularly over the whole length of the instrument, in contrast with usual clarinets. Nevertheless, we recover one usual feature of instruments, namely that gradually larger tone holes occur when the distance to the reed increases. A fully chromatic prototype i...

  1. Solar habitats: a transmodern architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajvanski, Victor [Skopje Univ., Faculty of Architecture, Skopje (Macedonia (The Former Yugoslav Republic of))

    2000-04-01

    Architecture is both a science and an art. The cities in Macedonia were built as an image inherited mainly from ancient civilisations of the Roman empire, until the XIXth century. During this period, the proportions used for designing places were to a human scale. Today we recapture these traditional architectural images for living as made 'in situ and natura'. Human scale implies that housing units are single, double and multi houses at every level, surrounded with gardens and water. Also environmentally-oriented housing units are employed for collecting solar energy. Transmodern architecture takes, as an inspirational source, traditional Macedonian architecture coupled with contemporary building technology employing solar harnessing and energy efficiency, including the use of conservatories (for heat gain), chimneys (for heat loss) and water. (Author)

  2. Body-Centered Orthorhombic C16 : A Novel Topological Node-Line Semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Weng, Hongming; Nie, Simin; Fang, Zhong; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Chen, Changfeng

    2016-05-01

    We identify by ab initio calculations a novel topological semimetal carbon phase in all-s p2 bonding networks with a 16-atom body-centered orthorhombic unit cell, termed bco-C16. Total-energy calculations show that bco-C16 is comparable to solid fcc-C60 in energetic stability, and phonon and molecular dynamics simulations confirm its dynamical stability. This all-s p2 carbon allotrope can be regarded as a three-dimensional modification of graphite, and its simulated x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern matches well a previously unexplained diffraction peak in measured XRD spectra of detonation and chimney soot, indicating its presence in the specimen. Electronic band structure calculations reveal that bco-C16 is a topological node-line semimetal with a single nodal ring. These findings establish a novel carbon phase with intriguing structural and electronic properties of fundamental significance and practical interest.

  3. [Helen of Troy and medicine, a picture of the "Salle des Actes"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    The picture of the 17th century, placed upon the great chimney in the "Salle des Actes", is attributed to the painter Simon Vouet or to his co-workers. It depicts a scene extracted from Odyssey by Homer. During their way-back to Greece, after the fall and the fire of Troia, Helen and Menelaus received in Egypt the famous nepenthes from the hands of Polydamna. An inventory of the possessions of the College of Pharmacy mentioned also helenium and moly. Nepenthes was really cited by Homer as a medicine used by Helen, but helenium was only related to Helen by euphony and moly referred to a totally different part of Odyssey and was not linked at all to Helen. This study points out the importance of mythology so far as origins of Pharmacy are concerned.

  4. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  5. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter

    2014-02-01

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software.

  6. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  7. Rapid Deployment Drilling System for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban Preliminary Engineering Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.; Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Cohen, J.H. [Maurer Engineering, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Heuze, F.E.; Butler, M.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    While not a new drilling technology, coiled-tubing (CT) drilling continues to undergo rapid development and expansion, with new equipment, tools and procedures developed almost daily. This project was undertaken to: analyze available technological options for a Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) CT drilling system: recommend specific technologies that best match the requirements for the RDDS; and highlight any areas where adequate technological solutions are not currently available. Postshot drilling is a well established technique at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Drilling provides essential data on the results of underground tests including obtaining samples for the shot zone, information on cavity size, chimney dimensions, effects of the event on surrounding material, and distribution of radioactivity.

  8. Elements of an algorithm for optimizing a parameter-structural neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrówczyńska, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The field of processing information provided by measurement results is one of the most important components of geodetic technologies. The dynamic development of this field improves classic algorithms for numerical calculations in the aspect of analytical solutions that are difficult to achieve. Algorithms based on artificial intelligence in the form of artificial neural networks, including the topology of connections between neurons have become an important instrument connected to the problem of processing and modelling processes. This concept results from the integration of neural networks and parameter optimization methods and makes it possible to avoid the necessity to arbitrarily define the structure of a network. This kind of extension of the training process is exemplified by the algorithm called the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH), which belongs to the class of evolutionary algorithms. The article presents a GMDH type network, used for modelling deformations of the geometrical axis of a steel chimney during its operation.

  9. Chemistry. How to adapt and invest in front of the new rules?; Chimie. Comment s`adapter et investir face aux nouvelles regles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paules, B. [ELF Atochem, 92 - Puteaux (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies about the experience of Elf Atochem company in the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from petrochemical plants. The St Auban plant (France) is taken as a first example: description, regulations and NO{sub x} reduction goals, NO{sub x} reduction techniques (non-reheating of the combustion air, modifications on burners, injection of ammonia-compounds in smokes), results of the preliminary study on ammonia-compounds injection, application and principle of regulation. The second example concerns the development of a cogeneration system in the Marseille plant (description of existing installations, the cogeneration installation project, the regulatory context, the gas turbine and its post-combustion system, the dual-fuel system and the pollution regulations: chimney height, limit values of NO{sub x} and dust emissions). (J.S.)

  10. A study of the distribution of rare-metals in kuroko-type ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience]|[Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    We have performed PIXE analysis of kuroko-type ore from the JADE hydrothermal site of the Okinawa Trough, Japan using the proton microprobe (PIXEPROBE). We analysed five kinds of ores dredged from the sea floor: (I) barite ore with small sulfide dissemination; (2) sphalerite-pyrite chimney; (3) pyrite ore; (4) sulfide veinlets in strongly altered rock; and (5) pyrite megacrystals in strongly altered rock. The analyses revealed that the trace element distribution is regulated by the occurrence mode of the ore, and within each ore, by the crystal structure. The distribution suggests that the hydrothermal system for kuroko ore formation is quite heterogeneous and its chemistry is controlled by local factors such as difference in temperature, and that in-situ PIXE analyses are essential for effective beneficiation strategy for the rare-metals from kuroko-type ore. (authors). 10 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Extrathyroidal Implantation of Thyroid Hyperplastic/neoplastic Cells after Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xi; Xie-qun Xu; Tao Hong; Bing-lu Li; Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a case of the implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic tissue after endoscopic thyroidectomy and discuss this complication in aspects of prevalence, pathogenesis, protection, and therapies. Methods A systematic search of literature from the PubMed database was conducted for identifying eligible studies on implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic cells after endoscopic thyroid surgery. Results Overall, 5 reported cases on patients suffering from endoscopic thyroid surgery with implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic cells were included in the systematic review. Conclusions Unskilled surgeons, rough intraoperative surgical treatment, scarification or rupture of tumor, contamination of instruments, chimney effect, aerosolization of tumor cells may be associated with the implantation after endoscopic thyroidectomy. To minimize the risk of such complication, we should be more meticulous and strict the endoscopic surgery indications.

  12. Laboratory and field investigations of particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from traditional and improved cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Christoph A.; Bond, Tami C.; Conway, Stuart; Osorto Pinel, Anibal Benjamin; MacCarty, Nordica; Still, Dean

    We implemented a program in which emission characterization is enabled through collaborations between academic, US and international non-governmental entities that focus on evaluation, dissemination, and in-use testing, of improved cookstoves. This effort resulted in a study of field and laboratory emissions from traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves. We found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking average three times those measured during simulated cooking in the laboratory. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in laboratory settings. The single scattering albedo (SSA) of the emissions was very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. Over the course of three summers in Honduras, we measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. We found that well-designed improved cookstoves can significantly reduce PM and CO emission factors below traditional cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.2 g kg -1 - significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 6.6 g kg -1 and 4.5 g kg -1, respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  14. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanie MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Muluken Walle Birhanie,1 Bizuayehu Walle,1 Kidist Rebba2 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated.Methods: Essential oil (EO of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg. Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively.Results: There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner.Conclusion: The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. Keywords: Myrtus communis, hypnotic, motor coordination, muscle relaxation, essential oil

  15. Sri Lanka Pilot Study to Examine Respiratory Health Effects and Personal PM2.5 Exposures from Cooking Indoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Phillips

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study of indoor air pollution produced by biomass cookstoves was conducted in 53 homes in Sri Lanka to assess respiratory conditions associated with stove type (“Anagi” or “Traditional”, kitchen characteristics (e.g., presence of a chimney in the home, indoor cooking area, and concentrations of personal and indoor particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5. Each primary cook reported respiratory conditions for herself (cough, phlegm, wheeze, or asthma and for children (wheeze or asthma living in her household. For cooks, the presence of at least one respiratory condition was significantly associated with 48-h log-transformed mean personal PM2.5 concentration (PR = 1.35; p < 0.001. The prevalence ratio (PR was significantly elevated for cooks with one or more respiratory conditions if they cooked without a chimney (PR = 1.51, p = 0.025 and non-significantly elevated if they cooked in a separate but poorly ventilated building (PR = 1.51, p = 0.093. The PRs were significantly elevated for children with wheeze or asthma if a traditional stove was used (PR = 2.08, p = 0.014 or if the cooking area was not partitioned from the rest of the home (PR = 2.46, p = 0.012. For the 13 children for whom the cooking area was not partitioned from the rest of the home, having a respiratory condition was significantly associated with log-transformed indoor PM2.5 concentration (PR = 1.51; p = 0.014.

  16. Interaction between lamotrigine and felbamate in the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice: an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2005-03-01

    Isobolographic profile of interactions between lamotrigine (LTG) and felbamate (FBM), two second-generation antiepileptic drugs, against maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures, and neurotoxic adverse effects in the chimney test in mice were determined. LTG combined with FBM at the fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1 exerted merely additive interactions against MES-induced seizures. In the chimney test, isobolography revealed that LTG coadministered with FBM at the fixed ratio of 1:1 displayed subadditivity (antagonism), whereas the remaining combinations tested (1:3 and 3:1) exerted additivity in terms of their neurotoxic side effects. LTG (at the dose of 2.3 mg/kg) coadministered with FBM (25.7 mg/kg) at the fixed ratio of 1:1 from the MES test did not impair long-term memory of mice challenged with the passive avoidance task. Furthermore, FBM (25.7 mg/kg) altered neither the free plasma nor brain concentration of LTG, hence pharmacokinetic events, which might affect the observed interactions in the MES test, are unlikely. Considering benefit indices for the respective fixed ratio combinations, it may be concluded that the combination of LTG with FBM at the fixed ratio of 1:1 is advantageous from a preclinical point of view, offering the highest benefit index reaching the value of 1.46. Likewise, the two-drug combination of 1:3 was also beneficial and is worth recommendation with benefit index amounting to 1.36. Only the combination of 3:1 was neutral with a benefit index of 1.08. Protection offered by LTG in combination with FBM against maximal electroconvulsions and its favorable neurotoxic side effect profile might provide the patients with intractable seizures with an efficacious treatment, as the rational polytherapy however, it requires to be clinically confirmed and verified.

  17. A two-dimensional model of the passive coastal margin deep sedimentary carbon and methane cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Archer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new geologic-time and basin-spatial scale model of the continental margin methane cycle. The model, SpongeBOB, is used to simulate evolution of the carbon cycle in a passive sedimentary continental margin in response to changing oceanographic and geologic forcing over a time scale of 140 million years. The model is somewhat less sensitive to temperature than our previous results with a one-dimensional model, but is more sensitive to reasonable changes in POC than it is to reasonable changes in temperature. This behavior could lead to higher inventories of hydrate during hothouse climate conditions, rather than lower as generally assumed, due to the enrichment of the sediments in organic carbon. The hydrate inventory in the model is extremely sensitive to the ability of methane bubbles to rise within the sediment column, and how far gas-phase methane can get through the sediment column before it redissolves when it reaches undersaturated conditions. Hydrate formation is also sensitive to deep respiration of migrating petroleum in the model. The geochemistry of the sediment column is altered by the addition of vertical high-permeability chimneys intended to mimic the effects of heterogeneity in the real sediment column due to faults and chimneys, and produces results consistent with measured pore-water tracers SO42− and 129I. Pore water DIC concentrations are consistent with chemical weathering at depth within the sediment column. The carbon isotopic composition of the DIC is consistent with a methane production efficiency from POC of 50%, which is somewhat lower than redox balance with the H/C of organic matter in the model. Other phenomena which we simulated had only small impact on the hydrate inventory, including thermogenic methane, dissolved organic carbon, and sediment transport characteristics.

  18. Substrate pathways and mechanisms of inhibition in the sulfur oxygenase reductase of Acidianus ambivalens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eVeith

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR is the initial enzyme of the sulfur oxidation pathway in the thermoacidophilic Archaeon Acidianus ambivalens. The SOR catalyzes an oxygen-dependent sulfur disproportionation to H2S, sulfite and thiosulfate. The spherical, hollow, cytoplasmic enzyme is composed of 24 identical subunits with an active site pocket each comprising a mononuclear non-heme iron site and a cysteine persulfide. Substrate access and product exit occur via apolar chimney-like protrusions at the four-fold symmetry axes, via narrow polar pores at the three-fold symmetry axes and via narrow apolar pores within in each subunit. In order to investigate the function of the pores we performed site-directed mutagenesis and inhibitor studies. Results: Truncation of the chimney-like protrusions resulted in an up to seven-fold increase in specific enzyme activity compared to the wild type. Replacement of the salt bridge-forming Arg99 residue by Ala at the three-fold symmetry axes doubled the activity and introduced a bias towards reduced reaction products. Replacement of Met296 and Met297, which form the active site pore, lowered the specific activities by 25-55 % with the exception of an M296V mutant. X-ray crystallography of SOR wild type crystals soaked with inhibitors showed that Hg2+ and iodoacetamide bind to cysteines within the active site, whereas Zn2+ binds to a histidine in a side channel of the enzyme. The Zn2+ inhibition was partially alleviated by mutation of the His residue. Conclusions: The expansion of the pores in the outer shell led to an increased enzyme activity while the integrity of the active site pore seems to be important. Hg2+ and iodoacetamide block cysteines in the active site pocket, while Zn2+ interferes over a distance, possibly by restriction of protein flexibility or substrate access or product exit.

  19. Review on the SO3 detection method and Removal Strategy in Coal-fired Power Plants%浅谈燃煤电站SO3检测方法及脱除策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞; 刘毅; 李延兵; 王慧芳

    2015-01-01

    结合目前燃煤电站运行情况,简述了燃煤电站SO3产生原因,重点介绍了燃煤电站SO3的测量方法,并对几种方法进行对比分析,其中量子级联激光法是目前最为先进的SO3检测技术,通过进一步研发有望实现SO3的实时监测。最后,针对燃煤电站,提出了有效消除SO3方法,达到解决燃煤电站SO3排放导致的烟囱排烟不透明及SO3引起的腐蚀等问题。%Based on coal-fired power plants, the source of the SO3 is analyzed in this paper. And the exist⁃ing SO3 sampling, measuring method are summarized in detail both at home and abroad, the accuracy and limits were listed from sampling and measument, and the Quantum cascade laser method is the most promis⁃ing SO3 detection method, which may be able to achieve the real-time SO3 detection after forward study. Meanwhile, the removal strategies of SO3 emission are proposed , though injection of alkaline substances and adding wet electrostatic precipitator, the SO3 concentration in the chimney was reduced successfully, and⁃solved the chimney opaque and acid fog.

  20. Localized fluidization in granular materials: Theoretical and numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montellà, E. P.; Toraldo, M.; Chareyre, B.; Sibille, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present analytical and numerical results on localized fluidization within a granular layer subjected to a local injection of fluid. As the injection rate increases the three different regimes previously reported in the literature are recovered: homogeneous expansion of the bed, fluidized cavity in which fluidization starts developing above the injection area, and finally the chimney of fluidized grains when the fluidization zone reaches the free surface. The analytical approach is at the continuum scale, based on Darcy's law and Therzaghi's effective stress principle. It provides a good description of the phenomenon as long as the porosity of the granular assembly remains relatively homogeneous, i.e., for small injection rates. The numerical approach is at the particle scale based on the coupled discrete element method and a pore-scale finite volume method. It tackles the more heterogeneous situations which occur at larger injection rates. The results from both methods are in qualitative agreement with data published independently. A more quantitative agreement is achieved by the numerical model. A direct link is evidenced between the occurrence of the different regimes of fluidization and the injection aperture. While narrow apertures let the three different regimes be distinguished clearly, larger apertures tend to produce a single homogeneous fluidization regime. In the former case, it is found that the transition between the cavity regime and the chimney regime for an increasing injection rate coincides with a peak in the evolution of inlet pressure. Finally, the occurrence of the different regimes is defined in terms of the normalized flux and aperture.

  1. Mechanisms of suppressing cup-burner flame with water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG BeiHua; LIAO GuangXuan

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of suppressing a laminar methane-air co-flow diffusion flame formed on a cup burner with water vapor have been studied experimentally and numerically. The methane burned in a steel cup surrounded by a glass chimney. A mist generator produced fine droplets delivered though the glass chimney with air. These droplets were heated into water vapor when they went though the diffuser. The extinguishing limit was obtained by gradually increasing the amount of water vapor to replace the air in the coflowing oxidizer stream. Results showed that the agent concentration required for extinguishment was constant over a wide range of the oxidizer velocity, i.e., a so-called "plateau region". The measured extinguishing mass fractions of the agents were: (16.7±0.6)% for H2O, (15.9±0.6)% for CO2, and (31.9±0.6)% for N2. The computation used the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) de-veloped by the NIST. The numerical simulations showed that the predicted water vapor extinguishing limits and the flickering frequency were in good agreements with the experimental observations and, more importantly, revealed that the sup-pression of cup-burner flames occurred via a partial extinction mechanism (in which the flame base drifts downstream and then blows off) rather than the global extinction mechanism of typical counter-flow diffusion flames. And the flame-base oscillation just before the blow-off was the key step for the non-premixed flame extinction in the cup burner.

  2. Topographic features of gas hydrate mounds of shallow gas hydrate areas in Joetsu Basin , eastern margin of Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromatsu, M.; Machiyama, H.; Matsumoto, R.

    2010-12-01

    Mega pockmarks and mounds, both of which are 300m to 500m in diamater and 30m to 40 m deep or high, characterize the Umitaka Spur and Joetsu Knoll of the Joetsu Basin. A number of pockmarks and mounds develop in NNE to SSW direction parallel to the general trend of mobile belt along the eastern margin of Japan Sea, suggesting that the topography has been strongly controlled by regional tectonics. Seismic profiles have revealed well-developed chaotic to transparent zones (gas chimneys) in the area of pockmarks and mounds, from which a number of active methane plumes stand up to 700m above sea floor. Ultra-high resolution bathymetric data and reflection images were acquired by Multi Beam Echo Sounder (MBES) and Side Scan Sonar (SSS) of the AUV "URASHIMA” during the YK10-08 cruise of R/V Yokosuka (JAMSTEC), July 2010. Based on mosaic images of MBES and SSS, we could identify several types of the hydrate mounds over gas chimney zones. Some are represented as a smooth and low bulge without strong reflections of background level, but the others show rough and uneven topography, featured by a few meter scale depressions, crevasses and minor ridges with strong reflector images, indicating the development of hard ground. Such strong reflectors are due to carbonate crusts and concretions and gas hydrate exposures as observed by ROV . Micro-topographic features are likely to represent a growth stage of hydrate mounds, and perhaps the accumulation of shallow gas hydrates. MBES and SSS onboard AUV are powerful tools to identify gas hydrate accumulation and evolution of shallow gas hydrate system.

  3. Mechanisms of suppressing cup-burner flame with water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of suppressing a laminar methane-air co-flow diffusion flame formed on a cup burner with water vapor have been studied experimentally and numerically. The methane burned in a steel cup surrounded by a glass chimney. A mist generator produced fine droplets delivered though the glass chimney with air. These droplets were heated into water vapor when they went though the diffuser. The extinguishing limit was obtained by gradually increasing the amount of water vapor to replace the air in the coflowing oxidizer stream. Results showed that the agent concentration required for extinguishment was constant over a wide range of the oxidizer velocity, i.e., a so-called "plateau region". The measured extinguishing mass fractions of the agents were: (16.7 ± 0.6)% for H2O, (15.9 ± 0.6)% for CO2, and (31.9 ± 0.6)% for N2. The computation used the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) de- veloped by the NIST. The numerical simulations showed that the predicted water vapor extinguishing limits and the flickering frequency were in good agreements with the experimental observations and, more importantly, revealed that the sup- pression of cup-burner flames occurred via a partial extinction mechanism (in which the flame base drifts downstream and then blows off) rather than the global extinction mechanism of typical counter-flow diffusion flames. And the flame-base oscillation just before the blow-off was the key step for the non-premixed flame extinction in the cup burner.

  4. The 3D Dynamical Structure of the Supernova-Driven Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avillez, M. A.; Ballesteros-Paredes, J.; Mac Low, M.-M.

    2000-05-01

    Large scale modelling of the interstellar gas in the disk and halo has been carried out with a three-dimensional hydrodynamical code that uses adapted mesh refinement combined with message passing interface calls. The model includes a gravitational field provided by the stars in the disk, an ideal-gas equation of state, and an approximation for the cooling curve, assuming collisional ionization equilibrium. Supernovae are set up both isolated and in associations, in a manner compatible with observations. Once disrupted by the explosions, the disk never returns to its initial state, regardless of the initial vertical distribution of the disk gas, provided enough supernovae occur. Instead a thin HI disk forms in the Galactic plane, and, above and below, a thick inhomogeneous gas disk forms, with scale heights in HI of 500 pc and in HII of 1 kpc. The upper parts of the thick HII disk form the disk-halo interface, where a large scale fountain is set up by hot ionized gas escaping in a turbulent convective flow. The calculations also show the formation of HI clouds in both the disk and halo. These are dynamical objects with a two-phase structure composed of a cold core surrounded by warmer gas. The disk is populated by worms, bubbles, superbubbles and chimneys. Chimneys in the simulations have widths of approximately 120 pc. They inject high temperature gas directly from the Galactic disk into the halo, breaking through the warm neutral and ionized layers that compose the thick disk. Mushroom-shaped structures are also seen in the simulations, as have recently been observed. We identify them as tracers of buoyant flow in the thick disk

  5. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  6. Exhalative Lead-Zinc Deposits in Shallow Sea, Southern Xicheng Belt, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xinyou; WANG Dongbo; WEI Zhiguo; QIU Xiaoping; WANG Ruiting

    2008-01-01

    SEDEX-type lead-zinc deposits in the southern belt of the Xicheng Devonian basin, GansuProvince has been already identified. However, the sedimentary environment of the limestone andphilite of the Xihanshui Group within which the lead-zinc deposits occur is littoral and shallow sea.This is different from those in the northern belt such as the Changba-Lijiagou lead-zinc deposits, whichwere formed in deep sea. The reef and bioclastic limestone are widespread in the southern belt.Particularly they are associated with lead-zinc ores and there are no striae and banding but massive ordisseminated structures. It is discovered that the black chimney consists of sphalerite, ankerite, pyriteand galena, in which black, coarse and radial sphalerite occurs as irregularly veins or cylindricafitywith a width of 10-40 cm in the center, and it is surround by fine ankerite and minor celestite withribbon structure. The immediate wall rock of the chimney, reef limestone, was unaltered and theoutside reef and bioclastic limestone were intensively silicified. Those silicified reef and bioclasticlimestone host disseminated lead-zinc ores of the Lnoba and Bijiashan type. It is concluded that theexhalative system occurred in a shallow sea in the Givetian of the middle Devonian. Brine is boiled dueto low pressure, and a great deal of lead and zinc was dispersed in the interface between the limestoneand phyllite and formed a source bed. In the Triassic period, meta-hydrothermai fluids leached andextracted metals from the source bed, and then moved and mineralized in open space such as archesand inverse limbs of anticlines, and formed massive and vein ores such as the Jianyagou andDengjiashan type deposits.

  7. 太阳能热风发电技术应用与示范%The application and demonstration of a solar updraft tower power-generating technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏毅立; 王琼

    2013-01-01

    A new solar updraft tower power generating technology,coupled with wind energy,is introduced in this article.Based on the design results,a steady-state thermal dynamic mathematical model is established and simulated.The results verify that the ways to improve solar chimney power generation output are increase of the tower height and advance of the absorbed power of collector.The actual operating results verify the correctness of the mathematical model,which shows that the greater the wind speed and the higher light intensity,the more the power generation output.Construction of the plant provides a theoretical support and specific technical guidance for future solar chimney power system design and construction.%文章设计一种新型的风光耦合发电技术.在设计结果的基础上,建立了热动力稳态数学模型并进行仿真,仿真结果验证了提高太阳能热风发电量的途径是升高塔筒高度、提高集热棚吸收能量的功率.其实际运行结果验证了数学模型的正确性,表明了当外界环境风速越大,光照强度越高时,系统的发电功率就越大.该电站的建设为今后太阳能热风发电系统的设计与建设提供了理论支撑及具体的技术指导.

  8. Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Ngwalo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

    2007-04-15

    An indirect type natural convection solar dryer with integrated collector-storage solar and biomass-backup heaters has been designed, constructed and evaluated. The major components of the dryer are biomass burner (with a rectangular duct and flue gas chimney), collector-storage thermal mass and drying chamber (with a conventional solar chimney). The thermal mass was placed in the top part of the biomass burner enclosure. The dryer was fabricated using simple materials, tools and skills, and it was tested in three modes of operation (solar, biomass and solar-biomass) by drying twelve batches of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus), with each batch weighing about 20 kg. Meteorological conditions were monitored during the dehydration process. Moisture and vitamin C contents were determined in both fresh and dried samples. Results show that the thermal mass was capable of storing part of the absorbed solar energy and heat from the burner. It was possible to dry a batch of pineapples using solar energy only on clear days. Drying proceeded successfully even under unfavorable weather conditions in the solar-biomass mode of operation. In this operational mode, the dryer reduced the moisture content of pineapple slices from about 669 to 11% (db) and yielded a nutritious dried product. The average values of the final-day moisture-pickup efficiency were 15%, 11% and 13% in the solar, biomass and solar-biomass modes of operation respectively. It appears that the solar dryer is suitable for preservation of pineapples and other fresh foods. Further improvements to the system design are suggested. (author)

  9. Localized fluidization in granular materials: Theoretical and numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montellà, E P; Toraldo, M; Chareyre, B; Sibille, L

    2016-11-01

    We present analytical and numerical results on localized fluidization within a granular layer subjected to a local injection of fluid. As the injection rate increases the three different regimes previously reported in the literature are recovered: homogeneous expansion of the bed, fluidized cavity in which fluidization starts developing above the injection area, and finally the chimney of fluidized grains when the fluidization zone reaches the free surface. The analytical approach is at the continuum scale, based on Darcy's law and Therzaghi's effective stress principle. It provides a good description of the phenomenon as long as the porosity of the granular assembly remains relatively homogeneous, i.e., for small injection rates. The numerical approach is at the particle scale based on the coupled discrete element method and a pore-scale finite volume method. It tackles the more heterogeneous situations which occur at larger injection rates. The results from both methods are in qualitative agreement with data published independently. A more quantitative agreement is achieved by the numerical model. A direct link is evidenced between the occurrence of the different regimes of fluidization and the injection aperture. While narrow apertures let the three different regimes be distinguished clearly, larger apertures tend to produce a single homogeneous fluidization regime. In the former case, it is found that the transition between the cavity regime and the chimney regime for an increasing injection rate coincides with a peak in the evolution of inlet pressure. Finally, the occurrence of the different regimes is defined in terms of the normalized flux and aperture.

  10. Low temperature geomicrobiology follows host rock composition along a geochemical gradient in Lau Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Sylvan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The East Lau Spreading Center (ELSC and Valu Fa Ridge (VFR comprise a ridge segment in the southwest Pacific Ocean where rapid transitions in the underlying mantle chemistry manifest themselves as gradients in seafloor rock geochemistry. We studied the geology and microbial diversity of three silicate rock samples and three inactive sulfide chimney samples collected, from north to south, at the vent fields Kilo Moana, ABE, Tui Malila and Mariner. This is the first study of microbial populations on basaltic andesite, which was sampled at Mariner vent field. Silicate rock geochemistry exhibits clear latitudinal trends that are mirrored by changes in bacterial community composition. α-proteobacteria, ε-proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes are most common on a silicate collected from Kilo Moana and their proportions decrease linearly on silicates collected further south. Conversely, a silicate from Mariner vent field hosts high proportions of a unique lineage of Chloroflexi unrelated (<90% sequence similarity to previously recovered environmental clones or isolates, which decrease at ABE and are absent at Kilo Moana. The exteriors of inactive sulfide structures are dominated by lineages of sulfur oxidizing α-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and ε-proteobacteria while the interior of one chimney is dominated by putative sulfur-reducing δ-proteobacteria. A comparison of bacterial communities on inactive sulfides from this and previous studies reveals the presence of a clade of uncultured Bacteroidetes exclusive to sulfidic environments, and a high degree of heterogeneity in bacterial community composition from one sulfide structure to another. In light of the heterogeneous nature of bacterial communities observed here and in previous studies of both active and inactive hydrothermal sulfide structures, the presence of numerous niches may be detected on these structures in the future by finer scale sampling and analysis.

  11. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  12. ASSESSMENT OF HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE DETECTION METHODS ON THE FORT PECK RESERVATION, NORTHEAST MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence M. Monson

    2003-06-30

    Surface exploration techniques have been employed in separate study areas on the Fort Peck Reservation in northeastern Montana. Anomalies associated with hydrocarbon seepage are documented in all three areas and a variety of surface exploration techniques can be compared. In a small area with established production, Head Gas and Thermal Desorption methods best match production; other methods also map depletion. In a moderate-size area that has prospects defined by 3D seismic data, Head Gas along with Microbial, Iodine, and Eh soil anomalies are all associated with the best hydrocarbon prospect. In a large area that contains many curvilinear patterns observed on Landsat images, that could represent micro-seepage chimneys, results are inconclusive. Reconnaissance mapping using Magnetic Susceptibility has identified a potential prospect; subsequent Soil Gas and Head Gas surveys suggest hydrocarbon potential. In the final year of this project the principle contractor, the Fort Peck Tribes, completed a second survey in the Wicape 3D Seismic Prospect Area (also known as Area 6 in Phase I of the project) and sampled several Landsat image features contained in the Smoke Creek Aeromag Anomaly Area (also known as Area 1 in Phase II of the project). Methods determined to be most useful in Phases I and II, were employed in this final Phase III of the study. The Southwest Wicape seismic anomaly was only partially confirmed. The abundant curvilinears proposed to be possible hydrocarbon micro-seepage chimneys in the Smoke Creek Area were not conclusively verified as such. Insufficient sampling of background data precludes affirmative identification of these mostly topographic Landsat features as gas induced soil and vegetation anomalies. However relatively higher light gas concentrations were found associated with some of the curvilinears. Based on the findings of this work the Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation intend to utilize surface hydrocarbon

  13. Brine Migration from a Flooded Salt Mine in the Genesee Valley, Livingston County, New York: Geochemical Modeling and Simulation of Variable-Density Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Richard M.; Misut, Paul E.; Langevin, Christian D.; Parkhurst, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The Retsof salt mine in upstate New York was flooded from 1994 to 1996 after two roof collapses created rubble chimneys in overlying bedrock that intersected a confined aquifer in glacial sediments. The mine now contains about 60 billion liters of saturated halite brine that is slowly being displaced as the weight of overlying sediments causes the mine cavity to close, a process that could last several hundred years. Saline water was detected in the confined aquifer in 2002, and a brine-mitigation project that includes pumping followed by onsite desalination was implemented in 2006 to prevent further migration of saline water from the collapse area. A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey using geochemical and variable-density flow modeling to determine sources of salinity in the confined aquifer and to assess (1) processes that control movement and mixing of waters in the collapse area, (2) the effect of pumping on salinity, and (3) the potential for anhydrite dissolution and subsequent land subsidence resulting from mixing of waters induced by pumping. The primary source of salinity in the collapse area is halite brine that was displaced from the flooded mine and transported upward by advection and dispersion through the rubble chimneys and surrounding deformation zone. Geochemical and variable-density modeling indicate that salinity in the upper part of the collapse area is partly derived from inflow of saline water from bedrock fracture zones during water-level recovery (January 1996 through August 2006). The lateral diversion of brine into bedrock fracture zones promoted the upward migration of mine water through mixing with lower density waters. The relative contributions of mine water, bedrock water, and aquifer water to the observed salinity profile within the collapse area are controlled by the rates of flow to and from bedrock fracture zones. Variable-density simulations of water-level recovery indicate that saline water has probably not

  14. Seismic, magnetic, and geotechnical properties of a landslide and clinker deposits, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    unloading the head. The low-velocity layer is usually less than about 5 m thick and may be excavated by dozing, whereas the bedrock must be blasted. Thus, it would seem economically feasible to underpin a structure to nonweathered bedrock or, perhaps, to remove the low-velocity layer prior to construction. (2) Many coal beds in the Powder River Basin have burned along their outcrops, and the resulting intense heat has baked and fused the overlying clastic (sedimentary) rocks into clinkers. The clinkers are very magnetic and a buried edge of a single layer of burn can easily be located by magnetic prospecting methods. Location of the edge is very important in estimating unburned coal deposits, locating clinker quarries, and planning drilling of seismic reflection lines. The clinkers are very porous and highly fractured,-and seismic and geotechnical tests show that they have relatively low strength and competency. Many of the laboratory tests, however, are inherently biased because the clinkers are so highly fractured that only competent samples are selected. The laboratory tests, for example, show that clinkers must be loosened by heavy ripping tractors or blasting, whereas the field data and practical experience indicate that clinkers may be mined with light equipment. Heavy structures such as coal silos and bridge abutments may have to be sited on clinkers. However, differential settlement may occur, with failure in the shear mode, because chimneys of relatively greater strength occur among the weaker clinkers. Preliminary data indicate that the chimneys may be located by magnetic or possibly seismic surveys. Special foundation-preparation techniques could be used or, perhaps, the chimneys could be avoided altogether at a construction site.

  15. The evolution of volcano-hosted geothermal systems based on deep wells from Karaha-Telaga Bodas, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.N.; Allis, R.G.; Nemcok, M.; Powell, T.S.; Bruton, C.J.; Wannamaker, P.E.; Raharjo, I.B.; Norman, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature and pressure surveys, fluid samples, and petrologic analyses of rock samples from deep drill holes at the Karaha - Telaga Bodas geothermal field on the volcanic ridge extending northward from Galunggung Volcano, West Java, have provided a unique opportunity to characterize the evolution of an active volcano-hosted geothermal system. Wells up to 3 km in depth have encountered temperatures as high as 353??C and a weakly altered granodiorite that intruded to within 2 to 3 km of the surface. The intrusion is shallowest beneath the southern end of the field where an acid lake overlies a nearly vertical low resistivity structure (geothermal system and the transition from liquid- to vapor-dominated conditions. The earliest assemblage represents the initial liquid-dominated system generated during emplacement of the granodiorite between 5910 ?? 76 and 4200 ?? 150 y BP. Tourmaline, biotite, actinolite, epidote and clay minerals were deposited contemporaneously at progressively greater distances from the intrusive contact (assemblage 1). At 4200 ?? 150 y BP, flank collapse and the formation of the volcano's crater, Kawah Galunggung, resulted in catastrophic decompression and boiling of the hydrothermal fluids. This event initiated development of the modern vapor-dominated regime. Chalcedony and then quartz were deposited as the early low salinity liquids boiled (assemblage 2). Both vapor- and liquid-rich fluid inclusions were trapped in the quartz crystals. Liquid-rich fluid inclusions from the southern part of the field record salinities ranging from 0 to 26 weight percent NaCl- CaCl2 equivalent and locally contain fluorite daughter crystals. We suggest, based on temperature-salinity relationships and evidence of boiling, that these fluids were progressively concentrated as steam was lost from the system. However, mixing with fluids derived from the underlying intrusion or generated during the formation of acid SO4 water on the vapor-dominated chimney margins

  16. Experimental and analytical study of stability characteristics of natural circulation boiling water reactors during startup transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyoungsuk

    Two-phase natural circulation loops are unstable at low pressure operating conditions. New reactor design relying on natural circulation for both normal and abnormal core cooling is susceptible to different types of flow instabilities. In contrast to forced circulation boiling water reactor (BWR), natural circulation BWR is started up without recirculation pumps. The tall chimney placed on the top of the core makes the system susceptible to flashing during low pressure start-up. In addition, the considerable saturation temperature variation may induce complicated dynamic behavior driven by thermal non-equilibrium between the liquid and steam. The thermal-hydraulic problems in two-phase natural circulation systems at low pressure and low power conditions are investigated through experimental methods. Fuel heat conduction, neutron kinetics, flow kinematics, energetics and dynamics that govern the flow behavior at low pressure, are formulated. A dimensionless analysis is introduced to obtain governing dimensionless groups which are groundwork of the system scaling. Based on the robust scaling method and start-up procedures of a typical natural circulation BWR, the simulation strategies for the transient with and without void reactivity feedback is developed. Three different heat-up rates are applied to the transient simulations to study characteristics of the stability during the start-up. Reducing heat-up rate leads to increase in the period of flashing-induced density wave oscillation and decrease in the system pressurization rate. However, reducing the heat-up rate is unable to completely prevent flashing-induced oscillations. Five characteristic regions of stability are discovered at low pressure conditions. They are stable single-phase, flashing near the separator, intermittent oscillation, sinusoidal oscillation and low subcooling stable regions. Stability maps were acquired for system pressures ranging 100 kPa to 400 kPa. According to experimental investigation

  17. Deposition of talc - kerolite-smectite - smectite at seafloor hydrothermal vent fields: Evidence from mineralogical, geochemical and oxygen isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekov, V.M.; Cuadros, J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Koski, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Talc, kerolite-smectite, smectite, chlorite-smectite and chlorite samples from sediments, chimneys and massive sulfides from six seafloor hydrothermal areas have been analyzed for mineralogy, chemistry and oxygen isotopes. Samples are from both peridotite- and basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems, and basaltic systems include sediment-free and sediment-covered sites. Mg-phyllosilicates at seafloor hydrothermal sites have previously been described as talc, stevensite or saponite. In contrast, new data show tri-octahedral Mg-phyllosilicates ranging from pure talc and Fe-rich talc, through kerolite-rich kerolite-smectite to smectite-rich kerolite-smectite and tri-octahedral smectite. The most common occurrence is mixed-layer kerolite-smectite, which shows an almost complete interstratification series with 5 to 85% smectitic layers. The smectite interstratified with kerolite is mostly tri-octahedral. The degree of crystal perfection of the clay sequence decreases generally from talc to kerolite-smectite with lower crystalline perfection as the proportion of smectite layers in kerolite-smectite increases. Our studies do not support any dependence of the precipitated minerals on the type/subtype of hydrothermal system. Oxygen isotope geothermometry demonstrates that talc and kerolite-smectite precipitated in chimneys, massive sulfide mounds, at the sediment surface and in open cracks in the sediment near seafloor are high-temperature (> 250????C) phases that are most probably the result of focused fluid discharge. The other end-member of this tri-octahedral Mg-phyllosilicate sequence, smectite, is a moderate-temperature (200-250????C) phase forming deep within the sediment (??? 0.8??m). Chlorite and chlorite-smectite, which constitute the alteration sediment matrix around the hydrothermal mounds, are lower-temperature (150-200????C) phases produced by diffuse fluid discharge through the sediment around the hydrothermal conduits. In addition to temperature, other two

  18. Insights into metazoan evolution from alvinella pompejana cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Jean-Claude

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alvinella pompejana is a representative of Annelids, a key phylum for evo-devo studies that is still poorly studied at the sequence level. A. pompejana inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vents and is currently known as one of the most thermotolerant Eukaryotes in marine environments, withstanding the largest known chemical and thermal ranges (from 5 to 105°C. This tube-dwelling worm forms dense colonies on the surface of hydrothermal chimneys and can withstand long periods of hypo/anoxia and long phases of exposure to hydrogen sulphides. A. pompejana specifically inhabits chimney walls of hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise. To survive, Alvinella has developed numerous adaptations at the physiological and molecular levels, such as an increase in the thermostability of proteins and protein complexes. It represents an outstanding model organism for studying adaptation to harsh physicochemical conditions and for isolating stable macromolecules resistant to high temperatures. Results We have constructed four full length enriched cDNA libraries to investigate the biology and evolution of this intriguing animal. Analysis of more than 75,000 high quality reads led to the identification of 15,858 transcripts and 9,221 putative protein sequences. Our annotation reveals a good coverage of most animal pathways and networks with a prevalence of transcripts involved in oxidative stress resistance, detoxification, anti-bacterial defence, and heat shock protection. Alvinella proteins seem to show a slow evolutionary rate and a higher similarity with proteins from Vertebrates compared to proteins from Arthropods or Nematodes. Their composition shows enrichment in positively charged amino acids that might contribute to their thermostability. The gene content of Alvinella reveals that an important pool of genes previously considered to be specific to Deuterostomes were in fact already present in the last common ancestor of the Bilaterian

  19. Factors Leading to Variability of Emission Factors, Single Scattering Albedo, and Elemental Carbon Fraction from Biofuel Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, C. A.; Bond, T. C.; Conway, S.; Osorto Pinel, B.; Maccarty, N.

    2006-12-01

    In a three-year study of field and laboratory emissions of traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves, we found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking events average 2.5 times those of reproduced lab emissions. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator, and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in the lab. The single scatter albedo (SSA) of the emissions is very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. In Honduras, improved stoves generally had lower emission factors than traditional stoves. Over the course of 3 summers we have measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively-new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.5 g/kg significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 5.7 g/kg and 3.5 g/kg respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories. Wood type affects on the PM emission factor, the SSA of the emissions and EC fraction. During our 2006 field measurements, we performed multiple emission measurements on the same stove while varying the fuel. Pine wood generally produced more PM than oak per kilogram of fuel. Additionally, Ocote, a resinous pitch pine often used in Central America for lighting fires, produces emissions which have a very low SSA and high EC fraction. We present the elemental carbon fraction and mass emission factors for different type of stoves and testing conditions. We summarize the characteristics of the particles emitted

  20. Prediction and Control of Air Flow in Acid-Generating Waste Rock Dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wels, C.; Lefebvre, R.; Robertson, A. M.

    2004-05-01

    Air movement and associated oxygen transport through waste rock dumps has the potential to significantly enhance the rate of oxidation of pyrite-bearing material. While this is a desired outcome for most heap leach operations, airflow in waste rock storage facilities can result in significant increases in generation and acceleration of acid rock drainage. Hence, a good understanding of internal airflow through waste rock dumps is required to control ARD and minimize any associated liability. The principal mechanisms contributing to airflow and oxygen transport in a waste rock pile include (i) diffusion, (ii) advection due to a thermal gradient (chimney effect) and/or wind pressure gradients and (iii) advection due to barometric pumping. While diffusion is typically limited to a near-surface zone of a few meters depth, advection and barometric pumping have the potential to move air (and oxygen) to much greater depths into the pile. In general, the more permeable the waste rock material, and the greater the height-to-width ratio of the waste rock pile, the greater is the potential for advective air movement. The reactivity of the waste rock material as well as the coarseness (hence air permeability), and the spatial variability of these properties within a pile, have a strong influence on the magnitude of thermally induced advection. In contrast, air movement due to barometric pumping is controlled by the waste rock porosity, changes in ambient air pressure and the heterogeneity of air permeability of the waste rock dump. Results of field monitoring and numerical modeling using TOUGH AMD are presented to illustrate the concepts on air movement in waste rock piles. During the design and construction phase, airflow can be controlled by judicious placement of reactive waste rock and use of selective placement techniques to control the internal structure of the waste rock facility (e.g. introduction of horizontal layering, prevention of inclined, high

  1. Analysis on the Test for First Set of Ultra-clean Emission Coal-fired Unit in Guangdong Province%广东省首台超洁净排放燃煤机组现场测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德波; 曾庭华; 廖永进; 刘亚明; 冯永新; 余岳溪

    2016-01-01

    Performance tests on flue gas desulfurization (FGD)system,wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP)system and se-lective catalytic reduction (SCR)system of No.1 unit of Guangzhou Huarun thermal power limited company after its ultra-clean emission transform are conducted ,test method for each system is introduced and test data is analyzed.It is concluded that desulfurization efficiency of the FGD system is above 99%,SO2 emission load of the chimney is below 35 mg/m3 ,de-dusting efficiency of WESP system is 89.09%,dust emission load of the chimney is below 5 mg/m3 ,denitrification rate of the SCR system reaches above 90% and NOx emission load is below 50 mg/m3 .Each system can satisfy requirement for ul-tra-clean emission.%对广州华润热电有限公司1号机组超洁净排放改造后的烟气脱硫(flue gas desulfurization,FGD)系统、湿式静电除尘器(wet electrostatic precipitator,WESP)和选择性催化还原(selective catalytic reduction,SCR)系统进行了性能考核试验,介绍了各系统的试验方法,对试验数据进行了分析。得出结论:FGD 系统的脱硫效率达99%以上,烟囱SO2排放量在35 mg/m3以下;WESP 的除尘效率为89.09%,烟囱粉尘排放量在5 mg/m3以下;SCR系统的脱硝率达到90%以上,NOx 排放量在50 mg/m3以下。各系统均满足超洁净排放的要求。

  2. Repair of Chronic Aneurysmal Aortic Dissection Using a Stent Graft and an Amplatzer(®) Vascular Plug: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaoka, Yuji; Ohki, Takao; Ozawa, Hirotsugu

    2017-02-01

    We report a case in which a stent graft and an Amplatzer(®) vascular plug (AVP) were effective for the treatment of chronic aneurysmal aortic dissection. The patient was a 52-year-old man. At 45 years of age, he developed acute aortic dissection, for which he underwent surgery 4 times with prosthetic graft replacement in the abdominal aorta, descending thoracic, ascending aorta (without neck branch reconstruction), and thoracoabdominal aorta with the reconstruction of the celiac, superior mesenteric, and bilateral renal arteries. At the time of thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, strong adhesion was evident, particularly in the thoracoabdominal area. The adhesion was dissected in a part of the chest, and prosthetic graft replacement was performed the following day. Subsequently, the dissection of the residual distal aortic arch enlarged, and the patient was examined at our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a small intimal tear at the site of anastomosis distal to the graft in the ascending aorta and a large intimal tear in the descending thoracic aorta with a maximum diameter of 67 mm. Furthermore, open repair by prosthetic graft replacement seemed difficult; therefore, treatment with stent grafting was considered. Because the prosthetic graft in the abdomen was extremely tortuous, stent-graft insertion via the femoral artery seemed to be impossible. The planned treatment involved the placement of a thoracic stent graft using the chimney technique which included reconstruction of the brachiocephalic artery and left common carotid arteries using chimney stent graft and coverage of the left subclavian artery. The thoracic stent graft was planned to be inserted via the abdominal prosthetic graft site because the abdominal prosthetic graft was crooked and was located close to the body surface. However, a small intimal tear distal to the graft in the ascending aorta which had not been revealed by intraoperative aortography was detected by the selective

  3. Pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic characteristics of interactions between loreclezole and four conventional antiepileptic drugs in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2005-12-01

    Isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the interactions between loreclezole (LCZ) and clonazepam (CZP), ethosuximide (ETS), phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA) in suppressing pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and in producing acute neurotoxic adverse effects in the chimney test in mice so as to identify optimum combinations. Moreover, protective indices (PIs) and benefit indices (BIs) were calculated so that a ranking in relation to advantageous combination could be established. Any pharmacokinetic contribution was ascertained by measurement of brain antiepileptic drug (AED) concentrations. All AED combinations comprising LCZ and CZP, ETS, PB, and VPA (at the fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1) were additive in their seizure suppression. However, these interactions were complicated by changes in brain AED concentrations consequent to pharmacokinetic interactions. Thus, LCZ significantly increased total brain ETS concentrations (VPA, CZP, and PB concentrations were unaffected), and ETS decreased, and VPA increased, total brain LCZ concentrations. Only combinations of LCZ with CZP and PB were completely free of any pharmacokinetic interaction. Furthermore, in the chimney test, isobolographic analysis showed that the combination of LCZ and CZP, at the fixed ratio of 1:1, was supra-additive (synergistic, P<0.05), whereas LCZ and ETS at fixed ratios of 1:3 and 1:1 were subadditive (antagonistic, P<0.05). The remaining combinations of LCZ with CZP (1:3 and 3:1), ETS (3:1), PB (all fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1), and VPA (at the fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1) barely displayed additivity. In conclusion, BI, which is a measure of the margin of safety and tolerability of drugs in combination and comprises anticonvulsant and neurotoxic measures, was favorable for only one combination (LCZ and ETS at a fixed ratio of 1:3) with a value of 1.39. In contrast, LCZ and CZP constitute an unfavorable combination (BI=0.61-1.01). The combinations of LCZ

  4. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Zohir; Smith, Kirk R.

    2010-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM 2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored while occupied by guest families. A masonry hearth was located in the middle of each house for open cooking fires and with heating stoves. One house had a chimney leading to the outside over the hearth; in the other, a brickwork hood led the smoke into an attic and through holes in the roof. During the first week the concentration of PM 2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 μg m -3 inside the hearths and 21-160 μg m -3 in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM 2.5. However, air exchange and air distribution measurements revealed a large draw in the chimney, which ensured a fast removal of wood smoke from the hearth area. The guest families were in average exposed to no more than 0.21 ppm CO during 48 h. Based on a hypothetical time-activity pattern, however, a woman living in this type of house during the 17-19th century would be exposed to daily averages of 1.1 ppm CO and 196 μg m -3 PM 2.5, which exceeds WHO guideline for PM 2.5, and is comparable to what is today observed for women in rural areas of developing countries.

  5. Vivienda en Oferdingen - Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug, W.

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available This house consists of three floors: — ground floor with vertical walls, and — two upper floors with a sloping roofing. The ground floor houses the bedrooms, children's playroom, bathroom and toilet, dining-room, kitchen, drawing-room and a little covered courtyard inside the house. The first floor comprises a big living-room connected with the drawing-room with chimney, as well as the wife's work room. The father's studio-workshop is at the second floor or gallery. Almost all the construction is of wood, with loadbearing units which support a series of roof assymetric trusses in wood. The sloping roof consists of eternit units over wood boarding, with intermediate insulating material. The same type of construction is used for the upper part of exterior walls, and light-weight concrete for the lower part. The floors, chimney and stair wall are of reinforced concrete. Slag-made slabs are used for service area, and sisal-fibre moquette for the rest of the house. Timber is used for ceilings and staircases. The windows are made of fir wood carpentry with insulating panes.Esta vivienda se ha dispuesto en tres niveles: planta baja normal, de paredes verticales, y dos superiores, limitadas por la cubierta inclinada. La planta baja consta de: dormitorios, cuarto de juego para niños, baño y aseo, comedor, cocina, estancia, y un pequeño patio cubierto, en la zona interior de la casa. En la planta superior se ha dispuesto una gran sala de estar comunicada con la estancia de la chimenea, y un cuarto de trabajo para la señora. El último nivel o galería aloja un taller-estudio para el padre. La construcción es, casi en su totalidad, de madera, a base de elementos resistentes, sobre los que apoyan una serie de cerchas asimétricas, también de madera, que sostienen la cubierta inclinada, compuesta por piezas de Eternit sobre entablado de madera, con material aislante intermedio. Este mismo tipo de construcción se emplea en la parte superior de los

  6. Gas hydrates distribution in the Shenhu area, northern South China Sea: comparisons between the eight drilling sites with gashydrate petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, M.; Yang, R.; Wang, H.; Sha, Z.; Liang, J.; Wu, N.; Qiao, S.; Cong, X.

    2016-07-01

    The results of the first marine gas hydrate drilling expedition of Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey (GMGS-1) in northern continental slope of the South China Sea revealed a variable distribution of gas hydrates in the Shenhu area. In this study, comparisons between the eight sites with gas-hydrate petroleum system were used to analyze and re-examine hydrate potential. In the Shenhu gas hydrate drilling area, all the sites were located in a suitable low-temperature, high-pressure environment. Biogenic and thermogenic gases contributed to the formation of hydrates. Gas chimneys and some small-scale faults (or micro-scale fractures) compose the migration pathways for gas-bearing fluids. Between these sites, there are three key differences: the seafloor temperatures and pressures; geothermal gradient and sedimentary conditions. Variations of seafloor temperatures and pressures related to water depths and geothermal gradient would lead to changes in the thickness of gas hydrate stability zones. Although the lithology and grain size of the sediments were similar, two distinct sedimentary units were identified for the first time through seismic interpretation, analysis of deep-water sedimentary processes, and the Cm pattern (plotted one-percentile and median values from grain-size analyses), implying the heterogeneous sedimentary conditions above Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs). Based on the analyses of forming mechanisms and sedimentary processes, these two fine-grained sedimentary units have different physical properties. Fine-grained turbidites (Unit I) with thin-bedded chaotic reflectors at the bottom acted as the host rocks for hydrates; whereas, finegrained sediments related to soft-sediment deformation (Unit II) characterized by thick continuous reflectors at the top would serve as regional homogeneous caprocks. Low-flux methane that migrated upwards along chimneys could be enriched preferentially in fine-grained turbidites, resulting in the formation of

  7. Patología, diagnóstico y recuperación de chimeneas industriales de fábrica de ladrillo cerámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gómez, C.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presented in these pages originated from a study commissioned by Barcelona Provincial Council's Architectural Heritage Service, in which data was gathered on a broad sample of brickwork industrial chimneys in order to analyse the factors that have contributed or continue to contribute to their physical deterioration and the progressive jeopardising of their safety. The aspects considered include cracking patterns and damage found, and also data deduced from the analytical evaluation of its strength characteristics. There is also an overview of feasibly applicable standard measures for their repair, attending to the causes of the damage in each particular case. The main objective of the study is to provide information for use in the preservation of chimney stacks that are still prone to processes of unnecessary total or partial destruction of their physical integrity.

    El trabajo que se presenta en estas páginas tiene su origen en un estudio encargado por el Servicio del Patrimonio Arquitectónico Local de ¡a Diputación de Barcelona en el que, a partir de la recopilación de datos de una muestra amplia de chimeneas industriales de fábrica de ladrillo se realizó un análisis de las causas que han incidido, o inciden aún, en su degradación física o en su reducción progresiva de seguridad, considerando tanto los esquemas de fisuración y las daños que presentan como los datos que se deducen de la evaluación analítica de sus características resistentes. Se incluye también una sinóptica de las actuaciones tipo de reparación de factible aplicación en función de las causas que, en cada caso concreto, originan las lesiones. El objetivo fundamental del estudio es facilitar información que pueda ser utilizada para preservar las chimeneas que aún se hallan en pie de actuaciones que, innecesariamente, destruyan, total o parcialmente, su integridad física.

  8. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-08-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  9. Microbial and hydrothermal aspects of ferric oxyhydroxides and ferrosic hydroxides: the example of Franklin Seamount, Western Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd TD

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deposits of Fe-Si-Mn oxyhydroxides are commonly found on the seafloor on seamounts and mid-ocean spreading centers. At Franklin Seamount located near the western extremity of Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea, Fe-Si-Mn oxyhydroxides are being precipitated as chimneys and mounds upon a substrate of mafic lava. Previous studies have shown that the vent fluids have a low temperature (20–30°C and are characterized by a total dissolved iron concentration of 0.038 mM kg-1, neutral pH (6.26 and no measurable H2S. The chimneys have a yellowish appearance with mottled red–orange patches when observed in situ from a submersible, but collected samples become redder within a few hours of being removed from the sea. The amorphous iron oxyhydroxides, obtained from active and inactive vents, commonly possess filamentous textures similar in appearance to sheaths and stalks excreted by the iron-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix and Gallionella; however, formless agglomerates are also common. Textural relationships between apparent bacterial and non-bacterial iron suggest that the filaments are coeval with and/or growing outwards from the agglomerates. The amorphous iron oxyhydroxides are suggested to precipitate hydrothermally as ferrosic hydroxide, a mixed-valence (Fe2+-Fe3+ green–yellow iron hydroxide compound. Consideration of the thermodynamics and kinetics of iron in the vent fluid, suggest that the precipitation is largely pH controlled and that large amounts of amorphous iron oxyhydroxides are capable of being precipitated by a combination of abiotic hydrothermal processes. Some biologically induced precipitation of primary ferric oxyhydroxides (two-XRD-line ferrihydrite may have occurred directly from the fluid, but most of the filamentous iron micro-textures in the samples appear to have a diagenetic origin. They may have formed as a result of the interaction between the iron-oxidizing bacteria and the initially precipitated ferrosic hydroxide that

  10. Preliminary study of trace element emissions and control during coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junying; ZHAO Yongchun; DING Feng; ZENG Hancai; ZHENG Chuguang

    2007-01-01

    Hazardous trace element emissions have caused serious harm to human health in China.Several typical high-toxic trace element coals were collected from different districts and were used to investigate the emission characteristics of toxic trace elements (As,Se,Cr,Hg) and to explore preliminary control methods.Coal combustion tests were conducted in several bench-scale furnaces including drop tube furnace (DTF),circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion furnace,and fixed-bed combustion furnace.Calcium oxide was used to control the emission of arsenic and selenium.The granular activated carbons (AC) and activatedcarbon fibers (ACF) were used to remove mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion.The chemical composition and trace element contents of ash and particulate matter (PM)were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES),respectively.The speciation and concentration of mercury were investigated using the Ontario-Hydro method.X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD) was used to determine the mineral composition of production during combustion experiments.With the addition of a calciumbased sorbent,arsenic concentration in PM1 sharply decreased from 0.25-0.11 mg/m3.In fixed-bed combustion of coal,the retention rates of selenium volatiles were between 11.6% and 50.7% using lime.In the circulating fluidized-bed combustion of coal,the content of selenium in ash from the chimney was reduced to one-fourth of its original value and that in leaching water from the chimney decreased by two orders of magnitude using lime.Calcium-based sorbent is an effective additive to control the emission of As and Se during coal combustion.The emission of chromium is influenced by the occurrence mode of Cr in coal.Chromium emission in PM2.5 during coal combustion is 55.5 and 34.7 μg/m3 for Shenbei coal and mixed Pingdingshan coal,respectively.The adsorptive capacity of granular activated carbon for Hg0 is

  11. Study on Corrosion of the Foam Glass Anti-corrosion Lining%泡沫玻璃砖防腐内衬腐蚀研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎优霞; 冀运东

    2015-01-01

    Etching solution leaked from the thermal power plant wet chimney, which adopted domestic foam glass anti-corrosion lining and worked for a period of time. The performance of the foam glass anti-corrosion lining of it was studied in this paper. The properties of the foam glasses and plaster picking from the chimney lining were characterized by EDS and FT-IR. The results showed that the alkali metals (including Fe, K, Al, Na, Mg and so on) in the domestic foam glasses reacted with the acid corrosive media of the wet gas, which gave rise to the destruction of the closed pore structure and crisp cracking of the bricks; meanwhile, pendant groups on the polysiloxane matrix shed and Si-O-Si rigid structure increased in the main chain, which result in the loss of elasticity and adhesion of the plaster, then the foam dlass anti-corrosion lining fell off.%采用国产泡沫玻璃砖防腐内衬的火电厂湿烟囱,运行一段时间后,出现严重的渗透腐蚀现象。本文以湿烟囱排烟筒上脱落的泡沫玻璃砖为实验对象,利用EDS和FT-IR分别研究了国产泡沫玻璃砖和有机硅防腐胶泥的腐蚀状况及原理。结果表明,国产泡沫玻璃砖中含有Fe、K、Al、Na、Mg等碱金属,遇酸反应,导致砖体密闭孔隙结构破坏,酥化开裂,失去防腐作用;聚硅氧烷基体的侧基脱落,主链中Si-O-Si刚性结构增多,胶泥失去弹性和粘接性,导致防腐内衬整体脱落。

  12. Modeling the growth and constraints of thermophiles and biogeochemical processes in deep-sea hydrothermal environments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, J. F.; Ver Eecke, H. C.; Lin, T. J.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.; Jamieson, J.; Knutson, J. K.; Dyar, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    In 2008 and 2009, 233 fluid and 4 active black smoker chimney samples were collected from the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano in the NE Pacific Ocean. Hyperthermophilic methanogens, autotrophic iron reducers, and heterotrophs were present at both sites, with iron reducers generally more abundant than methanogens in MPN estimates. Culture-based experiments with three Methanocaldococcus strains at 70 and 82°C showed that these organisms are H2 limited below 10-20 µM H2. Furthermore, respiration rates per cell increased significantly for Methanocaldococcus strain JH146 when grown near its limits of temperature, pH, and minimum NH4+ suggesting that its H2 demand increases under non-ideal conditions. H2 concentrations in Endeavour fluids were slightly above the predicted minimum threshold for methanogen growth, which likely explains their low abundances. H2 concentrations were well above the minimum threshold at Axial Volcano where methanogens and methanogenesis were more evident. Nineteen deep-sea hyperthermophilic heterotrophs all grew on peptides and sugars with concomitant H2 production. Based on pure culture respiration rate measurements, it is estimated that 50-100 heterotrophs would be needed to produce enough H2 to support one methanogen. Co-culture experiments with a heterotroph and a methanogen show that large numbers of heterotrophs grow in aggregates with a small number of methanogens and that the heterotrophs are the sole source of H2 for the methanogens in a commensal or symbiotic relationship. Thermodynamic calculations predict that the minimum H2 threshold for growth should be much lower for iron reduction than for methanogenesis, and culture experiments show far less H2 consumption by iron reducers than methanogens. Access to Fe(III) oxide and physiological mechanisms for respiring insoluble iron limit growth for iron reducers. Petrology and Mössbauer, VNIR, and thermal emission spectra show that the interior of black smoker chimneys are porous

  13. Nanomaterials' Influences on the Emergence of Life and Their Toxic Effects on Bacteria and Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Randall Edward

    This research investigates the unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) with highly catalytic surfaces that make them ideal for the production of organic molecules but also confer toxic properties of some NMs. Iron-sulphide NMs were used in a hydrothermal reactor that released hydrogen sulphide and other metal ions in the effluent, as analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), iron sulphide NM surfaces indicate severe weathering as a result of environmental conditions including high pressure (100 bar H2) and moderate temperatures (130°C). The effluent's chemical properties from the reactor experiment generated chimney structures from newly formed iron-sulphide NMs in a ferrous rich 'Hadean Ocean' solution. Using ESEM, we show that structural changes occur under different pHs, temperatures, and silicate concentrations. The presence of 5-mer peptides also shows distinct structural differences during the formation of iron-sulphide NM chimneys. Nano-titanium dioxide NMs (nTiO2) were used to show the toxicity of nTiO2 encrusted Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) fed to Tetrahymena thermophila (TT) protozoa under aerobic conditions. The control TT showed limited toxicity when grown in the presence of nTiO2, and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed the initial accumulation of nTiO2 in food vacuoles (FVs) of control TT cells that were not observed in the TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA. After 22 h, very little nTiO2 is observed in the control TT FVs as compared with the TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA FVs which had about 30% of the FV filled with nTiO2. Toxicity to nTiO2 was observed as reduced growth yields for both the control and the PA fed TT, but also as a reduction in growth rate for TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA. To understand biological weathering of NMs, the use of STEM energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was enhanced to analyze single nano-sized particles

  14. Development of assemblages associated with alvinellid colonies on the walls of high-temperature vents at the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradillon, F.; Zbinden, M.; Le Bris, N.; Hourdez, S.; Barnay, A.-S.; Gaill, F.

    2009-09-01

    Several species of the polychaete family Alvinellidae may be considered as 'ecosystem engineer' because, by building their tubes, they modify the architecture of the hydrothermal fluid-seawater interface on the walls of vent chimneys. This affects the thermal and chemical gradients, and creates a mosaic of micro-niches, which could enable colonization by a variety of less-tolerant species. On high temperature vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Alvinellid-dominated communities colonizing first mineral surfaces are followed by a succession of communities with different species composition. On the East Pacific Rise (EPR), tubes of Alvinella spp, may seal the mineral surface on which they grow and decrease fluid seepage, or tubes may become encrusted in mineral precipitations. An alvinellid colony may therefore persist for only a restricted time period at a given place. Here we investigated the development of alvinellid colonies on the EPR vent sites in order to detect whether a succession of new species less tolerant would follow colonization by Alvinella spp. or if different assemblages are forming depending on local conditions. Using a specially designed device called TRAC (titanium ring for alvinellid colonization), we described the evolution of newly formed colonies. Fifteen experiments were conducted on several chimneys of the 9°N and 13°N vent fields of the EPR, over durations ranging from 5 days up to 5 months. Through video analysis, different types of colonies were identified, characterized by increasing thickness of the Alvinella coverage, decreasing fluid flow bathing the colony, and decreasing surface temperatures. We showed that the assemblage formed by minerals, tubes, and organisms is produced at a very high rate. While animals may colonize the new surface in less than a week, and tubes are also quickly produced ( Alvinella species may grow their tube up to 1 cm day -1 during the early stages of colonization), mineral precipitation progressively

  15. Método y criterios en la restauración del Palau Güell de Barcelona, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Moreno-Navarro, Antoni

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1986 and 1992 the facade and the roof were restored, the installations were renewed and the vestibule and the reception were renovated in order to welcome the visitors, the principal users of the building. The parallel studies dealing both with the historical aspect and the architectural and construction ones are reflected in a historical-constructive atlas. The work was approached with eclecticism and elasticity. In some cases, the mimetic reconstruction was chosen; in others, after a critical analysis, an analogical restoration or the harmonious diachrony was opted for. This was the solution chosen for the roof a peculiar combination of a terrace for domestic service use and an open-air sculpture museum. Some chimneys of uncovered brick as covered ones were faithfully restored. It was decided to retrieve the coating of the bare cowls. Various artists were entrusted with this work with the purpose of contributing their creativity rather than imitate Gaudí. In that way, the chimney landscape recovered its authenticity: the texture, the colour.

    Entre 1986 y 1992 se restauraron las fachadas y la azotea, se renovaron las instalaciones y se remozaron el zaguán y la conserjería para acoger a los visitantes, principales destinatarios del edificio. Los estudios paralelos, referidos tanto a aspectos históricos como arquitectónicos y constructivos, se han reflejado en un atlas histórico-constructivo. La obra se enfocó con eclecticismo y elasticidad. En unos episodios se optó por la reconstrucción mimética; en otros, después de un análisis crítico, se planteó una recuperación analógica o la diacronía armónica. De esta manera se actuó en la azotea, singular mezcla de terraza de servicio doméstico y de museo de escultura al aire libre. Algunas chimeneas de ladrillo visto o revestidas fueron reconstruidas fielmente. De las caperuzas desnudas se decidió recuperar el revestimiento y se confió su diseño a diversos

  16. Precipitation and growth of barite within hydrothermal vent deposits from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, John William; Hannington, Mark D.; Tivey, Margaret K.; Hansteen, Thor; Williamson, Nicole M.-B.; Stewart, Margaret; Fietzke, Jan; Butterfield, David; Frische, Matthias; Allen, Leigh; Cousens, Brian; Langer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent deposits form on the seafloor as a result of cooling and mixing of hot hydrothermal fluids with cold seawater. Amongst the major sulfide and sulfate minerals that are preserved at vent sites, barite (BaSO4) is unique because it requires the direct mixing of Ba-rich hydrothermal fluid with sulfate-rich seawater in order for precipitation to occur. Because of its extremely low solubility, barite crystals preserve geochemical fingerprints associated with conditions of formation. Here, we present data from petrographic and geochemical analyses of hydrothermal barite from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeast Pacific Ocean, in order to determine the physical and chemical conditions under which barite precipitates within seafloor hydrothermal vent systems. Petrographic analyses of 22 barite-rich samples show a range of barite crystal morphologies: dendritic and acicular barite forms near the exterior vent walls, whereas larger bladed and tabular crystals occur within the interior of chimneys. A two component mixing model based on Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr of both seawater and hydrothermal fluid, combined with 87Sr/86Sr data from whole rock and laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of barite crystals indicate that barite precipitates from mixtures containing as low as 17% and as high as 88% hydrothermal fluid component, relative to seawater. Geochemical modelling of the relationship between aqueous species concentrations and degree of fluid mixing indicates that Ba2+ availability is the dominant control on mineral saturation. Observations combined with model results support that dendritic barite forms from fluids of less than 40% hydrothermal component and with a saturation index greater than ∼0.6, whereas more euhedral crystals form at lower levels of supersaturation associated with greater contributions of hydrothermal fluid. Fluid inclusions within barite indicate formation temperatures of between ∼120 °C and 240 °C during

  17. Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Schaeffer, P.; Frank, M.; Gutjahr, M.; Kelley, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis Massif, the LCHF is composed of carbonate-brucite chimneys that vent alkaline and low-temperature (40-90°C) hydrothermal fluids. These fluids are related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites, which together with minor gabbroic intrusions form the basement of the LCHF. Long-lived hydrothermal activity at Lost City led to extensive seawater-rock interaction in the basement rocks, as indicated by seawater-like Sr- and mantle to unradiogenic Nd-isotope compositions of the serpentinites. These high fluid fluxes in the southern part of the massif influenced the conditions of serpentinization and have obliterated the early chemical signatures in the serpentinites, especially those of carbon and sulfur. Compared to reducing conditions commonly formed during the first stages of serpentinization, serpentinization at Lost City is characterized by relatively oxidizing conditions resulting in a predominance of magnetite, the mobilization/dissolution and oxidation of igneous sulfides to secondary pyrite, and the incorporation of seawater sulfate, all leading to high bulk-rock S-isotope compositions. The Lost City hydrothermal fluids contain high concentrations in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons considered as being produced abiotically. In contrast, organic compounds in the serpentinites are dominated by the occurrences of isoprenoids (pristane, phytane, and squalane), polycyclic compounds (hopanes and steranes), and higher abundances of C16 to C20 n-alkanes indicative of a marine organic input. We

  18. Gas and Gas Hydrate Potential Offshore Amasra,Bartin and Zonguldak and Possible Agent for Multiple BSR Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert Küçük, Hilmi; Dondurur, Derman; Özel, Özkan; Sınayuç, Çağlar; Merey, Şükrü; Parlaktuna, Mahmut; Çifçi, Günay

    2015-04-01

    Gas hydrates, shallow gases and mud volcanoes have been studied intensively in the Black Sea in recent years. Researches have shown that the Black Sea region has an important potential about hydrocarbon. BSR reflections in the seismic sections and seabed sampling studies also have proven the formations of hydrates clearly. In this respect, total of 2400 km multichannel seismic reflection, chirp and multibeam bathymetry data were collected along shelf to abyssal plain in 2010 and 2012 offshore Amasra, Bartın, Zonguldak-Kozlu in the central Black Sea.. Collected data represent BSRs, bright spots and transparent zones. It has been clearly observed that possible gas chimneys cross the base of gas hydrate stability zones as a result of possible weak zones in the gas hydrate bearing sediments. Seabed samples were collected closely to possible gas chimneys due to shallow gas anomalies in the data. Head space gas cromatography was applied to seabed samples to observe gas composition and the gas cromatography results represented hydrocarbon gases such as Methane, Ethane, Propane, i-Butane, n-Butane, i-Pentane, n-Pentane and Hexane. Thermogenic gas production by Turkish Petroleum Corp. from Akçakoca-1 and Ayazlı-1 well is just located at the southwest of the study area and the observations of the study area point out there is also thermogenic gas potential at the eastern side of the Akçakoca. In addition, multiple-BSRs were observed in the study area and it is thought the key point of the multiple-BSRs are different gas compositions. This suggests that hydrate formations can be formed by gas mixtures. Changing of the thermobaric conditions can trigger dissociation of the gas hydrates in the marine sediments due to sedimentary load and changing of the water temperature around seabed. Our gas hydrate modelling study suggest that gas hydrates are behaving while their dissociation process if the gas hydrates are generated by gas mixture. Monitoring of our gas hydrate

  19. Diversity of meiofauna from the 9°50'N East Pacific rise across a gradient of hydrothermal fluid emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gollner

    Full Text Available We studied the meiofauna community at deep-sea hydrothermal vents along a gradient of vent fluid emissions in the axial summit trought (AST of the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N region. The gradient ranged from extreme high temperatures, high sulfide concentrations, and low pH at sulfide chimneys to ambient deep-sea water conditions on bare basalt. We explore meiofauna diversity and abundance, and discuss its possible underlying ecological and evolutionary processes.After sampling in five physico-chemically different habitats, the meiofauna was sorted, counted and classified. Abundances were low at all sites. A total of 52 species were identified at vent habitats. The vent community was dominated by hard substrate generalists that also lived on bare basalt at ambient deep-sea temperature in the axial summit trough (AST generalists. Some vent species were restricted to a specific vent habitat (vent specialists, but others occurred over a wide range of physico-chemical conditions (vent generalists. Additionally, 35 species were only found on cold bare basalt (basalt specialists. At vent sites, species richness and diversity clearly increased with decreasing influence of vent fluid emissions from extreme flow sulfide chimney (no fauna, high flow pompei worm (S: 4-7, H'(loge: 0.11-0.45, vigorous flow tubeworm (S: 8-23; H'(loge: 0.44-2.00 to low flow mussel habitats (S: 28-31; H'(loge: 2.34-2.60.Our data suggest that with increasing temperature and toxic hydrogen sulfide concentrations and increasing amplitude of variation of these factors, fewer species are able to cope with these extreme conditions. This results in less diverse communities in more extreme habitats. The finding of many species being present at sites with and without vent fluid emissions points to a non endemic deep-sea hydrothermal vent meiofaunal community. This is in contrast to a mostly endemic macrofauna but similar to what is known for meiofauna from shallow-water vents.

  20. [Pollution with sulfur dioxide in an inhabited industrial area. Methodologic problems in monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, C; Pontoni, H; Pellicciotti, G

    1989-01-01

    The area around Rho and Pero in the north west of the province of Milan is densely populated and highly industrialised. It is also characterised by high levels of sulphur dioxide pollution. During the 1980s it was decided to check the sources of production of the pollutant and its distribution in the area. The main area for improvement was the refinery at Rho where it was aimed to disperse gases at a higher level by raising the chimneys and to use fuel gas in those burners which were connected to lower chimneys. For domestic systems it was decided to diffuse the use of methane as much as possible and limit oil-fired central heating, by statute from the Mayor. In order to rationalise the programme of action the pollution was to be determined for each single area by subdivision of the territory into a grid. By means of a census of all the production sources of sulphur dioxide appropriate data were collected to estimate each area's contribution to pollution. The theoretical hourly quantity of sulphur dioxide was calculated on the basis of the combustion equation. The data were then analysed, in total and divided into component parts, i.e. the type of fuel used, the season of the year and industrial or domestic usage. With Gifford and Hanna's ATDL mathematical model the data thus obtained, together with meteorological variables, were used to simulate the expected effect on the distribution of pollution after carrying out the programmed actions. The simulations foresee a reduction of up to 80% of sulphur dioxide concentrations in the areas of greatest use of liquid fuels. In the territory in question the monitoring of the pollutant was assured by the presence of five fixed positions of continuous survey. These turned out to be useful above all for analysis of the phenomenon over a period of time. In order to study spatial distribution better 374 findings were gathered in the winter of 1985-6 from various points of the territory by means of a mobile instantaneous

  1. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper and boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.

    1966-06-04

    Spectrochemical analyses of garden soils sampled in the Edinburgh and Dundee areas indicate that there is substantial contamination of urban soils with copper and boron. These soils were analyzed spectrochemically with respect to total copper and water-extractable boron content with the view of comparing the levels obtained in urban areas with levels in arable soils in rural areas. The results indicate that urban garden soils contain about four times as much copper and two to three times as much water-soluble boron as rural arable soils. The existence of such a marked disparity between the levels of two potentially toxic elements in urban and rural areas is evidence of slow poisoning of the soil environment in built-up areas and is cause for concern. While the major source of contamination of soils with copper and boron is still a matter for speculation, it is probable that the addition of soot to garden soils and the fall-out of sooty material in built-up areas where atmospheric pollution is a problem make a substantial contribution to the water-extractable boron content of urban soils. Three samples of soot from domestic chimneys, obtained from independent sources, were found on analysis to contain 640, 650 and 555 p.p.m. water-extractable boron, and it is evident that the addition to soil of even small amounts of soot with a boron content of this order would have a marked effect on its water-extractable boron content.

  2. Proceedings of the Monterey Containment Symposium, Monterey, California, August 26-28, 1981. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B.C. [comp.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Jones, E.M. [comp.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, C.E. [comp.] [Field Command (DNA), Kirtland Air Force Base, NM (United States); Smith, C.W. [comp.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Since the Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963, the United States has conducted all nuclear weapons tests underground. To meet US treaty responsibilities and to ensure public safety, the containment community must prevent any release of radioactive gases to the atmosphere. In the past two decades we have gained considerable insight into the scientific and engineering requirements for complete containment, but the papers and discussions at the Monterey Symposium indicate that a great deal remains to be done. Among papers included here, those dealing with mature topics will serve as reviews and introductions for new workers in the field. Others, representing first looks at new areas, contain more speculative material. Active research topics include propagation of stress waves in rocks, formation and decay of residual hoop stresses around a cavity, hydrofracture out of a cavity, formation of chimneys, and geologic and geophysical investigations of the Nevada Test Site. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. On the design of residential condensing gas boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    1997-02-01

    Two main topics are dealt with in this thesis. Firstly, the performance of condensing boilers with finned tube heat exchangers and premix burners is evaluated. Secondly, ways of avoiding condensate formation in the flue system are evaluated. In the first investigation, a transient heat transfer approach is used to predict performance of different boiler configurations connected to different heating systems. The smallest efficiency difference between heat loads and heating systems is obtained when the heat exchanger gives a small temperature difference between flue gases and return water, the heat transfer coefficient is low and the thermostat hysteresis is large. Taking into account heat exchanger size, the best boiler is one with higher heat transfer per unit area which only causes a small efficiency loss. The total heating cost at part load, including gas and electricity, has a maximum at the lowest simulated heat load. The heat supplied by the circulation heat pump is responsible for this. The second investigation evaluates methods of drying the flue gases. Reheating the flue gases in different ways and water removal in an adsorbent bed are evaluated. Reheating is tested in two specially designed boilers. The necessary reheating is calculated to approximately 100-150 deg C if an uninsulated masonry chimney is used. The tested boilers show that it is possible to design a proper boiler. The losses, stand-by and convective/radiative, must be kept at a minimum in order to obtain a high efficiency. 86 refs, 70 figs, 16 tabs

  4. Salinity sources of Kefar Uriya wells in the Judea Group aquifer of Israel. Part 1—conceptual hydrogeological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avisar, D.; Rosenthal, E.; Flexer, A.; Shulman, H.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Guttman, J.

    2003-01-01

    In the Yarkon-Taninim groundwater basin, the karstic Judea Group aquifer contains groundwater of high quality. However, in the western wells of the Kefar Uriya area located in the foothills of the Judea Mountains, brackish groundwater was locally encountered. The salinity of this water is caused presumably by two end members designated as the 'Hazerim' and 'Lakhish' water types. The Hazerim type represents surface water percolating through a highly fractured thin chalky limestone formation overlying the Judea Group aquifer. The salinity of the water derives conjointly from several sources such as leachates from rendzina and grumosols, dissolution of caliche crusts which contain evaporites and of rock debris from the surrounding formations. This surface water percolates downwards into the aquifer through a funnel- or chimney-like mechanism. This local salinization mechanism supercedes another regional process caused by the Lakhish waters. These are essentially diluted brines originating from deep formations in the western parts of the Coastal Plain. The study results show that salinization is not caused by the thick chalky beds of the Senonian Mt Scopus Group overlying the Judea Group aquifer, as traditionally considered but prevalently by aqueous leachates from soils and rock debris. The conceptual qualitative hydrogeological model of the salinization as demonstrated in this study, is supported by a quantitative hydrological model presented in another paper in this volume.

  5. Fault detection and analysis in nuclear research facility using artificial intelligence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazali, Abu Bakar, E-mail: Abakar@uniten.edu.my [Department of Electronics & Communication, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43009 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd [Instrumentation Program, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    In this article, an online detection of transducer and actuator condition is discussed. A case study is on the reading of area radiation monitor (ARM) installed at the chimney of PUSPATI TRIGA nuclear reactor building, located at Bangi, Malaysia. There are at least five categories of abnormal ARM reading that could happen during the transducer failure, namely either the reading becomes very high, or very low/ zero, or with high fluctuation and noise. Moreover, the reading may be significantly higher or significantly lower as compared to the normal reading. An artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are good methods for modeling this plant dynamics. The failure of equipment is based on ARM reading so it is then to compare with the estimated ARM data from ANN/ ANFIS function. The failure categories in either ‘yes’ or ‘no’ state are obtained from a comparison between the actual online data and the estimated output from ANN/ ANFIS function. It is found that this system design can correctly report the condition of ARM equipment in a simulated environment and later be implemented for online monitoring. This approach can also be extended to other transducers, such as the temperature profile of reactor core and also to include other critical actuator conditions such as the valves and pumps in the reactor facility provided that the failure symptoms are clearly defined.

  6. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  7. Anxiolytic-like and sedative effects of Hydrocotyle umbellata L., Araliaceae, extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Rocha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The plant Hydrocotyle umbellata L., Araliaceae (water pennywort, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine to reduce anxiety. This work investigates the anxiolytic-like effects of the ethanol extract from H. umbellata subterraneous parts as well as the extract's other putative central nervous system effects that could justify its common use. Oral dosing of the extract (0.3 and 1 g/kg clearly showed an anxiolytic-like profile in the elevated plus maze test where it increased the percentage of entries into and the time spent in the open arms of the maze. In the marble-burying test, the extract induced anxiolytic-like effects only at a dose of 1 g/kg, which also causes mild sedative properties in other models. The sedated state was characterized by a slight reduction in spontaneous exploratory activity during the open field test and a potentiating of pentobarbital-induced hypnosis. No signs of motor impairment were detected in the rota rod or chimney tests. The extract did not show antidepressant properties in mice as assessed by the forced swimming test. These results support the use of H. umbellata in Brazilian folk medicine as an anxiolytic and contribute to the scientific knowledge of this possible phytotherapeutic resource.

  8. Influence of Ring Stiffeners on a Steel Cylindrical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lemák

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Shell structures are usually formed from concrete, steel and nowadays also from many others materials. Steel is typically used in the structures of chimneys, reservoirs, silos, pipelines, etc. Unlike concrete shells, steel shells are regularly stiffened with the help of longitudinal and/or ring stiffeners.The authors of this paper investigated steel cylindrical shells and their stiffening with the use of ring stiffeners. The more complete the stiffening, the more closely the shell will act to beam theory, and the calculations will be much easier. However, this would make realization of the structure more expensive and more laborious. The target of the study is to find the limits of ring stiffeners for cylindrical shells. Adequate stiffeners will eliminate semi-bending action of the shells in such way that the shell structures can be analyzed with the use of numerical models of the struts (e.g., by beam theory without significant divergences from reality. Recommendations are made for the design of ring stiffeners, especially for the distances between stiffeners and for their bending stiffness. 

  9. A trial burn of rape straw and whole crops harvested for energy use to assess efficiency implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.

    2003-11-01

    Increased biomass utilisation and alternatives to cereal straw such as oil seed rape (OSR) straw will be necessary to achieve the Government's renewable energy targets. This report describes the results of a study to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of burning OSR straw and whole crops in an existing biomass power plant operated by EPR Ely Ltd in comparison with conventional cereal straw. Suitable quantities of bales of each fuel were provided for the combustion trials by Anglian Straw Ltd. Three trials were conducted: one using wheat-based cereal straw; one using 92% OSR; and one using 65% whole crop fuel. The availability of OSR straw and whole crop in Eastern England for use as fuel was also determined. Plant performance and stack emissions were evaluated and samples of delivered crop samples, bottom ash and fly ash from each trial were analysed. The parameters against which performance was assessed included: ease of handling and conveying; ease of chopping; ease of entry into the combustion chamber; furnace temperature profile; steam and electricity production rate; plant chimney emissions; ash collection and removal; operating stability; sustainability; and fuel availability.

  10. Boundary layer and air quality monitoring with a commercial lidar ceilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münkel, Christoph

    2006-09-01

    The Vaisala Ceilometer CL31 is a compact and low-cost all-weather lidar designed to report cloud base height and vertical visibility. It works 24 hours a day in fully-automated, hands-off operation mode. Its enhanced optical and electronic concept enables it for tasks that go far beyond its standard duties. Four different areas will be treated in the scope of this paper. 1. Mixing height assessment from attenuated backscatter profiles. 2. Comparison of particulate matter concentration, near-range ceilometer backscatter, and extinction reported by a ceilometer. 3. Backscatter profiles from a ceilometer that was installed for one year in an industrial area pointing in a nearly horizontal direction were evaluated in respect of possibilities to monitor chimney plumes, spray caused by cars driving on a wet road, and other phenomena. 4. The standard profile report frequency of the CL31 ceilometer is 0.5 Hz. If the measuring range is reduced to 100 m, the profile report frequency can be raised to 100 Hz, opening new fields of application like the investigation of falling hailstones.

  11. High Resolution X-ray Imaging Observations of two low luminosity Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, K P

    1999-01-01

    An extended component of X-ray emission has been detected in Seyfert galaxies - NGC 1365 and NGC 4051, using the ROSAT HRI. Its size is about 2 kpc and it contains 56% +- 8% of the total observed flux in NGC 1365, and 21% +- 6% in NGC 4051. Extended emission in NGC 1365 is aligned with the inner disk structure, has wings along the east and west direction aligned with the inner spiral arms, and has an elongated edge-brightened structure (``chimney'') breaking out of the disk in the north-west direction. In NGC 4051 it is co-spatial with the disk of the galaxy, and shows an elongation coincident with a ``banana''-like feature in the north-east seen in the 6 cm radio band. Starburst activity driving strong winds through the disk of NGC 1365 can account for most of the extended soft X-ray emission in it. Both nuclear activity and starburst induced activity maybe needed to explain extended X-ray emission in NGC 4051. The nuclear component of NGC 4051 shows soft X-ray variability with X-ray intensity changing by a ...

  12. Numerical Analysis of Rotating Pumping Flows in Inter-Coil Rotor Cavities and Short Cooling Grooves of a Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tong

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An important characteristic of wall rotating-driven flows is the tendency of fluid with high angular momentum to be flung radially outward. For a generator, the rotor rotating-driven flow, usually referred to as the rotating pumping flow, plays an important role in rotor winding cooling. In this study, three-dimensional numerical analyzes are presented for turbulent pumping flow in the inter-coil rotor cavity and short cooling grooves of a generator. Calculations of the flow field and the mass flux distribution through the grooves were carried out in a sequence of four related cases Under an isothermal condition: (a pumping flow, which is the self-generated flow resulted from the rotor pumping action; (b mixing flow, which is the combination of the ventilating flow and pumping flow, under a constant density condition; (c mixing flow, with density modeled by the ideal gas law; and (d mixing flow, with different pressure differentials applied on the system. The comparisons of the results from these cases can provide useful information regarding the impacts of the ventilating flow, gas density, and system pressure differential on the mass flux distribution in the short cooling grooves. Results show that the pumping effect is strong enough to generate the cooling flow for rotor winding cooling. Therefore, for small- or mid-size generators ventilation fans may be eliminated. It also suggests that increasing the chimney dimension can improve the distribution uniformity of mass flux through the cooling grooves.

  13. Earth, Wind and Fire. Natural air conditioning. Part 1. Research aims and methods; Earth, Wind and Fire. Natuurlijke airconditioning. Deel 1. Onderzoeksdoelen en -methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsema, B. [Afdeling Architectural Engineering en Technology, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    The Earth, Wind and Fire concept transforms a building into a 'climate machine' which is powered by the natural forces and energy of the sun, wind, the mass of the earth and gravity. This concept consists of a Climate Cascade, a solar chimney and a Ventec roof, which have been tested in physical mock-ups. Simulation models have been validated on the basis of real measurements. This work has resulted in the creation of reliable tools for design practice [Dutch] Het Earth, Wind en Fire-concept voor natuurlijke airconditioning biedt meer zekerheid voor het realiseren van energieneutrale kantoorgebouwen dan mogelijk zou zijn door verbetering van bestaande technieken. Het concept maakt gebruik van de omgevingsenergie van aardmassa, wind en zon. Enerzijds wordt deze energie passief gebruikt voor het realiseren van een natuurlijke airconditioning, waarbij de gewenste luchtstromingen tot stand komen onder invloed van thermisch gedreven drukverschillen. Anderzijds worden zon en wind benut voor actieve energieopwekking, waardoor een gebouw in principe energieneutraal kan worden. Een dergelijk gebouw kan worden beschouwd als 'klimaatmachine', geactiveerd door zwaartekracht, wind en zon.

  14. Studies on the anticonvulsant activity of 4-alkyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones and their effect on GABAergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plech, Tomasz; Kaproń, Barbara; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Paneth, Agata; Siwek, Agata; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Żołnierek, Maria; Nowak, Gabriel

    2014-10-30

    A series of 4-alkyl-5-(3-chlorobenzyl/2,3-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones (1a-14a) were designed, synthesized and screened for their anticonvulsant properties. Moreover, the acute adverse-effect profile of the active compounds (1a-7a, 12a) with respect to impairment of motor performance was evaluated in the chimney test. Among 4-alkyl-5-(3-chlorobenzyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones, ethyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, and heptyl derivatives administered intraperitoneally in a dose of 300 mg/kg protected 100% of the tested animals at four pretreatment times (i.e., 15, 30, 60, 120 min). Taking into account the median effective and toxic doses as well as the time-course profile of anticonvulsant activity, 5-(3-chlorobenzyl)-4-hexyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione (4a) was proposed as the best tolerated and the most promising potential drug candidate. Finally, a radioligand binding assay was used to check whether the anticonvulsant activity of 4-alkyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones was a result of their interactions (direct or allosteric) with GABAA receptor complex and/or their affinity to benzodiazepine (BDZ) binding sites.

  15. Quality Assessment of Roof Planes Extracted from Height Data for Solar Energy Systems by the EAGLE Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schuffert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels and the upwards trend in energy costs over time, many countries—especially in Europe—have begun to modify their energy policies aiming to increase that percentage obtained from renewable energies. The EAGLE (FP7 program, European Commission has developed a web-based platform to promote renewable energy systems (RES in the public and private sectors, and to deliver a comprehensive information source for all interested users. In this paper, a comprehensive quality assessment of extracted roof planes suitable for solar energy installations (photovoltaic, solar thermal from height data derived automatically from both LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and aerial images will be presented. A shadow analysis is performed regarding the daily path of the sun including the shading effects of nearby objects (chimneys, dormers, vegetation, buildings, topography, etc.. A quality assessment was carried out for both LiDAR and aerial images of the same test sites in UK and Germany concerning building outline accuracy, extraction rate of roof planes and the accuracy of their geometric parameters (inclination and aspect angle, size. The benefit is an optimized system to extract roof planes for RES with a high level of detail, accuracy and flexibility (concerning different commonly available data sources including an estimation of quality of the results which is important for individual house owners as well as for regional applications by governments or solar energy companies to judge their usefulness.

  16. On-surface integration and test of the ATLAS central solenoid and its proximity cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruber, Roger J M Y; Cipolla, G; Deront, L; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Haug, F; Kanahara, T; Kawai, M; Kondo, T; Kondo, Y; Kopeykin, N; Mizumaki, S; Metselaar, J; Park, A; Pavlov, O V; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Ravat, S; Sbrissa, E; Stepanov, V; ten Kate, H H J; Yamamoto, A

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS detector for the LHC at CERN requires a superconducting solenoid, which provides the magnetic field for the inner detector. The ATLAS Central Solenoid and its associated proximity cryogenics system has been designed by KEK in collaboration with CERN. Following construction and preliminary tests at Toshiba in Japan the equipment has been shipped to CERN. The system is being prepared for the integration in the common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter, whereafter a full on-surface test has to be completed before its final installation 100 m underground in the ATLAS cavern. For this purpose a provisional set-up for commissioning of the final proximity cryogenics, the connecting chimney and the solenoid has been established. A number of tests and simulations have been conducted in applying a new process control system to validate the cryogenics functionalities, the electrical powering scheme as well as the magnet control and safety systems. The present status of the solenoid project and the results of th...

  17. Emission of volatile organic compounds from domestic coal stove with the actual alternation of flaming and smoldering combustion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Chenglong; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2017-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the chimney of a prevailing domestic stove fuelled with raw bituminous coal were measured under flaming and smoldering combustion processes in a farmer's house. The results indicated that the concentrations of VOCs quickly increased after the coal loading and achieved their peak values in a few minutes. The peak concentrations of the VOCs under the smoldering combustion process were significantly higher than those under the flaming combustion process. Alkanes accounted for the largest proportion (43.05%) under the smoldering combustion, followed by aromatics (28.86%), alkenes (21.91%), carbonyls (5.81%) and acetylene (0.37%). The emission factors of the total VOCs under the smoldering combustion processes (5402.9 ± 2031.8 mg kg(-1)) were nearly one order of magnitude greater than those under the flaming combustion processes (559.2 ± 385.9 mg kg(-1)). Based on the VOCs emission factors obtained in this study and the regional domestic coal consumption, the total VOCs emissions from domestic coal stoves was roughly estimated to be 1.25 × 10(8) kg a(-1) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

  18. The Escape of Ionizing Photons from OB Associations in Disk Galaxies Radiation Transfer Through Superbubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Dove, J B; Ferrara, A; Dove, James B.; Ferrara, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    By solving the time-dependent radiation transfer problem of stellar radiation through evolving superbubbles within a smoothly varying H I distribution, we have estimated the fraction of ionizing photons emitted by OB associations that escapes the H I disk of our Galaxy. We considered a coeval star-formation history and a Gaussian star-formation history with a time spread sigma_t = 2 Myr. We find that the shells of the expanding superbubbles quickly trap or attenuate the ionizing flux, such that most of the escaping radiation escapes shortly after the formation of the superbubble. Superbubbles of large associations can blowout of the H I disk and form dynamic chimneys, which allow the ionizing radiation directly to escape the H I disk. However, blowout occurs when the ionizing photon luminosity has dropped well below the association's maximum luminosity. For the coeval star-formation history, the fraction of photons that escape each side of the disk in the solar vicinity is f_esc approx 6% (the total fraction ...

  19. Controlled-source electromagnetic and seismic delineation of subseafloor fluid flow structures in a gas hydrate province, offshore Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Eric; Weitemeyer, Karen; Minshull, Tim A.; Best, Angus I.; Sinha, Martin; Jegen-Kulcsar, Marion; Hölz, Sebastian; Berndt, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Deep sea pockmarks underlain by chimney-like or pipe structures that contain methane hydrate are abundant along the Norwegian continental margin. In such hydrate provinces the interaction between hydrate formation and fluid flow has significance for benthic ecosystems and possibly climate change. The Nyegga region, situated on the western Norwegian continental slope, is characterized by an extensive pockmark field known to accommodate substantial methane gas hydrate deposits. The aim of this study is to detect and delineate both the gas hydrate and free gas reservoirs at one of Nyegga's pockmarks. In 2012, a marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) survey was performed at a pockmark in this region, where high-resolution 3-D seismic data were previously collected in 2006. 2-D CSEM inversions were computed using the data acquired by ocean bottom electrical field receivers. Our results, derived from unconstrained and seismically constrained CSEM inversions, suggest the presence of two distinctive resistivity anomalies beneath the pockmark: a shallow vertical anomaly at the underlying pipe structure, likely due to gas hydrate accumulation, and a laterally extensive anomaly attributed to a free gas zone below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. This work contributes to a robust characterization of gas hydrate deposits within subseafloor fluid flow pipe structures.

  20. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems.

  1. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Juliette; Hamel, Gérard; Zbinden, Magali; Tasiemski, Aurélie A; Boutet, Isabelle; Léger, Nelly; Tanguy, Arnaud; Jollivet, Didier; Shillito, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours) exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  2. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Ravaux

    Full Text Available The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  3. Experimental study of directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Chen, Falin

    1991-01-01

    Directional solidification experiments have been carried out using the analog casting system of NH4Cl-H2O solution by cooling it from below with a constant-temperature surface ranging from -31.5 C to +11.9 C. The NH4Cl concentration was 26 percent in all solutions, with a liquidus temperature of 15 C. It was found that finger convection occurred in the fluid region just above the mushy layer in all experiments. Plume convection with associated chimneys in the mush occurred in experiments with bottom temperatures as high as +11.0 C. However, when the bottom temperature was raised to +11.9 C, no plume convection was observed, although finger convection continued as usual. A method has been devised to determine the porosity of the mush by computed tomography. Using the mean value of the porosity across the mush layer and the permeability calculated by the Kozeny-Carman relationship, the critical solute Rayleigh number across the mush layer for onset of plume convection was estimated to be between 200 and 250.

  4. Fluoxetine enhances the anticonvulsant effects of conventional antiepileptic drugs in maximal electroshock seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Kinga K; Stepień, Karolina; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of fluoxetine (FXT), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model in mice. FXT at the doses of 25, 20 and 15 mg/kg significantly increased the electroconvulsive threshold. The antidepressant applied at the lower doses (10, 5 and 2.5 mg/kg) did not influence the threshold. Moreover, FXT (at the highest subprotective dose of 10 mg/kg) increased the anticonvulsive potential of carbamazepine (CBZ), diphenylhydantoin (DPH), valproate (VPA) and phenobarbital (PB), producing a dose-related decrease in their ED50 values against MES. Nevertheless, pharmacokinetic events may be involved in the interaction between FXT and PB or CBZ, since the antidepressant raised the total brain concentration of the two antiepileptics. FXT in combination with AEDs did not influence the motor performance in the chimney test and long-term memory. In conclusion, the data suggest that FXT modulates seizure processes in the brain and may be advantageous in the treatment of epilepsy in depressed patients, improving the seizure control in epilepsy.

  5. Laboratory experiments with a buoyancy forced circulation in a rotating basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenhil, Catherine; Griffiths, Ross; Gayen, Bishakhdatta

    2016-11-01

    We consider the relative influence of buoyancy forcing and Coriolis effects on convection forced by a differential in heating at a horizontal surface in a rectangular basin. Laboratory experiments with water are reported for a rotating f-plane basin and a range of Ekman number E = 2 ×10-7 - 1 ×10-5 . Heating is applied over half of the base as a uniform flux and cooling applied over the other half as a uniform temperature, resulting in a flux Rayleigh number RaF = O (1014) large enough to ensure turbulent convection, where RaF defined in terms of domain length L. Compared to the non-rotating circulation where Nusselt number (a measure of the convective to conductive heat transfer) scales as Nu RaF1 / 6 , the strongly rotating regime is determined by a geostrophic balance of the larger scales of horizontal flow in the inviscid thermal boundary with Nu Ro 1 / 6 , where Ro =B 1 / 2 / (f 3 / 2 L) is the natural Rossby number (B is buoyancy flux per unit area and f is Coriolis parameter). We also find evidence for a further transition into a regime where the circulation is dominated by deep 'chimney' convection in a field of small vortical plumes and Nu is more weakly dependent on rotation.

  6. Is parental emotional reliability predictive of toddlers' learning and helping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Ivy; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2013-06-01

    This study set out to examine how toddlers' word learning, imitation, and instrumental helping would be affected by the emotional reliability of a familiar model. Therefore, forty-two 24-month-olds were observed in interactions with their primary caregiver, who was evaluated on the quality of his or her sensitive behavior, such as responsiveness and emotional availability. Parents were first instructed how to administer different tasks to their child that included: teaching a novel word, demonstrating an "irrational" means of putting a dog inside a toy house through the chimney instead of the door, and appearing in need of help. The parent-child dyad was then observed during a 10-min period and the parent's level of responsiveness and availability was subsequently coded from this interaction. Finally, children were examined as to whether they learned a novel word, imitated, and helped their caregiver. It was observed that toddlers learned novel words better from an emotionally reliable primary caregiver. In addition, higher parental responsiveness and availability predicted better imitation in older children and higher levels of helping in girls. Taken together, these findings are the first to suggest that the emotional reliability of a familiar model, such as a parent's sensitive nature and consistent responsiveness, influences young children's willingness to learn and help.

  7. Endovascular repair of a juxtarenal saccular aneurysm using the Multilayer Flow Modulator: report of the first case performed in a Public Hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gibin Jaldin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA, involving the exits of the renal and visceral arteries still constitutes a considerable challenge. Many different techniques have been developed over the years in attempts to surmount the difficulties presented by these cases. Techniques that have gained prominence include fenestrated or branched stents, methods involving parallel prostheses, such as the chimney, periscope and sandwich techniques, and, more recently, flow modulation with Multilayer stents. We describe a case of a complex juxtarenal saccular AAA with a high surgical risk, both according to cardiological assessment and because the patient had a difficult airway caused by a total laryngectomy for early stage laryngeal neoplasm. In view of the technical simplicity of using Multilayer stents, the presence of chronic obstructive aortoiliac disease, ostial stenosis of the renal artery and a small diameter suprarenal aorta, options involving fenestrated/branched stents and techniques involving parallel prostheses were ruled out, because of the need for multiple accesses. In view of the dilemma it presented, we describe this case as a therapeutic challenge and present the treatment option employed, which has been successful over the short term.

  8. Phosphated minerals to be used as radioactive reference materials; Minerais fosfatados para serem utilizados como materiais de referencia radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, M.J.C.S.; Tauhata, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI); Clain, A.F. [Universidade Severino Sombra, Vassouras, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, I. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2003-07-01

    The production and the supplying of certified reference materials, or deliberated contaminated materials containing natural radionuclides for laboratories which analyses environmental samples are fundamentals for the correct measurements of their radioactive levels. This analysis quality represents a important step for the safeguards of the population health, and quality control of the imported and exported products, such as minerals, agricultural and raw materials. The phosphate rocks, containing significant concentrations of thorium, and used as raw material and fertilizers justified a study for better characterization and distinction to be used cas certified reference radioactive materials. Therefore, samples from the two carboanalytical-alkaline chimneys (Araxa and Catalao), and one from metasedimentar origin (Patos de Minas), distant 100 km from each other, were collected and chemical and cholecystographic characterized by optical emission, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The element concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The results, after multivariate statistical analysis and study of correlations among elements, have shown geochemical similarities of the phosphates from Araxa and Catalao, and differences from Patos de Minas, despite of the geographic proximity. The concentration of thorium between 200 and 500 (mg/g) allows to use such minerals as reference materials.

  9. Sri Lanka Pilot Study to Examine Respiratory Health Effects and Personal PM2.5 Exposures from Cooking Indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael J; Smith, Emily A; Mosquin, Paul L; Chartier, Ryan; Nandasena, Sumal; Bronstein, Katherine; Elledge, Myles F; Thornburg, Vanessa; Thornburg, Jonathan; Brown, Linda M

    2016-08-05

    A pilot study of indoor air pollution produced by biomass cookstoves was conducted in 53 homes in Sri Lanka to assess respiratory conditions associated with stove type ("Anagi" or "Traditional"), kitchen characteristics (e.g., presence of a chimney in the home, indoor cooking area), and concentrations of personal and indoor particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5). Each primary cook reported respiratory conditions for herself (cough, phlegm, wheeze, or asthma) and for children (wheeze or asthma) living in her household. For cooks, the presence of at least one respiratory condition was significantly associated with 48-h log-transformed mean personal PM2.5 concentration (PR = 1.35; p building (PR = 1.51, p = 0.093). The PRs were significantly elevated for children with wheeze or asthma if a traditional stove was used (PR = 2.08, p = 0.014) or if the cooking area was not partitioned from the rest of the home (PR = 2.46, p = 0.012). For the 13 children for whom the cooking area was not partitioned from the rest of the home, having a respiratory condition was significantly associated with log-transformed indoor PM2.5 concentration (PR = 1.51; p = 0.014).

  10. Fe-Mn nodules associated with hydrocarbon seeps: A new discovery in the Gulf of Cadiz(eastern central Atlantic)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. J. González; L. Somoza; R. Lunar; J. Martínez-Frías; J. A. Martín Rubí; T. Torres; J. E. Ortíz; V. Díaz-del-Río

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Gulf of Cadiz is situated geologically at the Gibraltar Arc, the westernmost arc of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Based on extensive previous studies that include swath bathymetry, multi-channel and very high-resolution seismic reflection, gravimetry, magnetism, heat flow probes, and underwater photography surveys, more than 500 polymetallic nodules were collected at water depths ranging from 850 to 1000 m, associated with hydrocarbon-derived carbonate chimneys, slabs, and crusts. Nodules show a wide range of sizes, densities, weights and morphologies. Nodules are composed of multiple millimetre-thick layers of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides surrounding a nucleus composed of Early-Middle Miocene plastic marls, which were expulsed from underlying units by fluid venting. Nodules show a high mean abundance of Fe (39.03%), moderate Mn (5.84%),and low contents of trace metals and REEs compared to the average content of deep-sea polymetallic nodules. They display fast growth rates (av. 2,500 mm Myr-1) which are probably the main cause for the low contents of transition metals.

  11. Optimization of Q-factor of AFM cantilevers using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, Angel; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; Osornio-Rios, Roque A

    2012-04-01

    Micro cantilever beams have been intensively used in sensing applications including to scanning profiles and surfaces where there resolution and imaging speed are critical. Force resolution is related to the Q-factor. When the micro-cantilever operates in air with small separation gaps, the Q-factor is even more reduced due to the squeeze-film damping effect. Thus, the optimization of the configuration of an AFM micro-cantilever is presented in this work with the objective of improving its Q-factor. To accomplish this task, we propose the inclusion of holes as breathing chimneys in the initial design to reduce the squeeze-film damping effect. The evaluation of the Q-factor was carried out using finite element model, which is implemented to work together with the squeeze-film damping model. The methodology applied in the optimization process was genetic algorithms, which considers as constraints the maximum allowable stress, fundamental frequency and spring constant with respect to the initial design. The results show that the optimum design, which includes holes with an optimal location, increases the Q-factor almost five times compared to the initial design.

  12. Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 clean coal project at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, D.P. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates completed a two year demonstration of its capabilities in late 1994 under both high- and low-particulate loading conditions. This $43 million demonstration was co-funded by Southern Company, the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Round II Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) program. The focus of the Yates Project was to demonstrate several cost-saving modifications to Chiyoda`s already efficient CT-121 process. These modifications included: the extensive use of fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) in the construction of the scrubber vessel and other associated vessels, the elimination of flue gas reheat through the use of an FRP wet chimney, and reliable operation without a spare absorber module. This paper focuses on the testing results from the last trimester of the second phase of testing (high-ash loading). Specifically, operation under elevated ash loading conditions, the effects of low- and high-sulfur coal, air toxics verification testing results and unexpected improvements in byproduct gypsum quality are discussed.

  13. Energy landscapes shape microbial communities in hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Håkon; Økland, Ingeborg; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pederesen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida H

    2015-07-01

    Methods developed in geochemical modelling combined with recent advances in molecular microbial ecology provide new opportunities to explore how microbial communities are shaped by their chemical surroundings. Here, we present a framework for analyses of how chemical energy availability shape chemotrophic microbial communities in hydrothermal systems through an investigation of two geochemically different basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge: the Soria Moria Vent field (SMVF) and the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). Chemical energy landscapes were evaluated through modelling of the Gibbs energy from selected redox reactions under different mixing ratios between seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Our models indicate that the sediment-influenced LCVF has a much higher potential for both anaerobic and aerobic methane oxidation, as well as aerobic ammonium and hydrogen oxidation, than the SMVF. The modelled energy landscapes were used to develop microbial community composition models, which were compared with community compositions in environmental samples inside or on the exterior of hydrothermal chimneys, as assessed by pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. We show that modelled microbial communities based solely on thermodynamic considerations can have a high predictive power and provide a framework for analyses of the link between energy availability and microbial community composition.

  14. Fluid composition of the sediment-influenced Loki's Castle vent field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberger, Tamara; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Hamelin, Cédric; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Okland, Ingeborg E.; Pedersen, Rolf B.

    2016-08-01

    The hydrothermal vent field Loki's Castle is located in the Mohns-Knipovich bend (73°N) of the ultraslow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) close to the Bear Island sediment fan. The hydrothermal field is venting up to 320° C hot black smoker fluids near the summit of an axial volcanic ridge. Even though the active chimneys have grown on a basaltic ridge, geochemical fluid data show a strong sedimentary influence into the hydrothermal circulation at Loki's Castle. Compelling evidence for a sediment input is given by high alkalinity, high concentrations of NH4+, H2, CH4, C2+ hydrocarbons as well as low Mn and Fe contents. The low δ13C values of CO2 and CH4 and the thermogenic isotopic pattern of the C2+ hydrocarbons in the high-temperature vent fluids clearly point to thermal degradation of sedimentary organic matter and illustrate diminution of the natural carbon sequestration in sediments by hydrothermal circulation. Thus, carbon-release to the hydrosphere in Arctic regions is especially relevant in areas where the active Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge system is in contact with the organic matter rich detrital sediment fans.

  15. Occupation and Risk of Bladder Cancer in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to describe the variation of bladder cancer incidence according to occupational categories in the Nordic countries. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 15 million individuals older than 30 years who participated in one or more population censuses in 1960......, 1970, 1980/1981, and/or 1990. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated for 53 occupational categories. RESULTS: Significantly increased SIRs were observed among tobacco workers (1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24 to 1.96), chimney sweeps (1.48; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.80), waiters (1.43; 95......% CI 1.33 to 1.53), hairdressers (1.28; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.40), seamen (1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.30), printers (1.21; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.30), and plumbers (1.20; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.30). A significantly decreased risk of bladder cancer was observed among gardeners (0.78, 0.75 to 0.80), forestry workers (0...

  16. Passive heating and cooling strategies in an approach of retrofit in Rome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderaro, Valerio [Responsabile operativo del Laboratorio sperimentale AMSA, Universita ' La Sapienza' di Roma, via Flaminia 70, 00196 Roma (Italy); Agnoli, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica Tecnica, Universita ' La Sapienza' di Roma, via Eudossiana 18, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    The main aim of this intervention is the energetic rescue of a building now employed as a library. Problems connected with the differences between the windowed surface and the opaque partition were so consistent that an accurate analysis was necessary to know the behavior of the shell subjected to the effects induced by the external climate. The fixed target was to improve the energy performance of the structure, in order to guarantee the comfort, reducing energy waste by a more conscious planning, promoting the use of solar energy and - consequently - the reducing atmosphere pollution as well. So, it has been thought to realize solar chimneys close to high thermic storage structures, supported by technologies using indirect evaporating cooling systems, capable of softening summer temperatures, resulted extreme by simulations. In winter - on the other side - a collector storage system allowed the contemporary working of thermal storage and heat transferring toward the bordered setting, through natural thermic circulation circuits. In order to give a dimension to the various systems, working only through natural ventilation, the TRNSYS 15 Code has been used, implemented by many sub-routines, describing the air floating process due to the start of convective natural motions. (author)

  17. Technological development for increasing the natural gas market; Desenvolvimento tecnologico para o incremento do mercado do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmann, Arno; Romanos, Rafael Reami; Konishi, Ricardo; Lehmkuhl, Willian Anderson [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results achieved in technological development projects for the use of natural gas in furnaces for producing ceramic frits, in plastic film thermoforming and in hardwoods drying. In the case of the production of frits, the analysis of a typical furnace showed that its productivity is better, compared with the use of conventional fuel oil and around 60% of losses of energy were detected, resulting in a proposal of a new model to increase its efficiency, recovering the energy of exhaust gases from the chimney. For the thermoforming, it was shown that the isolation of its sides enable improvements in the order of 7% in its efficiency. Comparing the operating costs, the replacement of electric radiators by porous radiating burners generates savings of around 30% to 45%, with an expected return on investment in about 2.5 years. The drying of hardwoods with natural gas can be carried out in only 26 days, kept all the required technical characteristics, thanks to the good controllability of the conditions of the drying heater, providing a technologically feasible opportunity to reduce the drying time, which in conventional methods is in the order of 90 to 120 days. (author)

  18. Leidenfrost drops on a heated liquid pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquet, L.; Sobac, B.; Darbois-Texier, B.; Duchesne, A.; Brandenbourger, M.; Rednikov, A.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that a volatile liquid drop placed at the surface of a nonvolatile liquid pool warmer than the boiling point of the drop can be held in a Leidenfrost state even for vanishingly small superheats. Such an observation points to the importance of the substrate roughness, negligible in the case considered here, in determining the threshold Leidenfrost temperature. A theoretical model based on the one proposed by Sobac et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 053011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.053011] is developed in order to rationalize the experimental data. The shapes of the drop and of the liquid substrate are analyzed. The model notably provides scalings for the vapor film thickness profile. For small drops, these scalings appear to be identical to the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For large drops, in contrast, they are different, and no evidence of chimney formation has been observed either experimentally or theoretically in the range of drop sizes considered in this study. Concerning the evaporation dynamics, the radius is shown to decrease linearly with time whatever the drop size, which differs from the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For high superheats, the characteristic lifetime of the drops versus the superheat follows a scaling law that is derived from the model, but, at low superheats, it deviates from this scaling by rather saturating.

  19. Field survey of earthquake effects from the magnitude 4.0 southern Maine earthquake of October 16, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Radakovich,; Alex J. Fergusen,; Boatwright, John

    2016-06-02

    The magnitude 4.0 earthquake that occurred on October 16, 2012, near Hollis Center and Waterboro in southwestern Maine surprised and startled local residents but caused only minor damage. A two-person U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) team was sent to Maine to conduct an intensity survey and document the damage. The only damage we observed was the failure of a chimney and plaster cracks in two buildings in East and North Waterboro, 6 kilometers (km) west of the epicenter. We photographed the damage and interviewed residents to determine the intensity distribution in the epicentral area. The damage and shaking reports are consistent with a maximum Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) of 5–6 for an area 1–8 km west of the epicenter, slightly higher than the maximum Community Decimal Intensity (CDI) of 5 determined by the USGS “Did You Feel It?” Web site. The area of strong shaking in East Waterboro corresponds to updip rupture on a fault plane that dips steeply east. 

  20. A Mechanistic Model of a Passive Autocatalytic Hydrogen Recombiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rożeń Antoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available : A passive autocatalytic hydrogen recombiner (PAR is a self-starting device, without operator action or external power input, installed in nuclear power plants to remove hydrogen from the containment building of a nuclear reactor. A new mechanistic model of PAR has been presented and validated by experimental data and results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. The model allows to quickly and accurately predict gas temperature and composition, catalyst temperature and hydrogen recombination rate. It is assumed in the model that an exothermic recombination reaction of hydrogen and oxygen proceeds at the catalyst surface only, while processes of heat and mass transport occur by assisted natural and forced convection in non-isothermal and laminar gas flow conditions in vertical channels between catalyst plates. The model accounts for heat radiation from a hot catalyst surface and has no adjustable parameters. It can be combined with an equation of chimney draft and become a useful engineering tool for selection and optimisation of catalytic recombiner geometry.

  1. Soot on snow experiment: bidirectional reflectance factor measurements of contaminated snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Peltoniemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify the effects of absorbing contaminants on snow, a series of spectral reflectance measurements were conducted. Chimney soot, volcanic sand, and glaciogenic silt were deposited on a natural snow surface in a controlled way as a part of the Soot on Snow (SoS campaign. The bidirectional reflectance factors of these soiled surfaces and untouched snow were measured using the Finnish Geodetic Institute's Field Goniospectropolariradiometer, FIGIFIGO. A remarkable feature is the fact that the absorbing contaminants on snow enhanced in our experiments the metamorphosis of snow under strong sunlight. Immediately after deposition, the contaminated snow surface appeared darker than the pure snow in all viewing directions, but the absorbing particles sank deep into the snow in minutes. The nadir measurement remained the darkest, but at larger zenith angles the surface of the contaminated snow changed back to almost as white as clean snow. Thus, for a ground observer the darkening caused by impurities can be completely invisible, overestimating the albedo, but a nadir observing satellite sees the darkest points, now underestimating the albedo. By a reciprocity argument, we predict, that at noon the albedo should be lower than in the morning or afternoon. When sunlight stimulates sinking more than melting, the albedo should be higher in the afternoon than in the morning, and vice versa when melting dominates. However, differences in the hydrophobic properties, porosity, clumping, or size of the impurities may cause different results than observed in these measurements.

  2. Soot on Snow experiment: bidirectional reflectance factor measurements of contaminated snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, J. I.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Dagsson-Waldhauserová, P.; Arnalds, Ó.; Anttila, K.; Hannula, H.-R.; Kivekäs, N.; Lihavainen, H.; Meinander, O.; Svensson, J.; Virkkula, A.; de Leeuw, G.

    2015-12-01

    In order to quantify the effects of absorbing contaminants on snow, a series of spectral reflectance measurements were conducted. Chimney soot, volcanic sand, and glaciogenic silt were deposited on a natural snow surface in a controlled way as a part of the Soot on Snow (SoS) campaign. The bidirectional reflectance factors of these soiled surfaces and untouched snow were measured using the Finnish Geodetic Institute's Field Goniospectropolariradiometer, FIGIFIGO. A remarkable feature is the fact that the absorbing contaminants on snow enhanced the metamorphism of snow under strong sunlight in our experiments. Immediately after deposition, the contaminated snow surface appeared darker than the natural snow in all viewing directions, but the absorbing particles sank deep into the snow in minutes. The nadir measurement remained the darkest, but at larger zenith angles, the surface of the contaminated snow changed back to almost as white as clean snow. Thus, for a ground observer the darkening caused by impurities can be completely invisible, overestimating the albedo, but a nadir-observing satellite sees the darkest points, underestimating the albedo. Through a reciprocity argument, we predict that at noon, the albedo perturbation should be lower than in the morning or afternoon. When sunlight stimulates sinking more than melting, the albedo should be higher in the afternoon than in the morning, and vice versa when melting dominates. However, differences in the hydrophobic properties, porosity, clumping, or size of the impurities may cause different results than observed in these measurements.

  3. Influencia de los factores meteorológicos y geográficos en la difusión y transportes de sustancias contaminantes Influence of the meteorological and geographical factors in the diffusion and transportation of pollutants in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Linares Gil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza como las situaciones de estabilidad e inestabilidad atmosférica influyen en los fenómenos de difusión de sustancias contaminantes en la atmósfera, tanto a nivel de grandes focos como de focos puntuales como penachos de chimeneas. Por otro lado, se consideran como la orografía, a través de las brisas de mar y de valle, pueden influir en la dirección del viento y, por tanto, del transporte de sustancias contaminantes en ausencia de vientos dominantes Por último, se analiza la influencia de los obstáculos orográficos en la formación de vórtices y remolinos a sotavento de dichos obstáculos.In this paper we analysed how the stability and instability atmospheric situations influence the diffusion of air pollutants, as level of big areas and as level of restricted focus (e.g. a chimney. Moreover, the surface is considered, through the sea and valley breeze, because they can influence the wind direction and so, the transportation of pollutants when main winds do not exit. At last, the influence of orographic obstacles are considered in the generation of lee’s vortices.

  4. Synergistic interaction of gabapentin and oxcarbazepine in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model--an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Andres, Marta M; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2005-05-16

    The anticonvulsant effects produced by mixtures of oxcarbazepine and gabapentin (two second-generation antiepileptic drugs) in numerous fixed-ratio combinations of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 were examined isobolographically in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model. Results displayed that mixtures of both drugs at the fixed-ratios of 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interactions against electroconvulsions. Only a fixed-ratio of 1:1 was indifferent with isobolography, although the combination displayed the trend towards supra-additivity. Furthermore, the combinations of oxcarbazepine with gabapentin, administered at their median effective doses (ED(50 mix)s), did not alter motor performance of animals challenged with the chimney test. Additionally, neither gabapentin nor oxcarbazepine affected total brain concentrations of co-administered drug, indicating a pharmacodynamic nature of interaction between these antiepileptics. Finally, based on preclinical data presented here the combination of oxcarbazepine and gabapentin is of particular importance for further therapy in patients with refractory partial seizures.

  5. Gabapentin synergistically interacts with topiramate in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model: an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2006-01-01

    The anticonvulsant effects produced by topiramate (TPM) and gabapentin (GBP)--two second-generation antiepileptic drugs, in numerous fixed-ratio combinations of 8:1, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8 were examined by isobolographic analysis in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model. Results indicate that the combinations of TPM and GBP at the fixed-ratios of 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8 resulted in supra-additive (synergistic) interaction against MES-induced seizures. Moreover, the combinations of TPM and GBP (at their median effective doses) did not affect motor performance of animals challenged with the chimney test and had no impact on neuromuscular tone in the grip-strength test. Additionally, GBP had no impact on total brain TPM concentrations, and simultaneously, TPM did not alter brain GBP concentrations, indicating that the interaction between drugs was pharmacodynamic in nature. In conclusion, supra-additive interaction of TPM with GBP against MES-induced seizures, lack of motor coordination and neuromuscular tone impairments as well as lack of pharmacokinetic interactions between TPM and GBP in preclinical study, strongly support the combined application of both antiepileptic drugs in patients with refractory partial epilepsy.

  6. Interactions between two enantiomers of losigamone and conventional antiepileptic drugs in the mouse maximal electroshock model--an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Kinga K; Jaszczyk, Bozena; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2007-07-12

    The aim of this study was the isobolographic evaluation of interactions between two enantiomers of losigamone, AO-242 [(+)-5(R)-alpha(S)-5-(2-chlorophenylhydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2(5H)-furanone] and AO-294 [(-)-5(S)-alpha(R)-5-(2-chlorophenylhydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2(5H)-furanone], and valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, or phenobarbital in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Both enantiomers interacted additively with conventional antiepileptic drugs at all studied fixed dose ratios (1:3, 1:1, 3:1). Furthermore, AO-242, AO-294 and antiepileptics applied alone, as well as combinations of enantiomers and antiepileptics did not affect motor performance in the chimney test. Significant impairment of long-term memory (passive-avoidance task) was noted only in the case of valproate alone, given at the dose equal to its median effective dose (ED(50)) against maximal electroshock. All other antiepileptics and their combinations with AO-242 or AO-294 did not impair memory of mice. Enantiomers did not affect the brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs, indicating a pharmacodynamic nature of the observed interactions. In conclusion, the present results suggest both AO-242 and AO-294 as promising candidate drugs in the add-on therapy of refractory epilepsy.

  7. Interactions between non-barbiturate injectable anesthetics and conventional antiepileptic drugs in the maximal electroshock test in mice--an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Kinga K; Łuszczki, Jarogniew; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was the isobolographic evaluation of interactions between three non-barbiturate intravenous anesthetics and conventional antiepileptic drugs in the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Electroconvulsions were produced by means of an alternating current (ear-clip electrodes, 0.2-s stimulus duration, tonic hindlimb extension taken as the endpoint). Adverse effects were evaluated in the chimney test (motor performance) and passive avoidance task (long-term memory). Plasma levels of antiepileptic drugs were measured by immunofluorescence. Obtained results indicate that ketamine acts synergistically with valproate and carbamazepine. Also the combinations of propofol and valproate or phenobarbital led to synergistic interactions. An antagonism was found between etomidate and carbamazepine or phenobarbital. On the other hand, interactions between diphenylhydantoin and injectable anesthetics proved to be additive. The only exception was the combination of diphenylhydantoin and propofol (1:3). Pharmacokinetic phenomena do not seem to interfere with the observed interactions, since none of anesthetics influenced the free plasma concentrations of antiepileptic drugs. Referring to undesired effects, only propofol impaired long-term memory. Although propofol did not disturbed motor coordination, it enhanced motor impairment caused by carbamazepine and diphenylhydantoin. Results of the present study suggest that etomidate needs to be avoided in epileptic patients due to a possibility of negative interactions with some antiepileptic drugs and seizure precipitation.

  8. Control of flow structure in the wake region of circular cylinder with meshy wire in deep water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Oğuz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the aim is decreasing the effect and the intensity of the temporary loads resulted from vortex shedding that have an impact on the cylinder (chimneys, high buildings etc. located in deep water and the object or objects in the wake region and definition of the optimum values (wire thickness and porosity β With different thickness and different porosity ratios the effect of meshy wire that surrounded a circular cylinder of D=50 mm diameter was observed at Re_D=5000. The porosity ratios were four different values between a range of β=0.5-0.8 with an interval of 0.1. The thicknesses of wire were 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm. The flow structure in the wake region of circular cylinder was tried to be controlled by meshy wire that surrounded the cylinder. Experiments were carried out by using particle image velocimetry (PIV technique. Comparing with bare cylinder results, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE and Reynolds shear stress values increase with wire thicknesses of b=1 mm, 2 mm for all porosity ratios and decrease with b=3 mm, 4 mm. With porosity ratio of β=0.6 and wire thickness of b=4 mm TKE and Reynolds shear stress results show that meshy wire controls the flow in the wake region of the cylinder. Frequency value results also define that best flow control is obtained with β=0.6 and b=4 mm.

  9. Revestimientos internos cerámicos para chimeneas industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serradilla Echarri, Jesús

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article shows the different factors intervening on the study and later setting into service of the internal ceramic liner for industrial chimneys. Firstly they are studied the diverse existing options and later decision as to the solution to be adopted. Also they are specified the physicochemical peculiar characteristics of the material as well as the criterion to folio w with regards to the adecuate dispositive for the material's quality control.En el presente artículo, se estudian los diversos factores que intervienen en el estudio y posterior puesta en servicio de los revestimientos internos cerámicos para chimeneas de uso industrial. Se estudian inicialmente las diversas opciones existentes y posterior decisión en cuanto a la solución a adoptar. También se especifican las características físico-químicas propias del material, así como los criterios a seguir en cuanto al dispositivo adecuado para el Control de Calidad del material.

  10. Optimization of the Heat Exchangers of a Thermoelectric Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A.; Vián, J. G.; Astrain, D.; Rodríguez, A.; Berrio, I.

    2010-09-01

    The thermal resistances of the heat exchangers have a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator. In this work, the heat exchangers of a thermoelectric generator have been optimized in order to maximize the electric power generated. This thermoelectric generator harnesses heat from the exhaust gas of a domestic gas boiler. Statistical design of experiments was used to assess the influence of five factors on both the electric power generated and the pressure drop in the chimney: height of the generator, number of modules per meter of generator height, length of the fins of the hot-side heat exchanger (HSHE), length of the gap between fins of the HSHE, and base thickness of the HSHE. The electric power has been calculated using a computational model, whereas Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to obtain the thermal resistances of the heat exchangers and the pressure drop. Finally, the thermoelectric generator has been optimized, taking into account the restrictions on the pressure drop.

  11. Exergy analysis of boiler of the steam power plant : case study in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorji, M.; Ebrahimian, V. [Mazandaran Univ., Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    An exergy analysis was conducted to investigate the efficiency of a power plant in Iran. The plant consisted of 4 steam cycle units and 3 turbines of varying pressures using both natural gas and diesel fuel scenarios. The boiler had natural circulation with a 3-staged superheater and 2-stage reheaters and economizers. Energy and exergy balance equations were used to calculate efficiencies. The analysis showed that the total exergy efficiency of the plant was 36.1 per cent for the natural gas scenario and 35.5 per cent for the diesel fuel scenario. Among the main elements of the plant cycle, the highest exergy losses occurred with the boiler. Internal losses of the boiler included heat transfer, combustion, and friction losses, which were estimated at 362899 kW for the natural gas scenario and 411127 MW for the diesel fuel scenario. Exergy losses were primarily due to the exiting of hot gases from the chimney. Exergy losses caused by heat transfer were greater than the exergy losses of the combustion process. The exergy analysis of the boiler elements showed that the reheater had the lowest exergy efficiency and that the evaporator had the highest exergy losses. Results suggested that natural gas was more efficient than diesel fuel for producing superheater vapor in the boiler. It was concluded that the simulation can be used for steam power plants using both natural gas and diesel fuel. 13 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Planck 2013 results. XXVI. Background geometry and topology of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pogosyan, D.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    Planck CMB temperature maps allow detection of large-scale departures from homogeneity and isotropy. We search for topology with a fundamental domain nearly intersecting the last scattering surface (comoving distance $\\chi_r$). For most topologies studied the likelihood maximized over orientation shows some preference for multi-connected models just larger than $\\chi_r$. This effect is also present in simulated realizations of isotropic maps and we interpret it as the alignment of mild anisotropic correlations with chance features in a single realization; such a feature can also exist, in milder form, when the likelihood is marginalized over orientations. Thus marginalized, the limits on the radius $R_i$ of the largest sphere inscribed in a topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio -5) are: in a flat Universe, $R_i>0.9\\chi_r$ for the cubic torus (cf. $R_i>0.9\\chi_r$ at 99% CL for a matched-circles search); $R_i>0.7\\chi_r$ for the chimney; $R_i>0.5\\chi_r$ for the slab; in a positively curved Universe, $R_i>1...

  13. Recent meetings/The control of sulphur and other gaseous emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    A report on the 3rd International Symposium on this subject, organized jointly by the Institution of Chemical Engineers' North West Branch and the University of Salford (Apr. 1979), includes brief summaries of papers on desulfurization processes for flue gases and their environmental impact, chimney height as a factor in the dispersion of gaseous emissions, aerosol particulates and visibility, practical methods of sulfur dioxide disposal and/or elemental sulfur recovery, the reduction of SO/sub 2/ emissions by incorporating limestone in a coal-fired fluid-bed combustor, acid-smut formation in a coal-fired boiler converted to residual fuel oil, the U.K. National Coal Board's studies of NO/sub x/ emissions from fluidized coal beds, reducing NO/sub x/ emissions by ammonia treatment over special catalysts, the reaction mechanisms of NO/sub x/ reduction, the direct thermal reduction of NO/sub x/ to nitrogen, improvements in the Stretford process, and handling Claus-process tail gas.

  14. D Recording and Modelling of Mining Heritage: the Monserrat Mine, Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La UNIÓN, Southeast of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-León, J.; García Martín, A.; Torres Picazo, M.; Fernández, J.

    2017-02-01

    Mining heritage is essential to understand the history, landscape and cultural manifestations linked to mining industry. The Mountain Range of Cartagena-La Unión is one of the most relevant old Mediterranean mining areas, with mining sites that were already exploited before the Carthaginian domination. It was declared a Site of Cultural Interest in 2009. Our aim is to document and to enhance its premises, which are currently in a bad state of preservation and have been plundered. The methodology that we suggest combines various techniques, such as laser scanning, LIDAR and digital photogrammetry, in order to obtain the best results based on the characteristics of the objects to be inventoried. For this study, we have chosen an area in which a digital model has been created by means of terrestrial laser scanning and airborne LIDAR, then we have textured it with the images taken. With this model, it is possible to measure the deterioration and displacement suffered by its elements, in particular, the chimney and the boiler room.

  15. Diagnóstico de la resistencia de las chimeneas de los ciclones del Regenerador D-402.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pichardo Martínez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe el modo en que se han empleado las técnicas de modelación en correspondencia con el método de los Elementos Finitos, para la determinación de los esfuerzos máximos que surgen en la zona de unión entre las chimeneas de los ciclones secundarios y la Cámara Plenum del Regenerador D-402, de la Refinería de Petróleo “Ñico López”. El conjunto se modeló utilizando el software ABAQUS, donde se aplicaron las cargas críticas que pueden aparecer, en condiciones reales de trabajo.The paper describe the way modeling techniques have been employed, according to Finite Elements Analysis, for determining maximum stresses appearing in secondary cyclones chimneys and Plenum Chamber union of D-402 Regenerator, located in “Ñico López” Petroleum Refinery. ABAQUS software was applied for modeling. Critical loads taking place on real conditions were simulated.

  16. Proceso de ejecución de chimeneas industriales de ladrillo valencianas y murcianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Patiño, G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The system used in Spain for the construction of industrial brick chimneys in east and south east of Spain and those that have been its influence is described in this paper, from interviews with different master builders belonging to the Valencia and Murcia schools, with styles and systems of very different execution. The addressed systems implement the knowledge of the Spanish Construction History, of an item that had a short life though it was essential in industrial development and becomes the key for a possible restoration of the element.A partir de entrevistas realizadas a distintos maestros constructores de chimeneas industriales de ladrillo, pertenecientes a las escuelas valenciana y murciana, que recurren a estilos y sistemas de ejecución muy diferentes, se ha procedido a describir los sistemas empleados en España para la construcción de estos monolitos industriales. Los sistemas abordados implementan los conocimientos de la Historia de la Construcción española, con un elemento que tuvo una corta vida, pero que fue esencial en la evolución industrial y son clave a la hora de enfrentarnos a una posible restauración del elemento.

  17. Rapid synthesis of inherently robust and stable superhydrophobic carbon soot coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmeryan, Karekin D.; Castano, Carlos E.; Bressler, Ashton H.; Abolghasemibizaki, Mehran; Mohammadi, Reza

    2016-04-01

    The fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings using a candle flame or rapeseed oil has become very attractive as a novel approach for synthesis of water repellent surfaces. Here, we report an improved, simplified and time-efficient method for the preparation of robust superhydrophobic carbon soot that does not require any additional stabilizers or chemical treatment. The soot's inherent stabilization is achieved using a specially-designed cone-shaped aluminum chimney, mounted over an ignited paper-based wick immersed in a rapeseed oil. Such configuration decreases the level of oxygen during the process of combustion; altering the ratio of chemical bonds in the soot. As a result, the fractal-like network of the carbon nanoparticles is converted into dense and fused carbon chains, rigidly coupled to the substrate surface. The modified carbon coating shows thermal sustainability and retains superhydrophobicity up to ∼300 °C. Furthermore, it demonstrates a low contact angle hysteresis of 0.7-1.2° accompanied by enhanced surface adhesion and mechanical durability under random water flows. In addition, the soot's deposition rate of ∼1.5 μm/s reduces the exposure time of the substrate to heat and consequently minimizes the thermal effects, allowing the creation of superhydrophobic coatings on materials with low thermal stability (e.g. wood or polyethylene).

  18. Damage caused to our forests and its control up to 1918

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozicka, J.

    1963-01-01

    Air pollution was mentioned as soon as 1699 by Chr. Lehman, chronicler of Krusne hory and its injurious effects were observed since the thirties of the nineteenth century by brothers Baar on their plot situated in the neighborhood of a manufactory chimney at Kdyne near Klatovy, as well as since 1843 by the surveyor William Rowland in managing the town forest of Pribram in the surroundings of silver works at Brezove hory. The problem of damage caused to our forests by air pollution arose the interest of our foresters 1850, when at the conference of the Bohemian Forestry Union held in Decin Rowland read a paper on air pollution in the area of Pribram and in surroundings of a brick-kiln at Zdiky in the Kaplice region. After 1853, the smoke effects began to be apparent in the Jachymov region, since 1880 in the Ostrava region, since the nineties of the past century in the Sokolovo, Loket, Karlovy Vary, Usti n. L. and Nachod regions and, since the first decade of the present century in the Bilina and Kladno regions. It was found that silver fir, Norway spruce and Scotch pine were the most sensitive species to smoke, whereas European larch proved to be very resistant. Broadleaved species showed also a good growth in the smoke affected areas. Basing on this experience, our foresters tried, therefore, to reduce the injouris smoke effects by growing broadleaved species in those areas. 12 references.

  19. Ventilation Heat Recovery from Wood-Burning Domestic Flues. A Theoretical Analysis Based on a Triple Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Druette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new air-heating system concept for energy-efficient dwellings. It is a system designed to heat a low-energy building by coupling a heat-recovery ventilation system with a three-fluid heat exchanger located on the chimney of a wood-pellet stove. The proposed work focuses on the heat transfer that occurs between flue gases, the ventilation air and the combustion air within a triple concentric tube heat exchanger with no insulation at its outer surface. The main objective is to predict outlet temperature for the specific geometry of the heat exchanger studied here. Thus, the governing differential equations are derived for a counter-co-current flow arrangement of the three fluids. Then analytical solutions for the steady-state temperature distribution are obtained as well as the amount of heat transferred to the outside. An expression for the effectiveness of the heat exchanger is also proposed. Based on these results, calculations are performed on a case study to predict the fluid temperature distribution along the heat exchanger. Finally, a parametric study is carried out on this case study to assess the influence of the relevant parameters on the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. In addition, computation of heat losses to the outside justifies whether insulation is needed.

  20. A brief history of cancer: age-old milestones underlying our current knowledge database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguet, Guy B

    2015-05-01

    This mini-review chronicles the history of cancer ranging from cancerous growths discovered in dinosaur fossils, suggestions of cancer in Ancient Egyptian papyri written in 1500-1600 BC, and the first documented case of human cancer 2,700 years ago, to contributions by pioneers beginning with Hippocrates and ending with the originators of radiation and medical oncology. Fanciful notions that soon fell into oblivion are mentioned such as Paracelsus and van Helmont substituting Galen's black bile by mysterious ens or archeus systems. Likewise, unfortunate episodes such as Virchow claiming Remak's hypotheses as his own remind us that human shortcomings can affect otherwise excellent scientists. However, age-old benchmark observations, hypotheses, and practices of historic and scientific interest are underscored, excerpts included, as precursors of recent discoveries that shaped modern medicine. Examples include: Petit's total mastectomy with excision of axillary glands for breast cancer; a now routine practice, Peyrilhe's ichorous matter a cancer-causing factor he tested for transmissibility one century before Rous confirmed the virus-cancer link, Hill's warning of the dangers of tobacco snuff; heralding today's cancer pandemic caused by smoking, Pott reporting scrotum cancer in chimney sweepers; the first proven occupational cancer, Velpeau's remarkable foresight that a yet unknown subcellular element would have to be discovered in order to define the nature of cancer; a view confirmed by cancer genetics two centuries later, ending with Röntgen and the Curies, and Gilman et al. ushering radiation (1896, 1919) and medical oncology (1942), respectively.

  1. Preliminary design and modelling of a gas-fired thermoelectric generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimanek Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses modelling of coupled heat transfer and electricity generation in a thermoelectric generator designed for reliable island-mode power supply. The considered generator is a new concept of a low power supply (50 W whose aim is to provide electricity for remote gas pressure reduction stations with the purpose to maintain the control and automation equipment. This equipment contributes to the system safety and minimizes the risk of unintended methane emissions. The thermoelectric generator is designed for reliable and maintenance-free operation and power supply. Natural gas is burned in a partially premixed burner and the flue gas heats the hot side of the thermoelectric generator. The combustion air cools the cold side of the thermoelectric generator, providing the temperature difference required for electricity generation occurring based on the Seebeck effect. The flow of air and flue gas through the system is driven by chimney draft. The developed model couples the heat transfer on the hot and the cold side, as well as the generation of electrical energy inside the thermoelectric modules. The model takes into account convection and conduction in the gas flow conduits and in finned heat exchangers of the cold and hot sides. The analysis demonstrates the relevance of design and operational parameters on the boundary temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. The obtained results will be used in further (ongoing phase leading to the design and construction of a prototype electricity generator dedicated for island-mode supply.

  2. Management with the insufficient proximal landing zone for endovascular repair in aortic dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hao; YANG Hong-yu; ZOU Jun-jie; ZHANG Xi-wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Sufficient length of the proximal landing zone (PLZ) is the key for a successful thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) of an aortic lesion. The aim of this research was to investigate the safety, feasibility, efficacy, and problems of endovascular repair for aortic dissection with insufficient PLZ.Methods The clinical data between August 2005 and February 2010 from patients with insufficient PLZ for endovascular repair of aortic dissection were retrospectively reviewed. According to the classification proposed by Ishimaru, aortic zone 0 was involved in 3 cases, zone 1 in 10 cases, and zone 2 in 11 cases. A hybrid surgical procedure of supraortic debranching and revascularization, directly coverage the orifice of left subclavian artery, or a left common carotid artery chimney graft technique were performed to obtain an adequate proximal aortic landing zone.Results There was no significant difference in risk factors and diameter of the PLZ between Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2. But the length of the PLZ was significantly different in the three groups (P <0.01). There was no significant difference in technical and clinical success rate between the groups.Conclusions The procedure for extending an insufficient PLZ for endovascular repair for aortic arch pathology is feasible and relatively safe. The applicability of TEVAR in such aortic disorders may be expanded.

  3. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  4. Doubt about Ceramic Plate in Tao Temple Regarded as Slate%陶寺陶板为板瓦说存疑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春君

    2014-01-01

    The edge of ceramic plate unearthed in Tao Temple is straight and tidy,there is no tile ditch to divert rainwater and it cannot be used as slate.The thickness of the ceramic plate is usually 1~2 cm,this thickness can not meet the needs for load-bearing floor tiles and it cannot be used as floor tile.The obj ects unearthed include chimney,ceramic pipes,kitchen stove pieces and other kitchen building materials and therefore,the ceramic plate is may be the kitchen tiles.%陶寺陶板边缘均整齐平直,没有瓦沟疏导雨水,不可能作为板瓦使用;陶板的厚度多在1~2厘米之间,厚度不能满足地板砖承重的需要,不能作为地板砖使用。陶板所在出土单位出土了烟囱、陶水管、灶块等厨房建材,因此陶板可能是厨房用砖。

  5. Catastrophic Equatorial Icing Caused the Air France 447 and Malaysian 370 Crashes: Risks of More Such Disasters Are Increased By Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dangerous icing conditions near the equator have been observed, and may account for the tragic crashes of Air France 447 in 2009 and Malaysian Airlines 370 in 2014, not pilot error in either case. Six cases of engine failures from icing were reported in 2013 at high altitudes for 747-8 and 787 Dreamliner planes at tropical latitudes (journalofcosmology.com volume 23). Lack of horizontal Coriolis forces accounts for the extreme intermittency of equatorial turbulence and turbulent mixing, Baker and Gibson (1987). Intermittency factors inferred from the available microstructure data sets were much larger than those at higher latitudes, reflecting the wide range of scales of the turbulence cascade from small scales to large in the horizontal direction. Lognormal statistical analysis implies mean values of dissipation rates are likely to be 30,000 times larger than mode values at the equator, compared to only 2000 times larger at midlatitudes. Modern stratified turbulence theory (journalofcosmology.com volume 21) shows turbulent mixing of heat, mass, momentum, and chemical species in natural fluids such as the ocean, atmosphere, and cosmological fluids is dominated by mixing chimneys directed perpendicular to vertical and radial layers of gravitational stratification by the inertial vortex forces that define turbulence. Rarely, thick columns of supercooled steam reach cruising altitudes of jet aircraft. After entering such a column, the plane is doomed.

  6. Blowing-machine representation of various meteorological situations for the study of rejection into the atmosphere; Essais de representation en soufflerie des diverses situations meteorologiques pour l'etude des rejets dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.Ph. [CEA Marcoule, Centre de Production de Plutonium, 30 (France)

    1964-07-01

    A stratified blowing-machine has been built making it possible to introduce into the tests a vertical temperature gradient. The similitude conditions have been examined. The development tests have made it possible to observe and to film the shape of the smoke pall emitted by a chimney in different cases. Stationary waves have been obtained in steady state conditions and the cross-section of the pall has also been studied. It appears that certain diffusion studies justify the use of a stratified blowing-machine. (author) [French] Une soufflerie stratifiee permettant d'introduire dans les experimentations le gradient vertical de la temperature a ete realisee. Les conditions de similitude ont ete examinees. Des essais de mise au point ont permis d'observer et de filmer l'allure du panache de fumee emis par une cheminee dans differents cas. La formation d'ondes stationnaires en regime stable a ete obtenue et la section droite du panache a ete egalement etudiee. Il apparait que certaines etudes de diffusion doivent justifier l'emploi d'une soufflerie stratifiee. (auteur)

  7. Sonic Soot Cleaning Head Electrical Precipitator in Sintering Efficiency Modification Research and Application%声波清灰在烧结机头电除尘器上增效改造研究应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟国坚

    2016-01-01

    This article is the result of minxi vocational and technical college and longyan city rings environmental protection equipment co., LTD., university-enterprise cooperation projects, the service object is the emerging casting pipe co., LTD., sintering plant in xinjiang. This research mainly solve the 340 m2 sintering machine head anode lower lateral oscillation, the cathode electric filter at the top of the electromagnetic hammer vibrating dust, problems that influence efficiency of dust removal by the end of the electric field as the sound wave sootblower auxiliary means of technical renovation, implements the chimney emission concentration of 80 mg/Nm3 or less intended target.%主要解决340 m2烧结机头电除尘器阳极下部侧部振打、阴极顶部电磁锤振打清灰力不足影响除尘效率的问题,通过采用电除尘末电场声波清灰技术作为辅助手段进行技术改造,实现了烟囱排放浓度≤80 mg/Nm3的预定目标。

  8. Evaluation of Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant-, and Anxiolytic-like Effects of an Aqueous Extract from Cultured Mycelia of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socala, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Grzywnowicz, Krzysztof; Stefaniuk, Dawid; Wlaz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known medicinal mushroom with a long history of use. This study was designed to assess the anticonvulsant potential of an aqueous extract from cultured G. lucidum mycelium in 3 acute seizure models: timed intravenous pentylenetetrazole infusion, maximal electroshock seizure threshold, and 6-Hz-induced psychomotor seizure tests in mice. Moreover, antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of G. lucidum were evaluated using the forced swim test and the elevated plus maze test in mice, respectively. No changes in seizure thresholds in the intravenous pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock seizure threshold tests after acute treatment with G. lucidum extract (200-600 mg/kg) was observed. However, the studied extract (100-400 mg/kg) significantly increased the threshold for psychomotor seizures in the 6-Hz seizure test. In the forced swim test, G. lucidum (100-400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of immobility. No anxiolytic-like or sedative effects were reported in mice pretreated with the extract (400-600 mg/kg). G. lucidum extract (50-2400 mg/kg) did not produce toxic effects in the chimney test (motor coordination) or grip-strength test (neuromuscular strength). Further studies are required to explain the neuropharmacological effects of G. lucidum and to identify its active ingredients that may affect seizure threshold, mood, or anxiety.

  9. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel 1-(1,4-Alkylaryldisubstituted-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazo-3-substituted Urea Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Szacoń

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel 1-(1,4-alkylaryldisubstituted-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazo-3-substituted urea derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their central nervous system activity. Compounds 3a–m were prepared in the reaction between the respective 1-alkyl-4-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-amines 1a–c and appropriate isocyanates 2 in dichloromethane. The compounds were subjected to in silico ADMET studies in order to select best candidates for in vivo experiments. The effects of the compounds on the spontaneous locomotor activity and amphetamine-evoked hyperactivity were estimated. Analgesic activity, without or in the presence of naloxone, was assessed in the writhing test. The tendency to change the HTR, evoked by l-5-HTP and the involvement in alteration in body temperature in mice was studied. Additionally, to check possible occurrence of drug-induced changes in the muscle relaxant activity of mice, which may have contributed to their behaviour in other tests, the rota-rod and chimney tests were performed. The new urea derivatives exerted significant activities in the performed pharmacological tests, although the presented results show a preliminary estimation, and thus, need to be extended for identification and understanding the complete pharmacological profile of the examined compounds.

  10. Biogeography of bacteriophages at four hydrothermal vent sites in the Antarctic based on g23 sequence diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Andrew D; Pearce, David; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, which was carried out within the ChEsSO consortium project (Chemosynthetically driven ecosystems south of the Polar Front), we sampled two hydrothermal vent sites on the East Scotia Ridge, Scotia Sea, one in the Kemp Caldera, South Sandwich Arc and one in the Bransfield Strait, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, which exhibit strong differences in their chemical characteristics. We compared a subset of their bacteriophage population by Sanger- and 454-sequencing of g23, which codes for the major capsid protein of T4likeviruses. We found that the sites differ vastly in their bacteriophage diversity, which reflects the differences in the chemical conditions and therefore putatively the differences in microbial hosts living at these sites. Comparing phage diversity in the vent samples to other aquatic samples, the vent samples formed a distinct separate cluster, which also included the non-vent control samples that were taken several hundred meters above the vent chimneys. This indicates that the influence of the vents on the microbial population and therefore also the bacteriophage population extends much further than anticipated.

  11. Diffuse-flow hydrothermal field in an oceanic fracture zone setting, Northeast Pacific: Deposit composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Koski, R.A.; Embley, R.W.; Reid, J.; Chang, S.-W.

    1999-01-01

    This is the first reported occurrence of an active hydrothermal field in an oceanic fracture zone setting. The hydrothermal field occurs in a pull-apart basin within the Blanco Fracture Zone (BFZ), which has four distinct mineral deposit types: (1) barite mounds and chimneys, (2) barite stockwork breccia, (3) silica-barite beds, and (4) silica, barite, and Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide in sediments. All deposit types contain minor amounts of sulfides. In barite stockwork, silica-barite beds, and mineralized sediment, Ba, Ph, Ag, S, Au, Zn, Cu, Hg, TI, As, Mo, Sb, U, Cd, and Cu are enriched relative to unmineralized rocks and sediments of the BFZ. Fe and Mn are not enriched in the barite stockwork or silica-barite beds, but along with P, Co, and Mg are enriched in the mineralized sediments. Silver contents in deposits of the hydrothermal field range up to 86 ppm, gold to 0.7 ppm, zinc to 3.2%, copper to 0.8%, and barium to 22%. Mineralization occurred by diffuse, low to intermediate temperature (mostly Metallurgy and Petroleum. All rights reserved.

  12. The development of evaporative liquid film model for analysis of passive containment cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong June; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Young In; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model was developed to simulate behavior of the liquid film formed on the outside surface of the steel containment vessel of PCCS including the ellipsoidal dome and the vertical wall. The model was coupled with CFX code using the user subroutines provided by the code, and a series of numerical calculations were performed to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient at the interface. Numerical results for Sherwood number and evaporative heat transfer coefficient were compared with the experimental data. The results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated liquid film thickness showed good agreement with that of Sun except an upper portion of the channel. The model was applied to the full scale of PCCS to investigate the effects of dome and chimney on the evaporation rate. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient in the dome region, where the flow cross-sectional area decreases and the swirling occurs, was lower than that of the vertical annulus region. The calculated evaporative heat transfer coefficient was about 20 times larger than that of the dry cooling. Sensitivity studies on the gap size and the wall temperature were also performed to figure out their effects on the heat transfer coefficient and inlet air average velocity. Through the analysis of the dryout point, the minimum liquid film flow rate to cover the entire surface of the vessel was estimated.

  13. Metagenomic and PCR-Based Diversity Surveys of [FeFe]-Hydrogenases Combined with Isolation of Alkaliphilic Hydrogen-Producing Bacteria from the Serpentinite-Hosted Prony Hydrothermal Field, New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Postec, Anne; Monnin, Christophe; Pelletier, Bernard; Payri, Claude E.; Ménez, Bénédicte; Frouin, Eléonore; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël; Quéméneur, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    High amounts of hydrogen are emitted in the serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal field of the Prony Bay (PHF, New Caledonia), where high-pH (~11), low-temperature (< 40°C), and low-salinity fluids are discharged in both intertidal and shallow submarine environments. In this study, we investigated the diversity and distribution of potentially hydrogen-producing bacteria in Prony hyperalkaline springs by using metagenomic analyses and different PCR-amplified DNA sequencing methods. The retrieved sequences of hydA genes, encoding the catalytic subunit of [FeFe]-hydrogenases and, used as a molecular marker of hydrogen-producing bacteria, were mainly related to those of Firmicutes and clustered into two distinct groups depending on sampling locations. Intertidal samples were dominated by new hydA sequences related to uncultured Firmicutes retrieved from paddy soils, while submarine samples were dominated by diverse hydA sequences affiliated with anaerobic and/or thermophilic submarine Firmicutes pertaining to the orders Thermoanaerobacterales or Clostridiales. The novelty and diversity of these [FeFe]-hydrogenases may reflect the unique environmental conditions prevailing in the PHF (i.e., high-pH, low-salt, mesothermic fluids). In addition, novel alkaliphilic hydrogen-producing Firmicutes (Clostridiales and Bacillales) were successfully isolated from both intertidal and submarine PHF chimney samples. Both molecular and cultivation-based data demonstrated the ability of Firmicutes originating from serpentinite-hosted environments to produce hydrogen by fermentation, potentially contributing to the molecular hydrogen balance in situ. PMID:27625634

  14. Gas detection by using transmittance estimation and segmentation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özısık Baskurt, Didem; Gür, Yusuf; Ömrüuzun, Fatih; ćetin, Yasemin Yardımcı

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging for gas detection applications is an under-researched topic. The same gas model is used in most of the gas detection studies in the literature. This model aims to formulate the scene covering the gas emission as well as the background and the atmosphere. Therefore, the model requires prior knowledge on transmittance, emissivity, and temperature values of the components in the scene. The commonly used approaches to estimate these parameters include atmospheric modeling and statistical inference. However, accessing such information is costly in remote detection applications. Some studies avoid background characterization by decomposing the scene using spectral-spatial information. There are several studies in the literature using this model. They aim to detect various types of gases on different parts of electromagnetic spectrum. Most of these studies use hyperspectral radiance information regarding the scene. However, using brightness temperature map of the data instead of radiance data is more suitable for direct analysis. For this reason, we used brightness temperature spectrum in this study. On the other hand, the detection algorithms are generally based on pixel based investigation. Since the emission of the gas is sourced by a pipe or a chimney, investigating the emission region at the segment level increases detection accuracy. In this study, we used an iterative spectral feature based pixel clustering algorithm followed by spatial segmentation.

  15. Multiple I-Type Lysozymes in the Hydrothermal Vent Mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus and Their Role in Symbiotic Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Detree

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was first to identify lysozymes paralogs in the deep sea mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus then to measure their relative expression or activity in different tissue or conditions. B. azoricus is a bivalve that lives close to hydrothermal chimney in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR. They harbour in specialized gill cells two types of endosymbiont (gram-bacteria: sulphide oxidizing bacteria (SOX and methanotrophic bacteria (MOX. This association is thought to be ruled by specific mechanism or actors of regulation to deal with the presence of symbiont but these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we focused on the implication of lysozyme, a bactericidal enzyme, in this endosymbiosis. The relative expression of Ba-lysozymes paralogs and the global anti-microbial activity, were measured in natural population (Lucky Strike--1700 m, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and in in situ experimental conditions. B. azoricus individuals were moved away from the hydrothermal fluid to induce a loss of symbiont. Then after 6 days some mussels were brought back to the mussel bed to induce a re-acquisition of symbiotic bacteria. Results show the presence of 6 paralogs in B. azoricus. In absence of symbionts, 3 paralogs are up-regulated while others are not differentially expressed. Moreover the global activity of lysozyme is increasing with the loss of symbiont. All together these results suggest that lysozyme may play a crucial role in symbiont regulation.

  16. Virtual Investigations of an Active Deep Sea Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, L.; Taylor, M. M.; Fundis, A.; Kelley, D. S.; Elend, M.

    2013-12-01

    Axial Seamount, located on the Juan de Fuca spreading ridge 300 miles off the Oregon coast, is an active volcano whose summit caldera lies 1500 m beneath the sea surface. Ongoing construction of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) cabled observatory by the University of Washington (funded by the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative) has allowed for exploration of recent lava flows and active hydrothermal vents using HD video mounted on the ROVs, ROPOS and JASON II. College level oceanography/marine geology online laboratory exercises referred to as Online Concept Modules (OCMs) have been created using video and video frame-captured mosaics to promote skill development for characterizing and quantifying deep sea environments. Students proceed at their own pace through a sequence of short movies with which they (a) gain background knowledge, (b) learn skills to identify and classify features or biota within a targeted environment, (c) practice these skills, and (d) use their knowledge and skills to make interpretations regarding the environment. Part (d) serves as the necessary assessment component of the laboratory exercise. Two Axial Seamount-focused OCMs will be presented: 1) Lava Flow Characterization: Identifying a Suitable Cable Route, and 2) Assessing Hydrothermal Vent Communities: Comparisons Among Multiple Sulfide Chimneys.

  17. Design of Real-Time Gas Emission Tester for Diesel Power Plant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An sar Suyuti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes design of real-time gas emission tester for diesel power plant applications. Several sensors are utilized in our design system, such as sensor of KE for O2 gas, MQ136 for SO2 gas, TGS 2201 for NOx gas, MQ7 for CO gas, MQ2 for smoke opacity including Modul DT-Sense SHT 11 sensor for temperature and humidity. All sensors basically produce analog output voltage; therefore the analog data is converted to 8 bit digital data for the further processing and controlling in the ADC pin of ATmega16 microcontroller. The real-time measurement results can be monitored through visualization in Liquid Crystal Display (LCD and computer monitor after data processing using microcontroller ATmega16 under programming environment of CodeVision AVR V2.03.4. The visualization itself is designed based on the combination between programming language of Microsoft Visual Basic ver. 6.0 and Borland C++. The experimental results show that the proposed design is working properly. The information related to the emitted gas from plant chimney can be collected, stored in real-time and accessed online through web based interface systems

  18. Electricity and environmental conservation; Electricidad y conservacion del medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This article presents a study on the environmental contamination of seven of the main fossil fuel power stations of the country. Experiment with water emulsions in fuel oil and with fluidized beds was carried out, which allow to burn fuels with efficiency, retaining the polluting compounds emitted to the atmosphere, which considers factors such as the wind turbulences, the atmospheric chemistry and the gas recirculation above the chimney, and the use of biogas to generate electricity which offers an ample potential of mitigation of the environmental contamination, characteristic of the garbage dumps. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta un estudio de contaminacion ambiental de siete de las principales centrales termoeletricas del pais. Se experimento con emulsiones de agua en combustoleo y los lechos fluidizados, los cuales permiten quemar combustibles con eficiencia reteniendo los compuestos contaminantes emitidos a la atmosfera, los cuales consideran factores como la turbulencia del viento, la quimica atmosferica y la recirculacion de gases sobre la chimenea, la utilizacion de biogas para generar electricidad el cual ofrece un amplio potencial de mitigacion de la contaminacion ambiental propia de los basureros.

  19. Temperature Distribution of Biodiesel Blends Combustion in Boiler using CFD-Fluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Cundari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodiesel have been tested on some combustion devices extensively, including on the boiler. Biodiesel blends use in boiler is possibly affected the behaviour of combustion. It can be evaluated by analysing the exhaust gas composition and temperature. This study is conducted to show the distribution of temperature in the combustion chamber and boiler stack’s using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD software Fluent. Experimentally, the tests carried out on the fire tube boiler vertical type cylinder with pressure of 3 bar. Temperature measurement is performed at three points in the combustion chamber and boilers’ stack using optional thermocouple and gas analyzer IMR 1400. The biodiesel used in the tests is palm oil based with blending portion varies from 5-25%. The results show that in the higher blend of biodiesel, the temperature of combustion chamber tend to be lower but the exhaust gas temperature at the end of the chimney was likely to increase. On the other hand, the simulation using FLUENT showed the pattern of temperature distribution was relatively equal between the use of biodiesel in the blends under 25% compared to the use of diesel (B0.

  20. Transcriptomics reveal several gene expression patterns in the piezophile Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis in response to hydrostatic pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Amrani

    Full Text Available RNA-seq was used to study the response of Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on the East-Pacific Rise at a depth of 2,600 m, to various hydrostatic pressure growth conditions. The transcriptomic datasets obtained after growth at 26, 10 and 0.1 MPa identified only 65 differentially expressed genes that were distributed among four main categories: aromatic amino acid and glutamate metabolisms, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and unknown function. The gene expression patterns suggest that D. hydrothermalis uses at least three different adaptation mechanisms, according to a hydrostatic pressure threshold (HPt that was estimated to be above 10 MPa. Both glutamate and energy metabolism were found to play crucial roles in these mechanisms. Quantitation of the glutamate levels in cells revealed its accumulation at high hydrostatic pressure, suggesting its role as a piezolyte. ATP measurements showed that the energy metabolism of this bacterium is optimized for deep-sea life conditions. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms linked to hydrostatic pressure adaptation in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  1. Fault detection and analysis in nuclear research facility using artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Abu Bakar; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an online detection of transducer and actuator condition is discussed. A case study is on the reading of area radiation monitor (ARM) installed at the chimney of PUSPATI TRIGA nuclear reactor building, located at Bangi, Malaysia. There are at least five categories of abnormal ARM reading that could happen during the transducer failure, namely either the reading becomes very high, or very low/ zero, or with high fluctuation and noise. Moreover, the reading may be significantly higher or significantly lower as compared to the normal reading. An artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are good methods for modeling this plant dynamics. The failure of equipment is based on ARM reading so it is then to compare with the estimated ARM data from ANN/ ANFIS function. The failure categories in either `yes' or `no' state are obtained from a comparison between the actual online data and the estimated output from ANN/ ANFIS function. It is found that this system design can correctly report the condition of ARM equipment in a simulated environment and later be implemented for online monitoring. This approach can also be extended to other transducers, such as the temperature profile of reactor core and also to include other critical actuator conditions such as the valves and pumps in the reactor facility provided that the failure symptoms are clearly defined.

  2. Dynamics of a ‘flying chimney’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Runda; Sandali, Yahya; Zhu, Changqing; Coileáin, Cormac Ó.; Shi, Qingfan

    2017-01-01

    The ‘flying chimney’, where a paper cylinder floats when set alight, is an interesting phenomenon that lacks both systematic theoretical and experimental investigation. To investigate the dynamics of liftoff, an appropriate chimney material was first selected from 22 kinds of traditional Chinese Xuan paper. Subsequent experiments with this paper, examining the relationship between the likelihood of liftoff and the height of the air-gap under the cylinder, show the necessity of a gap and the ideal minimum height required to assure successful liftoff. We experimentally investigate the cylinder geometry, determining the optimal parameters for height and diameter, and the boundary conditions for which liftoff can occur. In order to reveal the mechanism of liftoff, a physical model in which the viscous force is reasonably suggested to be a key kinetic parameter is proposed. The viscous force can be obtained by substituting the velocity field of heated air-flow into the constitutive equations of a Newtonian fluid. Numerical calculation for the size effect of liftoff is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Estudios previos para la restauración de la azotea de la Casa Milá de Barcelona (Cataluña, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacuesta Contreras, Raquel

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The Casa Milá of Barcelona, work of the architect Antoni Gaudí, built between 1906 and 1911, was purchased in by the Caixa de Catalunya which then started a process of restoration of the building. One of the stages of this intervention will consist of restoring the roof with all the architectural sculptural elements it contains (the staircase boxes, chimneys, ventilation towers and perimetral paths. A number of previous studies have been done to this end. They deal with the historical constructive, documentary and artistic aspects of all these elements as well as with an action proposal to be taken into account in the restoration project.

    La Casa Milá de Barcelona, obra del arquitecto Antoni Gaudí construida entre 1906 y 1911, fue adquirida en 1986 por la Caixa de Catalunya que a partir de entonces inició un proceso de restauración del edificio. Una de las fases de la intervención consistirá en restaurar la azotea con todos los elementos arquitectónicos-escultóricos que contiene (cajas de escalera, chimeneas, torres de ventilación y pasos de ronda. A tal fin, se han realizado unos estudios previos que contemplan los aspectos histórico-constructivos, documental y artístico de todos estos elementos, y también una propuesta de actuación a tener en cuenta en el proyecto de restauración.

  4. Study on Strength and Durability of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fine Affregate Using Crushed Spent Fire Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Keerthinarayana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most undisputable and indispensable material being used in infrastructure development throughout the world. Umpteen varieties of concretes (FAC, HVFAC, FRC, HPC, HSC, and others were researched in several laboratories and brought to the field to suit the specific needs. Although natural fine aggregates (i.e., river sand are so far and/or will be superior to any other material in making concrete, their availability is continuously being depleted due to the intentional overexploitation through out the Globe. Hence, partial or full replacement of fine aggregates by the other compatible materials like sintered fly ash, crushed rock dust, quarry dust, glass powder, recycled concrete dust, and others are being researched from past two decades, in view of conserving the ecological balance. In this direction, an experimental investigation of strength and durability was undertaken to use “Spent Fire Bricks” (SFB (i.e. waste material from foundry bed and walls; and lining of chimney which is adopted in many industries for partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete.

  5. Liquid Argon Calorimeter - Barrel Cryostat Construction and Testing May-June 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    US, ATLAS

    1999-01-01

    Photo 1 - Outer Cold Cryostat showing 'Y' support. Photo 2 - Outer Cold Vessel half showing 'X' and 'Z' stops and 'Y' supports. Photo 3 - Cold Vessel Bulkhead, End 'C'. Photo 4 - Outer Cold Vessel half, showing EM Calorimeter support rail. Photo 5 - End of Outer Cold Vessel showing EM Calorimeter support rail. Photo 6 - Al/SST Transitions for Signal and High Voltage feedthroughs. Test weld blocks shown in background. Photo 7 - Welding of Al/SST Transitions onto Outer Cold Vessel. Photo 8 - Al/SST Transitions, including test pumpouts. Photo 9 - Machining of Inner Cold vessel. Photo 10 - Warm Vessel being assembled for leak testing Photo 11 - Setting up Warm Vessel on test stand. Photo 12 - Warm Vessel assembly for testing complete. Photo 13 - Dial indicators mounted against the Warm Vessel Bulkhead during testing. Photo 14 - Pumping on Warm Vessel. Photo 15 - Pumping on the Warm Vessel. Photo 16 - Checking the Solenoid Chimney. Photo 17 - Leak checking the Inner Warm Vessel/Bulkhead flange in the area of ID co...

  6. Economic survey of designing HCL vapors and mist elimination system from the output air flow in the chemical industries (Case study, Shahid Meisami complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saeedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochloric acid vapors are among the toxic and irritant gases which emit as pollutant from the chimney in the chemical industries. This pollutant has adverse effects on the health and environment. HCL vapors cause damages to upper respiratory system and have toxic and corrosive environmental effects on the soil and water. In order to prevent air pollution and environmental degradation, different standards have been adopted. According to the Department of Environment standard, the permissible amount of HCl gas output of the chemical industries has been recommended as (67 ppm 100 mg / m3. After designing absorption tower, the economic reviewing is needed. Here we study the design economically. Total costs include Tower construction, the packing, consumption Solvent (absorbent, electrical power costs, and so on. Cost of pomp, electricity and used sodium hydroxide estimated as $ 3048, 1556.34 and 13525. In the final stage, hydraulic similarity relations determined and using it, the absorption tower technical specifications were calculated and estimated for different real models.

  7. Hot-Water Deposition of Pyritic Stromatolite and Its Relation to Biomineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Pyritic stromatolite, a rich pyrite ore, is scattered as reef masses in sedex deposits of the Proterozoic Yanshan rift trough. The pyritic stromatolite consists of a core and alternating concentric rims of light colloidal pyrite and dark organic materials. The concentric rims are cemented together by trichomes highly similar to the trichomic microorganisms inhabiting substantively around the black chimneys on the current sea beds while the core is composed chiefly of groups of thermophilous sulphur bacteria. Biomarkers for the molecules of pyritic stromatolite include pristane, phytane, regular isoprenoids paraffin, methyl-heptadecyl, and so on. This study reveals the existence of methane-yielding bacteria in the pyritic stromatolite and reflects the evolution of thermophilous thallophyta.Long pulsation of mineralizing thermal solutions venting up along contemporaneous faults in rift troughs contributed greatly not just to the reproduction of thermophilous organisms living around the vents, but to their adsorption of Fe2+ from the solutions in a reducing environment. Pyritic stromatolite constantly took shape through metabolism and reduction of these organisms. Owing to the uneven development of the organic communities close to the vents or the hydrothermal plumes, pyritic stromatolite occurred eventually as scattered reef masses. This mineralizing mechanism may be summarized as the following procedure: flowing of hydrothermal fluids associated with submarine exhalation(r) adsorption and metabolism of thermophilous micro-organisms(r) reduction of organic materials(r) formation of deposits of pyritic stromatolite.

  8. Exposure to urban air pollution risk: yesterday, today, tomorrow; L'exposition au risque lie a la pollution urbaine de l'air: hier, aujourd'hui, demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibaut, G. [Mairie de Paris, Service de l' Ecologie Urbaine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    In the air law, the first harmful effect of atmospheric pollution is the impact on human health. Urban areas are characterized by cumulated concentrations of activities (industries, space heating systems, transportation systems), of pollutant emissions (chimneys, exhaust systems), of concentrations in the air and of populations exposed to pollution effects. All these elements make that urban populations have to face an increasing sanitary risk, in particular the most sensible people. This paper aims to present how this risk has been taken into consideration with time by the authorities and the public himself. The feeling (bad smells) was considered in the first approaches while the progresses made in analytical chemistry have permitted to quantify trace amounts of toxic compounds and to estimate the risk. The toxicity of pollutants is better known, in particular when high concentrations are observed (industrial environment). The development of air quality monitoring has permitted to carry on epidemiologic studies defining the sanitary effects of different pollutant mixtures. These effects are today demonstrated and some of the epidemiological results recently obtained are recalled. Tomorrow, progresses will have to be made to answer the essential questions: who breathes what, where and how long. Future studies will have to precise the space-time budget of the citizen when exposed to urban pollution. The indoor pollution, in particular in the residential sector, is an essential point of progress, but tomorrows challenge will be to convince citizens that they have a role to play in pollution abatement (eco-citizenship). (J.S.)

  9. From Chemolithoautotrophs to Electrolithoautotrophs: CO2 Fixation by Fe(II-Oxidizing Bacteria Coupled with Direct Uptake of Electrons from Solid Electron Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi eIshii

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available At deep-sea vent systems, hydrothermal emissions rich in reductive chemicals replace solar energy as fuels to support microbial carbon assimilation. Until recently, all the microbial components at vent systems have been assumed to be fostered by the primary production of chemolithoautotrophs; however, both the laboratory and on-site studies demonstrated electrical current generation at vent systems and have suggested that a portion of microbial carbon assimilation is stimulated by the direct uptake of electrons from electrically conductive minerals. Here we show that chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, switches the electron source for carbon assimilation from diffusible Fe2+ ions to an electrode under the condition that electrical current is the only source of energy and electrons. Site-specific marking of a cytochrome aa3 complex (aa3 complex and a cytochrome bc1 complex (bc1 complex in viable cells demonstrated that the electrons taken directly from an electrode are used for O2 reduction via a down-hill pathway, which generates proton motive force that is used for pushing the electrons to NAD+ through a bc1 complex. Activation of carbon dioxide fixation by a direct electron uptake was also confirmed by the clear potential dependency of cell growth. These results reveal a previously unknown bioenergetic versatility of Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria to use solid electron sources and will help with understanding carbon assimilation of microbial components living in electronically conductive chimney habitats.

  10. Research and development of a color-related global database of sensory values concerning color cognition, color emotions, etc. and the multimedia system to feedback it into products and living environment. FY 1995 data book 4 'Color statistics' tables; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shiryoshu dai 4 kan 'shikisai tokei' shukeishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Surveys made on 'color statistics' in countries/regions of the world were collected and arranged. In the survey of 'exterior,' investigators were sent to 35 cities and took pictures there. Looking at the pictures, they recorded in the table the names of the colors selected from color samples. In the survey of 'interior' and 'fashion,' the pictures of the magazines bought in Japan were sorted in each city, and the color in each item of the table was selected from the 1995 sample book of coating use standard colors of Japan Paint Manufacturers Association. In the survey of streets in major cities of the world/exterior, colors of the following were described: road surface, roof, outer wall, window frame, door, verandah, bench, public telephone, trash can, bus, train, car, fence, chimney, etc. In the survey of interior, colors of the following: gate, passage, living room, dining room, bedroom, kitchen, bathroom, nursery, study, etc. In the survey of fashion, colors of the casual, sporty, formal and business clothes of teens-thirties, etc. (NEDO)

  11. Indoor Air Quality and ventilation assessment of rural mountainous households of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Parajuli

    2016-12-01

    The mean CO and PM2.5 concentration for ICS and TCS are 27.11 ppm and 825.4 μg/m3 (27.11 ± 14.24 ppm and 825.4 ± 730.9 μg/m3 with significant correlation (p < 0.0001 and 36.03 ppm and 1336 μg/m3 (36.03 ± 19.06 and 1336 ± 952.8 with significant correlation (p < 0.0481, respectively. From the overall sample, the mean CO and PM2.5 concentration is reduced by 29.9% and 39%, respectively. The ventilation analysis result shows more than an 80 percentage deficit in ventilation as per the minimal rate of ventilation as prescribed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE. Moreover, the placement of chimney at a short vertical height of 1.2 m adjoining to back window is the major cause of backflow. Therefore, the study has recommended a greater focus on ventilation to control IAQ of rural mountainous households.

  12. A passive cooling system of residential and commercial buildings in summer or hot season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Mashud, M.; Chu, C. M.; Misaran, M. S. bin; Sarker, M.; Kumaresen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing number of high rise buildings may contribute to lack of natural ventilation in modern buildings. Generally, fans and air conditioning are used in the modern building for cooling and air ventilation. Most of the energy in tropical regions are consumed by heating, cooling and ventilation appliances. Therefore, solar power appliances for cooling, heating and ventilation will be a suitable option for saving energy from the household sector. A modified-structure building is designed and constructed with solar chimney to enhance ventilation rate that increases cooling performance and ensure thermal comfort. An evaporative cooler is introduced with a newly designed room to enhance the temperature reduction capacity. The room temperature is compared with a non-modified room as well as with ambient temperature. The results show that passive cooling system with evaporative cooler was able to reduce temperature by 5°C compared to the ambient temperature and about 2°C to 3°C below the reference room temperature.

  13. Explore the Natural Ventilation System of Passive Residence in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region%夏热冬冷地区被动式住宅中自然通风系统探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕

    2014-01-01

    Passive house is an important architectural form of managing the sources of energy to improve people’s living space in modern architecture. This article bases on different ventilation ways to carry on a series of description and sugg-estions. And aims at the characteristics of hot summer and cold winter region, the author carries on the actual examples of"Chimney Effect"applies in this area.%被动式住宅是现代建筑中改善我们生活空间、节约能源的一种重要建筑形式。文章根据各种不同的通风方式,对其进行了一系列的描述和建议。并且针对夏热冬冷地区的地区特点,就“烟囱效应”在这一地区的应用进行了实际举例。

  14. Alternative Room Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazle Rabbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing population results in an increasing demand for much more residential and commercial buildings, which leads to vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation of those buildings. Natural air ventilation system is not sufficient for conventional building structures. Hence fans and air-conditioners are must to meet the requirement of proper ventilation as well as space conditioning. Globally building sector consumes largest energy in heating, cooling, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be minimized by the application of solar chimney and modification in building structure for heating, cooling, ventilation and space conditioning. Passive solar cooling is a subject of interest to provide cooling by using the sun, a powerful energy source. This is done for ensuring human comfort in hot climates. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers defines Comfort as ‘that state of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment.’ The present paper describes the development of a solar passive cooling system, which can provide thermal cooling throughout the summer season in hot and humid climates. The constructed passive system works on natural convection mode of air. Such system reduces the inside temperature of up to 5°C from the atmospheric temperature. Temperature can further be reduced by the judicious use of night ventilation.

  15. A prediction model for uniaxial compressive strength of deteriorated pyroclastic rocks due to freeze-thaw cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, İsmail; Fener, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Either directly or indirectly, building stone is exposed to diverse atmospheric interactions depending on the seasonal conditions. Due to those interactions, objects of historic and cultural heritage, as well as modern buildings, partially or completely deteriorate. Among processes involved in rock deterioration, the freeze-thaw (F-T) cycle is one of the most important. Even though pyroclastic rocks have been used as building stone worldwide due to their easy workability, they are the building stone most affected by the F-T cycle. A historical region in Central Anatolia, Turkey, Cappadoia encompasses exceptional natural wonders characterized by fairy chimneys and unique historical and cultural heritage. Human-created caves, places of worship and houses have been dug into the pyroclastic rocks, which have in turn been used in architectural construction as building stone. Using 10 pyroclastic rock samples collected from Cappadocia, we determined the rock's index-mechanical properties to develop a statistical model for estimating percentage loss of uniaxial compressive strength a critical parameter of F-T cycle's important value. We used dry density (ρd), ultrasonic velocity (Vp), point load strengths (IS(50)), and slake-durability test indexes (Id4) values of unweathered rocks in our model, which is highly reliable (R2 = 0.84) for predetermination of percentage loss of uniaxial compressive strengths of pyroclastic rocks without requiring any F-T tests.

  16. Simulation study for the monitoring of industrial exhaust dispersion using a DIAL system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabuthiran, S.; Jindal, Mukesh Kumar; Dudeja, Jai Paul; Dubey, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2006-12-01

    Computer simulations have been carried out to optimize the IR Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system in order to measure the gaseous pollutants released by the industries. The concentration of the gaseous pollutants due to elevated sources is computed using the Gaussian dispersion model. For given atmospheric conditions and stack physical parameters, the downwind distance (x) at which the SO II reaches the safe limit of its toxicity has been computed at given other two coordinates (y, z) with respect to chimney. The gaseous pollutants released by the industries will be effectively monitored by the proposed DIAL system, which will be placed at New Delhi (28.35 degrees N, 77.12 degrees E), India. The performance of the Lidar has been optimized based on the various system parameters incorporating the atmospheric conditions and stack physical parameters. Further, the backscattered return powers at on- & -off line wavelengths, the required energy to be transmitted and the position at which the lidar system should be posted have been computed in order to monitor SO II.

  17. Neural substrates of figurative language during natural speech perception: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne eNagels

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many figurative expressions are fully conventionalized in everyday speech. Regarding the neural basis of figurative language processing, research has predominantly focused on metaphoric expressions in minimal semantic context. It remains unclear in how far metaphoric expressions during continuous text comprehension activate similar neural networks as isolated metaphors. We therefore investigated the processing of similes (figurative language, e.g. He smokes like a chimney! occurring in a short story.Sixteen healthy, male, native German speakers listened to similes that came about naturally in a short story, while blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. For the event-related analysis, similes were contrasted with non-figurative control sentences. The stimuli differed with respect to figurativeness, while they were matched for frequency of words, number of syllables, plausibility and comprehensibility.Similes contrasted with control sentences resulted in enhanced BOLD responses in the left inferior (IFG and adjacent middle frontal gyrus. Concrete control sentences as compared to similes activated the bilateral middle temporal gyri as well as the right precuneus and the left middle frontal gyrus.Activation of the left IFG for similes in a short story is consistent with results on single sentence metaphor processing. The findings strengthen the importance of the left inferior frontal region in the processing of abstract figurative speech during continuous, ecologically-valid speech comprehension; the processing of concrete semantic contents goes along with a down-regulation of bilateral temporal regions.

  18. Microbial control of silver mineralization at a sea-floor hydrothermal site on the northern Gorda Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Schiffman, P.

    1990-01-01

    THE Sea Cliff hydrothermal field, on the northern Gorda Ridge, contains mounds and chimneys of hydrothermally precipitated sulphide and sulphate minerals typical of sea-floor hydrothermal vent sites1. In addition, large areas of the sea floor are covered by subhorizontal hydrothermal crusts. Samples of the crust recovered by submersible are composed of intensely altered fragments of basalt and basaltic hyaloclastite cemented by amorphous silica and chalcedony with less abundant barite, and minor amounts of base-metal sulphide minerals2. Some surfaces of the crust were formerly colonized by bacterial mats, which are locally preserved by replacement and overgrowth of the bacterial filaments by metal sulphide minerals and amorphous silica. The bacterial filaments are selectively replaced by prousite (Ag3AsS3), pearceite3 (Ag14.7-XCu1.3+xAs2S11), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and rarely by galena (PbS). Our observations suggest that bacterially mediated processes selectively precipitate silver, arsenic and copper, and that biological processes may contribute to precious-metal enrichment in some sea-floor hydrothermal base-metal sulphide deposits.

  19. Macrofaunal communites at newly discovered hydrothermal fields in Central Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, J.; Takai, K.; Nakamura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Noguchi, T.; Matsuzaki, T.; Watsuji, T.; Nemoto, S.; Kawagucci, S.; Shibuya, T.; Okamura, K.; Mochizuki, M.; Orihashi, Y.; Marie, D.; Koonjul, M.; Singh, M.; Beedessee, G.; Bhikajee, M.; Tamaki, K.

    2010-12-01

    In YK09-13 Leg1 cruise targeted on the segment 15 and 16 in Central Indian Ridge (CIR), we have successfully discovered two hydrothermal fields, DODO field and Solitaire field. We expected that there were unique macrofaunal communities in these hydrothermal fields, because there was in Kairei field on the segment 1 in CIR. Particularly, a gastropod, “scaly-foot”, which has sclerites covered with iron-sulfide has only discovered in Kairei field. Therefore, it was interesting whether this unique scaly-foot only exists in Kairei fields or widely expands in CIR. In DODO fields, there were 10 to 15 active chimneys. However, very few hydrothermal vent-endemic faunas were observed. We observed only crabs and shrimps but we did not found shells. As opposed to in the Dodo field, biomass and composition of macrofaunal communities were highly prosperous in the Solitaire field, being equal to Kairei field. Although we have an only one dive to explore the Solitaire field, many predominant taxa were sampled and observed, for example, Alviniconcha, mussels, vanacles and so on. However, the most outstanding feature was the presence of a new morphotype of ‘scaly-foot’ gastropod. Discovery of this new-morphytpe ‘scary-foot” disproved our knowledge. In this conference, I will present these observations. Especially characterization of two types of scaly-foot (Kairei-type and Solitaire-type) will be focused.

  20. How was the mushroom-shaped GW 123.4--1.5 formed in the Galactic disk?

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Chang Hyun; Tomisaka, Kohji

    2008-01-01

    The unusual mushroom-shaped HI cloud, GW 123.4--1.5, is hundreds of parsecs in size but does not show any correlations to HI shells or chimney structures. To investigate the origin and velocity structure of GW 123.4--1.5, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the collision of a high-velocity cloud with the Galactic disk. We also perform a parameter study of the density, radius, and incident angle of the impact cloud. The numerical experiments indicate that we reproduce the mushroom-shaped structure which resembles GW 123.4--1.5 in shape, size, position-velocity across the cap of the mushroom, and the density ratio between the mushroom and surrounding gas. GW 123.4--1.5 is expected to be formed by the almost head-on collision of a HVC with velocity $\\sim 100 \\kms$ and mass $\\sim 10^5 \\Msun$ about $5 \\times 10^7 \\yr$ ago. A mushroom-shaped structure like GW 123.4--1.5 must be infrequent on the Galactic plane, because the head-on collision which explains the mushroom structure seems rare for...