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Sample records for chiloensis chiroptera vespertilionidae

  1. Comparación de la morfología alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae y Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae, representantes de dos diferentes patrones de vuelo Comparison of the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae and Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae as representatives of two flight patterns

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    MAURICIO CANALS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available La morfología alar de los quirópteros se encuentra relacionada por una parte con la biomecánica y energética del vuelo y por otra parte con aspectos ecológicos y conductuales (i.e., patrón de vuelo, conducta de forrajeo y selección de hábitat y de presas. En este trabajo se compara la morfometría alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae y Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae, representantes de diferentes patrones de vuelo, buscando compromisos entre la morfometría alar y aspectos ecológicos y conductuales. Nuestros resultados muestran que T. brasiliensis es un murciélago más robusto, de mayor envergadura, pero con un área alar similar a la de M. chiloensis. Esta última especie tiene una menor variabilidad en su masa y área cortical del húmero, que probablemente se encuentre relacionada con restricciones mecánicas y energéticas impuestas por su diseño. Descontando el efecto de la masa se detectaron diferencias en el diámetro externo y diámetro medular del húmero con una similar área cortical. El húmero de T. brasiliensis es un hueso de similar longitud, más ancho y con un menor grosor cortical que el de M. chiloensis, lo que está relacionado con una mayor resistencia a las fuerzas de flexión y torsión. Las características alares son consistentes con los modos de vida de cada murciélago: vuelos lentos, cortos y maniobrables en zonas arbustivas de M. chiloensis y vuelo veloz y de grandes distancias en espacios abiertos de T. brasiliensisWing morphology is related by one hand to biomechanical properties and energetics of flying, and on the other hand to ecological and behavioral aspects of flying, such as flight pattern, foraging behavior, habitat selection and size of prey. In this work we compare the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae and Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae, as representatives of two flight patterns, and looking for trade-offs between wing morphology, ecology and behavior. Our

  2. The identity of Myotis punensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

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    Ricardo Moratelli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently twelve species of Myotis Kaup, 1829 (Vespertilionidae: Myotinae are recognized from South America, with several other named taxa regarded as synonyms, among them Myotis punensis J.A. Allen, 1914. This name was first regarded as a junior synonym of Myotis albescens (É. Geoffroy, 1806 and subsequently of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. To address the taxonomic status of the holotype of M. punensis, we compared it to all South American species in the genus. The fringe of hairs on the trailing edge of the uropatagium, the fur color, and external and skull dimensions all suggest M. punensis should be treated as a junior synonym of M. albescens

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

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    Yu, Danna; Qian, Kenan; Storey, Kenneth B; Hu, Yizhong; Zhang, Jiayong

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), is a circular molecule of 17,038 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNAs genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and one D-loop region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of the H-strand is 63.2% with individual nucleotides comprising T 29.8%, C 23.4%, A 33.3%, and G 13.5%. In BI and ML trees, we found M. lucifugus is a sister clade to M. brandtii, Myotis is a sister clade to Murina, and Pipistrellus is a sister clade to (Chalinolobus + (Eptesicus + Vespertilio)) (1.00 in BI, >100% in ML). The monophyly of Myotis, Murina, and Plecotus is well supported (1.00 in BI, 100% in ML). PMID:26057009

  4. Complete sequences of eastern water bat, Myotis petax (Chiroptera; Microchiroptera; Vespertilionidae) mitogenome.

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    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondria genome sequences of myotis petax (Chiroptera; Microchiroptera; Vespertilionidae) were first identified in the present study. The sequences were obtained from the four individuals and composition of nucleotide AT and GC was about 64.58% and 35.42%, respectively. The lengths of mitogenomes were ranged from 17 296 to 17 299 bp. Total 51 variable sites were observed in the four mitogenomes and 38 sites were singleton polymorphic sites. Phylogenic study revealed that the species would have relatively closed evolutionary distance with m. macrodactylus rather than other species in the genus, myotis. Present study will provide important genomic materials supporting confirmation of taxon of species called bats, which is included in one of the largest orders among the mammals. PMID:26332748

  5. Il Vespertilio mustacchino Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae nuova specie per la Calabria

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    Dino Scaravelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae new species for Calabria region, southern Italy A young male of whiskered bat Myotis mystacinus, dead the 13 July of 1995 in the building of Ecology Department, University of Calabria, in Rende (Cosenza, was found during the taxonomic revision of the bats in the Theriological Collection of "Museo di Storia Naturale della Calabria ed Orto Botanico" of the University of Calabria. This is the southern most sighting of the species in Italy. The bat checklist of the Calabria region includes now 21 species.

  6. The complete mitogenome of the Korean greater tube-nosed bat, Murina leucogaster (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

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    Yoon, Gwang Bae; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of the Korean greater tube-nosed bat Murina leucogaster (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was determined. The mitogenome of M. leucogaster is 16,723 bp in length with a total base composition of 32.8% A, 27.5% T, 25.3% C and 14.4% G. All the protein-coding genes (total length of 11,404 bp) were encoded in H-strand except for ND6 in L-strand. Total length of 22 tRNA genes was 1508 bp varying from 62 bp (tRNA(Ser(AGY))) to 74 bp (tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and tRNA(Gln)). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes were 972 and 1558 bp in length, respectively. The D-loop region was 1383 bp in length and included 54 copies of 6 bp tandem repeat (ACGCAT). PMID:25423531

  7. Secondary structure and feature of mitochondrial tRNA genes of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

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    Kwang Bae Yoon; Yung Chul Park

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitogenome (NC_021119) of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119). Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.

  8. Secondary structure and feature of mitochondrial tRNA genes of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

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    Kwang Bae Yoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitogenome (NC_021119 of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119. Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.

  9. Gene organization and characterization of the complete mitogenome of Hypsugo alaschanicus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

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    Kim, J Y; Park, Y C

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced and characterized the complete mitogenome of Hypsugo alaschanicus (Vespertilionidae) to provide more data for comparative mitogenomics of the genus Hypsugo. The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is a circular molecule of 17,300 bp, consisting of a control region and a typically conserved set of 37 vertebrate genes containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is AT-biased, with a nucleotide composition of 34.1 A, 30.9 T, 22.4 C, and 12.6% G. In the 13 mitochondrial PCGs of H. alaschanicus, the start codon ATG is used in all PCGs, except Nd2 and Nd3 (which use ATT), and Nd5 (which uses ATA). Eight PCGs (Nd1, Cox1, Cox2, Atp8, Atp6, Nd4L, Nd5, and Nd6) use TAA as the stop codon, while the stop codon AGA occurs only in Cytb. Incomplete stop codons (T--) are used in the other four PCGs (Cox3, Nd2, Nd3, and Nd4). These findings contribute to our understanding of the nucleotide composition and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes of the genus Hypsugo, and provide more data for comparative mitogenomics and higher phylogeny in the family Vespertilionidae. PMID:26662427

  10. Harem size and male mating mating tactics in Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

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    Gianna Dondini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1994 and 2008, we studied the structure of harems in Nyctalus leisleri and factors that determine their size by monitoring 90 bat-boxes placed in a beech forest in the natural reserve Pian degli Ontani (Tuscany, northern Italy. The number of females in the harem positively correlated with the number of males defending a harem. The number of males in the mating area did not significantly influence harem size, whilst we found a significant correlation between the variance in harem size and mean harem size. This may be explained by the existence of an uneven aggregation favouring few males. A strong relation was found between males’ age (estimated by teeth wear and mean harem size.
    Riassunto Dimensioni dell'harem e tattiche riproduttive dei maschi di Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae. Sono presentati i risultati di uno studio sulla struttura dell'harem in Nyctalus leisleri e sui fattori che ne determinano la dimensione. Tra il 1994 e il 2008, sono stati monitorati 90 rifugi artificiali (bat-box per pipistrelli collocati in una faggeta della Riserva Statale di Pian degli Ontani (Pistoia, Toscana. Il numero di femmine presenti nel harem è risultato positivamente correlato con il numero di maschi presenti nell’area di accoppiamento. Il numero di maschi presenti non influenza la dimensione media dell'harem mentre una significativa correlazione positiva è stata evidenziata tra il valore della varianza delle dimensioni dell'harem e la sua dimensione media. Tale relazione suggerisce che le femmine tendono ad aggregarsi, favorendo i maschi più competitivi. Infine è stato evidenziato un modello generale dove sia i maschi giovani sia quelli ad età più avanzata (stimata in base all’usura dei denti hanno minor capacità di formare harem con un numero elevato di femmine.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4445

  11. Records of Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903) (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae) on Myotis nigricans Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), from the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Arzua; Pedro Marcos Linardi; Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti

    2002-01-01

    The flea, Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903), had been recorded for the first time in the State of Paraná in 1940, on the bat, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824). Previously, this species of flea had only been recorded on Myotis nigricans, in the Amazonian region. This is the second record of M. w. wolffsohni on M. nigricans in Brazil, and the first in the State of Paraná. Although this flea has been found on undetermined Chiroptera in the State of Santa Catarina, the present ...

  12. Records of Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903 (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae on Myotis nigricans Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae, from the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Márcia Arzua

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The flea, Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903, had been recorded for the first time in the State of Paraná in 1940, on the bat, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Previously, this species of flea had only been recorded on Myotis nigricans, in the Amazonian region. This is the second record of M. w. wolffsohni on M. nigricans in Brazil, and the first in the State of Paraná. Although this flea has been found on undetermined Chiroptera in the State of Santa Catarina, the present record represents the meridional limit of geographic distribution for the infestation on M. nigricans.

  13. Diet of two sympatric insectivores bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil Dieta de duas espécies simpátricas de morcegos insetívoros no Cerrado do Brasil Central

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    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar; Yasmine Antonini

    2008-01-01

    We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821) and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847) by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence), Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7), Diptera, Hemip...

  14. Diet of two sympatric insectivores bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil Dieta de duas espécies simpátricas de morcegos insetívoros no Cerrado do Brasil Central

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    Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das fam

  15. First record of Myotis albescens ( Chiroptera , Vespertilionidae ) in French Guiana

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    Ricardo Moratelli; Maël Dewynter; Marguerite Delaval; François Catzeflis; Manuel Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis albescens occurs from Mexico southward to Uruguay and Argentina. The species is known for all South American countries except French Guiana and Chile. New information Based on one specimen recently collected in French Guiana we fill part of the gap in the distribution of the species in South America. Myotis albescens occurs in the Guiana Shield with other four congeners, from which it can be distinguished by external and skull traits. As an aid to future identificat...

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Nyctalus noctula (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kenan; Yu, Danna; Cheng, Hongyi; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jiayong

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Nyctalus noctula is a circular molecule of 17,478 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and a D-loop region. The overall A + T content of the H-strand is 61.4% (A 32.0%, T 29.4%, C 24.1% and G 14.5%). Among the 13 protein-coding genes, most of them begin with ATG as the start codon except for ND5 with ATA and ND2 and ND3 with ATT. ND1 and ND2 genes terminate with TAG as the stop codon, Cyt b ends with AGA, COIII, ND3 and ND4 genes end with an incomplete stop codon (T- -) and the other protein-coding genes end with TAA. In Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML) trees, we found that N. noctula is a sister clade to Pipistrellus abramus, and (Nyctalus + Pipistrellus) is a sister clade to (Chalinolobus + (Eptesicus + Vespertilio)) (1.00 in BI and 100% in ML). PMID:26000936

  17. The status of Vespertilio borbonicus E. Geoffroy, 1803 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The taxonomic history of Scotophilus borbonicus (E. Geoffroy, 1803) from Réunion Island is reviewed and summarised, with the designation of a lectotype. The insular form that it represents is considered conspecific with the small Scotophilus viridis (Peters, 1852) of southern Africa. As a result, Sc

  18. Presence of Plecotus macrobullaris (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Pyrenees

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    Garin, Inazio; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Aihartza, J. R.; Goiti, Urtzi; Juste, Javier

    2003-01-01

    In July 2002, several bats of the genus Plecotus (Geoffroy, 1818) were captured at two localities of ‘Ordesa y Monte Perdido’ National Park (Central Pyrenees, Spain). They showed external characters that appeared intermediate between those of P. auritus and P. austriacus. Morphometric and genetic analysis have revealed that these long-eared bats should be ascribed to the recently recognized species P. macrobullaris. This study extends the distribution of this new species, whose western ...

  19. First record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae from Brazil Primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae no Brasil

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    João M. D. Miranda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 from Brazil is reported here. An adult male was caught with a mist net in a barn located within an Araucaria pine forest in the municipality of Passos Maia, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil (26º46'48"S and 52º03'34"W. This record extends the distribution of this species in South America. Morphological and taxonomic notes of this species are described as well.O primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 o Brasil é aqui reportado. Um macho adulto foi coletado com rede de neblina (em abrigo artificial nos domínios da Floresta com Araucária, no Município de Passos Maia, Estado de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil (26º46'48"S e 52º03'34"W. Este registro amplia a distribuição da própria espécie na América do Sul. Aspectos morfológicos e taxonômicos desta espécie são também descritos.

  20. 海南属种新纪录——中华山蝠的回声定位信号、栖息地及序列分析%Echolocation Call, Roost and ND 1 Sequence Analysis of New Record of Nyctalus plancyi (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) on Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱光剑; 韩乃坚; 洪体玉; 谭敏; 于冬梅; 张礼标

    2008-01-01

    2007年11月,在海南岛脊椎动物调查过程中,于南部陵水黎族自治县一处电线杆内捕到1只雄性蝙蝠标本,通过形态特征和线粒体DNA ND1基因序列鉴定,确认为蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae)山蝠属(Nyctalus)的中华山蝠(N.plancyi),该属、该种均为海南省翼手目新纪录.其主频为33-34kHz,脉冲持续1.3-1.9ms;栖息于电线杆内;与四川中华山蝠DQ435074的ND1一致度达到99%.

  1. ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКОГО РАЗНООБРАЗИЯ ПОПУЛЯЦИЙ EPTESICUS NILSSONII (CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE), ЗИМУЮЩИХ В ИСКУССТВЕННЫХ ПОДЗЕМЕЛЬЯХ САМАРСКОЙ ЛУКИ

    OpenAIRE

    Баишев, Ф.; Смирнов, Д.; Вехник, В.

    2014-01-01

    Изучение генетическое разнообразие популяций Eptesicus nilssonii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), на зимовке в искусственных подземельях Самарской Луки. Используя метод ISSR-PCR анализа изучено генетическое разнообразие и определен уровень генетической дифференциации популяций в E. nilssonii, в условиях Жигулевских гор. В ходе анализа выяснилось, что популяции рукокрылых, характеризуются относительно высоким уровнем генетического разнообразия (R95=68,1%). Для отдельных групп населения рукокрыл...

  2. Gene structure and evolution of transthyretin in the order Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip

    2016-02-01

    Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested.

  3. Performance of an Elite Strawberry Population Derived from Wild Germplasm of Fragaria chiloensis and F. virginiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier, or the cultivated strawberry, resulted from the hybridization of two wild species, F. chiloensis (L.) Miller and F. virginiana Miller. In an attempt to recreate the cultivated strawberry, elite clones of F. chiloensis and F. virginiana were crossed within spec...

  4. Gene structure and evolution of transthyretin in the order Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip

    2016-02-01

    Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested. PMID:26681450

  5. Preliminary Cluster Analysis For Several Representatives Of Genus Kerivoula (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Abdullah, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to use cluster analysis on morphometric parameters within the genus Kerivoula to produce a dendrogram and to determine the suitability of this method to describe the relationship among species within this genus. A total of 15 adult male individuals from genus Kerivoula taken from sampling trips around Borneo and specimens kept at the zoological museum of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak were examined. A total of 27 characters using dental, skull and external body measurements were recorded. Clustering analysis illustrated the grouping and morphometric relationships between the species of this genus. It has clearly separated each species from each other despite the overlapping of measurements of some species within the genus. Cluster analysis provides an alternative approach to make a preliminary identification of a species.

  6. A morphological analysis of the skull size and shape of Kerivoulinae (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Truong; Motokawa, Masaharu; Oshida, Tatsuo; Endo, Hideki

    2016-02-01

    Southeast Asia is a region of high biodiversity, containing species of plants and animals that are yet to be discovered. In this region, bats of the subfamily Kerivoulinae are widespread and diverse with six species recorded in Vietnam. However, the taxonomy of the Kerivoulinae in Asia is complicated. In our study, we used diagnostic characters and multivariate analysis to determine morphological differences between the genera Kerivoula and Phoniscus. We showed that the two genera are distinguishable by the size of second upper incisors, the shape of skull, nasal sinus, canines, second upper and lower premolars. In addition, the two genera can be osteometrically separated by measurements of the braincase height, interorbital width and shape of anterior palatal emargination. Our data clearly revealed the morphological variations in the skull shape of Kerivoula hardwickii in Vietnam. This suggests a possible separation into three morphotypes, representing cryptic species supported by statistical differences with wide variation in skull shape, size and teeth. These results demonstrated Kerivoula hardwickii can be separated three subspecies, and the result will serve as the basis for the future assessment and classification of this group in Southeast Asia. PMID:26346743

  7. Foraging range movements of the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.

  8. Genetic diversity of neotropical Myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae with an emphasis on South American species.

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    Roxanne J Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat Vespertilio sinensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Lee, Jin Hong; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat, Vespertilio sinensis, was determined. The genome organization, gene contents, and codon usage conformed to those of other bat mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitogenome of Vespertilio sinensis is 16,971 bp with a total base composition of 32.6% A, 29.6% T, 23.7% C and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. PMID:24660937

  10. [Spatial structure of the community of bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) hibernating in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P; Kurmaeva, N M; Shepelev, A A; Il'in, V Iu

    2008-01-01

    Specific features of the spatial distribution and localization of bats have been studied during their hibernation in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka. The proportion of cave area occupied by bats varies from 70 to 93% in large caves (> 60000 m2), decreasing to 50% in medium-sized caves (10000-60000 m2) and to less than 30% in small caves (bats choose sites near cave openings, up to 25% prefer central parts, but most bats (about 66%) concentrate in the deepest parts of caves. Among wintering species, higher rates of occurrence and shelter occupancy are characteristic of Plecotus auritus. Myotis daubentonii, and M. mystacinus, whereas M. dasycneme and M. brandtii show the highest degree of aggregation. The optimal temperature range for the wintering of all bat species is 2-4 degrees C. Myotis brandtii, Eptesicus nilssonii, and M. daubentonii prefer to hibernate in open spaces of cave ceilings; M. mystacinus. E. serotinus, and Pl. auritus usually occupy the middle and upper parts of walls; while M. dasycneme and M. nattereri occur mainly in hollows on ceilings.

  11. Karyotypic evolution and phylogenetic relationships in the order Chiroptera as revealed by G-banding comparison and chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Lei; Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Gu, Xiaoming; Feng, Qing; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang

    2007-01-01

    Bats are a unique but enigmatic group of mammals and have a world-wide distribution. The phylogenetic relationships of extant bats are far from being resolved. Here, we investigated the karyotypic relationships of representative species from four families of the order Chiroptera by comparative chromosome painting and banding. A complete set of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Myotis myotis (family Vespertilionidae) were hybridized onto metaphases of Cynopterus sphinx (2n = 34, family Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus sinicus (2n=36, family Rhinolophidae) and Aselliscus stoliczkanus (2n=30, family Hipposideridae) and delimited 27, 30 and 25 conserved chromosomal segments in the three genomes, respectively. The results substantiate that Robertsonian translocation is the main mode of chromosome evolution in the order Chiroptera, with extensive conservation of whole chromosomal arms. The use of M. myotis (2n=44) probes has enabled the integration of C. sphinx, R. sinicus and A. stoliczkanus chromosomes into the previously established comparative maps between human and Eonycteris spelaea (2n=36), Rhinolophus mehelyi (2n=58), Hipposideros larvatus (2n=32), and M. myotis. Our results provide the first cytogenetic signature rearrangement that supports the grouping of Pteropodidae and Rhinolophoidea in a common clade (i.e. Pteropodiformes or Yinpterochiroptera) and thus improve our understanding on the karyotypic relationships and genome phylogeny of these bat species. PMID:17310301

  12. Primeiro registro de Myotis riparius Handley (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil First record of Myotis riparius Handley (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

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    Daniela Dias

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, é registrada a primeira ocorrência do morcego vespertilionídeo MyotisripariusHandley, 1960 no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Sete exemplares dessa espécie foram capturados com redes de espera ("mist nets" na Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, uma área de Mata Atlântica no Município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Aspectos taxonômicos dessa espécie são discutidos e medidas obtidas para os exemplares são fornecidas.In this paper, the first occurrence of the vespertilionid bat MyotisripariusHandley, 1960 in the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil is reported. Seven specimens were caught with mist nets in the Reserva Biologica do Tinguá, an Atlantic Forest area in the Nova Iguaçu County, Rio de Janeiro state. Taxonomic aspects of this species are discussed. Measurements obtained for the specimens are also provided.

  13. Regionally and climatically restricted patterns of distribution of genetic diversity in a migratory bat species, Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

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    Çoraman Emrah

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species.

  14. Histomorphology of the penis bone (Baculum) in the gray long-eared bat Plecotus austriacus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdina, Anna Nele; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Hilgers, Helge; Metscher, Brian D; Plenk, Hanns

    2010-07-01

    For the first time, the histomorphology of the penis bone of a bat (Plecotus austriacus) was examined in detail. From Plecotus austriacus, 14 whole penes and 11 isolated bacula were studied and compared to bacula of Plecotus auritus and Plecotus macrobullaris. The baculum was located on specimen microradiographs and in micro-CT images in the tip of the penis. Using serial semithin sections and surface-stained, undecalcified ground sections, the types of bone and other tissues constituting the baculum were examined by light microscopy. 3D reconstructions were generated from the serial semithin sections and from micro-CT images. The shaft and the proximal branches of the Y-shaped baculum form a tubular bone around a medullary cavity. Since the small diameter of this channel and the main lamellar bone around it resemble a Haversian canal, the baculum is equivalent to a single-osteon bone. Several oblique nutrient canals enter this medullary cavity in the shaft and branches. All ends of the baculum consist predominantly of woven bone. The collagen fiber bundles of the tunica albuginea of both corpora cavernosa insert via fibrocartilage into the woven bone of the branches. Thus, the microscopic structures support the hypothesis that the baculum functions as a stiffening element in the erect penis. In this study, several microscopic imaging techniques were evaluated for displaying the microscopic structures of the baculum. Specimen microradiography, but especially micro-CT proved to be suitable nondestructive methods for accurate and reproducible demonstration and comparison of the three-dimensional structures of the baculum in different bat species. PMID:20583269

  15. Roost and hunting site fidelity of female and juvenile Daubenton's bat Myotis daubentonii (Kuhl, 1871) (Chiroptera: vespertilionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kapfer, Géraldine; Rigot, Thibaud; Holsbeek, Ludovic; Aron, Serge

    2008-01-01

    We investigated roosting and hunting site fidelity of Daubenton's bats Myotis daubentonii (Kuhl, 1817) in the Forêt de Soignes, an old-stand forest dominated by 150-200-year-old beeches, during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Roosting behaviour and hunting activity over ponds of adult females and juveniles were monitored using radio-telemetry. Eighteen roosts were located, all in natural cavities. The bats occupied a limited number of trees located in a specific and small roosting area. This ro...

  16. Molecular architecture of Pipistrellus pipistrellus/Pipistrellus pygmaeus complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): further cryptic species and Mediterranean origin of the divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulva, Pavel; Horácek, Ivan; Strelkov, Petr P; Benda, Petr

    2004-09-01

    Previous genetic analyses have demonstrated that two phonic types of one of the most common European bats, the Common pipistrelle, belong to distinct species, although they are almost identical morphologically (45 kHz Pipistrellus pipistrellus and 55 kHz Pipistrellus pygmaeus). To reconstruct the history of the species complex and explain the codistribution of both forms in Europe and the Mediterranean, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on a 402-bp portion of the cytochrome b gene. Particular attention was paid to the eastern and southern parts of the range where no data were available. We found further distinctive allopatric haplotypes from Libya and Morocco. The difference of about 6-7% described in the Libyan population suggests the occurrence of a new species in the southern Mediterranean. The species status of Moroccan population is also discussed. The phylogeographic patterns obtained and analysis of fossil records support the hypothesis of expansion of both species into Europe from the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. The allopatric speciation model fits our data best. The paleobiographic scenario envisaged is corroborated also by molecular clock estimations and correlations with Late Neogene environmental changes in the Mediterranean region which ended with the Messinian salinity crisis. PMID:15288073

  17. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (Barbastella barbastellus, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in beech woodlands of central Italy

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    Danilo Russo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. B. barbastellus shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of B. barbastellus from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult B. barbastellus (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead Fagus sylvatica trees; conversely, living F. sylvatica dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, P <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (P <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The bats roosted under loose bark in 20 of 27 trees, i.e. more frequently than expected (Χ² test, P < 0.05. B. barbastellus preferred cavities at a greater height (median roost height = 10.1 m, n = 22; median random cavity height = 4.5 m, n = 30; Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01. Most roosts faced south (63.6% south facing: 91-270 degrees; 36.4% north facing: 271-90 degrees, n = 22; Χ² test, P < 0.05. A logistic regression model including cavity type, height above ground and direction faced was significant (P <0.01 and all variables were important for selection. B. barbastellus is probably unable to find suitable roosting sites where intensive and non-selective logging is conducted: areas of ancient woodland should be protected to ensure optimal roosting conditions. In roosting areas, felling operations should be avoided as far as possible; in logged areas, selective timber harvesting protocols preserving dead trees and a significant fraction of mature trees should be adopted. We are indebted to the Nando Peretti Foundation and the Parco Nazionale d?Abruzzo Lazio e Molise for funding our work.

  18. [Ecology of nutrition and differentiation of the trophic niches of bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in floodplain ecosystems of the Samara Bend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P

    2014-01-01

    A complex analysis of the food range of 15 bat species inhabiting floodplain ecosystems of the Samara Bend has been performed. It is shown that, in bats, an important component of the structuring of their communities is the division of food resources. The guild structure and position of species in the trophic space are described. Seven food guilds consisting of nonspecialized and specialized species are distinguished. It is noted that most species are characterized by a wide overlapping of their trophic niches, which may be a consequence of their weak competition in an environment that is rich in food resources.

  19. Thumb-pads up-a new species of thick-thumbed bat from Sumatra (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Glischropus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Gábor; Görföl, Tamás; Wiantoro, Sigit; Kingston, Tigga; Bates, Paul J J; Huang, Joe Chun-Chia

    2015-01-01

    To date, three species of the genus Glischropus are recognized from the Indomalayan zoogeographic region-G. bucephalus from the Indochinese subregion, G. tylopus from the Sundaic subregion (Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Moluccas) and G. javanus, restricted to Java. The investigation of the holotype and three topotype specimens of G. batjanus supported the view that the name was previously correctly regarded as the junior subjective synonym of G. tylopus. During review of material recently collected in southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, one specimen of a yet undescribed species of Thick-thumbed bat was identified. G. aquilus n. sp. markedly differs from its congeners by its dark brown pelage, nearly black ear and tragus, and in skull proportions. The phylogenetic analysis based on cytb sequences also supports the specific distinctness of G. aquilus n. sp. Its discovery brings the count to 88 species of bats known from Sumatra. PMID:26249952

  20. Rediscovery of Glauconycteris superba Hayman, 1939 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae after 40 years at Mbiye Island, Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Victor Van Cakenberghe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the rediscovery of the Pied Butterfly Bat, Glauconycteris superba Hayman, 1939, 40 years after this species was last recorded. The new specimen from Mbiye Island, Democratic Republic of the Congo, is compared with the type specimens of G. s. superba and G. superba sheila Hayman, 1947 and a specimen from Matonguiné, Ivory Coast. The variation in the striking colouration of the pelage as well as in morphometric data is considered to be individual rather than geographic variation and we tentatively regard G. s. sheila as a synonym of the nominate form. Despite the wide distribution of this species in the tropical forest zone of West and Central Africa, only four specimens from four localities are known to date, which might indicate very specific habitat preferences. Contemporary land cover information around historic collection sites shows degraded landscapes. Given the highly uncertain area of occupancy of this species, we suggest changing the status of G. superba in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species from “Least Concern” to “Data Deficient”.

  1. Karyotype evolution in Rhinolophus bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) illuminated by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Ao, Lei; Feng, Qing; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang

    2007-01-01

    Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae) is the second most speciose genus in Chiroptera and has extensively diversified diploid chromosome numbers (from 2n = 28 to 62). In spite of many attempts to explore the karyotypic evolution of this genus, most studies have been based on conventional Giemsa staining rather than G-banding. Here we have made a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from flow-sorted chromosomes of Aselliscus stoliczkanus (Hipposideridae). These probes have been utilized to establish the first genome-wide homology maps among six Rhinolophus species with four different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 36, 44, 58, and 62) and three species from other families: Rousettus leschenaulti (2n = 36, Pteropodidae), Hipposideros larvatus (2n = 32, Hipposideridae), and Myotis altarium (2n = 44, Vespertilionidae) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. To facilitate integration with published maps, human paints were also hybridized to A. stoliczkanus chromosomes. Our painting results substantiate the wide occurrence of whole-chromosome arm conservation in Rhinolophus bats and suggest that Robertsonian translocations of different combinations account for their karyotype differences. Parsimony analysis using chromosomal characters has provided some new insights into the Rhinolophus ancestral karyotype and phylogenetic relationships among these Rhinolophus species so far studied. In addition to Robertsonian translocations, our results suggest that whole-arm (reciprocal) translocations involving multiple non-homologous chromosomes as well could have been involved in the karyotypic evolution within Rhinolophus, in particular those bats with low and medium diploid numbers. PMID:17899409

  2. New features in the genus Ilarvirus revealed by the nucleotide sequence of Fragaria chiloensis latent virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Martin, Robert R

    2005-09-01

    Fragaria chiloensis latent virus (FClLV), a member of the genus Ilarvirus was first identified in the early 1990s. Double-stranded RNA was extracted from FClLV infected plants and cloned. The complete nucleotide sequence of the virus has been elucidated. RNA 1 encodes a protein with methyltransferase and helicase enzymatic motifs while RNA 2 encodes the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase and an ORF, that shares no homology with other Ilarvirus genes. RNA 3 codes for movement and coat proteins and an additional ORF, making FClLV possibly the first Ilarvirus encoding a third protein in RNA 3. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that FClLV is most closely related to Prune dwarf virus, the type member of subgroup 4 of the Ilarvirus genus. FClLV is also closely related to Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV), a virus that shares many properties with Ilarviruses . We propose the reclassification of AlMV as a member of the Ilarvirus genus instead of being a member of a distinct genus. PMID:15878214

  3. Chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and gas exchange changes assessed by spectroradiometry in Fragaria chiloensis under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel Garriga; Jorge B. Retamales; Sebastin Romero-Bravo; Peter DS Caligari; Gustavo A. Lobos

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophyl and anthocyanin contents provide a valuable indicator of the status of a plant’s physiology, but to be more widely utilized it needs to be assessed easily and non-destructively. This is particularly evident in terms of assessing and exploiting germplasm for plant-breeding programs. We report, for the first time, experiments with Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch. and the estimation of the effects of response to salinity stress (0, 30, and 60 mmol NaCl/L) in terms of these pigments content and gas exchange. It is shown that both pigments (which interestingly, themselves show a high correlation) give a good indication of stress response. Both pigments can be accurately predicted using spectral reflectance indices (SRI);however, the accuracy of the predictions was slightly improved using multilinear regression analysis models and genetic algorithm analysis. Specifical y for chlorophyl content, unlike other species, the use of published SRI gave better indications of stress response than Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The effect of salt on gas exchange is only evident at the highest concentration and some SRI gave better prediction perfor-mance than the known Photochemical Reflectance Index. This information wil therefore be useful for identifying tolerant genotypes to salt stress for incorporation in breeding programs.

  4. Phylogenetics of Rhinolophidea, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae Based on Partial Sequences of the Nuclear RAG2 Gene%基于核基因RAG2部分序列探索菊头蝠总科、蝙蝠科和鞘尾蝠科物种的系统发育关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小爱; 田东; 谷晓明

    2012-01-01

    采用PCR技术获得了翼手目(菊头蝠总科、蝙蝠科以及鞘尾蝠科)16种19个个体的核基因重组激活基因2(Recombination activating gene,RAG2)部分序列,长度为730~760 bp.结合从Genbank中提取的翼手目3科14个体的RAG2序列,通过构建贝叶斯(Bayesian inference,BI)和最大似然树对翼手目种属间的系统进化关系进行研究.研究表明:在葡头蝠总科中,菊头蝠科和蹄蝠科是两个独立的科,且在蹄蝠科中,大蹄蝠、中蹄蝠、普氏蹄蝠3种之间的亲缘关系非常近;蝙蝠科中的南蝠属与棕蝠属是姊妹群;长翼蝠亚科应提升为长翼蝠科.此外,鞘尾蝠科与犬吻蝠科形成姊妹群关系.%The partial sequences of nuclear RAG2 gene (Recombination activating gene, RAG2 )were obtained from 19 individuals of 16 species of Chiroptera( Rhinolophidea, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae) from Guizhou Province. The lengths of RAG2 are 730~760 bp. The evolutionary trees was produced by Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods, combined with the sequences RAG2 of 14 individuals of 3 families from Genbank, to study the relationship of species or genera of Chiroptera It suggested that: Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae were two separate families and H.pratti, H.armiger and H. larvatus have more closely genetic relationship in Hipposideridae, la genus and Eptesicus genus was sister group in Vespertilionidae. The subfamily Miniopterinae should be elevated to family status. In addition, Emballonuridae and Molossidae form sister group.

  5. Morcegos da Fazenda Monte Alegre, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Monte Alegre Farm, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Nélio R. dos Reis; Adriano L. Peracchi; Margareth L. Sekiama

    1999-01-01

    A survey of bats species from Monte Alegre Farm is presented. One hundred and two bats of 14 species belonging to Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae were colected. Remarks about reproduction and feeding habits are included.

  6. Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro; Geder Paulo Herrmann; Franciele Camila Luchese; Vanessa Daniele Mottin

    2005-01-01

    Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera) no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera) in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  7. Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  8. Preliminary analysis of population genetics of Myotis punicus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in the maltese islands: implications for its conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Baron

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By combining cellulose acetate allozyme electrophoresis with a non-lethal sampling technique, it was possible to undertake a preliminary study of the population structure of Myotis punicus Felten, 1977 in the Maltese Islands. Since previous local ecological studies indicated declining numbers, it was considered important to undertake a combinatorial study including molecular genetic techniques. Twelve sites spread around the Maltese Islands were investigated and a total of 36 individuals found in four of these sites were sampled over a period of 6 months. The use of 4mm biopsy punches (a non-lethal method was adopted to obtain tissue for analysis. Morphometric data was also collected involving measurements of forearm length, ear length, tragus length, wing-span and weight. Comparison of average values for these measurements between the sexes (using chi-square at p = 0.05 gave an indication of sexual dimorphism, with females being the larger sex. A recapture rate of 19% was achieved in this study. Nei’s (1978 Genetic Identity (I showed values from 0.954 to 0.686, while Genetic Distance (D values ranged from 0 to 0.047. The results obtained in this study indicate that the population on the Maltese Islands is as yet a single panmictic unit, even though the overall FST value of 0.272 indicates that these sites are approaching the threshold beyond which there will be isolated mating systems.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-21.1-4453

  9. RAPD Analysis of Seven Vespertilionid Bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Henan Province%河南省蝙蝠科7种蝙蝠的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余燕; 马金友; 王艳梅; 牛红星

    2007-01-01

    为了解蝙蝠科种间亲缘关系,采用随机引物对河南省蝙蝠科7种蝙蝠进行DNA多态性研究,从20个随机引物中优化出12个引物对基因组DNA进行扩增,共扩增出223条DNA谱带,平均每个引物扩增出18.6条谱带.RAPD聚类结果表明,种间亲缘关系较远,种内亲缘关系较近.对同种蝙蝠而言,同一地理区域的蝙蝠个体之间分化较小,不同地理区域的蝙蝠个体之间分化较大.同时对鼠耳蝠属和长翼蝠亚科的分类地位也进行了讨论.

  10. Dispersal behaviour of the lesser flat-headed bat, Tylonycteris pachypus ( Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)%扁颅蝠的扩散行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礼标; 洪体玉; 韦力; 朱光剑; 张光良; 巩艳艳; 杨剑; 胡慧建

    2011-01-01

    我们于2002 ~ 2007年在广西龙州县和宁明县采用标记重捕法对扁颅蝠的扩散行为进行研究,共标记669只(成体316只,亚成体353只;雌雄分别为293只和376只),重捕到139只(重捕率20.8%).结果表明,大部分扁颅蝠雌雄后代在性成熟前发生扩散,其亚成体扩散率无性别差异(雄性82.2%,雌性66.7%;P>0.05).对成年雌雄两性扩散率(雄性76.5%,雌性58.5%)的分析亦未见性别差异(P>0.05),但亚成体和成体合并结果显示雄蝠扩散率(80.7%)高于雌蝠(62.3%,P<0.01).此外,我们还测量了扩散的距离,雄性后代的扩散距离(787.5±26.980 m,n=37)比雌性(517.4±25.308 m,n=24)远(P<0.01);在出现扩散的61只后代中,仅有一只(0.7%)雄性亚成体扩散到其它的竹林,其余个体均在出生竹林内的不同竹筒之间进行扩散.

  11. Impact of the Processes of Total Testicular Regression and Recrudescence on the Epididymal Physiology of the Bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus R Beguelini

    Full Text Available Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid, conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.

  12. Two periods of total testicular regression are peculiar events of the annual reproductive cycle of the black Myotis bat, Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Myotis nigricans presents few and controversial reproductive data, which indicate geographical variation in reproduction. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the seasonal modifications in testicular and epididymal morphologies in a tropical environment, submitting these organs to morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis. The observations revealed that this species presents two peaks of spermatogenic activity followed by two periods of total testicular regression (a quiescent pre-pubertal-like morphology, where only Sertoli cells and spermatogonia could be observed), in the same annual reproductive cycle, which seem to be only indirectly influenced by abiotic factors. This testicular behaviour seems to be synchronised with the caput and corpus epididymidis, but not with the cauda epididymidis, which presents aspects of sperm storage in May-June. The control of this variation seems to be directly linked to the expression of the androgen receptor, since, throughout the year, it is high in periods of testicular recrudescence and low in periods of deactivation. It is not thought to be directly linked to apoptosis, which is more pronounced in periods of recrudescence than in periods of regression. PMID:23830483

  13. The first record of Scotozous dormer Dobson, 1875 from Nepal with new locality records of Pipistrellus coromandra (Gray, 1838 and P. tennis (Temminck, 1840 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thapa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2008 and September 2010, faunal surveys were carried out by the first author in Paschim Kusaha V.D.C. (Village Development Committee in the buffer zone of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve in south-eastern Nepal. The surveys resulted in the collection of three species of vespertilionid bats, which included the first record from Nepal of Dormer’s Pipistrelle Scotozous dormeri Dobson, 1875. A brief description is given of the external, cranial, and dental characters of each of the three species collected and the bacula of Pipistrellus coromandra and P. tenuis are illustrated.

  14. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.;

    2014-01-01

    is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the potential to further advance our understanding of animal dietary composition and foraging behaviour...

  15. Genetic structure of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, and its role as a vector of the Strawberry Yellow Edge Virus to a native strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandero, Blas; Rojas, Pamela; Ramirez, Claudio C; Salazar, Marcela; Caligari, Peter D S

    2012-01-01

    The monoecious anholocyclical aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was collected on a native strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) from different sites in Chile. The presence of this aphid was recorded during two consecutive years. F. chiloensis plants were collected from seven natural and cultivated growing areas in central and southern Chile. Aphids were genotyped by cross-species amplification of four microsatellite loci from other aphid species. In addition, the aphid borne virus Strawberry mild yellow edge virus was confirmed in F. chiloensis plants by double-antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR. Genetic variability and structure of the aphid populations was assessed from the geo-referenced individuals through AMOVA and a Bayesian assignment test. The presence of C. fragaefolii, during the two-year study was detected in only four of the seven sites (Curepto, Contulmo, Chilián and Cucao). Genetic variation among these populations reached 19% of the total variance. When assigning the individuals to groups, these were separated in three genetic clusters geographically disjunct. Of the seven sampled sites, six were positive for the virus by RT-PCR, and five by double-antibody sandwich ELISA . The incidence of the virus ranged from 0-100%. Presence of the virus corresponded with the presence of the aphid in all but two sites (Chilian and Vilches). The greatest incidence of Strawberry mild yellow edge virus was related to the abundance of aphids. On the other hand, sequences of the coat protein gene of the different virus samples did not show correspondence with either the genetic groups of the aphids or the sampling sites. The genetic structure of aphids could suggest that dispersal is mainly through human activities, and the spread to natural areas has not yet occurred on a great scale.

  16. Genetic structure of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, and its role as a vector of the Strawberry Yellow Edge Virus to a native strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandero, Blas; Rojas, Pamela; Ramirez, Claudio C; Salazar, Marcela; Caligari, Peter D S

    2012-01-01

    The monoecious anholocyclical aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was collected on a native strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) from different sites in Chile. The presence of this aphid was recorded during two consecutive years. F. chiloensis plants were collected from seven natural and cultivated growing areas in central and southern Chile. Aphids were genotyped by cross-species amplification of four microsatellite loci from other aphid species. In addition, the aphid borne virus Strawberry mild yellow edge virus was confirmed in F. chiloensis plants by double-antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR. Genetic variability and structure of the aphid populations was assessed from the geo-referenced individuals through AMOVA and a Bayesian assignment test. The presence of C. fragaefolii, during the two-year study was detected in only four of the seven sites (Curepto, Contulmo, Chilián and Cucao). Genetic variation among these populations reached 19% of the total variance. When assigning the individuals to groups, these were separated in three genetic clusters geographically disjunct. Of the seven sampled sites, six were positive for the virus by RT-PCR, and five by double-antibody sandwich ELISA . The incidence of the virus ranged from 0-100%. Presence of the virus corresponded with the presence of the aphid in all but two sites (Chilian and Vilches). The greatest incidence of Strawberry mild yellow edge virus was related to the abundance of aphids. On the other hand, sequences of the coat protein gene of the different virus samples did not show correspondence with either the genetic groups of the aphids or the sampling sites. The genetic structure of aphids could suggest that dispersal is mainly through human activities, and the spread to natural areas has not yet occurred on a great scale. PMID:23438175

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome and codon usage of the Nepalese whiskered bat Myotis muricola (Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K B; Park, Y C

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced and characterized the complete mitogenome of the Nepalese whiskered bat Myotis muricola (Vespertilionidae) to provide more data for comparative mitogenomics and codon usage in the genus Myotis (Vespertilionidae). The mitogenome of M. muricola is a circular molecule of 17,224 bp, consisting of a control region and a conserved set of 37 genes containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). The mitogenome of M. muricola is AT-biased, with a nucleotide composition of 33.6% A, 29.7% T, 23.3% C, and 13.4% G. The total length of the 13 mitochondrial PCGs, excluding stop codons, is 11,376 bp, or 3792 amino acids. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) of codons ending in A/T was generally higher than that for codons ending in G/C. The most frequently used codons are CTA(Leu) and CGA(Arg), with RSCU values greater than 2.0. The most rarely used codons, all terminating in G, are TCG(Ser), CCG(Pro), GCG(Ala), AAG(Lys), TGG(Try), CGG(Arg), and ACG(Thr), with RSCU values below 0.2. TCG(Ser) occurs only five times, and has the lowest RSCU value (0.091). These results are valuable for a better understanding of the molecular evolution of mitogenomes in the genus Myotis. PMID:26600523

  18. Ecological and Economic Importance of Bats (Order Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kasso, Mohammed; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra

    2013-01-01

    Order Chiroptera is the second most diverse and abundant order of mammals with great physiological and ecological diversity. They play important ecological roles as prey and predator, arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, pollination, material and nutrient distribution, and recycle. They have great advantage and disadvantage in economic terms. The economic benefits obtained from bats include biological pest control, plant pollination, seed dispersal, guano mining, bush meat and medicine, aes...

  19. Quirópteros de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Chiropterus of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis; Adriano L. Peracchi; Maria K. Onuki

    1993-01-01

    Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.

  20. Quirópteros de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Chiropterus of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.

  1. Comparative morphology of the tongue in free-tailed bats (Chiroptera, Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorin Renato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive and comparative studies on tongue of nineteen Molossidae, one Mystacinidae, and four Vespertilionidae bats species were carried out. Analysis was restricted to the external morphology, covering general shape of the tongue and its papillae. Types of papillae and their distribution presented considerable intergeneric variation, considering the strictly insectivorous feeding habits of these bats. Distribution of the data of tongue morphology is analyzed and compared with the phylogenetic schemes proposed previously and comments about evolutionary relationships among taxa were done.

  2. Comparative morphology of the tongue in free-tailed bats (Chiroptera, Molossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorin Renato

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative studies on tongue of nineteen Molossidae, one Mystacinidae, and four Vespertilionidae bats species were carried out. Analysis was restricted to the external morphology, covering general shape of the tongue and its papillae. Types of papillae and their distribution presented considerable intergeneric variation, considering the strictly insectivorous feeding habits of these bats. Distribution of the data of tongue morphology is analyzed and compared with the phylogen...

  3. Chiroptera (Mammalia) del yacimiento del Mioceno medio de Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, España)

    OpenAIRE

    Sesé, C.

    1986-01-01

    The Chiroptera from Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, Spain), an Upper Aragonian karstic site, are described in this report. The faunal list of Chiroptera is as follows: Megaderma gaillardi, Rhinolophus grivensis, Rhinolophus delphinensis and one chiropter, indeterminate family, different to the mentioned species. This fauna is typical of karstic sites and allows to compare it with those of other sites of the Miocene and Pliocene of west Europe and north Africa.
    <...

  4. Patterns of genome size diversity in bats (order Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jillian D L; Bickham, John W; Gregory, T Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Despite being a group of particular interest in considering relationships between genome size and metabolic parameters, bats have not been well studied from this perspective. This study presents new estimates for 121 "microbat" species from 12 families and complements a previous study on members of the family Pteropodidae ("megabats"). The results confirm that diversity in genome size in bats is very limited even compared with other mammals, varying approximately 2-fold from 1.63 pg in Lophostoma carrikeri to 3.17 pg in Rhinopoma hardwickii and averaging only 2.35 pg ± 0.02 SE (versus 3.5 pg overall for mammals). However, contrary to some other vertebrate groups, and perhaps owing to the narrow range observed, genome size correlations were not apparent with any chromosomal, physiological, flight-related, developmental, or ecological characteristics within the order Chiroptera. Genome size is positively correlated with measures of body size in bats, though the strength of the relationships differs between pteropodids ("megabats") and nonpteropodids ("microbats").

  5. TWO SPECIES OF BATS (MAMMALIA: CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE) NEWLY RECORDED FROM NAN AO ISLAND, GUANGDONG%广东省南澳岛2种蝙蝠的首次发现及描述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAZELL James; 卢文华; 刘少英; 庆宁

    2008-01-01

    南澳岛位于我国广东省东缘闽粤交界处,北回归线横贯全岛.南澳岛的主体自侏罗纪起就一直出露于海平面之上,因此在生物地理和生态研究中具有其特殊的价值.本文首次报道了2种南澳的蝙蝠,常见的东亚伏翼Pipistrellus abramus和不常见的灰伏翼P. (Hypsuga) pulveratus,进行了形态描述和分布区系的分析.

  6. 海南、贵州和四川三省翼手类新纪录——褐扁颅蝠%New record of Tylonycteris robustula(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)from Hainan, Guizhou, and Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礼标; 朱光剑; 于冬梅; 叶建平; 张伟; 洪体玉; 谭敏

    2008-01-01

    上世纪90年代之后国内对翼手目动物的调查和研究取得较为突出的成就,发现3种蝙蝠新种(Zhanget al.,2007;Fenget al.,2008;Wuetal.,2008),5种中国新纪录(何晓瑞和杨白仑,1991;赵辉华等,2002;吴毅等,2004;张礼标等,2004。2005;张劲硕等,2005;冯庆等,2006),

  7. The first record of Scotozous dormer Dobson, 1875 from Nepal with new locality records of Pipistrellus coromandra (Gray, 1838) and P. tennis (Temminck, 1840) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, S; Subedi, P.; N. B. Singh; M.J. Pearch

    2012-01-01

    Between September 2008 and September 2010, faunal surveys were carried out by the first author in Paschim Kusaha V.D.C. (Village Development Committee) in the buffer zone of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve in south-eastern Nepal. The surveys resulted in the collection of three species of vespertilionid bats, which included the first record from Nepal of Dormer’s Pipistrelle Scotozous dormeri Dobson, 1875. A brief description is given of the external, cranial, and dental characters of each of t...

  8. Osservazioni in cattività sul ciclo stagionale del peso corporeo e sull'efficienza digestiva di Pipistrellus kuhlii e Hypsugo savii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Dondini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Molte specie di pipistrelli delle fasce climatiche temperato-fredde sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in autunno è quindi un adattamento per trascorrere, in uno stato di profondo torpore definibile ibernazione, i mesi invernali, aumentando così la probabilità di sopravvivenza durante tale periodo. Nell?ambito di una attività pluriennale relativa alla raccolta, studio e, quando possibile, riabilitazione di pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, due esemplari di Pipistrellus kuhlii (2 femmine e due di Hypsugo savii (1 maschio e 1 femmina, in entrambi casi giovani che ancora non avevano acquisito una sufficiente capacità nel volo e quindi non liberabili, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l?estate del 1998 e mantenuti in condizioni di temperatura ambientale oscillante tra i 17 e i 22°C, in un contenitore di 150x40x30 cm. Ogni sera sono stati pesati, prima della somministrazione di cibo e acqua, con una bilancia elettronica con precisione di 0.1 g (modello Tanita 1479. L'alimentazione è stata a base di vermi della farina (Tenebrio molitor. L?efficienza digestiva è calcolata nel seguente modo, su materiale disidratato: (quantità ingerita ? quantità escrementi/quantità ingerita*100. Per il calcolo di tale indice gli esemplari delle due specie sono stati separati e mantenuti per 24 ore a partire dalla successiva sera dell?ultima somministrazione, favorendo così lo svuotamento dell?intestino. Successivamente, per due giorni è stato fornito del cibo ad libitum, pesando i singoli esemplari una volta terminata la fase di alimentazione, per determinare la quantità ingerita. Al termine abbiamo mantenuto gli esemplari a digiuno per 24 ore successive all?ultima somministrazione per permettere lo svuotamento dell?intestino. Gli escrementi raccolti sono stati posti in forno elettrico a 90 °C per 24 ore e successivamente pesati. Un campione di 10 vermi della farina è stato soppresso e successivamente disidratato per 36 ore a 90 C° in forno determinandone così il contenuto in acqua. La comparazione dei dati relativi alla variazione del peso, benché il numero di campioni sia limitato, offre la possibilità di evidenziare alcune differenze tra le due specie: 1 l'andamento del peso nel periodo compreso tra lo svezzamento e l'incremento autunnale: in P. kuhlii, dopo un massimo nel peso raggiunto allo svezzamento, tende evidentemente a calare. In H. savii invece si è osservato un leggero incremento nel peso. 2 È evidente che l'inizio del processo di accumulo di grasso è molto più rapido in P. kuhlii che in H. savii. In quest'ultima specie il processo appare più graduale nel tempo. 3 In ambedue le specie osserviamo un leggero decremento del peso nel periodo successivo al momento in cui raggiungono il massimo peso per poi aumentare la velocità di decremento nel periodo terdo-invernale. 4 Il peso medio alla raccolta in P. kuhlii è di 2.6 g (1.9 - 3.3 il peso massimo medio di 11.7 g (11.5 - 12; il peso medio alla raccolta in H. savii è di 3.7 g (3.2 ? 4.2 il peso massimo medio di 10.3 g (11.4 ? 9.3. 5 Si evidenzia un ciclo circannuale. L?efficienza digestiva, valutata a 90.5% per H. savii e 89.7% per P. kuhlii, non evidenzia una differenza significativa tra le due specie e neppure durante le varie stagioni.

  9. Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat Plecotus austriacus (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Piksa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (Plecotus auritus e Orecchione meridionale (Plecotus austriacus nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di Plecotus auritus e P. austriacus. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno P. auritus è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. P. austriacus è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.

  10. A New Species of Horseshoe Bat of the Genus Rhinolophus from China (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yi; MOTOKAWA, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.

  11. Comparative systematic value between dental and external: Skeletal features in western european chiroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Paloma; López Martínez, Nieves

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic characters in biosystematics have low variability and congruent distribution. In mammals they are mainly external and skeletal features. The distribution of diagnostic and non-diagnostic characters often shows a poor degree of congruence. Dental characters of isolated teeth of 21 recent species of bats (Chiroptera) have been chosen and ¡malyzed to compare with the distribution of external and ske1etal diagnostic characters. The degree of congruence of these ...

  12. Comparative Aspects Of The Morphogenesis And Morphology Of The Wing Membranes Of Bats (Chiroptera) And Flying Lemurs (Dermoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalyova I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The heterogeneity of formation of different areas in the wing membrane of Chiroptera and Dermoptera was established. The web between metacarpals and digits (chiropatagium) was formed by the mesenchyme which initially formed the forelimb rudiment. The plagiopatagium and propatagium were formed by proliferation of the trunk mesenchymal cells.

  13. Chromosomal evolution among leaf-nosed nectarivorous bats – evidence from cross-species chromosome painting (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Volleth, Marianne; Gollahon, Lauren S; Fu, Beiyuan; Cheng, William; Ng, Bee L.; Yang, Fengtang; Baker, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromos...

  14. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Graciolli; Alexsander Araújo Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae). Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934), Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographic...

  15. Ecologia molecular de Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera : Phyllostomidae) no Parque Estadual de Campinhos, Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Pollyana Patrício

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: Dentre mais de mil espécies de morcegos registradas mundialmente, a Subfamília Desmodontinae (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), endêmica da região Neotropical, contempla as três espécies de morcegos hematófagos conhecidas: Diaemus youngi, Diphylla ecaudata e Desmodus rotundus. Assim, este capítulo tem como objetivo descrever as características gerais, ecologia, comportamento alimentar e reprodutivo de D. rotundus já descritos na literatura. O morcego-vampiro-comum (D. rotundus) é a espécie...

  16. Multivariate analysis of Morphological characters of Pipistrellus Pipistrellus (Schreber, 1774) and P. Nathusii (Keyserling & Blasius, 1839) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, B.P.F.E.

    1985-01-01

    Within the Vespertilionidae the genus Pipistrellus Kaup, 1829 is characterized by the presence of a calcar lobe (epiblema) attached to the calcar bone, the presence of two upper premolars on each side and a forearm length smaller than 38 mm. Two representatives of this genus occur in The Netherlands

  17. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isai Jorge de Castro; Claudia Regina Silva; Arley José Silveira Da Costa; Ana Carolina Moreira Martins

    2011-01-01

    Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae). Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phy...

  18. Osservazioni in cattività sul ciclo stagionale del peso corporeo e sull'efficienza digestiva di Pipistrellus kuhlii e Hypsugo savii (Chiroptera: Verspertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Dondini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Captivity observation on body weight cycle and digestive efficiency in Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae Many bat species of cold-temperate climate are subject to seasonal variation of temperature and food availability. Fat reserve during summer-autumn is therefore a physiological adaptation to spend the winter months by hibernating or to sustain migration. During a research on bats in urban areas, two juveniles of Kuhl's bat (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 females and two juveniles of Savi's bat (Hypsugo savii, 1 male and 1 female were collected in 1997 in the urban area of Florence (central Italy. Bats were kept in a cage of 50x40x30 cm with a temperature between 17° and 22° C. Every day they were weighted with an electronic balance before eating mealworms (Tenebrio molitor. Digestive efficiency, calculated on dry material, was about 90% for both species. In about six months P. kuhlii and H. savii increased on the average of 450% and 280% in weight respectively. Deposition of fat reserve seemed to be faster in P. kuhlii than in H. savii. Both species showed a circannual cycle in the variation of weight. Riassunto Molte specie di pipistrelli dei climi temperato-freddi sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in tarda estate-autunno è quindi un adattamento fisiologico per trascorrere in ibernazione i mesi invernali o per intraprendere la migrazione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca pluriennale sui pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, 4 esemplari giovani, di cui 2 di Pipistrello albolimbato (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 femmine e due di Pipistrello di Savi (Hypsugo savii, 1 maschio e 1 femmina, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l'estate del 1997 e mantenuti in un contenitore di 50x40x30 cm ad

  19. The structure and dynamics of a rhinolophid bat community of Latium (Central Italy (Chiroptera

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    Pierangelo Crucitti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.

  20. Bird and chiroptera inventories in Quebec : efficiency of a tried and tested method; Les inventaires d'oiseaux et de chiropteres au Quebec : l'efficacite d'une methode eprouvee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental monitoring at wind turbine arrays is needed before, during and after project development. Pesca Environmental evaluates the impact of proposed wind turbine arrays on birds and chiroptera by examining their migration patterns through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. In order to complete a feasibility study, spring migration patterns of birds and chiroptera must be documented and characterized. In addition to building an inventory of birds and chiroptera, Pesca examines bird behaviour and flight patterns and nesting locations. figs.

  1. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  2. Bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea) Challenge a Recent Origin of Extant Neotropical Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation. PMID:26865275

  3. Bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea) Challenge a Recent Origin of Extant Neotropical Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation.

  4. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  5. Quirópteros da Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia: Chiroptera Bats from Tinguá Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Mammalia: Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho reúne os resultados de um levantamento de quirópteros conduzido na Reserva Biológica (REBIO do Tinguá, Nova Iguaçu, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foram realizadas 31 noites de coletas, em 14 sítios situados em altitudes de 65 a 1270 m. As coletas foram realizadas com redes "mist-nets", armadas ao nível do solo, em trilhas ou clareiras, em frente a plantas em floração ou frutificação, próximo a construções e cavidades naturais, sobre riachos e corpos d'água ou perto desses. Um total de 655 indivíduos foi capturado. Vinte e oito espécies de morcegos, distribuídas em quatro famílias, Emballonuridae (duas espécies, Phyllostomidae (19 espécies, Vespertilionidae (cinco espécies e Molossidae (duas espécies são assinaladas para a Reserva. Destacam-se os registros de Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901 e Myotis ruber (E. Geoffroy, 1806, que constam como vulneráveis na "Lista das Espécies Brasileiras Ameaçadas de Extinção". Para cada espécie, uma medida externa (comprimento de antebraço e 13 medidas cranianas foram estudadas. As medidas de machos e fêmeas são tratadas separadamente. Comentários taxonômicos são fornecidos para todas as espécies.Here we describe the bat community found at the Tinguá Biological Reserve, Nova Iguaçu County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Captures at 14 sites included a total of 31 nights at altitudes from 65 to 1270 m. Bats were captured in nets at ground level in forest trails and clearings, near flowering and fruiting trees, buildings, natural cavities and over streams. The reserve is species rich, with 28 species in 655 captures. Four families were found: Emballonuridae (two species, Phyllostomidae (19, Vespertilionidae (five and Molossidae (two. Three species are especially important for being considered vulnerable in the Brazilian Threatened Species List: Lonchophylla

  6. Bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera in the Ponta Grossa region, Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brazil Morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera na região de Ponta Grossa, Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele M. V. Zanon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diet, reproduction and activity time of bat species found in Ponta Grossa county, Campos Gerais region, were studied. Collections were conducted in four forest fragments, during 272 hours, on 48 m² of nets and roosting sites; the total capture effort was 1.52.10³ h.m². Eight species (247 individuals were registered: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818, Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Phyllostomidae; Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, Eumopsauripendulus (Shaw, 1800 (Molossidae; Eptesicusbrasiliensis (Shaw, 1800, Myotisnigricans (Schinz, 1821, and Histiotusvelatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 (Vespertilionidae. The Phyllostomidae family was the most frequently captured. Solanaceae, Moraceae, Piperaceae, and Rosaceae were found in the diet of frugivores; six orders of insects and the class Arachnida were found in the diets of insectivores. Pregnant females were found in September and October and lactating ones in November and December. The collection peak was reached in the second hour-and-a-half. Preservation of the regional forested and altered areas is required for survival of the local chiropterofauna.Estudou-se as espécies de morcegos presentes em Ponta Grossa, na região dos Campos Gerais, Paraná, com o objetivo de conhecer seus aspectos ecológicos básicos (dieta, reprodução e horário de atividade. Realizou-se coletas em quatro fragmentos florestais, onde foram empregadas 272 horas de esforço com 48 m² de redes, e em locais de repouso, totalizando um esforço de captura de 1,52.10³ h.m². Registrou-se 247 indivíduos, de oito espécies: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818, Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Phyllostomidae; Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, Eumopsauripendulus (Shaw, 1800 (Molossidae; Eptesicusbrasiliensis(Shaw, 1800, Myotisnigricans (Schinz, 1821, Histiotusvelatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 (Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae foi a família mais

  7. Bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the urbanized area in South of Brazil=Morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em áreas urbanizadas no sul do Brasil

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    Evanilde Benedito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to inventory of bats species present in an urban area, located within the main campus of the State University of Maringá, northwestern Paraná State, and to present data on the diet, reproduction, and activity times of the captured species. Collections were performed monthly, between September 2007 and August 2008, and 377 individuals were captured, belonging to four species from the Phyllostomidae family: Artibeus lituratus (90%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (6.4%, Sturnira lilium (2.4%, and Carollia perspicillata (1.3%. The types of fruit ingested consisted especially of Cecropiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. Among the captured exemplars, 51% were female and 49% male. No pregnant females of A. lituratus or males with descended testicles were captured in autumn, and the largest recorded numbers of these groups were verified in winter. With regard to lactating females, A. lituratus was sampled year-round, with predominance during the warmer season. In spite of the low species diversity, the campus area is used by frugivore species that are generalists and are able to feed and reproduce in urbanized areas. In order to increase that diversity, management programs should be implemented so that urbanization and Chiroptera diversity can coexist with lower risks and losses to ecosystems. O presente estudo inventariou espécies de morcegos ocorrentes numa área urbana, localizada no interior do campus-sede da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Noroeste do Paraná, apresentando informações sobre a dieta, reprodução e o horário de atividades das espécies capturadas. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre setembro de 2007 e agosto de 2008, sendo capturados 377 indivíduos, pertencentes a quatro espécies, integrantes da família Phyllostomidae: Artibeus lituratus (90%; Platyrrhinus lineatus (6,4%; Sturnira lilium (2,4%; e Carollia perspicillata (1,3%. Entre os frutos consumidos pelos morcegos destacam

  8. Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Costa Rica, Panama and western Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Velazco; Bruce Patterson

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Central America and western South America are described using molecular and morphological data. The two new species, which occur in Costa Rica and Panama and in western Ecuador, were previously confused with S. ludovici, and S. lilium and S. luisi, respectively. Sturnira now includes 22 described species, making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae.

  9. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.

  10. First description of multivalent ring structures in eutherian mammalian meiosis: new chromosomal characterization of Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César

    2016-08-01

    Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria. PMID:27300547

  11. First description of multivalent ring structures in eutherian mammalian meiosis: new chromosomal characterization of Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César

    2016-08-01

    Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria.

  12. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.Ectoparasitos de morcegos (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, com a descrição de uma nova espécie de Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae do Brasil. Os poucos dados sobre ectoparasitismo em morcegos furipterídeos são restritos a moscas (Streblidae. Somente três espécies de estreblídeos eram conhecidas antes desse trabalho: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. Outra espécie de Synthesiostrebla é descrita aqui aumentando a distribuição geográfica do gênero para o lado leste dos Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. foi encontrada sobre Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 no sudeste do Brasil. Região anterior do corpo, asa, tergito 7, epiprocto e genitália masculina são ilustrados e uma chave de identificação para fêmeas também é apresentada.

  13. Structure of a bat assemblage (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Serra do Caraça Reserve, South-east Brazil

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    Falcão Fábio de C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.

  14. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations

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    Patrícia Beloto Bertola

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.

  15. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  16. A new species of Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from western Colombia and Ecuador, with emended diagnoses of P. aquilus, P. dorsalis, and P. umbratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.

  17. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera from Syria

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    Adwan Shehab

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.

  18. 河南西峡云华溶洞翼手目动物的调查%Preliminary Research of Chiroptera in Yunhua Karst Cave of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁子安; 刘冰许; 张曼

    2011-01-01

    In October 2001 and September 2010, the chiropteni in Yunhua Karat Care of Henan Province was investigated. The results showed that chiroptera in this area belong to 4 families, 4 genera and 7 species. Among them, 4 species (57.1%) were Oriental realm spe cies, and 3 species (42.9% ) were cosmopolitan species. According to the present status of chiroptera resources in Yunhua Karat Cave, de tailed countermeasures for bat protection were put forward.%2001年10月和2010年9月,对河南省西峡县云华洞翼手目动物进行了调查.通过标本采集、鉴定分类,初步查明该溶洞分布翼手目动物共7种,隶属4科4属.其中,东洋界种4种,占总数的57.1%;广布种3种,占总数的42.9%.此外,根据蝙蝠资源的现状,提出了具体的保护建议.

  19. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Angelika Bredt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed

  20. O conhecimento sobre morcegos (Chiroptera: Mammalia do estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil

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    Poliana Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ordem Chiroptera apresenta importância relevante na dinâmica dos ecossistemas, sendo a ordem de mamíferos com maior diversidade de hábitos de vida. Dentre os estados da região Sudeste do Brasil, o Espírito Santo é um dos mais carentes em relação ao conhecimento de morcegos. Este estudo sintetizou o estado do conhecimento sobre quirópteros gerado no Espírito Santo. Para isso, foram catalogados os morcegos depositados no Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, no Laboratório de Estudos de Quirópteros da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH e University of Michigan Museum Zoology (UMMZ. Além disso, foi realizada uma busca por artigos publicados sobre morcegos do Espírito Santo. Foram revistos 49 artigos científicos, realizadas três teses de mestrado e 11 monografias. Considerando as coleções amostradas e artigos publicados totalizam-se 63 espécies de morcegos para o estado, provenientes de 37 dos 78 municípios do Espírito Santo. A maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos foi encontrada nos municípios de Linhares e Santa Teresa, o que é provavelmente reflexo da maior parte dos espécimes depositados nos museus também serem desses municípios. O Espírito Santo apresenta um grande potencial para se encontrar novas ocorrências de espécies, enfatizando a importância da realização de futuros estudos sobre morcegos no estado.The Order Chiroptera plays a vital role in ecosystem dynamics. Among the states of Southeastern Brazil, Espírito Santo State is the one with the least known bat fauna. This study reports on the current state of knowledge on Espírito Santo bats generating this data bank. We have catalogued the bats deposited in the Biology Museum Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, Laboratory of Bat Studies of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario

  1. Chromosomal evolution among leaf-nosed nectarivorous bats – evidence from cross-species chromosome painting (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromosome paints from the bat species Macrotus californicus. We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. By examining the chromosomal homologies defined by chromosome painting among two representatives of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Glossophaga soricina and Anoura cultrata) and one species from the subfamily Lonchophyllinae (Lonchophylla concava), we found chromosomal correspondence in regions not previously detected by other comparative cytogenetic techniques. We proposed the corresponding human chromosomal segments for chromosomes of the investigated species and found two syntenic associations shared by G. soricina and A. cultrata. Conclusion Comparative painting with whole chromosome-specific paints of M. californicus demonstrates an extensive chromosomal reorganization within the two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids, with a large number of chromosomes shared between M. californicus and G. soricina. We show that the evolution of nectar-feeding bats occurs mainly by reshuffling of chiropteran Evolutionarily Conserved Units (ECUs). Robertsonian fusions/fissions and inversions seem to be important modifiers of phyllostomid karyotypes, and autapomorphic character states are common within species. Macrotus californicus chromosome paints will be a valuable tool for documenting the pattern of

  2. 广西翼手目动物布氏球果蝠新记录%A New Record of Sphaerias blanfordi of Chiroptera in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志营; 卢贞燕; 梁显堂

    2011-01-01

    One male specimen of Sphaerias blanfordi was collected in Guangxi Jinzhongshan National Natural Reserve in November 2010. It is a new record of Chiroptera in Guangxi,and the specimen was deposited in Museum of Guangxi Jinzhongshan National Natural Reserve.%2010年11月,在广西金钟山黑颈长尾雉国家级自然保护区采获1号雄性布氏球果蝠标本,为广西翼手目动物的新记录.标本保存于广西金钟山黑颈长尾雉国家级自然保护区管理局标本室.

  3. Research advancs in chemical communication among Chiroptera animals%翼手目动物化学通讯研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐占辉; 盛连喜; 张树义; 曹敏

    2005-01-01

    哺乳动物使用化学信息来判别周围环境状况或相互交流是普遍存在的现象,这种信息接受与交流方式与其他方式相比较具有很多的优点,与其他通讯方式的结合使用也可更大程度地提高信息接受与通讯的准确性.翼手目(Chiroptera)动物也存在着化学通讯这种信息交流的方式,化学信号在翼手目动物导航定位、探测和辨别食物资源、种内识别、母婴辨认等方面起着重要的作用.

  4. Estrutura da comunidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Therys M. Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de comunidades de morcegos no Brasil ainda é pouco estudada e vêm sofrendo sérias modificações devido à perda de habitats. O principal objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a comunidade de morcegos da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, município de Itirapina, Estado de São Paulo. Nesta Estação, além das espécies cultivadas de Eucalyptus e Pinus, há diversas plantas que podem fornecer alimento aos morcegos. Entre julho de 2001 e julho de 2006, foram realizadas 58 sessões noturnas de captura de morcegos com 4 a 12 redes-de-neblina dispostas a cada sessão. Nesse período, foram capturados 720 indivíduos de 16 espécies de morcegos dos quais 13 pertencem à família Phyllostomidae, duas à Vespertilionidae e uma à Molossidae. A curva cumulativa de espécies atingiu o equilíbrio, no qual apenas espécies raras são acrescentadas. Cinco espécies (Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina e Sturnira lilium representaram 80% dos morcegos capturados na Estação Experimental, onde se alimentavam de frutos de plantas pioneiras, tais como Cecropia pachystachya, Solanum spp. e Piper spp. A prevalência do vírus rábico foi zero na amostragem das 10 espécies analisadas. Apesar de estar muito modificada, a Estação Experimental de Itirapina pode ser uma importante área de abrigo e alimento para os morcegos e tem potencial de atuar como corredor entre áreas de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica.

  5. Phenolics Total and Antioxidant Activity of Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis

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    Rince Alfia Fadri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the total of phenolics and antioxidant activity of Strawberry  that grows in the area Alahan Panjang Solok Regency and  Padang Panjang city. This research was carried out at the Chemical Laboratory of  Agricultural Polytechinc State of Payakumbuh with a long six months time needed.To determine the levels of  phenols total used Folin-Ciocalteu methode, and as a standard also to be used galat acid, while on antioxidant activity testing used DPPH free radical absorption methode.The results of research that methanol extract of Strawberries  originally from Alahan Panjang have phenol total 180 mg/100 g of fresh sample and higher than Strawberries originally from Padang Panjang with phenol total 139.2 mg/100 g of fresh sample.

  6. Dieta de morcegos filostomídeos (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em fragmento urbano do Instituto São Vicente, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Mariana Pires Veiga Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Os morcegos (Chiroptera, devido à sua diversidade e abundância exercem um importante papel ecológico para o ecossistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi reportar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros capturados nos fragmentos do Instituto São Vicente, zona urbana do município de Campo Grande, MS. As coletas ocorreram entre setembro de 2011 e Junho de 2012, sendo realizadas com o auxílio de redes-de-neblina. Foram realizadas 154 capturas, com ocorrência de 10 espécies representantes de três famílias, sendo predominantes as espécies frugívoras. Dentre as capturas foram obtidas 41 amostras fecais, onde se verificou a presença de polpa, vestígios de artrópodes e sementes. O recurso mais utilizado por quirópteros foram plantas pioneiras, constatado através do predomínio de sementes da espécie Cecropia pachystachya, consumida em maior intensidade por Artibeus lituratus. Os resultados ressaltam a importância destes animais no ambiente, em especial no processo de regeneração dessas áreas através da dispersão de sementes.

  7. ANÁLISE HISTOMORFOLÓGICA E HISTOMORFOMÉTRICA DO TECIDO ÓSSEO MADURO DE Glossophaga soricina (PHYLLOSTOMIDAE:CHIROPTERA

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    Cibele Leandro da Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue has different models of vascularization, cellular distribution, mineralization and remodeling among mammals species. A variety of dietary habits associated with the mode of locomotion and habitat required from bats the establishment of different flying styles and some skeletal adaptations. This study aimed at examining the microscopic characteristics of mature bone tissue of Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera. Twelve animals of both genders were used, in which the right humerus were dissected, weighed, decalcified and submitted to routine histological processing. Semi-serial cuts of 5 micrometers were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E., picrosirius red and silver nitrate 50%. The histological preparations were subjected to histological and histomorphometric analysis. Lacunae density was significantly higher in humerus of females when compared to males (33.96 x 27.80, p = 0.02. Microscopic analysis indicated the presence of parallel collagen fibers distributed in the bone matrix. Lacunes presented various shapes and canaliculi are well distributed and individualized. Few Havers systems and canals were observed. The mature bone tissue of the humerus Glossophaga soricina share microscopic features with other mammals, however, differences in the structural organization are peculiar to this species.

  8. Suitability of DNA extracted from archival specimens of fruit-eating bats of the genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae for polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis

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    Mário Pinzan Scatena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish a technique which minimized the effects of fixation on the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed tissues preserved in scientific collections we extracted DNA samples from fixed tissues using different methods and evaluated the effect of the different procedures on PCR and sequencing analysis. We investigated muscle and liver tissues from museum specimens of five species of fruit-eating (frugivorous bats of the Neotropical genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae: A. fimbriatus, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, A. obscurus, and A. planirostris. The results indicated that treatment of tissues in buffered solutions at neutral pH and about 37 °C for at least four days improves the quality and quantity of extracted DNA and the quality of the amplification and sequencing products. However, the comparison between the performance of DNA obtained from fixed and fresh tissues showed that, in spite of the fact that both types of tissue generate reliable sequences for use in phylogenetic analyses, DNA samples from fixed tissues presented a larger rate of errors in the different stages of the study. These results suggest that DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue can be used in molecular studies of Neotropical Artibeus bats and that our methodology may be applicable to other animal groups.

  9. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: orders Didelphimorpha through Chiroptera (Excluding Rodentia) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  10. Flight metabolism in relation to speed in Chiroptera: testing the U-shape paradigm in the short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Busse, Rhea; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C

    2013-06-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that flight for fixed-wing aircraft requires more energy at low and high speeds compared with intermediate speeds, and this theory has often been extended to predict speed-dependent metabolic rates and optimal flight speeds for flying animals. However, the theoretical U-shaped flight power curve has not been robustly tested for Chiroptera, the only mammals capable of flapping flight. We examined the metabolic rate of seven Seba's short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) during unrestrained flight in a wind tunnel at air speeds from 1 to 7 m s(-1). Following intra-peritoneal administration of (13)C-labeled Na-bicarbonate, we measured the enrichment in (13)C of exhaled breath before and after flight. We converted fractional turnover of (13)C into metabolic rate and power, based on the assumption that bats oxidized glycogen during short flights. Power requirements of flight varied with air speed in a U-shaped manner in five out of seven individuals, whereas energy turnover was not related to air speed in two individuals. Power requirements of flight were close to values predicted by Pennycuick's aerodynamic model for minimum power speed, but differed for maximum range speed. The results of our experiment support the theoretical expectation of a U-shaped power curve for flight metabolism in a bat. PMID:23430989

  11. Bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the urbanized area in South of Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.8783

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    Cibele Maria Vianna Zanon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to inventory of bats species present in an urban area, located within the main campus of the State University of Maringá, northwestern Paraná State, and to present data on the diet, reproduction, and activity times of the captured species. Collections were performed monthly, between September 2007 and August 2008, and 377 individuals were captured, belonging to four species from the Phyllostomidae family: Artibeus lituratus (90%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (6.4%, Sturnira lilium (2.4%, and Carollia perspicillata (1.3%. The types of fruit ingested consisted especially of Cecropiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. Among the captured exemplars, 51% were female and 49% male. No pregnant females of A. lituratus or males with descended testicles were captured in autumn, and the largest recorded numbers of these groups were verified in winter. With regard to lactating females, A. lituratus was sampled year-round, with predominance during the warmer season. In spite of the low species diversity, the campus area is used by frugivore species that are generalists and are able to feed and reproduce in urbanized areas. In order to increase that diversity, management programs should be implemented so that urbanization and Chiroptera diversity can coexist with lower risks and losses to ecosystems.

  12. 翼手目(蝙蝠)适应性进化分子机制的研究进展%Advances on molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera (bats)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁运鹏; 于黎

    2015-01-01

    作为哺乳动物第二大目的翼手目(Chiroptera;俗称蝙蝠)在飞行能力、回声定位与听觉系统、食性、冬眠、免疫防御等诸多方面表现出显著而独特的适应性进化,是研究生物对环境适应性进化分子机制的热点模型之一。文章综述了翼手目适应性进化分子机制的研究进展,特别是近年来在基因组水平上开展的相关研究,显示出更为复杂的分子进化模式和功能分化。随着越来越多的翼手目物种基因组数据的产生,将有望揭示新的进化机制,并为后续的功能实验奠定基础,促进人们对翼手目这一类群的认识和了解,同时也为系统认识动物适应性进化分子机制做出贡献。%As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encoun-tered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chirop-tera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution.

  13. Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Cavalcanti Brito

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redesneblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp., Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus

  14. Dados ecológicos dos quirópteros da Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoá, Santa Catarina, Brasil Ecological data of Chiroptera from Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoá, Santa Cantarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenise A. Bastos Sipinski

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ecology of Chiroptera was made at the Reserve of Volta Velha on the Northern coast of Santa Catarina. This study aimed at knowing the frequency of the individuals colleeted in each season, part of their feeding diet and their time of activity as well as their breeding activity. The investigation was carried out from March, 1990 to February, 1991 by means of periodical captures which ocurred during four days each month totalizing 144 hours of net use. One hundred and thirty-five individuals belonging to 15 different species were caught. Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 were captured in the highest number throughout the seasons of the year. Fruit-eating bats confirm their feeding preference for Cecropiaceae, Solanaceae. Myrtaceae and Piperaceae. The births occurred mostly in seasons other than the dry. Around 1:15 hours after sunset was the time when the highest numher of individuals were collected in the nets.

  15. Research advances and conservation strategy on Nyctalus velutinus%中华山蝠的研究进展及保护对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红艳; 吴毅; 胡锦矗

    2000-01-01

    @@ 中华山蝠(Nyctalus velutinus)(或称绒山蝠),属翼手目(Chiroptera),蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae),山蝠属(Nyctalus),是我国特有的种类.广泛分布于中国南部,喜栖于建筑物的天花板、梁柱、瓦缝等处.有关中华山蝠的研究80年代才开始,迄今为止发表有关论文仅6篇.

  16. A perspective on bats (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock Fenton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.

  17. On some Chiroptera from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge

    1964-01-01

    On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species. A

  18. Morcegos do Estado do Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera: riqueza de espécies, distribuição e síntese do conhecimento atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Miretzki

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo sintetiza o conhecimento atual sobre a riqueza e distribuição das espécies de morcegos ocorrentes no Estado do Paraná, Brazil, bem como, determina áreas prioritárias para novos inventários. Os dados analisados foram obtidos da coleção do Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia - MHNCI (em Curitiba e de um extenso levantamento bibliográfico. Foram registradas 53 espécies de cinco famílias: Phyllostomidae apresentou a maior riqueza de espécies (25; 47% do total, seguida por Molossidae (13; 24%, Vespertilionidae (12; 22%, Noctilionidae (2; 4% e Emballonuridae (1; 2,5%. Os resultados indicaram a ocorrência de apenas 55% das espécies do Bioma Floresta Atlântica e o predomínio relativo de vespertilionídeos e molossídeos sobre os filostomídeos. Estes resultados revelam uma fauna empobrecida em número de espécies e ressaltam o caráter subtropical da região ocupada pelo Paraná. A distribuição das espécies não se mostra homogênea, ocorrendo diferenças significativas entre as composições de espécies nas três principais formações florestais do Estado. A Floresta Estacional Semidecidual destaca-se pela maior riqueza de espécies (39; 74% e o maior número de exclusivas (10. Em seguida esta a Floresta Ombrófila Mista ou Floresta com Araucária (36; 68% sendo seis exclusivas e, por fim, a Floresta Ombrófila Densa (= Floresta Atlântica s.s. com 33 espécies (62% e somente três exclusivas. O grau de conhecimento foi estimado a partir do Método dos Quadrantes em um gradil de 30' latitude x 30' de longitude, obtendo-se 93 quadrículas. Desse total, 53% (49 quadrículas não apresentaram nenhuma ocorrência de morcegos e a média de espécies por quadrícula foi de 3,4, riqueza muito abaixo da considerada como satisfatória para o Estado, que é de 24 espécies. Somente três quadrículas ultrapassaram e estimativa satisfatória: duas na região leste (Curitiba e uma ao norte (Londrina. Aproximadamente 2

  19. Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351 Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Gazarini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redes-neblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp. , Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007 to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus

  20. Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

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    Ana Maria Rui

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838

  1. Bats (CHIROPTERA) and their zoogeographic distribution characteristics in the Qinling and Daba Mountain Ranges%秦岭和大巴山区翼手类及其动物地理分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家炎; 裴俊峰

    2011-01-01

    There have been different ideas over whether or not the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges are part of the dividing line in Central China between the Palaearctic realm and the Oriental realm in the zoogeographical distribution of animals. Our predecessors have tried to prove this hypothesis from the perspectives of different disciplines by conducting surveys of birds, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and some mammals. The authors have carried out 3 major collections of bat ( CHIROPTERA) specimens in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges since 1964. Over 2 000 obtained specimens were I-dentified and classified as 32 species belonging to 4 families and 4 subfamilies. The analytical results indicate that 23 species belong to the Oriental realm, accounting for 71. 8% of the total, and 9 belong to the Palaearctic realm, accounting for 28. 2%. These species are all seen in every Chinese zoogeographic region and their frequencies range as follows: Central China region, Southwest China region, South China region, North China region, Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region, and Qinghai-Xizang region. Some of China' s endemic genera and species, including monotypic ones, also are distributed in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges. The authors believe that bats are a class affected by climate, topography, and vegetation , and their geographic distribution is relatively sensitive and therefore restricted. According to the regional composition and distribution characteristics of bats in the Qinling and Daba ranges, the Oriental realm is limited to the northern slopes of Qinling range while the Palaearctic realm gradually declines in number from the southern slopes of Qinling range to the northern slopes of Daba range. There is a gradual transition for bats between the two realms in the southern slopes of the Qinling range and the northern slopes of Daba range, demonstrating that this is a transitional region for bats. All this further proves that the view is correct to consider the Qinling

  2. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America. PMID:24912354

  3. Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.

    2010-01-01

    A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During seve...

  4. Bat records from Malawi (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo

    1983-01-01

    Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature a

  5. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  6. 西南鼠耳蝠广东新纪录及其核型%A new record of Myotis altarium and its karyotype in Guangdong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕均; 邓柏生; 李玉春; 龚粤宁; 本川雅治; 原田正史; 新宅勇太; 吴毅

    2010-01-01

    @@ 西南鼠耳蝠(Myotis altarium Thomas,1911),因峨眉山为其模式产地,又称峨眉鼠耳蝠或者四川鼠耳蝠.隶属于翼手目(Chiroptera)蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae)鼠耳蝠属(Myotis),主要分布于我国大陆南部,其分布区可延伸到泰国北部(Blood and McFarlane,1988),可能还分布到越南(Borissenko and Kurskop,2003).在我国,仅刘少英等(2003)将其作为重庆蝙蝠分布新纪录进行了报道.

  7. Registros de Choeronycteris mexicana (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en Chiapas Records of Choeronycteris mexicana (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Riechers-Pérez; Roberto Vidal-López

    2009-01-01

    Se confirma la presencia del murciélago trompudo mexicano (Choeronycteris mexicana) en Chiapas. Los 5 ejemplares examinados de esta especie fueron capturados en 3 localidades del Parque Nacional Cañón del Sumidero y constituyen los primeros registros verificados que demuestran su presencia en la Depresión Central de Chiapas, lo que evidencia una distribución continua de México hasta Centro América.We confirm the presence of the Mexican long-tongued bat (Choeronycteris mexicana) in Chiapas. Fi...

  8. Neoromicia Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia Vespertilionidae: correction of gender and etymology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Riccucci

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Neoromicia Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia, Verspetilionidae: Correzione del genere grammaticale ed etimologia Neoromicia Roberts, 1926, sinora considerato erroneamente di genere maschile, è in realtà femminile. La sua etimologia deriva quasi certamente dal Greco antico "ρóμιζα", corrispondente al latino "Rumex" (sorta di giavellotto, per la presenza di un cospicuo sperone calcaneale in Romicia calcarata, specie tipo del genere.

  9. Updated list of bat species positive for rabies in Brazil Lista atualizada das espécies de morcegos positivas para raiva no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Martos Sodré

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated list of bat species positive for rabies in Brazil. It was developed based on database research via the internet, of international and national literature and annals of the most important technical and scientific meetings related to rabies and chiroptera in Brazil from 1996 to 2009. The new list of rabies positive bats consists of 41 species, belonging to 25 genera and three families: Phyllostomidae 43.9%, Vespertilionidae 29.3% and Molossidae 26.8%. In addition, questions were raised regarding the lack of data, including sex, age, circumstances and location of bat capture and incomplete and outdated species identification. Results of genetic and antigenic studies performed on Brazilian rabies positive bats were shown.Esse artigo apresenta uma lista atualizada de espécies positivas para raiva no Brasil e foi desenvolvida a partir da base de dados na internet da literatura nacional, internacional e dos anais das mais importantes reuniões técnicas e científicas, envolvendo raiva e morcegos no Brasil durante o período de 1996 a 2009. A nova lista de morcegos positivos para raiva consiste de 41 espécies, pertencentes a 25 gêneros e três famílias: Phyllostomidae 43.9%, Vespertilionidae 29.3% e Molossidae 26.8%. Também foram discutidas questões como a falta de dados sobre sexo, faixa etária e circunstâncias de captura dos animais e identificação incompleta ou desatualizada das espécies. Resultados dos estudos genéticos e antigênicos realizados em amostras de morcegos brasileiros positivos para raiva foram apresentados.

  10. Estudios mastozoológicos colombianos, i chiroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga Bonilla, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the systematic and zoogeographical knowledge of the Colombian mammals. Three species of bats (Artibeus concolor, Chiroderma trinitatum gorgasi and Todarida laticaudata) are recorded by first time from this country Artibeus concolor (a species known up to date by three specimens recorded in the literature, two of them apparently lost) is redescribed on the bases of six specimens collected in the vicinity of Mitú, Vaupés, The species is closely related to the symp...

  11. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  12. High bat (Chiroptera) diversity in the Early Eocene of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham

    2007-12-01

    The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.

  13. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  14. Falco sparverius (Aves: Falconiformes preying upon Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.

  15. Karyotype of three Lonchophylla species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Brunna; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Aguieiras,Marcia; Souza, Renan de França; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Geise,Lena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lonchophylla Thomas, 1903 is a Neotropical bat genus that comprises 12 species, with little cytogenetic information available. Here we present the description of the karyotype of three species collected in Southeastern Brazil. Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983, and Lonchophylla peracchii Dias, Moratelli & Esberard, 2013 showed the same diploid number 2n = 28 and the same autosomal fundamental number FNa = 50,...

  16. A new species of Lonchophylla Thomas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja V., L.; Gardner, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.

  17. Karyotype of three Lonchophylla species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Brunna; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Aguieiras, Marcia; Souza, Renan de França; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Geise, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Lonchophylla Thomas, 1903 is a Neotropical bat genus that comprises 12 species, with little cytogenetic information available. Here we present the description of the karyotype of three species collected in Southeastern Brazil. Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983, and Lonchophylla peracchii Dias, Moratelli & Esberard, 2013 showed the same diploid number 2n = 28 and the same autosomal fundamental number FNa = 50, in both Lonchophylla bokermanni and Lonchophylla peracchii. We observed that the karyotypes were also cytogenetically similar when we compared the studied species with other species within the same genus. It is therefore not possible to differentiate the species using only karyotypes with conventional staining. However, this information increases the knowledge of the genus and can be one more important character for a better phylogenetic comprehension of this taxon. PMID:27186341

  18. A key to the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    C. Srinivasulu; Racey, Paul A.; Shahroukh Mistry

    2010-01-01

    A checklist and dichotomous key to 128 species of bats known from South Asia including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives is provided. Character matrices for families, genera and species are also included. This article also briefly reviews their distribution (both physiographic and country-wise), status and main identification characters

  19. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  20. [Key morphofunctional transformations in the evolution of chiropterans (Bats, Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, I M

    2014-01-01

    Study on the morphology and morphogenesis of wing membranes in Bats has revealed some peculiarities in their structure and development. Understanding the embryogenesis of these animals, as well as attraction of data obtained on their molecular genetics and paleontology, allows one to single out some factors that could have initiated evolutionary modifications in development programs. A scenario of the key morphofunctional transformations in the forelimbs during the evolution of chiropterans is given.

  1. Two new records of Chiroptera in Guangdong Province%广东省蝙蝠(Chiroptera)二新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 彭洪源

    2005-01-01

    我们于2002年5月5日在广东省和平县、2003年5月20日在广东省肇庆鼎湖山,采集到一批蝙蝠标本,其中三叶小蹄蝠Aselliscus stoliczkanus和金管鼻蝠Murina aurala为广东省新记录,报道如下。

  2. Parasite diversity of European Myotis species with special emphasis on Myotis myotis (Microchiroptera, Vespertilionidae) from a typical nursery roost

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Raphael; Kuhn, Thomas; Werblow, Antje; Liston, Andrew; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bats belong to one of the most species-rich orders within the Mammalia. They show a worldwide distribution, a high degree of ecological diversification as well as a high diversity of associated parasites and pathogens. Despite their prominent and unique role, the knowledge of their parasite-host-relationships as well as the mechanisms of co-evolutionary processes are, partly due to strict conservation regulations, scarce. Methods: Juvenile specimens of the greater mouse-eared b...

  3. Molecular Phylogeny of Hantaviruses Harbored by Insectivorous Bats in Côte d’Ivoire and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Hun Gu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera, captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981–2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona (family Hipposideridae, captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus (family Vespertilionidae, captured in Côte d’Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins.

  4. 东亚水鼠耳蝠形态描述与分类%MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION AND TAXONOMICAL STATUS OF MYOTIS PETAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 江廷磊; 孙克萍; 王应祥; Tiunov,M.P.; 冯江

    2010-01-01

    水鼠耳蝠 Myotis daubentonii(Chiroptera,Vespertilionidae),广泛分布于欧洲和亚洲,亚种分化众多,在亚洲已报道有 M.d.ussuriensis,M.d.loukashkini,M.d.petax和M.d.laniger但其分类地位一直受到国内外学者的关注.中国的水鼠耳蝠长期以来被认为属于水鼠耳蝠M daubentonii亚种.最近有研究认为中国的水鼠耳蝠与欧洲的水鼠耳蝠M.daubentonii不同,并把"petax"提升为种.在中国境内相继采到17只鼠耳蝠标本,根据外形、头骨、牙齿、阴茎骨、线粒体DNA细胞色素b等特征,鉴定为东亚水鼠耳蝠Myotis petax,对中国水鼠耳蝠的种和亚种分类做一讨论.

  5. [Using inter-SINE-PCR to study mammalian phylogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, A A; Matveev, V A; Kramerov, D A

    2002-06-01

    Results of the use of the fingerprinting method related to short interspersed elements (SINEs), inter-SINE-PCR, in the study of phylogenetic and taxonomic relationship in mammals from orders Chiroptera (family Vespertilionidae) and Lipotyphla (family Erinaceidae) are reported. The inter-SINE-PCR method is based on the amplification of fragments situated between copies of SINEs, which are short retroposons spaced 100 to 1000 bp apart. Specifically selected primers were used, which are complementary to consensus sequences of two short retroposons: the mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR), which is typical of all mammals and some other vertebrates, was used in the cases of bats and Erinaceidae, and the ERI-1 element recently isolated from the genome of the Daurian hedgehog was used in the case of Erinaceidae. The results support the current view on phylogenetic relationship between hedgehogs belonging to genera Erinaceus, Hemiechinus, and Paraechinus (but not the genus Atelerix). In bats, the phylogenetic reconstruction revealed a statistically valid topology only at lower taxonomic levels, whereas the topology for the genus and supragenus ranks was unresolved and fan-shaped. The benefits and limitations of the inter-SINE-PCR method are discussed. PMID:12138785

  6. Ocorrência de Chiroderma doriae Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Estado de Sergipe, Brasil Occurence of Chiroderma doriae Thomas, (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in Sergipe State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson S. Mikalauskas; Ricardo Moratelli; Adriano L. Peracchi

    2006-01-01

    O registro de Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 no nordeste do Brasil é aqui relatado baseado em um espécime macho adulto coletado durante inventário da quirópterofauna da Estação Ecológica Serra de Itabaiana, Estado de Sergipe.The occurrence of Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 in northeastern Brazil is reported here based on an adult male caught in mist net during a chiropteran survey at the Estação Ecológica Serra da Itabaiana, a fragment of Atlantic Forest in State of Sergipe.

  7. Morcegos do Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Serra da Tiririca State Parke Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Ceppas Teixeira; Adriano L. Peracchi

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary survey of bats species from the Serra da Tiririca State Park is presented. Two hundred and seventy two bats of 20 species were collected. Comments about reproduction and feeding habits of the captured species are included.

  8. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  9. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Dias; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi; Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856); Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842); Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856); Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838); Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767); Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823); Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mor...

  10. Frugivoria em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil Frugivory in bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera at the Intervales State Park, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Passos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.

  11. Morcegos (Chiroptera da área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bats (Chiroptera of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.

  12. Frugivoria em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil Frugivory in bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) at the Intervales State Park, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando C. Passos; Wesley R. Silva; Wagner A. Pedro; Marcela R. Bonin

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2%) were frugivorous. The total number of ...

  13. Isolation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from Brain Tissues of Bat in Yunnan Province%从云南省蝙蝠脑组织中分离出乙型脑炎病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海林; 张云智; 黄文丽; 米竹青; 龚鹤琴; 王静林

    2001-01-01

    In July 1997, a strain (GB30) of virus was isolated from 60 samples of brain tissues of Murina aurata (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) co llec ted in Gengma county, Yunnan province, China. Isolation of virus was negative fr om 4 samples of brain tissues of Rousettus leschenaulti (Chiroptera: Pteropo did ae) collected in Gengma. GB30 virus strain could regularly cause illness and dea th in suckling mice, produced evident CPE in BHK21 cells. It agglutinated red b lood cells of dove at pH5.75~7.4. This virus has been identified serologically by hemagglutination inhibition and immunofluorescent tests using Japanese enceph alitis (JE), dengue (DEN) type 1,2,3,4, and chikungunya (CHIK) viruses monoclona l antibodies, and JE and sindbis (SIN) viruses immune sera. It showed specific r eaction to JE virus only and no reaction with DEN 1~4, CHIK and SIN viruses. Th erefore it can be identified as JE virus. This is the first report on the isolat ion of JE virus from Murina aurata. The results showed that bats are conside red as the reservoir and amplifier host of JE virus transmission in nature.%为进一步阐明蝙蝠在保存乙脑病毒中的作用,于1997年7月,在云南省耿马 县捕捉蝙蝠64只,取脑组织作病毒分离,从一只金管鼻蝠脑组织中分离出1株病毒。该毒株 能引起BHK21细胞病变和乳鼠发病死亡,在pH5.75~7.4时能凝集鸽红血球,经用单克隆抗 体血凝抑制和免疫荧光试验鉴定,证实为乙型脑炎病毒。进一步证明蝙蝠在乙型脑炎病毒保 存和扩散中具有重要作用。从金管鼻蝠体内分离出乙型脑炎病毒属国内外首次报道。

  14. 大足鼠耳蝠的翼型和回声定位声波特征%The wing shape and echolocation calls of Ricketti's big-footed bat(Myotis ricketti)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建平; 周善义; 谭敏; 洪体玉; 朱光剑; 张礼标

    2009-01-01

    From September to November 2007, we recorded and analyzed the echolocation calls of Ricketti' s big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti) , in call-recording cages using BatSound software. We also calculated measurements of wing shape for these bats. We compared the parameters of echolocation calls and wing shape between males and females. The results showed that only the interpulse interval was significantly different between males (68.49 ± 10. 99 ms) and females (83. 61±13. 77 ms) (t-test: t=-2.72, P <0. 01), while the pulse duration (male: 4. 28 ±0. 34 ms, female: 4. 64 ± 0. 97 ms) , the dominant frequency (40. 31±1. 36 kHz, 40. 20±1. 32 kHz ), the max frequency (72. 40 ±2. 37 kHz, 72. 20 ±2. 66 kHz), the min frequency (29. 00 ±1. 16 kHz, 28. 60 ± 1. 58 kHz) ,and the measurements of wing shape were not significantly different between males and females. M. rwketti had average wing loading( male;8. 61±0. 72 N/m~2 , female: 8. 51 ± 0. 81 N/m~2) , high aspect ratio (7. 96± 0. 31, 8. 09± 0. 34) and high wing tip shape index (2. 93± 1. 09, 2.48 ±1.02).%@@ 大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti Thomas,1894)属翼手目(Chiroptera),蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae),鼠耳蝠属(Myotis).

  15. Random sampling of the Central European bat fauna reveals the existence of numerous hitherto unknown adenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovszky, Márton; Kohl, Claudia; Boldogh, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Harrach, Balázs

    2015-12-01

    From over 1250 extant species of the order Chiroptera, 25 and 28 are known to occur in Germany and Hungary, respectively. Close to 350 samples originating from 28 bat species (17 from Germany, 27 from Hungary) were screened for the presence of adenoviruses (AdVs) using a nested PCR that targets the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs. An additional PCR was designed and applied to amplify a fragment from the gene encoding the IVa2 protein of mastadenoviruses. All German samples originated from organs of bats found moribund or dead. The Hungarian samples were excrements collected from colonies of known bat species, throat or rectal swab samples, taken from live individuals that had been captured for faunistic surveys and migration studies, as well as internal organs of dead specimens. Overall, 51 samples (14.73%) were found positive. We detected 28 seemingly novel and six previously described bat AdVs by sequencing the PCR products. The positivity rate was the highest among the guano samples of bat colonies. In phylogeny reconstructions, the AdVs detected in bats clustered roughly, but not perfectly, according to the hosts' families (Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Phyllostomidae and Pteropodidae). In a few cases, identical sequences were derived from animals of closely related species. On the other hand, some bat species proved to harbour more than one type of AdV. The high prevalence of infection and the large number of chiropteran species worldwide make us hypothesise that hundreds of different yet unknown AdV types might circulate in bats. PMID:26599097

  16. Influence of reproduction on thermoregulation, food intake and foraging strategies of free-ranging female and male Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentonii (Vespertilionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Balancing the energy demand of reproduction in bats requires specific physiological and behavioural adaptations. Part of my thesis thus focussed on the use of daily torpor in M. daubentonii during colder ambient temperatures and reduced food availability, an aspect that strongly influences foetal development and probably also spermatogenesis but that has been little studied to date for free-ranging bats. This also applies for a detailed knowledge about food intake and foraging behaviour of fe...

  17. Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae) parasito intestinal de Carollia perspicillata L. (Chiroptera) en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Imelda Velez; Vernon Thatcher

    1990-01-01

    Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae) is described on the basis of specimens from the intestinal tracts of three Colombian bats of the species Carollia perspicillata L. The new species resembles both of the genera of the family, Nudacotyle and Neocotyle, in the general position of the organs and in having a vertical cleft. It differs from Nudacotyle in the position of the ovary and cirrus sac and in the lenth of the ceca. The new species differs from Neocotyle in the shape o...

  18. Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae parasito intestinal de Carollia perspicillata L. (Chiroptera en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Velez

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae is described on the basis of specimens from the intestinal tracts of three Colombian bats of the species Carollia perspicillata L. The new species resembles both of the genera of the family, Nudacotyle and Neocotyle, in the general position of the organs and in having a vertical cleft. It differs from Nudacotyle in the position of the ovary and cirrus sac and in the lenth of the ceca. The new species differs from Neocotyle in the shape of the body and the vitelline lobes and in the length of the ceca. The ventral cleft is considered to be an important generic character which can be used to unit all the species of both genera in the single genus, Nudacotyle.

  19. Population size and natural history of Mariana fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G.J.; Jonhson, N.C.

    2004-01-01

    Based on count results, we estimated the population of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands, to number 150-200 bats in 1999, 185-235 bats in 2000, and about 300-400 bats in 2001. Our results, plus those of two previous surveys, indicate that bat abundance on the island probably remained relatively stable at about 125-235 animals during much of the period from 1983 to 2000, then increased suddenly in 2001, most likely due to immigration from a neighboring island. Sarigan's population differs from those of larger islands in the archipelago by usually having smaller roost sizes, typically 3-75 bats, and large numbers of solitary bats that at times comprise up to half of the population. Colonies and smaller aggregations were composed primarily of harems with multiple females, whereas a nearly equal sex ratio occurred among solitary animals. Colonies roosted in isolated coconut trees in open grasslands and in native forest stands of various sizes, but avoided dense coconut forest. An estimated 30-50% of harem and solitary females possessed young in July 1999. Bats were recorded feeding on just six species of plants, which partly reflects the island's impoverished flora. We speculate that fruit bat abundance on Sarigan is limited primarily by food availability rather than hunting losses, in contrast to some other islands in the Marianas. Our study supports the contention that populations of P. mariannus in the northern Marianas are usually sedentary, but that interisland movements of larger numbers of bats may occur rarely. ?? 2004 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  20. 中国翼手目研究进展%Recent Researches on Chiroptera in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琴; 齐敦武; 胡锦矗

    2004-01-01

    蝙蝠在中国的种类丰富,共有7科30属120种.本文主要从蝙蝠种类、生态学、生理和生化、遗传学和分子生物学5个方面对中国翼手目的研究现状和进展作了论述,分析了存在的问题,并对研究方向进行了展望.

  1. Infestation of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) on Molossus molossus (Chiroptera) in Southestern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Esbérard

    2001-01-01

    The infestation of Rhynchopsyllus pulex on the bat Molossus molossus was observed using mist-nets opened between constructions in the Primatological Center, in Guapimirim, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  2. A taxonomic revision of the Yasuni Round-eared bat, Lophostoma yasuni (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, M Alejandra; Chávez, Daniel; Burneo, Santiago F

    2016-01-01

    The Yasuni Round-eared bat, Lophostoma yasuni, was described in 2004 by morphological analysis of the holotype, the only specimen attributed to this taxon to date. A molecular analysis using cytochrome-b sequences and a new morpholo-gical analysis that includes the holotype of L. yasuni and two specimens of L. carrikeri from near the type locality of L. yasuni were carried out. The new molecular and morphological evidence places L. yasuni within the clade of L. carrikeri. We propose that L. yasuni should therefore be considered as a synonym of L. carrikeri. An emended diagnosis for L. carrikeri extending ranges of craniodental measurements for this species is presented. PMID:27395128

  3. Aspects of ecomorphology in the five European horseshoe bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in the area of sympatry

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Several ecomorphological aspects in the European horseshoe bats were studied. The analysis of the data allows to draw some conclusions about possible niche separating parameters. The thesis consists of seven parts, details can be found in the abstracts of each chapter. Verschiedene ökomorphologische Aspekte der europäischen Hufeisennasen-Fledermäuse wurden untersucht. Die Auswertung der Daten erlaubt Rückschlüsse auf mögliche Parameter, die eine Nischentrennung ermöglichen. Die Arbeit best...

  4. The effects of castration followed testosterone supplementation in prostatic complex of Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-06-01

    The prostatic complex (ventral and dorsal regions) of Artibeus planirostris exhibits seasonal variations throughout the year. Circulating testosterone was correlated with prostate weight, showing an increase from autumn to summer, with the highest peak in summer corresponding to the largest breeding season. This indicates that the level of serum testosterone influences variations in both testicular and prostatic weights. Serum testosterone levels seem to be closely related to the different responses of these glands throughout the year. The castration (consequent suppression of testosterone) and subsequent hormone supplementation may elucidate the relationship of these two glandular types with testosterone. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of castration and the testosterone supplementation in the male prostatic complex of A. planirostris. The results indicated that both prostatic regions were affected by the ablation of testosterone, presenting a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. Similarly, the prostate was responsive to hormonal supplementation, having a recovery of the active morphophysiological pattern with testosterone supplementation. However, data have shown that the ventral region was more sensitive to changes in testosterone than the dorsal, presenting greater cell renewal. PMID:27032910

  5. Frugivory by phyllostomid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a restored area in Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.

  6. A Close Relationship of Chiroptera with Eulipotyphla (Core Insectivora) Suggested by Four Mitochondrial Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Onuma, Michiko; Cao, Ying; Hasegawa, Masami; Kusakabe, Shinichi

    2000-01-01

    We sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes from three insectivoran species (Japanese mole, shrew mole and musk shrew) and one chiropteran species(Japanese pipistrelles) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene from a chiropteran species. The phylogenetic relationship of core Insectivora or Eulipotyphla among major Eutherian orders was examined for these genes. A total evaluation of the maximum likelihood analyses of the four genes suggests that Chiropt...

  7. A new species of Lophostoma d'Orbigny, 1836 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new species of Lophostoma from Panama, which we name L. kalkoae. This new species resembles L. carrikeri and L. yasuni in possessing a white venter, but is distinguishable from both by external and cranial characteristics. The new species is similar in size to L. carrikeri and L. schulzi. Lophostoma sp. nov. can be most easily recognized by its combination of white venter, postauricular patches connected by a thin line of pale hair to the white fur on the chest, elongated clitoris and swollen labia, less strongly developed lateral projection of mastoid processes, well-marked indentation on the lingual cingulum of the upper canine, well-developed P3, well-developed posterior lingual cusp on the cingulum of P4, and parastyle absent on M1 and M2. We present a dichotomous key for the genus Lophostoma and a map showing all the localities where white-bellied Lophostoma have been recorded.

  8. Habitat use and seasonal activity of insectivorous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the grasslands of southern Brazil

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    Marília A. S. Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of a Chinese rufous horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu

    2016-09-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen. PMID:25740216

  10. Systematics of Vampyressa melissa Thomas, 1926 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), with descriptions of two new species of Vampyressa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Valéria da C.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E.; Velazco, Paúl M.

    2014-01-01

    Vampyressa melissa is a poorly known phyllostomid bat listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Since its description in 1926, fewer than 40 V. melissa have been reported in the literature, and less than half of these may have been correctly identified. During revisionary studies of Vampyressa, we uncovered two previously unrecognized species related to V. melissa, all associated with higher elevation habitats (>1400 m), one from the Andes of Colombia (Vampyressa sinchi, new species) and the other from western Panama (Vampyressa elisabethae, new species) revealing that V. melissa, as traditionally defined, is a composite of at least three species. In this paper, we provide a restricted diagnosis for the genus Vampyressa, an emended diagnosis of V. melissa, and descriptions of the two new species. The separation of these frugivorous bats, previously identified as V. melissa, into three isolated upper-elevation species, each having restricted distributions further highlights their fragile conservation status.

  11. Mitochondrial genome of the black flying fox, Pteropus alecto (Chiroptera: Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the complete mitochondrial genome of black flying fox, Pteropus alecto, with the sequence length of 16,739 bp for the first time. The mitogenome contained a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. The base composition was A (33.1%), G (14.5%), C (27.2%) and T (25.2%), indicating that the percentage of A and T (58.3%) was higher than that of G and C. Most of these genes were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic information to study the evolution of bats. PMID:24438271

  12. Temporal variation in the organization of a Neotropical assemblage of leaf-nosed bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Mello, Marco Aurelio

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, I described the organization of a Neotropical bat assemblage, and tested whether this organization was variable in time. In an Atlantic Forest reserve in southeastern Brazil bats were captured monthly with mist nets over 4 years, and individuals were classified into guilds. I analyzed only leaf-nosed bats, and observed that guilds of fruit-eating bats dominated the assemblage. This pattern was repeated across months and years. However, among frugivores, canopy and understory guilds peaked during different months, but in both cases during the rainy season, while variation among habitat-opportunistic species was not explained by rainfall. The most reliable ecological service delivered by phyllostomid bats in the area is seed dispersal, although other services may be also important in particular seasons. My results suggest that the observed patterns of temporal species turnover are related to the abundance of preferred food items.

  13. 我国蝙蝠研究近况%Recent researches on chiroptera in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁子安; 李远香

    2005-01-01

    中国蝙蝠共有7科30属120种.通过对区系分类、生态、回声定位、核型分析、生理生化、蝙蝠携带的寄生虫和病毒六个方面的综述,分析了存在的问题,提出了保护对策,并对研究方向进行了展望.

  14. Karyotypic analyses of twenty-one species of molossid bats (Molossidae: Chiroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J.W.; Patton, J.L.; Gardner, A.L.; Baker, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of 135 specimens representing 21 species from seven genera of the family Molossidae revealed diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 48. Seventeen species from six genera have diploid numbers of 48. Geographic variation and polymorphism were found only in Eumops glaucinus. Chromosomal variation within the family is presumed to be primarily due to changes in diploid number resulting from Robertsonian translocations.

  15. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) from Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lifen; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We present a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus from Central China and provide its annotation, as well as showed the phylogenetic relationship and mitogenomic variation with other published mitochondrial genomes of congeneric bat species. Our results revealed a relatively high mitogenomic variation between two R. s. sinucus from Central and East China, which is similar to interspecific divergence level. PMID:26057010

  16. Emended diagnosis of Xeronycteris vieirai (Mammalia: Chiroptera, with the first record of polyodontia for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. Nogueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Caatinga-endemic nectar-feeding bat, Xeronycteris vieirai Gregorin & Ditchfield, 2005 was described based on four specimens. Since then, only two additional specimens have been reported in the literature. Examination of a new specimen that closely agrees with the original description but presents two additional upper premolars, led us to review the type series of this taxon. Our analysis provided support to the recognition of the new specimen as a X. vieirai with supernumerary teeth and revealed new diagnostic characters that can help in the field identification of this species. Xeronycteris vieirai presents tricolored dorsal fur, entirely naked forearm, connection of the base of the spear of the noseleaf with the upper limit of the horseshoe with a marked ridge, and chin with simple dermal pads and a relatively slight cleft. Additional new characters described here include anterior zygomatic arches reduced and not extending laterally and upward with respect to upper toothrow, basioccipital pits deep and separated by a high and thin bone septum, and mandible with a pronounced ridge at anterior symphysis. We propose an emended diagnosis based on morphological characters and provide a rectification on the original notation related to the holotype.

  17. Evolution of nectarivory in phyllostomid bats (Phyllostomidae Gray, 1825, Chiroptera: Mammalia)

    OpenAIRE

    von Helversen Otto; Datzmann Thomas; Mayer Frieder

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional ...

  18. Evolution of nectarivory in phyllostomid bats (Phyllostomidae Gray, 1825, Chiroptera: Mammalia

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    von Helversen Otto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional specialization. Nevertheless, the evolution of nectarivory remained equivocal. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on a concatenated nuclear-and mitochondrial data set, revealed a paraphyletic relationship of nectarivorous phyllostomid bats. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the nectarivorous genera Lonchophylla and Lionycteris are closer related to mainly frugivorous phyllostomids of the subfamilies Rhinophyllinae, Stenodermatinae, Carolliinae, and the insectivorous Glyphonycterinae rather than to nectarivorous bats of the Glossophaginae. This suggests an independent origin of morphological adaptations to a nectarivorous lifestyle within Lonchophyllinae and Glossophaginae. Molecular clock analysis revealed a relatively short time frame of about ten million years for the divergence of subfamilies. Conclusions Our study provides strong support for diphyly of nectarivorous phyllostomids. This is remarkable, since their morphological adaptations to nutrition, like elongated rostrums and tongues, reduced teeth and the ability to use hovering flight while ingestion, closely resemble each other. However, more precise examinations of their tongues (e.g. type and structure of papillae and muscular innervation revealed levels of difference in line with an independent evolution of nectarivory in these bats.

  19. Habitat use and movements of Glossophaga soricina and Lonchophylla dekeyseri (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in a Neotropical savannah

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmilla M.S. Aguiar; Enrico Bernard; Machado, Ricardo B.

    2014-01-01

    The greatest current threat to terrestrial fauna is continuous and severe landscape modification that destroys and degrades animal habitats. This rapid and severe modification has threatened species, local biological communities, and the ecological services that they provide, such as seed dispersal, insect predation, and pollination. Bats are important pollinators of the Cerrado (woodland savanna) because of their role in the life cycles of many plant species. However, there is little informa...

  20. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (chiroptera: myzopodidae) endemic to madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...

  1. Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae

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    Tatiana C. Pesenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

  2. Effects of moonlight on the capturability of frugivorous phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae at different time scales

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    Marco A. R. Mello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some bat species seem to be lunar phobic, i.e., they avoid flying in bright areas or during bright periods of the night; however, the evidence is still controversial. We think that part of this controversy comes from pooling data on bat captures and moonlight intensity according to broad categories, such as moon phases, which conceal the high variability among nights. Therefore, we used detailed, long-term field data on three phyllostomid bat species, in order to test the hypothesis of lunar phobia at two different time scales: 1 among nights, by pooling data of different nights according to moon phases and testing for differences in the distribution of captures; and 2 within a night, by analyzing the relationship between capturability and moonlight intensity (measured as illuminance in one-hour intervals for 29 individual nights. Although most captures of the studied bat species occurred in the first half of the night, their activity pattern varied largely among nights, and was not always unimodal as commonly assumed. At the larger time scale, all studied bat species showed evidence of lunar phobia, as they were more frequently captured on dark moon phases. Nevertheless, at the smaller time scale, only Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 was less frequently captured on brighter periods of the night. We propose that the unimodal activity pattern assumed for frugivorous phyllostomid bats may be an artifact of data organization, and that activity and lunar phobia are much more variable than previously assumed.

  3. Microsatellites loci reveal heterozygosis and population structure in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Nava, Claudia; León-Paniagua, Livia; Ortega, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmous rotundus) in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting) and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North) to Quintana Roo (Southeast). Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise (ST) and R(ST) detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site. PMID:25102648

  4. Behavior of an albino vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Uieda

    2001-01-01

    Albinism in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffrey, 1810) was already reported for seven individuals, six of them did in Brazil. Although this species is relatively easy to keep in captivity and many studies with normally pigmented bats were did under laboratory conditions, no reports on detailed observations of captive albino vampire bats were found in literature. This paper reports some behavioral observation of a single albino female D. rotundus kept in captivity in Brazil b...

  5. A new genus and species of false vampire (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae) from peninsular Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soisook, Pipat; Prajakjitr, Amorn; Karapan, Sunate; Francis, Charles M; Bates, Paul J J

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and associated species of false vampire, family Megadermatidae, are described based on three specimens from Bala Forest, Narathiwat Province, peninsular Thailand. The new taxon is characterised by a unique combination of distinctive dental, cranial, and external characters, some of which are shared with exclusively African genera and some with Asian genera. These characters are comparable to, or exceed in number, those differentiating currently recognised genera in the family Megadermatidae. They include the absence of a first upper premolar; greatly enlarged upper canine without an anterolingual cingular cusp but with a robust posterolingual cusp; unmodified upper first molar with the preparacrista subequal in length to the postmetacrista, the metastyle not reduced and situated labially; robust lower canine without an anterolingual cusp; the first lower premolar enlarged, equal to or larger than the second lower premolar. In the skull, there is a pronounced rostral depression but no well developed frontal shield with preorbital and/or postorbital processes; the coronoid process is greatly enlarged in each half mandible. Externally, the body size is relatively large and the posterior noseleaf is rounded. The baculum has a robust shaft and two short prongs-the bacula of all five other species of megadermatid are illustrated for the first time; extraordinarily, those of Macroderma gigas and Megaderma lyra comprise two separate bones. DNA barcoding indicate a genetic divergence of about 20 percent (sequence divergence in the mitochondrial gene CO1) between the new genus and species of Megaderma and Cardioderma. Currently, despite numerous bat surveys in peninsular Thailand, the new genus is only known from Bala Forest. The small area of this forest and the very low capture rate suggest that the new species may be extremely rare. Its natural history is little known, although its robust dental and cranial features when coupled with chance observations of its feeding behaviour, suggest it may specialise in eating large beetles. Its conservation status is considered to be at risk owing to the rapid loss of forest habitat in much of the Thai-Malay peninsula. PMID:25781844

  6. Records of seven small mammal species (Insectivora, Chiroptera new to the Kruger National Park

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    I. L Rautenbach

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available On a recent collecting expedition in the Kruger National Park, the occurrence of seven species of small mammals (one shrew and six bats within the confines of this sanctuary was confirmed for the first time. One species (Pipistrellus rusticus is reported for the first time from within the borders of the Transvaal, whereas another species (Myotis bocagei is reported for the first time for the Republic of South Africa. The seven species are briefly discussed and the collections where the specimens have been accessioned are indicated.

  7. Biogeographical karyotypic variation of Rhinophylla fischerae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae suggests the occurrence of cryptic species

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    A Gomes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhinophylla Peters, 1865 (Carolliinae: Phyllostomidae comprises three species: R. pumilio Peters, 1865, R. fischerae Carter, 1966 and R. alethina Handley, 1966. Only the first two species have been cytogenetically studied to date. Previous studies on specimens of Rhinophylla fischerae from two populations from East of Andes (Colombia showed the karyotype with 2n=34 and FN=56. In this paper, we report the results of cytogenetic analysis of six specimens of Rhinophylla fischerae from Brazil. Probably chromosomal differences can be found among the populations because of the geographic distance. Metaphase chromosomes were obtained in the field by direct extraction of bone marrow. The metaphases were analyzed by conventional staining, G- and C-banding, NOR-staining and FISH with telomeric probes. Rhinophylla fischerae has 2n=38 and Fundamental Number FN=68, with small amounts of constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes and the long arm of pair 16. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using telomeric probes did not show any interstitial sequences. Hybridization with human 18S and 28S rDNA probes and silver staining revealed the presence of Nucleolar Organizer Regions at the long arms of pairs 16 and 18. The pattern of G-banding showed that this population had a huge chromosome variation compared with previous studies on specimens of Rhinophylla fischerae. The chromosomal differences among populations that have been morphologically classified as R. fischerae suggest that this species should be considered a cryptic species complex, and that the populations from different geographical regions analyzed to date should be considered species of this complex, where the chromosomal rearrangements had key importance.

  8. Population dynamics of the bat Dermanura tolteca (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in a tropical forest in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    José Luís García-García; Antonio Santos-Moreno; Arisbe Rodríguez-Alamilla

    2010-01-01

    The fruit-eating bat, Dermanura tolteca, has a broad geographic distribution in Mexico and it is a very important seed dispersal of Neotropical plants. Nonetheless, information on the biology of this bat species is scarce, especially with regard to demography. We studied some ecological aspects and population dynamics of D. tolteca from Southeastern Mexican State of Oaxaca. The study was conducted in a perennial tropical forest, over a period of 80 nights, a sampling effort of 73 200 mist-net...

  9. Temporal distribution of five bat species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Panga Reserve, south-eastern Brazil

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    Wagner A. Pedro

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Data about activity patterns, hourly and monthly, on five phyllostomid bats, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Camilla perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroyi, 1810, studied over a one year period at the Panga Ecological Reserve, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil, are reported and discussed.

  10. Genetic analysis on three South Indian sympatric hipposiderid bats (Chiroptera, Hipposideridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanagaraj, C; Marimuthu, G.; Emmanuvel Rajan, K.

    2010-01-01

    In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used...

  11. Temporal distribution of five bat species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Panga Reserve, south-eastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner A Pedro; Valdir A. Taddei

    2002-01-01

    Data about activity patterns, hourly and monthly, on five phyllostomid bats, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766), Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818), Camilla perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758), Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810) and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroyi, 1810), studied over a one year period at the Panga Ecological Reserve, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil, are reported and discussed.

  12. Notes on the lesser white-lined bat, Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae, from southeastern Brazil

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    Marcelo R. Nogueira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber, 1774 is reported from two new localities in southeastern Brazil, both in Atlantic forest remains in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Analysisof food material showed that individuals from both localities had preyedon insects in the order Hymenoptera. Cheek contents were available from one specimen, and in this case identification of the food item (flying ants achieved generic level (Pheidole Westwood, 1841. Aspects in the social behavior observed in a colony suggest that the same traits documented in Central American populations (small colonies, monogamic mating system, and retention of young for up to a year in the parental unit may also characterize this species in the southern most part of its range. In both external and craniodental selected measurements, specimens from Rio de Janeiro were close to the upper limits of the ranges known for the species.

  13. Observations on the North African serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus isabellinus (Temminck, 1840) (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, D.L.

    1963-01-01

    Eptesicus isabellinus was originally described as Vespertilio isabellinus by Temminck (1840, p. 205, pl. 52 figs. 1, 2) from a series of specimens obtained by J. F. H. Clifford Cocq van Breugel in the vicinity of Tripoli, Libya. Unfortunately Temminck's original description did not include any crani

  14. Absent or low rate of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of bats (Chiroptera.

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    Irmgard Amrein

    Full Text Available Bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3D-space. Even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. Adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning, as indicated by lesion studies and recordings of neurons active during spatial behavior. Assuming a role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function, one might expect high levels of adult neurogenesis in bats, particularly among fruit- and nectar-eating bats in need of excellent spatial working memory. The dentate gyrus of 12 tropical bat species was examined immunohistochemically, using multiple antibodies against proteins specific for proliferating cells (Ki-67, MCM2, and migrating and differentiating neurons (Doublecortin, NeuroD. Our data show a complete lack of hippocampal neurogenesis in nine of the species (Glossophaga soricina, Carollia perspicillata, Phyllostomus discolor, Nycteris macrotis, Nycteris thebaica, Hipposideros cyclops, Neoromicia rendalli, Pipistrellus guineensis, and Scotophilus leucogaster, while it was present at low levels in three species (Chaerephon pumila, Mops condylurus and Hipposideros caffer. Although not all antigens were recognized in all species, proliferation activity in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream was found in all species, confirming the appropriateness of our methods for detecting neurogenesis. The small variation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis within our sample of bats showed no indication of a correlation with phylogenetic relationship, foraging strategy, type of hunting habitat or diet. Our data indicate that the widely accepted notion of adult neurogenesis supporting spatial abilities needs to be considered carefully. Given their astonishing longevity, certain bat species may be useful subjects to compare adult neurogenesis with other long-living species, such as monkeys and humans, showing low rates of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  15. Habitat use and movements of Glossophaga soricina and Lonchophylla dekeyseri (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in a Neotropical savannah

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    Ludmilla M.S. Aguiar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The greatest current threat to terrestrial fauna is continuous and severe landscape modification that destroys and degrades animal habitats. This rapid and severe modification has threatened species, local biological communities, and the ecological services that they provide, such as seed dispersal, insect predation, and pollination. Bats are important pollinators of the Cerrado (woodland savanna because of their role in the life cycles of many plant species. However, there is little information about how these bat species are being affected by habitat loss and fragmentation. We used radio-tracking to estimate the home ranges of Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1776 and Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983. The home range of G. soricina varies from 430 to 890 ha. They combine shortrange flights of up to 500 m to nearby areas with longer flights of 2 to 3 km that take them away from their core areas. The maximum flight distance tracked for L. dekeyseri was 3.8 km, and its home range varies from 564 to 640 ha. The average distance travelled by this species was 1.3 km. Our data suggest that G. soricina and L. dekeyseri are able to explore the fragmented landscape of the Central Brazilian Cerrado and that they are likely to survive in the short- to medium-term. The natural dispersal ability of these two species may enable them to compensate for continued human disturbance in the region.

  16. Systematics of the Platyrrhinus helleri species complex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), with descriptions of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Patterson, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Platyrrhinus is a diverse genus of small to large phyllostomid bats characterized by a comparatively narrow uropatagium thickly fringed with hair, a white dorsal stripe, comparatively large inner upper incisors that are convergent at the tips, and three upper and three lower molars. Eighteen species are currently recognized, the majority occurring in the Andes. Molecular, morphological, and morphometric analyses of specimens formerly identified as Platyrrhinus helleri support recognition of Platyrrhinus incarum as a separate species and reveal the presence of two species from western and northern South America that we describe herein as new (Platyrrhinus angustirostris sp. nov. from eastern Colombia and Ecuador, north-eastern Peru, and Venezuela and Platyrrhinus fusciventris sp. nov. from Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago, northern Brazil, eastern Ecuador, and southern Venezuela). These two new species are sister taxa and, in turn, sister to Platyrrhinus incarum.

  17. Phenotypic convergence in genetically distinct lineages of a Rhinolophus species complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera.

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    David S Jacobs

    Full Text Available Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes.

  18. A new species of Torrestrongylus (Trichostrongylidae, Anoplostrongylinae) from Macrotus waterhousii (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Galindo-García, María Guadalupe; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín

    2015-01-01

    A new species of nematode, Torrestrongylus tetradorsalis n. sp., is described herein, based on specimens recovered from the small intestine of the leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus waterhousii, from the Biosphere Reserve “Sierra de Huautla” in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The new species is included in Torrestrongylus because it features a bursa of the type 3 – 2, a divided cephalic vesicle with an anterior half in the shape of an umbrella, and a posterior widened half. The new species can be distinguished from the only other congener T. torrei Pérez-Vigueras, 1935 by four key features: first, by the absence of cervical alae in both males and females; second, by the relatively longer second half of the cephalic cap; third, by the configuration of the dorsal ray, that does not have a medial terminal ray, and finally, by the structure of the spicules. This is the second species in the genus, previously known from bats of the families Phyllostomidae and Molossidae in Cuba, and now in Mexico. PMID:26514594

  19. A Study on the Breeding Biology of Some Bat Species in Turkey (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDEMİR, Nursel AŞAN; ALBAYRAK, İrfan

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on the records of gestation and lactation periods of 17 bat species (Rousettus aegyptiacus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, R. blasii, Myotis myotis, M. blythii, M. emarginatus, M. nattereri, M. mystacinus, M. capaccinii, Eptesicus serotinus, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, P. savii, Plecotus auritus, and Miniopterus schreibersii) caught from various localities in Turkey and of the development stages of embryos belonging to Myotis species. It ...

  20. The Adamello-Brenta Natural Park bat community (Mammalia, Chiroptera): distribution and population status

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Chirichella; Sabrina Mattiroli; Mosè Nodari; Damiano Preatoni; Lucas Wauters; Guido Tosi; Adriano Martinoli

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Bats were censused in the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park (Trentino, central Italian Alps) in May-September 1999 and 2000, by mist-netting and roost surveys. In all, 90 sites (19 caves, 50 buildings and 21 foraging sites), over an area of about 618 km², were checked. The bat species distribution in both the Park and the surrounding areas was obtained by using field data, museum records and literature information. A total of 19 species was recorded:...

  1. The Adamello-Brenta Natural Park bat community (Mammalia, Chiroptera: distribution and population status

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    Roberta Chirichella

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bats were censused in the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park (Trentino, central Italian Alps in May-September 1999 and 2000, by mist-netting and roost surveys. In all, 90 sites (19 caves, 50 buildings and 21 foraging sites, over an area of about 618 km², were checked. The bat species distribution in both the Park and the surrounding areas was obtained by using field data, museum records and literature information. A total of 19 species was recorded: of these, one (Myotis bechsteinii was known from a museum collection and 18 were recorded in the field (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, Myotis blythii, M. daubentonii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus, M. nattereri, Pipistrellus kuhlii, P. nathusii, P. pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus nilssonii, E. serotinus, Vespertilio murinus, Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus alpinus, P. auritus. Local distribution, habitat use and body size parameters of the species were studied, and selection of roosts and foraging sites by the bat community was analysed with logistic regression. The conservation status of the bat community is also discussed. We document the third record of breeding by Pipistrellus nathusii and the fourth Eptesicus (Amblyotus nilssonii nursery in Italy, as well as the first roosting sites of the recently described Plecotus alpinus. Riassunto Comunità di Chirotteri e status delle popolazioni nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (Trentino-Alto Adige Vengono presentati i risultati di una serie di monitoraggi, effettuati con tecniche differenti (principalmente catture con reti mist-net ed esplorazione dei siti di rifugio dal 1999 al 2000. Tali indagini hanno permesso di raccogliere dati originali sulla distribuzione e sullo status della chirotterofauna, ai quali sono state affiancate ulteriori informazioni derivanti dalla letteratura recente e da studi di collezioni museali, al fine di definire un quadro di sintesi aggiornato ed esaustivo della distribuzione dei Chirotteri nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (Trentino-Alto Adige. Complessivamente sono stati esaminati distribuzione e status di 19 specie tra cui 18 (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, Myotis blythii, M. daubentonii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus, M. nattereri, Pipistrellus kuhlii, P. nathusii, P. pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus nilssonii, E. serotinus, Vespertilio murinus, Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus alpinus, P. auritus rilevate direttamente mediante il monitoraggio di 90 siti (19 grotte, 50 edifici e 21 stazioni di cattura in campo aperto rappresentativi di una superficie complessiva di circa 618 km², ed una, Myotis bechsteinii, rilevata da informazioni derivanti da collezioni museali. Vengono presentate informazioni concernenti il quadro distributivo locale, la selezione dell'habitat ed alcuni parametri biometrici per la comunità di chirotteri del Parco. Vengono inoltre esposte considerazioni su status e conservazione delle specie nell'area esaminata. In aggiunta, vengono riportate: la terza segnalazione per l'Italia di riproduzione di Pipistrellus nathusii, la quarta colonia riproduttiva nota per l'Italia di Eptesicus (Amblyotus nilssonii e la prima segnalazione di colonie della nuova specie Plecotus alpinus.

  2. Rhinolophoidea (Chiroptera, Mammalia) from the Upper Oligocene of Carrascosa del Campo (Central Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Paloma

    1990-01-01

    For the first time in Spain, an Oligocene bat fauna is described from thee alluvial locality of Carrascosa del Campo. Four species are present: two belong to Hipposideros (Pseudorhinolophus) another to Rhinolophus and a fourth one to Megadenna. Three new species are described : Hipposideros (Pseudorhinolophus) minor nov. sp., Hipposideros (Pseudorhinolophus) conquensis nov. sp. and Megaderma lopezae nov. sp .. Hipposideros (Ps.) minor nov. sp. is closely relaled to Hipposideros (P...

  3. The structure and dynamics of a rhinolophid bat community of Latium (Central Italy) (Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Pierangelo Crucitti; Marco Andreini; Roberto Morelli; Giovanni Rotella

    1998-01-01

    Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys) in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy) from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abu...

  4. The Bats of the Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    ALBAYRAK, İrfan

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out on 89 specimens representing 11 bat species, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, Myotis brandtii, M. bechsteinii, M. myotis, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Nyctalus leisleri, Plecotus auritus and Miniopterus schreibersii. The specimens were collected from the eastern Black Sea region between the 1992 and 1994. Some ecological features of the species and their localities are presented in this study.

  5. Rabies virus in Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco.

  6. Genetic analysis on three South Indian sympatric hipposiderid bats (Chiroptera, Hipposideridae

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    Kanagaraj, C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used haplotype sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis generated a tree with similar topology. H. fulvus and H. ater formed one cluster and H. speoris formed another cluster. Analysis of the demographic history of populations using Jajima’s D test revealed past changes in populations. Comparison of the observed distribution of pairwise differences in the nucleotides with expected sudden expansion model accepts for H. fulvus and H. ater but not for H. speoris populations.

  7. Komunitas Kelelawar (Ordo Chiroptera di Beberapa Gua Karst Gunung Kendeng Kabupaten Pati Jawa Tengah

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    Kamal Tamasuki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The existance of bats in cave type with diverge managerial system are influenced abundance and species bats. This research was conducted from January to June 2012 that counting abundance and to identify bats at Gunung Kendeng Karst Area Pati Central Java. The bats were collected by using mist net and stalk net at flying track surrounding cave’s mouth of Pancur Cave, Serut Cave, Bandung Cave, Pawon Cave, Larangan Cave and Gantung Cave. Bats abundance at Pancur Cave amount  ±  484 bats, Serut Cave amount ± 1233 bats, Bandung Cave amount ± 715 bats, Pawon Cave amount ± 392 bats, Larangan Cave ± 23 bats and Gantung Cave ± 5 bats. The six species were collected from this research, such as Cyanopterus horsfieldii, Hipposederos larvatus, Hipposideros bicolor, Rhinolophus affinis, Murina suilla dan Miniopterus australis. The analyst result is used Diversity Index of Shannon-Wiennner showed the highest diversity at Pancur Cave (H=0,35054 and the lowest at Gantung Cave (H=0,13633. Similarity index of shannon Evenness is showed the highest similarity at Pancur Cave (E=0,50572 and the lowest at Larangan Cave (E=0. Domination index of simpson is showed the highest domination at Pancur Cave (C=0,06805  and the lowest at Gantung Cave (C=0,00189. Hipposederos larvatus and Miniopterus australis are species that common and often founded during this research.

  8. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae.

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    Bin Shen

    Full Text Available Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.

  9. Una nueva especie colombiana del género diclidurus (mammalia: chiroptera): diclidurus ingens

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Camacho, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Hace algún tiempo el doctor Jorge Boshell Manrique capturó un ejemplar de murciélago del género Diclidurus cuyos caracteres indican que aparentemente corresponde a una especie previamente no descrita. Por primera vez se registra así la presencia de este género en Colombia, del cual se reconocen actualmente otras dos especies:  D. albus (1), cuya distribución conocida comprende las Guayanas y el Brasil (Estados de Amazonas, Baía y Espirito Santo), y D. virgo (2) repartida a través de Guatemala...

  10. Placentation in the Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica (Chiroptera: Nycteridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, A C; Jones, C J P; Taylor, P J;

    2009-01-01

    Bats are a highly successful, widely distributed group, with considerable variation in placental structure. The Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica is a member of one of the few families with previously undescribed placentation. It was found that, although the interhemal type of the Nycteris...... placenta is endotheliochorial with a single layer of cytotrophoblast, the arborizing pattern of the maternal vessels and especially the extraordinary major placental artery differs from the placenta of the emballonurid bats to which this family is considered to be most closely related. The major placental...... other bat species. The paraplacenta is extensive with abundant fetal vessels underlying cytotrophoblast and syncytial trophoblast layers, fronting on an endometrium that largely lacks uterine epithelial cells but has large decidual cells and is poorly vascularized. The placenta of Nycteris lacks...

  11. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  12. Streblidae (Diptera) on bats (Chiroptera) in an area of Atlantic Forest, state of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.

  13. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  14. The chiggerflea Hectopsylla pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae as an ectoparasite of free-tailed bats (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Lins Luz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and intensity of Hectopsylla pulex infection in Molossus rufus and Molossus molossus, the parasite's choice of attachment site, and whether this host-parasite system varies with host size. Twenty-four bats were captured by hand from the roof of a house in Southeastern Brazil. M. rufus exhibited a prevalence of 71.4% and the mean intensity averaged 5 ectoparasites per bat. M. molossus exhibited a prevalence of 90%, and the average mean intensity was 2.11 ectoparasites. The attachment sites were: ear, tragus, shoulder blade and tibia, anus, wing, axilla, mouth and dactylopatagium. A positive correlation was observed between the bats' weight and the number of fleas.

  15. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J

    2013-03-31

    There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans.

  16. Methods and insights from the characterization of osteoprogenitor cells of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, H C; Moussa, F M; Mbimba, T; Orman, R; Safadi, F F; Cooper, L N

    2016-07-01

    Osteoprogenitor cells contribute to the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Bats are unique model taxa whose cellular processes are poorly understood, especially in regards to skeletal biology. Forelimb bones of bats, unlike those of terrestrial mammals, bend during flight and function in controlled deformation. As a first step towards understanding the molecular processes governing deposition of this flexible bone matrix, we provide the first method for isolation and differentiation of cell populations derived from the bone marrow and cortical bone of bats, and compare results with those harvested from C57BL/6J mice. Osteogenic capacity of these cells was assessed via absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and through quantification of in vitro mineral deposition. Results indicate the differentiated bone cells of bats display significantly lower gene expression of known osteogenic markers (Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX2), osteocalcin (BGLAP) and osterix (SP7)), and deposit a less-mineralized matrix compared with murine controls. By characterizing the in vitro performance of osteoprogenitor cells throughout differentiation and matrix production, this study lays the ground work for in vitro manipulations of bat stem and osteoprogenitor cells and extends our understanding of the cellular diversity across mammals that occupy different habitats.

  17. Cloning and molecular evolution of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (Aldh2) in bats (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei

    2013-02-01

    Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.

  18. Bartonella species in bats (Chiroptera) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.

  19. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.

  20. The bats (Chiroptera; Mammalia of Mordovia: specific structure and features of distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Artaev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.

  1. Independent losses of visual perception genes Gja10 and Rbp3 in echolocating bats (Order: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Dai, Mengyao; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    A trade-off between the sensory modalities of vision and hearing is likely to have occurred in echolocating bats as the sophisticated mechanism of laryngeal echolocation requires considerable neural processing and has reduced the reliance of echolocating bats on vision for perceiving the environment. If such a trade-off exists, it is reasonable to hypothesize that some genes involved in visual function may have undergone relaxed selection or even functional loss in echolocating bats. The Gap junction protein, alpha 10 (Gja10, encoded by Gja10 gene) is expressed abundantly in mammal retinal horizontal cells and plays an important role in horizontal cell coupling. The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (Irbp, encoded by the Rbp3 gene) is mainly expressed in interphotoreceptor matrix and is known to be critical for normal functioning of the visual cycle. We sequenced Gja10 and Rbp3 genes in a taxonomically wide range of bats with divergent auditory characteristics (35 and 18 species for Gja10 and Rbp3, respectively). Both genes have became pseudogenes in species from the families Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae that emit constant frequency echolocation calls with Doppler shift compensation at high-duty-cycles (the most sophisticated form of biosonar known), and in some bat species that emit echolocation calls at low-duty-cycles. Our study thus provides further evidence for the hypothesis that a trade-off occurs at the genetic level between vision and echolocation in bats.

  2. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (Chiroptera: Myzopodidae) endemic to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-06-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of the endotheliomonochorial type. There was a single layer of trophoblast cells. The cells of the maternal endothelium were large and basophilic, contained abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and rested on an irregular basement membrane. Blunt projections of endometrium extended into the placental disk and clusters of large cells occurred between the endometrial stroma and labyrinth. At the margins of the disk folds of trophoblast occurred and at the cranial end they formed an haemophagous region. The folds lateral to the disk included some peculiar tubular-appearing structures. There was a persistent yolk sac containing large endodermal cells around a largely collapsed lumen. Several features of placentation, such as the interhaemal barrier and the haemophagous region, are consistent with an association of Myzopodidae with Emballonuridae. No support was found for alternative hypotheses that include Myzopodidae in the noctilionoid or vespertilionoid lineages. PMID:18374977

  3. Notes on some specimens of the genus Plecotus Geoffroy, 1818 (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Dulić, B.

    1963-01-01

    In 1912, MILLER united all the West European bats with very long ears joined across the forehead and with 36 teeth into one species, Plecotus auritus (LINNAEUS, 1758). By doing so he followed BLASIUS (1857), DOBSON (1878) and TROUESSART (1910). This situation, one species without subspecies, remaine

  4. Evolutionary relationships of the old world fruit bats (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae: Another star phylogeny?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini Norberto P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Pteropodidae comprises bats commonly known as megabats or Old World fruit bats. Molecular phylogenetic studies of pteropodids have provided considerable insight into intrafamilial relationships, but these studies have included only a fraction of the extant diversity (a maximum of 26 out of the 46 currently recognized genera and have failed to resolve deep relationships among internal clades. Here we readdress the systematics of pteropodids by applying a strategy to try to resolve ancient relationships within Pteropodidae, while providing further insight into subgroup membership, by 1 increasing the taxonomic sample to 42 genera; 2 increasing the number of characters (to >8,000 bp and nuclear genomic representation; 3 minimizing missing data; 4 controlling for sequence bias; and 5 using appropriate data partitioning and models of sequence evolution. Results Our analyses recovered six principal clades and one additional independent lineage (consisting of a single genus within Pteropodidae. Reciprocal monophyly of these groups was highly supported and generally congruent among the different methods and datasets used. Likewise, most relationships within these principal clades were well resolved and statistically supported. Relationships among the 7 principal groups, however, were poorly supported in all analyses. This result could not be explained by any detectable systematic bias in the data or incongruence among loci. The SOWH test confirmed that basal branches' lengths were not different from zero, which points to closely-spaced cladogenesis as the most likely explanation for the poor resolution of the deep pteropodid relationships. Simulations suggest that an increase in the amount of sequence data is likely to solve this problem. Conclusions The phylogenetic hypothesis generated here provides a robust framework for a revised cladistic classification of Pteropodidae into subfamilies and tribes and will greatly contribute to the understanding of character evolution and biogeography of pteropodids. The inability of our data to resolve the deepest relationships of the major pteropodid lineages suggests an explosive diversification soon after origin of the crown pteropodids. Several characteristics of pteropodids are consistent with this conclusion, including high species diversity, great morphological diversity, and presence of key innovations in relation to their sister group.

  5. On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig

    1999-01-01

    The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...

  6. Echolocation calls of Myotis frater (Chiroptera: Hipposi- deridae) during search flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Echolocation calls of Myotis frater emitted during the search phase consist of brief frequency-modulated pulses. The sound signals are comprised of three harmonics of which the first one is of the highest intensity and occurs in all echolocation calls. The frequency of this fundamental harmonic ranges from 110.8 to 50.2 kHz, and its duration is about 3.5 ms. The second and the third harmonics are relatively weak, occurring in 50.0% and 25.0% of echolocation calls respectively, with frequencies ranging from 138.4 to 116.6 kHz for the second harmonic and from 193.6 to 170.8 kHz for the third harmonic. We presume that, according to the echolocation call features, Myotis frater probably forages the insects on the ground of complex environments.

  7. Ocorrência de Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil Occurrence of Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Dias; Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi

    2003-01-01

    The first occurrence of phyllostomid bat Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas, 1896 in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil is reported. An adult female was caught with mist net in the Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, an AtlanticForest area in West Zone of Rio de Janeiro city, in July 9th, 1996. Morphological aspects of this species are discussed. Measurements obtained for the specimen are also provided.

  8. Primer registro de una colonia de Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en Baja California, México First record of a Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) colony in Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo A. Guevara-Carrizales; Roberto Martínez-Gallardo; Arnulfo Moreno-Valdez

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se registra por primera vez una colonia del murciélago filostomido Leptonycteris curasoae para Baja California, México, que también constituye la segunda localidad en el estado donde se registra esta especie.We report the first record of a colony of the phillostomid bat Leptonycteris curasoae for Baja California, Mexico. This region represents the second locality reported for this species in the state.

  9. Geographic distribution's ampliation of Chiroderma doriae Thomas (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in Brazil Ampliação da distribuição geográfica de Chiroderma doriae Thomas (Mammalia, Chiroptera) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo O Bordignon

    2005-01-01

    The geographic distribution ampliation of Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 is related in this note with a new record from Corumba City, in pantanal ecossistem of Mato Grosso do Sul State. This record extend the geographic range of C. doriae over 630 km westward in Brazil from literature last reccord.Nesta nota é relatada a ampliação da distribuição geográfica de Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 com um registro inédito na cidade de Corumbá, na região do Pantanal do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Es...

  10. Primeiro registro da família Furipteridae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil First record of the family Furipteridae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) for the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    André Pol; Marcelo R. Nogueira; Adriano L. Peracchi

    2003-01-01

    Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828), the only species in the family Furipteridae known to occur in the Brazilian territory, is reported for the first time in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The single specimen obtained was found alone in its diurnal roost in a cavity formed among large granite blocks in a well-preserved Atlantic Forest area. Morphometric data obtained from this specimen are within the known range documented for the species.

  11. Ocorrência de Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil Occurrence of Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The first occurrence of phyllostomid bat Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas, 1896 in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil is reported. An adult female was caught with mist net in the Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, an AtlanticForest area in West Zone of Rio de Janeiro city, in July 9th, 1996. Morphological aspects of this species are discussed. Measurements obtained for the specimen are also provided.

  12. Levantamento preliminar dos morcegos do Parque Nacional de Ubajara (Mammalia, Chiroptera), Ceará, Brasil Preliminary survey of the Bats from Ubajara National Park (Mammalia-Chiroptera), Ceara, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva; Patrícia Gonçalves Guedes; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary survey of bats species from the Ubajara National Park is presented. One hundred sixty two bats from 14 species were collected. Comments about reproduction of the captured species are included.

  13. Observação da visita de morcegos (Chiroptera) às flores de Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns Observation of visit of bats (Chiroptera) to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley S. Pereira da Silva; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi

    1995-01-01

    The visit of two species of bats to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns was observed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro during the period of may and july of 1989. The flowers of this vegetal species present attributions in accordance to the Syndrome of Chiropterophily and receive the visit of Glossophaga soricina (Pallas. 1766) and Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas. 1767). Glossophaga soricina has morfological caracteristes for nectarivory, Phyllostomus hastat...

  14. Nota sobre a biologia de Cinomops abrasus (Temminck) (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Molossidae) no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Notes on the biology of the Cinomops abrasus (Temminck), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Molossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. L. Esbérard; Helena G Bergallo

    2005-01-01

    São aqui apresentados dados sobre a biologia de Cinomops abrasus (Temminck, 1826) com base em 36 exemplares capturados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil, entre 1993 e 1997, em quatro diferentes localidades.Data on Cinomops abrasus (Temminck, 1826) biology are presented, from 36 animals captured in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil, between 1993 and 1997, from four different localities.

  15. Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.

  16. Status taxonômico e distribucional do complexo Eumops bonariensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) no sul do Brasil Distibutional and taxonomic status of the Eumops bonariensis species complex (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Itiberê P. Bernardi; João M. D. Miranda; Fernando C. Passos

    2009-01-01

    The taxonomic status and the geographical distribution of the specimens from southern Brazil previously identified as members of the Eumops bonariensis (Peters, 1874) species complex are here reviewed based on specimens deposited in collections of the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The results of an investigation of diagnostic morphological characters and a multivariate morphometrics analysis suggest the recognition of two forms, E. bonariensis and E. patagonicus Thomas, 1924, thus a...

  17. Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) do Complexo Aporé-Sucuriú, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat Diversity (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from Aporé-Sucuriú's complex, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo O Bordignon

    2006-01-01

    Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA). Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) e Artib...

  18. Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Complexo Aporé-Sucuriú, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat Diversity (Mammalia, Chiroptera from Aporé-Sucuriú's complex, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA. Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Algumas espécies raras foram capturadas: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 e Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. O local de maior abundância (0,032 indivíduos/m²/h mostrou um índice de Simpson de D = 3.86 e o de menor abundância (0,003 indivíduos/m²/h um índice de Simpson de D = 3.03. A preservação dos mananciais de água e a cobertura florestal nestes pontos são discutidas.From April to November 2004 was made a bat fauna inventory in Northern of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Jauru's Project/MMA. Eight points was sampled with mist-nets in a cerrado's ecosystem and was caught 146 individuals de 28 species, distributed into six bat families. The total of species in this study just represents 30% of cerrado's bat fauna. The more caught family was Phyllostomidae represented by Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Some rare species were caught: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 and Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. The more abundant point sampled (0.032 bat/m²/h shown a Simpson index of D = 3.86 and the low abundant point sampled (0.003 bat/m²/h was D = 3.03. The preservation of water springs and forest cover in study sites are discussed.

  19. Quirópteros da Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia: Chiroptera) Bats from Tinguá Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Dias; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho reúne os resultados de um levantamento de quirópteros conduzido na Reserva Biológica (REBIO) do Tinguá, Nova Iguaçu, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foram realizadas 31 noites de coletas, em 14 sítios situados em altitudes de 65 a 1270 m. As coletas foram realizadas com redes "mist-nets", armadas ao nível do solo, em trilhas ou clareiras, em frente a plantas em floração ou frutificação, próximo a construções e cavidades naturais, sobre riachos e corpos d'água ...

  20. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelika Bredt; Wilson Uieda; Edvard Dias Magalhães

    1999-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae...

  1. Diversidad de frutos que consumen tres especies de murciélagos (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae en la selva lacandona, Chiapas, México Diversity of fruits consumed by three species of bats (Chiroptera:Phyllostomidae in the Lacandona rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinka Olea-Wagner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio amplía el conocimiento de los hábitos alimentarios de 3 especies de murciélagos frugívoros como dispersores de semillas en 2 localidades de la selva alta perennifolia en la zona sur de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules (REBIMA, y dentro del Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. Se estimó la abundancia relativa de Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata y Sturnira lilium, así como la diversidad y categoría sucesional de los frutos que consumen estas 3 especies en ambas localidades, mediante la identificación de semillas en las excretas. La división de especies vegetales por categoría sucesional mostró que A. lituratus y C. perspicillata consumen frutos tanto de especies pioneras como de especies persistentes, mientras que S. lilium únicamente se alimenta de especies pioneras. Durante la época seca A. lituratus y C. perspicillata presentaron una mayor diversidad y riqueza de especies consumidas dentro de la REBIMA, en tanto que en la época de lluvia mostraron mayor diversidad y riqueza dentro de PDLG; es decir, la diversidad de semillas colectadas por ambos dispersores responde a la época anual. S. lilium presentó mayor riqueza y diversidad dentro de PDLG a lo largo del muestreo indicando preferencia por frutos establecidos en estadios tempranos en la sucesión vegetal.This study examined the feeding habits of three species of frugivorous bats in relation to their role as seed dispersers in two localities, one in a Neotropical rainforest area in the southern part of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve (REBIMA, and the other in Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. We estimated the relative abundance of Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium. We determined the diversity and the successional category of fruits consumed by these species in both localities through the identification of seeds in their feces. The plant species diversity based on successional category showed that A. lituratus and C. perspicillata consume fruits of pioneer species as well as persistent species, while S. lilium only feeds on pioneer species. During the dry season A. lituratus and C. perspicillata had higher diversity and richness values of plant species consumed at REBIMA, whereas in the wet season they showed higher diversity and richness at PDLG, indicating that the diversity of seeds collected by both dispersers changes with the time of year. S. lilium presented higher diversity and richness values of plant species consumed at PDLG throughout the year study, indicating preference for fruits from early stages of plant succession.

  2. Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae en la Argentina A new species of Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae in Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Argentina

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    Mirna C Oviedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is a parasite of the bat Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. This species is characterized by cephalic vesicle striate, thick egg shell punctate, spicules equal, symmetrical development of spicule wings, particular arrangement and number the ridges of synlophe, and lack of esophageal tooth. Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the first recorded in frugivorous bats of Argentina.

  3. Estructura social y composición temporal en una colonia de Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) Social structure and temporal composition in a colony of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ortega; Beatriz Hernández-Chávez; Areli Rizo-Aguilar; José Antonio Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Poco se conoce acerca de la estructura social de los molósidos en el Neotrópico. En este estudio se observó durante 4 periodos (2006/2007) la distribución espacial y la variación temporal de una colonia de Nyctinomops laticaudatus en el Palacio del Gobernador de la zona arqueológica de Uxmal en Yucatán. Se observaron 66 cavidades ocupadas por grupos mixtos de estos animales. Los grupos mixtos se conservaron todo el año, pero los individuos cambiaron de sitio de percha y de asociación de un gr...

  4. First record of Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae parasitizing a free-tailed bat (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil Primeiro registro de Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae parasitando um morcego-de-cauda-livre (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil

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    Luiz Antonio Costa Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the occurrence of Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse (Chirodiscidae for the first time in Brazil, along with its infection sites on Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Thirty-eight bats were caught using mist nets that were placed near a house at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in the state of Bahia, of which 14 (37% were parasitized by P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes was observed parasitizing M. rufus on hairs that were evidently longer than others distributed over the bat's body, where up to three parasites could be spotted on a single hair.O presente estudo registra a ocorrência de Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse pela primeira vez no Brasil, bem como seus sítios de infecção em Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Foram capturados 38 morcegos com redes-de-neblina, dispostas próximas a uma residência da "Mars Center for Cocoa Science" no Sul da Bahia, dos quais 14 (37% estavam parasitados por P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes foi observada parasitando M. rufus em pelos evidentemente maiores que os demais distribuídos pelo corpo do morcego, onde se pôde observar até três parasitos em um único pelo.

  5. Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Marcelo Oscar Bordignon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.

  6. Ecología y reproducción del murciélago Centurio senex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en Oaxaca, México Ecology and reproduction of the bat Centurio senex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Santos-Moreno; José Luís García-García; Arisbe Rodríguez-Alamilla

    2010-01-01

    El murciélago Centurio senex es una especie con distribución geográfica amplia, pero su abundancia es típicamente baja en los sitios donde se le ha registrado, por lo que se le considera una especie rara, y muchos de sus aspectos ecológicos y reproductivos derivan de observaciones ocasionales. En este estudio se documentan la proporción de sexos, la estructura de edades, el patrón reproductivo y su relación con el régimen de lluvias, los patrones de actividad diaria y la variación sexual secu...

  7. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  8. Geographic distribution and morphological variation in Mimon bennettii (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Distribuição geográfica e variação morfológica em Mimon bennettii (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

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    Renato Gregorin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied discrete and quantitative data from 88 specimens of the subgenus Mimon previously identified as Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 and M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 from diverse parts of their range. Our data indicate that specimens of Mimon bennetii in Brazil presented geographic variation in morphometrical characters and mosaic variation in qualitative traits. Specimens from the Cerrado biome collected in Brazilian states like Piaui, Tocantins, and Goiás have longer forearms than those distributed in the Atlantic and Amazon forested domains. Based on morphometrics, as showed by t-tests, specimens of M. bennettii from the Brazilian Cerrado resemble phenetically more with M. cozumelae than the M. bennettii from Atlantic Forest. Characters presently used to diagnosis M. cozumelae also were also recorded to M. bennettii in diverse parts of Brazil, making that validity of M. cozumelae questionable based on this kind of traits. This research also updated the geographic distribution to the M. bennettii in Brazil.Foi analisada a morfologia quantitativa e qualitativa de 88 espécimes do subgênero Mimon previamente identificados como Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 e M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 de diversas localidades dentro de sua distribuição. Os dados indicam que os espécimes de Mimon bennetii no Brasil apresentam variação geográfica nos caracteres morfométricos e em mosaico nos qualitativos. Espécimes do bioma Cerrado provenientes dos estados brasileiros do Piauí, Tocantins e Goiás têm antebraço mais longo que os indivíduos dos domínios da Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica. Com base na morfometria aplicando teste t-Student, os espécimes de M. bennettii do Cerrado lembram fenéticamente mais M. cozumelae que M. bennettii da Floresta Atlântica. Os caracteres morfológicos atualmente empregados para diagnosticar M. cozumelae também foram registrados para M. bennettii em diversas áreas do Brasil, tornando a validade de M. cozumelae questionável nesses tipos de caracteres. O presente artigo também atualiza a distribuição geográfica de M. bennettii no Brazil.

  9. Observações da dieta de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) em duas áreas do sul do Brasil Diet observations of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in two areas of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando C. Passos; Gustavo Graciolli

    2004-01-01

    Este estudo foi realizado no Parque Nacional de Superagüi (PNS) e na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural de Volta Velha (RPPN), ambas áreas de Mata Atlântica, nos Estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil. Morcegos foram capturados em redes de neblina e amostras fecais foram coletadas para análise da dieta. As sementes encontradas em cada amostra foram identificadas em laboratório por meio de lupa. Cento e trinta e sete exemplares de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818) foram cap...

  10. [Molecular epidemiology of rabies epizootics in Colombia, 1994-2002: evidence of human and canine rabies associated with chiroptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, Andrés; Nuñez, Constanza; García, Clemencia; Boshell, Jorge

    2003-03-01

    Three urban rabies outbreaks have been reported in Colombia during the last two decades, one of which is ongoing in the Caribbean region (northern Colombia). The earlier outbreaks occurred almost simultaneously in Arauca (eastern Colombia) and in the Central region, ending in 1997. Phylogenetic relationships among rabies viruses isolated from the three areas were based on a comparison of cDNA fragments coding for the endodomain of protein G and a fragment of L protein obtained by RT-PCR. The sequenced amplicons which included the G-L intergenic region contained 902 base pairs. Phylogenetic analysis showed three distinct groups of viruses. Colombian genetic variant I viruses were isolated only from Arauca and the Central region, but are now apparently extinct. Colombian genetic variant II viruses were isolated in the Caribbean region and are still being transmitted in that area. The third group of bat rabies variants were isolated from two insectivorous bats, three domestic dogs and a human. This associates bat rabies virus with rabies in Colombian dogs and humans, and indicates bats to be a rabies reservoir of public health significance. PMID:12696396

  11. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

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    Don Buden

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies—P. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females with young (April, July and pregnant females (July suggest an extended breeding season. Pteropus p. pelagicus appears most threatened by the prospect of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies.

  12. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from the Caatinga of Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moratelli, Ricardo; Dias, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We describe Lonchophylla inexpectata sp. n. from the Caatinga of Brazil. This new species can be distinguished from all known species of Lonchophylla that occur in Brazil by dental traits, cranial size, and fur colour. Specimens of L. inexpectata have been misidentified as L. mordax; but L. inexpectata is a pale-venter species, similar in external appearance to L. dekeyseri. We have found L. inexpectata in the Caatinga of North-eastern Brazil; L. mordax along the eastern border of the Caating...

  13. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera

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    A Gomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará. Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern. Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of R. pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to R. pumilio (pair 15. However, two chromosomes of M. crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for R. pumilio.

  14. Characteristics of complete mitogenome of the lesser short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus brachyotis (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-05-01

    We describe the characteristics of complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis in this article. The complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis is 16,701 bp long with a total base composition of 32.4% A, 25.7% T, 27.7% C and 14.2% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes (11,408 bp), (KM659865) two rRNA (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) genes (2,539 bp), 22 tRNA genes (1518 bp) and one control region (1239 bp). PMID:25418628

  15. Contribuição ao conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva de Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera, Molossidae

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    Marta Elena Fabián

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 179 specimens of Molossus molossus in Ceará, Brazil, showed morphological and functional ovarian asymmetry in adult females, with the right side more developed. Blastocyst implantation occurred also in the right uterine horn. Active male testicles were bigger (x = 5,38mm than inactive ones (x = 3,25mm. Pregnancy with subsequent offspring was found in March-April and November, during the wet season.

  16. Repetitive transpositions of mitochondrial DNA sequences to the nucleus during the radiation of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang

    2016-05-01

    Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus. PMID:26809101

  17. A craniometric comparison of Holocene populations of Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817) and M. brandtii (Eversmann, 1845) (Chiroptera, Mammalia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybář, P.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of about four hundred skulls of Myotis mystacinus and M. brandtii of the Holocene age from the Záskočie Cave (Central Slovakia). A review of criteria for species determination is presented, including a new criterion concerning the morphology of P4 roots

  18. Case report of a new pathogenic variant of Aspergillus fumigates isolated from Hipposideros cervinus (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae in Sarawak, Malaysia

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    S.S.J. Seelan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of new Aspergillus fumigatus variant (UNIMAS F009 was reported from the ears of bats at Kubah National Park, Borneo, Malaysia. Morphological characterization of this isolate showed some differences in terms of their growth rate, colony color, size of conidia and pigmentation on different media.

  19. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil. PMID:26982558

  20. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis: Molossidae, Chiroptera) at high altitude: Links to migratory insect populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Existing information on the activity of bats in the aerosphere is restricted almost exclusively to altitudes that are within a few tens of meters above the ground. We report a total of 50.2 hrs of ultrasonic recordings made using radiomicrophone bat detectors suspended from free-floating helium bal...

  1. Revision of Afro-Malagasy Otomops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) with the description of a new Afro-Arabian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Taryn M C; Richards, Leigh R; Taylor, Peter J; Napier, Melanie C; Lamb, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    The paucity of data for the molossid bat Otomops throughout its range has hindered our ability to resolve the number of Otomops species present within the Afro-Malagasy region (including the Arabian Peninsula). This paper employed an integrative approach by combining morphometric (cranial morphology) and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome b and D-loop sequences, nuclear intron sequences and microsatellites) data to identify the number of Otomops taxa occurring in the Afro-Malagasy region. Three taxa were identified, two of which could be assigned to existing species, i.e. O. martiensseni and O. madagascariensis. The third taxon, previously recognised as O. martiensseni (Matschie 1897), is described herein as a new species, Otomops harrisoni sp. nov., and can be differentiated from O. martiensseni s.s. based on both molecular and morphometric data. Locality data of specimens belonging to O. harrisoni suggest that its distribution range extends from the Arabian Peninsula through to Eritrea and south to Ethiopia and Kenya. PMID:26701463

  2. Preparation method of chromosomes in chiroptera%翼手类动物染色体的制备方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余燕; 马金友; 孙瑞

    2006-01-01

    采用"取骨髓-蒸汽固定法"制备翼手类动物染色体,与细胞培养法相比,大大减少了实验开支;与"取骨髓-空气干燥法"相比,实验的成功率大大提高,减少了材料的用量,从而有利于对蝙蝠资源的保护.

  3. 重庆市8种翼手类新纪录%Eight new records of Chiroptera in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少英; 冉江洪; 吴毅; 林强; 刘世昌; 孙志宇

    2003-01-01

    @@ 重庆市系1997年新成立的直辖市.1996~1997年作者对重庆市巴南区、长寿县、涪陵区、武隆县、石柱县、丰都县、万州区、忠县、开县、云阳县、奉节县、巫山县、巫溪县等13县(区)的翼手类进行了专项调查.共调查68个洞穴,在35个洞穴有翼手类栖息,采集了216号标本,经鉴定发现8种翼手类属重庆市新纪录.简报如下.

  4. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla , from the Caatinga of Brazil ( Chiroptera , Phyllostomidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Moratelli; Daniela Dias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe Lonchophylla inexpectata sp. n. from the Caatinga of Brazil. This new species can be distinguished from all known species of Lonchophylla that occur in Brazil by dental traits, cranial size, and fur colour. Specimens of Lonchophylla inexpectata have been misidentified as Lonchophylla mordax ; but Lonchophylla inexpectata is a pale-venter species, similar in external appearance to Lonchophylla dekeyseri . We have found Lonchophylla inexpectata in the Caatinga of North-east...

  5. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from the Caatinga of Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratelli, Ricardo; Dias, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We describe Lonchophyllainexpectata sp. n. from the Caatinga of Brazil. This new species can be distinguished from all known species of Lonchophylla that occur in Brazil by dental traits, cranial size, and fur colour. Specimens of Lonchophyllainexpectata have been misidentified as Lonchophyllamordax; but Lonchophyllainexpectata is a pale-venter species, similar in external appearance to Lonchophylladekeyseri. We have found Lonchophyllainexpectata in the Caatinga of North-eastern Brazil; Lonchophyllamordax along the eastern border of the Caatinga and in the Atlantic Forest-Caatinga ecotone in North-eastern Brazil; and Lonchophylladekeyseri in the Cerrado of Mid-western Brazil, in the Brazilian Cerrado-Caatinga ecotone, and as far west as the Cerrado of Bolivia. PMID:26261433

  6. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from the Caatinga of Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moratelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe Lonchophylla inexpectata sp. n. from the Caatinga of Brazil. This new species can be distinguished from all known species of Lonchophylla that occur in Brazil by dental traits, cranial size, and fur colour. Specimens of L. inexpectata have been misidentified as L. mordax; but L. inexpectata is a pale-venter species, similar in external appearance to L. dekeyseri. We have found L. inexpectata in the Caatinga of North-eastern Brazil; L. mordax along the eastern border of the Caatinga and in the Atlantic Forest–Caatinga ecotone in North-eastern Brazil; and L. dekeyseri in the Cerrado of Mid-western Brazil, in the Brazilian Cerrado–Caatinga ecotone, and as far west as the Cerrado of Bolivia.

  7. A new species of Lonchophylla (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, with comments on L. bokermanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo L; Moratelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We examined Brazilian species of the nectar-feeding bats genus Lonchophylla (Phyllostomidae, Lonchophyllinae) to clarify the identity of Lonchophylla bokermanni and to determine the distribution of this and other species of Lonchophylla in eastern Brazil. As a result, we have found sufficient differences between Cerrado populations (including the type locality of L. bokermanni) and populations inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil,which warrant the treatment of the Atlantic Forest populations as a separate and new species. We describe this new species here as Lonchophylla peracchii, sp. nov. The new species appears to be restricted to the Atlantic Forest, whereas L. bokermanni is found only in Cerrado habitats. PMID:26171531

  8. Descriptive ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea associated with vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the cerrado of Central Brazil

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    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ectoparasitic bat flies of three phyllostomid vampire bat species. Bats were collected monthly from April 2004-March 2005 in caves within the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 1,259 specimens from six species in the Streblidae family were collected from 332 bats. High host affinity from the sampled bat fly species and high prevalence of bat flies confirms the primary fly-host associations (Strebla wiedemanni, Trichobius parasiticus and Trichobius furmani with Desmodus, Trichobius diaemi and Strebla diaemi with Diaemus and T. furmani with Diphylla. Male flies outnumbered females in several associations. Some of the observed associations (e.g., Strebla mirabilis with Desmodus and S. mirabilis, Trichobius uniformis and S. wiedemanni with Diphylla were inconclusive and the causes of the associations were unclear. There are several explanations for these associations, including (i accidental contamination during sampling, (ii simultaneous capture of several host species in the same net or (iii genuine, but rare, ecological associations. Although various species of vampire bats share roosts, have similar feeding habits and are close phylogenetic relatives, they generally do not share ectoparasitic streblid bat flies. T. diaemi and S. diaemi associations with Diaemus youngi have not been previously reported in this region.

  9. Filling data gaps on the diversity and distribution of Amazonian bats (Chiroptera: the case of Amapá, easternmost Brazil

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    Ana C. M. Martins

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the second most bat species-rich country in the world, but the information on its species diversity, occurrence and distribution is still heterogeneous and fragmented. None of the Brazilian biomes are well surveyed for bats, but this situation is more critical in Amazonia, an area covering nearly 2/3 of the country. Here we provide updated information on the bats of Amapá, once a data gap in the diversity and distribution of bats in the easternmost Amazonia, and the Guiana Shield as well. Rapid biological assessments (5,551 mistnet.hours were conducted in conservation units and areas of concern, resulting in 1,695 captures, 59 species, 36 genera and six families for the State. New records for the state and for the Guiana Shield area are reported. With our records, 82 species of bats are currently known in Amapá, filling a gap in the knowledge of bat fauna in the Amazon River's delta region.

  10. OCCURRENCE OF BAT FLIES (DIPTERA, HIPPOBOSCOIDEA) IN DESMONDUS RODUNTUS (MAMMALIA, CHIROPTERA) IN ZONA DA MATA, MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Dias; L. H. P. Pulga; J. V. Araujo; Ferreira, W. S.

    2014-01-01

    Vampire bats are important agents in the field and currently regarded as the main reservoir in Latin America in the transmission of rabies of herbivores, thus, these animals are monitored by researchers and animal health protection services and suffer from populational control to minimize the impact of the occurrence of cases of rabies in domestic animals. Rabies is a zoonosis of 100% lethality. The presence of haematofagous flies have been observed in these animals. There of is to highlight ...

  11. Species list of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) of Santarém area, Pará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Despite its enormous area, diversity of habitat, and bat species, studies in the Brazilian Amazon represent just a small portion of the bat research in the South América. Consequently, the distribution of the major part of the bat species in the Brazilian Amazon remains incompletely documented. Conservation strategies involving bat species in the Brazilian Amazon may be difficult without more information about geographic distribution, status, roost, food preferences, and reproduction of the s...

  12. Species list of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera of Santarém area, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bernard

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its enormous area, diversity of habitat, and bat species, studies in the Brazilian Amazon represent just a small portion of the bat research in the South América. Consequently, the distribution of the major part of the bat species in the Brazilian Amazon remains incompletely documented. Conservation strategies involving bat species in the Brazilian Amazon may be difficult without more information about geographic distribution, status, roost, food preferences, and reproduction of the species. Here is presented an updated list of species of bats of Alter do Chão, and complete this list with data from the nearby Amazon National Park, providing a list of bats in the Santarém area. This list includes at least 55 species of bats, representing 34 genera, and 7 families. The higher taxonomic composition of bat fauna of Santarérn area is similar to other areas sampled in the Brazilian Amazon, with a high proportion of frugivores, but the number of aerial insectivores is lower, probably due the use of mist nets as the principal sampling method.

  13. Filling data gaps on the diversity and distribution of Amazonian bats (Chiroptera): the case of Amapá, easternmost Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana C. M. Martins; Enrico Bernard; Renato Gregorin; Wanuyze A. S. da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Brazil is the second most bat species-rich country in the world, but the information on its species diversity, occurrence and distribution is still heterogeneous and fragmented. None of the Brazilian biomes are well surveyed for bats, but this situation is more critical in Amazonia, an area covering nearly 2/3 of the country. Here we provide updated information on the bats of Amapá, once a data gap in the diversity and distribution of bats in the easternmost Amazonia, and the Guiana Shield as...

  14. Parturition in Geoffroy’s Rousette Fruit Bat Rousettus amplexicaudatus Geoffroy, 1810 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in the Philippines.

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    Ambre E. Delpopolo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biologists have an imperfect understanding of the reproductive biology of bats, which is primarily limited to mating systems and development of neonates. Few studies have addressed parturition in bats. Most of these are not contemporary and are based on data obtained from captive animals housed in laboratories. No studies have been conducted to assess the natural parturition process of Geoffroy’s Rousette Fruit Bat Rousettus amplexicaudatus, a Yinpterochiropteran native to Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. This study provides the first comprehensive description of parturition in this species. It is based on the natural behaviors exhibited in a wild colony of R. amplexicaudatus in the southern Philippines, which were recorded using high definition video cameras. The qualitative birthing model developed in this study, based on data collected from 16 pregnant females, provides new insights into the reproductive biology of this species. Female R. amplexicaudatus give birth while hanging upside-down. Pups are born in the head-first presentation. Females do not immediately sever the pups’ umbilical cord after birth. Instead, the cord acts as a tether, preventing the pup from falling to its death in the event that it loses its grip on the female. This appears to be an adaptive strategy meant to help overcome some of the challenges associated with giving birth while suspended and hanging upside-down.

  15. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from western Colombia and western Ecuador (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.

    2007-01-01

    The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.

  16. Karyotypic Evolution in Malagasy Flying Foxes (Pteropodidae, Chiroptera) and Their Hipposiderid Relatives as Determined by Comparative Chromosome Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Goodman, Steven M; Taylor, Peter J; Schoeman, M Corrie; Yang, Fengtang; Lamb, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Pteropodidae and Hipposideridae are 2 of the 9 chiropteran families that occur on Madagascar. Despite major advancements in the systematic study of the island's bat fauna, few karyotypic data exist for endemic species. We utilized G- and C-banding in combination with chromosome painting with Myotismyotis probes to establish a genome-wide homology among Malagasy species belonging to the families Pteropodidae (Pteropus rufus 2n = 38; Rousettus madagascariensis, 2n = 36), Hipposideridae (Hipposideros commersoni s.s., 2n = 52), and a single South African representative of the Rhinolophidae (Rhinolophus clivosus, 2n = 58). Painting probes of M. myotis detected 26, 28, 28, and 29 regions of homology in R. madagascariensis, P. rufus, H. commersoni s.s, and R. clivosus, respectively. Translocations, pericentric inversions, and heterochromatin additions were responsible for karyotypic differences amongst the Malagasy pteropodids. Comparative chromosome painting revealed a novel pericentric inversion on P. rufus chromosome 4. Chromosomal characters suggest a close evolutionary relationship between Rousettus and Pteropus. H. commersoni s.s. shared several chromosomal characters with extralimital congeners but did not exhibit 2 chromosomal synapomorphies proposed for Hipposideridae. This study provides further insight into the ancestral karyotypes of pteropodid and hipposiderid bats and corroborates certain molecular phylogenetic hypotheses. PMID:27256929

  17. Description of a new tick species, Ixodes collaris n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), from bats (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae, Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Tu, Vuong Tan; Kontschán, Jenő

    2016-01-01

    Background In a recent study on ixodid bat ticks from Eurasia, a high genetic difference was found between Ixodes vespertilionis from Europe and Vietnam. Accordingly, it was proposed that I. vespertilionis is a species complex, with at least one additional, hitherto undescribed species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology of bat ticks from Vietnam and to assess their taxonomic status in comparison with those collected in Europe. Findings Ixodid bat ticks (two female...

  18. The karyotype and 5S rRNA genes from Spanish individuals of the bat species Rhinolophus hipposideros (Rhinolophidae; Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerma, Eva; Acosta, Manuel J; Barragán, Maria José L; Martínez, Sergio; Marchal, Juan Alberto; Bullejos, Mónica; Sánchez, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    The karyotype of individuals of the species Rhinolophus hipposideros from Spain present a chromosome number of 2n = 54 (NFa = 62). The described karyotype for these specimens is very similar to another previously described in individual from Bulgaria. However, the presence of one additional pair of autosomal acrocentric chromosomes in the Bulgarian karyotype and the differences in X chromosome morphology indicated that we have described a new karyotype variant in this species. In addition, we have analyzed several clones of 1.4 and 1 kb of a PstI repeated DNA sequence from the genome of R. hipposideros. The repeated sequence included a region with high identity with the 5S rDNA genes and flanking regions, with no homology with GenBank sequences. Search for polymerase III regulatory elements demonstrated the presence of type I promoter elements (A-box, Intermediate Element and C-box) in the 5S rDNA region. In addition, upstream regulatory elements, as a D-box and Sp1 binding sequences, were present in flanking regions. All data indicated that the cloned repeated sequences are the functional rDNA genes from this species. Finally, FISH demonstrated the presence of rDNA in nine chromosome pairs, which is surprising as most mammals have only one carrier chromosome pair. PMID:18066670

  19. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800) (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) from Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Adwan Shehab; Inrahim Mamkhair; Zuhair Amr

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...

  20. Evidence for two karyotypic variants of the lesser horseshoe bat ( Rhinolophus hipposideros , Chiroptera, Mammalia) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volleth, M; Biedermann, M; Schorcht, W; Heller, K-G

    2013-01-01

    Three different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 54, 56 and 58) have been reported in the lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros. Asia Minor and the Middle East are inhabited by R. hipposideros specimens with 58 chromosomes. In Europe, specimens with 56 chromosomes have been recorded from several localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy and Greece. Up to now, specimens with 54 chromosomes have been reported only from Spain and possibly from Switzerland. With the record of 54 chromosomes in specimens from Germany presented here, the distributional area of this variant is expanded into Central Europe. According to the cytogenetic data presently available, we presume that the European R. hipposideros population is divided into a western form (from Spain to Germany) with a 2n = 54 karyotype and an eastern form (from the Czech Republic to Greece) with a 2n = 56 karyotype. This study presents banded karyotypes for the 2n = 54 and 2n = 56 variants for the first time. In addition, chromosomal arm homology to the vespertilionid bat species Myotis myotis revealed by chromosome painting is reported. Whether the variants could represent separate species is also discussed. PMID:23635426

  1. Nuclear introns outperform mitochondrial DNA in inter-specific phylogenetic reconstruction: Lessons from horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S

    2016-04-01

    Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mtDNA introgression. We demonstrated that by using just two introns one can recover a better supported species tree than when using the mtDNA alone, despite the shorter overall length of the combined introns. Additionally, when combining any single intron with mtDNA, we showed that the result is highly similar to the mtDNA gene tree and far from the true species tree and therefore this approach should be avoided. We caution against the indiscriminate use of mtDNA in phylogenetic studies and advocate for pilot studies to select nuclear introns. The selection of marker type and number is a crucial step that is best based on critical examination of preliminary or previously published data. Based on our findings and previous publications, we recommend the following markers to recover phylogenetic relationships between recently diverged taxa (<20 My) in bats and other mammals: ACOX2, COPS7A, BGN, ROGDI and STAT5A. PMID:26826601

  2. Redescrição de Litomosoides brasiliensis Almeida, 1936 (Nematoda: Filariidae Parasito de Anoura caudifera (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourão Elizabeth D

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the surface topography added details regarding the disposition of male caudal papillae, spicules and area rugosa apart from vulva and oral aperture. The occurrence of this nematode in the state of Amapá represents a new geographical distribution.

  3. OCCURRENCE OF BAT FLIES (DIPTERA, HIPPOBOSCOIDEA IN DESMONDUS RODUNTUS (MAMMALIA, CHIROPTERA IN ZONA DA MATA, MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vampire bats are important agents in the field and currently regarded as the main reservoir in Latin America in the transmission of rabies of herbivores, thus, these animals are monitored by researchers and animal health protection services and suffer from populational control to minimize the impact of the occurrence of cases of rabies in domestic animals. Rabies is a zoonosis of 100% lethality. The presence of haematofagous flies have been observed in these animals. There of is to highlight the importance of these agents that are restricted parasites of bats and could be responsible for transmission of the rabies virus between them. It is also worth emphasizing the importance of assessing the distribution of these parasites of bats according to the climatic conditions of a given site, because these elements are essential to limit the distribution of these parasites. The presence of parasites in animals presents itself as an important element for understanding the mechanisms that are configured in the control of population of a given agent. The present study aimed to record the occurrence of flies in vampire bats in the Forest of Minas Gerais State.

  4. Análisis de las vocalizaciones del murciélago longirrostro peruano Platalina genovensium Thomas, 1928 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

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    Juan A. Malo de Molina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los primeros datos sobre las emisiones acústicas del murciélago longirrostro peruano Platalina genovensium, siendo este el primer estudio que se publica sobre análisis de los ultrasonidos emitidos por murciélagos en el Perú. Las emisiones acústicas analizadas fueron grabadas de individuos volando en condiciones de confinamiento dentro de sus propios refugios, en dos localidades relativamente próximas a la ciudad de Lima. La señal acústica de P. genovensium está compuesta por pulsos de 1,30 ms de duración media, en frecuencia modulada, de niveles sonoros extremadamente bajos (aprox. -10 a -35 dB a 1 m de distancia, en secuencias de 12,90 pulsos/segundo, con ancho de banda promedio de 28,58 kHz, discontinuo, con interpulso promedio de 67,56 ms y con máxima energía en 89,21 kHz. Presentan además un armónico en frecuencias superiores a190 kHz. El uso de la Transformada de Fourier para Señales Discretas y el posterior Análisis de la Distribución de Energía en bandas de frecuencia han permitido establecer una ecuación predictiva sobre el tiempo de duración del pulso en función de las bandas 70-80 kHz, 90-100 kHz y 110-120 kHz. Aumentos de un 4% de la Energía en la banda de 110-120 kHz implican una disminución de hasta 0,2 ms en la duración del pulso, mientras que el mismo aumento en las bandas de 70-80 y 90-100 kHz incrementan 0,1 ms dicha duración. Esta ecuación de predicción podría ser de utilidad para la identificación de la especie, su monitoreo, y servir de base para conocer cómo P. genovensium adapta la emisión energética en sus bandas de frecuencia evitando que pulso y eco se solapen y enmascaren la señal emitida.

  5. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.

  6. Repetitive transpositions of mitochondrial DNA sequences to the nucleus during the radiation of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang

    2016-05-01

    Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus.

  7. Nuclear introns outperform mitochondrial DNA in inter-specific phylogenetic reconstruction: Lessons from horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S

    2016-04-01

    Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mtDNA introgression. We demonstrated that by using just two introns one can recover a better supported species tree than when using the mtDNA alone, despite the shorter overall length of the combined introns. Additionally, when combining any single intron with mtDNA, we showed that the result is highly similar to the mtDNA gene tree and far from the true species tree and therefore this approach should be avoided. We caution against the indiscriminate use of mtDNA in phylogenetic studies and advocate for pilot studies to select nuclear introns. The selection of marker type and number is a crucial step that is best based on critical examination of preliminary or previously published data. Based on our findings and previous publications, we recommend the following markers to recover phylogenetic relationships between recently diverged taxa (bats and other mammals: ACOX2, COPS7A, BGN, ROGDI and STAT5A.

  8. Bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera of an urban park in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E.L. Esbérard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some bat species are able to adapt to urban areas, where they find food and roosts. Despite the high number of parks in Brazilian cities, they did not yet raise the interest of most zoologists, except for some surveys of birds and butterflies. The objectives of the present study were: (i to inventory the bat species of Quinta da Boa Vista (QBV, a large (25 ha urban park centrally located in densely populated Rio de Janeiro, which is Brazil's second largest metropolis; (ii to compare the species richness observed in roosts with the richness recorded through mist netting in flight routes and near fruiting fig trees; and (iii to analyze recaptures of bats marked in this park and recaptured in other sites and vice-versa. Sampling totaled 104 sampling nights resulting in 3,256 captures (including 133 recaptures between April 1989 and December 2004. We also sampled roosts and received some specimens from park visitors and city workers. We documented 21 bat species, predominantly large frugivores. The number of expected species for this park was 24.0 ± 4.6, and the total sampled represented 87.5% of the expected. The recapture of bats marked in surrounding forest fragments and in QBV shows the importance of urban parks for the maintenance of bat diversity. Inspection of roosts produced two species that had not been captured with other methods. Sampling near fruiting fig trees did not differ in terms of richness from sampling carried out far from these trees or during their non-fruiting periods.

  9. Cranial and mandibular shape variation in the genus Carollia (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Colombia: biogeographic patterns and morphological modularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aguirre, Camilo; Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Wilson, Laura A B

    2015-01-01

    Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations. PMID:26413433

  10. Análisis de las vocalizaciones del murciélago longirrostro peruano Platalina genovensium Thomas, 1928 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Malo de Molina; Sandra Velazco; Víctor Pacheco; Juan Carlos Robledo

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan los primeros datos sobre las emisiones acústicas del murciélago longirrostro peruano Platalina genovensium, siendo este el primer estudio que se publica sobre análisis de los ultrasonidos emitidos por murciélagos en el Perú. Las emisiones acústicas analizadas fueron grabadas de individuos volando en condiciones de confinamiento dentro de sus propios refugios, en dos localidades relativamente próximas a la ciudad de Lima. La señal acústica de P. genovensium está compuesta por puls...

  11. 贵州两种菊头蝠核型分析%Karyology of two species of the Rhinolophus ( Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) From Guizhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学平; 谷晓明

    2007-01-01

    采用常规骨髓细胞空气干燥法,分析了贵州两种菊头蝠的核型,大耳菊头蝠2n=62,30对常染色体均为端着丝粒染色体.其中第13对常染色体的端部带有1次缢痕.X染色体为大型亚端着丝粒染色体,Y染色体为端着丝粒染色体.染色体臂数(FN)为60.马铁菊头蝠2n=58,常染色体由2对小型的中部着丝粒染色体,26对端着丝粒染色体组成.X染色体为亚端着丝粒染色体,Y染色体为小型端着丝粒染色体,染色体臂数(FN)为60.马铁菊头蝠的核型为国内首次报道.

  12. A preliminary survey on species diversity of chiroptera in Hainan island%海南岛翼手目物种多样性的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌良; 朱光剑; 李德伟; 洪体玉; 张信文

    2008-01-01

    2007年7-9月,采用野外调查的方法,对海南岛翼手目物种多样性进行了初步的调查.共采集到样本4科7属15种,占海南岛翼手目记录种类的58%,中国翼手目种类的12%,具有比较高的翼手目多样性,其Shannon-Weiner指数(H')为2.095 6,Pielou指数(J)为0.773 8.在所采集的翼手目中,洞穴型蝙蝠占优势,有12种,占样本总种数的80%,其Shannon-Weiner指数和Pielou指数分别为1.933 7和0.714 1.采集到大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti)为中国特有种,犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)被列入,中蹄蝠(Hipposideros larvatus)和普通长翼蝠(Minioppterus schreibersi)被列入中的易危(VU)种,大菊头蝠(Rhinolophusluctus)、中菊头蝠(R.affinis)和犬蝠被列入的近危(NT)种,几乎符合易危(VU)种.最后对区系分布及栖息类型,物种多样性指数、均匀度指数作出讨论,并提出对翼手目物种的保护建议.

  13. A New Record of Chiroptera in Qinghai Province: Vespertilio sinensis%青海省翼手目类一新纪录——东方蝙蝠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文靖; 曲家鹏; 陈晓澄

    2009-01-01

    2008年11月21日于青海省西宁市红十字医院外科大楼三楼内捕获蝙蝠一只,经鉴定为东方蝙蝠Vespertilio sinensis Peters,1880,是青海省的新纪录,现报道如下,

  14. 澳门翼手类物种多样性调查%A recent survey of bat diversity (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Macau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继展; 谭梁静; 杨剑; 陈毅; 刘奇; 沈琪琦; 徐敏贞; 邓耀民; 张礼标

    2013-01-01

    2009~2012年,对澳门翼手目(蝙蝠)物种多样性进行了调查.结果共捕捉到10个物种,属5科8属,其中包括澳门原来记载的2个物种,即蹄蝠科的大蹄蝠(Hipposideros armiger)和蝙蝠科的东亚伏翼(Pipistrellus abramus);本研究新增加8个物种,即狐蝠科的犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)和棕果蝠(Rousettus leschenaulti),鞘尾蝠科的黑髯墓蝠(Taphozous melanopogon),菊头蝠科的菲菊头蝠(Rhinolophus pusillus),以及蝙蝠科的大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti、普通伏翼(P.pipistrellus)、普通长翼蝠(Miniopterus schreibersi)和南长翼蝠(M.pusillus).另外,通过野外录音和分析,并与已发表物种声音特征比较核对,发现菊头蝠科和蹄蝠科各一种,前者可能是泰国菊头蝠(R.siamensis)或者中菊头蝠(R.affinis),后者可能是果树蹄蝠(H pomona)或者三叶蹄蝠(Aselliscus stoliczkanus).本文对已捕捉10种蝙蝠的分布、形态特征和回声定位叫声特征进行报道,同时对其种群数量和保护现状进行了讨论.保护蝙蝠栖息生境(洞穴、古老建筑和蒲葵树等)对保护澳门蝙蝠物种多样性至关重要.

  15. Insectivora and Chiroptera Animals Excavated in Wushan Lanjiazhai Site%巫山蓝家寨遗址发现食虫目和翼手目动物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武仙竹; 邹后曦; 黄秒斌

    2014-01-01

    2012年巫山蓝家寨遗址考古发掘中,获得距今2 400多年前春秋时期的喜马拉雅水麝鼢(Chim marogale himalayicus)、小臭鼢(Suncus etruscus)、微尾鼢(Anourosorex squamipes)、白腹管鼻蝠(Murina leucogaster)等骨骼标本.这些骨骼标本的鉴定和研究反映出春秋时期三峡地区属于南亚热带气候,水土保持良好,有繁茂的森林环境;当时遗址古居民食物资源丰富,但人类居室及室内卫生条件等比较落后;古遗址人类居住点的室内环境比较阴暗、潮湿,并且有多种昆虫、食虫目动物等与人类伴栖.蓝家寨遗址食虫目(Insectivora)、翼手目(Chirortera)动物骨骼研究,为分析三峡地区春秋时期古环境、古居民生活与居住条件、三峡地区环境演变等提供了重要资料;同时,上述动物骨骼标本也是首次在中国新石器时代以后古文化遗址中被发现.该项工作为今后开展动物考古中的小哺乳动物研究,提供了可靠的标本观测数据,并且在鉴定标准及工作方法等方面为今后的工作提供了重要参考.

  16. Molecular Evolution of the Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-Derived 2)-Like 2 Gene Nrf2 in Old World Fruit Bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Di; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene) is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce the need for antioxidant enzymes in comparison to insectivorous bats. Therefore, it is possible that frugivorous bats have a reduced need for Nrf2 function due to their substantial intake of diet-antioxidants. To test whether the Nrf2 gene has undergone relaxed evolution in fruit-eating bats, we obtained Nrf2 sequences from 16 species of bats, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and one New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed changes in the selection pressure acting on Nrf2 gene and identified seven specific amino acid substitutions that occurred on the ancestral lineage leading to Old World fruit bats. Biochemical experiments were conducted to examine Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats and showed that the amount of catalase, which is regulated by Nrf2, was significantly lower in the brain, heart and liver of Old World fruit bats despite higher levels of Nrf2 protein in Old World fruit bats. Computational predictions suggest that three of these seven amino acid replacements might be deleterious to Nrf2 function. Therefore, the results suggest that Nrf2 gene might have experienced relaxed constraint in Old World fruit bats, however, we cannot rule out the possibility of positive selection. Our study provides the first data on the molecular adaptation of Nrf2 gene in frugivorous bats in compensation to the increased levels of LWMAs from their fruit-diet. PMID:26735303

  17. Uma nova espécie de Strebla Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera, Streblidae, Streblinae sobre Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Glossophaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciolli Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Strebla Wiedemann, S. carvalhoi sp. nov., collected, on Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818 from Southern of Brazil, is described. Drawings of the postvertex, occipital plates, gonopods and tergite VII are provided.

  18. 广东7种蝙蝠的核型研究%Karyology of seven species of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 原田正史

    2006-01-01

    对采集于广东的4科7种蝙蝠进行了核型分析,它们的核型分别是:犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx) 2n=34, FN=58;印度假吸血蝠(Megaderma lyra)2n=54, FN=104;大耳双色蹄蝠(Hipposideros pomona)2n=32, FN=60; 中蹄蝠(H.larvatus) 2n=32, FN=60;大卫鼠耳蝠(Myotis davidii) 2n=46, FN=52;大黄蝠(Scotophilus heathi) 2n=36, FN=54;南长翼蝠(Miniopterus australis)2n=46, FN=50.其中大耳双色蹄蝠和大卫鼠耳蝠的核型为首次报道,犬蝠、印度假吸血蝠、中蹄蝠、大黄蝠和南长翼蝠的核型为中国第一次报道.%Karyotypes and chromosomal data were presented for 7 species of bats that represent 4 families collected during field studies in Guangdong, China. The species investigated here were Cynopterus sphinx (2n=34, FN=58), Megaderma lyra (2n=54, FN=104), Hipposideros pomona (2n=32, FN=60), H.larvatus (2n=32, FN=60), Myotis davidii (2n=46, FN=52), Scotophilus heathi (2n=36, FN=54), Miniopterus australis (2n=46, FN=50). Hipposideros pomona and Myotis davidii were karyotyped for the first time. In addition, karyotypes of Cynopterus sphinx, Megaderma lyra, Hipposideros larvatus, Scotophilus heathi, and Miniopterus australis had not been previously reported in China.

  19. 江西省翼手目新记录-绯鼠耳蝠%A new record of the chiroptera in Jiangxi Province—Myotis formosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江廷磊; 冯江; 孙克萍; 赵云蛟; 张桢珍

    2007-01-01

    绯鼠耳蝠(Myotis formosus)采自江西吉安井冈山市梨坪村石燕洞(26°35′99″N,114°12′46″E)。该地区年平均气温14℃,年均降雨量1865mnl,属中亚热带湿润性气候。当地日落时间19:20。该地植被覆盖率高达70%以上,生物资源丰富,主要以毛竹(Phyllostachys hterocycla)、杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata)和木荷(Schima Superba)为主,其中毛竹为优势种群。在江西发现绯鼠耳蝠的分布,丰富了该物种在中国的分布,为进一步的研究和保护提供基本依据。

  20. A New Chiroptera Record in Guangxi,China:Murina aurata%广西翼手目一新纪录——金管鼻蝠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友邦; Neil M.Furey; 韦龙韬

    2010-01-01

    2009年11月,在广西西北部木论国家级自然保护区小洞丹洞穴中采到一翼手目标本,经鉴定为金管鼻蝠Murina aurata,是广西翼手目新纪录.目前,在木论自然保护区的18个洞穴调查中,只在该洞发现有分布.标本现保存于广西师范大学生物多样性标本馆.

  1. Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 ( Chiroptera : Hipposideridae ) from south India

    OpenAIRE

    Harpreet Kaur; Srinivasulu Chelmala; Bhargavi Srinivasulu; Tariq Shah; Gundena Devender; Aditya Srinivasulu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this sp...

  2. Do fly parasites of bats and their hosts coevolve?speciation in Trichobius phyllostomae group (Diptera, Streblidae and their hosts (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae suggests that they do not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.

  3. 翼手目动物的特殊生殖策略:精子贮存%Sperm Storage, a Peculiar Reproductive Strategy in Chiroptera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绪生; 张树义; 梁冰

    2002-01-01

    介绍了精子贮存现象在翼手目动物中的分布、产生的原因、精子贮存的部位、贮存后的受精能力、精子长期贮存的机制及贮存过程中的免疫问题,并对将来的研究方向进行了展望.

  4. Further study on karyology of bats ( Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Sichuan, China%四川蝙蝠核型的进一步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 原田正史; 石红艳; 刘昊

    2006-01-01

    报道了含中国特有种大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti)在内的、四川地区6种蝙蝠的核型.菊头蝠科2种,即大耳菊头蝠(Rhinolophus macrotis),核型为2n=62,FN=60;云南菊头蝠(R.yunanensis),核型较为特殊,2n=46,FN=60.蹄蝠科1种,即普氏蹄蝠(Hipposideros pratti),核型为2n=32,FN=60;蝙蝠科鼠耳蝠属3种,即中华鼠耳蝠(Myotis chinensis),核型为2n=44,FN=50;大足鼠耳蝠为2n=44,FN=52;西南鼠耳蝠(M.altarium)为2n=44,FN=50.其中大耳菊头蝠的核型为首次报道,云南菊头蝠的核型为中国第1次报道.%Karyotypes and chromosomal data were presented for 6 species of bats that represent 3 families collected in Sichuan, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus macrotis (2n = 62, FN =60), R. yunanensis (2n =46, FN =60), Hipposideros pratti (2n =32, FN =60), Myotis chinensis (2n =44, FN =50), M. ricketti (2n =44, FN =52) and M. altarium (2n =44, FN =50). R.macrotis was karyotyped for the first time, and karyotype of R. yunanensis had not been previously reported in China.

  5. 广州市区翼手类物种多样性的研究%Study on species diversity of Chiroptera in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 张成菊; 梁智文; 易祖盛

    2007-01-01

    2004年5月至2006年4月对广州市区内翼手类的物种多样性进行了调查.结果表明,广州市区有犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)、东亚伏翼(Pipistrellus abramus)、中华山蝠(Nyctalus velutinus)、扁颅蝠(Tylonycteris pachypus)、小黄蝠(Scotophilus kuhlii)、大黄蝠(Scotophilus heathii)、彩蝠(Kerivoula picta)等7种翼手类物种.分析了广州市区内翼手类的物种组成、区系特点和分布特征,其中东洋界种类占优势(71.42%),小黄蝠为优势种,东亚伏翼分布最广泛.

  6. A NEW RECORD GENUS MEGAEROPS AND ITS TWO SPECIES OF BAT IN CHINA(CHIROPTERA, PTEROPODIDAE)%中国翼手类一属、种新纪录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆; 蒋学龙; 李松; 王应祥

    2006-01-01

    记述了采自中国云南西部和西北部的无尾果蝠属Megaerops及其两个种:泰国无尾果蝠M.niphanae和无尾果蝠M.ecaudatus为翼手类中国属、种薪纪录.标本收藏于中国科学院昆明动物研究所.

  7. Characters and phylogenetic relationships of nectar-feeding bats, with descriptions of new Lonchophylla from western South America (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Lonchophyllini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.; Timm, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiropter: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied (five species) forms to aid in identification. Our morphological and morphometrical analyses of the smaller Lonchophyllini revealed the existence of two distinctive, previously undescribed species of bats of the genus Lonchophylla from western South America. We describe a new form from Amazonian Peru as Lonchophylla pattoni and one from western Colombia as Lonchophylla cadenai. Phyllogenetic analysis of the Lonchophyllini based primarily on morphological characters indicates that these two new species are closely related to Lonchophylla thomasi.

  8. The reassessment of the threatened status of the Indian endemic Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Hipposideridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargavi Srinivasulu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994, endemic to Kolar District, Karnataka, India was listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its restricted distribution and continuing decline in the quality of its habitat. The species has not been sighted or collected since its initial collection in the years 1983 and 1985 wherein eight individuals were collected from Therahalli and 41 individuals were collected from Hanumanhalli, respectively. Based on recent observations and collections from the type locality, we provide information about its distribution, threats, phylogenetic position and conservation status. We also provide an updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List categories.

  9. Do fly parasites of bats and their hosts coevolve?speciation in Trichobius phyllostomae group (Diptera, Streblidae) and their hosts (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) suggests that they do not

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species) cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one spe...

  10. Datos biométricos de cinco especies de murciélagos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) de la Región de Murcia (SE España)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisón Gil, Fulgencio

    2012-01-01

    En los murciélagos, las medidas alares son elementos clave para identificar las especies y tienen serias implicaciones en su ecología. No obstante, dichas medidas pueden sufrir variaciones geográficas en el rango de distribución de las especies y en otros casos, puede existir un marcado dimorfismo sexual. En este trabajo se aportan las medidas alares de 5 especies de murciélagos de la Región de Murcia, con un total de 312 individuos analizados. Los resultados confirman qu...

  11. Discovery of new colonies of the rare Wroughton’s Free-tailed Bat Otomops wroughtoni (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Molossidae in Meghalaya, northeastern India

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    Manuel Ruedi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Otomops wroughtoni is an extremely rare molossid bat, known so far by a single breeding colony in southwestern India and two single individuals recorded in Meghalaya and Cambodia.  We report here the discovery of three new roosts located in large karstic caves of the Jaintia Hills, in southeastern Meghalaya.  Visual counts indicate that at least 90 individuals occupied these new roosts in February 2014, which doubles the known world population of this species.  The new populations of Wroughton’s Free-tailed Bats from the Jaintia Hills have considerable value for the conservation of this elusive species.  Although these bats are protected under national laws, their cave roosts and hunting habitats are subjected to severe and ongoing degradation.  A protection plan that would include more extensive surveys and a strict conservation of these caves should be implemented rapidly to mitigate these threats. 

  12. Estrutura da comunidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Therys M. Sato; Maria Carolina de Carvalho-Ricardo; Wilson Uieda; Fernando C. Passos

    2015-01-01

    A estrutura de comunidades de morcegos no Brasil ainda é pouco estudada e vêm sofrendo sérias modificações devido à perda de habitats. O principal objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a comunidade de morcegos da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, município de Itirapina, Estado de São Paulo. Nesta Estação, além das espécies cultivadas de Eucalyptus e Pinus, há diversas plantas que podem fornecer alimento aos morcegos. Entre julho de 2001 e julho de 2006, foram realizadas 58 sessões noturn...

  13. Conservation of the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros Bechstein, 1800) (Mammalia : Chiroptera) in Belgium. A case study of feeding habitat requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Motte, G.; Libois, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the habitat use of the last important Belgian colony of Rhinolophus hipposideros, Bechstein, 1800, one of the most endangered bat species in Europe. During 71 evenings from April to August 1998, ultrasound detection was performed and, in late August, a female horseshoe bat was caught and fitted with a radio transmitter. The results showed that hedgerows and woodlands with bushes and coppice are key foraging habitats. They also highlight the importance of...

  14. Myotis formosus,A Record New of Chiroptera in Chongqing and Liaoning%在重庆和辽宁发现绯鼠耳蝠Myotis formosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗键; 高红英

    2006-01-01

    在重庆市奉节县天坑地缝自然保护区和沙坪坝区城区及辽宁省桓仁县老秃顶子山自然保护区发现绯鼠耳蝠[Myotis formosus (Hodgson , 1835)] 5只,为重庆市及辽宁省翼手目新记录.

  15. A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided. PMID:17294915

  16. Morphophysiology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bats Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina and Phyllostomus discolor (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fabiane F; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-07-01

    The male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. Despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. Thus, the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG). In all species, the prostate is composed of three well-defined regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal regions). The ventral region showed an atypical epithelium (undefined) with no obvious cellular limits and a holocrine PAS-positive secretion. The dorsolateral region of Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor showed a pseudostratified cubic morphology, and that from Glossophaga soricina had a columnar morphology endowed with cytoplasmic projections and stereocilia. The dorsal region of the three analyzed species is composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium endowed with stereocilia; however, G. soricina also presented cytoplasmic projections in the apical portions of the secretory cells similar to those in the dorsolateral region. The BG of the three analyzed species are composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium including basal and PAS-positive secretory cells. In conclusion, this study morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats, demonstrating the presence of a novel third prostatic region in species of this family. The results also showed the absence of seminal vesicles and ampullary glands, and better characterized the holocrine pattern of the prostatic ventral region, which is unique to bats.

  17. Parallel evolution of the glycogen synthase 1 (muscle) gene Gys1 between Old World and New World fruit bats (Order: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lu; Shen, Bin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-10-01

    Glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen, is especially important for Old World (Pteropodidae) and New World (Phyllostomidae) fruit bats that ingest high-carbohydrate diets. Glycogen synthase 1, encoded by the Gys1 gene, is the glycogen synthase isozyme that functions in muscles. To determine whether Gys1 has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets, in comparison to insect-eating sister bat taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Gys1 gene from 10 species of bats, including two Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and a New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our results show no evidence for positive selection in the Gys1 coding sequence on the ancestral Old World and the New World Artibeus lituratus branches. Tests for convergent evolution indicated convergence of the sequences and one parallel amino acid substitution (T395A) was detected on these branches, which was likely driven by natural selection.

  18. Molecular Evolution of the Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-Derived 2)-Like 2 Gene Nrf2 in Old World Fruit Bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Di; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene) is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce the need for antioxidant enzymes in comparison to insectivorous bats. Therefore, it is possible that frugivorous bats have a reduced need for Nrf2 function due to their substantial intake of diet-antioxidants. To test whether the Nrf2 gene has undergone relaxed evolution in fruit-eating bats, we obtained Nrf2 sequences from 16 species of bats, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and one New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed changes in the selection pressure acting on Nrf2 gene and identified seven specific amino acid substitutions that occurred on the ancestral lineage leading to Old World fruit bats. Biochemical experiments were conducted to examine Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats and showed that the amount of catalase, which is regulated by Nrf2, was significantly lower in the brain, heart and liver of Old World fruit bats despite higher levels of Nrf2 protein in Old World fruit bats. Computational predictions suggest that three of these seven amino acid replacements might be deleterious to Nrf2 function. Therefore, the results suggest that Nrf2 gene might have experienced relaxed constraint in Old World fruit bats, however, we cannot rule out the possibility of positive selection. Our study provides the first data on the molecular adaptation of Nrf2 gene in frugivorous bats in compensation to the increased levels of LWMAs from their fruit-diet.

  19. HOW DO WE IDENTIFY MICRONYCTERIS (SCHIZONYCETRIS SANBORNI SIMMONS, 1996 (CHIROPTERA, PHYLLOSTOMIDAE RELIABLY AND WHERE WE CAN FIND THIS SPECIES IN BRAZIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON FEIJÓ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronycteris is divided into four subgenera, Micronycteris, Leuconycteris, Xenoctenes, and Schizonycteris. The latter includes Micronycteris (Schizonycteris minuta, Micronycteris (S. schmidtorum, Micronycteris (S. sanborni and Micronycteris (S. yatesi. Little is known of the biology of M. (S. sanborni, which is widely distributed in the dry forests of South America, but is known from only few sites. The scarcity of records of M. sanborni appears to be at least partly related to the difficulty of differentiating this species from the other members of the subgenus Schizonycteris. The present study identifies the key traits that distinguish this species from other Schizonycteris, reviews the geographic distribution of the species, and presents some notes on breeding patterns. Six new localities are presented for M. sanborni, and are analyzed together with those available in the literature, providing new insights into ecological and zoogeographic patterns. A number of the diagnostic features established by Simmons (1996 in the description of M. sanborni proved to have little taxonomic value, especially for the differentiation of M. minuta and M. yatesi, which it closely resembles. The primary external difference is the pure white color of the ventral pelage and the proportion of the white base (2/3-4/5 of the dorsal hair in M. sanborni, in contrast with dirty white or pale gray and a much shorter white base of the dorsal hair in the other species. A number of cranial traits are also important. The distributional data now indicate that M. sanborni occurs mainly in mesic and open areas, including disturbed habitats, in the Caatinga scrublands and the Cerrado savannas of northeastern Brazil, especially in areas with rocky outcrops. Micronycteris sanborni appears to be monoestrous, with births coinciding with the rainy season.

  20. The diet of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Brünnich. 1782 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in Myanmar - conflicts with local people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sein Sein Win

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages.  It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves.  Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed.  Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers.  Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers. 

  1. Studio e conservazione di una colonia riproduttiva di Myotis emarginatus in Toscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agnelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Myotis emarginatus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae utilizza frequentemente gli edifici come rifugio estivo, sia per il riposo diurno che per la riproduzione. Negli anni 1996-2003, nel corso di indagini faunistiche sul territorio toscano, questa specie è stata rilevata nel 26% dei casi su 76 edifici rurali risultati occupati da pipistrelli e rappresenta ben il 50% degli esemplari rilevati. Il numero di esemplari di M. emarginatus in tali rifugi varia da 1 a 150 animali. Un edificio però può rendersi facilmente indisponibile per modificazioni nell?utilizzo da parte dell?uomo: ma cosa succede agli animali che si trovano improvvisamente senza casa? E quanto si può accrescere annualmente una colonia quando non viene disturbata? Nel 1997 nella Riserva Naturale Provinciale di Ponte a Buriano e Penna (AR, rilevammo una colonia riproduttiva di Myotis emarginatus stimata in circa 60 esemplari. Il rifugio estivo utilizzato fino al 2002 è costituito da una casa disabitata. Confrontando le stime effettuate dal 1997 al 2001 possiamo valutare l?accrescimento numerico della colonia: a partire dai circa 60 animali si è raggiunta la consistenza di 75 esemplari nel 2001, ossia circa il 25% in 5 anni (5% annuo di media. I conteggi sono stati effettuati a vista da almeno 3 persone, da breve distanza e in buona luce, ma poiché in questa specie gli esemplari si appendono alle travi addossandosi uno sopra l?altro, è impossibile effettuare un vero conteggio. Nell?estate 2001 abbiamo condotto una ricerca più accurata sull?utilizzo del rifugio: dai rilievi di un rilevatore di passaggio all?infrarosso e soprattutto dalle riprese di una videocamera, risulta che il numero degli esemplari era stato fortemente sottostimato: gli esemplari erano, infatti, ben 150 (femmine, ossia il doppio di quanto stimato sia pure in condizioni favorevoli. A Giugno (2001 abbiamo registrato la nascita di 101 piccoli, il cui tasso di mortalità prima dell

  2. A Study of Mammal Species Composition and Fauna in Jiangxi Province,China%江西哺乳动物组成及区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂飞云; 韩卫杰; 刘晓华; 孙志勇; 黄晓凤; 黄挺

    2014-01-01

    弄清某一区域物种组成是区系研究的基础,也是生物多样性保护的基础。通过查阅文献,按照《中国兽类野外手册》采用的分类系统对江西省哺乳动物名录进行重新厘定,以确定江西哺乳动物组成及区系特点。经确认江西野生哺乳动物有10目28科70属104种。国家重点保护野生动物有23种,其中国家Ⅰ级重点保护动物7种。物种组成上以翼手目种类占优势,蝙蝠科种类比例最高。哺乳动物区系以东洋界占绝对优势,分布型以东洋型物种占优势,其次是南中国型;符合江西所处的东洋界华中区东部丘陵平原亚区的特点,并对某些野生兽类物种的分类地位或分布进行了探讨。%Species composition investigation in a certain region is the basis for fauna study and biodiversity protection.To confirm species composition and fauna ,a wild mammal List of Jiangxi Province was edited ac-cording to the classification system of the book entitled ‘A Guide to the Mammals of China ’ and other relevant literatures.The results confirm that there are 104 species of mammals within Jiangxi .These species belong to 10 orders,28 families and 70 genera.Twenty-three species are listed as nationally protected rare wild mammals . Seven of the species are first-class nationally protected rare wild mammals .The dominant species are bat spe-cies from Chiroptera , especially Vespertilionidae species .The mammal fauna are dominated by the oriental realm species .As viewed from distribution types ,the oriental type species are dominant ,and the Southern China type species are in the second place .All these characteristics are concordant with Jiangxi fauna ,which belongs to the eastern hill-plain sub-region,central China region,and oriental realm.In addition,the species status or distribution of several species of mammals is discussed in this study .

  3. Ocorrência de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Records of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera from the cerrado of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Basilia Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Nycteribiidae and eigth species of Streblidae were collected from Brasília. Basilia anceps Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; B. hughscotti Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; Megistopoda aranea (Coquillet, 1899; M. proxima (Séguy, 1926 and Neotrichobius delicatus (Machado-Allison, 1966 are collected for the first time at the Federal District.

  4. Ocorrência de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae) de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) no cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Records of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from the cerrado of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Graciolli; Ludmilla S. Aguiar

    2002-01-01

    Two species of Basilia Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Nycteribiidae) and eigth species of Streblidae were collected from Brasília. Basilia anceps Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; B. hughscotti Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; Megistopoda aranea (Coquillet, 1899); M. proxima (Séguy, 1926) and Neotrichobius delicatus (Machado-Allison, 1966) are collected for the first time at the Federal District.

  5. Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in Guaratuba Bay.

  6. 中国大陆菊头蝠科一新纪录——单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros,Andersen 1905 Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)%New record of Formosan lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus monoceros Andersen 1905 Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) in Mainland of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周江; 杨天友

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2008年7月至2009年2月在贵州省松桃县进行翼手目动物生物多样性研究中,于平头乡埁字村仙人洞(北纬28°01'20.5",东经109°05'22.8",海拔582 m),获得一号菊头蝠标本,经鉴定为单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros Andersen,1905).

  7. Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no sul do Brasil: associações hospedeiros-parasitos e taxas de infestação Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in southern Brazil: hosts-parasites associations and infestation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Rui

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As associações hospedeiros-parasitos e as taxas de infestação de dípteros ectoparasitos da família Streblidae foram estudadas em morcegos da família Phyllostomidae na Floresta Atlântica no extremo sul do Brasil. Para as espécies mais abundantes de filostomídeos, foi examinado se há diferenças nos valores de prevalência e intensidade média dos ectoparasitos nas diferentes estações do ano e conforme sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Em quatro espécies de filostomídeos (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram coletados 118 indivíduos de sete espécies de Streblidae (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 e Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Para A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus e S. lilium, as taxas de infestação foram baixas e houve uma tendência à infestação ser maior no verão e outono, fato provavelmente relacionado à sazonalidade de temperatura na região, que afeta as taxas reprodutivas e a mortalidade dos ectoparasitos. A infestação por P. longicrus em A. lituratus não foi afetada pelo sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Para S. lilium, a infestação por M. proxima não foi afetada por sexo e idade do hospedeiro, com exceção da maior prevalência de ectoparasitos em indivíduos jovens. Os dados indicam que não existem diferenças comportamentais ligadas a sexo e idade do hospedeiro que favoreçam ou comprometam a infestação por Streblidae nestas espécies de morcegos filostomídeos.Hosts-parasites associations, including infestation rates, between ectoparasitic bat flies of the family Streblidae and bats of the family Phyllostomidae were studied in Atlantic Forest habitats in southern Brazil. For the more abundant phyllostomid bats, the prevalence and mean intensity of fly infestation were determined during the different seasons of the year and in relation to the sex and age of their hosts. From four species of bats (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810, were collected 118 specimens of bat flies belonging to seven species (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 and Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Low infestation rates were found in A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus and S. lilium and there were a tendency for the bats to be more parasited in summer and autumn, probably related to the seasonal temperatures in the region studied because such temperatures affect the reproductive and mortality rates of the ectoparasites. For A. lituratus, the age or sex of the host did not affect the infestation rates by P. longicrus. Although the age or sex of S. lilium did not, in general, affect the rate of infestation by M. proxima, juvenile S. lilium appeared to be more frequently parasitized by M. proxima than did adult bats. The data indicate that there are no behavioral differences linked to the age and sex of the species of phyllostomid bats studied which favor or disfavor infestation by Streblidae.

  8. Inventários biológicos rápidos de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em três unidades de conservação do Amapá, Brasil Rapid biological surveys of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera in three conservation units in Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. M. Martins

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com alta diversidade biológica e elevado grau de preservação, a porção norte da Bacia Amazônica, e em especial o Estado do Amapá, são ainda relativamente pouco conhecidos em relação à sua fauna e flora. Estudos apontam que o Amapá possui regiões classificadas como de alta ou muito alta importância para a realização de inventários de fauna na Amazônia Brasileira, havendo ainda grandes lacunas na realização destas amostragens. De forma a suprir parte destas necessidades, três das principais unidades de conservação do Estado, o Parque Nacional Montanhas do Tumucumaque, a Floresta Nacional do Amapá, e a Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Rio Iratapuru, foram recentemente amostrados para diferentes grupos biológicos. São apresentados aqui os resultados de inventários de morcegos provenientes de quatro expedições a estas unidades. Após um esforço de 1730,5 rede.horas, quatro inventários registraram 858 capturas, de 51 espécies pertencentes a 36 gêneros e seis famílias. Destas, 25 espécies representam primeiras ocorrências para o Estado, elevando-se para 73 o número de espécies de morcegos registradas no Amapá.With a high biological diversity and good status of preservation, the northern part of the Amazon Basin, and specially the State of Amapá, have their fauna and flora poorly studied. Studies pointed that Amapá has several areas classified as highest priority for faunal inventories in the Amazon Basin, but even that few studies have been conducted. In order to fulfill part of these knowledge gaps, three of the most important conservation units in the State, namely the Tumucumaque Mountains National Park, the Amapá National Forest and the Rio Iratapuru Sustainable Development Reserve, were studied for different biological groups. The results of four bat surveys in these conservation units are presented here. With a sampling effort of 1730.5 mistnet.hours, 858 bats were recorded, belonging to 51 species, 36 genus and six families. At least 25 of these species are first records for the State, elevating to 73 the number of bat species already recorded in Amapá.

  9. Morcegos da região sul do Brasil: análise comparativa da riqueza de espécies, novos registros e atualizações nomenclaturais (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from southern Brazil: comparative analysis of species richness, new records and nomenclatural update (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Passos

    Full Text Available Uma análise comparativa da riqueza de espécies de morcegos da Região Sul do Brasil é apresentada, assim como análises de similaridades entre estados. O estado do Paraná apresentou a maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos, com 64 espécies, seguido por Santa Catarina com 46 e pelo Rio Grande do Sul com 40. A família Phyllostomidae influencia fortemente este padrão de riqueza. As distribuições geográficas de Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, Artibeus cinereus (Gervais, 1851 e Thyroptera tricolor Spix, 1823 são ampliadas até o Paraná, estabelecendo um novo limite sul de distribuição dessas espécies e da família Thyropteridae. Além disso, Myotis dinellii Thomas, 1902 foi registrado pela primeira vez no Brasil, em Santa Catarina e no Rio Grande do Sul, estabelecendo um novo limite leste para sua distribuição. Ainda, é ampliada a distribuição de Eptesicus taddeii Miranda, Bernardi & Passos, 2006 a partir de seu primeiro registro no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Uma lista atualizada dos morcegos dos estados sul-brasileiros é apresentada bem como algumas adequações nomenclaturais. É enfatizada a importância do emprego de maiores esforços de campo para levantamentos da quiropterofauna, que assim podem contribuir para medidas de conservação embasadas em inventariamentos e coleções científicas representativas.A comparative analysis of the patterns of bat species richness in southern Brazil is presented, as well as similarity analyses among states. The highest richness of bat species is found in the state of Paraná, with 64 species, followed by Santa Catarina with 46, and Rio Grande do Sul, with 40. The family Phyllostomidae plays an important role in determining this pattern. The geographical distributions of Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, Artibeus cinereus (Gervais, 1851 and Thyroptera tricolor Spix, 1823 are expanded to the state of Paraná, establishing a new southern limit for these species and for Thyropteridae. In addition Myotis dinellii Thomas, 1901 is first recorded in Brazil, in Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, establishing a new eastern limit for this species. The distribution of Eptesicus taddeii Miranda, Bernardi & Passos, 2006 is extended by a new record in Rio Grande do Sul. An updated list of bats for the southern Brazilian states is presented with few nomenclatural adjustments. The importance of more intensive field efforts to survey the chiropterofauna is highlighted as a way to improve conservation efforts based on representative surveys and scientific collections.

  10. A dieta dos morcegos frugívoros (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) de um pequeno remanescente de Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual do sul do Brasil The diet of fruit-eating bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in a small Semideciduous Seasonal Forest remnant in south Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Bos Mikich

    2002-01-01

    The diet of some leaf-nosed frugivorous bats - Artibeus Leach, 1821, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sturnira lilium (e. Geoffroy, 1810) - was studied for nine consecutive months through faecal analysis of individuais captured with mist-nets in a small forest remnant of Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis revealed that Artibeus spp. exhibited preference for fruits of Ficus spp. and Carollia perspicillata for those of Piper spp., which is in accordance with the results of previous s...

  11. A dieta dos morcegos frugívoros (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae de um pequeno remanescente de Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual do sul do Brasil The diet of fruit-eating bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in a small Semideciduous Seasonal Forest remnant in south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bos Mikich

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some leaf-nosed frugivorous bats - Artibeus Leach, 1821, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Sturnira lilium (e. Geoffroy, 1810 - was studied for nine consecutive months through faecal analysis of individuais captured with mist-nets in a small forest remnant of Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis revealed that Artibeus spp. exhibited preference for fruits of Ficus spp. and Carollia perspicillata for those of Piper spp., which is in accordance with the results of previous studies. But contrary to what was expected, fruit of Solanum spp. were not found for the diet of Sturnira lilium in spite of their high availabilily (16 species in the study area and their known relationship with this bat genus. The species of consumed fruit belonged to several plant life forms (trees, bushes, and lianas and occurred in several habitais. This result emphasizes the importance of keeping habitat diversity, especially in small isolated reserves. Most consumed fruits were green, in agreement with the chiropterochoric syndrome, but ali seeds were small due to limitations of the sampling method. Fruit species abundance in the study area did not seem to have influenced their consumption, but intra-specific fruit availability did so, since most fruits were consumed within their intra-annual peak of availability.

  12. Aspectos da história natural de Mimon bennettii (Gray na Escarpa Devoniana, Estado do Paraná, Brasil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Notes on the natural history of Mimon bennettii (Gray in the Devonian Scarp, State of Paraná, Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

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    João M. D. Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de sua ampla distribuição, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 é uma espécie pouco conhecida. Cinco indivíduos foram capturados com redes de neblina no Distrito do Bugre (25º29'52"S, 49º39'24"W e quatro no Distrito de São Luiz do Purunã (25º28'18"S, 49º42'53"W ambos no Município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. As áreas encontram-se nos domínios da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, e na região da Escarpa Devoniana. Além do registro de dois novos pontos de ocorrência de uma espécie pouco amostrada no Estado, este trabalho também apresenta alguns dados sobre a biologia reprodutiva e utilização de abrigo diurno por M. bennettii.Despite its broad geographical distribution, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 is a poorly studied species. Five individuals were captured using mist nets in the District of Bugre (25º29'52"S, 49º39'24"W and four in the District of São Luiz do Purunã (25º28'18"S, 49º42'53"W, both in the Municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. These areas are located within the domain of the Araucaria Pine Forest, in the region of the Devonian Scarp. In addition to the record of two new points of occurrence of this poorly know species in the State of Paraná, this study also reports on data on reproductive biology and use of daily roost by M. bennettii.

  13. Screening of Wild Strawberry Genotypes against Iron Deficiency under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Ayfer Alkan TORUN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated strawberry Fragaria × ananassa Duch. is the natural hybrid of F. chiloensis (L. Mill. and F. virginiana Mill. The progenitor species have high genetic diversity compared with the cultivated genotypes; therefore, the use of wild relative in F. chiloensis breeding could provide a good for broadening the available genetic variations of cultivated species. In present study, 13 genotypes selected from strawberry super core collection were tested under Fe (- and Fe (+ conditions for their response against Fe deficiency conditions in a growth medium (GM (soil + sand + perlite, potentially able to simulate the actual GM in nature. SPAD-meter readings indicating chlorophyll levels of the leaf, shoot dry matter yield, Fe-efficiency rate, shoot total and active Fe concentrations were determined to evaluate the resistance levels of strawberry genotypes against Fe deficiency. Results of this study indicated that different response for strawberry subspecies and genotypes of the same subspecies grown in GM against Fe deficiency. Symptom for Fe deficiency of genotypes varied between 1-5, SPAD-meter readings 3, shoot dry matter yields and shoot Fe concentrations varied between 6.5-38, 1.02-6.06 g plant-1 and 41.8-233.1 mg kg-1 respectively. Iron-efficiencies of genotypes were found between 58–98%. Strawberry subspecies, F. virginiana spp. glauca, F. chiloensis ssp. chiloensis and F. chiloensis ssp. pacifica showed Fe-efficiency values of 93.8, 79.5 and 79.1% respectively. We concluded that shoot growth performance, Fe intake from GM, transfer of Fe from roots to shoots, shoot Fe-use efficiency, Fe deficiency symptom levels and SPAD-meter readings indicating chlorophyll levels were significant parameters to evaluate the resistance of strawberry genotypes against Fe deficiency. The most Fe-efficient genotypes belonging to F. virginiana spp. glauca could be used in breeding programs aiming at developing new strawberry genotypes suitable for

  14. Ejemplares tipo de mamíferos en colecciones cubanas

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos García, Ignacio; Borroto Páez, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Se brinda información sobre los ejemplares tipo (50 holotipos y sus paratipos) de mamíferos (Xenarthra, Insectivora, Chiroptera, Primates, Carnivora, Sirenia y Rodentia) depositados en siete colecciones cubanas. En las fichas de los holotipos se incluye la información de la descripción original y además se hacen actualizaciones y correcciones sobre este material. Information on the type specimens (50 holotypes and their paratypes) of mammals (Xenarthra, Insectivora, Chiroptera, Primates, C...

  15. The freshwater amphipods Hyalella Smith, 1874 in Chile (Crustacea: Amphipoda Los anfípodos de agua dulce del género Hyalella Smith, 1874 en Chile (Crustacea: Amphipoda

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    EXEQUIEL R. GONZÁLEZ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean fauna of amphipods has been poorly studied. Freshwater amphipods in Chile have a single genus in epigean environments. Seven species of the genus Hyalella are reported for Chile: H. simplex; H. fossamancinii, H. kochi; H. chiloensis; H. costera; H. araucana, and H. franciscae. A short diagnosis, a key and figures are given for each speciesLa fauna de anfípodos chilenos ha sido pobremente estudiada. En el caso de los de agua dulce y de ambientes epigeos, el grupo está representado solo por un género. Se reportan siete especies del género Hyalella para Chile: H. simplex; H. fossamancinii, H. kochi; H. chiloensis; H. costera; H. araucana, y H. franciscae. Se entrega una breve diagnosis, una clave y figuras para cada especie

  16. 亚洲南部球果蝠Sphaerias blanfordi(Thomas,1891)的亚种分化%Subspecies differentiation for Blanford's fruit bat,Sphaerias blanfordi(Pteropodidae,Chiroptera)in southern Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆; 蒋学龙; 王应祥

    2008-01-01

    球果蝠Sphaerias blanfordi(Thomas,1891)是亚洲南部喜马拉雅-印度支那地区的特有种,甚为罕见而少有报道.曾被认为是单型种,几乎无雄性特征的描述.蔡桂全和张遁治(1980)根据采自西藏东南部墨脱的2只雄性标本订了一亚种一墨脱亚种Sphaerias blanfordi motuoensis,其主要特征是颈下侧有一对灰黄色的圆形毛斑.中国科学院昆明动物研究所先后在云南西北部高黎贡山地区采获25号标本(9♂♂,16♀♀),发现球果蝠两性在外形上有明显的性别差异,雄性的颈下侧有一对圆形、灰黄色的刷状毛斑,但雌性均无;对比墨脱标本,认为墨脱亚种的鉴别特征不可靠,亚种不能成立.Lunde(2003)曾报道采自越南北部Mt.Tay Con Linh Ⅱ地区的43号标本,其前臂长和上犬齿外宽明显与印度、缅甸和云南西北部高黎贡山地区的标本不同,可能是真正的地理亚种.

  17. К ФАУНЕ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (CHIROPTERA) ТАМБОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Орлов, Максим; Лада, Георгий

    2013-01-01

    Приводятся новые оригинальные сведения о видовом составе и распространении рукокрылых Тамбовской области, полученные в результате полевых исследований 2009–2010 гг. Указаны первые конкретные места находок ночницы Наттерера ( Myotis nattereri ), малой вечерницы ( Nyctalus leisleri ) и нетопыря-карлика ( Pipistrellus pipistrellus ) в регионе, а также новые точки обитания других видов....

  18. Karyotypic evolution in family Hipposideridae(Chiroptera,Mammalia)revealed by comparative chromosome painting,G-and C-banding%蹄蝠科的核型进化:比较染色体涂色、G带和C带分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀光; 王金焕; 苏伟婷; 王应祥; 杨凤堂; 佴文惠

    2010-01-01

    与其姐妹科(菊头蝠科)相比,蹄蝠科的细胞遗传学研究较少.迄今为止,仅少数蹄蝠科几个物种有高分辨率的G带核型报道,且有关该科核型进化的大多数结论都是基于常规Giemsa染色研究而得.该研究利用三叶小蹄蝠的染色体特异探针,通过比较染色体涂色、G和C显带,建立了5种蹄蝠的染色体同源性图谱,并探讨了它们同源染色体间的G和C带异同.结果表明:罗伯逊易位、臂内倒位以及异染色质的扩增可能是蹄蝠科物种核型进化的主要机制.通过对这5种蹄蝠物种及其外群物种之间的同源染色体片段的比较分析,作者推测蹄蝠科的祖先核型并不像先前认为的全由端着丝粒染色体组成,而应该含有中着丝粒染色体.

  19. Analysis of environmental factors on geographical distribution of Chinese chiroptera%中国翼手目地理分布的环境因子影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉春; 蒙以航; 张利存; 叶青

    2005-01-01

    利用地理信息系统提取了中国翼手目90个物种已知地理分布点的环境因子数据,并利用主成分分析和逐步回归分析研究了这些环境因子对中国翼手目动物地理分布和种数密度分布的影响程度.结果表明,按其影响程度大小,影响中国翼手目动物地理分布的连续型环境因子依次为年平均气温、大于零度日数、一月份平均气温、无霜期日数、年降雨量、年平均相对湿度、七月份平均气温、海拔高度和年日照时数,其中年日照时数和海拔高度为负影响;影响翼手目种数密度分布的决定环境因子是年降雨量,但年平均气温也有明显作用.作者认为,气候因子影响翼手目动物地理分布的机制是限制性因子的作用,主要受冬眠和活动及摄食时间长短的限制,而种数密度分布则决定于环境资源的丰富度,即主要受到由降雨量决定的食物种类多少的影响.另外,对类别环境因子的研究表明:植被类型对翼手目的种数分布没有明显影响;具有多洞穴特点的喀斯特和火山熔岩地貌具有较多的翼手目种类,但红层地貌由于分布于南方和分散分布的特点而具有最高的翼手目种数密度[动物学报 51(3):413-422,2005].

  20. 广东省大陆翼手目动物区系与地理区划%A Study on the Fauna and Geographic Distribution of Chiroptera in Continent of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐剑; 邹佩贞; 温彩燕; 陈建荣; 吴毅

    2002-01-01

    广东省大陆翼手目动物共有37种,隶属6科15属,根据中国动物地理区划,按照模糊聚类分析初步划分大陆翼手目动物为四个地理省,即粤北山地省、粤东低山丘陵省、粤西山地丘陵省、沿海台地平原省,翼手目物种分布表现了明显的热带--亚热带过渡性,大耳菊头蝠(Rhinolophus macrotis)、水鼠耳蝠(Myotis daubentoni)为广东省新纪录种.

  1. Seasonal variation in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of seasonal variations in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus and Sturnira lilium in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil. It was conducted in the town of Pedras Grandes, in the southern end of Santa Catarina. The chiropterans were captured with mist nets installed in the canopy and subcanopy. To check whether there were differences in the number of captures between seasons, we used the chi-square test (χ2, with a significance level of 0.05, and, whenever needed, partial χ2 tests. Artibeus lituratus showed significant differences between seasons, and the largest number of captures occurs in autumn. For S. lilium we did not observe statistically significant differences. The seasonal variation found out for A. lituratus may be related to its diet, which is based on fruits whose availability has seasonal variations. For S. lilium, besides the diet, mainly based on plants that do not have seasonal variations with regard to fruit availability, the altitude of the study area and its variations in temperature also seem to explain the absence of seasonal variation.

  2. 普通长翼蝠食性结构及其回声定位与体型特征%Dietary composition, echolocation pulses and morphological measurements of the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus (Chiroptera: Vespertilioninae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡开良; 韦力; 朱滕滕; 王绪中; 张礼标

    2011-01-01

    在普通长翼蝠(Miniopterus fuliginosus)的捕食区内用灯诱法和网捕法调查潜在食物(昆虫)种类; 用粪便分析法鉴定普通长翼蝠的食物组成,发现其主要捕食体型较大的鳞翅目和鞘翅目昆虫,体积百分比分别为55%和38%.普通长翼蝠具有相对狭长的翼,翼展比为6.94 ± 0.13;翼载为(9.85 ± 0.83)N/m2,相对较大.飞行状态下普通长翼蝠的回声定位叫声为调频下扫型,声脉冲时程为(1.45 ± 0.06)ms,脉冲间隔为(63.08 ± 21.55)ms,主频较低,为(44.50 ± 2.26)kHz.研究表明,普通长翼蝠的形态特征和回声定位特征与其捕食行为有着密切的联系.%We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55%,by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38%) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58 ± 0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85 ± 0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M.fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45 ± 0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08 ± 21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50 ± 2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.

  3. Cluster analysis on the distribution patterns of Chiroptera in Hainan island%海南岛翼手类地理分布格局的聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德伟; 尹锋; 曾玉; 张园; 张信文

    2010-01-01

    2007年7月~2008年7月,对海南岛翼手类动物进行了物种多样性调查.按照和Simmons的分类系统进行分类,结合考察标本记录,整理调查结果和文献资料.统计海南岛翼手类动物计37种,隶属于2亚目7科(包括采集标本,计16种,隶属于2亚目4科).依据分布型对其组成成分进行分析,结果表明海南岛翼手类动物东洋界种类相对较多,反映出强烈的华南区的特征;岛屿的影响表现在亚种分化和缺乏某些大陆类群.依物种组成时分布区进行聚类分析,结果呈现明显的四阶现象.根据物种多样性组成和聚类分析结果,可以认为以乐东、东方和陵水为主要区域范围的尖峰岭和吊罗山两大山系是目前统计海南岛翼手类物种分布的热点区.

  4. A New Record of the Chiroptera in Shandong Province——Tadarida teniotis%山东省翼手目一新纪录——宽耳犬吻蝠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由玉岩; 刘森; 王磊; 江廷磊; 冯江

    2009-01-01

    在山东省济南市长清区张夏镇发现宽耳犬吻蝠(Tadarida teniotis).本文详细描述了5只蝙蝠的形态特征,并与安徽、台湾、非洲和云南样本的体型及头骨参数进行了比较.宽耳犬吻蝠为山东省新纪录.

  5. 海南岛马鞍岭火山口地区翼手目物种多样性%Species Diversity of Chiroptera in Ma'anling Volcano Area, Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉春; 陈忠; 龙育儒; 周锋; 钟友仁

    2006-01-01

    马鞍岭火山口为海南岛的重要农业区和旅游地,为了解该地区的动物资源,2004年我们对该地区的翼手目种类进行了调查.结果显示,马鞍岭火山口地区共有翼手目动物10种,隶属4科7属,占海南岛已知翼手目种类(31种)的32.3%,具有较高的翼手目物种多样性,其香农-维纳指数为2.734、均匀性指数为0.823、辛普森指数为0.817.本文还分析了马鞍岭火山口地区翼手目的区系特点,并对其物种的多样性和分布特征进行了讨论.

  6. The status quo and prospect of application for phallic morphology on Chiroptera taxonomy%阴茎形态学在翼手目分类问题上的应用现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文华; 吴毅; 陈忠; 李玉春

    2007-01-01

    在概述中国蝙蝠的分类状况和存在的问题的基础上,对蝙蝠阴茎形态学特别是阴茎骨形态学应用于哺乳动物分类的研究现状进行了分析,介绍了常用的阴茎形态研究方法,提出使用阴茎形态学指标进一步完善中国蝙蝠分类特别是种级水平的分类.

  7. The Chiroptera Species Diversity in Eastern of Songtao,Guizhou Province%贵州省松桃县东部地区翼手目物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周江; 杨天友

    2010-01-01

    2008年7月至2009年2月,对贵州省松桃县东部地区的14个镇(乡)47洞穴翼手目的种类、数量、分布及生境进行调查研究.通过标本的采集、鉴定,确定该地区共有翼手目动物3科14种,其中2种为待定种;爪哇伏翼(Pipistrellus javanicus)、棒茎伏翼(P.paterculus)、单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros)3种在贵州省首次发现,其中单角菊头蝠是在中国大陆首次发现.另外,还对该地区蝙蝠的冬眠行为、对冬眠地的选择以及栖息环境的受胁现状进行了初步调查,发现不同种类蝙蝠的冬眠行为是不一样的;同时发现,洞外捕食生境的不同会造成洞穴内分布翼手目种类的不同.

  8. Los murciélagos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) del término municipal de Yecla (Región de Murcia, SE España): distribución y estado de conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Óscar; Castaño, Julián; Carpena, Francisco José; Ortuño, Antinio; Rico, Fernando; Sánchez, Inmaculada; Lisón Gil, Fulgencio

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se aportan 42 citas (en cuadrículas UTM de 10x10 km) de quirópteros para el municipio de Yecla (SE España). Se han identificado 14 especies de murciélagos y se amplía la distribución de algunas especies raras. Los muestreos se realizaron entre 2011-2014 empleando diferentes metodologías. En total se realizaron 19 visitas a refugios potenciales, 59 puntos de escucha y 5 sesiones de fototrampeo. Las especies con mayor número de citas son Pipistrellus pipistr...

  9. Distribución de los murciélagos de los géneros pipistrellus, Hypsugo y Eptesicus (Mammalia, Chiroptera en el País Vasco Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIHARTZA, J., GARIN, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos determinado la distribución de los murciélagos de los géneros Pipistrellus, Hypsugo y Eptesicus en Araba, Biakaia eta Gipuzkoa. Para ello se han muestreado sistemáticamente todas las cuadrículas UTM de 10x10 km entre 1995y 2000 combinando la búsqueda directa en refugios, el empleo de redes y trampas de arpa, y los detectores de ultrasonidos. P. pipistrellus es muy frecuente y aparece prácticamente en todas las cuadrículas y, además, todas las identificaciones mediante detectores correspondieron al fonotipo de 45 kHz ; no se obtuvieron datos sobre P. pygmaeus (fonotipo 55 kHz. P. kuhlii es una especie muy frecuente y de distribución amplia, aunque con lagunas en algunas zonas de montaña como el extremo oriental de Araba y sur de Gipuzkoa. Unicamente se obtuvieron 3 citas de P. nathusii, concordantes con su carácter migratorio en nuestro entorno. H. savii se encontró al sur de Araba, cerca de zonas de montaña y de los pueblos. E. serotinus es de distribución amplia, más abundante en zonas de montaña o sus estribaciones con amplias zonas rocosas.

  10. Relación de los ensambles de murciélagos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) y el uso de la tierra en el noreste de la región pampeana de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La transformación de los ecosistemas es preocupante ya que la existencia del hombre como especie depende de los servicios que éstos nos brindan. Existe una estrecha relación entre la biodiversidad y la provisión de servicios ecosistémicos, por lo tanto el cambio en la diversidad biológica, indicativo del grado de impacto de las actividades humanas en los ecosistemas, repercute directamente en los servicios. Las variaciones de los ensambles de murciélagos pueden ser utilizadas como indicadores...

  11. Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea sobre morcegos filostomídeos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em cavernas do Distrito Federal Brasil Streblid batflies (Diptera, Streblidae on phyllostomid bats from eaves in Distrito Federal Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of streblid batflies on phyllostomid bats was carried out from caves in Distrito Federal, Brazil during 1997 and 1998. Thirteen species were found on eight species of bats. Two species of batflies, Trichobius lonchophyllae Wenzel, 1966 and T. propinquus Wenzel, 1976, are new records for Brazil.

  12. Abrigos diurnos, composição de colônias, dimorfismo sexual e reprodução do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Diurnal roosts, colony composition, sexual size dimorphism and reproduction of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Novaes Gomes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Embora informações acerca da composição das colônias do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 sejam importantes para o controle de suas populações, poucos estudos a esse respeito foram desenvolvidos no Brasil. São apresentadas aqui informações obtidas de colônias de D. rotundus encontradas em 12 abrigos diurnos no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1999 e 2000. Em geral, os abrigos naturais e artificiais não possuíam grandes dimensões e estruturalmente variaram entre si. O formato dos abrigos interferiu na distribuição dos indivíduos das colônias no interior dos abrigos. Essas colônias continham, em média, 130 indivíduos distribuídos em três locais no interior dos abrigos. Havia também diversos indivíduos vivendo isolados ou em pequenos grupos dispersos. A proporção entre os sexos dos morcegos capturados foi de 1 macho: 1,37 fêmeas e, em sua maioria, os morcegos capturados eram adultos (89%. Dimorfismo sexual foi verificado estatisticamente no comprimento dos antebraços e na massa corporal, sendo as fêmeas maiores que os machos. A maior parte dos machos adultos (87% estava sexualmente ativo, mas 65,5% das fêmeas adultas não estavam grávidas.Although information about colonies composition of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 are important to the Program of the population control of vampire bat, few studies on this were carried out in Brazil. Biological data of the D. rotundus colonies from São Paulo State were obtained in 1999 and 2000 and they are presented here. In general, the natural and the man-made roosts were not big in size and they varied in their structural aspects which have influenced the bat distribution within the roosts. The vampire bat colonies had 130 individuals in average, living in three roosting sites, and several lonely bats and small groups were also found disperse within the roost. The sex rate of colonies was 1 male: 1,37 female and the most of bats caught inside the roosts was adult (89%. Sexual size dimorphism was observed in forearm length and body mass, being females bigger than males. Most of adult males (87% were sexual active, but 65,5% of adult females were not pregnant.

  13. Comparative genetic mapping points to different sex chromosomes in sibling species of wild strawberry (Fragaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Margot T; Spigler, Rachel B; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2010-12-01

    Separate sexes have evolved repeatedly from hermaphroditic ancestors in flowering plants, and thus select taxa can provide unparalleled insight into the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes that are thought to be shared by plants and animals alike. Here we ask whether two octoploid sibling species of wild strawberry--one almost exclusively dioecious (males and females), Fragaria chiloensis, and one subdioecious (males, females, and hermaphrodites), F. virginiana--share the same sex-determining chromosome. We created a genetic map of the sex chromosome and its homeologs in F. chiloensis and assessed macrosynteny between it and published maps of the proto-sex chromosome of F. virginiana and the homeologous autosome of hermaphroditic diploid species. Segregation of male and female function in our F. chiloensis mapping population confirmed that linkage and dominance relations are similar to those in F. virginiana. However, identification of the molecular markers most tightly linked to the sex-determining locus in the two octoploid species shows that, in both, this region maps to homeologues of chromosome 6 in diploid congeners, but is located at opposite ends of their respective chromosomes.

  14. Partial molecular characterization of alphaherpesviruses isolated from tropical bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth M; Counor, Dorian; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Reynes, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    International audience Herpesviruses have previously been isolated from African and South-American bats. Recently, herpesviruses detected from European insectivorous bats (family Vespertilionidae) were classified molecularly as betaherpesviruses and gammaherpesviruses. In the current study, we performed PCR analyses targeting the UL30 catalytic subunit region of the DNA polymerase gene of the African and South American herpesviruses and new Malagasy and Cambodian herpesviruses isolated fro...

  15. The oldest African bat from the early Eocene of El Kohol (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-05-01

    The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.

  16. Evolution of the placenta and associated reproductive characters in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M; Mess, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics indicate that the order Chiroptera is monophyletic and that one of four lineages of microbats (Rhinolophoidea) shares a common origin with megabats. Against this background we undertook a comprehensive analysis of placental evolution in bats. We defined ...

  17. Atlas van de Nederlandse vleermuizen 1970-1984, alsmede een vergelijking met vroegere gegevens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    The present distribution of bats (Chiroptera) in The Netherlands is documented and discussed. For each species a map is given illustrating the distribution before and after 1970. Where available, data are presented on migration, population trends, nursing colonies, roosts and hibernation sites, repr

  18. Public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats: A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Lina, P.H.C.; Kramps, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in Americ

  19. Molecular Phylogenetcs among Six Species of Bats ( Chiroptera: Vespertilionoidae)Based on Partial mtCOI DNA Sequences%基于部分线粒体细胞色素氧化酶亚基Ⅰ(mtCOI)DNA 序列的6种蝙蝠(翼手目:蝙蝠科)的分子系统进化关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑艳; 敖磊; 李娜; 谷晓明

    2007-01-01

    对贵州5种蝙蝠科蝙蝠的部分线粒体细胞色素氧化酶亚基Ⅰ DNA序列进行了测定,并结合从Genbank获得的爪哇伏翼的相应序列,以Pteropus dasymallus,P.scapulatus,Rousettus aegyptiacus为外群,运用贝叶斯法(Bayesian),最大似然法(Maximum Likelihood,ML)分析了这6种蝙蝠科蝙蝠的分子系统进化关系.结果表明:在贝叶斯,ML树中,这6种蝙蝠科的蝙蝠可分为3个分支:亚洲长翼蝠是第1个独立出来的分支;白腹管鼻蝠是继亚洲长翼蝠之后第2个分离出来的分支;第3个分支又分为两支,一支由大鼠耳蝠和小鼠耳蝠组成,另一支由南蝠和爪哇伏翼组成,支持将这4种蝙蝠同归于蝙蝠亚科的结论,从一定程度上否定了鼠耳蝠属和管鼻蝠亚科之间的姐妹类群关系,也不支持将鼠耳属提升为亚科.

  20. Diagnóstico laboratorial de raiva em quirópteros realizado em área metropolitana na região sudeste do Brasil Laboratory diagnosis of rabies in chiroptera carried out of a metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene F. Almeida

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro de 1988 adezembro de 1992, foi realizado diagnóstico de raiva em 289 morcegos através das técnicas de imunofluorescência direta e de inoculação intracerebral em camundongos. Dois morcegos insetívoros da espécie Nyctinomops macrotis se apresentaram positivos, representando 0,69% da amostra. Esses morcegos foram capturados, ainda vivos, em 1988 e 1990, na sala de um apartamento no sétimo andar e no muro de uma casa, respectivamente. Ambos em bairros residenciais. Apresentaram período de incubação de 13 e 11 dias, respectivamente, na prova biológica. A existência de morcegos insetívoros infectados com o vírus da raiva é preocupante, uma vez que essa população parece ser cada vez mais freqüente em áreas urbanas, porém isto não justifica ações predatórias indiscriminadas contra as espécies, principalmente levando-se em consideração a importância do morcego no equilíbrio ecológico da população de insetos, abundante em área urbana.Between January, 1988 and December, 1992 the S. Paulo Animal Disease Control Center subjected 289 bats to rabies examinations, utilizing the direct immunofluorescence and biological techniques. Two insectivorous bats belonging to the species Nyctinomopsmacrotis, representing 0.69% of the total sample, tested positive. Both animals had been captured alive in residential neighborhoods of the city, one in 1988 in the living room of a 7' th floor apartment and the other in 1990 on top of a wall surrounding a private house. In the biological tests, the disease showed incubation periods of 13 and 11 days respectively.Although the existence of infected insectiverous bats in urban areas is cause for concern, indiscriminate predatory action against such species can in no way be justified-particularly bearing in mind their importance in preserving the ecological balance of the insect population so prevalent in cities.

  1. The evolution of the social brain: anthropoid primates contrast with other vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, Susanne; Dunbar, R. I. M.

    2007-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis argues that large brains have arisen over evolutionary time as a response to the social and ecological conflicts inherent in group living. We test predictions arising from the hypothesis using comparative data from birds and four mammalian orders (Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Chiroptera and Primates) and show that, across all non-primate taxa, relative brain size is principally related to pairbonding, but with enduring stable relationships in primates. We argue that th...

  2. Phylogenetic Positions of Insectivora in Eutheria Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit II Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Onuma, Michiko; Kusakabe, Tadashi; Kusakabe, Shinichi

    1998-01-01

    For the elucidation of the phylogenetic position of insectivora in eutheria, we have sequenced the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene of mitochondria for three insectivoran species [musk shrew (Suncus murinus), shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), Japanese mole (Mogera wogura)] and analyzed these amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining (NJ) method and maximum likelihood (ML) method. NJ analysis shows polyphyly of Insectivora and Chiroptera. Assuming that each of Primates, Ferungulat...

  3. Checklist of the Helminth Parasites of South American Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, CP; Gibson, DI

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2001-2015 Magnolia Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The attached file is the published version of the article. Although the Chiroptera represents a significant proportion (c.20%) of the mammalian fauna and South America has the highest diversity of bat species, only a...

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of a newfound bat-borne hantavirus supports a laurasiatherian host association for ancestral mammalian hantaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowski, P. T.; Drexler, J. F.; Kallies, R.; Lickova, M; Bokorova, S.; Mananga, G. D.; Szemes, T.; Leroy, Eric; Kruger, D H; Drosten, C.; Klempa, B.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Ph...

  5. Atlas van de Nederlandse vleermuizen 1970-1984, alsmede een vergelijking met vroegere gegevens

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    The present distribution of bats (Chiroptera) in The Netherlands is documented and discussed. For each species a map is given illustrating the distribution before and after 1970. Where available, data are presented on migration, population trends, nursing colonies, roosts and hibernation sites, reproduction, and other data such as foraging behaviour, etc. Each chapter dealing with a particular species is followed by an English summary, to which the reader is referred for further information. ...

  6. Zoonotisches Potenzial neu entdeckter Orthohepadnaviren aus Fledermäusen und die Charakterisierung der Virus-Rezeptor Interaktionen des Hepatitis B Virus

    OpenAIRE

    König, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Das Hepatitis-B-Virus (HBV) des Menschen ist der Erreger der Hepatitis B und ein Vertreter der viralen Familie der Hepadnaviridae, die sich durch einen engen Wirts- und Organtropismus auszeichnet. Die Avihepadnaviren infizieren jeweils einzelne Vogelarten, während die Orthohepadnaviren ihre Wirte innerhalb der Säugetiere haben. Erst 2013 wurden weitere Orthohepadnavirusarten entdeckt, nun überraschenderweise in verschiedenen Spezies der Säugetierordnung Chiroptera (Fledertiere). Dazu gehören ...

  7. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, A

    2012-01-01

    Bats (order Chiroptera) form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 M...

  8. Quaternary fauna of bats in Spain: Paleoecologic and biogeographic interest

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Paloma

    1989-01-01

    The study of fossil bat material collected in Quaternary localities in Spain has yielded interesting information on the characteristics of this fauna during the Pleistocene and Holocene in Spain. Out of the 25 species of Chiroptera actually living in Spain, 15 have been detected from the Middle Pleistocene onwards: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. euryale, R. mehelyi, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. bechsteini, M. nattereri, M. emarginatus, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus ser...

  9. Notes on the Mammals Found in Kazdağı National Park and Its Environs

    OpenAIRE

    Nuri YİĞİT; DEMİRSOY, Ali; Ahmet KARATAŞ; ÖZKURT, Şakir; ÇOLAK, Ercüment

    2006-01-01

    The present study is based on species collected and observed in Kazdağı National Park and its surroundings. Field collections yielded 40 mammal species from 6 orders: Insectivora (4), Chiroptera (14), Lagomorpha (1), Rodentia (11), Carnivora (8), and Artiodactyla (2), Of the species recorded in this study, 6 were new records from north-west Anatolia: Sorex volnuchini, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis emarginatus, Eptesicus serotinus, Hypsugo savii, and Microtus subterraneus.

  10. Effetti dell'esperienza sullo sviluppo del comportamento sociale nei chirotteri antropofili

    OpenAIRE

    ANCILLOTTO, LEONARDO

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at clarifying the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social units in bats (Chiroptera), a characteristic shared by most species of this group of mammals, by investigating the effects of the early social environment, i.e. pursuing the hypothesis that imprinting-like influences on the development of social behaviour exist and may have a profound impact on the social lives of bats. First I present an overview on bats' social behaviour and...

  11. Ecology of an exceptional roost: energetic benefits could explain why the bat Lophostoma silvicolum roosts in active termite nests.

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmann, D K N; Kalko, E. K. V.; Kerth, G.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to create shelters that provide protection from the environment is widespread among animals. However, in spite of the central role roosts play in the life of bats (Chiroptera), only a few species have developed the ability to make their own refuges, one of them being the Neotropical Lophostoma silvicolum. This bat creates and inhabits cavities in active arboreal nests of the termite Nasutitermes corniger. We measured temperature in cavities inside active and dead termite nests, an...

  12. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors.

  13. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Uribe Barichivith

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W, it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782, primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera Enteromorpha with an average size of 33º µ high, minimum average of definitive settlement, byssus positional changes, etc. Information concerning average and number of larval and post - larval attachment to different deep and inmersión period and morphological characters of larval and post - larval of: Bankia martensi Stempell, 1898 (Teredinidae, Pholas chiloensis (Molina, 1782 (Pholadidae y Chlamys patriae Doello Jurado, 1918 (Pectinidae, are also given.

  14. Murciélagos asociados a una finca ganadera en Córdoba (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Calonge C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer las especies de murciélagos asociadas a remanentes de bosque seco tropical en un sistema de ganadería extensiva en una finca del departamento de Córdoba. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un muestreo de 35 noches, durante la época seca (enero-marzo de 2009, empleando 10 redes de niebla (3x6 m ubicadas en un diseño por conglomerados las cuales fueron abiertas desde las 18:00 hasta las 06:00 horas. Resultados. Se encontraron 20 especies de murciélagos, se capturaron un total de 614 individuos. Conclusiones. Se encontraron especies de las familias Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Vespertilionidae y Emballonuridae. La especie Lasiurus ega se constituye en un nuevo reporte para el departamento de Córdoba.

  15. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Gladys Autino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae. Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the department of Loreto. Also, we found 17 new host-ectoparasite relationships. Of note, we found remarkable new association between Neotrichobius delicatus and bat species from the families Molossidae and Noctilionidae and a novel association between Paradyschiria parvula and a species of Vespertilionidae. Host-ectoparasite specificity was recorded with 14 species as monoxenous, three oligoxenous, seven pleioxenous and two polyxenous.

  16. Fox- and raccoon-dog–associated rabies outbreaks in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye; Liu; Shoufeng; Zhang; Jinghui; Zhao; Fei; Zhang; Nan; Li; Hai; Lian; Wurengege; Shiyu; Guo; Rongliang; Hu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,Rabies is a generally fatal disease caused by the rabies virus(RABV),and is transmitted mainly by Carnivora and Chiroptera(Fooks A R,et al.,2014;Tao X,et al.,2013).In China,stray dogs and some wild animals(e.g.,Chinese ferret badgers,foxes,and raccoon dogs)are the principal reservoirs for RABV(Hu R L,et al.,2009).Historically,rabies in wild foxes and raccoon dogs(Nyctereutes procyonoides)was recorded in the early

  17. Neurologic amebiasis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Nicholas A; Ali, Ibne; Higbie, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Pirie, Gordon; Bauer, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    A 4-5-month-old intact male Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was presented to the Baton Rouge Zoo's veterinary hospital with an acute onset of obtundation that was diagnosed with amebic encephalitis. Histologic examination revealed numerous amebic trophozoites within necrotic foci, affecting the occipital cerebrum and surrounding the mesencephalic aqueduct. The etiologic agent, Balamuthia mandrillaris, was determined by multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and indirect fluorescent antibody test. The current report documented a case of amebic encephalitis within the order Chiroptera. PMID:26762405

  18. PENELITIAN SEROLOGIS JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS PADA BABI DAN KELELAWAR DI SINTANG, KALIMANTAN BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Winoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serological surveys of pigs (Sus scrofa and bats (Chiroptera were conducted in Sin tang over 3 subdistricts (Kayanhulu, Kayanhilir, Kotabaru during the period of 17 July to 2 August 1994. Blood samples were collected fron 68 pigs and 157 bats and tested for JEV antibody. Antibody to JEV were found in 39 (57% pig sera and 24 (15.3% bat sera using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. This study gives more information on the geographic and host distribution of JEV in Indonesia, and increased knowledge about potential risk of JEV to public health.

  19. PENELITIAN SEROLOGIS JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS PADA BABI DAN KELELAWAR DI SINTANG, KALIMANTAN BARAT

    OpenAIRE

    I. Winoto; Graham, R.R.; Ima Nurisa; S. Hartati; C. Ma'roef

    2012-01-01

    Serological surveys of pigs (Sus scrofa) and bats (Chiroptera) were conducted in Sin tang over 3 subdistricts (Kayanhulu, Kayanhilir, Kotabaru) during the period of 17 July to 2 August 1994. Blood samples were collected fron 68 pigs and 157 bats and tested for JEV antibody. Antibody to JEV were found in 39 (57%) pig sera and 24 (15.3%) bat sera using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. This study gives more information on the geographic and host distribution of JEV in Indonesia, and incr...

  20. Nova saznanja o šišmišima kao nosiocima novootkrivenih virusa

    OpenAIRE

    Calisher, C. H.

    2006-01-01

    Šišmiši (red Chiroptera, podred Megachiroptera – (»leteće lisice«) i Microchiroptera) su mnogobrojni, raznoliki sisavci koji se nalaze na svim kontinentima svijeta osim Antarktika. Iako šišmiši imaju korisnu ulogu u prirodi, mnogi se hrane insektima, brojne vrste šišmiša su danas ugrožene. Karakteristike ovih sisavaca uključuju određenu prehranu i život u kolonijama ili samostalno, mogućnost letenja, cikličke migracije i svakodnevno tipično letenje, sposobnost ulaska u stanje mirovanja (torpo...

  1. Calculation of Head Related Transfer Functions of bats using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Vanderelst, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Overskrift: ChiRoPing (Chiroptera, Robots, and Sonar) is an EU-funded research project aimed at understanding how bats use their echolocation perception ability and apply this knowledge to the design of new robotic senses. Four species of bats are selected for the study and models of their heads...... including minute details of ears, mouth and nose are obtained through CT scans. The project involves, among other things, the use of numerical methods on such scanned models to study the role of their features in the bat sensorial performance. As the bats operate at very high frequencies and as their ears...

  2. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beza Ramasindrazana

    Full Text Available We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae; a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae, Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae, and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae. We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors.

  3. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors. PMID:26751792

  4. [Research perspectives and achievements in taxonomy and distribution of bats in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Xiao; Zhang, You-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Biao

    2013-12-01

    Chinese chiropterologists have made significant improvements into research on bat taxonomy and distribution. Overall, scholars recorded 6 new species of bats, alongside 11 species recorded species in the Chinese Mainland and 4 new bat species of Murina in Taiwan. Chinese chiropterologists intensively cooperated with the international experts on bats, and adopted several new, multidisciplinary methods to carry out their studies. Likewise, in China, an increased awareness of bat conservation has been growing. While publications on Chiroptera are continuing to increase increased in China, the methodology of these studies remains to be further developed in hopes of revealing the new and cryptic bat species. Considering the vast territory of China and the migrational habit of bats, we expect that with more refined methodology, more new species of bats and their distributions may be uncovered in the near future. Concurrently, it is important to reexamine the known species by the new taxonomic methods and fauna analysis through which the distribution and subdivision of bats can be updated. Additionally, an international platform for exchanging information of bats needs to be established to enhance the academic cooperation for bat researches. It is highly possible that China will soon become an important research center on taxonomy, distribution, phylogenetics and diversity evolution of Chiroptera, especially as Chinese researchers continues create new knowledge for bats at the α, β and γ taxonomic levels.

  5. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L Carpintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  6. Species identification key of Korean mammal hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunok; Choi, Tae-Young; Woo, Donggul; Min, Mi-Sook; Sugita, Shoei; Lee, Hang

    2014-05-01

    The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology.

  7. ВИДОВОЙ СОСТАВ И ОСОБЕННОСТИ РАСПРОСТРАНЕНИЯ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (CHIROPTERA: MAMMALIA) НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ УЛЬЯНОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Безруков, В.; Смирнов, Д.

    2012-01-01

    Представлены результаты исследований рукокрылых Ульяновской области, проведенные в период с конца 19го по начало 21го века. Подтверждено обитание 11 видов рукокрылых и еще три вида отмечены впервые ( M. aurascens, P. kuhlii и E. serotinus ). В работе приводятся места и обстоятельства находок рукокрылых, и делается количественная их оценка. По показателям встречаемости и относительному обилию все рукокрылые разделены на группы. Широко распространённые и многочисленные виды : P. nathusii, M. da...

  8. ОЦЕНКА α-РАЗНООБРАЗИЯ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (CHIROPTERA) БРЯНСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ НА ОСНОВЕ ДАННЫХ РЕГИСТРАЦИИ ИХ УЛЬТРАЗВУКОВЫХ СИГНАЛОВ

    OpenAIRE

    Горбачев, А.; Прокофьев, И.

    2013-01-01

    Произведена оценка α-разнообразия рукокрылых Брянской области с помощью индекса Шенона-Уивера. Для сбора акустических данных было заложено 17 трансект в 2009-2012 гг. Всего были зарегистрированы сигналы 15 видов

  9. ФАУНА И ЭКОЛОГО-БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (CHIROPTERA) ХАНТЫ-МАНСИЙСКОГО АВТОНОМНОГО ОКРУГА

    OpenAIRE

    Берников, К.; Стариков, В.

    2009-01-01

    В работе представлено современное состояние хироптерофауны Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа. На основе анализа результатов исследований, проведенных авторами в течение пяти лет, и литературных источников выявлены особенности распространения, экологии и биологии летучих мышей исследуемой территории....

  10. ФАУНА, РАСПРОСТРАНЕНИЕ И ЛАНДШАФТНАЯ ПРИУРОЧЕННОСТЬ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (MAMMALIA: CHIROPTERA) РЕСПУБЛИКИ БАШКОРТОСТАН

    OpenAIRE

    Курмаева, Н.; Смирнов, Д.; Ильин, В.

    2012-01-01

    В работе приводятся сведения по распространению 12 видов рукокрылых на территории республики Башкортостан. Показаны особенности их размещения и биологии.

  11. Homomorphic ZW chromosomes in a wild strawberry show distinctive recombination heterogeneity but a small sex-determining region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-09-01

    Recombination in ancient, heteromorphic sex chromosomes is typically suppressed at the sex-determining region (SDR) and proportionally elevated in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). However, little is known about recombination dynamics of young, homomorphic plant sex chromosomes. We examine male and female function in crosses and unrelated samples of the dioecious octoploid strawberry Fragaria chiloensis in order to map the small and recently evolved SDR controlling both traits and to examine recombination patterns on the incipient ZW chromosome. The SDR of this ZW system is located within a 280 kb window, in which the maternal recombination rate is lower than the paternal one. In contrast to the SDR, the maternal PAR recombination rate is much higher than the rates of the paternal PAR or autosomes, culminating in an elevated chromosome-wide rate. W-specific divergence is elevated within the SDR and a single polymorphism is observed in high species-wide linkage disequilibrium with sex. Selection for recombination suppression within the small SDR may be weak, but fluctuating sex ratios could favor elevated recombination in the PAR to remove deleterious mutations on the W. The recombination dynamics of this nascent sex chromosome with a modestly diverged SDR may be typical of other dioecious plants.

  12. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, L G; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I C; Beldade, R; Bernardi, G; Boubou, A; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F; Bruford, M W; Buonamici, A; Burnett, R K; Canal, D; Cárdenas, H; Caullet, C; Chen, S Y; Chun, Y J; Cossu, C; Crane, C F; Cros-Arteil, S; Cudney-Bueno, R; Danti, R; Dávila, J A; Della Rocca, G; Dobata, S; Dunkle, L D; Dupas, S; Faure, N; Ferrero, M E; Fumanal, B; Gigot, G; González, I; Goodwin, S B; Groth, D; Hardesty, B D; Hasegawa, E; Hoffman, E A; Hou, M L; Jamsari, A F J; Ji, H J; Johnson, D H; Joseph, L; Justy, F; Kang, E J; Kaufmann, B; Kim, K S; Kim, W J; Koehler, A V; Laitung, B; Latch, P; Liu, Y D; Manjerovic, M B; Martel, E; Metcalfe, S S; Miller, J N; Midgley, J J; Migeon, A; Moore, A J; Moore, W L; Morris, V R F; Navajas, M; Navia, D; Neel, M C; De Nova, P J G; Olivieri, I; Omura, T; Othman, A S; Oudot-Canaff, J; Panthee, D R; Parkinson, C L; Patimah, I; Pérez-Galindo, C A; Pettengill, J B; Pfautsch, S; Piola, F; Potti, J; Poulin, R; Raimondi, P T; Rinehart, T A; Ruzainah, A; Sarver, S K; Scheffler, B E; Schneider, A R R; Silvain, J F; Siti Azizah, M N; Springer, Y P; Stewart, C N; Sun, W; Tiedemann, R; Tsuji, K; Trigiano, R N; Vendramin, G G; Wadl, P A; Wang, L; Wang, X; Watanabe, K; Waterman, J M; Weisser, W W; Westcott, D A; Wiesner, K R; Xu, X F; Yaegashi, S; Yuan, J S

    2009-09-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata lugens; Oxyeleotris marmoratus; Phoxinus neogaeus; Pristomyrmex punctatus; Pseudobagrus brevicorpus; Seiridium cardinale; Stenopsyche marmorata; Tetranychus evansi and Xerus inauris. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Agalinis decemloba; Agalinis tenella; Agalinis obtusifolia; Agalinis setacea; Agalinis skinneriana; Cercospora zeina; Cercospora kikuchii; Cercospora sorghi; Mycosphaerella graminicola; Setosphaeria turcica; Magnaporthe oryzae; Cotesia flavipes; Cotesia marginiventris; Grindelia Xpaludosa; Grindelia chiloensis; Grindelia fastigiata; Grindelia lanceolata; Grindelia squarrosa; Leucadendron coniferum; Leucadendron salicifolium; Leucadendron tinctum; Leucadendron meridianum; Laodelphax striatellus; Sogatella furcifera; Phoxinus eos; Phoxinus rigidus; Phoxinus brevispinosus; Phoxinus bicolor; Tetranychus urticae; Tetranychus turkestani; Tetranychus ludeni; Tetranychus neocaledonicus; Tetranychus amicus; Amphitetranychus viennensis; Eotetranychus rubiphilus; Eotetranychus tiliarium; Oligonychus perseae; Panonychus citri; Bryobia rubrioculus; Schizonobia bundi; Petrobia harti; Xerus princeps; Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and Sciurus carolinensis.

  13. Homomorphic ZW chromosomes in a wild strawberry show distinctive recombination heterogeneity but a small sex-determining region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-09-01

    Recombination in ancient, heteromorphic sex chromosomes is typically suppressed at the sex-determining region (SDR) and proportionally elevated in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). However, little is known about recombination dynamics of young, homomorphic plant sex chromosomes. We examine male and female function in crosses and unrelated samples of the dioecious octoploid strawberry Fragaria chiloensis in order to map the small and recently evolved SDR controlling both traits and to examine recombination patterns on the incipient ZW chromosome. The SDR of this ZW system is located within a 280 kb window, in which the maternal recombination rate is lower than the paternal one. In contrast to the SDR, the maternal PAR recombination rate is much higher than the rates of the paternal PAR or autosomes, culminating in an elevated chromosome-wide rate. W-specific divergence is elevated within the SDR and a single polymorphism is observed in high species-wide linkage disequilibrium with sex. Selection for recombination suppression within the small SDR may be weak, but fluctuating sex ratios could favor elevated recombination in the PAR to remove deleterious mutations on the W. The recombination dynamics of this nascent sex chromosome with a modestly diverged SDR may be typical of other dioecious plants. PMID:27102236

  14. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, L G; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I C; Beldade, R; Bernardi, G; Boubou, A; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F; Bruford, M W; Buonamici, A; Burnett, R K; Canal, D; Cárdenas, H; Caullet, C; Chen, S Y; Chun, Y J; Cossu, C; Crane, C F; Cros-Arteil, S; Cudney-Bueno, R; Danti, R; Dávila, J A; Della Rocca, G; Dobata, S; Dunkle, L D; Dupas, S; Faure, N; Ferrero, M E; Fumanal, B; Gigot, G; González, I; Goodwin, S B; Groth, D; Hardesty, B D; Hasegawa, E; Hoffman, E A; Hou, M L; Jamsari, A F J; Ji, H J; Johnson, D H; Joseph, L; Justy, F; Kang, E J; Kaufmann, B; Kim, K S; Kim, W J; Koehler, A V; Laitung, B; Latch, P; Liu, Y D; Manjerovic, M B; Martel, E; Metcalfe, S S; Miller, J N; Midgley, J J; Migeon, A; Moore, A J; Moore, W L; Morris, V R F; Navajas, M; Navia, D; Neel, M C; De Nova, P J G; Olivieri, I; Omura, T; Othman, A S; Oudot-Canaff, J; Panthee, D R; Parkinson, C L; Patimah, I; Pérez-Galindo, C A; Pettengill, J B; Pfautsch, S; Piola, F; Potti, J; Poulin, R; Raimondi, P T; Rinehart, T A; Ruzainah, A; Sarver, S K; Scheffler, B E; Schneider, A R R; Silvain, J F; Siti Azizah, M N; Springer, Y P; Stewart, C N; Sun, W; Tiedemann, R; Tsuji, K; Trigiano, R N; Vendramin, G G; Wadl, P A; Wang, L; Wang, X; Watanabe, K; Waterman, J M; Weisser, W W; Westcott, D A; Wiesner, K R; Xu, X F; Yaegashi, S; Yuan, J S

    2009-09-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata lugens; Oxyeleotris marmoratus; Phoxinus neogaeus; Pristomyrmex punctatus; Pseudobagrus brevicorpus; Seiridium cardinale; Stenopsyche marmorata; Tetranychus evansi and Xerus inauris. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Agalinis decemloba; Agalinis tenella; Agalinis obtusifolia; Agalinis setacea; Agalinis skinneriana; Cercospora zeina; Cercospora kikuchii; Cercospora sorghi; Mycosphaerella graminicola; Setosphaeria turcica; Magnaporthe oryzae; Cotesia flavipes; Cotesia marginiventris; Grindelia Xpaludosa; Grindelia chiloensis; Grindelia fastigiata; Grindelia lanceolata; Grindelia squarrosa; Leucadendron coniferum; Leucadendron salicifolium; Leucadendron tinctum; Leucadendron meridianum; Laodelphax striatellus; Sogatella furcifera; Phoxinus eos; Phoxinus rigidus; Phoxinus brevispinosus; Phoxinus bicolor; Tetranychus urticae; Tetranychus turkestani; Tetranychus ludeni; Tetranychus neocaledonicus; Tetranychus amicus; Amphitetranychus viennensis; Eotetranychus rubiphilus; Eotetranychus tiliarium; Oligonychus perseae; Panonychus citri; Bryobia rubrioculus; Schizonobia bundi; Petrobia harti; Xerus princeps; Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and Sciurus carolinensis. PMID:21564911

  15. The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Fig cryptic virus, a novel bipartite dsRNA virus infecting fig, widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Kubaa, Raied Abou; Digiaro, Michele; Minafra, Angelantonio; Martelli, Giovanni P

    2011-06-01

    Two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments of a virus with a bipartite genome identified in fig (Ficus carica L.) and denoted Fig cryptic virus (FCV) were cloned and sequenced. Viral dsRNAs are 1696 bp (RNA-1) and 1415 bp (RNA-2) in size. RNA-1 contains a single ORF (1419 nt) potentially encoding a 54 kDa protein and comprising the conserved amino acid motifs of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain of species of the genus Alphacryptovirus. Its full-length amino acid sequence has the highest identity with Raphanus sativus cryptic virus 2 (RsCV-2) (36%), Beet cryptic virus 3 (BCV-3) (36%) and Fragaria chiloensis cryptic virus (FCCV) (34%). RNA-2 has also a single ORF (1014 nt) coding for a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 38 kDa, identified as the viral coat protein (CP). In a phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of the RdRp domain, FCV clusters in a clade comprising BCV-3 and a number of tentative species of the genus Alphacryptovirus. FCV is not mechanically transmissible. It was detected in fig orchards of six Mediterranean countries (Albania, Algeria, Italy, Lebanon, Syria and Tunisia) where it does not seem to induce a visible disease.

  16. Diagnóstico laboratorial da raiva na região oeste do Estado de São Paulo Laboratory diagnosis of rabies in the west region of São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Albas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O laboratório do Pólo da Alta Sorocabana, Presidente Prudente, SP e Instituto Biológico de São Paulo, SP, realizaram avaliação do diagnóstico laboratorial da raiva no período de 1996 a 2003 na região oeste do Estado de São Paulo. Para tal, se fez uso dos testes de imunofluorescência direta e prova biológica (inoculação em camundongos em 4.950 amostras encaminhadas para análise envolvendo as espécies canina, felina, bovina, quiróptera (morcego e outras (eqüina, caprina, suína e roedores. Detectou-se a presença de 74 amostras positivas, sendo que destas, 58 (78,4% foram referentes a quirópteros não hematófagos e 16 (21,6% para bovinos. O presente estudo epidemiológico constatou que, apesar do alto índice de positividade nos quirópteros, não houve um surto de raiva nestas espécies na região de Presidente Prudente no período estudado, porque o aumento no índice de positividade foi decorrente do significativo aumento de amostras de quirópteros encaminhadas ao laboratório para pesquisa do vírus rábico.The Pólo da Alta Sorocabana laboratory, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil, and the Biological Institute in São Paulo State, performed an evaluation of rabies diagnosis from 1996 to 2003 in the west region of São Paulo State. For the tests, the laboratories used direct immunofluorescence and mice inoculation in 4,950 samples, that were sent for analysis involving dogs, cats, cattle, chiroptera (bats and other animals. According to the results, the laboratories found 74 positive samples; of which 58 (78.4%were non-hematophagous bats and 16 (21.6% related to cattle. The present epidemiological study verified that in spite of the high positive index in chiroptera compared to the other species, there was not an outbreak of rabies in the species in the region of Presidente Prudente, from 1996 to 2003 but a rise in the positive index due to a marked increase in the number of chiroptera samples sent to the laboratories for

  17. Paleontology and paleoecology of guano deposits in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widga, Chris; Colburn, Mona

    2015-05-01

    Bat guano deposits are common in the Mammoth Cave system (Kentucky, USA). Paleontological remains associated with these deposits are important records of local landscape changes. Recent excavations in the cave suggest that vertebrate remains in most of these deposits are dominated by Chiroptera. Although no extinct fauna were identified, the presence of a large roost of Tadarida brasiliensis in the Chief City section is beyond the northern extent of its current range suggesting that this deposit dates to an undetermined interglacial period. Stable isotope analyses of Tadarida-associated guano indicate a C3 prey signature characteristic of forested habitat. This was unexpected since this species is typically associated with open environments. Further ecomorphological analysis of wing shape trends in interglacial, Holocene, and historic-aged assemblages indicate that interglacial faunas are dominated by fast-flying, open-space taxa (T. brasiliensis) while late Holocene and Historic assemblages contain more taxa that utilized closed forest or forest gaps.

  18. Comparison of full-waveform, single-photon sensitive, and discrete analog LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Angela M.; Runyon, Scott C.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2015-05-01

    Full-waveform LiDAR data from an AHAB Chiroptera I system with 515 nm and 1032 nm lasers (~10 pts/m2), single-photon sensitive data from the Sigma Space HRQLS system with a 532 nm laser (~19 pts/m2), and discrete analog data from an Optech Orion C200 system (~88 pts/m2) were collected from aerial platforms over Monterey, CA, USA in fall 2012 and fall 2013. The study area contains residential neighborhoods, forested regions, inland lakes, and the Pacific Ocean near-shore environment. Significant ground truth in the form of GPS measurements and terrestrial LiDAR scans enable the LiDAR data to be compared in terms of measurement precision and degree of tree canopy penetration, as well as comparisons of derived raster products.

  19. 印度假吸血蝠捕食鼠耳蝠%Indian False Vampire Bat Feeding on Myotis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礼标; 张伟; 张树义

    2007-01-01

    2004年12月10日,在广西南宁地区马山县金伦洞捕到2只雄性印度假吸血蝠(Megaderma lyra: Megadermatidae, Chiroptera),分析其中的胃容物,发现有蝙蝠的残遗物,包括牙齿、后足、骨骼、毛发(棕黄色);未发现昆虫残遗物.通过对残遗物中牙齿(上颌齿式:2.1.3.3)的鉴定,与蝙蝠科鼠耳蝠属(Myotis)的齿式一致,因此确定印度假吸血蝠捕食了鼠耳蝠属的蝙蝠.

  20. Mating System and Strategy of Reproduction in Fruit Bats%果蝠的婚配制度及繁殖策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐占辉; 盛连喜; 马逊风; 张树义; 曹敏

    2005-01-01

    翼手类(Chiroptera)(俗称蝙蝠)分为小蝙蝠亚目(Microchiroptera)和大蝙蝠亚目(Megachiroptera),大蝙蝠又称果蝠或狐蝠,果蝠仅狐蝠科(Pteropodidae)1科188种.深入地了解其独特的婚配行为机制、独特的繁殖发育机制,对有效地开展果蝠的保护工作、合理地控制种群数量有积极意义.本文对果蝠的婚配制度及繁殖策略进行了阐述.

  1. 短嘴金丝燕的回声定位机制与其归巢行为的探究%Himalayan Swiftlet's Echolocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 陈发军; 黄时杰; 宗浩

    2007-01-01

    通过对短嘴金丝燕(Aerodramus brevirostris)的传统遮挡放飞实验和飞行行为的观察,研究短嘴金丝燕回声定位的机制,同时利用SONY MD录音并用Cool Edit 2.1软件进行声波分析,证明了该物种是能利用回声定位的鸟类.该物种定位的声波主频较低,所以其定位能力没有蝙蝠(Chiroptera)那样精确,个体主要还是依靠视觉定位,只有在全黑的情况下才利用声音定位的.

  2. Behavioral reactions of the bat Carollia perspicillata to abrupt changes in gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejtek, M; Delorme, M; Wassersug, R

    1995-06-01

    As part of an ongoing survey of the behavioral responses of vertebrates to abrupt changes in gravity, we report here on the reactions of bats (Carollia perspicillata) exposed to altered gravity during parabolic aircraft flight. In microgravity, mammals typically behave as if they were upside-down and exhibit repetitive righting reflexes, which often lead to long axis rolling. Since bats, however, normally rest upside-down, we hypothesized that they would not roll in microgravity. Only one of three specimens attempted to fly during microgravity. None rolled or performed any righting maneuvers. During periods of microgravity the bats partially extended their forearms but kept their wings folded and parallel to the body. Between parabolas and occasionally during microgravity the bats groomed themselves. Both the extended limbs and autogrooming may be stress responses to the novel stimulus of altered gravity. This is the first behavioral record of Chiroptera in microgravity. PMID:11541842

  3. Species determination of Brazilian mammals implicated in the epidemiology of rabies based on the control region of mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carnieli Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of animals that are decomposing or have been run over or burnt and cannot be visually identified is a problem in the surveillance and control of infectious diseases. Many of these animals are wild and represent a valuable source of information for epidemiologic research as they may be carriers of an infectious agent. This article discusses the results obtained using a method for identifying mammals genetically by sequencing their mitochondrial DNA control region. Fourteen species were analyzed and identified. These included the main reservoirs and transmitters of rabies virus, namely, canids, chiroptera and primates. The results prove that this method of genetic identification is both efficient and simple and that it can be used in the surveillance of infectious diseases which includes mammals in their epidemiologic cycle, such as rabies.

  4. Lista de los mamíferos de la cuenca del río Orinoco

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Pérez, Arnaldo; Beltrán, Marisol; Díaz-Pulido, Angélica Paola; Trujillo, Fernando; Mantilla-Meluk, Hugo; Herrera, Olga; Alfonso, Andrés Felipe; Payán, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    Se consolida un listado binacional de la mastofauna reportada para toda la cuenca del río Orinoco, constituido por 318 especies que se distribuyen en 12 órdenes, 40 familias y 156 géneros. Esta diversidad representa el 76,8% de la mastofauna venezolana y el 68,7% de la colombiana. El orden Chiroptera es el más representativo con 150 especies (47,5%), seguido por los roedores con 77 especies (24,4%). La región de la Guayana es la más diversa, mientras que en la región deltaica se presentó el m...

  5. Marsupial, insectivore, and chiropteran anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, G W

    2001-01-01

    This article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. Marsupials commonly kept as pets in the U.S. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. Marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., Tasmanian devils, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (Vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. Of the insectivores, only the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) are commonly kept as pets and, consequently, the insectivore section concentrates on discussing these two species. The section on chiropteran anesthesia is divided into two broad categories: the megachiropterans (flying foxes and fruit bats) and the microchiropterans (insectivorous bats). Most of the information on the species covered in this article is anecdotal, and this should be kept in mind when using the anesthesia protocols described. PMID:11217462

  6. Marsupial, insectivore, and chiropteran anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, G W

    2001-01-01

    This article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. Marsupials commonly kept as pets in the U.S. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. Marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., Tasmanian devils, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (Vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. Of the insectivores, only the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) are commonly kept as pets and, consequently, the insectivore section concentrates on discussing these two species. The section on chiropteran anesthesia is divided into two broad categories: the megachiropterans (flying foxes and fruit bats) and the microchiropterans (insectivorous bats). Most of the information on the species covered in this article is anecdotal, and this should be kept in mind when using the anesthesia protocols described.

  7. Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), alpha-tocopherol and lipid levels in plasma of captive wild mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, F J; Uehlein-Harrell, S; von Hegel, G; Wiesner, H

    1991-02-01

    Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), vitamin E and lipids were determined in a wide variety of wild mammals and birds held in captivity. In mammals plasma levels of vitamin A were generally below 500 ng/ml and those of vitamin E were highly variable (0.1-2 micrograms/ml). In primates, vitamin E levels were 3 to 8 micrograms/ml. Whereas in Marsupialia, Chiroptera, primates, Rodentia, Proboscidea, Sirenia, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla only retinol was found, retinyl esters (basically retinol palmitate/oleate) represented 10 to 50% of the total plasma vitamin A in some birds of the order Ciconiiformes and Falconiformes. Retinol levels in birds were higher compared to mammals (500-2,000 ng/ml). The same was true for lipids as well as for vitamin E levels (1-26 micrograms/ml) in the plasma of birds. PMID:1905864

  8. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Maureen A; Bloch, Jonathan I; Flynn, John J; Gaudin, Timothy J; Giallombardo, Andres; Giannini, Norberto P; Goldberg, Suzann L; Kraatz, Brian P; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Meng, Jin; Ni, Xijun; Novacek, Michael J; Perini, Fernando A; Randall, Zachary S; Rougier, Guillermo W; Sargis, Eric J; Silcox, Mary T; Simmons, Nancy B; Spaulding, Michelle; Velazco, Paúl M; Weksler, Marcelo; Wible, John R; Cirranello, Andrea L

    2013-02-01

    To discover interordinal relationships of living and fossil placental mammals and the time of origin of placentals relative to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, we scored 4541 phenomic characters de novo for 86 fossil and living species. Combining these data with molecular sequences, we obtained a phylogenetic tree that, when calibrated with fossils, shows that crown clade Placentalia and placental orders originated after the K-Pg boundary. Many nodes discovered using molecular data are upheld, but phenomic signals overturn molecular signals to show Sundatheria (Dermoptera + Scandentia) as the sister taxon of Primates, a close link between Proboscidea (elephants) and Sirenia (sea cows), and the monophyly of echolocating Chiroptera (bats). Our tree suggests that Placentalia first split into Xenarthra and Epitheria; extinct New World species are the oldest members of Afrotheria.

  9. Subsurface Characterization of Shallow Water Regions using Airborne Bathymetric Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, B.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Magruder, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the complex interactions between air, land, and water in shallow water regions is becoming increasingly critical in the age of climate change. To effectively monitor and manage these zones, scientific data focused on changing water levels, quality, and subsurface topography are needed. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to address this need as it can simultaneously provide detailed three-dimensional spatial data for both topographic and bathymetric applications in an efficient and effective manner. The key to useful data, however, is the correct interpretation of the incoming laser returns to distinguish between land, water, and objects. The full waveform lidar receiver captures the complete returning signal reflected from the Earth, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the characterization of this full waveform with respect to water surface depth penetration and subsurface classification, including sand, rock, and vegetation. Three assessments are performed to help characterize the laser interaction within the shallow water zone: evaluation of water surface backscatter as a function of depth and location, effects from water bottom surface roughness and reflectivity, and detection and classification of subsurface structure. Using the Chiroptera dual-laser lidar mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), both bathymetric and topographic mapping are possible. The Chiroptera system combines a 1064nm near infrared topographic laser with a 515nm green bathymetric laser to seamlessly map the land/water interface in coastal areas. Two survey sites are examined: Lake Travis in Austin, Texas, USA, and Lake Vättern in Jönköping, Sweden. Water quality conditions were found to impact depth penetration of the lidar, as a maximum depth of 5.5m was recorded at Lake Travis and 11m at Lake Vättern.

  10. The role of wild mammals in the maintenance of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Marie-Marie; Goodman, Steven M; Reynes, Jean-Marc

    2012-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting primarily domestic ruminants and humans. Numerous vector species are known or implicated in the transmission of RVFV. The role of mammals in the maintenance of RVFV, and the existence of a wild mammal reservoir in the epidemiologic cycle of RVFV, remain largely unknown. Our objective is to present a detailed review of studies undertaken on RVFV, often associated with wild mammals, with the aim of focusing future research on potential reservoirs of the virus. Natural and experimental infections related to RVFV in several mammalian orders, including Artiodactyla, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Primata (nonhuman), Perissodactyla, Carnivora, Proboscidea, Erinaceomorpha, and Lagomorpha, are reviewed; the first four orders have received the greatest attention. The possible role of wild ruminants, especially African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), is also discussed. Conflicting results have been published concerning rodents but, based on the literature, the likely candidate species include the African genera Arvicanthis and Micaelamys and the widely introduced roof rat (Rattus rattus). Members of the orders Chiroptera and Rodentia should receive greater attention associated with new research programs. For the other orders mentioned above, few data are available. We are unaware of any investigation concerning the orders Afrosoricida and Soricomorpha, which are represented in the geographic area of RVFV and can be abundant. As a first step to resolve the question of wild mammals as a reservoir of RVFV, serologic and virologic surveys should be promoted during epizootic periods to document infected wild animals and, in the case of positive results, extended to interepidemic periods to explore the role of wild animals as possible reservoirs.

  11. A Checklist of the Mammals of small Italian islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Angelici

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Present knowledge on mammals of small Italian islands consists mainly of episodic records. In this paper we collect all available information about the distribution of wild mammals on 47 small Italian islands. A total of 37-38 species was found, including: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora and 4 Artiodactyla. The subspecific level has been identified whenever possible. The mammal fauna of the Isle of Elba (Tuscan Archipelago is the richest, with 24 species, while the most common species are Rattus rattus present on 47 islands Oryctolagus cuniculus (34, and Mus musculus (33. With the exception of Crocidura sicula, the current mammal fauna on small Italian islands originated from introductions.
    Riassunto Checklist dei mammiferi delle piccole isole italiane Lo stato attuale delle conoscenze sui mammiferi delle piccole isole del territorio italiano è frutto, perlopiù, di segnalazioni episodiche. Abbiamo raccolto le informazioni disponibili riguardo i mammiferi selvatici. Sono state prese in esame 47 isole, sulle quali è stata segnalata la presenza di un totale di 37-38 specie così ripartite: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora e 4 Artiodactyla. Quando possibile è stato identificato anche il livello subspecifico. In base ai dati finora disponibili, la teriofauna dell’Isola d’Elba (Arcipelago Toscano risulta quella più diversificata (24 specie, mentre le specie più diffuse sono Rattus rattus, presente su 47 isole, Oryctolagus cuniculus (34 e Mus musculus (33. Con l’eccezione di Crocidura sicula, i popolamenti attuali di mammiferi selvatici nelle piccole isole italiane sono originati da introduzioni operate dall’uomo.

  12. Integrating incomplete fossils by isolating conflicting signal in saturated and non-independent morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Velazco, Paúl M; Warsi, Omar M; Smits, Peter D; Simmons, Nancy B

    2014-07-01

    Morphological characters are indispensable in phylogenetic analyses for understanding the pattern, process, and tempo of evolution. If characters are independent and free of systematic errors, then combining as many different kinds of characters as are available will result in the best-supported phylogenetic hypotheses. But since morphological characters are subject to natural selection for function and arise from the expression of developmental pathways, they may not be independent, a situation that may amplify any underlying homoplasy. Here, we use new dental and multi-locus genetic data from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) to quantify saturation and similarity in morphological characters and introduce two likelihood-based approaches to identify strongly conflicting characters and integrate morphological and molecular data. We implement these methods to analyze the phylogeny of incomplete Miocene fossils in the radiation of Phyllostomidae (New World Leaf-nosed Bats), perhaps the most ecologically diverse family of living mammals. Morphological characters produced trees incongruent with molecular phylogenies, were saturated, and showed rates of change higher than most molecular substitution rates. Dental characters encoded variation similar to that in other morphological characters, while molecular characters encoded highly dissimilar variation in comparison. Saturation and high rates of change indicate randomization of phylogenetic signal in the morphological data, and extensive similarity suggests characters are non-independent and errors are amplified. To integrate the morphological data into tree building while accounting for homoplasy, we used statistical molecular scaffolds and combined phylogenetic analyses excluding a small subset of strongly conflicting dental characters. The phylogenies revealed the Miocene nectar-feeding †Palynephyllum nests within the crown nectar-feeding South American subfamily Lonchophyllinae, while the Miocene genus

  13. Threat diversity will erode mammalian phylogenetic diversity in the near future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine M A Jono

    Full Text Available To reduce the accelerating rate of phylogenetic diversity loss, many studies have searched for mechanisms that could explain why certain species are at risk, whereas others are not. In particular, it has been demonstrated that species might be affected by both extrinsic threat factors as well as intrinsic biological traits that could render a species more sensitive to extinction; here, we focus on extrinsic factors. Recently, the International Union for Conservation of Nature developed a new classification of threat types, including climate change, urbanization, pollution, agriculture and aquaculture, and harvesting/hunting. We have used this new classification to analyze two main factors that could explain the expected future loss of mammalian phylogenetic diversity: 1. differences in the type of threats that affect mammals and 2. differences in the number of major threats that accumulate for a single species. Our results showed that Cetartiodactyla, Diprotodontia, Monotremata, Perissodactyla, Primates, and Proboscidea could lose a high proportion of their current phylogenetic diversity in the coming decades. In contrast, Chiroptera, Didelphimorphia, and Rodentia could lose less phylogenetic diversity than expected if extinctions were random. Some mammalian clades, including Marsupiala, Chiroptera, and a subclade of Primates, are affected by particular threat types, most likely due solely to their geographic locations and associations with particular habitats. However, regardless of the geography, habitat, and taxon considered, it is not the threat type, but the threat diversity that determines the extinction risk for species and clades. Thus, some mammals might be randomly located in areas subjected to a large diversity of threats; they might also accumulate detrimental traits that render them sensitive to different threats, which is a characteristic that could be associated with large body size. Any action reducing threat diversity is

  14. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Xiang Tian

    Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  15. The evolution of bat nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Zepeda-Mendoza, M Lisandra; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Rojas-Anaya, Edith; Méndez-Ojeda, Maria L; Arias, Carlos F; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-12-01

    We characterized the nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) of a New World bat species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), and through a comparative molecular evolutionary approach searched for general adaptation patterns among the nucleic acid-sensing TLRs of eight different bats species belonging to three families (Pteropodidae, Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomidae). We found that the bat TLRs are evolving slowly and mostly under purifying selection and that the divergence pattern of such receptors is overall congruent with the species tree, consistent with the evolution of many other mammalian nuclear genes. However, the chiropteran TLRs exhibited unique mutations fixed in ligand-binding sites, some of which involved nonconservative amino acid changes and/or targets of positive selection. Such changes could potentially modify protein function and ligand-binding properties, as some changes were predicted to alter nucleic acid binding motifs in TLR 9. Moreover, evidence for episodic diversifying selection acting specifically upon the bat lineage and sublineages was detected. Thus, the long-term adaptation of chiropterans to a wide variety of environments and ecological niches with different pathogen profiles is likely to have shaped the evolution of the bat TLRs in an order-specific manner. The observed evolutionary patterns provide evidence for potential functional differences between bat and other mammalian TLRs in terms of resistance to specific pathogens or recognition of nucleic acids in general. PMID:26503258

  16. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (Preversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  17. A Comparative Study of Mammalian Diversification Pattern

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    Wenhua Yu, Junxiao Xu, Yi Wu, Guang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mammals have long been regarded as a successful radiation, the diversification pattern among the clades is still poorly known. Higher-level phylogenies are conflicting and comprehensive comparative analyses are still lacking. Using a recently published supermatrix encompassing nearly all extant mammalian families and a novel comparative likelihood approach (MEDUSA, the diversification pattern of mammalian groups was examined. Both order- and family-level phylogenetic analyses revealed the rapid radiation of Boreoeutheria and Euaustralidelphia in the early mammalian history. The observation of a diversification burst within Boreoeutheria at approximately 100 My supports the Long Fuse model in elucidating placental diversification progress, and the rapid radiation of Euaustralidelphia suggests an important role of biogeographic dispersal events in triggering early Australian marsupial rapid radiation. Diversification analyses based on family-level diversity tree revealed seven additional clades with exceptional diversification rate shifts, six of which represent accelerations in net diversification rate as compared to the background pattern. The shifts gave origin to the clades Muridae+Cricetidae, Bovidae+Moschidae+Cervidae, Simiiformes, Echimyidae, Odontoceti (excluding Physeteridae+Kogiidae+Platanistidae, Macropodidae, and Vespertilionidae. Moderate to high extinction rates from background and boreoeutherian diversification patterns indicate the important role of turnovers in shaping the heterogeneous taxonomic richness observed among extant mammalian groups. Furthermore, the present results emphasize the key role of extinction on erasing unusual diversification signals, and suggest that further studies are needed to clarify the historical radiation of some mammalian groups for which MEDUSA did not detect exceptional diversification rates.

  18. Correlation between echolocation calls and morphological features among three kinds of bats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The correlation between echolocation sound and morphological features of 18 species of bats, which are subordinated to 3 families including rhinolophidae, hipposideridae and vespertilionidae is studied. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis are adopted to analyze the correlations between noseleaf width (NW) and forearm length (FAL), NW and dominant frequency (DF), FAL and DF. The results show a positive correlation between NW and FAL and a negative correlation between NW and DF in Rhinolophidae. In each family, there is a negative correlation between FAL and DF. Some species have a higher or lower frequency than predicted one according to their body size. There are significant differences of the regression equation of FAL and DF among the three families. For the bats with the same body size, the order in frequency is: hipposiderid bats> rhinolophid bats> vespertilionid bats. The mechanism of interrelationship between FAL and DF of bats, the reason why these deviations occur in correlativity of the three families and the mechanism of the interaction between morphological, physiological and ecological characteristics are discussed.

  19. First report of Litomosa spp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea from malagasy bats; review of the genus and relationships between species

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    Martin C.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the filarial genus Litomosa in Malagasy bats is demonstrated by the finding of L. goodmani n. sp. from Miniopterus gleni and Litomosa sp. (male unknown from M. manavi, both in the Special Reserve of Ankarana. These materials are compared to the 22 Litomosa species, including two Indian species originally placed in the genus Litomosoides, L. fotedari (Gupta & Trivedi, 1989 n. comb. and L. tewarii (Gupta & Trivedi, 1989 n. comb., and the new taxon L. seurati n. sp. (= L. beaucournui Bain, 1966 pro parte, type-host Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, Algeria, distinguished by the narrow area rugosa and the female caudal extremity with two conspicuous points, instead of several small ones. The Malagasy material belongs to a group of species close to the type, L. filaria, which have a male area rugosa composed of cuticular bosses and microfilariae folded within the sheath, and which are parasitic in Vespertilionidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae from Africa and Europe. The two Malagasy species resemble L. seurati n. sp., L. beshkovi Jancev, 1971, L. chiropterum Ortlepp, 1932, L. adami Petit, 1980 and L. ottavianii Lagrange et Bettini, 1948, with the enlarged third segment of the buccal capsule. L. goodmani n. sp. is distinct with its small size and female caudal extremity with a single point, which is suppressed in old mature worms; the females of Litomosa sp. have two conical points. Relationships among Litomosa species appear to be dependent upon both the chiropteran host groups and the geographical region.

  20. Pulmonary hematological parameters, energetic flight demands and their correlation with oxygen diffusion capacity in the lungs Parámetros hematológicos pulmonares, demandas energéticas del vuelo y su correlación la capacidad de difusión de oxígeno en los pulmones

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    M CANALS

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hematological parameters of birds and mammals seem to respond to environmental requirements, such as hypoxia at high altitude and the energetic demands of locomotion and flight. In this work we hypothesize that lung capillary hematocrit and red blood size may be influenced by the energetic requirements of flight. Also, we propose that hematological parameters should vary together with the morphological parameters that determine oxygen diffusion capacity. We analyzed the red blood cell size and the local characteristics of the pulmonary capillary hematocrit correlating these with the pulmonary factors that determines the oxygen diffusion capacity. We deal with seven species, non-flying and flying birds and mammals, with different energetic requirements. The capillary hematocrit was not different in each taxon, but the red blood cell size was smaller in flying mammals and birds than non-flying ones. Correlation of erythrocyte size with the diffusing characteristics of the lungs produced a non-phylogenetic clustering with a group constituting by the bats Tadarida brasiliensis y Myotis chiloensis, and the bird Z. auriculata; revealing similar functional response in unrelated species. Finally, in mammals, a negative correlation between the red blood cell size and the mass-specific oxygen diffusion capacity was obtained. These results suggest that the direction of the hematological and pulmonary adjustments is governed mainly by the requirements of flight independent of phylogenetic origin of the species studiedLos parámetros hematológicos y pulmonares parecen responder a las exigencias ambientales como la hipoxia y la alta altitud y a los requerimientos energéticos de la locomoción. En este trabajo sometemos a prueba la hipótesis que el hematocrito del capilar pulmonar y el tamaño del glóbulo rojo pueden ser influidos por los requerimientos energéticos del vuelo. También proponemos que los parámetros hematológicos varían en conjunto con

  1. Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-08-07

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function.

  2. Evolutionary origins and dynamics of octoploid strawberry subgenomes revealed by dense targeted capture linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Liston, Aaron

    2014-12-04

    Whole-genome duplications are radical evolutionary events that have driven speciation and adaptation in many taxa. Higher-order polyploids have complex histories often including interspecific hybridization and dynamic genomic changes. This chromosomal reshuffling is poorly understood for most polyploid species, despite their evolutionary and agricultural importance, due to the challenge of distinguishing homologous sequences from each other. Here, we use dense linkage maps generated with targeted sequence capture to improve the diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) reference genome and to disentangle the subgenomes of the wild octoploid progenitors of cultivated strawberry, Fragaria virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis. Our novel approach, POLiMAPS (Phylogenetics Of Linkage-Map-Anchored Polyploid Subgenomes), leverages sequence reads to associate informative interhomeolog phylogenetic markers with linkage groups and reference genome positions. In contrast to a widely accepted model, we find that one of the four subgenomes originates with the diploid cytoplasm donor F. vesca, one with the diploid Fragaria iinumae, and two with an unknown ancestor close to F. iinumae. Extensive unidirectional introgression has converted F. iinumae-like subgenomes to be more F. vesca-like, but never the reverse, due either to homoploid hybridization in the F. iinumae-like diploid ancestors or else strong selection spreading F. vesca-like sequence among subgenomes through homeologous exchange. In addition, divergence between homeologous chromosomes has been substantially augmented by interchromosomal rearrangements. Our phylogenetic approach reveals novel aspects of the complicated web of genetic exchanges that occur during polyploid evolution and suggests a path forward for unraveling other agriculturally and ecologically important polyploid genomes.

  3. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C

  4. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fragaria (strawberry using intron-containing sequence from the ADH-1 gene.

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    Laura M DiMeglio

    Full Text Available The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae.

  5. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fragaria (strawberry) using intron-containing sequence from the ADH-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMeglio, Laura M; Staudt, Günter; Yu, Hongrun; Davis, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae.

  6. Sex-determining chromosomes and sexual dimorphism: insights from genetic mapping of sex expression in a natural hybrid Fragaria × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, R; Liston, A; Ashman, T-L

    2013-05-01

    We studied the natural hybrid (Fragaria × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia) between two sexually dimorphic octoploid strawberry species (Fragaria virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis) to gain insight into the dynamics of sex chromosomes and the genesis of sexual dimorphism. Male sterility is dominant in both the parental species and thus will be inherited maternally, but the chromosome that houses the sex-determining region differs. Thus, we asked whether (1) the cytotypic composition of hybrid populations represents one or both maternal species, (2) the sex-determining chromosome of the hybrid reflects the location of male sterility within the maternal donor species and (3) crosses from the hybrid species show less sexual dimorphism than the parental species. We found that F. × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia populations consisted of both parental cytotypes but one predominated within each population. Genetic linkage mapping of two crosses showed dominance of male sterility similar to the parental species, however, the map location of male sterility reflected the maternal donor in one cross, but not the other. Moreover, female function mapped to a single region in the first cross, but to two regions in the second cross. Aside from components of female function (fruit set and seed set), other traits that have been found to be significantly sexually dimorphic in the pure species were either not dimorphic or were dimorphic in the opposite direction to the parental species. These results suggest that hybrids experience some disruption of dimorphism in secondary sexual traits, as well as novel location and number of quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting sex function.

  7. 重庆穿洞遗址大马蹄蝠化石发现及其意义%Discovery and Significance of Hipposideros Armiger Fossils at Chuandong Site, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武仙竹; 王运辅; 王超

    2014-01-01

    The researchers from the Laboratory of Scientific Archaeology of Chonqing Normal University discovered a fossil sample of Hipposideros armiger at Chuandong Site, Fengjie County, Chongqing in 2008, which skull, left scapula and some limb bones, vertebras and ribs were well preserved. The sample was collected in a layer of red clay 58 centimeters below the cave ground, accompanied with some remains related with ancient Human activities such as mammal fossils and stone tools. The majority of the accompanying mammals were living species, and the minority of which were distinct species in Pleistocene. The living species included Crocidura ilensis, Chodsigoa smithii, Rattus norvegicus, Trogopterus xanthipes, Rhizomys sinensis, Atherurus macrourus、Arctonyx collaris, Panthera tigris, Sus scrofa, Hydropotes inermis, Cervus unicolor. The extinct species included Crocuta crocuta ultima, Megatapirus augustus. According to the primary taphonomy and fauna analysis at this site, a conclusion could be made that Chuandong Site was one in the Late Period of Pleistocene. Hipposideros armiger, a species of Chiroptera, whose living population habituate in tropic and subtropical zones of east hemisphere like Southern China, India, Nepal and some areas of Southeastern Asia. No fossil record of Hipposideros armiger was discovered outside China until now. Four sites where Hipposideros armiger fossil materials were gathered were reported before the discovery of Chuandong Site, which should be the fifth one, where the most complete Hipposideros armiger fossil material was collected in China. It is demonstrated with Chuandong fossil material study that Hipposideros armiger could be identified efficiently from other species of Chiroptera with the characters such as body size, skull shape and dental formula. The material at Chuandong Site contributes to not only Chiroptera identifications but also evolutionary study. The ulna and radius of Chuandong Hipposideros armiger fossil were completely

  8. Complementarity and efficiency of bat capture methods in a lowland tropical dry forest of Yucatán, Mexico Complementariedad y eficiencia de métodos de captura de murciélagos en una selva baja caducifolia de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Pech-Canche

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The combined use of different methods for surveying bat assemblages has increased over the last few decades. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of bat inventories by comparing assemblages parameters (species richness, abundance and composition using the 3 most conventional capture methods (ground-level and sub-canopy mist nets and harp traps, in a lowland tropical dry forest in Yucatán, Mexico. In ground mist nets, only phyllostomid species were recorded, principally frugivorous and nectarivorous species, while in harp traps the majority were insectivorous species from other families. Our results indicate that for the order Chiroptera the most efficient combination of capture methods is the simultaneous use of ground mist nets and harp traps. However, an inventory of Phyllostomidae is reliably achieved with only ground mist nets. Also, a combination of ground and sub-canopy mist nets does not provide an efficient sampling strategy.El uso combinado de diferentes métodos de muestreo de ensambles de murciélagos se ha incrementado en las últimas décadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficiencia de los inventarios de murciélagos comparando los parámetros del ensamble (riqueza de especies, abundancia y composición usando los 3 métodos de captura convencionales (redes de niebla a nivel de sotobosque y sub-dosel, y trampas arpa, en una selva baja caducifolia de Yucatán, México. En las redes de sotobosque se registraron solamente especies de filostómidos, principalmente especies frugívoras y nectarívoras; mientras que en las trampas arpa, la mayoría fueron especies insectívoras de otras familias. Nuestros resultados indican que para el orden Chiroptera la combinación más eficiente de métodos de captura es el uso simultáneo de redes de sotobosque y trampas arpa. Sin embargo, se alcanza un inventario confiable de filostómidos sólo con las redes de sotobosque. Además, una combinación de redes de

  9. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass)b. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can

  10. Фауна рукокрылых Калининградской области

    OpenAIRE

    Румянцева, Е.; Беляков, В.

    2006-01-01

    В настоящее время хироптерофауна Калининградской области включает 14 видов летучих мышей, относящихся к одному семейству гладконосые летучие мыши (Vespertilionidae). Ушан бурый (Plecotus auritus), кожан поздний (Eptesicus serotinus) и вечерница рыжая (Nyctalus noctula) самые обычные и многочисленные виды. Вечерница малая (Nyctalus leisleri), ночница прудовая (Myotis dasycneme), широкоушка европейская (Barbastella barbastellus), кожан двухцветный (Vespertilio murinus), ночница Брандта (Myotis ...

  11. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

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    John O’Brien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  12. Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Bats (Chiroptera host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3 were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed.

  13. Caracterización espeleológica e inventario biológico de la Caverna del Diablo en el municipio de Becerril, Departamento del Cesar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Vides-Navarro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to characterize the most important aspects of the Devil´s cave, including biophysical, geological, speleological and morphological components. Methods: A descriptive research from observations in situ, specific technical work of topography, geology, speleology and biology, along with study of related literature has been conducted. Results: The methods used allowed us to learn about the natural richness inside the cave, with outstanding karst landforms (speleothems, presence of fish, crustaceans and other organisms that might be endemic. The information obtained indicates that the origin of the cavity is due to fluvial erosion processes and forced circulation of streams, evidenced in its shaped rosary surface on the interior walls of the structure. Landforms are mostly at the entrance of the cavity in varieties like Stalactites, Castings, Sandsicles and Gours. The biophysical component is the most distinctive aspect of the cave, consisting in a good dynamic of ventilation, permanent presence of water, high humidity and variety of wildlife, including taxa as Chiroptera, Araneae, Anura, Lepidoptera, Blattodea stand, Rodents, Oligochaeta, Dermaptera, siluriform and Decapods. Conclusions: Lithologically, the cavity is framed in limestone rocks rich in organic matter with variation in surface color belonging to the La Luna Formation, the low humidity of the cavity at its entrance and high carbonate content favored the formation of large numbers of speleothems. The inside observations and studies on the water stream showed that biophysical conditions of this place are suitable to house a rich diversity of wildlife.

  14. Impact of wind turbines on bats : literature review; Impacts des eoliennes sur les chauves-souris : revue de litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, F.

    2006-09-15

    As wind power development intensifies around the world, concerns are being raised regarding the impact on birds and chiroptera. Studies have been conducted to explore the possible causes of bat morality associated with wind power development in Quebec and to determine possible mitigation strategies. It is expected that wind energy development will increase in the province from 100 MW in 2003 to more than 3,500 MW by 2013. The regions that have high potential for wind energy development in Quebec include the Appalachian corridor, the Lower North Shore, the Magdelaine Islands, Anticosti Island, the Gaspe Peninsula and northern Quebec. The migration patterns of bats have been examined through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. Possible causes for bat mortality by wind turbines include seasonal migration routes, light, food and ultrasonic attraction. It was concluded that it is imperative to understand the causes of bat mortality in order to develop possible mitigation measures. 40 refs.

  15. 狐蝠对森林生态系统的作用%Important role of flying foxes (Megachiroptera) to forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杰; 张金国; 张恩泉; 张劲硕; 梁冰; 张树义; 沈钧贤

    2004-01-01

    翼手目(Chiroptera)为真正能飞翔的哺乳动物,现存19科1 107种,分别属于小蝙蝠亚目(Microchiroptera)和大蝙蝠亚目(Megachiroptera);其中大蝙蝠又称旧大陆狐蝠或果蝠(flyingfox),分布在热带和亚热带地区,仅狐蝠科188种,我国自然分布有9种.部分地区因栖息地丧失和过度捕杀导致狐蝠种群数量全球性或地区性下降或灭绝;狐蝠通过传播种子或传粉,促进森林生态系统的更新和基因交流.因此,狐蝠对森林生态系统的稳定、扩散、生物多样性以及衰退森林的恢复有重要作用.

  16. Phylogenomic analyses of bat subordinal relationships based on transcriptome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Dong, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Bats, order Chiroptera, are one of the largest monophyletic clades in mammals. Based on morphology and behaviour bats were once differentiated into two suborders Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera Recently, researchers proposed alternative views of chiropteran classification (suborders Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera) based on morphological, molecular and fossil evidence. Since genome-scale data can significantly increase the number of informative characters for analysis, transcriptome RNA-seq data for 12 bat taxa were generated in an attempt to resolve bat subordinal relationships at the genome level. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 1470 orthologous genes and 634,288 aligned sites. We found strong support for the Yinpterochiroptera-Yangochiroptera classification. Next, we built expression distance matrices for each species and reconstructed gene expression trees. The tree is highly consistent with sequence-based phylogeny. We also examined the influence of taxa sampling on the performance of phylogenetic methods, and found that the topology is robust to sampling. Relaxed molecular clock estimates the divergence between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera around 63 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of Yinpterochiroptera, corresponding to the split between Rhinolophoidea and Pteropodidae (Old World Fruit bats), is estimated to have occurred 60 million years ago. Our work provided a valuable resource to further explore the evolutionary relationship within bats. PMID:27291671

  17. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil. PMID:26751869

  18. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  19. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2000-04-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  20. Comparison of three airborne laser bathymetry data sets for monitoring the German Baltic Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujin; Niemeyer, Joachim; Ellmer, Wilfried; Soergel, Uwe; Heipke, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Airborne laser bathymetry (ALB) can be used for hydrographic surveying with relative high resolution in shallow water. In this paper, we examine the applicability of this technique based on three flight campaigns. These were conducted between 2012 and 2014 close to the island of Poel in the German Baltic Sea. The first data set was acquired by a Riegl VQ-820-G sensor in November 2012. The second and third data sets were acquired by a Chiroptera sensor of Airborne Hydrography AB in September 2013 and May 2014, respectively. We examine the 3D points classified as seabed under different conditions during data acquisition, e.g. the turbidity level of the water and the flight altitude. The analysis comprises the point distribution, point density, and the area coverage in several depth levels. In addition, we determine the vertical accuracy of the 3D seabed points by computing differences to echo sounding data. Finally, the results of the three flight campaigns are compared to each other and analyzed with respect to the different conditions during data acquisition. For each campaign only small differences in elevation between the laser and the echo sounding data set are observed. The ALB results satisfy the requirements of IHO Standards for Hydrographic Surveys (S-44) Order 1b for several depth intervals.

  1. Digital neuromorphic processing for a simplified algorithm of ultrasonic reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Lin; Clarke, Chris

    2001-05-01

    Previously, most mammalian auditory systems research has concentrated on human sensory perception whose frequencies are lower than 20 kHz. The implementations almost always used analog VLSI design. Due to the complexity of the model, it is difficult to implement these algorithms using current digital technology. This paper introduces a simplified model of biosonic reception system in bats and its implementation in the ``Chiroptera Inspired Robotic CEphaloid'' (CIRCE) project. This model consists of bandpass filters, a half-wave rectifier, low-pass filters, automatic gain control, and spike generation with thresholds. Due to the real-time requirements of the system, the system employs Butterworth filters and advanced field programmable gate array (FPGA) architectures to provide a viable solution. The ultrasonic signal processing is implemented on a Xilinx FPGA Virtex II device in real time. In the system, 12-bit input echo signals from receivers are sampled at 1 M samples per second for a signal frequency range from 20 to 200 kHz. The system performs a 704-channel per ear auditory pipeline operating in real time. The output of the system is a coded time series of threshold crossing points. Comparing hardware implementation with fixed-point software, the system shows significant performance gains with no loss of accuracy.

  2. REVISED AND COMMENTED CHECKLIST OF MAMMAL SPECIES OF THE ROMANIAN FAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Murariu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the permanent influences of different factors (habitat degradation and fragmentation, deforestation, infrastructure and urbanization, natural extension or decreasing of some species’ distribution, increasing number of alien species etc., from time to time the faunistic structure of a certain area is changing. As a result of the permanent and increasing anthropic and invasive species’ pressure, our previous checklist of recent mammals from Romania (since 1984 became out of date. A number of 108 taxa are mentioned in this checklist, representing 7 orders of mammals: Insectivora (10 species, Chiroptera (30 sp., Lagomorpha (2 sp., Rodentia (35 sp., Cetacea (3 sp., Carnivora (19 sp., Artiodactyla (8 sp.. In this list are mentioned the scientific and vernacular names (in Romanian and English languages, species distribution and conservation status, according to the Romanian regulations. Thus, only 21 species have stable populations while 76 have populations in decline or in drastic decline. Other categories are not evaluated or even present an increase in their population.

  3. 世界翼手目动物分类系统和种类最新报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲硕; 张俊鹏; 梁冰; 张树义

    2005-01-01

    翼手目(Chiroptera)是哺乳动物纲的第二大目,其种类和数量仅次于啮齿目。俗称蝙蝠,是惟一真正会飞翔的哺乳动物类群。分布几乎遍及两极以外的世界各地,而以热带地区最为丰富。翼手目可能和灵长目共同起源于类似食虫目的最原始的真兽类,现生翼手目分为大蝙蝠亚目(Megachiroptera)和小蝙蝠亚目(Microchiroptera)。前者仅包括狐蝠科(Pteropodidae)一个科,分布于旧大陆热带、亚热带地区;后者种类繁多,分布范围广泛。

  4. Topography and Vegetation Characterization using Dual-Wavelength Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.; Bradford, B.; Magruder, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring Earth surface dynamics at an ever increasing resolution has helped to support the characterization of local topography, including vegetated and urban environments. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to characterize vegetation and landscapes as it provides detailed three-dimensional spatial data with multiple elevation recordings for each laser pulse. The full waveform LIDAR receiver is unique in this aspect as it can capture and record the complete temporal history of the reflected signal, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and ground surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the utility of co-collected, dual-wavelength, full waveform LIDAR data to characterize vegetation and landscapes through the extraction of waveform features, including total waveform energy, canopy energy distribution, and foliage penetration metrics. Assessments are performed using data collected in May 2014 over Monterey, CA, including the Naval Postgraduate School campus area as well as the Point Lobos State Natural Reserve situated on the Monterey coast. The surveys were performed with the Chiroptera dual-laser LIDAR mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), which can collect both green (515nm) and near infrared (1064nm) waveforms simultaneously. Making use of the dual waveforms allows for detailed characterization of the vegetation and landscape not previously possible with airborne LIDAR.

  5. A comparative study of prenatal development in Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, Hipposideros armiger and H. pratti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Binghua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats comprise the second largest order of mammals. However, there are far fewer morphological studies of post-implantation embryonic development than early embryonic development in bats. Results We studied three species of bats (Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, Hipposideros armiger and H. pratti, representing the two suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera. Using an established embryonic staging system, we identified the embryonic stages for M. schreibersii fuliginosus, H. armiger and H. pratti and described the morphological changes in each species, including the development of the complex and distinctive nose-leaves in H. armiger and H. pratti. Finally, we compared embryonic and fetal morphology of the three species in the present study with five other species for which information is available. Conclusion As a whole, the organogenetic sequence of bat embryos is uniform and the embryos appear homoplastic before Stage 16. Morphological differentiation between species occurs mainly after embryonic Stage 16. Our study provides three new bat species for interspecific comparison of post-implantation embryonic development within the order Chiroptera and detailed data on the development of nose-leaves for bats in the superfamily Rhinolophoidea.

  6. [Trichostrongyloidea nematodes, parasites of Microchiroptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Chabaud, A G

    1975-01-01

    1. a) List of Nematodes collected by Professor Aellen in european Microchiroptera. Additionnal morphological data to the study of Molinostrongylus alatus, M. panousei, M. skrjabini. Description of M. aelleni n. sp. b) Description of M. richardae n. sp., M. benexae n. sp. et M. bauchoti n. sp., parasites of malagasian Molossidae. c) Description of M. colleyi n. sp. and M. owyangi n. sp., parasites of Malaysian Vespertilioninae, and of Allintoschius dunni n. sp., discovered in Myotis mystacinus from Malaysia and Pipistrellus nanus from Africa. 2. Taking into account the characteristics of the synlophe, the 17 species of the genus Molinostrongylus may be divided into five groups, each one being reasonably well characteristic of the genus of their Chiropteran host. 3. The composition of the Trichostrongyloidea fauna of Chiroptera and its relationship with Trichostrongyloidea from other Mammals (Tupaiidae, Pholidotes, Primates, Sciuridés) are analysed. Six groups are separated and divided into two well defined lines: 1) genus Strongylacantha, and 2) 12 genera stemming more or less directly from the Molineinae, 4. The three conical outgrowths at the tip of the female tail which differenciate presently the Anoplostrogylinae from the Molineinae appear to be an unreliable characteristic. The two subfamilies form a complex group which will be better understood if the evolution of the synlophe and that of the caudal bursa of the males are taken into account. PMID:1211768

  7. Fossil Vertebrate Database from Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Llucmajor, Mallorca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Díaz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The data set presented in this paper includes the fossil fauna collected in the cave named Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (CPV, located on the southern coast of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain. It holds 1481 catalogued items, 97.5% identified at species level. Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, and Amphibia are represented in the Database. The fauna collected in the cave includes the three endemic mammals present on Mallorca during the Early Pleistocene (Myotragus aff. kopperi, Hypnomys onicensis, and Nesiotites aff. ponsi. There are also represented two taxa of Chiroptera (Rhinolophus aff. mehelyi and Pipistrellus sp., 16 taxa of birds (6 of them identified at species level, one Reptilian taxon (Podarcis sp. and one Amphibian taxon (Discoglossus sp.. Most of fossils were collected during a single excavation campaign of 3 days (28-30th May, 2010. A few remains were obtained in two previous visits to the cave, in 2006 and 2009. All the specimens are curated and documented at the Vertebrate Collection of the IMEDEA [Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (CSIC-UIB]. The assemblage of CPV fossils is a part of the paleontological collection IMEDEA-PALEOVERT, included at the GBIF portal.

  8. Ultrastructural, Antigenic and Physicochemical Characterization of the Mojuí dos Campos (Bunyavirus Isolated from Bat in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanzeller Ana LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mojuí dos Campos virus (MDCV was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera captured in Mojuí dos Campos, Santarém, State of Pará, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i, and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup.

  9. Fleas (Siphonaptera) are Cretaceous, and evolved with Theria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiyun; Hastriter, Michael W; Whiting, Michael F; Dittmar, Katharina

    2015-09-01

    Fleas (order Siphonaptera) are highly-specialized, diverse blood-feeding ectoparasites of mammals and birds with an enigmatic evolutionary history and obscure origin. We here present a molecular phylogenetic study based on a comprehensive taxon sampling of 259 flea taxa, representing 16 of the 18 extant families of this order. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree with strong nodal support was recovered, consisting of seven sequentially derived lineages with Macropsyllidae as the earliest divergence, followed by Stephanocircidae. Divergence times of flea lineages were estimated based on fossil records and host specific associations to bats (Chiroptera), suggesting that the common ancestor of extant Siphonaptera diversified during the Cretaceous. However, most of the intraordinal divergence into extant lineages took place after the K-Pg boundary. Ancestral states of host association and biogeographical distribution were reconstructed, suggesting with high likelihood that fleas originated in the southern continents (Gondwana) and migrated from South America to their extant distributions in a relatively short time frame. Theria (placental mammals and marsupials) represent the most likely ancestral host group of extant Siphonaptera, with marsupials occupying a more important role than previously assumed. Major extant flea families evolved in connection to post K-Pg diversification of Placentalia. The association of fleas with monotremes and birds is likely due to later secondary host association. These results suggest caution in casually interpreting recently discovered Mesozoic fossil "dinosaur fleas" of Northeast Asia as part of what we currently consider Siphonaptera. PMID:25987528

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania infantum chagasi Infection in Wild Mammals from Maranhão State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; Mesquita, Eric Takashi Kamakura de Carvalho; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-11-01

    Trypanosoma and Leishmania are obligate parasites that cause important diseases in human and domestic animals. Wild mammals are the natural reservoirs of these parasites, which are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of trypanosomatids through serological diagnosis, PCR of whole blood and blood culture (hemoculture), and phylogenetic relationships using small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), cytochrome b, and glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. Samples from 131 wild animals, including rodents, marsupials, and bats, were sampled in six areas in the state of Maranhão, in a transition zone of semiarid climates northeast of the equatorial humid Amazon. Serological analysis for Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi was performed in opossums by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and all animals were serologically negative. Nine positive hemocultures (6.77%) were isolated and cryopreserved and from mammals of the Didelphimorphia and Chiroptera orders and positioned in phylogenies on the basis of sequences from different genes with reference strains of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei and T. cruzi. From primary samples (blood and tissues) only one bat, Pteronotus parnellii, was positive to SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes and grouped with the L. infantum chagasi branch. The studies conducted in Maranhão State provide knowledge of parasite diversity. It is important to determine the presence of trypanosomatids in wild mammals with synanthropic habits.

  11. The ecology of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle: Dispersion of zymodeme 3 (Z3) in wild hosts from Brazilian biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2009-10-28

    Two main genotypes in Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations can be distinguished by PCR amplification of sequences from the mini-exon gene non-transcribed spacer, respectively, T. cruzi I (TCI) and T. cruzi II (TCII). This technique is also capable of distinguishing a third assemblage of subpopulations that do not fit in these genotypes and that remain known as zymodeme Z3 (Z3). The distribution pattern as well as the mammalian host range of this latter T. cruzi sublineage still remains unclear. Thus, the intention of our study was to increase the information regarding these aspects. The mini-exon analysis of T. cruzi isolates obtained from sylvatic animals in the Amazon Forest, Atlantic Rainforest, Caatinga and Pantanal showed that prevalence of the Z3 subpopulation in nature was low (15 out of 225 isolates, corresponding to 7%). A higher prevalence of Z3 was observed in the Caatinga (15%) and the Pantanal (12%). Infection by Z3 was observed in mammalian hosts included in Carnivora, Chiroptera, Didelphimorphia, Rodentia and Xernathra. The T. cruzi Z3 subpopulation was observed also in mixed infections (33%) with TCI (n=2) and TCII (n=3). These results demonstrate that T. cruzi Z3 displays a wider distribution and host range than formerly understood as it has been demonstrated to be able infect species included in five orders of mammalian host species dispersed through all forest strata of the four Brazilian biomes evaluated.

  12. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.

  13. Assessing DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and data quality control.

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    Yong-Yi Shen

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of sequences of diverse species submitted to GenBank has grown explosively and not infrequently the data contain errors. This problem is extensively recognized but not for invalid or incorrectly identified species, sample mixed-up, and contamination. DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for identifying and confirming species and one very important application involves forensics. In this study, we use DNA barcoding to detect erroneous sequences in GenBank by evaluating deep intraspecific and shallow interspecific divergences to discover possible taxonomic problems and other sources of error. We use the mitochondrial DNA gene encoding cytochrome b (Cytb from turtles to test the utility of barcoding for pinpointing potential errors. This gene is widely used in phylogenetic studies of the speciose group. Intraspecific variation is usually less than 2.0% and in most cases it is less than 1.0%. In comparison, most species differ by more than 10.0% in our dataset. Overlapping intra- and interspecific percentages of variation mainly involve problematic identifications of species and outdated taxonomies. Further, we detect identical problems in Cytb from Insectivora and Chiroptera. Upon applying this strategy to 47,524 mammalian CoxI sequences, we resolve a suite of potentially problematic sequences. Our study reveals that erroneous sequences are not rare in GenBank and that the DNA barcoding can serve to confirm sequencing accuracy and discover problems such as misidentified species, inaccurate taxonomies, contamination, and potential errors in sequencing.

  14. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

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    Wen-Ping Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  15. c-myc gene sequences and the phylogeny of bats and other eutherian mammals.

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    Miyamoto, M M; Porter, C A; Goodman, M

    2000-09-01

    The complete protein-coding sequences of the c-myc proto-oncogene were determined for five species of four new orders of eutherian (placental) mammals. These newly obtained sequences were aligned to each other and to other available orthologs for the phylogenetic estimation of eutherian interordinal relationships. Several measures of sequence difference and base composition were first calculated to assess the major evolutionary properties of the three codon positions and two protein-coding exons of the gene. On the basis of these calculations, different parsimony, distance, and maximum likelihood approaches were adopted, with the most sophisticated involving the separate, then combined, likelihood analyses of the third codon positions of exon 2 versus all other sites. These phylogenetic approaches provided clear support for the grouping of Chiroptera (bats) with Artiodactyla (ruminants, camels, and pigs) and Carnivora (cats, dogs, and their allies), an interordinal arrangement that receives strong corroboration from other lines of evidence including complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. In contrast, these analyses failed to provide strong to reasonable support for any other interordinal group. This study concludes with specific recommendations about sampling and other strategies for maximizing the phylogenetic contributions of the c-myc gene to the continued resolution of the eutherian ordinal tree. PMID:12116424

  16. Hantavirus Reservoirs: Current Status with an Emphasis on Data from Brazil

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    Renata Carvalho de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha. More than 80genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens.

  17. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

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    Isabella Eckerle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  18. Ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Amazon basin. The main scenaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Coura, J R; Junqueira, A C V

    2015-11-01

    The ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region is directly interlinked with the parasite's extensive reservoir, composed of 33 species of wild mammals within the following orders: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primates; and of 16 species of wild triatomines, of which ten may be infected with T. cruzi. Four scenarios for the diversity of T. cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region are evident: (i) T. cruzi transmission between vectors and wild mammals, which is characterized as a wild enzooty encompassing the entire Amazon basin; (ii) accidental T. cruzi transmission from vectors and wild mammals to humans, when they invade the wild ecotope or when these vectors and wild mammals invade human homes; (iii) occupational Chagas disease among piassava (Leopoldinia piassaba) palm fiber gatherers, transmitted by the vector Rhodnius brethesi, for which these palm trees are the specific ecotope; (IV) oral T. cruzi transmission to humans through food contamination, particularly in juices from plants such as assai, which today is considered to be endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with more than 1500 cases notified.

  19. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches.

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    Daniela A Schmieder

    Full Text Available External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of a newfound bat-borne hantavirus supports a laurasiatherian host association for ancestral mammalian hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Drexler, Jan F; Kallies, René; Ličková, Martina; Bokorová, Silvia; Mananga, Gael D; Szemes, Tomáš; Leroy, Eric M; Krüger, Detlev H; Drosten, Christian; Klempa, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic l-segment showed that MAKV was the most closely related to other bat-borne hantaviruses and shared a most recent common ancestor with the Asian hantaviruses Xuan Son and Laibin. Breakdown of the virus load in a bat animal showed that MAKV resembles rodent-borne hantaviruses in its organ distribution in that it predominantly occurred in the spleen and kidney; this provides a first insight into the infection pattern of bat-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral state reconstruction based on a tree of l gene sequences of all relevant hantavirus lineages was combined with phylogenetic fossil host hypothesis testing, leading to a statistically significant rejection of the mammalian superorder Euarchontoglires (including rodents) but not the superorder Laurasiatheria (including shrews, moles, and bats) as potential hosts of ancestral hantaviruses at most basal tree nodes. Our data supports the emerging concept of bats as previously overlooked hantavirus reservoir hosts. PMID:27051047

  1. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

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    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil.

  2. Carios mimon (Acari: Argasidae): description of adults and redescription of larva.

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    Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Marcili, Arlei; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Venzal, José Manuel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2011-05-01

    Carios mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera, originally described from larvae collected on bats Mimon crenulatum from Bolivia and Eptesicus brasiliensis from Uruguay. Later it was also registered from Argentina and recently included among the Brazilian tick fauna. In Brazil, this species is very aggressive to man, resulting in intense inflammatory response and pain. It is known only by the larval description and its morphology resembles that from other species currently included into the genus Carios, formerly classified into the subgenus Alectorobius, genus Ornithodoros. Here we describe adults and redescribe the larva of C. mimon, based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Remarks about its morphological similarity with other species of this genus are also discussed. Molecular analysis inferred from a portion of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene placed C. mimon in a cluster supported by maximal bootstrap value (100%) with other argasid species (mostly bat parasites in the New World), which have been classified into either the genus Ornithodoros or Carios, depending on the Argasidae classification adopted by different authors. PMID:21161720

  3. Description of nymphal instars of Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, 1969 (Acari: Argasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Pevidor, Luisa Viana; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Ornithodoros mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera in the Neotropical region, where it also bites humans aggressively. Here we describe for the first time all nymphal instars (N1, N2 and N3) of O. mimon based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Although the nymphal instars of O. mimon resemble each other closely, there are characters that differentiate them: the N3 are taller that N1 and N2; the genital primordium occurs in some N2 and all N3; the spiracular plate in N1 and N2 is cone-like, but in N3 it is semicircular; and the submarginal dorsal groove is less distinct in N1 but more evident in N3. Nymphs of 0. mimon closely resemble the bat-associated species of the genus Ornithodoros included in the Alectorobius group. We review prior descriptions of nymphs of the Alectorobius group and make comparisons with nymphs of O. minon, highlighting characters with diagnostic information, such as the idiosomal shape, presence of discs and hood and absence subapical protuberance of tarsus I. The description of nymphal instars of O. mimon herein presented, improves the taxonomy of the family Argasidae, performing a work more detailed about the immature stage of this species. PMID:26106682

  4. The broad spectrum of Trichinella hosts: from cold- to warm-blooded animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, studies on Trichinella have shown that the host range is wider than previously believed and new Trichinella species and genotypes have been described. Three classes of vertebrates are known to act as hosts, mammals, birds and reptiles, and infected vertebrates have been detected on all continents but Antarctica. Mammals represent the most important hosts and all Trichinella species are able to develop in this vertebrate class. Natural infections with Trichinella have been described in more than 150 mammalian species belonging to 12 orders (i.e., Marsupialia, Insectivora, Edentata, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Cetacea, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, Tylopoda and Primates). The epidemiology of the infection greatly varies by species relative to characteristics, such as diet, life span, distribution, behaviour, and relationships with humans. The non-encapsulated species Trichinella pseudospiralis, detected in both mammals (14 species) and birds (13 species), shows a cosmopolitan distribution with three distinguishable populations in the Palearctic, Nearctic and Australian regions. Two additional non-encapsulated species, Trichinella papuae, detected in wild pigs and saltwater crocodiles of Papua New Guinea, and Trichinella zimbabwensis, detected in farmed Nile crocodiles of Zimbabwe, can complete their life cycle in both mammals and reptiles. To the best of our knowledge, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are the only two parasites known to complete their entire life cycle independently of whether the host is warm-blooded or cold-blooded. This suggests that these two Trichinella species are capable of activating different physiological mechanisms, according to the specific vertebrate class hosting them. PMID:15970384

  5. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus

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    Genevieve Spanjer Wright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  6. Pupal deposition and ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae): Trichobius sp. (caecus group) in a Mexican cave habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Katharina; Dick, Carl W; Patterson, Bruce D; Whiting, Michael F; Gruwell, Matthew E

    2009-04-01

    We studied the deposition of pupae of the winged bat fly Trichobius sp. (caecus group; Diptera), an ectoparasite of Natalus stramineus (Chiroptera, Natalidae), in a natural cave in Tamaulipas, Mexico. For the first time, we show a strong spatial segregation of populations of a streblid bat fly at different stages of development. Using molecular techniques we were able to match developmental stages to adults. Only 5 pupae were present in the main bat roosts. The overwhelming majority occurred exclusively in the bat flyway passages at a considerable distance from roosting bats. Pupal density corresponded positively with the average flight height of bats in the cave passage. Taken together, observations suggest that these ectoparasites must actively seek out their hosts by moving onto passing or roosting bats. The scarceness of pupae in the main roost may be dictated by environmental constraints for their development. The estimated population of viable pupae far exceeds the population of imagoes on the bats, and predation on adults by spiders is common. PMID:18684039

  7. Foraging areas of Rousettus leschenaulti on the Hainan Island of China

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    Zhanhui TANG, Zhong CHEN, Jie MA, Guangjian ZHU, Xunfeng MA, Lianxi SHENG, Yuchun LI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the foraging area of three individuals (1 female and 2 males of Rousettus leschenaulti (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in suburban Haikou City, Hainan Province, South China from November 2005 to January 2006 using radio telemetry. These animals left the daytime roosting sites about 90 min after sunset with no significant difference in departure time between the male and female bats. The average active times were 391.8 min for males and 533.7 min for the female, respectively. By reconstructing 93 radio-telemetry recording positions, we found that the long axis of foraging area of the bats ranged from 7.45 to 11.70 km. The foraging area of the female (3867 ha was larger than that of the males (1138 ha, and there was overlap between the foraging areas of different individuals. These bats usually kept the same flight routes across a few successive days from the daytime roosting site to the foraging areas. Our findings suggested that female R. leschenaulti may explore a larger foraging area than males. No obvious territorial behaviors were observed in our studied area [Current Zoology 56 (4: 479–484, 2010].

  8. Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución

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    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S and Tierra del Fuego (55° S. Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such as the Chilean fjords. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the nomenclatural status, and establish the morphological characteristics and distribution of the Chilean Nacellidae. Especially, the following three objectives are pursued: (i to clarify the correct identity of existing species; (ii to describe of morphological details, highlighting the clear diagnostic characters of each species, and (iii to delimitate and discuss their geographical range in Chile. The examination of the Nacellidae of the Chilean fiords has resulted in the recognition of one species of Nacella (Nacella and seven species of Nacella (Patinigera, wherein the principal specific differences are in the shell (shape, thickness and color and in radular teeth morphology. The genus Nacella and its subgenus Patinigera are cold-water limpets, and are exclusively inhabitants of Subantarctic and Antarctic waters. The greater part of their range being subantarctic, but extending to the Antarctic by way of the Scotia Arc, and also ranging northward up the Chilean coast to at least Valparaiso at 33° S (only N. (P. clypeater. They apparently have their centre of distribution in the Magellanic Province of southern South America, corresponding to an area with a high degree of diversification (N. (N. mytilina, N. (P. chiloensis, N. (P. deaurata, N. (P. delicatissima, N. (P. flammea, N. (P. magellanica, N. (P. venosa, wherefrom the species tends to spread eastward, with a larval transport probably

  9. Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea no Sul do Brasil Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea in the Southern Region of Brazil

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    Gustavo Graciolli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento taxonômico das espécies de Nycteribiidae e de seus hospedeiros foi realizado na Região Sul do Brasil, utilizando material depositados em coleções e dados de literatura. Foram encontradas um total de 12 espécies de Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 sobre oito espécies de morcegos pertencentes as famílias Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae. Considerando o número de espécies por estado, houve um decréscimo no sentido norte-sul. No Paraná, foram encontradas nove espécies, em Santa Catarina oito e no Rio Grande do Sul quatro. Basilia speiseri (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907 é registrada pela primeira vez nos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. Basilia juquiensis Guimarães, 1943 e B. producta Maa, 1968 são novos registros para Santa Catarina e B. plaumanni Scott, 1940 é registrada pela primeira vez no Rio Grande do Sul. Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 é registrado pela primeira vez como hospedeiro de B. producta e Myotis riparius Handley, 1960 de B. juquiensis. O macho de Basilia lindolphoi Graciolli, 2001 é descrito. Chave para as espécies de Basilia encontradas é disponibilizada.A survey of nicteribiid bat flies was carried out in the Southern Region of Brazil. Twelve species of Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 were recorded on eight species of bats. The number of species of Basilia decreased north to south. In the State of Paraná nine species were found, eight in Santa Catarina and four in Rio Grande do Sul. Basilia juquiensis Guimarães, 1943 and B. producta Maa, 1968 were recorded for the first time from Santa Catarina and B. plaumanni Scott, 1940 from Rio Grande do Sul. Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 is been reported as a new host for B. producta and Myotis riparius Handley, 1960 for B. juquiensis. The male of Basilia lindolphoi Graciolli, 2001 is described. Key for the collected species of Basilia is given.

  10. 贵州省翼手目一新纪录——大山蝠%A New Record of Nyctalus aviator in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周江; 杨天友

    2012-01-01

    2010年8月在贵州省从江县进行翼手目动物物种多样性调查中,于从江县加鸠乡采集到2只雌性山蝠,体型较大,前臂长60.22 mm,59.72 mm;耳屏明显,短而厚,呈肾型;第5指最短,第3指最长;体被黄棕色;有距缘膜;头骨宽而粗壮,人字脊显著;上齿列长9.12 mm,9.28 mm.外门齿大于内门齿;第一上前臼齿(P2)弱小,被挤入齿列内侧;第二上前臼齿(P4)发达,犬齿与P4紧密接触.下齿列长7.70mm,8.14 mm.经鉴定,该蝙蝠为大山蝠(Nyctalus aviator),属贵州省新纪录.该种的分布由中国的东北部向西南延伸.标本现保存在贵州师范大学生命科学学院.%Two specimen of Vespertilionidae were collected from Jiajiu Township in Congjiang County, Guizhou Province, during a survey of bat species diversity in August, 2010, which is identified as Nyctalus aviator and new record to Guizhou. Description as follows; Size large, thumb short with strong claw; calcar keeled; fur dense and velvety; color deep yellowish brown; upper inner incisor longer than outer incisor; the forearm length is 59. 72 -60. 22 mm; tragus short and stubby; antitragus long and low; fifth finger shortest, third longest; wing membrane attached to ankle; tip of tail barely extends past uropatagium; skull broad and robust; lambdoidal crest conspicuous; postorbital process weak; teeth large, with low cusps, the upper toothrow length is 9. 12 - 9. 28 mm; first upper premolar was small and pushed to inner side of toothrow; second upper premolar developed;The lower toothrow length is 7. 70 - 8. 14 mm. The distribution range of this species extended to southwestern China, which differs from the record before. The specimens were preserved in the School of Life Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, China.

  11. Emended Description of Litomosoides molossi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) and First Records of Litomosoides Species Parasitizing Argentinean Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Mirna C; Notarnicola, Juliana; Miotti, M Daniela; Claps, Lucía E

    2016-08-01

    :  During a long-term study on biodiversity of bats in the Yungas and Entre Ríos provinces, 1,304 specimens of bats included in the families Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, and Molossidae were collected and checked for filarioids. Litomosoides molossi Esslinger, 1973 was recovered from the thoracic and abdominal cavities of Molossus molossus (prevalence [P] = 6.4%); Litomosoides chandleri Esslinger, 1973 from Artibeus planirostris (P = 6.9%), Sturnira oporaphilum (P = 66.6%), Sturnira erythromos (P = 23.8%), Sturnira lilium (P = 7.2%), and Eumops perotis (P = 50%); and Litomosoides saltensis n. sp. was collected from Eptesicus furinalis (P = 1.7%). In this paper, we emend the description of L. molossi; describe a new species, Litomosoides saltensis n. sp., on the basis of 1 female specimen; and report for the first time L. molossi and L. chandleri parasitizing Argentinean bats, expanding the host and locality records. Litomosoides molossi exhibits a slender buccal capsule, with an anterior segment transparent, and the posterior chitinous portion displays 2 thickenings in the first third; possesses 1 dorsal prominent cephalic papilla and 4 labial papillae distributed around the mouth; cuticle with lateral punctuations all along the hypodermic chords in both sexes; and male with area rugosa and tail without cloacal papillae. In L. chandleri, the lateral punctuations are distributed on the posterior extremity of the body in both sexes. Litomosoides saltensis n. sp. displays a thick buccal capsule with a posterior segment well cuticularized, possessing 2 thickenings in the anterior half; 4 labial and 2 ventral cephalic papillae; a globular vulva located anterior to the esophagus-intestine junction; cuticle with lateral punctuations in the posterior extremity of the body; and tail with salient phasmids. We also provide a taxonomic key for the identification of the Litomosoides sp. of bat dwelling. Long-term studies and large sample sizes are needed

  12. Adaptation of Specialized Auditory System to Echolocation in CF-FM Bat%恒频-调频蝙蝠特化的听觉系统对回声定位的适应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娜; 付子英; 陈其才

    2014-01-01

    在漫长的生物演化过程中,蝙蝠演化出了能飞行和高度适应生存环境的生物声纳系统和行为.蝙蝠属于哺乳动物纲的翼手目(Chiroptera),是唯一能真正飞行的哺乳动物,其种类超过1000种,位列哺乳类动物的第二大目.根据其体型大小和形态特征将其分成大蝙蝠亚目(Megachiroptera)和小蝙蝠亚目(Microchiroptera).对蝙蝠的研究具有重要的科学意义和实际应用价值,如在听感觉方面与人类共享听觉的某些基本原理,研究结果有助于认识人类听觉.它们发出的回声定位信号规整,便于模拟后用于研究听觉系统对声信号加工的机制,尤其是在听中枢对复杂声信号处理方面,认识其细胞和分子机制才刚开始,它们是极好的模型动物.另外,在仿生学方面也具有极其重要的价值,回声定位蝙蝠的生物声纳系统具有极高的时间和空间分辨率,是极具诱惑力的研究课题.有关恒频-调频蝙蝠听觉结构和功能的研究,已有相当的时日,获得了不少新的认识,窥探到敏锐的听觉与回声定位行为之间的某些适应性的机制,本文对这方面的研究进展做了简要介绍和评述.%The evolution makes bats have abilities of flying,echolocating and highly adaptating to living surroundings.Bats,as the only true flying mammals,belong to the Chiroptera,ranking the second order of the mammals with more than 1000 species.They are classified into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera according to their size and morphological characteristics of the body.Because bats share some basic principles with human in auditory perception,the researches of bats can provide helpful information to understand the hearing of human.The echolocation signals emitted by bats are regular and can be easily imitated to study the mechanism of the signal processing in the central auditory system,especially in the processing of complex acoustic signals,bats is an excellent model animal

  13. Caracterización biogeográfica de la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana y análisis de los patrones de distribución de su mastofauna Biogeographic characterization of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt and analysis of the distributional patterns of the mammal fauna

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    Niza Gámez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La provincia de la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana (FVT está reconocida como centro de diversificación, endemismo y transición biogeográfica. Debido a su heterogeneidad ambiental, origen geológico complejo e intrincados patrones de distribución, aún no existe acuerdo en cuanto a su delimitación geográfica y la diferenciación ecológica y biogeográfica de su biota. Para realizar la caracterización de la provincia y de las unidades que la conforman y analizar los patrones de distribución de su mastofauna, a partir de los límites geográficos y lista de especies, se realizó un análisis espacial de su geología, altitud, clima y tipo de vegetación. Asimismo, se analizaron los patrones de riqueza y endemismo asociados con diferentes variables ambientales; esto último, a partir de modelos de nicho ecológico. Se caracteriza la FVT como una unidad biogeográfica con 2 distritos (este y oeste, donde la vegetación y la altitud son las variables que mejor explican la distribución de riqueza y endemismo de su mastofauna y la porción más relevante el bosque de pino-encino de los 2 000 a los 3 000 metros. La mayor riqueza de especies se presenta en los órdenes Rodentia y Chiroptera; 12 de los 13 géneros de mamíferos endémicos de México tienen representación en la FVT y se registran 14 especies endémicas de la provincia, en su mayoría roedores.The Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TVB is recognized as a center of diversification, endemism and biogeographic transition. Due to its environmental heterogeneity, complex geological origin and intricate distributional patterns, there is no consensus on its geographic delimitation and the ecological and biogeographic differentiation of its biota. We undertook a spatial analysis of the geology, altitude, climate and vegetation types, and the richness and endemicity patterns associated, with the aim of characterizing the province and the units within it. We also analyzed the distributional

  14. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  15. Habitat composition and connectivity predicts bat presence and activity at foraging sites in a large UK conurbation.

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    James D Hale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urbanization is characterized by high levels of sealed land-cover, and small, geometrically complex, fragmented land-use patches. The extent and density of urbanized land-use is increasing, with implications for habitat quality, connectivity and city ecology. Little is known about densification thresholds for urban ecosystem function, and the response of mammals, nocturnal and cryptic taxa are poorly studied in this respect. Bats (Chiroptera are sensitive to changing urban form at a species, guild and community level, so are ideal model organisms for analyses of this nature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We surveyed bats around urban ponds in the West Midlands conurbation, United Kingdom (UK. Sites were stratified between five urban land classes, representing a gradient of built land-cover at the 1 km(2 scale. Models for bat presence and activity were developed using land-cover and land-use data from multiple radii around each pond. Structural connectivity of tree networks was used as an indicator of the functional connectivity between habitats. All species were sensitive to measures of urban density. Some were also sensitive to landscape composition and structural connectivity at different spatial scales. These results represent new findings for an urban area. The activity of Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber 1774 exhibited a non-linear relationship with the area of built land-cover, being much reduced beyond the threshold of ∼60% built surface. The presence of tree networks appears to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization for this species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that increasing urban density negatively impacts the study species. This has implications for infill development policy, built density targets and the compact city debate. Bats were also sensitive to the composition and structure of the urban form at a range of spatial scales, with implications for land-use planning and management

  16. Neotropical bats: estimating species diversity with DNA barcodes.

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    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI is frequently employed as an efficient method of species identification in animal life and may also be used to estimate species richness, particularly in understudied faunas. Despite numerous past demonstrations of the efficiency of this technique, few studies have attempted to employ DNA barcoding methodologies on a large geographic scale, particularly within tropical regions. In this study we survey current and potential species diversity using DNA barcodes with a collection of more than 9000 individuals from 163 species of Neotropical bats (order Chiroptera. This represents one of the largest surveys to employ this strategy on any animal group and is certainly the largest to date for land vertebrates. Our analysis documents the utility of this tool over great geographic distances and across extraordinarily diverse habitats. Among the 163 included species 98.8% possessed distinct sets of COI haplotypes making them easily recognizable at this locus. We detected only a single case of shared haplotypes. Intraspecific diversity in the region was high among currently recognized species (mean of 1.38%, range 0-11.79% with respect to birds, though comparable to other bat assemblages. In 44 of 163 cases, well-supported, distinct intraspecific lineages were identified which may suggest the presence of cryptic species though mean and maximum intraspecific divergence were not good predictors of their presence. In all cases, intraspecific lineages require additional investigation using complementary molecular techniques and additional characters such as morphology and acoustic data. Our analysis provides strong support for the continued assembly of DNA barcoding libraries and ongoing taxonomic investigation of bats.

  17. Notes of Greater Long-tongued Fruit Bat Macroglossus sobrinus in China%中国安氏长舌果蝠的分类记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆; 王应祥; 林苏

    2007-01-01

    1992年3月和1999年12月,分别从云南南部西双版纳勐腊补崩和麻木树采到6号长舌果蝠,经与我国已记载过的翼手目(Chiroptera)狐蝠科(Pteropodidae)长舌果蝠亚科(Macroglossinae)的种类比较:其舌甚长,舌尖具刷状突起,舌面中央有三尖形乳突(tridentate papillae)、前臂长47.31~51.01 mm与长舌果蝠(Eonycteris spelaea)相似,但第二指具爪,翼膜止于第三趾趾基,上唇前缘无沟槽,鼻孔不突出,尾极短、隐于毛被中;头骨后部明显向后下方倾斜,齿槽后延线明显超过人字嵴上缘达及项间骨上缘水平,牙齿非常长而细弱,与长舌果蝠明显有别,这些特征与印度东北部和东南亚一带的安氏长舌果蝠(Macroglossus sobrinus)一致,为我国翼手目狐蝠科长舌果蝠亚科的属、种新纪录,本文对这一属、种作比较详细的记述;另对已记录的长舌果蝠(Eonycteris spelaea),根据新的资料作补充记述.

  18. Historical and Present Day Mercury Contamination From Gold Mining in Three Feeding Guilds of Bats From the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Divoll, T.

    2014-12-01

    Miners in many countries use mercury as an amalgam to separate gold from river sediments. In the last twenty years the price of gold has risen and the number of small-scale, artisanal gold mining operations in the Amazon basin have also increased. The influx of mercury into natural river systems has detrimental consequences for the surrounding ecosystem and for organisms, particularly those at higher trophic levels. Toxic mercury levels have been shown to impair reproductive, neurological and behavioral functioning of organisms. I used bats (Chiroptera) as a mammalian model system to study mercury contamination and accumulation due to gold mining from field caught and museum collection specimens in Amazonian Perú and showed that: (1) Total mercury concentrations in Amazonian bat species have increased over time since the 1920's; (2) Bat species from sites with current active mining have higher concentrations of mercury than non-mining sites, with some species having levels exceeding those considered toxic for mammals; (3) Higher trophic levels of bats (piscivores and insectivores) bioaccumulate more mercury than bats of lower trophic levels (frugivores); (4) Bats located in present day uncontaminated sites have the same mercury levels as bats collected in the 1920's from the Amazon basin. The variety of bat feeding guilds allowed for a comparison of how mercury accumulation is affected by diet within one taxonomic order. The novel use of museum specimens allowed for a look back into the historical timeline of mercury contamination in the Amazon basin. Bats represent a new and exciting study system since, like humans, they are mammals and should therefore show similar neurochemical and behavioral responses to this toxic element.

  19. Thermobiology, energetics and activity patterns of the Eastern tube-nosed bat (Nyctimene robinsoni) in the Australian tropics: effect of temperature and lunar cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, Alexander; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2010-08-01

    Currently, there are no data on the thermal biology of free-ranging pteropodid bats (Chiroptera). Therefore, our aim was to investigate physiological and behavioural strategies employed by the fruit bat Nyctimene robinsoni (body mass approximately 50 g) in winter in tropical Northern Queensland in relation to ambient temperature (T(a)) and the lunar cycle. Daily body temperature (T(b)) fluctuations in free-ranging bats were measured via radio-telemetry and metabolic rate was measured in captivity via open-flow respirometry (T(a), 15-30 degrees C). Free-ranging bats showed a significant 24 h circadian cycle in T(b), with the lowest T(b) at the end of the rest phase just after sunset and the highest T(b) at the end of the activity phase just before sunrise. Average daily core T(b) ranged from 34.7+/-0.6 to 37.3+/-0.8 degrees C (mean +/- s.d.) over an average daily T(a) range of 17.1+/-1.1 to 23.5+/-1.8 degrees C. T(b) never fell below 30 degrees C but T(b) was significantly reduced during the full moon period compared with that during the new moon period. T(b) was correlated with T(a) during the second half of the rest phase (P<0.001) but not during the active phase. Resting metabolic rate of bats was significantly affected by T(a) (P<0.001, R(2)=0.856). Our results show that tube-nosed bats exhibit reduced T(b) on moonlit nights when they reduce foraging activity, but during our study torpor was not expressed. The energy constraints experienced here by tube-nosed bats with relatively moderate T(a) fluctuations, short commuting distances between roosting and feeding locations, and high availability of food were probably not substantial enough to require use of torpor.

  20. More than a rabbit's tale – Encephalitozoon spp. in wild mammals and birds

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    Barbara Hinney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the microsporidian genus Encephalitozoon, three species, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon intestinalis have been described. Several orders of the Class Aves (Passeriformes, Psittaciformes, Apodiformes, Ciconiiformis, Gruiformes, Columbiformes, Suliformes, Podicipediformes, Anseriformes, Struthioniformes, Falconiformes and of the Class Mammalia (Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Artyodactyla, Soricomorpha, Chiroptera, Carnivora can become infected. Especially E. cuniculi has a very broad host range while E. hellem is mainly distributed amongst birds. E. intestinalis has so far been detected only sporadically in wild animals. Although genotyping allows the identification of strains with a certain host preference, recent studies have demonstrated that they have no strict host specificity. Accordingly, humans can become infected with any of the four strains of E. cuniculi as well as with E. hellem or E. intestinalis, the latter being the most common. Especially, but not exclusively, immunocompromised people are at risk. Environmental contamination with as well as direct transmission of Encephalitozoon is therefore highly relevant for public health. Moreover, endangered species might be threatened by the spread of pathogens into their habitats. In captivity, clinically overt and often fatal disease seems to occur frequently. In conclusion, Encephalitozoon appears to be common in wild warm-blooded animals and these hosts may present important reservoirs for environmental contamination and maintenance of the pathogens. Similar to domestic animals, asymptomatic infections seem to occur frequently but in captive wild animals severe disease has also been reported. Detailed investigations into the epidemiology and clinical relevance of these microsporidia will permit a full appraisal of their role as pathogens.

  1. Micromammals in the diet of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus at the W.W.F.'s Oasi San Giuliano (Matera, South Italy

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    Francesco Cecere

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of small mammals in the winter diet of a dormitory made up of 5 specimens living at the WWF's Oasi San Giuliano (province of Matera is analysed in the following study. The data confirm the presence of small mammals, Microtinae in particular, as a main prey of the Long-eared Owl. 1921 prey-individuals totalling 37695 grams in biomass were found. Rodentia are dominant (86.93% of the biomass; Microtus savii is of particular importance and represents 61.06% of the total biomass and was found in 60.42% of the pellets found. The second most frequently hunted species is the Apodemus sp.: 24.06% of the biomass, 37.08% of the frequency. The other mammals preyed on (Suncus etruscus, Crocidura sp., Pipistrellus sp., Vespertilius sp., Rattus sp., Moscardinus avellanarius are of little importance: 1.27% of the biomass. The owls preyed upon 9 of the 11 species of mammals present (the Talpa sp. and the Mus domesticus are absent. Affinity among different periods, estimated through Sorensen's Index, was found to be medium-high (0.67-0.72. The data analysis confirms the stenophagy of the Long-eared Owl, in this area that is characterised by extensive cereal cultivation and few shrubs and trees. In comparison with other Italian localities, a greater number of preyed species was recorded (8 mammals, 9 birds, 1 insect. Roost owls preyed mainly upon Chiroptera (0.36% compared with 0.1-0.2. Myotis capaccinii and Pipistrellus savii were also found in the diet of the Long-eared Owl for the first time in Italy.

  2. Faster speciation and reduced extinction in the tropics contribute to the Mammalian latitudinal diversity gradient.

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    Jonathan Rolland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha, high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha, or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia. Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the "out of the tropics" hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern.

  3. Aportes al conocimiento de la mastofauna de la Serranía de Perijá (Cesar, Colombia

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    Muñoz Saba Yaneth

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende contribuir al conocimiento de la mastofauna presente en la serranía de Perijá. Se realizaron
    dos salidas de campo enmarcadas dentro del proyecto “Manejo Integral de la Zona de Páramo en la Serranía de Perijá” en las cuales se realizaron muestreos en dos diferentes regiones, en la localidad de Becerril y en el corregimiento de San José de Oriente; adicionalmente se examinó material de la serranía de Perijá depositado en el Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá. Para la captura de pequeños mamíferos no voladores se utilizaron trampas Sherman, de golpe, de caída y de pegante; para capturar murciélagos se usaron redes de niebla, y para registrar medianos y grandes mamíferos se hicieron recorridos de observación diurnos, búsqueda de rastros y entrevistas. Se registraron en total 61 especies de mamíferos pertenecientes a 11 órdenes; el orden más diverso fue Chiroptera con un total de 15 especies, seguido por el orden Carnívora con un total de 14 especies y el orden Rodentía con 13 especies. Se amplia la distribución latitudinal de las especies Platyrrhinus nigellus y Dermanura bogotensis; y se reporta como registro
    nuevo para Colombia la especie Marmosops neblina.

  4. Factores de riesgo asociadas a la enfermedad Chagas en comunidades rurales en Lara, Venezuela

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    Zully Briceño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La reinfestación por vectores secundarios es un problema emergente para la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas. Objetivo: Realizar un análisis comparativo para determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a la seropositividad en humanos. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio ecoentomológico y seroepidemiológico realizado en dos comunidades del Estado Lara, infestadas por Triatoma maculata o Panstrongylus geniculatus. Resultados: Guariquito (bosque húmedo tropical templado intervenido para actividad agrícola mostró una seroprevalencia (SP canina del 33,33 % y humana del 6,81 % asociada a: menores de 40 años, vector en vivienda anterior, comer animales de caza, migración rural, reconocimiento y contacto con el vector, siendo factores protectores conocimiento del vector y haber vivido en ranchos; infestación 20,45 %, colonización 0 % e infección 18,75 %; ninfas capturadas en cuevas de Xenarthra, los cuales se encontraron infectados (20 %, al igual que Rodentias (25 %. Cauderales (región semidesértica: SP humana del 11,56 % asociada a: mayores de 40 años, vector en vivienda anterior tipo rancho, comer animales de caza, migración rural, reconocimiento y contacto con el vector, siendo factor protector presencia de caninos en la vivienda, los cuales fueron seronegativos; infestación 5,51 %, colonización 0 % e infección-vivienda 0 %; ninfas y Chiropteras no infectadas fueron capturadas en Cactáceas. Conclusión: Panstrongylus geniculatus es responsable de la transmisión reciente en regiones intervenidas de bosque tropical húmedo y con reservorios de los géneros Xenarthra y Rodentia; Tm tiene capacidad vectorial limitada debido a bajos índices de infección producto de sus fuentes de alimento.

  5. Heterothermy in Afrotropical mammals and birds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Andrew E; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi

    2011-09-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the number of Afrotropical endotherms known to avoid mismatches between energy supply and demand by using daily torpor and/or hibernation. Among mammals, heterothermy has been reported in 40 species in six orders, namely Macroscelidea, Afrosoricida, Rodentia, Eulipotyphla, Primates and Chiroptera. These species span a range in body mass of 7-770 g, with minimum heterothermic body temperatures ranging from 1-27°C and bout length varying from 1 h to 70 days. Daily torpor is the most common form of heterothermy, with true hibernation being observed in only seven species, Graphiurus murinus, Graphiurus ocularis, Atelerix frontalis, Cheirogaleus medius, Cheirogaleus major, Microcebus murinus and Microcebus griseorufus. The traditional distinction between daily torpor and hibernation is blurred in some species, with free-ranging individuals exhibiting bouts of > 24 h and body temperatures < 16 °C, but none of the classical behaviours associated with hibernation. Several species bask in the sun during rewarming. Among birds, heterothermy has been reported in 16 species in seven orders, and is more pronounced in phylogenetically older taxa. Both in mammals and birds, patterns of heterothermy can vary dramatically among species occurring at a particular site, and even among individuals of a single species. For instance, patterns of heterothermy among cheirogalid primates in western Madagascar vary from daily torpor to uninterrupted hibernation for up to seven months. Other examples of variation among closely-related species involve small owls, elephant shrews and vespertilionid bats. There may also be variation in terms of the ecological correlates of torpor within a species, as is the case in the Freckled Nightjar Caprimulgus tristigma. PMID:21705792

  6. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

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    A. Mould

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are

  7. Evolution of the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-11-01

    Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste-specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species. PMID:20558596

  8. Drinking and flying: does alcohol consumption affect the flight and echolocation performance of phyllostomid bats?

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    Dara N Orbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals.

  9. OASes and STING: adaptive evolution in concert.

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    Mozzi, Alessandra; Pontremoli, Chiara; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Pozzoli, Uberto; Bresolin, Nereo; Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-04-01

    OAS (2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthases) proteins and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS, gene symbol: MB21D1) patrol the cytoplasm for the presence of foreign nucleic acids. Upon binding to double-stranded RNA or double-stranded DNA, OAS proteins and cGAS produce nucleotide second messengers to activate RNase L and STING (stimulator of interferon genes, gene symbol: TMEM173), respectively; this leads to the initiation of antiviral responses. We analyzed the evolutionary history of the MB21D1-TMEM173 and OAS-RNASEL axes in primates and bats and found evidence of widespread positive selection in both orders. In TMEM173, residue 230, a major determinant of response to natural ligands and to mimetic drugs (e.g., DMXAA), was positively selected in Primates and Chiroptera. In both orders, selection also targeted an α-helix/loop element in RNase L that modulates the enzyme preference for single-stranded RNA versus stem loops. Analysis of positively selected sites in OAS1, OAS2, and MB21D1 revealed parallel evolution, with the corresponding residues being selected in different genes. As this cannot result from gene conversion, these data suggest that selective pressure acting on OAS and MB21D1 genes is related to nucleic acid recognition and to the specific mechanism of enzyme activation, which requires a conformational change. Finally, a population genetics-phylogenetics analysis in humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas detected several positively selected sites in most genes. Data herein shed light into species-specific differences in infection susceptibility and in response to synthetic compounds, with relevance for the design of synthetic compounds as vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25752600

  10. Small mammal communities of the "Monte Rufeno" Natural Reserve (Latium, Italy: data from Barn Owl Tyto alba pellets / I popolamenti di micromammiferi della Riserva Naturale "Monte Rufeno" (Lazio: dati da borre di barbagianni Tyto alba

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    Gaetano Aloise

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A high number of preys (7,147 specimens from barn owl pellets were collected in 15 sites of Monte Rufeno Natural Reserve. The 97.42% were small mammals, belonging to at least 6 species of Insectivora, 3 species of Chiroptera and 8 of Rodentia. The use of adequate indexes showed as expected, a high faunistic and biocenotic affinity among all sites of the Natural Reserve. Moreover, the values of trophic leve1 are analogous to the mean values found by others in the province of Rome. The biotic diversity is low and this result can be explained with predation of the barn owls over the most anthropizated areas out of the Natural Reserve. Faunistic and biocenotic indexes were utilized to compare the study area with other localities of Centra1 Italy characterized by typical mediterranean or temperate bioclimate. In one of the sites studied (Podernovo, seasonal changes of predation were analyzed. Riassunto In 15 siti posti all'interno della Riserva Naturale "Monte Rufeno" sono state raccolte numerose borre di Barbagianni Tyto alba in cui sono state rinvenute 7147 prede di cui il 97.42% costituito da micromammiferi. Alcuni indici ecologici (affinità biocenotica e faunistica, diversità biotica, termoxerofilia, antropizzazione, livello trofico sono stati applicati ai dati relativi ai micromammiferi terragnoli. Un confronto faunistico e biocenotico è stato effettuato tra i siti del comprensorio ed alcune località dell'Italia centrale caratteristiche di ambienti a bioclima mediterraneo o temperato. In uno dei siti studiati (Podernovo è stato possibile analizzare l'andamento stagionale della predazione.

  11. Preliminary inventory of mammals from Yurubí National Park, Yaracuy, Venezuela with some comments on their natural history.

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    García, Franger J; Delgado-Jaramillo, Mariana; Machado, Marjorie; Aular, Luis

    2012-03-01

    In Venezuela, mammals represent an important group of wildlife with high anthropogenic pressures that threaten their permanence. Focused on the need to generate baseline information that allows us to contribute to document and conserve the richness of local wildlife, we conducted a mammalogical inventory in Yurubí National Park, located in Yaracuy State in Venezuela. We carried out fieldworks in three selected vegetation types: an evergreen forest at 197m, a semi-deciduous forest ranging between 100-230m, and a cloud forest at 1 446m. We used Victor, Sherman, Havahart and pitfall traps for the capture of small non-volant mammals and mist nets for bats. In addition, we carried out interviews with local residents and direct-indirect observations for medium-large sized mammals. At least 79 species inhabit the area, representing 28% of the species recorded for the North side of the country. Chiroptera (39 spp.), Carnivora (13 spp.) and Rodentia (9 spp.) were the orders with the highest richness, as expected for the Neotropics. The evergreen forest had the greatest species richness (n=68), with a sampling effort of 128 net-hours, 32 bucket-days, 16 hours of observations, and three persons interviewed, followed by cloud forest (n=45) with 324 net-hours, 790 traps-night, 77 bucket-days, 10 hours of observations, and one person interviewed. The lowest richness value was in the semi-deciduous forest (n=41), with 591 traps-night, 15 net-hours, 10 hours of observations and three persons interviewed. Data and observations obtained in this inventory (e.g., endemism, species known as "surrogate species" threatened in Venezuela) give an important role at the Yurubí National Park in the maintenance and conservation of local ecosystems and wildlife, threatened by human pressures in the Cordillera de la Costa.

  12. New Insights into the Phylogeny and Gene Context Analysis of Binder of Sperm Proteins (BSPs.

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    Edith Serrano

    Full Text Available Seminal plasma (SP proteins support the survival of spermatozoa acting not only at the plasma membrane but also by inhibition of capacitation, resulting in higher fertilizing ability. Among SP proteins, BSP (binder of sperm proteins are the most studied, since they may be useful for the improvement of semen diluents, storage and subsequent fertilization results. However, an updated and detailed phylogenetic analysis of the BSP protein superfamily has not been carried out with all the sequences described in the main databases. The update view shows for the first time an equally distributed number of sequences between the three families: BSP, and their homologs 1 (BSPH1 and 2 (BSPH2. The BSP family is divided in four subfamilies, BSP1 subfamily being the predominant, followed by subfamilies BSP3, BSP5 and BSP2. BSPH proteins were found among placental mammals (Eutheria belonging to the orders Proboscidea, Primates, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Perissodactyla and Cetartiodactyla. However, BSPH2 proteins were also found in the Scandentia order and Metatheria clade. This phylogenetic analysis, when combined with a gene context analysis, showed a completely new evolutionary scenario for the BSP superfamily of proteins with three defined different gene patterns, one for BSPs, one for BSPH1/BSPH2/ELSPBP1 and another one for BSPH1/BSPH2 without ELSPBP1. In addition, the study has permitted to define concise conserved blocks for each family (BSP, BSPH1 and BSPH2, which could be used for a more reliable assignment for the incoming sequences, for data curation of current databases, and for cloning new BSPs, as the one described in this paper, ram seminal vesicle 20 kDa protein (RSVP20, Ovis aries BSP5b.

  13. New Insights into the Phylogeny and Gene Context Analysis of Binder of Sperm Proteins (BSPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruga, Diana; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Sánchez-Ferrer, Álvaro; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) proteins support the survival of spermatozoa acting not only at the plasma membrane but also by inhibition of capacitation, resulting in higher fertilizing ability. Among SP proteins, BSP (binder of sperm) proteins are the most studied, since they may be useful for the improvement of semen diluents, storage and subsequent fertilization results. However, an updated and detailed phylogenetic analysis of the BSP protein superfamily has not been carried out with all the sequences described in the main databases. The update view shows for the first time an equally distributed number of sequences between the three families: BSP, and their homologs 1 (BSPH1) and 2 (BSPH2). The BSP family is divided in four subfamilies, BSP1 subfamily being the predominant, followed by subfamilies BSP3, BSP5 and BSP2. BSPH proteins were found among placental mammals (Eutheria) belonging to the orders Proboscidea, Primates, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Perissodactyla and Cetartiodactyla. However, BSPH2 proteins were also found in the Scandentia order and Metatheria clade. This phylogenetic analysis, when combined with a gene context analysis, showed a completely new evolutionary scenario for the BSP superfamily of proteins with three defined different gene patterns, one for BSPs, one for BSPH1/BSPH2/ELSPBP1 and another one for BSPH1/BSPH2 without ELSPBP1. In addition, the study has permitted to define concise conserved blocks for each family (BSP, BSPH1 and BSPH2), which could be used for a more reliable assignment for the incoming sequences, for data curation of current databases, and for cloning new BSPs, as the one described in this paper, ram seminal vesicle 20 kDa protein (RSVP20, Ovis aries BSP5b). PMID:26333091

  14. Environment and host species shape the skin microbiome of captive neotropical bats

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    Tromas, Nicolas; Shapiro, B. Jesse; Lapointe, François-Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome) plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with a relatively unexplored skin microbiome. The bat skin microbiome could play a role in disease resistance, for example, to white nose syndrome (WNS), an infection which has been devastating North American bat populations. However, fundamental knowledge of the bat skin microbiome is needed before understanding its role in health and disease resistance. Captive neotropical frugivorous bats Artibeus jamaicensis and Carollia perspicillataprovide a simple controlled system in which to characterize the factors shaping the bat microbiome. Here, we aimed to determine the relative importance of habitat and host species on the bat skin microbiome. Methods We performed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the skin microbiome of two different bat species living in captivity in two different habitats. In the first habitat, A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata lived together, while the second habitat contained only A. jamaicensis. Results We found that both habitat and host species shape the composition and diversity of the skin microbiome, with habitat having the strongest influence. Cohabitating A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata shared more similar skin microbiomes than members of the same species (A. jamaicensis) across two habitats. Discussion These results suggest that in captivity, the skin microbial community is homogenised by the shared environments and individual proximities of bats living together in the same habitat, at the expense of the innate host species factors. The predominant influence of habitat suggests that environmental microorganisms or pathogens might colonize bat skin. We also propose that bat populations could differ in pathogen susceptibility depending on their immediate environment and

  15. Too hot to sleep? Sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat.

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    Colleen T Downs

    Full Text Available The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed. Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%, compared with summer (15.6%. In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios.

  16. Infectivity of attenuated poxvirus vaccine vectors and immunogenicity of a raccoonpox vectored rabies vaccine in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)

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    Stading, Benjamin; Osorio, Jorge E.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Smotherman, Michael; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. No clinical illness was noted after exposure to any of the vectors, and limited luciferase expression was observed. Higher and longer levels of expression were observed with the RCN-luc construct. When given IM, luciferase expression was limited to the site of injection, while ON exposure led to initial expression in the oral cavity, often followed by secondary replication at another location, likely the gastric mucosa or gastric associated lymphatic tissue. Viral DNA was detected in oral swabs up to 7 and 9 days post infection (dpi) for MVA and RCN, respectively. While no live virus was detected in oral swabs from MVA-infected bats, titers up to 3.88 x 104 PFU/ml were recovered from oral swabs of RCN-infected bats. Viral DNA was also detected in fecal samples from two bats inoculated IM with RCN, but no live virus was recovered. Finally, we examined the immunogenicity of a RCN based rabies vaccine (RCN-G) following ON administration. Significant rabies neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the serum of immunized bats using the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT). These studies highlight the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated poxviruses and their potential use as vaccine vectors in bats.

  17. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Fragaria Germplasm by SSR Markers%草莓属种质资源亲缘关系的SSR标记分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩柏明; 赵密珍; 王静; 于红梅

    2012-01-01

    Twenty SSR primer pairs were used to amplify SSR fragments for 83 Fragaria materials which belonging to 14 species, natural pentaploid strawberry and the unknown species. The 20 SSR primers generated a total 363 alleles. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 34, and averaged 18.2. The value of allelic polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.6691 to 0.9431, and averaged 0.8598. The dendrogram result showed that the samples clustered clearly among the same species. Among the species, the three octoploid species F. chiloensis, F. virginiana and F. x ananassa were clustered together, which showed the closest relationship. The three octoploid species had the distant relationship from other species. F. corymbosa, F. pentaphylla, F. nipponica, F. yezoensis, F. tibetica, F. nilgerrensis and F. viridis were clustered together and have closest relationship. And F. vesca, F. mandschurica, F. oriebtalis, F. moschata and the natural pentaploid strawberry were clustered together and have closest relationship. The origin of natural pentaploid strawberry may come from the cross of F. oriebtalis, F. moschata and E vesca, E mandschurica.%用20对SSR引物对草莓属83份资源包括14个种和自然五倍体以及未鉴定的材料进行PCR扩增。在20个SSR位点共获得363个等位基因。每个位点扩增等位基因8~34个,平均18.2个,各位点多态性信息含量(PIC)在0.6691~0.9431,平均为O.8598。聚类分析表明,同属一个种的草莓资源被紧密地聚在一起。以种为单位,3个八倍体种智利草莓、弗州草莓和栽培种凤梨草莓亲缘关系很近,而八倍体种与其他低倍性野生种亲缘关系较远;在低倍性草莓种中,伞房草莓、五叶草莓、日本草莓、嘏夷草莓、高原草莓、黄毛草莓和绿色草莓聚在一组,具有较近的亲缘关系,而森林草莓、东北草莓、东方草莓、麝香草莓和自然五倍体草莓聚在一组,具有较

  18. Relación del gradiente interior-borde de fragmentos de bosque andino sobre la comunidad de murciélagos en Encino (Santander, Colombia

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    Otálora Ardila Aída

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe la configuración espacial del paisaje del municipio de Encino y la presencia de efecto de borde sobre la comunidad de murciélagos en fragmentos de bosque subandino inmersos en una matriz agrícola. Se analizó información cartográfica existente del municipio en el software ArcView 3.2 para determinar propiedades del paisaje como área total, número y densidad de parches y se estimaron índices que describen el grado de fragmentación para bosques andinos y subandinos y algunos atributos de los fragmentos como área y forma. Hay 53 fragmentos de bosque subandino y 111 de andino (164 fragmentos totales que cubren 152,5 km2 del
    área total y tienen una densidad de 0,39 parches/ha. Los índices calculados revelan que los bosques andinos tienen un menor proceso de fragmentación que los subandinos representado en fragmentos más grandes y más cercanos. El paisaje ha sido muy transformado pues el 90,4% de los fragmentos son <50 ha y el área transformada alcanza un 53,3% del área del municipio. Se sugiere que el bosque subandino está críticamente amenazado y que deben proponerse planes de conservación para los bosques fragmentados de Encino pues albergan parte de la biodiversidad original y pueden funcionar como refugios de diversidad. En cuanto a la comunidad de murciélagos asociada a este mosaico, se realizó un muestreo con 16 redes de niebla durante 106 noches, cubriendo un gradiente matriz-interior de bosque en cuatro fragmentos de bosque subandino (10-50 ha, para describir los cambios en la composición, diversidad de especies y de gremios en la comunidad de murciélagos asociados a este gradiente. Se capturaron 709 individuos
    de 24 especies pertenecientes a las familias Phyllostomidae y Vespertilionidae. La riqueza específica, la diversidad de especies y la diversidad de gremios alcanzaron los mayores valores en el borde y en la matriz. Se sugiere un efecto de borde indirecto en donde la riqueza

  19. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

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    Jose Rodrigues Coura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS, (ii anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by

  20. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from faecal samples of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum in Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Nigeria

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    Akobi Babatunji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats (Chiroptera are one of the most diverse groups of mammals which carry out important ecological and agricultural functions that are beneficial to humans. However, they are increasingly recognized as natural vectors for a number of zoonotic pathogens and favourable hosts for zoonotic infections. Large populations of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum colonize the main campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, but the public health implications of faecal contamination and pollution by these flying mammals is unknown. This study characterized S. aureus obtained from faecal samples of these migratory mammals with a view to determining the clonal types of the isolates, and to investigate the possibility of these flying animals as potential reservoir for zoonotic S. aureus infections. Results One hundred and seven (107 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 560 faecal samples in eleven roosting sites from January 2008 to February 2010. A large proportion of the isolates were susceptible to antibiotics, and molecular characterization of 70 isolates showed that 65 (92.9% were assigned in coagulase type VI, while accessory gene typing classified 69 isolates into the following: type I (12; 17.1%, type II (3; 4.3%, type III (1; 1.4% and type IV (53; 75.7%. On the whole, the isolates were grouped in five (A-E main genotypes. Of the ten representative isolates selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST, nine isolates were assigned with new sequence types: ST1725, ST1726, ST1727, ST2463-ST2467 and ST2470. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that S. aureus isolates in group C were closely related with ST1822 and associated clones identified in African monkeys, and group D isolates with ST75, ST883 and ST1223. The two groups exhibited remarkable genetic diversity compared to the major S. aureus clade. Conclusions Antibiotic resistance in faecal S. aureus isolates of E. helvum is low and multiple