WorldWideScience

Sample records for chilli anthracnose disease

  1. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Po Po; Prihastuti, Haryudian; Phoulivong, Sitthisack; Taylor, Paul W J; Hyde, Kevin D

    2008-10-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum species have been reported as causal agents of chilli anthracnose disease worldwide. The ambiguous taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species has resulted in inaccurate identification which may cause practical problems in plant breeding and disease management. Although the management and control of anthracnose disease are still being extensively researched, commercial cultivars of Capsicum annuum that are resistant to the pathogens that cause chilli anthracnose have not yet been developed. This paper reviews the causal agents of chilli anthracnose, the disease cycle, conventional methods in identification of the pathogen and molecular approaches that have been used for the identification of Colletotrichum species. Pathogenetic variation and population structure of the causal agents of chilli anthracnose along with the current taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species are discussed. Future developments leading to the disease management strategies are suggested.

  2. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species§

    OpenAIRE

    Than, Po Po; Prihastuti, Haryudian; Phoulivong, Sitthisack; Taylor, Paul W.J.; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum specie...

  3. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Po Po; Prihastuti, Haryudian; Phoulivong, Sitthisack; Taylor, Paul W.J.; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum species have been reported as causal agents of chilli anthracnose disease worldwide. The ambiguous taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species has resulted in inaccurate identification which may cause practical problems in plant breeding and disease management. Although the management and control of anthracnose disease are still being extensively researched, commercial cultivars of Capsicum annuum that are resistant to the pathogens that cause chilli anthracnose have not yet been developed. This paper reviews the causal agents of chilli anthracnose, the disease cycle, conventional methods in identification of the pathogen and molecular approaches that have been used for the identification of Colletotrichum species. Pathogenetic variation and population structure of the causal agents of chilli anthracnose along with the current taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species are discussed. Future developments leading to the disease management strategies are suggested. PMID:18837103

  4. Chilli anthracnose: The epidemiology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Saxena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indian cuisine is renowned and celebrated throughout the world for its spicy treat to the tongue. The flavor and aroma of the food generated due to the use of spices creates an indelible experience. Among the commonly utilized spices to stimulate the taste buds in Indian food, whole or powdered chilli constitutes an inevitable position. Besides being a vital ingredient of of Indian food, chilli occupy an important position as an economic commodity, a major share in Indian economy. Chilli also has uncountable benefits to human health. Fresh green chilli fruits contain more Vitamin C than found in citrus fruits, while red chilli fruits have more Vitamin A content than as found in carrots. The active component of the spice, Capsaicin possesses the antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic and immunosuppressive activities having ability to inhibit bacterial growth and platelet aggregation. Though introduced by the Portuguese in the 17th century, India has been one of the major producers and exporters of this crop. During 2010-2011, India was the leading exporter and producer of chilli in the world, but recently due to a decline in chilli production, it stands at third position in terms of its production. The decline in chilli production has been attributed to the diseases linked with crop like anthracnose or fruit rot causing the major share of crop loss. The disease causes severe damage to both mature fruits in the field as well as during their storage under favorable conditions, which amplifies the loss in yield and overall production of the crop. This review gives an account of the loss in production and yield procured in chili cultivation due to anthracnose disease in Indian sub-continent, with emphasis given to the sustainable management strategies against the conventionally recommended control for the disease. Also, the review highlights the various pathogenic species of Colletotrichum spp, the causal agent of the disease, associated with

  5. Chilli Anthracnose: The Epidemiology and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amrita; Raghuwanshi, Richa; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Singh, Harikesh B

    2016-01-01

    Indian cuisine is renowned and celebrated throughout the world for its spicy treat to the tongue. The flavor and aroma of the food generated due to the use of spices creates an indelible experience. Among the commonly utilized spices to stimulate the taste buds in Indian food, whole or powdered chilli constitutes an inevitable position. Besides being a vital ingredient of of Indian food, chilli occupy an important position as an economic commodity, a major share in Indian economy. Chilli also has uncountable benefits to human health. Fresh green chilli fruits contain more Vitamin C than found in citrus fruits, while red chilli fruits have more Vitamin A content than as found in carrots. The active component of the spice, Capsaicin possesses the antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic and immunosuppressive activities having ability to inhibit bacterial growth and platelet aggregation. Though introduced by the Portuguese in the Seventeenth century, India has been one of the major producers and exporters of this crop. During 2010-2011, India was the leading exporter and producer of chilli in the world, but recently due to a decline in chilli production, it stands at third position in terms of its production. The decline in chilli production has been attributed to the diseases linked with crop like anthracnose or fruit rot causing the major share of crop loss. The disease causes severe damage to both mature fruits in the field as well as during their storage under favorable conditions, which amplifies the loss in yield and overall production of the crop. This review gives an account of the loss in production and yield procured in chili cultivation due to anthracnose disease in Indian sub-continent, with emphasis given to the sustainable management strategies against the conventionally recommended control for the disease. Also, the review highlights the various pathogenic species of Colletotrichum spp, the causal agent of the disease, associated with the host

  6. Polygalacturonase inhibitor protein from fruits of anthracnose resistant and susceptible varieties of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, S; Thimmareddy, C; Roy, Tapas K

    2010-08-01

    Chilli fruit is highly susceptible to anthracnose infection at the stage of harvest maturity, due to which the fruit yield in the leading commercial variety Byadgi is severely affected. Field studies on screening of several varieties for resistance to anthracnose have shown that a variety of chilli AR-4/99K is resistant to anthracnose infection. In many crops, resistance to fungal attack has been correlated with PGIP activity in developing fruits based on which transgenic varieties have been developed with resistance to fungi. The present study was carried out to determine whether anthracnose resistance in AR-4/99K was due to the increased levels of PGIP alone and/ or due to differences, if any, in the properties of PGIP. Hence, a comparative study of the properties of polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP) isolated from fruits of anthracnose resistant chilli var AR-4/99K and a susceptible variety Byadgi was conducted with the objective of utilizing the information in genetic transformation studies. Both the PGIPs from anthracnose resistant and susceptible varieties of chilli exhibited similarities in the elution pattern on Sephadex gel, DEAE cellulose, PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The two PGIPs were active over a wide range of pH and temperature. Both PGIPs showed differential inhibitory activity against polygalacturonase (PG) secreted by Colletotrichum gleosporoides, C. capsici, C. lindemuthianum, Fusarium moniliforme and Sclerotium rolfsii. The inhibitory activity of PGIP from both resistant and susceptible varieties was the highest (82% and 76%, respectively) against the PG from Colletotrichum capsici, a pathogen causing anthracnose rot of chilli, while the activity was lower (1.27 to 12.3%) on the other fungal PGs. Although PGIP activity decreased with fruit maturation in both the varieties, the resistant variety maintained a higher activity at 45 days after flowering (DAF) as compared to the susceptible variety which helped it to overcome the infection by

  7. The Screening and the Use of Antagonists for Biological Control of Anthracnose of Chilli at Pre-and Post-Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    A total of 301 of isolates of microorganism were isolated from pepper leaves and fruit skin, including fungi bacteria and yeast. They were tested inhibition of mycelia l growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose, on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The result showed that 145 isolate inhibited the growth of mycelia l by 45-70 %. The selected high efficiency antagonists were tested for potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected pepper fruit. The selected four isolate antagonists including Y18, YFm1, YFm2 and AC2-1 were finding suitable method test for control of anthracnose disease. The results show that application of antagonistic microorganism before inoculation of C. gloeosporiodes was superior in disease controlling than inoculation regardless the use of pathogen inoculation procedures. Antagonist Y18, YFm1 and YFm2 were test ability in greenhouse, in was found that three isolates have high efficiency for control anthracnose disease. Under field condition, spraying cell suspension of Y18, YFm2 and Yfm1 on pepper fruit before inoculation C. gloeosporioides and cover with plastic bag. 14 day after treatment it was found that Y18, YFm2, YFm1 and control had percentage of fruit disease by 33.33, 40.7, 73.4 and 100 % respectively. When study ability of three isolate in field at found anthracnose disease revealed that Y18 and YFm2 could control of C. gloesporiodides within 12 day after treatment. Addition, YFm2 could control of C. gloeosporidide in field at not found anthracnose high efficiency. The efficiency test of YFm2 for anthracnose controlling on chilli fruit for export were kept at 13 degree C for 18 days. YFm2 showed 100 % control of anthracnose with satisfactory firmness of chilli friut.

  8. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics reveal a repertoire of putative pathogenicity genes in chilli anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum truncatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Soumya; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2017-01-01

    Colletotrichum truncatum, a major fungal phytopathogen, causes the anthracnose disease on an economically important spice crop chilli (Capsicum annuum), resulting in huge economic losses in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It follows a subcuticular intramural infection strategy on chilli with a short, asymptomatic, endophytic phase, which contrasts with the intracellular hemibiotrophic lifestyle adopted by most of the Colletotrichum species. However, little is known about the molecular determinants and the mechanism of pathogenicity in this fungus. A high quality whole genome sequence and gene annotation based on transcriptome data of an Indian isolate of C. truncatum from chilli has been obtained. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed a rich repertoire of pathogenicity genes in C. truncatum encoding secreted proteins, effectors, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism associated proteins, with potential roles in the host-specific infection strategy, placing it next only to the Fusarium species. The size of genome assembly, number of predicted genes and some of the functional categories were similar to other sequenced Colletotrichum species. The comparative genomic analyses with other species and related fungi identified some unique genes and certain highly expanded gene families of CAZymes, proteases and secondary metabolism associated genes in the genome of C. truncatum. The draft genome assembly and functional annotation of potential pathogenicity genes of C. truncatum provide an important genomic resource for understanding the biology and lifestyle of this important phytopathogen and will pave the way for designing efficient disease control regimens.

  9. Can-miRn37a mediated suppression of ethylene response factors enhances the resistance of chilli against anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum truncatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rukmini; Mohanty, Jatindra Nath; Chand, Subodh Kumar; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Pepper anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum species complex is the most destructive disease of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). miRNAs are key modulators of transcriptional and post- transcriptional expression of genes during defense responses. In the present study, we performed a comparative miRNA profiling of susceptible (Arka Lohit-AL) and resistant (Punjab Lal-PL) chilli cultivars to identify 35 differentially expressed miRNAs that could be classified as positive, negative or basal regulators of defense against C. truncatum, the most potent anthracnose pathogen. Interestingly, a novel microRNA can-miRn37a was significantly induced in PL but largely repressed in AL genotype post pathogen attack. Subsequent over-expression of can-miRn37a in AL showed enhanced resistance to anthracnose, as evidenced by decreased fungal growth and induced expression of defense-related genes. Consequently, the expression of its three target genes encoding the ethylene response factors (ERFs) was down-regulated in PL as well as in the over-expression lines of AL genotypes. The ability of these targets to be regulated by can-miRn37a was further confirmed by transient co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Additionally, the virus-induced silencing of the three targets in the susceptible AL cultivar revealed their role in fungal colonization and induction of C. truncatum pathogenicity in chilli. Taken together, our study suggests that can-miRn37a provides a potential miRNA mediated approach of engineering anthracnose resistance in chilli by repressing ERFs and preventing fungal colonization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  11. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  12. Sources of resistance to cassava anthracnose disease | Owolade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 436 African landraces and 497 improved cassava genotypes were planted in 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 growing seasons.. These were evaluated for their reactions to cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) under natural infection conditions at Ibadan (a high infection zone). The severity of the disease was ...

  13. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  14. Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of chili in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.; Liu, F.; Wang, W.-Z.; Liu, L.; Cai, L.; Liu, X.-L.

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a serious disease of more than 30 plant genera. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect chili in different countries. Although China is the largest chiliproducing country, little is known about the species that have been infecting

  15. Screening strawberry plants for anthracnose disease resistance using traditional and molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose is one of the most destructive diseases of strawberry which may cause fruit rot, leaf and petiole lesions, crown rot, wilt, and death. Crop loss due to anthracnose diseases can reach into the millions of dollars. Three species of Colletotrichum are considered causative agents of anthr...

  16. Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of chili in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Y-Z; Zhang, C; Liu, F; Wang, W-Z; Liu, L; Cai, L; Liu, X-L

    2017-06-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a serious disease of more than 30 plant genera. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect chili in different countries. Although China is the largest chili-producing country, little is known about the species that have been infecting chili locally. Therefore, we collected samples of diseased chili from 29 provinces of China, from which 1285 strains were isolated. The morphological characters of all strains were observed and compared, and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (ITS, ACT , CAL , CHS-1 , GAPDH , TUB2 , and HIS3 ) were performed on selected representative strains. Fifteen Colletotrichum species were identified, with C. fioriniae , C. fructicola , C. gloeosporioides , C. scovillei , and C. truncatum being prevalent. Three new species, C. conoides , C. grossum , and C. liaoningense , were recognised and described in this paper. Colletotrichum aenigma , C. cliviae , C. endophytica , C. hymenocallidis , C. incanum , C. karstii , and C. viniferum were reported for the first time from chili. Pathogenicity of all species isolated from chili was confirmed, except for C. endophytica . The current study improves the understanding of species causing anthracnose on chili and provides useful information for the effective control of the disease in China.

  17. Screening for anthracnose disease resistance in strawberry using a detached leaf assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoculation of detached strawberry leaves with Colletotrichum species may provide a rapid, non-destructive method of identifying anthracnose resistant germplasm. The reliability and validity of assessing disease severity is critical to disease management decisions. We inoculated detached strawberr...

  18. Biological Control of Anthracnose Disease of Tomato Using Ethanolic Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Nicotiana Tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Opeyemi, Bankole Samuel; Temidayo, Bankole Ruth; Babalola, Yetunde Oyinkansade; Emmanuel, Ilerioluwa Busayo; Ojubolamo, Motunrayo Temitope; Folake, Awotedu Bolakale

    2018-01-01

    Tomato is a commercially important vegetable throughout the whole world and its availability all the year is grossly affected by anthracnose disease, hence, the need for an effective bio-control that is affordable and user friendly. This study therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica and Tabacum nicotianaon the mycelium growth of fungi associated with anthracnose disease of tomato. Tomatoes that showed black circular lesions with concentric ring a...

  19. Screening of chitinolytic actinomycetes for biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii stem rot disease of chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Pattanapipitpaisal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and eighty three strains were isolated from rhizoshere-associated soils, from Ubon Ratchathani andSrisaket province, using Enrichment Media for isolation of Chitinase-producing Actinomycetes agar (EMCA agar. All strainswere screened for chitinolytic activity and sixty eight strains gave significant clear zone on EMCA agar plates. The selectedchitinolytic strains were assayed for in vitro antagonism against Sclerotium rolfsii using cornmeal agar (CMA agar assayprocedure and the result showed that thirteen isolates have remarkable inhibiting the growth of the fungus and the top fiveantagonistic actinomycetes were PACCH 277, PACCH129, PACCH225, PACCH24 and PACCH246, respectively. The resultindicated that these actinomycetes produce chitinase which catalyze the degradation of chitin, resulting in inhibition of S.rolfsii growth. Their abilities to control the disease development were tested for in vivo biocontrol assay on chilli seedlings.Two out of thirteen candidate, PACCH24 and PACCH225, antagonists reduced the disease development at 90%. It wassuggested that the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogen in vitro was not related to the disease reduction in vivo. Thestrain PACCH24 was further identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus according to morphological characteristic, cell walland cellular sugar analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. The study implies a novel chitinolytic actinomycete which could bedeveloped to be a biological agent which would be included as a complement with organic fertilizers in order to control stemrot disease and promote growth of chilli.

  20. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Breeding for soybean resistance to anthracnose disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backman, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    This is the report of a mission to evaluate projects using mutation breeding techniques to develop resistance in soybeans to anthracnose disease. The project to date is generally successful in that training has been provided to numerous scientists in Thailand, and this will lead to improved University teaching and better research. Several changes in experimental procedure are suggested to increase the chances of finding anthracnose resistance in soybean

  1. Anthracnose disease of switchgrass caused by the novel fungal species Colletotrichum navitas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Jo Anne; Beirn, Lisa A; Cortese, Laura M; Bonos, Stacy A; Clarke, Bruce B

    2009-12-01

    In recent years perennial grasses such as the native tallgrass prairie plant Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) have taken on a new role in the North American landscape as a plant-based source of renewable energy. Because switchgrass is a native plant, it has been suggested that disease problems will be minimal, but little research in this area has been conducted. Recently, outbreaks of switchgrass anthracnose disease have been reported from the northeastern United States. Incidences of switchgrass anthracnose are known in North America since 1886 through herbarium specimens and disease reports, but the causal agent of this disease has never been experimentally determined or taxonomically evaluated. In the present work, we evaluate the causal agent of switchgrass anthracnose, a new species we describe as Colletotrichum navitas (navitas=Latin for energy). Multilocus molecular phylogenetics and morphological characters show C. navitas is a novel species in the falcate-spored graminicolous group of the genus Colletotrichum; it is most closely related to the corn anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola. We present a formal description and illustrations for C. navitas and provide experimental confirmation that this organism is responsible for switchgrass anthracnose disease.

  2. Spot Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Tulip Tree in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okryun; Choi, Okhee; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Kim, Jinwoo; Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk

    2012-03-01

    The tulip tree (Liriodendron chinense) has been widely cultivated in Korea as a street or garden tree for its large flowers, which have a superficial resemblance to tulips. Occurrence of anthracnose disease on the leaves of tulip trees growing on the campus of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea, has been observed. Based on mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and internal transcribed spacer sequence, the causal fungus was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This is the first report on anthracnose disease caused by C. gloeosporioides on tulip trees in Korea.

  3. First report of Colletotrichum nigrum causing anthracnose disease on tomato fruit in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose fruit rot is one of the most serious diseases affecting the production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the United States and is typically incited by Colletotrichum coccodes, C. gloeosporioides or C. dematium (Farr and Rossman 2016). During the summer of 2013, symptoms characteris...

  4. Inoculation method, temperature and relative humidity affects leaf and neck anthracnose, a new onion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf and neck anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum coccodes is a new disease of onion in Michigan. To test the effect of inoculation method, ‘Prince’ onion seedlings were grown in the greenhouse and inoculated with either a conidial suspension of C. coccodes (alone or with an abrasive agent) or infe...

  5. Species of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex associated with anthracnose diseases of Proteaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Damm, U.; Cai, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose disease of Proteaceae has in the past chiefly been attributed to infections by C. acutatum, C. boninense and C. gloeosporioides. In the present study, a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis (ACT, CAL, CHS-1, GAPDH, GS, ITS, TUB2) revealed that strains of the C. gloeosporioides complex

  6. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity in protein hydrolysates from normal and anthracnose disease-damaged Phaseolus vulgaris seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Álvarez, Alan Javier; Carrasco-Castilla, Janet; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque-Peña, Javier; Jacinto-Hernández, Carmen; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2013-03-15

    Bean seeds are an inexpensive source of protein. Anthracnose disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum results in serious losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops worldwide, affecting any above-ground plant part, and protein dysfunction, inducing the synthesis of proteins that allow plants to improve their stress tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of beans damaged by anthracnose disease as a source of peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-inhibitory activity. Protein concentrates from beans spoiled by anthracnose disease and from regular beans as controls were prepared by alkaline extraction and precipitation at isolelectric pH and hydrolysed using Alcalase 2.4 L. The hydrolysates from spoiled beans had ACE-I-inhibitory activity (IC(50) 0.0191 mg protein mL(-1)) and were very similar to those from control beans in terms of ACE-I inhibition, peptide electrophoretic profile and kinetics of hydrolysis. Thus preparation of hydrolysates using beans affected by anthracnose disease would allow for revalorisation of this otherwise wasted product. The present results suggest the use of spoiled bean seeds, e.g. anthracnose-damaged beans, as an alternative for the isolation of ACE-I-inhibitory peptides to be further introduced as active ingredients in functional foods. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Dogwood anthracnose: how collaboration was used in the Southern United States to effectively deal with a new tree disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Anderson

    1998-01-01

    Dogwood anthracnose, caused by the fungus Discula destructiva was found in the Southern United States in 1987. Since that time millions of flowering dogwoods have been killed and disfigured by this disease. As soon as the disease was discovered a group of state and federal personnel formed a working group to develop an action plan for dealing with...

  8. The potential of a fluorescent-based approach for bioassay of antifungal agents against chili anthracnose disease in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutrakul, Chanikul; Khaokhajorn, Pratoomporn; Auncharoen, Patchanee; Boonruengprapa, Tanapong; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-01-01

    Severe chili anthracnose disease in Thailand is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici. To discover anti-anthracnose substances we developed an efficient dual-fluorescent labeling bioassay based on a microdilution approach. Indicator strains used in the assay were constructed by integrating synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) and Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRedExp) genes into the genomes of C. gloeosporioides or C. capsici respectively. Survival of co-spore cultures in the presence of inhibitors was determined by the expression levels of these fluorescent proteins. This developed assay has high potential for utilization in the investigation of selective inhibition activity to either one of the pathogens as well as the broad-range inhibitory effect against both pathogens. The value of using the dual-fluorescent assay is rapid, reliable, and consistent identification of anti-anthracnose agents. Most of all, the assay enables the identification of specific inhibitors under the co-cultivation condition.

  9. Morphological and Molecular Identification of the Causal Agent of Anthracnose Disease of Avocado in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaru, S K; Monda, E; Cheruiyot, R C; Mbaka, J; Alakonya, A

    2018-01-01

    Anthracnose disease of avocado contributes to a huge loss of avocado fruits due to postharvest rot in Kenya. The causal agent of this disease has not been clear but presumed to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as reported in other regions where avocado is grown. The fungus mainly infects fruits causing symptoms such as small blackish spots, "pepper spots," and black spots with raised margin which coalesce as infection progresses. Due to economic losses associated with the disease and emerging information of other species of fungi as causal agents of the disease, this study was aimed at identifying causal agent(s) of the disease. A total of 80 fungal isolates were collected from diseased avocado fruits in Murang'a County, the main avocado growing region in Kenya. Forty-six isolates were morphologically identified as Colletotrichum spp. based on their cultural characteristics, mainly whitish, greyish, and creamish colour and cottony/velvety mycelia on the top side of the culture and greyish cream with concentric zonation on the reverse side. Their spores were straight with rounded end and nonseptate. Thirty-four isolates were identified as Pestalotiopsis spp. based on their cultural characteristics: whitish grey mycelium with black fruiting structure on the upper side and greyish black one on the lower side and septate spores with 3-4 septa and 2 or 3 appendages at one end. Further molecular studies using ITS indicated Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Colletotrichum boninense , and Pestalotiopsis microspora as the causal agents of anthracnose disease in avocado. However, with this being the first report, there is a need to conduct further studies to establish whether there is coinfection or any interaction thereof.

  10. Morphological and Molecular Identification of the Causal Agent of Anthracnose Disease of Avocado in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kimaru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose disease of avocado contributes to a huge loss of avocado fruits due to postharvest rot in Kenya. The causal agent of this disease has not been clear but presumed to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as reported in other regions where avocado is grown. The fungus mainly infects fruits causing symptoms such as small blackish spots, “pepper spots,” and black spots with raised margin which coalesce as infection progresses. Due to economic losses associated with the disease and emerging information of other species of fungi as causal agents of the disease, this study was aimed at identifying causal agent(s of the disease. A total of 80 fungal isolates were collected from diseased avocado fruits in Murang’a County, the main avocado growing region in Kenya. Forty-six isolates were morphologically identified as Colletotrichum spp. based on their cultural characteristics, mainly whitish, greyish, and creamish colour and cottony/velvety mycelia on the top side of the culture and greyish cream with concentric zonation on the reverse side. Their spores were straight with rounded end and nonseptate. Thirty-four isolates were identified as Pestalotiopsis spp. based on their cultural characteristics: whitish grey mycelium with black fruiting structure on the upper side and greyish black one on the lower side and septate spores with 3-4 septa and 2 or 3 appendages at one end. Further molecular studies using ITS indicated Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum boninense, and Pestalotiopsis microspora as the causal agents of anthracnose disease in avocado. However, with this being the first report, there is a need to conduct further studies to establish whether there is coinfection or any interaction thereof.

  11. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  12. In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. prostrata and D. scandens leaf extract have the potentials as veritable control agents of anthracnose disease of cowpea in Africa. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 29-36

  13. Nature of mango anthracnose in Ghana: Implications for the control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature of mango anthracnose in Ghana: Implications for the control of the disease. ... Mango anthracnose is a major disease hampering the production of quality fruits for export in Ghana. The nature of the disease and ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  14. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

    2013-03-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  15. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Abayasekara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity and cell wall lignification. ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  16. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; Bandara, B. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  17. Isolation and evaluation of biocontrol agents in controlling anthracnose disease of mango in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungjindamai Nattawut

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural based economy is a core business in Thailand and food export is one of the main sources of income for the Thai population. However, pesticides are overused and misused. As a result there is an urgent need to reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Biological control offers an alternative to the use of pesticides. Mango (Mangifera indica L. is widely planted in Thailand and is one of the major cash crops for international export. However, mango suffers from various diseases especially anthracnose, a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. One hundred and twelve isolates of epiphytic microbes were isolated from healthy leaves and fruits of mangoes; this included 93 and 19 isolates of epiphytic bacteria and yeasts, respectively. They were screened for bioactivity against a pathogenic strain of C. gloeosporioides isolated from diseased mangoes using a dual culture technique. Out of 112 isolates, eight isolates exhibited at least 60% inhibition. These isolates were further screened for their inhibition on mango using fruit inoculation. Two isolates reduced the lesion sizes caused by C. gloeosporioides compared to control treatment. These two isolates, based on phenotypical and biochemical tests, were identified as Bacillus sp. MB61 and Bacillus sp. LB72.

  18. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease in peppers from Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangling; Tang, Guiting; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying; Sun, Xiaofang; Qi, Xiaobo; Zhou, You; Xu, Jing; Chen, Huabao; Chang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sirong; Gong, Guoshu

    2016-09-09

    The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province, China, and characterized according to morphology and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequence. Fifty-two strains were chosen for identification by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences, including the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL) and GAPDH genes. Based on the combined datasets, the 88 strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. truncatum, C. scovillei, and C. brevisporum, and one new species was detected, described as Colletotrichum sichuanensis. Notably, C. siamense and C. scovillei were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose in peppers in China. In addition, with the exception of C. truncatum, this is the first report of all of the other Colletotrichum species studied in pepper from Sichuan. The fungal species were all non-host-specific, as the isolates were able to infect not only Capsicum spp. but also Pyrus pyrifolia in pathogenicity tests. These findings suggest that the fungal species associated with anthracnose in pepper may inoculate other hosts as initial inoculum.

  19. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Mungsuntisuk, Isada; Nihira, Takuya; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2011-04-01

    Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0%) were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8%) were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6%) could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87%) belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2) and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2) and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1). Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three indicator fungi. Preliminary analysis of crude

  20. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  1. Mummified fruit as a source of inoculum and disease dynamics of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Trapero, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is a destructive disease of olive fruit worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of agronomical and weather factors on inoculum production using detached olive fruit and on the development of epidemics in the field. The pathogen produced very large numbers of conidia on rotted (>1.87 × 10(8) conidia/fruit) or mummified (>2.16 × 10(4) conidia/fruit) fruit under optimal conditions. On mummified fruit, conidial production was highest on mummies incubated at 20 to 25°C and 96 h of wetness. Repeated washings of mummies reduced conidial production until it was very low after five washings. When mummies were placed in the tree canopy, conidial production was not reduced after 6 months (May to October); but, when they were held on the soil or buried in the soil, conidial production comparatively decreased up to 10,000 times. Anthracnose epidemics on susceptible 'Hojiblanca' and 'Picudo' during three seasons (2005-08) were influenced by rainfall, temperature, and fruit ripening, and had three main phases: the latent period (May to October); the onset of the epidemic, which coincided with the beginning of fruit ripening (early November); and disease development, which was predicted by the Weibull model (November to March). No epidemics developed on the susceptible cultivars during the driest season (2007-08) or on the resistant 'Picual' olive during any of the three seasons. These results provide the basis for a forecasting system of olive anthracnose which could greatly improve the management of this disease.

  2. Why are chillies pungent?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    use the misleading but widely used name by which they are called in the United ... peppers as the principal food of native Americans and compared them to the turnip ... The seeds of the chili pepper were brought back to Spain and the plant was .... germination trials of C. chacoense fruit (non-pungent chilli) showed that ...

  3. Species of the Colletotrichum acutatum complex associated with anthracnose diseases of fruit in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragança, Carlos A.D.; Damm, Ulrike; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Massola Júnior, Nelson S.; Crous, Pedro W.

    Abstract Although Colletotrichum acutatum was recently investigated and shown to be a species complex comprising about 30 species, the name is still used in its broad sense for anthracnose pathogens of fruits in Brazil. In this study, a multilocus molecular analysis was carried out based on a

  4. Characterization of a Colletotrichum population causing anthracnose disease on Olive in northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaoui, M; Raya, M C; Bouri, M; Moral, J; Perez-Rodriguez, M; Trapero, A; Msallem, M; Rhouma, A

    2016-05-01

    To phenotypically, physiologically and molecularly characterize the causal agent of olive anthracnose in the northern Tunisia and to study its genetic variability and pathogenicity. A total of 43 isolates were obtained from symptomatic olives collected from four regions in northern Tunisia. A range of morphological and physiological characteristics was recorded; and a phylogenetic study, based on the sequence analysis of both internal transcribed spacers and TUB2 gene regions, was performed. Of the 43 isolates, 41 were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum s.s, and only two were affiliated to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.s. Two more representative Spanish isolates, included for comparison, were identified as Colletotrichum godetiae. Using six inter-simple-sequence-repeat markers, homogeneity between isolates from different locations and within the same species was recorded. In pathogenicity and virulence studies, C. gloeosporioides s.s was found to be less virulent, while the Spanish C. godetiae isolate was significantly more virulent than the Tunisian C. acutatum s.s. Olive anthracnose in the North of Tunisia is mainly caused by C. acutatum s.s species. This is the first study of olive anthracnose in Tunisia, which combines both phenotypic and molecular approaches. Colletotrichum acutatum s.s group was recorded for the first time in the country as the causal agent of olive anthracnose. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Characterisation of the casual agent of mango anthracnose disease in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honger, Joseph Okani

    2014-05-01

    This research work was carried out to update information on the nature, the identity of the causal agent and the importance of mango anthracnose disease in Ghana. It was also to determine the effect of the disease on the juice quality of fruits and come up with appropriate control measures in the country. A field survey was carried out in 12 administrative districts of Ghana in 2010 and 2011 to assess the disease incidence and severity. The effect of the disease on yield/fruit quality was assessed in a commercial farm by determining the percentage of fruits that dropped or could not be marketed due to the disease. The pathogen causing the disease was isolated from the diseased lesions and characterised using cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular approaches. The total soluble solids and acidity content of infected fruits were measured as means of determining the effect of the disease on juice quality of the fruits. The susceptibility of the different strains of the pathogen to fungicides available in Ghana was assessed using PDA amended with the fungicides after which efficacy of fungicides was evaluated in the field. The results show that two different symptoms, a sunken dark lesion and cracked skins were observable in Ghana. The disease was not found in the field in 5 out of the 12 districts surveyed and the incidence ranged from 0% in the Hohoe, Berekum, Kintampo, Savelungu/Nanton and Tolon/Kumbungu districts to 100% in the Kwaebibrem and Kumasi metro districts in both the 2010 and 2011 major mango growing seasons. The severity index of the disease on a scale of 0-5 ranged from 0 to 3.8 in 2010 and 0 to 3.7 in 2011. The disease was found to cause shriveling of fruit panicles and blemishes on skin of fruits resulting in yield loss of 4.5% in the major season and 29.9% in the minor season in a mango orchard in the Yilo Krobo district. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. sensu lato was confirmed as the causal agent of the disease. From a total of 45

  6. Involvement of miR160/miR393 and their targets in cassava responses to anthracnose disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinweha, Nattaya; Asvarak, Thipa; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2015-02-01

    Cassava is a starchy root crop for food and industrial applications in many countries around the world. Among the factors that affect cassava production, diseases remain the major cause of yield loss. Cassava anthracnose disease is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Severe anthracnose attacks can cause tip die-backs and stem cankers, which can affect the availability of planting materials especially in large-scale production systems. Recent studies indicate that plants over- or under-express certain microRNAs (miRNAs) to cope with various stresses. Understanding how a disease-resistant plant protects itself from pathogens should help to uncover the role of miRNAs in the plant immune system. In this study, the disease severity assay revealed different response to C. gloeosporioides infection in two cassava cultivars. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis uncovered the differential expression of the two miRNAs and their target genes in the two cassava cultivars that were subjected to fungal infection. The more resistant cultivar revealed the up-regulation of miR160 and miR393, and consequently led to low transcript levels in their targets, ARF10 and TIR1, respectively. The more susceptible cultivar exhibited the opposite pattern. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to defense and stress responsiveness, fungal elicitor responsiveness and hormonal responses were the most prevalent present in the miRNAs gene promoter regions. The possible dual role of these specific miRNAs and their target genes associated with cassava responses to C. gloeosporioides is discussed. This is the first study to address the molecular events by which miRNAs which might play a role in fungal-infected cassava. A better understanding of the functions of miRNAs target genes should greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanism underlying susceptibility and lead to new strategies to enhance disease tolerance in this economically important crop. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All

  7. Control of anthracnose disease via increased activity of defence related enzymes in 'Hass' avocado fruit treated with methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacz, Marcin; Roets, Nico; Sivakumar, Dharini

    2017-11-01

    Development of anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is one of the major issues within the avocado supply chain. Exposure to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA) vapours at 10 and 100µmoll -1 was investigated as an alternative solution to commercial fungicide - prochloraz® that is currently being used by the industry. The incidence of anthracnose disease was found to be significantly reduced in 'Hass' avocado fruit treated with MeJA or MeSA vapours, especially at 100μmoll -1 . The mechanism involved enhanced activity of defence related enzymes, i.e. chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and PAL, and higher content of epicatechin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Identification and characterization of a new Bacillus atrophaeus strain B5 as biocontrol agent of postharvest anthracnose disease in soursop (Annona muricata) and avocado (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado-Valdivia, Lizeth; Tovar-Pérez, Erik; Chacón-López, Alejandra; López-García, Ulises; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Porfirio; Stoll, Alexandra; Aguilera, Selene

    2018-05-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous fruit, including soursop and avocado. The use of fungicides to maintain the high quality of fruit creates a potential health risk. One alternative to this problem is the biological control, which has been applied successfully during postharvest. The Bacillus species are one of the most studied biological agents against postharvest pathogens because accomplish their biocontrol performance by producing a variety of metabolites. In this study, we evaluated the activity of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant, obtained from Bacillus strain B5 culture, against micelial growth and spore germination of two virulent strains of C. gloeosporioides isolated from soursop and avocado. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Bacillus atrophaeus. A preventive treatment using cell free supernatant, reduced severity and incidence of anthracnose disease on harvested soursop and avocado fruit. B. atrophaeus strain B5 harbors genes involved in the production of antibiotics such as surfactin, bacillomycin and iturin, which could be contributing to the efficiency of the preventive treatment during postharvest. The antagonistic role of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant against anthracnose disease, provide a new approach by which to attack this problem and can help reduce the use of chemical pesticides, environmental pollution, leading to the safer fruit preservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular strategies towards anthracnose resistance in lupin

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a strategy towards anthracnose resistance in lupin using molecular techniques. Colletotrichum species are considered to be major plant pathogens of cereals and legumes around the world, causing significant crop losses. Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose disease on lupin. Sweet white lupin (Lupinus albus) is a high protein grain crop that could alleviate protein shortage in South Africa, since it has the highest protein levels (34-45%) compared to ...

  10. Bio-photonic detection method for morphological analysis of anthracnose disease and physiological disorders of Diospyros kaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Moon, Byungin; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    The pathological and physiological defects in various types of fruits lead to large amounts of economical waste. It is well recognized that internal fruit defects due to pathological infections and physiological disorders can be effectively visualized at an initial stage of the disease using a well-known bio-photonic detection method called optical coherence tomography (OCT). This work investigates the use of OCT for identifying the morphological variations of anthracnose (bitter rot) disease infected and physiologically disordered Diospyros kaki (Asian Persimmon) fruits. An experiment was conducted using fruit samples that were carefully selected from persimmon orchards. Depth-resolved images with a high axial resolution were acquired using 850-nm-based spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) system. The obtained exemplary high-resolution two-dimensional and volumetric three-dimensional images revealed complementary morphological differences between healthy and defected samples. Moreover, the obtained depth-profile analysis results confirmed the disappearance of the healthy cell layers among the healthy-infected boundary regions. Thus, the proposed method has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of the OCT technique used in agricultural plantations.

  11. High-resolution mapping reveals linkage between genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Giseli; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; de Lima Castro, Sandra Aparecida; Cregan, Perry B; Song, Qijian; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A

    2017-08-01

    Co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping using SNP, SSR, and KASP markers demonstrated genetic linkage between Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 loci conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose and angular leaf spot diseases of common bean. Rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot are major diseases of common bean in the Americas and Africa. The cultivar Ouro Negro has the Ur-14 gene that confers broad spectrum resistance to rust and the gene cluster Co-3 4 /Phg-3 containing two tightly linked genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot, respectively. We used co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping of 179 F 2:3 families from the Rudá (susceptible) × Ouro Negro (resistant) cross-phenotyped separately with races of the rust and anthracnose pathogens. The results confirmed that Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster in Ouro Negro conferred resistance to rust and anthracnose, respectively, and that Ur-14 and the Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster were closely linked. Genotyping the F 2:3 families, first with 5398 SNPs on the Illumina BeadChip BARCBEAN6K_3 and with 15 SSR, and eight KASP markers, specifically designed for the candidate region containing Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3, permitted the creation of a high-resolution genetic linkage map which revealed that Ur-14 was positioned at 2.2 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3 on the short arm of chromosome Pv04 of the common bean genome. Five flanking SSR markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.2 cM from Ur-14, and two flanking KASP markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.3 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3. Many other SSR, SNP, and KASP markers were also linked to these genes. These markers will be useful for the development of common bean cultivars combining the important Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 genes conferring resistance to three of the most destructive diseases of common bean.

  12. Quantitative trait loci associated with anthracnose resistance in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    With an aim to develop a durable resistance to the fungal disease anthracnose, two unique genetic sources of resistance were selected to create genetic mapping populations to identify regions of the sorghum genome that encode anthracnose resistance. A series of quantitative trait loci were identifi...

  13. HOW to Identify and Control Dogwood Anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfred E. Mielke; Margery L. Daughtrey

    Dogwood anthracnose is a disease of flowering and Pacific dogwood (Cornus florida and C. nuttallii). Infection of Pacific dogwood has been reported from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and British Columbia. In the East, infections have been reported on flowering dogwood in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Recently, the disease...

  14. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Amal K; Banerji, Pratim

    2016-06-01

    Dietary spices and their active constituents provide various beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system by variety of mechanisms such as influence of gastric emptying, stimulation of gastrointestinal defense and absorption, stimulation of salivary, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions. Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), commonly known as chilli, is a medicinal spice used in various Indian traditional systems of medicine and it has been acknowledged to treat various health ailments. Therapeutic potential of chilli and capsaicin were well documented; however, they act as double-edged sword in many physiological circumstances. In traditional medicine chilli has been used against various gastrointestinal complains such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and so on. In chilli, more than 200 constituents have been identified and some of its active constituents play numerous beneficial roles in various gastrointestinal disorders such as stimulation of digestion and gastromucosal defense, reduction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, inhibition of gastrointestinal pathogens, ulceration and cancers, regulation of gastrointestinal secretions and absorptions. However, further studies are warranted to determine the dose ceiling limit of chilli and its active constituents for their utilization as gastroprotective agents. This review summarizes the phytochemistry and various gastrointestinal benefits of chilli and its various active constituents.

  15. Sequencing of an Anthracnose-resistant sorghum genotype and mapping of a major QTL reveal strong candidate genes for Anthracnose resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum sublineolum Henn. ex. Sacc. and Trotter 1913, is an economically damaging disease of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in hot and humid production regions of the world. Control of anthracnose is almost exclusively through the use of genet...

  16. Olive anthracnose: a yield- and oil quality-degrading disease caused by several species of Colletotrichum that differ in virulence, host preference and geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhinhas, Pedro; Loureiro, Andreia; Oliveira, Helena

    2018-03-08

    Olive anthracnose causes fruit rot leading to its drop or mummification, resulting in yield losses and the degradation of oil quality. The disease is caused by diverse species of Colletotrichum, mostly clustering in the C. acutatum species complex. Colletotrichum nymphaeae and C. godetiae are the prevalent species in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas C. acutatum sensu stricto is the most frequent species in the Southern Hemisphere, although it is recently and quickly emerging in the Northern Hemisphere. The disease has been reported from all continents, but it attains higher incidence and severity in the west of the Mediterranean Basin, where it is endemic in traditional orchards of susceptible cultivars. The pathogens are able to survive on vegetative organs. On the fruit surface, infections remain quiescent until fruit maturity, when typical anthracnose symptoms develop. Under severe epidemics, defoliation and death of branches can also occur. Pathogen species differ in virulence, although this depends on the cultivar. The selection of resistant cultivars depends strongly on pathogen diversity and environmental conditions, posing added difficulties to breeding efforts. Chemical disease control is normally achieved with copper-based fungicides, although this may be insufficient under highly favourable disease conditions and causes concern because of the presence of fungicide residues in the oil. In areas in which the incidence is high, farmers tend to anticipate harvest, with consequences in yield and oil characteristics. Olive production systems, harvest and post-harvest processing have experienced profound changes in recent years, namely new training systems using specific cultivars, new harvest and processing techniques and new organoleptic market requests. Changes are also occurring in both the geographical distribution of pathogen populations and the taxonomic framework. In addition, stricter rules concerning pesticide use are likely to have a strong impact

  17. Control of some important soil-borne fungi by chitin associated with chilli (capsicum annuum l.) in lower sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Abid, M.; Farzana, A.; Akbar, M.; Shaukat, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae is one of the most important cash crop of the southern parts of Pakistan. Capsicum is cultivated on a large scale in a lower region of Sindh, Pakistan. It is an important and profitable crop of Pakistan. Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect the productivity of chilli crop. It is infected by a number of diseases particularly soil-borne diseases. Surveys of soil-borne fungal diseases associated with chilli crop in different areas of lower Sindh, including, Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Kunri, Samaro, Kot Ghulam uhammad and Digri, were conducted, and chilli plants showing symptoms of wilting were collected. A number of soil-borne root infecting fungi were isolated and identified, such as, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium sp., and Rhizoctonia solani, from collected disease plants. It was observed that all the major varieties of chillies (i.e., Sanam, Talhari, Ghotaki, Mexi), growing in lower Sindh, were highly susceptible to these fungi. The main objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of chitin for the management of soil-borne diseases of chilli plant by different methods, i.e., soil amendment and transplant root dip method. Results indicated that of the two methods, the soil amendment method was more effective while transplant root dip method was less effective. (author)

  18. Genome-wide association study of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans ...

  19. Inheritance and molecular mapping of anthracnose resistance genes present in sorghum line SC112-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) is one of the most destructive diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) affecting all aerial tissues of the plant. The most effective strategy for its control is the incorporation of resistance genes. Therefore, the anthracnose resistance response pr...

  20. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  1. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration Mutants as Biocontrol Agents Against Anthracnose Disease in Avocado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoby, N; Zhou, R; Kobiler, I; Dinoor, A; Prusky, D

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT Reduced-pathogenicity mutants of the avocado fruit pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate Cg-14 (teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata) were generated by insertional mutagenesis by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. Following seven transformations, 3,500 hygromycin-resistant isolates were subjected to a virulence assay by inoculation on mesocarp and pericarp of cv. Fuerte avocado fruits. Fourteen isolates showed a reduced degree of virulence relative compared with wild-type Cg-14. Two isolates, Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150, were further characterized. Cg-M-142 produced appressoria on avocado pericarp similar to Cg-14, but caused reduced symptom development on the fruit's pericarp and mesocarp. Isolate Cg-M-1150 did not produce appressoria; it caused much reduced maceration on the mesocarp and no symptoms on the pericarp. Southern blot analysis of Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150 showed REMI at different XbaI sites of the fungal genome. Pre-inoculation of avocado fruit with Cg-M-142 delayed symptom development by the wild-type isolate. Induced resistance was accompanied by an increase in the levels of preformed antifungal diene, from 760 to 1,200 mug/g fresh weight 9 days after inoculation, whereas pre-inoculation with Cg-M-1150 did not affect the level of antifungal diene, nor did it delay the appearance of decay symptoms. The results presented here show that reduced-pathogenicity isolates can be used for the biological control of anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides attack.

  2. Soil Effects Mediate Interaction of Dogwood Anthracnose and Acidic Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Berrang; Erika Mavity

    1998-01-01

    Dogwood anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Discula destructiva Redlin. It was first reported in 1976 (Byther et al., 1979), and spread rapidly throughout the range of the Pacific dogwood(Cornus nuttallii Audubon) on the west coast. The disease was found in 1978 in New York, and swept through the eastern flowering dogwood (...

  3. Physiological mechanism of resistance to anthracnose of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, enzyme activity of resistant cultivars improved markedly after pathogen inoculation, while those of susceptible cultivars did not change. This study broadens the understanding of the mechanisms of disease resistance in Camellia. Keywords: Anthracnose, Camellia oleifera, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, ...

  4. Colletotrichum species associated with chili anthracnose in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Silva, D. D.; Ades, P. K.; Crous, P. W.; Taylor, P. W J

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were determined for 45 Colletotrichum isolates causing anthracnose disease of chili in Queensland, Australia. Initial screening based on morphology, ITS and TUB2 genes resulted in a subset of 21 isolates being chosen for further taxonomic study. Isolates in the C. acutatum

  5. Field reaction of cassava genotypes to anthracnose, bacterial blight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field reaction of cassava genotypes to anthracnose, bacterial blight, cassava mosaic disease and their effects on yield. ... The BYDV-PAV and BYDV-RPV serotypes were identified from 9 and 10 of the 11 surveyed fields, respectively, with the two serotypes co-infecting some plants. Of the nine wheat cultivars surveyed, four ...

  6. Management of Anthracnose in Soybean using Fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on soybean (Glycine max L. Meril were carried out aiming to control anthracnose (pod blight caused by fungus, Colletotrichum truncatum with five treatments represented by different fungicidal sprays against control receiving no spray with three replicates of each under field conditions during two consecutive years from 2012 to 2013. In 2012, the higher Percent Disease Control (PDC and Percent Yield Increase (PYI were estimated in plot treated with SAAF (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% followed by Mancozeb fungicides. The mean Pod Infection (PI was low in plots treated with SAAF followed by Mancozeb. Almost similar trends of disease control were observed in 2013. The lower Percent Disease Index (PDI was 46.25% and mean PI was 29.67% with higher yield value of 2431.25 kg/ha obtained from the plots sprayed with SAAF then by Mancozeb. The results showed that, the combined treatment with fungicides, SAAF followed by Mancozeb were effective to control anthracnose or pod blight disease of soybean to increase the yield.

  7. Gum arabic based composite edible coating on green chillies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiathan, Sreejit; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Green chillies were coated with a composite edible coating composed of gum arabic (5%), glycerol (1%), thyme oil (0.5%) and tween 80 (0.05%) to preserve the freshness and quality of green chillies and thus reduce the cost of preservation. In the present work, the chillies were coated with the composite edible coating using the dipping method with three dipping times (1, 3 and 5 min). The physicochemical parameters of the coated and control chillies stored at room temperature (28±2ºC) were evaluated at regular intervals of storage. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the physicochemical properties between the control chillies and coated chillies with 1, 3 and 5 min dipping times. The coated green chillies showed significantly (p≤0.05) lower weight loss, phenolic acid production, capsaicin production and significantly (p≤0.05) higher retention of ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, colour, firmness and better organoleptic properties. The composite edible coating of gum arabic and thyme oil with 3 min dipping was effective in preserving the desirable physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of the green chillies up to 12 days, compared to the uncoated chillies that had a shelf life of 6 days at room temperature.

  8. Mechanisms governing the responses to anthracnose pathogen in Juglans spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollegioni, P; Van der Linden, G; Belisario, A; Gras, M; Anselmi, N; Olimpieri, I; Luongo, L; Santini, A; Turco, E; Scarascia Mugnozza, G; Malvolti, M E

    2012-06-30

    Juglans nigra and Juglans regia are two highly economically important species for wood and fruit production that are susceptible to anthracnose caused by Gnomonia leptostyla. The identification of genotypes resistant to anthracnose could represent a valid alternative to agronomic and chemical management. In this study, we analyzed 72 walnut genotypes that showed a variety of resistance phenotypes in response to natural infection. According to the disease severity rating and microsatellite fingerprinting analysis, these genotypes were divided into three main groups: (40) J. nigra resistant, (1) J. nigra susceptible, and (31) J. regia susceptible. Data on leaf emergence rates and analysis of in vivo pathogenicity indicated that the incidence of anthracnose disease in the field might be partially conditioned by two key factors: the age and/or availability of susceptible leaves during the primary infection of fungus (avoidance by late flushing) and partial host resistance. NBS profiling approach, based on PCR amplification with an adapter primer for an adapter matching a restriction enzyme site and a degenerate primer targeting the conserved motifs present in the NBS domain of NBS-LRR genes, was applied. The results revealed the presence of a candidate marker that correlated to a reduction in anthracnose incidence in 72 walnut genotypes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of different pretreatments on dried chilli (Capsicum annum L.) quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoraga, S. B.; Sabarisman, I.; Ainuri, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) has significant price fluctuation. When the chilli price is declined, it causes food waste from unsold chilli. Therefore, drying chilli is a solution for this condition. Futhermore, it can be processed for various product like chilli powder, chilli sauce, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different pretreatments on dried chilli quality. Chilli was blenched with hot water and steam before drying. The purpose of this pretreatments is to inactivate enzyme that prevents color and vitamin C losses. The quality parameters were moisture content, colour, vitamin C content, and capsaicin. Changes were observed by gravimetri method for moisture content, chromameter in L* a * b * colour model, and iodine titration for vitamin C. After drying for 20 hours at 60°C, chilli with steam blanching pretreatment dried rapidly than other samples. Unpretreated chilli had higher vitamin C content and better color than blanched chilli.

  10. Colletotrichum species associated with jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) anthracnose in southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoping; Gao, Hong; Qi, Jianmin; Chen, Miancai; Tao, Aifen; Xu, Jiantang; Dai, Zhigang; Su, Jianguang

    2016-04-28

    Anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum species of fungi, is one of the most serious diseases affecting jute in China. The disease causes chlorotic regions with black brown sunken necrotic pits on the surfaces of stems. In late stages of disease, plants undergo defoliation, dieback and blight, which make anthracnose a major threat to jute fiber production and quality in China. In this study, 7 strains of Colletotrichum fungi were isolated from diseased jute stems from Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, and Henan plantations in China. Multi-locus sequence (ACT, TUB2, CAL, GS, GAPDH and ITS) analysis coupled with morphological assessment revealed that C. fructicola, C. siamense and C. corchorum-capsularis sp. nov. were associated with jute anthracnose in southeastern China. C. fructicola and C. siamense were previously not associated with jute anthracnose. C. corchorum-capsularis is a new species formally described here. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that all species can infect jute, causing anthracnose, however the virulence of the 3 species differed. This report is the first associating these three species with jute disease worldwide and is the first description of the pathogens responsible for jute anthracnose in China.

  11. Infeksi Cucumber mosaic virus dan Chilli veinal mottle virus pada Cabai di Kabupaten Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Sutrawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic disease caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Chilli veinal mottle Virus (ChiVMV has been distributed widely in chilli in Indonesia and considered as important disease. A research was conducted to investigate the spread and incidence of CMV and ChiVMV in Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu and to identify its insect vector. Symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf samples were collected systematically from several chillipepper fields for further detection by DAS-ELISA (Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbant assay using specific antibody for CMV and ChiVMV. The result showed that infection of both CMV and ChiVMV was found with disease incidence reached 20-50%, whereas infection only by ChiVMV or CMV were 50-80% and 20-50%, respectively. One species of aphid, i.e. Aphis gossypii was found from the fields.Key words: Aphis gossypii, CMV, ChiVMV, disease incidence

  12. Optimal control of anthracnose using mixed strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotsa Mbogne, David Jaures; Thron, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose and study a spatial diffusion model for the control of anthracnose disease in a bounded domain. The model is a generalization of the one previously developed in [15]. We use the model to simulate two different types of control strategies against anthracnose disease. Strategies that employ chemical fungicides are modeled using a continuous control function; while strategies that rely on cultivational practices (such as pruning and removal of mummified fruits) are modeled with a control function which is discrete in time (though not in space). For comparative purposes, we perform our analyses for a spatially-averaged model as well as the space-dependent diffusion model. Under weak smoothness conditions on parameters we demonstrate the well-posedness of both models by verifying existence and uniqueness of the solution for the growth inhibition rate for given initial conditions. We also show that the set [0, 1] is positively invariant. We first study control by impulsive strategies, then analyze the simultaneous use of mixed continuous and pulse strategies. In each case we specify a cost functional to be minimized, and we demonstrate the existence of optimal control strategies. In the case of pulse-only strategies, we provide explicit algorithms for finding the optimal control strategies for both the spatially-averaged model and the space-dependent model. We verify the algorithms for both models via simulation, and discuss properties of the optimal solutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathogenicity and Host Range of Pathogen Causing Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Anthracnose in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Uh Seong Jeong; Ju Hee Kim; Ki Kwon Lee; Seong Soo Cheong; Wang Hyu Lee

    2013-01-01

    The strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. coccodes, C. acutatum isolated from black raspberry werepathogenic to apple and strawberry after dropping inoculation, but showed weak pathogenicity in hot-pepperand tomato. The anthracnose pathogens of C. gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, C. acutatum isolated from apple,hot-pepper and pumpkin showed pathogenicity in black raspberry. Moreover, the anthracnose pathogensisolated from apple caused disease symptoms in non-wounded inoculation.

  14. First Report of Anthracnose on Bitter Gourd Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose occurred in bitter gourd grown in Jeongup areas of Korea in 2011. Anthracnose of bitter gourd appeared as dark brown circular spots on naturally infected leaves and fruits. The symptoms of infected leaves and fruits were small brown to dark brown spots and gradually enlarged to larger cylindrical dark brown lesions. The causal fungus of anthracnose isolated from the diseased plants was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on the morphological and cultural characteristics and ITS rDNA sequence analysis. All isolates of C. gloeosporioides produced symptoms on the host leaves by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of anthracnose on bitter gourd caused by C. gloeosporioides in Korea.

  15. Occurrence of anthracnose on highbush blueberry caused by colletotrichum species in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee

    2009-12-01

    A total of 82 isolates of Colletotrichum species were obtained from anthracnose symptoms of highbush blueberry trees grown in the Gochang area of Korea during a disease survey in 2008. Out of the isolates, 75 were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the others as C. acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Twenty six of C. gloeosporioides isolates produced their teleomorph Glomerella cingulata in PDA culture. Three isolates of each C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum caused anthracnose symptoms on the leaves by artificial inoculation, which were similar to what was observed in the orchards. Previously in Korea, only C. gloeosporioides has been reported as causing anthracnose in blueberries. This is the first report that C. acutatum causes anthracnose in the highbush blueberry in Korea.

  16. Differential resistances to anthracnose in Capsicum baccatum as responding to two Colletotrichum pathotypes and inoculation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasuk, Pitchayapa; Chinthaisong, Jittima; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-09-01

    Chili anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the major diseases to chili production in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Breeding for durable anthracnose resistance requires a good understanding of the resistance mechanisms to different pathotypes and inoculation methods. This study aimed to investigate the inheritances of differential resistances as responding to two different Colletotrichum pathotypes, PCa2 and PCa3 and as by two different inoculation methods, microinjection (MI) and high pressure spray (HP). Detached ripe fruit of Capsicum baccatum 'PBC80' derived F2 and BC1s populations was assessed for anthracnose resistance. Two dominant genes were identified responsible for the differential resistance to anthracnose. One was responsible for the resistance to PCa2 and PCa3 by MI and the other was responsible for the resistance to PCa3 by HP. The two genes were linked with 16.7 cM distance.

  17. Inheritance of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) resistance in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolsawat, O; Mahanil, S; Laosuwan, P; Wongkaew, S; Tharapreuksapong, A; Reisch, B I; Tantasawat, P A

    2013-12-13

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two of the major diseases of most grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Thailand. Therefore, breeding grapevines for improved downy mildew and anthracnose resistance is crucial. Factorial crosses were made between three downy mildew and/or anthracnose resistant lines ('NY88.0517.01', 'NY65.0550.04', and 'NY65.0551.05'; male parents) and two or three susceptible cultivars of V. vinifera ('Black Queen', 'Carolina Black Rose', and/or 'Italia'; female parents). F1 hybrid seedlings were evaluated for downy mildew and anthracnose resistance using a detached/excised leaf assay. For both diseases, the general combining ability (GCA) variance among male parents was significant, while the variance of GCA among females and the specific combining ability (SCA) variance were not significant, indicating the prevalence of additive over non-additive gene actions. The estimated narrow sense heritabilities of downy mildew and anthracnose resistance were 55.6 and 79.2%, respectively, suggesting that downy mildew/anthracnose resistance gene(s) were highly heritable. The 'Carolina Black Rose x NY65.0550.04' cross combination is recommended for future use.

  18. Cross inoculation of anthracnose pathogens infecting various tropical fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparman; Rahmiyah, M.; Pujiastuti, Y.; Gunawan, B.; Arsi

    2018-01-01

    Anthracnose disease is very important disease of tropical fruits causing significant yield losses. The disease is caused by Colletotrichum spp. and infects almost all tropical fruit species, especially the succulent ones. Various species of Colletotrichum infect various tropical fruits and there are possibilities for cross inoculation to occur among tropical fruits which might cause severe infection. An experimental research was conducted to examine the effect of cross inoculation of anthracnose pathogen among papaya, eggplant, chili and common bean on the infection development and severity of the disease on each inoculated fruit species. Colletotrichum spp. were isolated from naturally infected papaya, eggplant, chili and common bean. Each fungal isolate was purified and identified to determine the species name. The spores of each isolate were then used to separately inoculate healthy and sterilized papaya, eggplant, chili and common bean. The results showed that cross infection developed on chili, eggplant and papaya but not on bean. Chili showed the highest susceptibility to all Colletotrichum isolates and significantly different from eggplant and papaya. The anthracnose pathogen isolated from common bean showed no pathogenicity to other hosts and might be used as cross protection inoculant to the disease in the other hosts.

  19. In vitro efficacy of bacterial endophytes against the chilli damping-off pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjunan MUTHUKUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. The effect of ten endophytic isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens was tested against P. aphanidermatum under in vitro conditions. All the isolates tested were short rods and produced bright fluorescence when exposed to UV light. Among the isolates, EBS 20 produced the largest inhibition zone and the least mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum. With regard to the secondary metabolites, P. fluorescens EBS 20 produced most salicylic acid, siderophore and hydrogen cyanide. The culture filtrate of this isolate at a 15% concentration totally inhibited mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum. In addition, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of this isolate also led to the greatest plant growth in terms of root length, shoot length and vigour index.

  20. Yield Loss Assessment and Determination of Control Thresholds for Anthracnose on Red Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to develop control thresholds for anthracnose on red pepper. To investigate relationship between anthracnose incidence and diseased fruits, experimental plots with six treatments were established. There existed close correlation between rate of diseased fruits and yields in field (Y = -16.83X + 327.57, R² = 0.83, in rain shelter (Y = -4.92X + 361.02, R² = 0.84, and in rain shelter with rain (Y = -5.91X + 359.71, R² = 0.76. Control thresholds for anthracnose of pepper were 0.9% diseased fruits per plant in field and from 1.7 to 2.3% diseased fruits rate per plant in rain shelter.

  1. First report of anthracnose fruit rot of blueberry caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose fruit rot is the most important disease of blueberry in New Jersey. Most fungicide applications in New Jersey and other blueberry growing regions is for the control of this disease. The causal agent of this disease has been reported to be Colletotrichum acutatum and other species in the ...

  2. The Use of Microorganism for Biological Control of Anthracnose in Nam Dok Mai Mango for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    Antagonist were tested inhibition of mycelial growth of Collectorichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose on potato dextrose agar (PDA) revealed that 46 isolated that 46 isolate inhibited the growth of mycelia by 40.01-60.00 5. The selected four isolates inhibit the growth of fungal nycelia by 47.01-50.00 % including YFm1, YFm2, Y18 and AC2-1 were test for the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism before inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. This result slow that four isolate antagonistic reduced sized of lesion on Nam Dok Mai mango by 89.23, 75.38, 58.46 and 33.85 %, respectively as compare the control. Five isolate of antagonist including YFm1, YFm2, Y18, CLY35 and CLY23 could inhibited the growth of mycelia on PDA by 44.01-50.00 % were test the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism after inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. It was found that this application could not inhibit anthracnose on fruit mango as compare to the control. YFm1 were test for the potential inhibition anthracnose disease under field condition. It was found that YFm1 could control of C. gloeosporioides within 7 and 14 day after spraying antagonistic suspension. The efficiency test of YFm1 for anthracnose controlling on mango was followed by export treatment Azoxystrobin, ET-fon and showed 55.55%, 77.77 % and 88.88 % anthracnose infection and/or spoilage respectively

  3. Endophytic bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of Amazon Paullinia cupana associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Ferreira, Almir José; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens, which make them candidate for disease suppression. Anthracnose is a disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., a phytopathogen that can infect guarana (Paullinia cupana), an important commercial crop in the Brazilian Amazon. We investigated the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose guarana plants. The PCR-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed differences in the structure of the evaluated communities. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria composition using culture-dependent and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria phyla. Firmicutes comprised the majority of isolates in asymptomatic plants (2.40E(-4)). However, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed differences at the genus level for Neisseria (1.4E(-4)), Haemophilus (2.1E(-3)) and Arsenophonus (3.6E(-5)) in asymptomatic plants, Aquicella (3.5E(-3)) in symptomatic anthracnose plants, and Pseudomonas (1.1E(-3)), which was mainly identified in asymptomatic plants. In cross-comparisons of the endophytic bacterial communities as a whole, symptomatic anthracnose plants contained higher diversity, as reflected in the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices estimation (P anthracnose can restructure endophytic bacterial communities by selecting certain strains in the phyllosphere of P. cupana. The understanding of these interactions is important for the development of strategies of biocontrol for Colletotrichum.

  4. STAYGREEN (CsSGR) is a candidate for the anthracnose (Colletotrichum orbiculare) resistance locus cla in Gy14 cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junsong; Tan, Junyi; Wang, Yuhui; Zheng, Xiangyang; Owens, Ken; Li, Dawei; Li, Yuhong; Weng, Yiqun

    2018-04-21

    Map-based cloning identified a candidate gene for resistance to the anthracnose fungal pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare in cucumber, which reveals a novel function for the highly conserved STAYGREEN family genes for host disease resistance in plants. Colletotrichum orbiculare is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in cucumber and other cucurbit crops. No host resistance genes against the anthracnose pathogens have been cloned in crop plants. Here, we reported fine mapping and cloning of a resistance gene to the race 1 anthracnose pathogen in cucumber inbred lines Gy14 and WI 2757. Phenotypic and QTL analysis in multiple populations revealed that a single recessive gene, cla, was underlying anthracnose resistance in both lines, but WI2757 carried an additional minor-effect QTL. Fine mapping using 150 Gy14 × 9930 recombinant inbred lines and 1043 F 2 individuals delimited the cla locus into a 32 kb region in cucumber Chromosome 5 with three predicted genes. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that the cucumber STAYGREEN (CsSGR) gene is a candidate for the anthracnose resistance locus. A single nucleotide mutation in the third exon of CsSGR resulted in the substitution of Glutamine in 9930 to Arginine in Gy14 in CsSGR protein which seems responsible for the differential anthracnose inoculation responses between Gy14 and 9930. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CsSGR was significantly upregulated upon anthracnose pathogen inoculation in the susceptible 9930, while its expression was much lower in the resistant Gy14. Investigation of allelic diversities in natural cucumber populations revealed that the resistance allele in almost all improved cultivars or breeding lines of the U.S. origin was derived from PI 197087. This work reveals an unknown function for the highly conserved STAYGREEN (SGR) family genes for host disease resistance in plants.

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  6. Inheritance and molecular mapping of anthracnose resistance gene present in the differential line PI533918

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose (Collectrotichum sublineolum) is considered one of the most destructive diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) because it infects all aerial tissues of the plant. The best strategy to control the disease is the incorporation of resistance genes. At present, eighteen sorghum line...

  7. Gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from North-western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neeraj; Bawa, Vanya; Paliwal, Rajneesh; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Mohd Ashraf; Mir, Javid Iqbal; Gupta, Moni; Sofi, Parvaze A; Thudi, Mahendar; Varshney, Rajeev K; Mir, Reyazul Rouf

    2018-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important grain legume crops in the world. The beans grown in north-western Himalayas possess huge diversity for seed color, shape and size but are mostly susceptible to Anthracnose disease caused by seed born fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Dozens of QTLs/genes have been already identified for this disease in common bean world-wide. However, this is the first report of gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose using bean germplasm from north-western Himalayas of state Jammu & Kashmir, India. A core set of 96 bean lines comprising 54 indigenous local landraces from 11 hot-spots and 42 exotic lines from 10 different countries were phenotyped at two locations (SKUAST-Jammu and Bhaderwah, Jammu) for Anthracnose resistance. The core set was also genotyped with genome-wide (91) random and trait linked SSR markers. The study of marker-trait associations (MTAs) led to the identification of 10 QTLs/genes for Anthracnose resistance. Among the 10 QTLs/genes identified, two MTAs are stable (BM45 & BM211), two MTAs (PVctt1 & BM211) are major explaining more than 20% phenotypic variation for Anthracnose and one MTA (BM211) is both stable and major. Six (06) genomic regions are reported for the first time, while as four (04) genomic regions validated the already known QTL/gene regions/clusters for Anthracnose. The major, stable and validated markers reported during the present study associated with Anthracnose resistance will prove useful in common bean molecular breeding programs aimed at enhancing Anthracnose resistance of local bean landraces grown in north-western Himalayas of state Jammu and Kashmir.

  8. Circumscription of the anthracnose pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. nigrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Cai, L.; Crous, P.W.; Damm, U.

    2013-01-01

    The anthracnose pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is usually identified as Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, while anthracnose of potato (Solanum tuberosum), peppers (Capsicum annuum), tomato (S. lycopersicum) and several other crop plants is often attributed to C. coccodes. In order to

  9. Strawberry Anthracnose Ripe Fruit Rot and Management Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Louws, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Briefly describes anthracnose symptoms on ripe strawberry fruit, then recommends ways to manage for the anthracnose, including removal and burying or burning infected and nearby plants, avoiding overhead irrigation, and picking fruits from the infected areas last.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation and processing on the quality of chilli sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof; Latifah Amin; Mohamad Lebai Juri

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal load in dried chilli, the main ingredient in manufacturing chilli sauce, was reduced by two log cycles after gamma irradiation at 5 kGy. After processing into chilli sauce, the microbial load observed in the sauce prepared from irradiated dried chillies was almost similar to the control. The heating stage in the processing of chilli sauce seemed sufficient to decontaminate the raw ingredients. During storage, there was no significant increase in the number of bacteria but some fungal growths were detected after eight months of storage. Reduction in redness (a value) was recorded in the control sample after four months (P=0.05) but not in the treated sample. The differences in the sensory quality between the chilli sauce prepared from irradiated dried chillies and control samples could be detected using the Triangular Test. (author)

  11. Preliminary research on the identification system for anthracnose and powdery mildew of sandalwood leaf based on image processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Wu

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey on a system that uses digital image processing techniques to identify anthracnose and powdery mildew diseases of sandalwood from digital images. Our main objective is researching the most suitable identification technology for the anthracnose and powdery mildew diseases of the sandalwood leaf, which provides algorithmic support for the real-time machine judgment of the health status and disease level of sandalwood. We conducted real-time monitoring of Hainan sandalwood leaves with varying severity levels of anthracnose and powdery mildew beginning in March 2014. We used image segmentation, feature extraction and digital image classification and recognition technology to carry out a comparative experimental study for the image analysis of powdery mildew, anthracnose disease and healthy leaves in the field. Performing the actual test for a large number of diseased leaves pointed to three conclusions: (1 Distinguishing effects of BP (Back Propagation neural network method, in all kinds of classical methods, for sandalwood leaf anthracnose and powdery mildew disease are relatively good; the size of the lesion areas were closest to the actual. (2 The differences between two diseases can be shown well by the shape feature, color feature and texture feature of the disease image. (3 Identifying and diagnosing the diseased leaves have ideal results by SVM, which is based on radial basis kernel function. The identification rate of the anthracnose and healthy leaves was 92% respectively, and that of powdery mildew was 84%. Disease identification technology lays the foundation for remote monitoring disease diagnosis, preparing for remote transmission of the disease images, which is a very good guide and reference for further research of the disease identification and diagnosis system in sandalwood and other species of trees.

  12. Preliminary research on the identification system for anthracnose and powdery mildew of sandalwood leaf based on image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a survey on a system that uses digital image processing techniques to identify anthracnose and powdery mildew diseases of sandalwood from digital images. Our main objective is researching the most suitable identification technology for the anthracnose and powdery mildew diseases of the sandalwood leaf, which provides algorithmic support for the real-time machine judgment of the health status and disease level of sandalwood. We conducted real-time monitoring of Hainan sandalwood leaves with varying severity levels of anthracnose and powdery mildew beginning in March 2014. We used image segmentation, feature extraction and digital image classification and recognition technology to carry out a comparative experimental study for the image analysis of powdery mildew, anthracnose disease and healthy leaves in the field. Performing the actual test for a large number of diseased leaves pointed to three conclusions: (1) Distinguishing effects of BP (Back Propagation) neural network method, in all kinds of classical methods, for sandalwood leaf anthracnose and powdery mildew disease are relatively good; the size of the lesion areas were closest to the actual. (2) The differences between two diseases can be shown well by the shape feature, color feature and texture feature of the disease image. (3) Identifying and diagnosing the diseased leaves have ideal results by SVM, which is based on radial basis kernel function. The identification rate of the anthracnose and healthy leaves was 92% respectively, and that of powdery mildew was 84%. Disease identification technology lays the foundation for remote monitoring disease diagnosis, preparing for remote transmission of the disease images, which is a very good guide and reference for further research of the disease identification and diagnosis system in sandalwood and other species of trees.

  13. Characterization of Glomerella strains recovered from anthracnose lesions on common bean plants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Quélen L; Pinto, Joyce M A; Vaillancourt, Lisa J; Souza, Elaine A

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is an important disease of common bean, resulting in major economic losses worldwide. Genetic diversity of the C. lindemuthianum population contributes to its ability to adapt rapidly to new sources of host resistance. The origin of this diversity is unknown, but sexual recombination, via the Glomerella teleomorph, is one possibility. This study tested the hypothesis that Glomerella strains that are frequently recovered from bean anthracnose lesions represent the teleomorph of C. lindemuthianum. A large collection of Glomerella isolates could be separated into two groups based on phylogenetic analysis, morphology, and pathogenicity to beans. Both groups were unrelated to C. lindemuthianum. One group clustered with the C. gloeosporioides species complex and produced mild symptoms on bean tissues. The other group, which belonged to a clade that included the cucurbit anthracnose pathogen C. magna, caused no symptoms. Individual ascospores recovered from Glomerella perithecia gave rise to either fertile (perithecial) or infertile (conidial) colonies. Some pairings of perithecial and conidial strains resulted in induced homothallism in the conidial partner, while others led to apparent heterothallic matings. Pairings involving two perithecial, or two conidial, colonies produced neither outcome. Conidia efficiently formed conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs), but ascospores never formed CATs. The Glomerella strains formed appressoria and hyphae on the plant surface, but did not penetrate or form infection structures within the tissues. Their behavior was similar whether the beans were susceptible or resistant to anthracnose. These same Glomerella strains produced thick intracellular hyphae, and eventually acervuli, if host cell death was induced. When Glomerella was co-inoculated with C. lindemuthianum, it readily invaded anthracnose lesions. Thus, the hypothesis was not supported: Glomerella strains from anthracnose

  14. Genomic dissection of anthracnose resistant response in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to use a genomics-based approaches to identify anthracnose resistance loci from diverse sorghum germplasm as an effort to the disease resistance mechanism of at least one of these genes. This information will provide plant breeders with a tool kit that can be used to maxi...

  15. The bacterial community associated with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) leaves responds to anthracnose symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, Thais Freitas; Vollu, Renata Estebanez; Marques, Joana Montezano; Salles, Joana Falcao; Seldin, Lucy

    Background The fungus Colletotrichum is a plant pathogen that causes the anthracnose disease, resulting in huge losses in various crops including the rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens). Although the bacterial community associated with plants has an important role in the establishment of

  16. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the scab and spot anthracnose fungus Elsinoë (Myriangiales, Dothideomycetes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, X.L.; Barreto, R.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Bezerra, J.D.P.; Pereira, O.L.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Mostert, L.; Tian, C.M.; Crous, P.W.

    Abstract Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and

  17. Assessing the vulnerability of sorghum converted lines to anthracnose and downy mildew infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 59 converted sorghum lines and six checks were evaluated for resistance to two foliar fungal diseases, anthracnose and downy mildew (SDM) in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Farm, College Station, Texas. In 2008, 23 lines exhibited resistance (35%), 29 sus...

  18. Molecular characterization and diversity analysis in chilli pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India is considered to be the secondary center of diversity of chilli pepper, especially of Capsicum annuum. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are the most widely used marker system for plant variety characterization and diversity analysis especially in cultivated species which have low levels of polymorphism. The diversity ...

  19. Pretreating dogwood seedlings with simulated acidic precipitation increases dogwood anthracnose symptoms in greenhouse-laboratory trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.L.; Knighten, J. (USDA Forest Service, Resistance Screening Center, Asheville, NC (United States)); Berrange, P.; Lawton, K.A. (USDA Forest Service, Center for Forest Environmental Studies, Dry Branch, GA (United States)); Britton, K.O. (USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Athens, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Dogwood anthracnose is the most damaging disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) in a large part of the tree's natural range. It is caused by Discula destructiva infection. Previous attempts to inoculate C. florida to produce anthracnose symptoms have met with limited success except when the leaves were pretreated with acidic water, suggesting that acidic precipitation may predispose dogwoods to the disease. This hypothesis was tested in two greenhouse-laboratory studies in which year-old C. florida seedlings were randomly assigned to four treatments of simulated rain (pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5) in 1989 and 1990. After 10 applications over a 42-d period, the seedlings were moved to a temperature-controlled laboratory, placed in plastic bags, humidified, and sprayed with a spore suspension of five D. destructiva isolates. About 30 d layter, the seedlings were examined for the percentage of leaves exhibiting anthracnose symptoms and disease severity on affected leaves. Both trials showed that as the acidity of the simulated rain increased, the incidence and severity of anthracnose leaf symptoms increased. The 1989 study included a soil lime treatment that showed the same trend but the overall occurrence and severity of symptoms was higher. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Association of RGA-SSCP markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantasawat, P A; Poolsawat, O; Prajongjai, T; Chaowiset, W; Tharapreuksapong, A

    2012-07-02

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two major diseases that severely affect most grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown commercially in Thailand. Progress of conventional breeding programs of grapevine for improved resistance to these diseases can be speeded up by selection of molecular markers associated with resistance traits. We evaluated the association between 13 resistance gene analog (RGA)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in 71 segregating progenies of seven cross combinations between susceptible cultivars and resistant lines. F(1) hybrids from each cross were assessed for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose (isolates Nk4-1 and Rc2-1) under laboratory conditions. Association of resistance traits with RGA-SSCP markers was evaluated using simple linear regression analysis. Three RGA-SSCP markers were found to be significantly correlated with anthracnose resistance, whereas significant correlation with downy mildew resistance was observed for only one RGA-SSCP marker. These results demonstrate the usefulness of RGA-SSCP markers. Four candidate markers with significant associations to resistance to these two major diseases of grapevine were identified. However, these putative associations between markers and resistance need to be verified with larger segregating populations before they can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  1. Identification of genetic markers linked to anthracnose resistance in sorghum using association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Hari D; Wang, Yi-Hong; Sharma, Rajan; Sharma, Shivali

    2013-06-01

    Anthracnose in sorghum caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum is one of the most destructive diseases affecting sorghum production under warm and humid conditions. Markers and genes linked to resistance to the disease are important for plant breeding. Using 14,739 SNP markers, we have mapped eight loci linked to resistance in sorghum through association analysis of a sorghum mini-core collection consisting of 242 diverse accessions evaluated for anthracnose resistance for 2 years in the field. The mini-core was representative of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics' world-wide sorghum landrace collection. Eight marker loci were associated with anthracnose resistance in both years. Except locus 8, disease resistance-related genes were found in all loci based on their physical distance from linked SNP markers. These include two NB-ARC class of R genes on chromosome 10 that were partially homologous to the rice blast resistance gene Pib, two hypersensitive response-related genes: autophagy-related protein 3 on chromosome 1 and 4 harpin-induced 1 (Hin1) homologs on chromosome 8, a RAV transcription factor that is also part of R gene pathway, an oxysterol-binding protein that functions in the non-specific host resistance, and homologs of menthone:neomenthol reductase (MNR) that catalyzes a menthone reduction to produce the antimicrobial neomenthol. These genes and markers may be developed into molecular tools for genetic improvement of anthracnose resistance in sorghum.

  2. Association between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that the consumption of chilli-containing foods can influence iron absorption and affect serum insulin and glucose concentrations, which may help to alleviate diabetes or prediabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric data, and chilli food habit data collected from 8433 adults (aged 18 to 99), in 2009, as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale longitudinal, household-based survey in China. Chilli food habits were assessed using chilli food eating frequencies (no eating, sometimes eating, often eating, and usually eating) and chilli food types (a little bit hot, moderately hot, and very hot). Fasting serum ferritin, insulin, and fasting plasma glucose were also measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Compared with the chilli-eating group, the no eating group had higher HOMA-IR levels for both men and women (Pfood types. However, there was no significant difference in the ferritin level and HOMA-IR components for different chilli food eating frequencies in both sex groups. Chilli food habits, especially the different hotness levels of chilli food, were associated with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference.

  3. Application of lemongrass oil in vapour phase for the effective control of anthracnose of 'Sekaki' papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Wee Pheng, T; Mustafa, M A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the potential use of lemongrass essential oil vapour as an alternative for synthetic fungicides in controlling anthracnose of papaya. Lemongrass oil used in the study was characterized using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) before it was tested against anthracnose of papaya in vitro and in vivo. The GC-FID analysis showed that geranial (45·6%) and neral (34·3%) were the major components in lemongrass oil. In vitro study revealed that lemongrass oil vapour at all concentrations tested (33, 66, 132, 264 and 528 μl l(-1) ) suppressed the mycelial growth and conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. For the in vivo study, 'Sekaki' papaya were exposed to lemongrass oil fumigation (0, 7, 14, 28 μl l(-1) ) for 18 h and at room temperature for 9 days. Lemongrass oil vapour at the concentration of 28 μl l(-1) was most effective against anthracnose of artificially inoculated papaya fruit while quality parameters of papaya were not significantly altered. This suggests that lemongrass oil vapour can control anthracnose disease development on papaya without affecting its natural ripening process. The potential practical application of this technology can reduce reliance on synthetic fungicides for the control of postharvest diseases in papaya. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. The potential of compounds isolated from Xylaria spp. as antifungal agents against anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Luciana M; Fortkamp, Diana; Sartori, Sérgio B; Ferreira, Marília C; Gomes, Luiz H; Azevedo, João L; Montoya, Quimi V; Rodrigues, André; Ferreira, Antonio G; Lira, Simone P

    2018-03-31

    Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46μmolmL -1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02μmolmL -1 , respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period.

  6. [Characterization of a bacterial biocontrol strain 1404 and its efficacy in controlling postharvest citrus anthracnose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Hu, Chunjin; Ke, Fanggang; Huang, Siliang; Li, Qiqin

    2010-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. is a main disease in citrus production. To develop an effective biocontrol measure against citrus postharvest anthracnose, we screened antagonistic microbes and obtained a bacterial strain 1404 from the rhizospheric soil of chili plants in Nanning city, Guangxi, China. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) identify and characterize the antagonistic bacterium; and (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the antagonistic strain in controlling citrus postharvest anthracnose disease. Strain 1404 was identified by comparing its 16S rDNA sequence with related bacteria from GenBank database, as well as analyzing its morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. The antagonistic stability of the strain 1404 was determined by continuously transferring it on artificial media. The effect of the strain on suppressing citrus anthracnose at postharvest stage was tested by stab inoculation method. The 16S rDNA of strain 1404 was amplified with primers PF1 (5'-AGAGTTTGATCATGGCTCAG-3') and PR1 (5'-TACGGTTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3') and its sequence submitted to GenBank (accession number: GU361113). Strain 1404 clustered with the GenBank-derived Brevibacillus brevis strains in the 16S-rDNA-sequence-based phylogenetic tree at 100% bootstrap level. The morphological traits, physiological and biochemical characters of strain 1404 agreed with that of Brevibacillus brevis. Less change in the suppressive ability of antagonist against growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was observed during four continuous transfers on artificial media. The average control efficacy of the strain was 64. 9 % against the disease 20 days after the antagonist application. Strain 1404 was identified as Brevibacillus brevis based on its morphological traits, phyiological and biochemical characters as well as 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The antagonist was approved to be a promising biocontrol agent. This is the first report of

  7. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Felderhoff, Terry; M McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-07-07

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. Copyright © 2016 Felderhoff et al.

  8. Foliar Application of Extract from an Azalomycin-Producing Streptomyces malaysiensis Strain MJM1968 Suppresses Yam Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Sasikumar; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Woh

    2016-06-28

    Yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C.g) is the most devastating disease of yam (Dioscorea sp.). In the present study, we evaluated the culture filtrate extract (CFE) of azalomycin-producing Streptomyces malaysiensis strain MJM1968 for the control of yam anthracnose. MJM1968 showed strong antagonistic activity against C.g in vitro. Furthermore, the MJM1968 CFE was tested for inhibition of spore germination in C.g, where it completely inhibited spore germination at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. To assess the in planta efficacy of the CFE and spores of MJM1968 against C.g, a detached leaf bioassay was conducted, which showed both the treatments suppressed anthracnose development on detached yam leaves. Furthermore, a greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the CFE from MJM1968 as a fungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. The CFE non-treated plants showed a disease severity of >92% after 90 days of artificial inoculation with C.g, whereas the disease severity of CFE-treated and benomyl-treated yam plants was reduced to 26% and 15%, respectively, after 90 days. Analysis of the yam tubers from the CFE-treated and non-treated groups showed that tubers from the CFE-treated plants were larger than that of non-treated plants, which produced abnormal smaller tubers typical of anthracnose. This study demonstrated the utility of the CFE from S. malaysiensis strain MJM1968 as a biofungicide for the control of yam anthracnose.

  9. Characterization and Pathogenicity of New Record of Anthracnose on Various Chili Varieties Caused by Colletotrichum scovillei in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Lim, GiTaek; Jang, Hyun A; Oh, Sang-Keun

    2017-09-01

    The anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species is well-known as a major plant pathogen that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper and reduces its marketability. Thirty-five isolates representing species of Colletotrichum were obtained from chili fruits showing anthracnose disease symptoms in Chungcheongnam-do and Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea. These 35 isolates were characterized according to morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence data of internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, and β-tubulin. The combined dataset shows that all of these 35 isolates were identified as C. scovillei and morphological characteristics were directly correlated with the nucleotide sequence data. Notably, these isolates were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose caused by C. scovillei on pepper in Korea. Forty cultivars were used to investigate the pathogenicity and to identify the possible source of resistance. The result reveals that all of chili cultivars used in this study are susceptible to C. scovillei .

  10. Biocontrol of Postharvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit with Debaryomyces Nepalensis and Effects on Storage Quality and Postharvest Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Wan, Bin; Feng, Shuhan; Shao, Yuanzhi

    2015-11-01

    Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Aflatoxin B 1 production in chillies ( Capsicum annuum L.) kept in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to isolate and enumerate the mycoflora invading chillies kept in cold storage since May, 1999. Chilli pods were collected from the cold stores at monthly intervals for a period of one year between December 2002 to November 2003. The incidence of molds on unsterilized as well as surface ...

  12. Real-Time PCR Detection of Dogwood Anthracnose Fungus in Historical Herbarium Specimens from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Masuya, Hayato; Zhang, Jian; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species (dogwoods) are popular ornamental trees and important understory plants in natural forests of northern hemisphere. Dogwood anthracnose, one of the major diseases affecting the native North American Cornus species, such as C. florida, is caused by the fungal pathogen Discula destructiva. The origin of this fungus is not known, but it is hypothesized that it was imported to North America with its host plants from Asia. In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to detect D. destructiva in dried herbarium and fresh Cornus samples. Several herbarium specimens from Japan and China were detected positive for D. destructiva, some of which were collected before the first report of the dogwood anthracnose in North America. Our findings further support that D. destructiva was introduced to North America from Asia where the fungus likely does not cause severe disease.

  13. Genome-wide association mapping of anthracnose (Collectotrichum sublineolun) resistance in U.S. sorghum association panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The productivity and profitability of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is reduced by susceptibility to fungal diseases such as anthracnose, which causes yield loss of both grain and biomass. A limited number of resistant accessions are present in temperate adapted germplasm, while resistant sou...

  14. QTL mapping of anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) resistance in a cross between Capsicum annuum and C-chinense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Finkers, H.J.; Sanjaya, L.; Groenwold, R.

    2004-01-01

    Anthracnose fruit rot is an economically important disease that affects pepper production in Indonesia. Strong resistance to two causal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici, was found in an accession of Capsicum chinense. The inheritance of this resistance was studied in an F2

  15. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Hyoun Seo

    Full Text Available Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease.

  16. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Sangkyu; Park, Soomin; Oh, Byung-Jun; Back, Kyoungwhan; Han, Oksoo; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease.

  17. Evaluation of a prebiotic and potassium for the control of anthracnose in the tree tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Luengas Gómez, Carlos Alberto; Roa Vásquez, Maro David; Orrego Vásquez, Juan David

    2012-01-01

    Anthracnose is the most limiting disease in the production of the tree tomato; losses may exceed 50% if control measures are not appropriate. For this reason, farmers use continuous applications of fungicides. Prebiotics have been successfully tested in animals and humans in order to stimulate the growth of intestinal flora and fauna to improve digestion, achieve greater increases in weight, reduce infections and stimulate the immune system. In plants, there are no data on their effectiveness...

  18. Mechanisms governing the responses to anthracnose pathogen in Juglans spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollegioni, P.; Linden, van der C.G.; Belisario, A.; Gras, M.; Anselmi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Juglans nigra and Juglans regia are two highly economically important species for wood and fruit production that are susceptible to anthracnose caused by Gnomonia leptostyla. The identification of genotypes resistant to anthracnose could represent a valid alternative to agronomic and chemical

  19. Utilization of chitinolytic bacterial isolates to control anthracnose of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colletotrichum spp. are causal agents of anthracnose in many plant species. Biological control of Colletotrichum spp. utilizing bacterial isolates and fungi has been reported. However, chitinolytic bacterial isolate utilization to control anthracnose of cocoa leaf has not seemingly been studied yet. In this study, we used ...

  20. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Huaan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM, and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA

  1. Genetics and mapping of a new anthracnose resistance locus in Andean common bean Paloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Castro, Sandra Aparecida; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Gilio, Thiago Alexandre Santana; Lacanallo, Giselly Figueiredo; Valentini, Giseli; da Silva Ramos Martins, Vanusa; Song, Qijian; Galván, Marta Zulema; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial Antonio

    2017-04-18

    The Andean cultivar Paloma is resistant to Mesoamerican and Andean races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the fungal pathogen that causes the destructive anthracnose disease in common bean. Remarkably, Paloma is resistant to Mesoamerican races 2047 and 3481, which are among the most virulent races of the anthracnose pathogen. Most genes conferring anthracnose resistance in common bean are overcome by these races. The genetic mapping and the relationship between the resistant Co-Pa gene of Paloma and previously characterized anthracnose resistance genes can be a great contribution for breeding programs. The inheritance of resistance studies for Paloma was performed in F 2 population from the cross Paloma (resistant) × Cornell 49-242 (susceptible) inoculated with race 2047, and in F 2 and F 2:3 generations from the cross Paloma (resistant) × PI 207262 (susceptible) inoculated with race 3481. The results of these studies demonstrated that a single dominant gene confers the resistance in Paloma. Allelism tests performed with multiple races of C. lindemuthianum showed that the resistance gene in Paloma, provisionally named Co-Pa, is independent from the anthracnose resistance genes Co-1, Co-2, Co-3, Co-4, Co-5, Co-6, Co-12, Co-13, Co-14, Co-15 and Co-16. Bulk segregant analysis using the SNP chip BARCBean6K_3 positioned the approximate location of Co-Pa in the lower arm of chromosome Pv01. Further mapping analysis located the Co-Pa gene at a 390 kb region of Pv01 flanked by SNP markers SS82 and SS83 at a distance of 1.3 and 2.1 cM, respectively. The results presented here showed that Paloma cultivar has a new dominant gene conferring resistance to anthracnose, which is independent from those genes previously described. The linkage between the Co-Pa gene and the SS82 and SS83 SNP markers will be extremely important for marker-assisted introgression of the gene into elite cultivars in order to enhance resistance.

  2. Impacts Seed Technology Improvement on Economic Aspects of Chilli Production in Central Java - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production, including that of chillies, plays an important role in agricultural sector and rural economic development worldwide. This is because of greater farm productivity with regard to vegetables than cereal and staple crops. This paper analyses the impact of seed technology development on the economic aspects of chilli production in Central Java. Particular attention is paid to improved varieties of chilli. Potential consequences of seed technology development are discussed. Data of this study are compiled from surveys conducted in three selected chilli producing regions in 2010-2012. The results show that the major varieties of chilli grown by surveyed farmers are grouped into three broad types: hybrids, local and improved open pollinated varieties. The chilli varieties farmers selected varied according to location and cropping season. In the dry season, farmers grew similar proportions of hybrid, local, and open pollinated types. Nevertheless, there were differences among the survey sites. Farmers grew different varieties to exploit seasonal microclimates and market preferences. Mostly, farmers selected varieties for economic motives. The consequence of growing hybrids was less use of agrochemicals, particularly pesticides, than for other varieties. Overall, they show the best economic performance in the study site. Development of seed technology should consider agro-ecological and economic aspects to obtain better outcomes. Private sector and national research institutions need to collaborate more to utilise available genetic resources to produce better varieties of chilli.

  3. Antifungal (in vitro activity of plant extracts for the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal effect of five plant extracts: nettle (Urtica dioica, chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile, frame (Artemisia vulgaris, lavender (Lavandula officinalis and chamico (Datura ferox were evaluated at laboratory level for control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum of the tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, using two methods of extraction (maceration and steam trapping, in the results obtained, statistical differences were observed in the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungus, the treatment with lavender extract obtained by the steam trapping method presented the greatest efficiency for anthracnose control (66.23%. The other treatments tested also showed effectiveness against the anthracnose pathogen in the following order of inhibition: chamomile (52.78%, frame (21.63, chamico (24.14%, nettle (12.94, the ability of various species to inhibit certain fungal diseases, taking into account the different content of secondary metabolites that have each of the plant species, constituting new clean production alternatives that reduce the use of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases.

  4. Chitosan controls postharvest anthracnose in bell pepper by activating defense-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Madushani; Ali, Asgar; Maqbool, Mehdi; Alderson, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Anthracnose, a postharvest disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici is the most devastating disease of bell pepper that causes great economic losses especially in tropical climates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of chitosan (low molecular weight from crab shell, Mw: 50 kDa and 75-85 % deacetylated) against anthracnose by inducing defense-related enzymes. The concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan were used to control the fungus in vitro and postharvest. There was a reduction in C. capsici mycelial growth and the highest chitosan concentration (2.0 %) reduced the growth by 70 % after 7 days incubation. In germination test, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan reduced spore germination in C. capsici between 80 % and 84 %, respectively. In postharvest trial the concentration of 1.5 % decreased the anthracnose severity in pepper fruit by approximately 76 % after 28 days of storage (10 ± 1 °C; 80 % RH). For enzymatic activities, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan increased the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolics in inoculated bell pepper during storage. Based on these results, the chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. capsici, as well as potential to induce resistance on bell pepper.

  5. Identification of sources of resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nicoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Adoption of resistant cultivars is the primary measure used to control anthracnose stalk rot. The goal of this study was to identify maize-resistant genotypes to anthracnose stalk rot, which are similar to the hybrid 2B710. Experiments were performed at Embrapa Maize and Sorghum experimental fields in Brazil. The first experimental trial evaluated 234 maize lines as well as two commercials hybrids, BRS1010 (susceptible and 2B710 (resistant. Artificial inoculations were performed with a strain at the blister (R2 phase, and evaluation of disease severity was performed after 30 days. The second experimental trial evaluated 48 maize lines and hybrids, inoculated with two Colletotrichum graminicola strains. In the first trial, eight resistance groups were formed, and the last lines were more resistant, as was the hybrid 2B710, with values between 11.50% and 23.0% of severity. In the second trial, there was an interaction between the two factors, lines and isolates, and the lines often showed the same reaction features as those obtained in the first trial. However, the disease severity was higher for most lines, even when using other isolates. These lines with effective levels of resistance could be used in future studies of inheritance, in programs to develop hybrids, and to identify molecular markers associated with resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize.

  6. Postharvest control of anthracnose lesions and its causative agent, Colletotrichum musae by some oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwana, Humaira

    2018-03-31

    Anthracnose of banana is incited by Colletotrichum  musae. It is recognized as one the most destructive diseases of mature and immature banana fruits, resulting in huge economic losses all over the world. Present research deals with screening some oils both in vitro and in vivo for their antifungal activity against C.musae. Clove oil (0.1µl/ml) completely arrested the conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. musae. Fenugreek and almond oil exhibited significant inhibition of mycelial growth, 61% and 57% at a concentration of 2µl/ml. However, olive oil was least inhibitory on the test fungi. Clove oil also a showed marked reduction in anthracnose lesions on banana fruits, thereby suggesting disease control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged mycelium and conidia. FTIR studies show the presence of important bands representing phenols, terpenes, aldehydes, and ketones. Based on our findings; clove, fenugreek and almond oil demonstrated fungicidal and fungistatic activities against anthracnose pathogen. Hence, these oils can be considered as potential alternatives to chemical treatments.

  7. A Fungal Effector With Host Nuclear Localization and DNA-Binding Properties Is Required for Maize Anthracnose Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Walter A; Sanz-Martín, José M; Rech, Gabriel E; Armijos-Jaramillo, Vinicio D; Rivera, Lina P; Echeverria, María Mercedes; Díaz-Mínguez, José M; Thon, Michael R; Sukno, Serenella A

    2016-02-01

    Plant pathogens have the capacity to manipulate the host immune system through the secretion of effectors. We identified 27 putative effector proteins encoded in the genome of the maize anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola that are likely to target the host's nucleus, as they simultaneously contain sequence signatures for secretion and nuclear localization. We functionally characterized one protein, identified as CgEP1. This protein is synthesized during the early stages of disease development and is necessary for anthracnose development in maize leaves, stems, and roots. Genetic, molecular, and biochemical studies confirmed that this effector targets the host's nucleus and defines a novel class of double-stranded DNA-binding protein. We show that CgEP1 arose from a gene duplication in an ancestor of a lineage of monocot-infecting Colletotrichum spp. and has undergone an intense evolution process, with evidence for episodes of positive selection. We detected CgEP1 homologs in several species of a grass-infecting lineage of Colletotrichum spp., suggesting that its function may be conserved across a large number of anthracnose pathogens. Our results demonstrate that effectors targeted to the host nucleus may be key elements for disease development and aid in the understanding of the genetic basis of anthracnose development in maize plants.

  8. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  9. Thyme oil vapour and modified atmosphere packaging reduce anthracnose incidence and maintain fruit quality in avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Mafune, Mpho; Sivakumar, Dharini; Soundy, Puffy

    2013-09-01

    Postharvest application of prochloraz fungicide is commercially practiced to control anthracnose, a postharvest disease in avocado. Increasing consumer concern regarding food safety and demand for organically produced fruits make it necessary to search for natural environmentally friendly alternative products and processes for the fruit industry. A combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; ∼8% CO₂, 2% O₂) plus thyme oil (TO) was evaluated on the incidence and severity of anthracnose, physiological disorders (grey pulp, vascular browning), fruit quality parameters (L*, h°, firmness, weight loss) and sensory parameters (taste, texture, flavour and overall acceptance), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in avocados ('Fuerte' and 'Hass' cultivars) held at 10 °C cold storage for 18 days and thereafter, ripened at 25 °C for 5-10 days. Stand-alone MAP, commercial treatment (prochloraz 0.05%) and untreated (control) fruit were included for comparison. MAP + TO treatment significantly (P anthracnose, grey pulp, vascular browning, weight loss and loss of fruit firmness, and showed acceptable taste, flavour, texture and higher overall acceptance, increased PAL activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity, after ripening at 25 °C followed by cold storage at 10 °C. This investigation recommends MAP + TO combination treatment as a suitable alternative to the currently adopted prochloraz application. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  11. Molecular identification of fungi isolated from bean tissues with anthracnose symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanegas Berrouet, Katherin M; Gutierrez Sanchez, Pablo A; Marin Montoya, Mauricio A

    2014-01-01

    In this work, endophytic fungi from leaves and pods of bean presenting anthracnose symptoms were isolated from plants collected at different municipalities in the province of Antioquia (Colombia). Isolates were identified by sequencing the RDNA its regions together with the examination of reproductive structures during sporulation in culture media. Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose was isolated in all samples showing symptoms of this disease. These results were confirmed by duplex PCR using the specific primers CD1/CD2 and CY1/CY2. Additionally, 17 endophytic fungi were obtained. Fourteen isolates did not sporulate in culture media (Mycelia sterilia) but were identified by phylogenetic analysis of the regions as the Ascomycetes: Leptosphaerulina (3), Diaporthe (3), Gibberella (1), Plectosphaerella (1) and Biscogniauxia (1) and the Mitosporic genera phoma (2), Alternaria (2) and Stemphylium (1) Three isolates were identified combining morphological and molecular analysis as Fusarium (2) and Curvularia lunata (1). This work increases our knowledge of the mycobiota of legume plants and will serve as support of future studies aimed at determining the effect of these fungi on the development of anthracnose as well as other problems affecting the bean crop.

  12. Chemical analysis and toxicity of seaweed extracts with inhibitory activity against tropical fruit anthracnose fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Levi Pompermayer; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Jamal, Claudia Masrouah; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Colepicolo Neto, Pio; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Yokoya, Nair S

    2014-07-01

    Banana and papaya are among the most important crops in the tropics, with a value amounting to millions of dollars per year. However, these fruits suffer significant losses due to anthracnose, a fungal disease. It is well known that certain seaweed extracts possess antifungal activity, but no published data appear to exist on the practical application of this property. In the present study, five organic Brazilian seaweed extracts were screened for their activity against banana and papaya anthracnose fungi. Furthermore, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of the extracts were evaluated by the brine shrimp lethality assay and the Allium cepa root-tip mutagenicity test respectively, while their major components were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Strong fungus-inhibitory effects of Ochtodes secundiramea and Laurencia dendroidea extracts were observed on both papaya (100 and 98% respectively) and banana (89 and 78% respectively). This impressive activity could be associated with halogenated terpenes, the major components of both extracts. Only Hypnea musciformis extract showed cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. The results of this study suggest the potential use of seaweed extracts as a source of antifungal agents with low toxicity to control anthracnose in papaya and banana during storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Antifungal activity of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in postharvest mango fruit and its possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangbin; Lei, Huanhuan; Ma, Xiuyan; Lai, Tongfei; Song, Hongmiao; Shi, Xuequn; Li, Jiangkuo

    2017-01-16

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most important postharvest diseases in mango fruit, often causing huge economic losses. In this study, the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose in postharvest mango fruit and the mechanisms involved were investigated. 1-MCP induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, damaged the mitochondria and destroyed the integrity of plasma membrane of spores of C. gloeosporioides, significantly suppressing spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. 1-MCP also decreased the decay incidence and lesion expansion of mango fruit caused by C. gloeosporioides. For the first time this study demonstrated that 1-MCP suppressed anthracnose of postharvest mango fruit by directly inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides, thus providing a promising strategy for disease control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An efficient method for evaluating black walnut for resistance to walnut anthracnose in filed plots and the identification of resistant genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.E. Woeste; W.F. Beineke

    2001-01-01

    Black walnut is native to the eastern USA and prized for its high-quality timber. Walnut anthracnose, the most important foliar disease of black walnut, is caused by Gnomonia leptostyla. There is no germplasm available that is resistant to the disease. Ramets of 42 black walnut clones, comprising about one-third of the Midwestern USA black walnut...

  15. Assessment of sorghum germplasm from Burkina Faso and South Africa to identify new sources of resistance to grain mold and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is an important worldwide crop whose yield can be significantly reduced by anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) and grain mold diseases (multiple fungi). The identification of new genetic sources of resistance to both diseases is imperative for the development of new sorghum varieties. T...

  16. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli Chen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY. The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines.

  17. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingli; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lanfen; Mantri, Nitin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY). The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines.

  18. Phylogeny and variability of Colletotrichum truncatum associated with soybean anthracnose in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogério, F; Ciampi-Guillardi, M; Barbieri, M C G; Bragança, C A D; Seixas, C D S; Almeida, A M R; Massola, N S

    2017-02-01

    Fungal diseases are among the main factors limiting high yields of soybean crop. Colletotrichum isolates from soybean plants with anthracnose symptoms were studied from different regions and time periods in Brazil using molecular, morphological and pathogenic analyses. Bayesian phylogenetic inference of GAPDH, HIS3 and ITS-5.8S rDNA sequences, the morphologies of colony and conidia, and inoculation tests on seeds and seedlings were performed. All isolates clustered only with Colletotrichum truncatum species in three well-separated clusters. Intraspecific genetic diversity revealed 27 distinct haplotypes in 51 fungal isolates; some of which were identical to C. truncatum sequences from other regions around the world, while others were related to alternative hosts. Conidia were falcate, hyaline, unicellular and aseptate, formed in acervuli, with variable dimensions. Despite being pathogenic to seedlings by both inoculation methods, variation was observed in the aggressiveness of the tested isolates, which was not correlated with genetic variation. The identification of C. truncatum in the sampled isolates was evidenced as being the only causal agent of soybean anthracnose in Brazil until 2007, with relevant genetic, morphological and pathogenic variability as well as a broad geographical origin. The wide distribution of the predominant C. truncatum haplotype indicated the existence of a highly efficient mechanism of pathogen dispersal over long distances, reinforcing the role of seeds as the primary source of disease inoculum. The characterization and distribution of Colletotrichum species in soybean-producing regions in Brazil is fundamental for understanding the disease epidemiology and for ensuring effective control strategies against anthracnose. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Protective Activity of the Mixtures of Pine Oil and Copper Hydroxide against Bacterial Spot and Anthracnose on Red Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Soh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to examine the protective activities of the mixtures of pine oil and copper hydroxide against bacterial spot and anthracnose on pepper plants. As for bacterial spot, the treatment of pine oil alone displayed high disease incidence (59.6% and low protective effect (28.9%. In comparison, the treatments of mixtures and copper hydroxide alone showed protective activities of 66.8-76.1%. The mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 suppressed the most effectively bacterial spot on pepper. On the other hand, the mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 also showed the strongest protective effect against pepper anthracnose among the 4 treatments tested; its disease incidence and disease control value were 49.8% and 41.7%, respectively. The other treatments showed low protective activities with control values of 7.4-17.1%. These results suggested that the mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 can be used for the environmental-friendly disease control of bacterial spot and anthracnose on pepper.

  20. Evaluation of a Pomegranate Peel Extract as an Alternative Means to Control Olive Anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangallo, Sonia; Nicosia, Maria G Li Destri; Agosteo, Giovanni E; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Romeo, Flora V; Cacciola, Santa O; Rapisarda, Paolo; Schena, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Olive anthracnose is caused by different species of Colletotrichum spp. and may be regarded as the most damaging disease of olive fruit worldwide, greatly affecting quality and quantity of the productions. A pomegranate peel extract (PGE) proved very effective in controlling the disease. The extract had a strong in vitro fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum sensu stricto, was very effective in both preventive and curative trials with artificially inoculated fruit, and induced resistance in treated olive tissues. In field trials, PGE was significantly more effective than copper, which is traditionally used to control the disease. The highest level of protection was achieved by applying the extract in the early ascending phase of the disease outbreaks because natural rots were completely inhibited with PGE at 12 g/liter and were reduced by 98.6 and by 93.0% on plants treated with PGE at 6 and 3 g/liter, respectively. Two treatments carried out 30 and 15 days before the expected epidemic outbreak reduced the incidence of the disease by 77.6, 57.0, and 51.8%, depending on the PGE concentration. The analysis of epiphytic populations showed a strong antimicrobial activity of PGE, which sharply reduced both fungal and bacterial populations. Because PGE was obtained from a natural matrix using safe chemicals and did not have any apparent phytotoxic effect on treated olive fruit, it may be regarded as a safe and effective natural antifungal preparation to control olive anthracnose and improve olive productions.

  1. Interaction Between An Insect Pseudotheraptus devastans dist And A Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz On Setting Of Anthracnose On Cassava Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makambila, C.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of an insect Pseudotheraptus devastans and of a fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on cassava anthracnose development has been studied. Disease setting is made in two stages : realization of wounds on cassava cuttings by Pseudotheraptus devastans, then invasion of those ones by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Infection also needs a high level of relative humidity (87 % and a favourable temperature. Optimal values are situated between 24 and 28°C.

  2. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Some Commercial Samples of Chilli Peppers from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Guadalupe Troconis-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum provides antioxidant compounds, such as phenolics and carotenoids, into the diet. In Mexico, there is a wide diversity of species and varieties of chilli peppers, a fruit which has local cultural and gastronomic importance. In the present study, the relationship of the carotenoid and phenolic profiles with the RAPD fingerprint of three different commercial cultivars of chilli peppers of seven regions of Mexico was investigated. Through RAPD, the species of chilli were differentiated by means of different primers (OPE-18, MFG-17, MFG-18, C51, and C52. The genetic distance found with OPE 18 was in the order of 2.6. The observed differences were maintained when the chromatographic profile of carotenoids, and the molecular markers were analyzed, which suggest a close relationship between carotenoids and the genetic profile. While the chromatographic profile of phenols and the molecular markers were unable to differentiate between genotypes of chilli peppers. In addition, by using infrared spectroscopy and statistical PCA, differences explained by geographic origin were found. Thus, this method could be an alternative for identification of chilli species with respect to their geographic origin.

  3. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  4. Evaluation of a prebiotic and potassium for the control of anthracnose in the tree tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Luengas-Gómez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is the most limiting disease in the production of the tree tomato; losses may exceed 50% if control measures are not appropriate. For this reason, farmers use continuous applications of fungicides. Prebiotics have been successfully tested in animals and humans in order to stimulate the growth of intestinal flora and fauna to improve digestion, achieve greater increases in weight, reduce infections and stimulate the immune system. In plants, there are no data on their effectiveness in disease control, for this reason, this research was conducted on the La Esmeralda farm located in the town of Silvana (Cundinamarca, Colombia; to evaluate the effect of a prebiotic (BioKakimu® and potassium dose on disease control. We determined the incidence and severity of anthracnose, and crop production. We used a complete block design with three replications and twelve treatments, each experimental unit consisted of six plants, for a total of 216 plants and an area of 1,350 m². The crop was 18-months-old and consisted of the common red variety. The results showed that the foliar incidence, severity and production had significant differences between the various treatments, where the prebiotic - K2O interaction showed favorable results for disease management in high doses of prebiotic (6 L ha-1

  5. Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Babak; Mirshekari, Amin; Yahia, Elhadi

    2016-07-01

    There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Occurence of fruit-rot of chilli in sindh and their biomanagement under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Abid, M.; Salam, I. U.; Farzana, A.; Muhammadi; Akbar, M.; Hussain, A.

    2017-01-01

    The fungal pathogens were isolated from the affected samples of Chilli plants collected from different areas of Sindh. The affected fruits/pods of chilli were collected from the centrally located large godowns and small storing units for the identification and isolation of fungi. Fruits/pods were significantly infected by Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. terreus. During the study, it was observed that Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and A. terreus were extensively and intensively infecting the fruit of Chilli crop. Four antagonistic fungi, Gliocladium virens, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Penicillium commune and Trichoderma harzianum were screened against the above mentioned plant pathogenic fungi In vitro which suppressed the growth of pathogenic fungi. In addition, it disclosed that T. harzianum and P. lilacinus were found antagonistic against Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. terreus and A. niger as it resulted a strong suppressive effect on the growth and mycelial development. (author)

  7. Characterisation of colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Sahak, Shamsiah; Zakaria, Maziah; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2009-12-01

    A total of 13 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from different banana cultivars (Musa spp.) with symptoms of anthracnose. Colletotrichum isolates from anthracnose of guava (Psidium guajava) and water apple (Syzygium aqueum) were also included in this study. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, isolates from banana and guava were identified as Colletotrichum musae and from water apple as Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. Isolates of C. musae from banana and guava had similar banding patterns in a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with four random primers, and they clustered together in a UPGMA analysis. C. gloeosporiodes from water apple was clustered in a separate cluster. Based on the present study, C. musae was frequently isolated from anthracnose of different banana cultivars and the RAPD banding patterns of C. musae isolates were highly similar but showed intraspecific variations.

  8. Evaluation of the endophytic nature of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain GYL4 and its efficacy in the control of anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Do; Jeon, Byeong Jun; Han, Jae Woo; Park, Min Young; Kang, Sin Ae; Kim, Beom Seok

    2016-08-01

    Endophytic bacteria are viewed as a potential new source of biofungicides because they have beneficial characteristics as control agents for plant disease. This study was performed to examine the endophytic feature and disease control efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain GYL4 and to identify the antifungal compounds produced by this strain. B. amyloliquefaciens strain GYL4 was isolated from leaf tissue of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.). Anthracnose symptoms were markedly reduced in the leaves of pepper plants colonised by GYL4. An egfp-expressing strain of GYL4 (GYL4-egfp) was constructed and reintroduced into pepper plants, which confirmed its ability to colonise the internal tissues of pepper plants. GYL4-egfp was observed in the root and stem tissues 4 days after treatment and abundantly found in the internal leaf tissue 9 days after treatment. Bacillomycin derivatives purified from the culture extract of GYL4 displayed control efficacy on anthracnose development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chunsim). The present study is the first report on evaluation of the endophytic and systemic nature of B. amyloliquefaciens strain GYL4 and its potential as a biocontrol agent for anthracnose management. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Characterization by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization of Transcripts That Are Differentially Expressed in Leaves of Anthracnose-Resistant Ramie Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuxia, Wang; Jie, Chen; Bo, Wang; Lijun, Liu; Hui, Jiang; Diluo, Tang; Dingxiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of screening putative anthracnose resistance-related genes of ramie ( Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud), a cDNA library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization using anthracnose-resistant cultivar Huazhu no. 4. The cDNAs from Huazhu no. 4, which were infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , were used as the tester and cDNAs from uninfected Huazhu no. 4 as the driver. Sequencing analysis and homology searching showed that these clones represented 132 single genes, which were assigned to functional categories, including 14 putative cellular functions, according to categories established for Arabidopsis . These 132 genes included 35 disease resistance and stress tolerance-related genes including putative heat-shock protein 90, metallothionein, PR-1.2 protein, catalase gene, WRKY family genes, and proteinase inhibitor-like protein. Partial disease-related genes were further analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and RNA gel blot. These expressed sequence tags are the first anthracnose resistance-related expressed sequence tags reported in ramie.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  12. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Hee; Shim, Hongsik; Shin, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2015-06-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control.

  13. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control.

  14. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-10-26

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis.

  15. Epidemiology, pathology and identification of Colletotrichum including a novel species associated with avocado (Persea americana) anthracnose in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gunjan; Maymon, Marcel; Freeman, Stanley

    2017-11-20

    Anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species is a major constraint for the shelf-life and marketability of avocado fruits. To date, only C. gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. aenigma have been reported as pathogens affecting avocado in Israel. This study was conducted to identify and characterize Colletotrichum species associated with avocado anthracnose and to determine their survival on different host-structures in Israel. The pathogen survived and over-wintered mainly on fresh and dry leaves, as well as fresh twigs in the orchard. A collection of 538 Colletotrichum isolates used in this study was initially characterized based on morphology and banding patterns generated according to arbitrarily primed PCR to assess the genetic diversity of the fungal populations. Thereafter, based on multi-locus phylogenetic analyses involving combinations of ITS, act, ApMat, cal, chs1, gapdh, gs, his3, tub2 gene/markers; eight previously described species (C. aenigma, C. alienum, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides sensu stricto, C. karstii, C. nupharicola, C. siamense, C. theobromicola) and a novel species (C. perseae) were identified, as avocado anthracnose pathogens in Israel; and reconfirmed after pathogenicity assays. Colletotrichum perseae sp. nov. and teleomorph of C. aenigma are described along with comprehensive morphological descriptions and illustrations, for the first time in this study.

  16. Expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in avocados fumigated with thyme oil vapours and control of anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Malick; Sivakumar, Dharini; Beukes, Mervyn; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Thyme oil (TO) fumigation (96μll(-1)) to cv. Hass and Ryan avocados significantly reduced anthracnose incidence compared to prochloraz and the untreated control. Also, enhanced activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase were noted in both cultivars. TO fumigation induced the expression of both β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase genes in naturally infected fruit of both cultivars, during storage at 7 or 7.5°C for up to 21d and during subsequent simulated market shelf conditions at 20°C for 5d. However, the impact of TO fumigation on the β-1,3-glucanase gene expression was higher in both cultivars. Higher gene regulation and β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase activities were observed in cv. Ryan compared to Hass. Although TO fumigation significantly reduced anthracnose incidence in both naturally infected cultivars, the inhibitory effect was slightly higher in cv. Ryan than Hass. Thus, postharvest TO fumigation had positive effects on enhancing anthracnose disease resistance during storage and also gave a residual effect during the simulated shelf life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two Brief Interventions to Mitigate a "Chilly Climate" Transform Women's Experience, Relationships, and Achievement in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gregory M.; Logel, Christine; Peach, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Zanna, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized-controlled trial, we tested 2 brief interventions designed to mitigate the effects of a "chilly climate" women may experience in engineering, especially in male-dominated fields. Participants were students entering a selective university engineering program. The "social-belonging intervention" aimed to protect…

  18. An integrated approach for the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Naik, M K; Ajithkumar, K

    2013-02-01

    An integrated approach for management of aflatoxin contamination in chilli was undertaken by evaluating the fungicides, bioagents and plant extracts against Aspergillus flavus under both in vitro and field condition. Maximum inhibition of radial growth (91.1%) was observed with 0.3% mancozeb followed by captan (85.2%). Carbendazim (73%) was effective and superior over other systemic fungicides. A complete inhibition (100%) of A. flavus was observed in neem seed kernel extract (NSKE), nimbicidin and pongamia oil at 5%. An indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens bioagent isolate inhibited (74.9%) the growth of A. flavus over Trichoderma harzianum (70.4%). The superior performing fungicides, plant extracts and bioagents identified under in vitro were used for challenge inoculation on chilli fruits and so also for field evaluation. The captan treated fruits recorded the least infection of A. flavus (1.6%) followed by P. fluorescens (2.0%), NSKE (2.2%) and nimbicidin treated fruits (7.8%) as against control (38.3%). As regards to field evaluation, the least incidence was recorded in NSKE sprayed chilli plot (1.6%) and was on par with captan (2.2%), P. fluorescens (2.4%) and T. harzianum (2.6%) compared to control (7.4%). Hence, a pre-harvest spray of NSKE (5%) or mancozeb (0.3%) or P. fluorescens (1 × 10(8) cfu/ml) 10 days before harvest of chilli is recommended for field level management of aflatoxin.

  19. Physiological mechanism of resistance to anthracnose of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Tea oil camellia (Camellia oleifera) is an important oil-producing plant which is widely distributed ... In this paper, eight different varieties of .... the extract volume (ml) and m represent the quality of fruit coat (g) ..... cycle of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum.

  20. Dogwood Anthracnose and its Spread in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Anderson; John L. Knighten; Keith Langdon; Floyd Hedrix; Ron Roncadori

    In the 15 years since it was first reported in the United States, dogwood anthracnose (caused by Discula destructive sp. nov.) has spread rapidly and caused serious losses among flowering dogwoods (Cornus florida L.), particularly in the South. Infection begins in leaves and spreads to twigs and branches, which dieback. Main-stem infections cause cankers, which kill...

  1. The wheat Lr34 multipathogen resistance gene confers resistance to anthracnose and rust in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnippenkoetter, Wendelin; Lo, Clive; Liu, Guoquan; Dibley, Katherine; Chan, Wai Lung; White, Jodie; Milne, Ricky; Zwart, Alexander; Kwong, Eunjung; Keller, Beat; Godwin, Ian; Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans

    2017-11-01

    The ability of the wheat Lr34 multipathogen resistance gene (Lr34res) to function across a wide taxonomic boundary was investigated in transgenic Sorghum bicolor. Increased resistance to sorghum rust and anthracnose disease symptoms following infection with the biotrophic pathogen Puccinia purpurea and the hemibiotroph Colletotrichum sublineolum, respectively, occurred in transgenic plants expressing the Lr34res ABC transporter. Transgenic sorghum lines that highly expressed the wheat Lr34res gene exhibited immunity to sorghum rust compared to the low-expressing single copy Lr34res genotype that conferred partial resistance. Pathogen-induced pigmentation mediated by flavonoid phytoalexins was evident on transgenic sorghum leaves following P. purpurea infection within 24-72 h, which paralleled Lr34res gene expression. Elevated expression of flavone synthase II, flavanone 4-reductase and dihydroflavonol reductase genes which control the biosynthesis of flavonoid phytoalexins characterized the highly expressing Lr34res transgenic lines 24-h post-inoculation with P. purpurea. Metabolite analysis of mesocotyls infected with C. sublineolum showed increased levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidin metabolites were associated with Lr34res expression, concomitant with reduced symptoms of anthracnose. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Chilli consumption and the incidence of overweight and obesity in a Chinese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z; Riley, M; Taylor, A W; Page, A

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of spicy food intake has recently been associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the Chinese population. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association between chilli intake and the incidence of overweight/obesity in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20-75 years in the China Health and Nutrition Survey were followed between 1991 and 2011. Dietary data were collected during home visits using a 3-day food record in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011. Cox regression was used in the analysis. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index ⩾25 kg m - 2 . A total 12 970 adults were followed for a median of 9 years. During 126 884 person-years of follow-up, 3203 subjects developed overweight/obesity. The absolute incidence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.4, 22.3, 24.4 and 20.5 per 1000 person-years among those who consumed no chilli or 1-20, 20.1-50, ⩾50.1 g per day, respectively. Chilli consumption was therefore inversely associated with the incidence of overweight/obesity. After adjusting for age, gender, energy and fat intake, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity, those whose cumulative average chilli intake was 0, 1-20, 20.1-50 and ⩾50.1 g per day had a hazard ratio for overweight/obesity of 1.00, 0.81 (95% confidence interval=0.73-0.89), 0.77 (0.69-0.86) and 0.73 (0.63-0.84); P for trend overweight/obesity. Chilli intake is inversely associated with the risk of becoming overweight/obese in Chinese adults.

  3. Preparation of anti-Sudan red monoclonal antibody and development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Sudan red in chilli jam and chilli oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyang; Yi, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wan, Yuping; Feng, Caiwei; Wang, Shanliang; Lu, Xiao; Xi, Rimo

    2010-10-01

    Sudan dyes are banned to be used in food additives because of the carcinogenicity of their metabolites. A rapid and sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect the residues of Sudan dyes. Novel immunogen and coating antigen were synthesized via glutaraldehyde linking. The hapten-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was applied as immunogen and the hapten-ovalbumin (OVA) was served as coating antigen. The monoclonal antibody obtained showed high sensitivity to Sudan I with an IC(50) value of 1.7 μg L(-1) in buffer and was suitable to detect the residues of Sudan red in food products. The specificity of the assay was studied by measuring cross-reactivity of the antibody with the structurally related compounds of Sudan II (red (120%). Chilli jam and chilli oil samples spiked with Sudan dyes were analyzed by the method. The detection limit (LOD) of the ELISA method applied in chilli jam and chilli oil was 9.0 μg L(-1) and 19.6 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery rates of Sudan-I in chilli oil and chilli jam were in the range of 80%-110% with coefficients of variation <25%. The intra-assay variation and inter-assay variation in buffer were both <9%.

  4. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  5. Are duplicated genes responsible for anthracnose resistance in common bean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Larissa Carvalho; Nalin, Rafael Storto; Ramalho, Magno Antonio Patto; de Souza, Elaine Aparecida

    2017-01-01

    The race 65 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, etiologic agent of anthracnose in common bean, is distributed worldwide, having great importance in breeding programs for anthracnose resistance. Several resistance alleles have been identified promoting resistance to this race. However, the variability that has been detected within race has made it difficult to obtain cultivars with durable resistance, because cultivars may have different reactions to each strain of race 65. Thus, this work aimed at studying the resistance inheritance of common bean lines to different strains of C. lindemuthianum, race 65. We used six C. lindemuthianum strains previously characterized as belonging to the race 65 through the international set of differential cultivars of anthracnose and nine commercial cultivars, adapted to the Brazilian growing conditions and with potential ability to discriminate the variability within this race. To obtain information on the resistance inheritance related to nine commercial cultivars to six strains of race 65, these cultivars were crossed two by two in all possible combinations, resulting in 36 hybrids. Segregation in the F2 generations revealed that the resistance to each strain is conditioned by two independent genes with the same function, suggesting that they are duplicated genes, where the dominant allele promotes resistance. These results indicate that the specificity between host resistance genes and pathogen avirulence genes is not limited to races, it also occurs within strains of the same race. Further research may be carried out in order to establish if the alleles identified in these cultivars are different from those described in the literature.

  6. The impact of weather conditions on response of sorghum genotypes to anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainfall is a major climatic factor influencing anthracnose development and in this study, 68 sorghum accessions were evaluated for anthracnose resistance under dry and wet growing conditions at the Texas A&M Agricultural Experiment Station, near College Station, Texas. Accessions, planted in a ran...

  7. Empowerment Of Farmer Group In Improving Chilli Farming Income In Kerinci District, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Karim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the agricultural development is to raise the quality of human resources and the livelihood of farmers and their families. The role of farmer groups are very important in supporting the agricultural intensification program, but their ability to adopt new technologies are still very limited. Base on these facts then problems of this research is role of the chilli farmers group empowerment in improving the farming revenues.The research was carried out in the Air Hangat Timur Subdistrict, Kerinci District, many farmers who insist the chili farming traditionally, they have not implemented the recommended agrotechnologies package. The number of samples as much as two groups of farmers, including 28 farmers from the Pinang-Jaya farmers group and 17 farmers from Usaha-Sepakat farmer groups. To find out the improvement level of farmers ability in improving farmer income, it is conducted the Coefficient Spearman test.The results showed that the ability of chilli agrotechnology implementation is included in the category of “intermediate”. There is a strong relationship between farmer age, educational level, experience farming and the number of family member with the farmer capability in implementing chilli agrotechnologies. Keywords: farmer group, chili farming, farming income

  8. Power, heat and chilliness with natural gas - fuel cells and air conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krein, Stephan; Ruehling, Karin

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative concept of the supply with power, heat and chilliness will realise in the new Malteser-hospital in Kamenz. The core of this demonstration-plant are a fuel cell, an adsorption cooling machine as well as multi-solar collectors. The fuel cell has two goals. Primary it produces power for the own demand. The selected dimension guarantees, that the power will consume nearly continuously. Secondly the produced heat of the fuel cell (and the solar-heat too) will use for heating and preparation of warm water. In the summer, the heat will use for the adsorption cooling machine, which produces chilliness for air-conditioning. The advantage in the face of common concepts of combining power and heat is the high-efficiently use of the fuel-energy for electric power generation on the one hand. Fuel cells work with high efficiency also at partial load. On the other hand, with the adsorption cooling machine the produced heat of fuel cell and multi-solar collectors can be used also in the summer. First experiences with this concept show, that an optimised co-operation of the components with an adaptive, self-learning control system based on the weather forecast as well as various storages for heat and chilliness can be achieve. A continuously operation, high fuel utilisation and reduced environmental pollution can be demonstrated. (author)

  9. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Fruits of Asian Pear Tree Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Park, Yeong Seob

    2007-12-01

    Anthracnose symptoms often occurred on fruits of Asian pear trees grown in Anseong, Naju, Seonghwan and Pyeongtaek in Korea during the harvesting period from 2000 to 2005. A total of 28 isolates of Colletotrichum sp. were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms. All the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of the fungus were tested for pathogenicity to fruits of Asian pear tree by artificial inoculation. All the isolates induced anthracnose symptoms on the fruits by wound inoculation but not by unwound inoculation. The anthracnose symptoms induced by artificial inoculation were similar to those observed in the orchard. This is the first report of anthracnose of Asian pear tree caused by Colletotrichum acutatum.

  11. Variability in Susceptibility to Anthracnose in the World Collection of Olive Cultivars of Cordoba (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Xaviér, Carlos J; Viruega, José R; Roca, Luis F; Caballero, Juan; Trapero, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose of olive ( Olea europaea ssp. europaea L.), caused by Colletotrichum species, is a serious disease causing fruit rot and branch dieback, whose epidemics are highly dependent on cultivar susceptibility and environmental conditions. Over a period of 10 years, there have been three severe epidemics in Andalusia (southern Spain) that allowed us to complete the assessment of the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Córdoba, one of the most important cultivar collections worldwide.A total of 308 cultivars from 21 countries were evaluated, mainly Spain (174 cvs.), Syria (29 cvs.), Italy (20 cvs.), Turkey (15 cvs.), and Greece (16 cvs.). Disease assessments were performed using a 0-10 rating scale, specifically developed to estimate the incidence of symptomatic fruit in the tree canopy. Also, the susceptibility of five reference cultivars was confirmed by artificial inoculation. Because of the direct relationship between the maturity of the fruit and their susceptibility to the pathogen, evaluations were performed at the end of fruit ripening, which forced coupling assessments according to the maturity state of the trees. By applying the cluster analysis to the 308 cultivars, these were classified as follows: 66 cvs. highly susceptible (21.4%), 83 cvs. susceptible (26.9%), 66 cvs. moderately susceptible (21.4%), 61 cvs. resistant (19.8%), and 32 cvs. highly resistant (10.4%). Representative cultivars of these five categories are "Ocal," "Lechín de Sevilla," "Arbequina," "Picual," and "Frantoio," respectively. With some exceptions, such as cvs. Arbosana, Empeltre and Picual, most of the Spanish cultivars, such as "Arbequina," "Cornicabra," "Hojiblanca," "Manzanilla de Sevilla," "Morisca," "Picudo," "Farga," and "Verdial de Huévar" are included in the categories of moderately susceptible, susceptible or highly susceptible. The phenotypic evaluation of anthracnose reaction is a limiting factor for the selection of olive cultivars by farmers, technicians, and breeders.

  12. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the scab and spot anthracnose fungus Elsinoë (Myriangiales, Dothideomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X L; Barreto, R W; Groenewald, J Z; Bezerra, J D P; Pereira, O L; Cheewangkoon, R; Mostert, L; Tian, C M; Crous, P W

    2017-06-01

    Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë -host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose. Additionally the infected plants may also show mild to severe distortions of infected organs. Isolation of Elsinoë in pure culture can be very challenging and examination of specimens collected in the field is often frustrating because of the lack of fertile structures. Current criteria for species recognition and host specificity in Elsinoë are unclear due to overlapping morphological characteristics, and the lack of molecular and pathogenicity data. In the present study we revised the taxonomy of Elsinoë based on DNA sequence and morphological data derived from 119 isolates, representing 67 host genera from 17 countries, including 64 ex-type cultures. Combined analyses of ITS, LSU, rpb2 and TEF1-α DNA sequence data were used to reconstruct the backbone phylogeny of the genus Elsinoë . Based on the single nomenclature for fungi, 26 new combinations are proposed in Elsinoë for species that were originally described in Sphaceloma . A total of 13 species are epitypified with notes on their taxonomy and phylogeny. A further eight new species are introduced, leading to a total of 75 Elsinoë species supported by molecular data in the present study. For the most part species of Elsinoë appear to be host specific, although the majority of the species treated are known only from a few isolates, and further collections and pathogenicity studies will be required to reconfirm this conclusion.

  13. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the scab and spot anthracnose fungus Elsinoë (Myriangiales, Dothideomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.L. Fan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë-host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose. Additionally the infected plants may also show mild to severe distortions of infected organs. Isolation of Elsinoë in pure culture can be very challenging and examination of specimens collected in the field is often frustrating because of the lack of fertile structures. Current criteria for species recognition and host specificity in Elsinoë are unclear due to overlapping morphological characteristics, and the lack of molecular and pathogenicity data. In the present study we revised the taxonomy of Elsinoë based on DNA sequence and morphological data derived from 119 isolates, representing 67 host genera from 17 countries, including 64 ex-type cultures. Combined analyses of ITS, LSU, rpb2 and TEF1-α DNA sequence data were used to reconstruct the backbone phylogeny of the genus Elsinoë. Based on the single nomenclature for fungi, 26 new combinations are proposed in Elsinoë for species that were originally described in Sphaceloma. A total of 13 species are epitypified with notes on their taxonomy and phylogeny. A further eight new species are introduced, leading to a total of 75 Elsinoë species supported by molecular data in the present study. For the most part species of Elsinoë appear to be host specific, although the majority of the species treated are known only from a few isolates, and further collections and pathogenicity studies will be required to reconfirm this conclusion.

  14. Thailandins A and B, New Polyene Macrolactone Compounds Isolated from Actinokineospora bangkokensis Strain 44EHW(T), Possessing Antifungal Activity against Anthracnose Fungi and Pathogenic Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Greule, Anja; Bechthold, Andreas; Euanorasetr, Jirayut; Paululat, Thomas; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2016-06-29

    Two new polyene macrolactone antibiotics, thailandins A, 1, and B, 2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of rhizosphere soil-associated Actinokineospora bangkokensis strain 44EHW(T). The new compounds from this strain were purified using semipreparative HPLC and Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration while following an antifungal activity guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques including UV, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR. These compounds demonstrated broad spectrum antifungal activity against fungi causing anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides DoA d0762, Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes DoA c1060, and Colletotrichum capsici DoA c1511) as well as pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans MT 2013/1, Candida parasilopsis DKMU 434, and Cryptococcus neoformans MT 2013/2) with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 16 and 32 μg/mL. This is the first report of polyene antibiotics produced by Actinokineospora species as bioactive compounds against anthracnose fungi and pathogenic yeast strains.

  15. Reduction of aflatoxins in dundi-cut whole red chillies (capsicum indicum)by manual sorting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Asghar, M.A.; Ahmed, A.; Iqbal, J.; Shamsuddin, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    Dundi-cut whole red chillies (Capsicum indicum) are the most revenue- generating commodity of Pakistan. Accordingly, the competence and magnitude of manual hand-picked sorting of red chillies on the reduction of total aflatoxins (AFs) content were assessed during the present study. AFs contents were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. On the basis of AFs content, red chilli samples were grouped as Group A with 1 to 20 mu g/kg, Group B with 20 to 30?g/kg, Group C with 30-100?g/kg and Group D quality samples with 100 to 150g/kg. Physically identified defects including midget/dwarfed, damaged, broken, dusty and dirty were looked for and such pods were removed. A reduction of 90-100% of AFs was achieved in Group A, 65-80% in B, 65-75% in C and 70% in D quality samples. An average of 78% reduction in AFs content was achieved. Hence, the non-destructive physical hand-picked sorting of red chillies can be applied as a rapid, safe and cost effective method for the reduction of AFs content in red chillies with preserved nutritional values. (author)

  16. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Dryer Integrated with Biomass Furnace for Red Chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace has been designed and evaluated for drying red chillies, and drying kinetics of red chillies were evaluated. The red chillies were dried from 22 kg with moisture content of 4.26 db to moisture content of 0.08 db which needed 11 hours, with the average drying chamber temperature, drying chamber relative humidity, and an air mass flow rate of 70.5°C, 10.1%, and 0.124 kg/s, respectively, while the open sun drying needed 62 hours. Compared to open sun drying, this dryer yielded 82% saving in drying time. The drying rate, the specific moisture extraction rate, and thermal efficiency of the dryer were estimated in average to be about 1.57 kg/h, 0.14 kg/kWh, and 9.03%, respectively. Three mathematical models, the Newton, Henderson-Pabis, and Page models, were fitted to the experimental data on red chillies dried by solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace and open sun drying. The performance of these models was evaluated by comparing the coefficient of determination (R2, mean bias error (MBE, and root mean-square error (RMSE. The Page model gave the best results for representing drying kinetics of red chillies.

  17. Mikobiota pada Buah Cabai untuk Pengendalian Hayati Colletotrichum capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okky Setyawati Dharmaputra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum capsici is a pathogenic fungus causing anthracnose on various tropical fruits, especially chilli. Biological control agents have been used as an alternative method to control postharvest diseases. This study aims to examine the antagonistic potential of mycobiota on red chilli fruit against C. capsici. The pathogen was obtained from diseased red chilli fruits collected from three traditional markets in Municipality of Bogor, isolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA medium containing chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1. Candidates of antagonistic mycobiota were isolated from healthy chilli fruits using serial diution method, followed by pour-plate method on PDA medium containing chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1. C. capsici isolate BIO51046 showed highest pathogenicity on chilli fruit var. IPB Perbani compared to other isolates. Seven isolates of filamentous fungi and 7 yeast isolates were obtained from healthy chilli fruits. Test of antagonism using dual culture method obtained 3 filamentous fungal isolates (Plectosphaerella cucumerina, MF2 and Aspergillus flavus and 1 yeast isolate (Issatchenkia orientalis which inhibited the growth of C. capsici BIO 51046 more than 70%. Plectosphaerella cucumerina and I.orientalis did not cause any diseases on chilli fruits var. IPB Perbani. Therefore, these 2 isolates were considered as potential antagonist against C. capsici BIO51046 as the causal agent of anthracnose of chilli

  18. Biological control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in yam by Streptomyces sp.MJM5763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Yang, S H; Cheng, J H; Meng, L; Suh, J-W

    2011-08-01

    To find a suitable biocontrol agent for yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. An actinobacterial strain, MJM5763, showing strong antifungal activity, multiple biocontrol and plant growth-promoting traits was isolated from a yam cultivation field in Yeoju, South Korea. Based on morphological and physiological characteristics and analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence, strain MJM5763 was identified as a novel strain of Streptomyces and was designated as Streptomyces sp. MJM5763. Treatment with MJM5763 and the crude culture filtrate extract (CCFE) was effective in suppressing anthracnose in detached yam leaves in vitro and reduced incidence and severity of anthracnose in yam plants under greenhouse conditions. The CCFE treatment was the most effective of all the treatments and reduced the anthracnose severity by 85-88% and the incidence by 79-81%, 90 days after inoculation with the pathogen. CCFE treatment was also effective under field conditions and showed a reduction of 86 and 75% of anthracnose severity and incidence, respectively. Streptomyces sp. strain MJM5763 was effective in biocontrolling anthracnose in yam caused by C. gloeosporioides. Streptomyces sp. MJM5763 is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides for reducing yield losses to anthracnose in yam. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Introgression and pyramiding into common bean market class fabada of genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and potyvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juan José; Campa, Ana; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Giraldez, Ramón

    2012-03-01

    Anthracnose and bean common mosaic (BCM) are considered major diseases in common bean crop causing severe yield losses worldwide. This work describes the introgression and pyramiding of genes conferring genetic resistance to BCM and anthracnose local races into line A25, a bean genotype classified as market class fabada. Resistant plants were selected using resistance tests or combining resistance tests and marker-assisted selection. Lines A252, A321, A493, Sanilac BC6-Are, and BRB130 were used as resistance sources. Resistance genes to anthracnose (Co-2 ( C ), Co-2 ( A252 ) and Co-3/9) and/or BCM (I and bc-3) were introgressed in line A25 through six parallel backcrossing programs, and six breeding lines showing a fabada seed phenotype were obtained after six backcross generations: line A1258 from A252; A1231 from A321; A1220 from A493; A1183 and A1878 from Sanilac BC6-Are; and line A2418 from BRB130. Pyramiding of different genes were developed using the pedigree method from a single cross between lines obtained in the introgression step: line A1699 (derived from cross A1258 × A1220), A2438 (A1220 × A1183), A2806 (A1878 × A2418), and A3308 (A1699 × A2806). A characterization based on eight morpho-agronomic traits revealed a limited differentiation among the obtained breeding lines and the recurrent line A25. However, using a set of seven molecular markers linked to the loci used in the breeding programs it was possible to differentiate the 11 fabada lines. Considering the genetic control of the resistance in resistant donor lines, the observed segregations in the last backcrossing generation, the reaction against the pathogens, and the expression of the molecular markers it was also possible to infer the genotype conferring resistance in the ten fabada breeding lines obtained. As a result of these breeding programs, genetic resistance to three anthracnose races controlled by genes included in clusters Co-2 and Co-3/9, and genetic resistance to BCM controlled

  20. Poultry manure application and varietal effects of chilli-pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural practices such as organic manure application can affect soil fertility and also insect pest and disease incidence on the plant. The effect of poultry manure application was therefore evaluated in relation to the infestation by major insect pests and disease of pepper in a humid tropical agro-ecosystem. Treatments ...

  1. Antifungal activity of rimocidin and a new rimocidin derivative BU16 produced by Streptomyces mauvecolor BU16 and their effects on pepper anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, B J; Kim, J D; Han, J W; Kim, B S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore antifungal metabolites targeting fungal cell envelope and to evaluate the control efficacy against anthracnose development in pepper plants. A natural product library comprising 3000 microbial culture extracts was screened via an adenylate kinase (AK)-based cell lysis assay to detect antifungal metabolites targeting the cell envelope of plant-pathogenic fungi. The culture extract of Streptomyces mauvecolor strain BU16 displayed potent AK-releasing activity. Rimocidin and a new rimocidin derivative, BU16, were identified from the extract as active constituents. BU16 is a tetraene macrolide containing a six-membered hemiketal ring with an ethyl group side chain instead of the propyl group in rimocidin. Rimocidin and BU16 showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against various plant-pathogenic fungi and demonstrated potent control efficacy against anthracnose development in pepper plants. Antifungal metabolites produced by S. mauvecolor strain BU16 were identified to be rimocidin and BU16. The compounds displayed potent control efficacy against pepper anthracnose. Rimocidin and BU16 would be active ingredients of disease control agents disrupting cell envelope of plant-pathogenic fungi. The structure and antifungal activity of rimocidin derivative BU16 is first described in this study. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Method development and survey of Sudan I-IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I-IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml(-1). Low concentrations (spices and are most likely a result of cross-contamination during preparation and storage and not intentional adulteration.

  3. Method development and survey of Sudan I–IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I–IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml−1. Low concentrations (spices and are most likely a result of cross-contamination during preparation and storage and not intentional adulteration. PMID:26824489

  4. Radiation induced genetic variability studies in M2 and F2M2 generation in chilli (Capsicum annum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaiah, S.; Manjunath, A.; Naik, Puttarama; Gangappa, E.

    2002-01-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) is an important commercial crop in India. Mutation breeding is one of the effective tool to create new variability. Since, yield and its component characters show polygenic inheritance, information on amount of heritable portion of variability created through mutation for these characters is needed to use the induced variability for crop improvement. To harness more variability mutation has been superimposed on hybridization in several crops. The present study is undertaken to estimate the genetic variability induced through gamma irradiation for the polygenically inherited productive traits of chilli in M 2 and F 2 M 2 generation

  5. METODE PENAPISAN CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. UNTUK KETAHANAN TERHADAP CHILLI VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS (Chi VMV DAN CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah, Sri Hendrastuti Hidayat, dan Sriani Sujiprihati .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening Method for Chilli Veinal Mottle Virus  (Chi VMV and Cucumber Mosaic Virus  (CMV Resistance in Chillipepper.  ChiVMV and CMV have been reported as the causal agents of main diseases in chillipepper in Indonesia and other Asian countries.  Mix infection of this two viruses was commonly occurred in the field, causing severe disease .  The use of resistance varieties has been proposed for dealing with the yield losses causing by  the viruses.  Breeding program is undergoing for development of chillipepper varieties resistant to ChiVMV and CMV.  Methodology for routine screening activity of chillipepper for resistance to both ChiVMV and CMV needs to be established. This research was conducted in Cikabayan Glass House and Plant Virology Laboratory, Plant Protection Department, Bogor Agricultural University from May 2006 to June 2007. Aim of the research was to develop screening method for simultaneous infection by the two viruses, ChiVMV and CMV.  Inoculation of ChiVMV and CMV was done by single inoculation or repetitive inoculation methods.  In both methods, ChiVMV and CMV were inoculated in different sequences, either ChiVMV or CMV first.  The result showed that incubation period was shorter when CMV was inoculated in advance both in single and repetitive inoculation method.  Mosaic, mottle and malformation type symptom was observed in infected plants. Based on disease incidence, infection of ChiVMV was higher compared to CMV in repetitive inoculation as well as in single inoculation.  Repetitive inoculation methods with virus sequence ChiVMV-CMV-ChiVMV-CMV  was selected for resistance evaluation of chillipepper genotypes.

  6. Circumscription of the anthracnose pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Cai, Lei; Crous, Pedro W; Damm, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The anthracnose pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is usually identified as Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, while anthracnose of potato (Solanum tuberosum), peppers (Capsicum annuum), tomato (S. lycopersicum) and several other crop plants is often attributed to C. coccodes. In order to study the phylogenetic relationships of these important pathogens, we conducted a multigene analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH) of strains previously identified as C. lindemuthianum, C. coccodes and other related species, as well as representative species of the major Colletotrichum species complexes. Strains of C. lindemuthianum belonged to a single clade; we selected an authentic specimen as lectotype, and an appropriate specimen and culture from the CBS collection to serve as epitype. Two clades were resolved within C. coccodes s. lat. One clade included the ex-neotype strain of C. coccodes on Solanum, while an epitype was selected for C. nigrum, which represents the oldest name of the second clade, which occurs on Capsicum, Solanum, as well as several other host plants. Furthermore, we recognized C. lycopersici as a synonym of C. nigrum, and C. biologicum as a synonym of C. coccodes.

  7. Candidate Gene Identification with SNP Marker-Based Fine Mapping of Anthracnose Resistance Gene Co-4 in Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Andrew J; William, H Manilal; Perry, Gregory; Khanal, Raja; Pauls, K Peter; Kelly, James D; Navabi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, is an important fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Alleles at the Co-4 locus confer resistance to a number of races of C. lindemuthianum. A population of 94 F4:5 recombinant inbred lines of a cross between resistant black bean genotype B09197 and susceptible navy bean cultivar Nautica was used to identify markers associated with resistance in bean chromosome 8 (Pv08) where Co-4 is localized. Three SCAR markers with known linkage to Co-4 and a panel of single nucleotide markers were used for genotyping. A refined physical region on Pv08 with significant association with anthracnose resistance identified by markers was used in BLAST searches with the genomic sequence of common bean accession G19833. Thirty two unique annotated candidate genes were identified that spanned a physical region of 936.46 kb. A majority of the annotated genes identified had functional similarity to leucine rich repeats/receptor like kinase domains. Three annotated genes had similarity to 1, 3-β-glucanase domains. There were sequence similarities between some of the annotated genes found in the study and the genes associated with phosphoinositide-specific phosphilipases C associated with Co-x and the COK-4 loci found in previous studies. It is possible that the Co-4 locus is structured as a group of genes with functional domains dominated by protein tyrosine kinase along with leucine rich repeats/nucleotide binding site, phosphilipases C as well as β-glucanases.

  8. Methyl and p-Bromobenzyl Esters of Hydrogenated Kaurenoic Acid for Controlling Anthracnose in Common Bean Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Suellen F; Oliveira, Denilson F; Heleno, Vladimir C G; Soares, Ana Carolina F; Midiwo, Jacob O; Souza, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    Kaurenoic acid derivatives were prepared and submitted to in vitro assays with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose disease in the common bean. The most active substances were found to be methyl and p-bromobenzylesters, 7 and 9, respectively, of the hydrogenated kaurenoic acid, which presented a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.097 and 0.131 mM, respectively, while the commercial fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) presented a MIC of 0.143 mM. Substances 7 (1.401 mM) and 9 (1.886 mM) reduced the severity of anthracnose in common bean to values statistically comparable to MT (2.044 mM). According to an in silico study, both compounds 7 and 9 are inhibitors of the ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) enzyme produced by other organisms, the amino acid sequence of which could be detected in fungal genomes. These substances appeared to act against C. lindemuthianum by inhibiting its KSI. Therefore, substances 7 and 9 are promising for the development of new fungicides.

  9. BIOLOGY OF COLLETOTRICHUM SPP. AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE ANTHRACNOSE IN TROPICAL FRUIT TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIANA DE FÁTIMA BRUCE DA SILVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anthracnose is important disease in the pre an d postharvest phases. Several species of Colle- totrichum ( C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, C. musae e C. magn a are responsible for inciting this disease. The pathogen infects many fruit trees in tropical and t emperate regions, causing considerable damage and l oss in all phases of cultures. Characteristic symptoms are dar k necrotic lesions depressed, subcircular or angula r shaped, and there may be coalescing. Infections have a spec ial feature: the phenomenon of quiescence. This pro cess has important implications, particularly in post-harves t, because the damage from infections reflect only this phase. The intensity of the disease have been striking at temperatures from 24 to 28 °C and in the presence o f high relative humidity. The understanding of some aspect s of the biology of the pathogen (the process of qu ies- cence and the epidemiology of the disease is cruci al, since much has not yet been fully clarified, es pecially when the aim is to achieve sustainable management.

  10. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Fruits of Asian Pear Tree Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Park, Yeong Seob

    2007-01-01

    Anthracnose symptoms often occurred on fruits of Asian pear trees grown in Anseong, Naju, Seonghwan and Pyeongtaek in Korea during the harvesting period from 2000 to 2005. A total of 28 isolates of Colletotrichum sp. were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms. All the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of the fungus were tested for pathogenicity to fruits of Asian pear tree by artificial inoculation. Al...

  11. Effect of plastic mulch on growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashrafuzzaman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work a field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of coloured plastic mulch on growth and yield of chilli from October 2005 to April 2006. The plastic mulches were transparent, blue, and black and bare soil was the control. Different mulches generated higher soil temperature and soil moisture under mulch over the control. Transparent and blue plastic mulches encouraged weed population which were suppressed under black plastic. Plant height, number of primary branches, stem base diameter, number of leaves and yield were better for the plants on plastic. At the mature green stage, fruits had the highest vitamin-C content on the black plastic. Mulching produced the fruits with the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total chlorophyll contents and also increased the number of fruits per plant and yield. However, mulching did not affect the length and diameter of the fruits and number of seeds per fruit. Plants on black plastic mulch had the maximum number of fruits and highest yield. Thus, mulching appears to be a viable tool to increase the chilli production under tropical conditions.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOCHTHONUS LACTIC FLORA OF A CAMPANIAN CHILLI CHEESE PRODUCED FROM RAW SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mormile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural lactic flora of the artisanal chilli “Tramonti” cheese, a typical product manufactured in the “Lattari mountains”, area of Salerno province (Italy, was investigated. Particular attention was paid to the growth dynamics assessment and to the molecular identification of the indigenous lactic acid bacteria involved in the ripening of this cheese made with raw sheep milk without starter cultures. One batch was monitored taking 4 sample on 0, 30, 50 and 105 ripening days. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were enumerated and randomly isolated on MRS and LM17 agar (32ºC x 48h -mesophilic flora- and 42°C x 48h -thermophilic flora, respectively. N. 66 presumptive lactic acid bacteria isolates, gram positive and catalase negative, were genotipically identified by Ribotyping. Mesophilic Lactobacillus remained at levels of 107 cfu/g during whole maturation time and thermophilic Lactobacillus, from initial values of 105 cfu/g, reached concentratios of 106 cfu/g at the end of maturation. Mesophilic and thermophilic Lactococcus showed, on average, levels of 106 since the beginning of the ripening. Ribotyping allowed to detect 4 lactic acid bacteria species: Enterococcus faecium (65,15%, Lactococcus lactis spp. cremoris (24,24%, Enterococcus faecalis (6,06% and Enterococcus durans (4,54%, showing the diversity of indigenous lactic acid bacteria of chilli “Tramonti” cheese.

  13. In Vitro Efficacy Of Lactic Acid Bacteria With Antifungal Activity Against Fusarium Sp. CID124-CS Isolate From Chilli Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaram Husain

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria LAB are known as to have inhibitory activity against fungi and other pathogens. In this study LAB from soil and fermented chilli fruits were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against Fusarium sp. CID124-CS that was isolated from chilli fruits. Three LAB isolates Lb. plantarum1-MSS P. pentoceous1-MSS isolated from soil one Lb. plantarum1-FCF from fermented chilli and two from ATCC culture Lb. acidophilus ATTCC314 and Lb. plantarum ATCC8014 showed strong inhibitory activity against growth of target fungi evaluated by well diffusion assay showed high growth inhibition 6.05 mm to 7.60 mm within 48 h at 28oC. Adding LAB supernatant to Potato Dextrose Broth PDA with fungi reduced mycelia growth from 36.00 to 60.00. Similarly fungal mass reduction with cells of LAB in De Man Rogosa and Sharpe Broth MRSB ranged 98.0 to 99.9 after 72 h incubation at 28oC by micro tire plate assay. Whereas conidial germination in MEB with LAB supernatants were reduced by 93.3 to 96.6 using micro titre plate assay. This study showed that cells and CFS of LAB isolated from soil have antifungal activity and could be used as antifungal agent against Fusarium sp. CID124-CS that infect to chilli.

  14. Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, G; Ostuni, M; Calonico, C; Rossi, S; Capei, R; Lo Nostro, A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg(-1) and 0-10.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2).

  15. Efficiency of a yeast-based formulation for the biocontrol of postharvest anthracnose of papayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Rabelo de Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify formulations of biological agents that enable survival, stability and a good surface distribution of the antagonistic agent, studies that test different application vehicles are necessary. The efficiency of two killer yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (strain 422 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii (strain 443, associated with five different application vehicles, was assessed for the protection of postharvest papayas. In this study, after 90 days of incubation at 4ºC, W. anomalus (strain 422 and M. guilliermondii (strain 443 were viable with all application vehicles tested. Fruits treated with different formulations (yeasts + application vehicles had a decreased severity of disease (by at least 30% compared with untreated fruits. The treatment with W. anomalus (strain 422 + 2% starch lowered disease occurrence by 48.3%. The most efficient treatments using M. guilliermondii (strain 443 were those with 2% gelatin or 2% liquid carnauba wax, both of which reduced anthracnose by 50% in postharvest papayas. Electron micrographs of the surface tissues of the treated fruits showed that all application vehicles provided excellent adhesion of the yeast to the surface. Formulations based on starch (2%, gelatin (2% and carnauba wax (2% were the most efficient at controlling fungal diseases in postharvest papayas.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso Perseguini

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will

  17. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  18. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  19. Quantitative chemical analysis of lead in canned chillis by spectrophotometric and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this work are the quantification of lead contents in two types of canned chilli of three trademarks, determining its inside of maximum permissible level (2 ppm), comparing moreover two trademarks that have flask and canned presentation for to determine the filling effect in the final content of lead, moreover make a comparative study of the techniques using on base to exactitude, linearity and sensibility. The techniques used were atomic absorption spectrophotometry, plasma emission spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence. The preliminary treatment of the samples was by calcination, continued of the ashes dissolution in acid medium, for later gauge a determinate volume for analyze by atomic absorption and plasma emission. For the analysis by x-ray fluorescence, after solubilyzing ashes, its precipitate the lead with PCDA (Pyrrolidine carbodithioic ammonium acid) then its filtered, filter paper is dried and counted directly. The standards preparation is made following the same procedure as in samples using lead titrisol solution. For each technique the recovery percent is determined by the addition of enough know amount. For each technique calibration curves are plotted been determined that the three are lineal in the established range of work. The recovery percent in three cases is superior to ninety five percent. By means of a variance analysis it was determined that lead contain in samples do not exceed two ppm., and the lead content in canned chillis is superior to contained in glass containers (1.7, 0.4 ppm respectively). X-ray fluorescence analysis is different to the attained results by the other two techniques due to its sensibility is less. The most advisable techniques for this kind of analysis are atomic absorption spectrophotometry and plasma emission. (Author)

  20. PIMENTA NOS OLHOS DOS OUTROS É... CHILLI BEANS! A PERSONALIDADE DA MARCA AOS "OLHOS" DOS CONSUMIDORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    Full Text Available Cada vez mais as organizações buscam estabelecer vínculos entre suas marcas e os consumidores como estratégia para construção de valor de modo a estabelecer trocas. Na academia, esta questão aparece em estudos que se localizam na interseção entre as áreas de branding e de marketing de relacionamento. Neste intuito, a personalidade de marca, referente à atribuição de características humanas à mesma, se apresenta como uma noção primordial no fomento a esse elo. O presente estudo investiga a percepção dos consumidores da Chilli Beans, maior vendedora de óculos escuros da América Latina, sobre a marca. Desta forma, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e avaliar as características humanas que compõem a personalidade da marca Chilli Beans sob a ótica de seus consumidores. A investigação se caracteriza como um estudo qualitativo exploratório, realizado por meio de entrevistas em profundidade e analisadas mediante a análise de discurso funcional. Nossos achados indicam treze categorias que, em suas relações, nos levaram à identificação de três perfis que compõem as características ônticas da marca. Implicações teóricas e práticas, bem como indicações de futuras pesquisas são consideradas.

  1. A highly conserved metalloprotease effector enhances virulence in the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Martín, José M; Pacheco-Arjona, José Ramón; Bello-Rico, Víctor; Vargas, Walter A; Monod, Michel; Díaz-Mínguez, José M; Thon, Michael R; Sukno, Serenella A

    2016-09-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola causes maize anthracnose, an agronomically important disease with a worldwide distribution. We have identified a fungalysin metalloprotease (Cgfl) with a role in virulence. Transcriptional profiling experiments and live cell imaging show that Cgfl is specifically expressed during the biotrophic stage of infection. To determine whether Cgfl has a role in virulence, we obtained null mutants lacking Cgfl and performed pathogenicity and live microscopy assays. The appressorium morphology of the null mutants is normal, but they exhibit delayed development during the infection process on maize leaves and roots, showing that Cgfl has a role in virulence. In vitro chitinase activity assays of leaves infected with wild-type and null mutant strains show that, in the absence of Cgfl, maize leaves exhibit increased chitinase activity. Phylogenetic analyses show that Cgfl is highly conserved in fungi. Similarity searches, phylogenetic analysis and transcriptional profiling show that C. graminicola encodes two LysM domain-containing homologues of Ecp6, suggesting that this fungus employs both Cgfl-mediated and LysM protein-mediated strategies to control chitin signalling. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Genetic analysis of the resistance to eight anthracnose races in the common bean differential cultivar Kaboon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Ana; Giraldez, Ramón; Ferreira, Juan José

    2011-06-01

    Resistance to the eight races (3, 7, 19, 31, 81, 449, 453, and 1545) of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (anthracnose) was evaluated in F(3) families derived from the cross between the anthracnose differential bean cultivars Kaboon and Michelite. Molecular marker analyses were carried out in the F(2) individuals in order to map and characterize the anthracnose resistance genes or gene clusters present in Kaboon. The analysis of the combined segregations indicates that the resistance present in Kaboon against these eight anthracnose races is determined by 13 different race-specific genes grouped in three clusters. One of these clusters, corresponding to locus Co-1 in linkage group (LG) 1, carries two dominant genes conferring specific resistance to races 81 and 1545, respectively, and a gene necessary (dominant complementary gene) for the specific resistance to race 31. A second cluster, corresponding to locus Co-3/9 in LG 4, carries six dominant genes conferring specific resistance to races 3, 7, 19, 449, 453, and 1545, respectively, and the second dominant complementary gene for the specific resistance to race 31. A third cluster of unknown location carries three dominant genes conferring specific resistance to races 449, 453, and 1545, respectively. This is the first time that two anthracnose resistance genes with a complementary mode of action have been mapped in common bean and their relationship with previously known Co- resistance genes established.

  3. Actinomycetes isolated from Malacca soil with Colletotrichum capsici ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jeffrey

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... agents for the anthracnose disease on chilli fruits world wide (Manandhar et ... causing agent with its ability to infect other crops and fruits such as yam and .... Isolated fungi were identified as C. capsici and C. gloeosprioides ...

  4. Camera traps to study the forest elephant's (Loxodonta cyclotis) response to chilli pepper repellent devices in Gamba, Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Steeve Ngama; Lisa Korte; Mireille Johnson; Cédric Vermeulen; Jérôme Bindelle

    2018-01-01

    In Central Africa, Gabon is a forested country with a rich biodiversity where conflict between wild animals and humans is common and causes innumerable damage to crops. The worst crop raiders are elephants, which can destroy an entire crop in a single night. These raids threaten people's livelihoods as well as elephants because angry farmers often retaliate with killing campaigns against crop raiding elephants. To keep elephants out of farms the use of chilli pepper is recommended as a non-le...

  5. Heterosis for green fruit yield and its components in chilli (Capsicum annuum var. longicum (D.G) Sendt) over environments

    OpenAIRE

    M. P. Patel, A. R. Patel, J.B. Patel and J.A.Patel

    2010-01-01

    Heterosis for green fruits and related characters in chilli was studied in line × tester fashion involving five GMS lines and 10 testers. The hybridsdiffered significantly for all the characters, as evident from their highly significant mean square values. Mean squares due to hybrids ×environments were significant for all the characters except average fruit weight, which indicated more sensitivity of hybrids to environments. Thehybrids ACMS 8 ×IPS -2005 -15, ACMS 5 × IPS -2005 -15, ACMS 6 × A...

  6. Candidate Gene Identification with SNP Marker-Based Fine Mapping of Anthracnose Resistance Gene Co-4 in Common Bean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Burt

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, is an important fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Alleles at the Co-4 locus confer resistance to a number of races of C. lindemuthianum. A population of 94 F4:5 recombinant inbred lines of a cross between resistant black bean genotype B09197 and susceptible navy bean cultivar Nautica was used to identify markers associated with resistance in bean chromosome 8 (Pv08 where Co-4 is localized. Three SCAR markers with known linkage to Co-4 and a panel of single nucleotide markers were used for genotyping. A refined physical region on Pv08 with significant association with anthracnose resistance identified by markers was used in BLAST searches with the genomic sequence of common bean accession G19833. Thirty two unique annotated candidate genes were identified that spanned a physical region of 936.46 kb. A majority of the annotated genes identified had functional similarity to leucine rich repeats/receptor like kinase domains. Three annotated genes had similarity to 1, 3-β-glucanase domains. There were sequence similarities between some of the annotated genes found in the study and the genes associated with phosphoinositide-specific phosphilipases C associated with Co-x and the COK-4 loci found in previous studies. It is possible that the Co-4 locus is structured as a group of genes with functional domains dominated by protein tyrosine kinase along with leucine rich repeats/nucleotide binding site, phosphilipases C as well as β-glucanases.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the common bean anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Pablo; Alzate, Juan; Yepes, Mauricio Salazar; Marín, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is the causal agent of anthracnose in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), one of the most limiting factors for this crop in South and Central America. In this work, the mitochondrial sequence of a Colombian isolate of C. lindemuthianum obtained from a common bean plant (var. Cargamanto) with anthracnose symptoms is presented. The mtDNA codes for 13 proteins of the respiratory chain, 1 ribosomal protein, 2 homing endonucleases, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 28 tRNAs. This is the first report of a complete mtDNA genome sequence from C. lindemuthianum.

  8. Is there a chilly climate? An educational environmental mixed method study in a chiropractic training institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Per J; Chandratilake, Madawa; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Laksov, Klara Bolander

    2013-01-01

    The attitude towards gender in an educational environment has a significant impact on a student's behavior, sense of well-being, and academic performance. Our study aimed to explore the presence and extent of gender-related issues in a chiropractic undergraduate learning environment, which has been a scarcely researched topic in the literature. The Perceived Chilly Climate Scale (PCCS) was used as the initial tool for screening the gender issues among undergraduates. The issues identified were explored further with a series of focus group interviews. The PCCS had an 83% response rate. The PCCS score (105/196) indicated the nonexistence of alarming gender-related issues. However, the PCCS score was significantly higher among female than male subjects, immigrants than nonimmigrants, and minorities than majority ethnic groups. Despite high ratings on the questionnaire quantitative findings, the focus groups indicated a good sense of equality, oppression-free environment, and no obvious signs of discrimination. The educational environment of the institution concerned was conducive to equality. However, subtle but important gender-, ethnic-, and minority-related issues could be addressed to provide an enhanced educational environment to learners.

  9. Effect of mutagens on seed germination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamayanthi, K.P.M.; Reddy, V.R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of chilli variety CO-2 (Coimbatore-2) were irradiated with gamma rays ranging from 10 kR to 35 kR at an interval of 5 kR and the effect on seed germination, seedling survival, percent lethality and seedling injury were studied. Lower doses were stimulative, while higher doses had inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling survival. The highest percentage of seed germination (37.5) and seedling survival (31.3) was recorded at 10 kR as compared to 28 percent of germination and 3.3 percent seedling survival in control. Percent lethality (9.6%) and seedling injury (6.5%) were comparatively low than the lethality percentage and seedling injury of the higher dose treatments. In chemical mutagen treatments, the maximum seed germination (54.5%) and seedling survival (51.2%), seedling lethality (0.97%) and seedling injury (1.37%) were obtained in the treated seeds of EMS at 0.5% concentration followed by 39.5% seed germination and 30.0% seedling survival, seedling lethality (3.8%) and seedling injury (3.06%) of MMS. The stimulative effect of seed germination is more in chemical mutagens than the physical mutagen. There was a proportionate decrease in germination percentage and seedling survival with an increase in dose/concentration of both the chemicals. (author)

  10. First report of race 2 of Colletotrichum trifolii causing anthracnose on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), caused by Colletotrichum trifolii, is widespread in the United States. Three physiological races have been described. Race 1 is reported to be the dominant race that is present wherever alfalfa is grown, while race 2 was reported in a limited area in the Mid...

  11. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity assays of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent for lime anthracnose in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several distorted Mexican lime [Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm). Swingle] fruit, leaf, and twig samples with lime anthracnose symptoms were collected from three trees in residential areas of Brownsville, Texas. The causal fungal organism, Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmonds was isolated from leave...

  12. Legume ground covers alter defoliation response of black walnut saplings to drought and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Growth and premature defoliation of black walnut saplings underplanted 5 or 6 years earlier with six different ground covers were quantified in response to a summer drought or anthracnose. Walnut saplings growing with ground covers of hairy vetch, crownvetch, and to a lesser extent sericea lespedeza continued to have more rapid height and diameter growth than saplings...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of an Isolate of Colletotrichum fructicola, a Causal Agent of Mango Anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qili; Bu, Junyan; Yu, Zhihe; Tang, Lihua; Huang, Suiping; Guo, Tangxun; Mo, Jianyou; Hsiang, Tom

    2018-02-22

    Here, we present a draft genome sequence of isolate 15060 of Colletotrichum fructicola , a causal agent of mango anthracnose. The final assembly consists of 1,048 scaffolds totaling 56,493,063 bp (G+C content, 53.38%) and 15,180 predicted genes. Copyright © 2018 Li et al.

  14. Selection of anthracnose resistant common beans using detached leaves in partially controlled environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Campos Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the possibility of selecting anthracnose resistant common bean plants using detached primary leaves in partially controlled environment of a greenhouse and identify differences in the reaction of genotypes to anthracnose. The common bean cultivars Ouro Negro, OuroVermelho, ManteigãoFosco 11, Rudá, Rudá-R, VP8, BRSMG Madrepérola, Pérola, MeiaNoite and BRSMG Talismãwere characterizedfor resistance to the races 65, 81 and 453 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and the method of detached primary leaves was compared to the method with the traditional inoculation of plants at the phenological stage V2. The lines Rudá, Rudá-R and Pérola were inoculated with the races 65 and 453 of C. lindemuthianum, aiming to assess the rate of coincidence of anthracnose severity by both inoculation methods. In general, the two methods presented similar results for the reaction of the cultivars. The use of detached primary leaves of common bean plants in the partially controlled environment was feasible for selection of plants resistant to anthracnose and has the advantages of low-needed infrastructure and reduction of resources, space and time.

  15. Shoot Blight and Leaf Spot of Blueberry Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Shigenobu, YOSHIDA; Takao, TSUKIBOSHI; National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences; National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences

    2002-01-01

    Shoot blight and leaf spots were found on highbush blueberry trees in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, in 1999. The causal fungus was identified morphologically as Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds ex Simmonds. This is the first report of blueberry anthracnose caused by C. acutatum in Japan.

  16. Fungicidal activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr et L.M. Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, L; Jayawardena, B; Abeywickrama, K

    2002-01-01

    To develop a post-harvest treatment system against post-harvest fungal pathogens of banana using natural products. Colletotrichum musae was isolated and identified as the causative agent responsible for anthracnose peel blemishes while three fungi, namely Lasiodiplodia theobromae, C. musae and Fusarium proliferatum, were identified as causative agents responsible for crown rot. During the liquid bioassay, cinnamon [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.)] leaf, bark and clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.)] oils were tested against the anthracnose and crown rot pathogens. The test oils were fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogens within a range of 0.03-0.11% (v/v). Cinnamon and clove essential oils could be used as antifungal agents to manage post harvest fungal diseases of banana. Cinnamon and clove essential oil could be used as alternative post-harvest treatments on banana. Banana treated with essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers. Benomyl (Benlate), which is currently used to manage fungal pathogens, can cause adverse health effects and could be replaced with volatile essential oils.

  17. Effect of Capsaicin Cream on the Secretion of the Submandibular and Parotid Gland in the General Population with Different Chilli-eating Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Guang Yan; Tang, Zhan Gui; Hu, Ji An

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of capsaicin cream on the secretion of the submandibular gland (SMG) and the parotid gland (PG) in the general population, with different chilli-eating habits. In two groups with different chilli-eating habits, the salivary flow rate of the SMG and the PG was detected at statics and different times, after application of capsaicin cream. In both groups, the topical application of capsaicin cream could significantly increase the salivary secretion of SMG (P 0.05). On the other hand, although the salivary flow rate of PG also increased after stimulation, the increase had no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The application of capsaicin cream can effectively promote the secretion of the SMG and the PG, and its effect is independent of chilli-eating habits, which indicates that topical application of capsaicin cream can be considered as a potential treatment for the hypofunction of the salivary gland.

  18. Screening of chitinolytic actinomycetes for biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii stem rot disease of chilli

    OpenAIRE

    Pranee Pattanapipitpaisal; Rillapat Kamlandharn

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty three strains were isolated from rhizoshere-associated soils, from Ubon Ratchathani andSrisaket province, using Enrichment Media for isolation of Chitinase-producing Actinomycetes agar (EMCA agar). All strainswere screened for chitinolytic activity and sixty eight strains gave significant clear zone on EMCA agar plates. The selectedchitinolytic strains were assayed for in vitro antagonism against Sclerotium rolfsii using cornmeal agar (CMA agar) assayprocedure and the r...

  19. The Effects of a Warm or Chilly Climate Toward Socioeconomic Diversity on Academic Motivation and Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin

    2016-02-01

    Persistent academic achievement gaps exist between university students from high and low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The current research proposes that the extent to which a university is perceived as actively supporting versus passively neglecting students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds can influence low-SES students' academic motivation and self-concepts. In Experiments 1 and 2, low-SES students exposed to cues suggestive of an institution's warmth toward socioeconomic diversity demonstrated greater academic efficacy, expectations, and implicit associations with high academic achievement compared with those exposed to cues indicating institutional chilliness. Exploring the phenomenology underlying these effects, Experiment 3 demonstrated that warmth cues led low-SES students to perceive their socioeconomic background as a better match with the rest of the student body and to perceive the university as more socioeconomically diverse than did chilliness cues. Contributions to our understanding of low-SES students' psychological experiences in academic settings and practical implications for academic institutions are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Performance of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor with Three Compartments in Removal of COD of Wastewater of Chilly Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumantri Indro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to examine the performance of each compartment of the number of compartments of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR to the COD removal of the chilly sauce wastewater. Three-compartments of ABR were conducted in this experiment with the total volume of 60 l. ABR is very suitable for processing waste water with high content of COD. Wastewater conducted in this research is a degradable chilly sauce synthetic and high content of organic compounds. While the COD parameter is the main parameter to indicate the achievement of wastewater treatment plant. Stepwise in the research starting with the preparation of raw materials such as sample preparation of synthetic wastewater and preparation of activated sludge. Variable used is the time digestion in the ABR, sludge volume (50% and 70%, and initial COD concentrations (6000 – 14000 mg/L. The response is observed up to 7 days process. For a load of organic compounds, the first compartment has high degree of decomposition of organic compounds than 2nd and 3rd, it is shown that the COD removal the second and third compartment increase insignificantly compare the first compartment. As for the different height of the activated sludge indicated that for organic load of of 6170 mg/L up to 14265 mg/L, the first compartment has removal efficiency 79-73%, in the second compartment is 81-75%, 81-77% and third compartment.

  1. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-12-01

    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.

  2. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial behaviour evolution of non cooked pressed cheese paste while in refrigerated storage, made with red chilli powder, treated by heat or ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben El Hadj Mohamed, A.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of different physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of a Tunisian manufactured cheese made of non cooked pressed cheese paste with red chilli powder treated by heat, was measured while in refrigerated storage and compared to the one treated by ionization (author)

  3. Temporal analysis and fungicide management strategies to control mango anthracnose epidemics in Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monteon Ojeda, Abraham; Mora Aguilera, José Antonio; Villegas Monter, Ángel; Nava Diaz, Cristian; Hernández Castro, Elías; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Hernández Morales, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The temporal progress of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) epidemics was studied in mango (Mangifera indica) orchards treated with fungicides from different chemical groups, mode of action, and application sequences in two regions of contrasting climates (sub-humid and dry tropics) in Guerrero, Mexico. Full flowering, initial setting, and 8-15mm Ø fruits were identified as critical stages for infection. Epidemics started 20-26 days after swollen buds, and maximum severity was attai...

  4. First report of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rhouma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ripe and overripe olive fruits (cv. Meski, Manzanilla and Picholine showing circular spots 1 to 10 mm in diameter, slightly depressed and reddish-brown in color, were collected from local markets and orchards located in the regions of Takelsa, Zarzis and Rgueb in Tunisia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from symptomatic fruits and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. This is the first report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of olives in Tunisia.

  5. Whole-genome sequence of the orchid anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum orchidophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Sukno, Serenella; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Cafà, Giovanni; Le Floch, Gaetan; Thon, Michael R

    2018-04-12

    Colletotrichum orchidophilum is a plant pathogenic fungus infecting a wide range of plant species belonging to the family Orchidaceae. Besides its economic impact, C. orchidophilum has been used in recent years in evolutionary studies as it represents the closest related species to the C. acutatum species complex. Here we present the first draft whole-genome sequence of C. orchidophilum IMI 309357, providing a resource for future research on anthracnose of Orchidaceae and other hosts.

  6. Pathogenicity of isolates of Colletotrichum spp.: The causal agents of anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, Svetlana; Dolovac, Nenad; Popović, Tatjana; Stojanović, Saša

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenic characteristics of 20 isolates of Colletotrichum spp. originating from pear, apple, sour cherry and tomato fruits, as well as reference strains of C. acutatum (CBS 294.67) and C. gloeosporioides (CBS 516.97) are presented in this paper. In the studies of host range of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. were included 17 plant species. Nine days after artificial inoculation all tested isolates were caused anthracnose lesion on fruits of apple, pear, peach, apricot, sour cherry, swee...

  7. Identification of colletotrichum species causing anthracnose on tahiti lime, tree tomato and mango

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Erika P.; Hío, Juan C.; Osorio1, Jairo A.; Torres, María F.

    2009-01-01

    In Colombia, citrus, tree tomato and mango crops are likely to suffer considerable losses from anthracnose caused by several Colletotrichum species, which were identified by the present study on infected organs of the three fruit crops, sampled in different regions of the country. Identification was based on their morphological and molecular characteristics, as well as on fungicide (benomyl and copper hydroxide) sensitivity and pathogenicity tests. The latter assessed infectivity on both the ...

  8. Antifungal (in vitro) activity of plant extracts for the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum)

    OpenAIRE

    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo; León-Gordon Olguer; Santana-Mayorga Rita; Mangui-Tobar José; Carranza Galo; Pazmiño-Miranda Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The antifungal effect of five plant extracts: nettle (Urtica dioica), chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile), frame (Artemisia vulgaris), lavender (Lavandula officinalis) and chamico (Datura ferox) were evaluated at laboratory level for control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) of the tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), using two methods of extraction (maceration and steam trapping), in the results obtained, statistical differences were observed in the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth o...

  9. Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Shrestha, Anupama; Kim, Du-Yeon; Park, Kyungseok; Pak, Chun Ho; Kim, Ki Deok

    2013-06-01

    We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit.

  10. [Revealing the chemical changes of tea cell wall induced by anthracnose with confocal Raman microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-li; Luo, Liu-bin; Hu, Xiao-qian; Lou, Bing-gan; He, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Healthy tea and tea infected by anthracnose were first studied by confocal Raman microscopy to illustrate chemical changes of cell wall in the present paper. Firstly, Raman spectra of both healthy and infected sample tissues were collected with spatial resolution at micron-level, and ultrastructure of healthy and infected tea cells was got from scanning electron microscope. These results showed that there were significant changes in Raman shift and Raman intensity between healthy and infected cell walls, indicating that great differences occurred in chemical compositions of cell walls between healthy and infected samples. In details, intensities at many Raman bands which were closely associated with cellulose, pectin, esters were reduced after infection, revealing that the content of chemical compounds such as cellulose, pectin, esters was decreased after infection. Subsequently, chemical imaging of both healthy and infected tea cell walls were realized based on Raman fingerprint spectra of cellulose and microscopic spatial structure. It was found that not only the content of cellulose was reduced greatly after infection, but also the ordered structure of cellulose was destroyed by anthracnose infection. Thus, confocal Raman microscopy was shown to be a powerful tool to detect the chemical changes in cell wall of tea caused by anthracnose without any chemical treatment or staining. This research firstly applied confocal Raman microscopy in phytopathology for the study of interactive relationship between host and pathogen, and it will also open a new way for intensive study of host-pathogen at cellular level.

  11. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Baroncelli

    Full Text Available Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l. is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production.

  12. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Sukno, Serenella A.; Lane, Charles R.; Thon, Michael R.; Vannacci, Giovanni; Holub, Eric; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production. PMID:26086351

  13. EST mining identifies proteins putatively secreted by the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum truncatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandenberg Albert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colletotrichum truncatum is a haploid, hemibiotrophic, ascomycete fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease on many economically important leguminous crops. This pathogen exploits sequential biotrophic- and necrotrophic- infection strategies to colonize the host. Transition from biotrophy to a destructive necrotrophic phase called the biotrophy-necrotrophy switch is critical in symptom development. C. truncatum likely secretes an arsenal of proteins that are implicated in maintaining a compatible interaction with its host. Some of them might be transition specific. Results A directional cDNA library was constructed from mRNA isolated from infected Lens culinaris leaflet tissues displaying the biotrophy-necrotrophy switch of C. truncatum and 5000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs with an average read of > 600 bp from the 5-prime end were generated. Nearly 39% of the ESTs were predicted to encode proteins of fungal origin and among these, 162 ESTs were predicted to contain N-terminal signal peptides (SPs in their deduced open reading frames (ORFs. The 162 sequences could be assembled into 122 tentative unigenes comprising 32 contigs and 90 singletons. Sequence analyses of unigenes revealed four potential groups: hydrolases, cell envelope associated proteins (CEAPs, candidate effectors and other proteins. Eleven candidate effector genes were identified based on features common to characterized fungal effectors, i.e. they encode small, soluble (lack of transmembrane domain, cysteine-rich proteins with a putative SP. For a selected subset of CEAPs and candidate effectors, semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that these transcripts were either expressed constitutively in both in vitro and in planta or induced during plant infection. Using potato virus X (PVX based transient expression assays, we showed that one of the candidate effectors, i. e. contig 8 that encodes a cerato-platanin (CP domain containing protein, unlike CP proteins

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies NBS-LRR-Encoding Genes Related with Anthracnose and Common Bacterial Blight in the Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Zhu, Jifeng; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes represent the largest and most important disease resistance genes in plants. The genome sequence of the common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) provides valuable data for determining the genomic organization of NBS-LRR genes. However, data on the NBS-LRR genes in the common bean are limited. In total, 178 NBS-LRR-type genes and 145 partial genes (with or without a NBS) located on 11 common bean chromosomes were identified from genome sequences database. Furthermore, 30 NBS-LRR genes were classified into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-LRR (TNL) types, and 148 NBS-LRR genes were classified into coiled-coil (CC)-NBS-LRR (CNL) types. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree supported the division of these PvNBS genes into two obvious groups, TNL types and CNL types. We also built expression profiles of NBS genes in response to anthracnose and common bacterial blight using qRT-PCR. Finally, we detected nine disease resistance loci for anthracnose (ANT) and seven for common bacterial blight (CBB) using the developed NBS-SSR markers. Among these loci, NSSR24, NSSR73, and NSSR265 may be located at new regions for ANT resistance, while NSSR65 and NSSR260 may be located at new regions for CBB resistance. Furthermore, we validated NSSR24, NSSR65, NSSR73, NSSR260, and NSSR265 using a new natural population. Our results provide useful information regarding the function of the NBS-LRR proteins and will accelerate the functional genomics and evolutionary studies of NBS-LRR genes in food legumes. NBS-SSR markers represent a wide-reaching resource for molecular breeding in the common bean and other food legumes. Collectively, our results should be of broad interest to bean scientists and breeders.

  15. “E SE COLOCAR PIMENTA?”: A CONSTRUÇÃO EMPREENDEDORA DA CHILLI BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, brands play greater role in companies’ market performance. The most common approach in the theory of brand management is strategic. However, many brands have become successful by adopting an “unconventional” logic, indicating an entrepreneurial brand building, guided mainly by intuition. We identified Chilli Beans as a brand that illustrates this phenomenon. The aim of the study was to identify the practices adopted by the brand’s entrepreneur to make it successful. To investigate it, we adopted narratology as a way to rebuild the brand’s history. Data were collected through narrative interviews and secondary data. The results reveal several aspects adopted in this process, which are comprehended under an entrepreneurial marketing perspective. Thus, the study contributes to the understanding of this phenomenon by drawing attention to some little investigated aspects in the marketing field: an entrepreneurial branding approach.

  16. Genetic dissection of the resistance to nine anthracnose races in the common bean differential cultivars MDRK and TU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Ana; Giraldez, Ramón; Ferreira, Juan José

    2009-06-01

    Resistance to nine races of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of anthracnose, was evaluated in F(3) families derived from the cross between the anthracnose differential bean cultivars TU (resistant to races, 3, 6, 7, 31, 38, 39, 102, and 449) and MDRK (resistant to races, 449, and 1545). Molecular marker analyses were carried out in the F(2) individuals in order to map and characterize the anthracnose resistance genes or gene clusters present in these two differential cultivars. The results of the combined segregation indicate that at least three independent loci conferring resistance to anthracnose are present in TU. One of them, corresponding to the previously described anthracnose resistance locus Co-5, is located in linkage group B7, and is formed by a cluster of different genes conferring specific resistance to races, 3, 6, 7, 31, 38, 39, 102, and 449. Evidence of intra-cluster recombination between these specific resistance genes was found. The second locus present in TU confers specific resistance to races 31 and 102, and the third locus confers specific resistance to race 102, the location of these two loci remains unknown. The resistance to race 1545 present in MDRK is due to two independent dominant genes. The results of the combined segregation of two F(4) families showing monogenic segregation for resistance to race 1545 indicates that one of these two genes is linked to marker OF10(530), located in linkage group B1, and corresponds to the previously described anthracnose resistance locus Co-1. The second gene conferring resistance to race 1545 in MDRK is linked to marker Pv-ctt001, located in linkage group B4, and corresponds to the Co-3/Co-9 cluster. The resistance to race 449 present in MDRK is conferred by a single gene, located in linkage group B4, probably included in the same Co-3/Co-9 cluster.

  17. Dionísio Usa Chilli Beans? – Análise Mitológica da Publicidade da “Marca da Pimenta”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildembergue Leite de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With a growing emphasis on the symbolic dimension of consumption, brands have started to act as channels of self-expression and transformation of culture and society, while producing and reproducing myths. One of the major mechanisms used for this purpose is advertising. Chilli Beans can be presented as a brand that adopts this premise. Therefore, this research was guided by the following question: How do myths reproduced in Chilli Beans’s advertising function to give the brand meaning? To this purpose, we used Barthesian Semiology to analyze print advertising developed by the brand along its history. Results reveal a reproduction of twelve myths that sustain the metanarrative that gives meaning to the brand: hedonism.

  18. Coupling carbon nanotube film microextraction with desorption corona beam ionization for rapid analysis of Sudan dyes (I-IV) and Rhodamine B in chilli oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Huang, Yun-Qing; He, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-03-07

    A rapid analysis method by coupling carbon nanotube film (CNTF) microextraction with desorption corona beam ionization (DCBI) was developed for the determination of Sudan dyes (I-IV) and Rhodamine B in chilli oil samples. Typically, CNTF was immersed into the diluted solution of chilli oil for extraction, which was then placed directly under the visible plasma beam tip of the DCBI source for desorption and ionization. Under optimized conditions, five dyes were simultaneously determined using this method. Results showed that the analytes were enriched by the CNTF through the π-π interactions, and the proposed method could significantly improve the sensitivities of these compounds, compared to the direct analysis by DCBI-MS/MS. The method with a linear range of 0.08-12.8 μg g(-1) and good linear relationships (R(2) > 0.93) in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was developed. Satisfactory reproducibility was achieved. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 20.0%. The recoveries ranged from 80.0 to 110.0%, and the limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 1.4-21 ng g(-1). Finally, the feasibility of the method was further exhibited by the determination of five illegal dyes in chilli powder. These results demonstrate that the proposed method consumes less time and solvent than conventional HPLC-based methods and avoids the contamination of chromatographic column and ion source from non-volatile oil. With the help of a 72-well shaker, multiple samples could be treated simultaneously, which ensures high throughput for the entire pretreatment process. In conclusion, it provides a rapid and high-throughput approach for the determination of such illicit additions in chilli products.

  19. Using the computerized glow curve deconvolution method and the R package tgcd to determination of thermoluminescence kinetic parameters of chilli powder samples by GOK model and OTOR one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Nguyen Duy, E-mail: ndsang@ctu.edu.vn [College of Rural Development, Can Tho University, Can Tho 270000 (Viet Nam); Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Science, Ho Chi Minh 700000 (Viet Nam); Van Hung, Nguyen [Nuclear Research Institute, VAEI, Dalat 670000 (Viet Nam); Van Hung, Tran; Hien, Nguyen Quoc [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, VAEI, Ho Chi Minh 700000 (Viet Nam)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • TL analysis aims to calculate the kinetic parameters of the chilli powder. • There is difference of the kinetic parameters caused by the difference of radiation doses. • There is difference of the kinetic parameters due to applying GOK model or OTOR one. • The software R is apllied for the first time in TL glow curve analysis of the chilli powder. - Abstract: The kinetic parameters of thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks of chilli powder irradiated by gamma rays with the different doses of 0, 4 and 8 kGy have been calculated and estimate by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method and the R package tgcd by using the TL glow curve data. The kinetic parameters of TL glow peaks (i.e. activation energies (E), order of kinetics (b), trapping and recombination probability coefficients (R) and frequency factors (s)) are fitted by modeled general-orders of kinetics (GOK) and one trap-one recombination (OTOR). The kinetic parameters of the chilli powder are different toward the difference of the sample time-storage, radiation doses, GOK model and OTOR one. The samples spending the shorter period of storage time have the smaller the kinetic parameters values than the samples spending the longer period of storage. The results obtained as comparing the kinetic parameters values of the three samples show that the value of non-irradiated samples are lowest whereas the 4 kGy irradiated-samples’ value are greater than the 8 kGy irradiated-samples’ one time.

  20. On-line SPE-UHPLC method using fused core columns for extraction and separation of nine illegal dyes in chilli-containing spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalikova, Maria A; Satínský, Dalibor; Smidrkalová, Tereza; Solich, Petr

    2014-12-01

    The presented work describes the development of a simple, fast and effective on-line SPE-UHPLC-UV/vis method using fused core particle columns for extraction, separation and quantitative analysis of the nine illegal dyes, most frequently found in chilli-containing spices. The red dyes Sudan I-IV, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red G, Sudan Orange G, Para Red, and Methyl Red were separated and analyzed in less than 9 min without labor-consuming pretreatment procedure. The chromatographic separation was performed on Ascentis Express RP-Amide column with gradient elution using mixture of acetonitrile and water, as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and 55°C of temperature. As SPE sorbent for cleanup and pre-concentration of illegal dyes short guard fused core column Ascentis Express F5 was used. The applicability of proposed method was proven for three different chilli-containing commercial samples. Recoveries for all compounds were between 90% and 108% and relative standard deviation ranged from 1% to 4% for within- and from 2% to 6% for between-day. Limits of detection showed lower values than required by European Union regulations and were in the range of 3.3-10.3 µg L(-1) for standard solutions, 5.6-235.6 µg kg(-1) for chilli-containing spices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Capsaicinoids, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in different fruit components of the world hottest Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, R; Subhash, K; Longvah, T

    2018-01-01

    The world hottest Naga king chilli is cultivated and consumed in Northeast India. Capsaicinoids, amino acids and fatty acids were studied in fruit and fruit components of Naga king chilli. Capsaicinoid content was increased in each ripening stage and maximum level was observed at red color fruits. Total protein and fat content of placenta was 19.41 and 20.36% respectively. Capsaicinoids of placenta (7.35±2.241%) was higher followed by seed (3.83±1.358%) and pericarp (2.91±0.667%). Similarly, essential amino acid content was also higher in placenta compared to other components. Amino acid score ranged from 37 to 38 with cystine and methionine as limiting amino acid. Low level of palmitic, stearic and α-linolenic acid and very high level of linoleic acid were found in seeds. Total polyunsaturates of seeds were higher followed by whole fruit. Naga king chilli is unique due to its high capsaicinoid content and it offers potential crop for the future exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BRS FC402: high-yielding common bean cultivar with carioca grain, resistance to anthracnose and fusarium wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha Melo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS FC402 is a common bean cultivar of the carioca-grain group with commercial grain quality, suitable for cultivation in 21 Brazilian states. Cultivar has a normal cycle (85-94 days, high yield potential (4479 kg ha-1, 10.1% higher mean yield than the controls (2462 kg ha-1 and resistance to fusarium wilt and anthracnose.

  3. A review of apple anthracnose canker biology and management in cider apple orchards in the Maritime Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cider apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is an emerging crop in western Washington and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, but a major obstacle to planting new orchards and orchard productivity is the widespread occurrence of apple anthracnose canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Neofabraea malicortic...

  4. HOT PEPPER REACTION TO FIELD DISEASES ABSTRACT RÉSUMÉ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. ... College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P. O. Box ... Key Words: Anthracnose, Capsicum annuum, fungal diseases. RÉSUMÉ ... Genotypes, field trials and their management. ..... CV (%). 39.1. 10.2. 47. 7.9. 49.1. 28.7. 31. 1Evaluated from June 22nd to ...

  5. Anthracnose of lucky bamboo Dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus Colletotrichum dracaenophilum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed A; Elshahawy, Ibrahim E

    2016-05-01

    Dracaena sanderiana, of the family Liliaceae, is among the ornamental plants most frequently imported into Egypt. Typical anthracnose symptoms were observed on the stems of imported D. sanderiana samples. The pathogen was isolated, demonstrated to be pathogenic based on Koch's rule and identified as Colletotrichum dracaenophilum. The optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 25 to 30 °C, maintained for 8 days. Kemazed 50% wettable powder (WP) was the most effective fungicide against the pathogen, as no fungal growth was observed over 100 ppm. The biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride followed by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus caused the highest reduction in fungal growth. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first time that this pathogen was observed on D. sanderiana in Egypt.

  6. Mutagenic effects of gamma rays on the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable macro mutations in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaiah, S.; Manjunath, A.; Puttaramanaik

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, uniform dry and healthy seeds of two cultivars of chilli namely Ceylon and Byadagi were exposed to 60 Co gamma rays at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 krad doses at BARC, Mumbai. Thus there were total 18 treatments, eight different doses of gamma rays and one control in each cultivar. The M2 populations were compared with the respective control populations for chlorophyll and viable mutations. The treated populations were compared with the respective control populations for chlorophyll mutations (M2 and M3) and viable mutations (M2)' The results of the study are presented

  7. Constitutive expression of a fungus-inducible carboxylesterase improves disease resistance in transgenic pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Moonkyung; Cho, Jung Hyun; Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Kang, Ha-Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Soh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Resistance against anthracnose fungi was enhanced in transgenic pepper plants that accumulated high levels of a carboxylesterase, PepEST in anthracnose-susceptible fruits, with a concurrent induction of antioxidant enzymes and SA-dependent PR proteins. A pepper esterase gene (PepEST) is highly expressed during the incompatible interaction between ripe fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and a hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). In this study, we found that exogenous application of recombinant PepEST protein on the surface of the unripe pepper fruits led to a potentiated state for disease resistance in the fruits, including generation of hydrogen peroxide and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes that encode mostly small proteins with antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the role of PepEST in plant defense, we further developed transgenic pepper plants overexpressing PepEST under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. Molecular analysis confirmed the establishment of three independent transgenic lines carrying single copy of transgenes. The level of PepEST protein was estimated to be approximately 0.002 % of total soluble protein in transgenic fruits. In response to the anthracnose fungus, the transgenic fruits displayed higher expression of PR genes, PR3, PR5, PR10, and PepThi, than non-transgenic control fruits did. Moreover, immunolocalization results showed concurrent localization of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and PR3 proteins, along with the PepEST protein, in the infected region of transgenic fruits. Disease rate analysis revealed significantly low occurrence of anthracnose disease in the transgenic fruits, approximately 30 % of that in non-transgenic fruits. Furthermore, the transgenic plants also exhibited resistance against C. acutatum and C. coccodes. Collectively, our results suggest that overexpression of PepEST in pepper confers enhanced resistance against the anthracnose fungi by activating the defense signaling

  8. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and...

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Isolates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the Causal Agent of Anthracnose in Common Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Casley Borges; Correia, Hilberty L Nunes; Menicucci, Renato Pedrozo; Vidigal, Pedro M Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2017-05-04

    Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is the causal agent of anthracnose in common beans, one of the main limiting factors of their culture. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, a draft of the complete genome sequences of two isolates belonging to 83.501 and 89 A 2 2-3 of C. lindemutuianum . Copyright © 2017 de Queiroz et al.

  10. Identification of Clusters that Condition Resistance to Anthracnose in the Common Bean Differential Cultivars AB136 and MDRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Ana; Trabanco, Noemí; Ferreira, Juan José

    2017-12-01

    The correct identification of the anthracnose resistance systems present in the common bean cultivars AB136 and MDRK is important because both are included in the set of 12 differential cultivars proposed for use in classifying the races of the anthracnose causal agent, Colletrotrichum lindemuthianum. In this work, the responses against seven C. lindemuthianum races were analyzed in a recombinant inbred line population derived from the cross AB136 × MDRK. A genetic linkage map of 100 molecular markers distributed across the 11 bean chromosomes was developed in this population to locate the gene or genes conferring resistance against each race, based on linkage analyses and χ 2 tests of independence. The identified anthracnose resistance genes were organized in clusters. Two clusters were found in AB136: one located on linkage group Pv07, which corresponds to the anthracnose resistance cluster Co-5, and the other located at the end of linkage group Pv11, which corresponds to the Co-2 cluster. The presence of resistance genes at the Co-5 cluster in AB136 was validated through an allelism test conducted in the F 2 population TU × AB136. The presence of resistance genes at the Co-2 cluster in AB136 was validated through genetic dissection using the F 2:3 population ABM3 × MDRK, in which it was directly mapped to a genomic position between 46.01 and 47.77 Mb of chromosome Pv11. In MDRK, two independent clusters were identified: one located on linkage group Pv01, corresponding to the Co-1 cluster, and the second located on LG Pv04, corresponding to the Co-3 cluster. This report enhances the understanding of the race-specific Phaseolus vulgaris-C. lindemuthianum interactions and will be useful in breeding programs.

  11. Characterization and mapping of LanrBo: a locus conferring anthracnose resistance in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kristin; Dieterich, Regine; Nelson, Matthew N; Kamphuis, Lars G; Singh, Karam B; Rotter, Björn; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Winter, Peter; Wehling, Peter; Ruge-Wehling, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    A novel and highly effective source of anthracnose resistance in narrow-leafed lupin was identified. Resistance was shown to be governed by a single dominant locus. Molecular markers have been developed, which can be used for selecting resistant genotypes in lupin breeding. A screening for anthracnose resistance of a set of plant genetic resources of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) identified the breeding line Bo7212 as being highly resistant to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lupini). Segregation analysis indicated that the resistance of Bo7212 is inherited by a single dominant locus. The corresponding resistance gene was given the designation LanrBo. Previously published molecular anchor markers allowed us to locate LanrBo on linkage group NLL-11 of narrow-leafed lupin. Using information from RNAseq data obtained with inoculated resistant vs. susceptible lupin entries as well as EST-sequence information from the model genome Lotus japonicus, additional SNP and EST markers linked to LanrBo were derived. A bracket of two LanrBo-flanking markers allows for precise marker-assisted selection of the novel resistance gene in narrow-leafed lupin breeding programs.

  12. Changes in the Aggressiveness and Fecundity of Hot Pepper Anthracnose Pathogen (Colletotricum acutatum under Elevated CO₂ and Temperature over 100 Infection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Koo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We observed the changes in aggressiveness and fecundity of the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum on hot pepper, under the ambient and the twice-ambient treatments. Artificial infection was repeated over 100 cycles for ambient (25°C/400 ppm CO₂ and twice-ambient (30°C/700 ppm CO₂ growth chamber conditions, over 3 years. During repeated infection cycles (ICs on green-pepper fruits, the aggressiveness (incidence [% of diseased fruits among 20 inoculated fruits] and severity [lesion length in mm] of infection and fecundity (the average number of spores per five lesions of the pathogen were measured in each cycle and compared between the ambient and twice-ambient treatments, and also between the early (ICs 31–50 and late (ICs 81–100 generations. In summary, the pathogen’s aggressiveness and fecundity were significantly lower in the late generation. It is likely that aggressiveness and fecundity of C. acutatum may be reduced as global CO₂ and temperatures increase.

  13. Effect of fungicides and alternative products in control of anthracnose and black spot of guavaEfeito de fungicidas e produtos alternativos no controle da antracnose e da pinta preta da goiaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides in controlling in vitro and in vivo the causal agents of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum and black spot (Guignardia psidii and evaluate the effect of alternative products to control these diseases. Inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogens was evaluated for ten fungicides at concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 mg L-1 of active ingredient in potato-dextrose-agar medium. The effectiveness of the fungicides azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, cyproconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin in controlling disease incidence and severity of anthracnose, through applications in the field, was measured in fruits collected at three stages of maturation, according to the skin color (dark green, light green and yellowish green. In postharvest dipping of fruits, the products evaluated were citric acid, peracetic acid, salicylic acid, sodium bicarbonate, chlorine dioxide, Ecolife® and chitosan. The fungicides azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole were highly effective in inhibiting the in vitro mycelial growth of G. psidii and moderately to highly effective in inhibiting C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. In field conditions, the fungicide azoxystrobin + difenoconazole was effective in controlling anthracnose and black spot in fruit at three maturity stage (skin color yellowish green. The alternative products tested were ineffective in the curative control of anthracnose and early blight at postharvest of guava. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência de fungicidas no controle in vitro e in vivo dos agentes causais da antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e C. acutatum e da pinta preta (Guignardia psidii da goiaba e avaliar o efeito de produtos alternativos no controle pós-colheita destas doenças. A inibição do crescimento micelial dos patógenos foi avaliada para

  14. Morphological and pathological characterisation of Colletotrichum sp. as casual agent of anthracnose in Dioscorea sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia María Pérez Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum dematium strains were isolated from yam plants in the Sucre depart-ment. Macro- and microscopic descriptions were made, finding that the predominant colour for the colonies was light purple. Sporulation was higher than 58,000 conidia/ml for most colonies. Growth rate lay within a range of 4 to 5mm/day. C. gloeosporioide isolate conidial morphology revealed a cylindrical spore having one rounded end whilst the other was acute shaped. Conidia length and width averaged between 7-8 micras and 3-4 micras, respectively. C. dematium colonies, however, were characterised by being grey and having radial growth. The fálcate and fusiform conidia tapered at the acute apex. They had a length and width of 16-18 micras and 3-4 micras, respectively. C. gloeosporioides colonies showed different macroscopic morphology but similar microscopic characteristics. Vegeta-tive compatibility was evaluated amongst different geographical isolates resulting in 90% compatibility. A patho-genic assay was done for evaluating isolate virulence on tolerant and susceptible cultivars. The isolates showed great variability regarding their virulence. The Colletotrichum isolate collection represents a tool for use in molecular characterisation and evaluating yam germplasm tolerance to this pathogen. Keywords: Colletotrichum, yam, anthracnose, phytopathology.

  15. Differentiation of Colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose of strawberry by arbitrarily primed PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of 39 isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides, which cause anthracnose on strawberry, was grouped into species based on the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR). All isolates used had previously been identified according to classical taxonomic morphology. Ap-PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of C. acutatum, C. fragariae and two genotypes of C. gloeosporioides. Fifteen of the 18 C. acutatum isolates were very similar, although three isolates which produced a red pigment had distinctly different banding patterns. Nearly identical banding patterns were observed for all nine isolates of C. fragariae. The 12 C. gloeosporioides isolates were more diverse and two separate genotypes, Cgl-1 (six isolates) and Cgl-2 (five isolates) were distinguished by ap-PCR. An additional isolate did not conform to either the Cgl-1 or Cgl-2 genotypes. The utility of ap-PCR compared with other molecular techniques for reliable identification of Colletotrichum isolates pathogenic on strawberry is discussed.

  16. Identification of Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose on Tahiti lime, tree tomato and mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Erika P.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia, citrus, tree tomato and mango crops are likely to suffer considerable losses from anthracnose caused by several Colletotrichum species, which were identified by the present study on infected organs of the three fruit crops, sampled in different regions of the country. Identification was based on their morphological and molecular characteristics, as well as on fungicide (benomyl and copper hydroxide sensitivity and pathogenicity tests. The latter assessed infectivity on both the original hosting crop and the other two crops (crossed infection, by putting the fungi in contact with organs taken from the three fruit crops. Molecular identification of the Colletotrichum species was carried out through amplification of rDNA ITS regions by means of C. gloeosporioides (CgInt and C. acutatum (CaInt2 specific primer PCR combining the use of ITS4 universal primer. The results indicate that C. acutatum is the infectious agent in Tahiti lime and tree tomato, and so is C. gloeosporioides in mango. Although C. acutatum is the infectious agent in two diferent fruit species, the strains proved to be specific of their original hosts.

  17. Sorghum production and anthracnose disease management in future global energy and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is the fifth most important cereal crop in world commerce with uses ranging from animal feed, food, in brewery, and recently as a potential source of biofuel. With the expected increase in the world's population, crop production outputs must be increased. Annual cereal production, including...

  18. Assessments of genetic diversity and anthracnose disease response among Zimbabwe sorghum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a Zimbabwe sorghum collection of 1,235 accessions from different provinces. This germplasm has not been extensively employed in U.S. breeding programs due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic characterization. Therefore, 68 accessions from th...

  19. Why are chillies pungent?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ultrapotent analogue of capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, is found in the latex of the succulent spiny shrub. Euphorbia resinifera, and its use in pain mediation has been known since Roman times (Appendino and Szallasi 1997). Resiniferatoxin has been shown to have acute emetic effects in the house musk shrew (Andrews et al ...

  20. Control of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species in guava, mango and papaya using synergistic combinations of chitosan and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Oliveira, Priscila Dinah; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; Vieira, Willie Anderson Dos Santos; Câmara, Marcos Paz Saraiva; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-02-02

    This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan (Chi) and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) combinations to control the mycelial growth of five pathogenic Colletotrichum species (C. asianum, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii) in vitro, as well as the anthracnose development in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Paluma, mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Tommy Atkins and papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Papaya artificially inoculated with these species. Combinations of Chi (2.5, 5 or 7.5mg/mL) and CCEO (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.25μL/mL) inhibited the mycelial growth of all tested fungal species in vitro. Examined Chi-CCEO combinations showed additive or synergistic interactions to inhibit the target Colletotrichum species based on the Abbott index. Coatings formed by synergistic Chi (5mg/mL) and CCEO (0.15, 0.3 or 0.6μL/mL) combinations decreased anthracnose lesion development in guava, mango and papaya inoculated with any of the tested Colleotrichum species during storage. Overall, anthracnose lesion development inhibition in fruit coated with synergistic Chi-CCEO combinations was higher than that observed in fruit treated with synthetic fungicides. These results show that the application of coatings formed by Chi-CCEO synergistic combinations could be effective to control postharvest anthracnose development in fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using SNP genetic markers to elucidate the linkage of the Co-34/Phg-3 anthracnose and angular leaf spot resistance gene cluster with the Ur-14 resistance gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ouro Negro common bean cultivar contains the Co-34/Phg-3 gene cluster that confers resistance to the anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) pathogens. These genes are tightly linked on chromosome 4. Ouro Negro also has the Ur-14 rust resistance gene, reportedly in the vicinity of Co- 34; ...

  2. Controle Químico de Antracnose em Mudas de Pupunheira em Viveiro Chemical Control of Anthracnose on Peach Palm Transplants in Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudimar Mafacioli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A antracnose, causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum loeosporioides, é a principal doença da parte aérea da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes var gasipaes em viveiros de mudas no Centro-Sul do Brasil. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de novas formulações de fungicidas no controle de antracnose em mudas de pupunheira, na fase de viveiro. O ensaio foi conduzido no período de abril a agosto de 2006, com o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos com fungicidas e uma testemunha sem fungicida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por dez mudas. Foram avaliados os seguintes fungicidas através de pulverização da parte aérea: piraclostrobina+epoxiconazole (0,13 + 0,05 g.L-1, tetraconazole (0,1 g.L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g.L-1, chlorotalonil (2 g.L-1 e chlorotalonil+tiofanato metílico(1 + 0,4 g.L-1. A severidade (percentagem da área foliar doente a doença foi avaliada quinze dias após a sétima aplicação (última. Verificou-se que todos os tratamentos com fungicidas proporcionaram redução estatisticamente significativa na intensidade da doença em relação à testemunha sem fungicida (P £ 0,05. Os tratamentos com os diferentes fungicidas não diferiram significativamente entre si. Os fungicidas avaliados proporcionaram índice de controle da doença de 68 % a 78 %.  
    Leaf anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum loeosporioides, is the most important disease of peach palm plants (Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes in nurseries in the Central and Southern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of some new formulations of fungicides for controlling anthracnose transplants in orchards. An assay with randomized block design was carried out, with five different fungicides and a control, with four replicates. Each replicated had 10 plants. The fungicides evaluated were: piraclostrobin + epoxiconazole

  3. Ethanol, vinegar and Origanum vulgare oil vapour suppress the development of anthracnose rot in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakis, Nikos G

    2010-08-15

    Anthracnose rot (Colletotrichum coccodes) development in vitro or in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with absolute ethyl alcohol (AEA), vinegar (VIN), chlorine (CHL) or origanum oil (ORI) and storage at 12 degrees C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. Fruit treated with vapours reduced fungal spore germination/production, but in the case of AEA- and VIN-treated fruits, fungal mycelium development was accelerated. Fruit lesion development was suppressed after fruit exposure to pure (100% v/v) AEA or ORI vapours which were accompanied by increased fruit cracking. Exposure to pure VIN-, CHL- and ORI vapours reduced (up to 92%) spore germination in vitro, but no differences were observed in the AEA treatment. The benefits associated with volatiles-enrichment were maintained in fruit pre-exposed to vapours, resulting in suppression in spore germination and spore production. However, studies performed on fungi grown on Potato Dextrose Agar revealed fewer direct effects of volatiles on fungal colony development and spore germination per se, implying that suppression of pathogen development was due in a large part to the impact of volatiles on fruit-pathogen interactions and/or 'memory' effects on fruit tissue. Work is currently focussing on the mechanisms underlying the impacts of volatiles on fruit quality related attributes. The results of this study indicate that volatiles may be considered as an alternative to the traditional postharvest sanitizing techniques. Each commodity needs to be individually assessed, and the volatile concentration and sanitising technique optimised, before the volatile treatment is used commercially. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment efficacy with ultraviolet light on the development of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and mango postharvest quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata Hidalgo, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The Laboratorio de Tecnologia Poscosecha and the Laboratorio de Microbiologia Agricola of the Centro de Investigaciones Agronomicas, of the Universidad de Costa Rica have initiated an mango investigation Tommy Atkins with export quality. The first trial has involved in the exposure of the fruit from the Liberia and Guanacaste area, to UV-C light at different times: 0,5,10,15,20 minutes doses corresponding to 0 kJ/m 2 -3,28 kJ/m 2 -6,57 kJ/m 2 -9,86 kJ/m 2 -13,15 kJ/m 2 . For the generation of radiation has been used a lamp 30-watts General Electric G30T8 (253,7 nm), at a distance of 15 cm above the surface of the fruit. The prochloraz fungicide commercial treatment is included (1mL/L), more hot water at 53 degrees Celsius and immersion for 3 minutes. The fruit has stored in a cold chamber at a temperature of 13 degrees Celsius ± 1 degree Celsius and a humidity of 85% for two weeks.The mango is then passed to an ambient temperature (20-22 degrees Celsius). For the second test has used mangoes of the Atenas area; the same processes are applied but with two best treatments (associated with the least damage of darkening of the skin on) observed in the first trial (5 to 10 minutes of exposure to UV-C light) in combination with wax. The evaluations and comparisons of the 2 trials were analyzed, looking at the incidence and severity of anthracnose, weight loss variables, external and internal color, Brix, acidity, firmness, incidence of damage on the shell caused by exposure to radiation and application of treatments [es

  5. Application of Rhizobacteria for Plant Growth Promotion Effect and Biocontrol of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    In vitro and greenhouse screening of seven rhizobacterial isolates, AB05, AB10, AB11, AB12, AB14, AB15 and AB17, was conducted to investigate the plant growth promoting activities and inhibition against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in pepper. According to identification based on 16S rDNA sequencing, the majority of the isolates are members of Bacillus and a single isolate belongs to the genus Paenibacillus. All seven bacterial isolates were capable of inhibiting C. acutatum to various degrees. The results primarily showed that antibiotic substances produced by the selected bacteria were effective and resulted in strong antifungal activity against the fungi. However, isolate AB15 was the most effective bacterial strain, with the potential to suppress more than 50% mycelial growth of C. acutatum in vitro. Moreover, antibiotics from Paenibacillus polymyxa (AB15) and volatile compounds from Bacillus subtilis (AB14) exerted efficient antagonistic activity against the pathogens in a dual culture assay. In vivo suppression activity of selected bacteria was also analyzed in a greenhouse with the reference to their prominent in vitro antagonism efficacy. Induced systemic resistance in pepper against C. acutatum was also observed under greenhouse conditions. Where, isolate AB15 was found to be the most effective bacterial strain at suppressing pepper anthracnose under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, four isolates, AB10, AB12, AB15, and AB17, were identified as the most effective growth promoting bacteria under greenhouse conditions, with AB17 inducing the greatest enhancement of pepper growth. PMID:23323049

  6. Linhagens de feijoeiro comum com fenótipos agronômicos favoráveis e resistência ao crestamento bacteriano comum e antracnose Common bean lines with suitable agronomic phenotypes and resistant to bacterial blight and anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da Costa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O crestamento bacteriano comum e a antracnoseincitados por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Smith Vauterin, Hoste, Kesters & Swings e Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn. Scrib., respectivamente, podem reduzir consideravelmente a produtividade do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de obter linhagens com resistência conjunta ao crestamento bacteriano comum e à antracnose, com características agronômicas desejáveis. Foram obtidas 35 populações F2 provenientes de cruzamentos simples entre linhagens com resistência ao crestamento bacteriano comum proveniente de P. acutifolius A. Gray e linhagens resistentes à antracnose e com características agronômicas favoráveis. As populações segregantes de F2 a F5 foram inoculadas com o patótipo 89 de C. lindemuthianum com uma concentração de 1,2 x 10(6 conídios/mL e submetidas à seleção massal modificada. As plantas que apresentaram grau superior a 4 foram eliminadas. Na geração F5, foi realizada seleção individual das plantas remanescentes para obter as famílias F6. As famílias F6 foram avaliadas mediante inoculação com os patótipos 55, 89, 95 e 453 de C. lindemuthianum. As famílias F7 resistentes à antracnose foram inoculadas em casa-de-vegetação por incisão das folhas primárias com tesoura mergulhada em uma suspensão de 5 x 10(7 ufc do isolado XpCNF 15 de X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli. As linhagens resistentes foram avaliadas em quatro experimentos de campo. Foram selecionadas 17 linhagens com alto rendimento de grãos, resistentes ao crestamento bacteriano comum e à antracnose, com boa altura de inserção das vagens inferiores e resistentes ao acamamento.Common bacterial blight and anthracnose diseases, incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Smith Vauterin, Hoste, Kesters & Swings and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn. Scrib., respectively, are major constrains for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L

  7. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS ON POSTHARVEST DISEASE CONTROL IN AVOCADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Postharvest diseases constitute a serious problem for avocado commercialization. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of conventional and alternative products in controlling diseases affecting ‘Hass’ avocados in the field and in the postharvest by carrying out physicochemical characterization of fruits subjected to postharvest treatments. In the field, besides the management adopted by the farmer, seven products were sprayed three times during fruiting for evaluation. Postharvest products were diluted in water or in oxidized polyethylene wax and shellac. Water treatments with potassium phosphite, Soil-Set®, chlorine dioxide, thyme essential oil, sodium bicarbonate, lemon grass essential oil and thiabendazole reduced the incidence of diseased fruits, and anthracnose, the main disease, was controlled with sodium bicarbonate, lemon grass essential oil and thiabendazole. Greater soluble solids content was found for control (water, chlorine dioxide, acibenzolar-S-methyl and thiabendazole. For the products that reduced anthracnose, there was no correlation between the disease and the physicochemical parameters, evidencing that the disease control is not associated with delayed ripening. For wax treatments, diseases were not controlled, and the fruits presented lower titratable acidity with thyme essential oil, sodium bicarbonate, control (wax, acibenzolar-S-methyl and lemon grass essential oil. Control and thyme essential oil were highlighted for maintaining the green coloration of the fruit skin for the shortest period. Under field conditions, azoxystrobin, thiabendazole, difenoconazole+azoxystrobin and acibenzolar-S-methyl+azoxystrobin reduced the occurrence of diseased fruits, while anthracnose control was only obtained with azoxystrobin.

  8. Whole genome sequence and genome annotation of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of anthracnose in pepper plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Hee; Chon, Jae-Kyung; Ahn, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Ik-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2016-06-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is a destructive fungal pathogen which causes anthracnose in a wide range of crops. Here we report the whole genome sequence and annotation of C. acutatum strain KC05, isolated from an infected pepper in Kangwon, South Korea. Genomic DNA from the KC05 strain was used for the whole genome sequencing using a PacBio sequencer and the MiSeq system. The KC05 genome was determined to be 52,190,760 bp in size with a G + C content of 51.73% in 27 scaffolds and to contain 13,559 genes with an average length of 1516 bp. Gene prediction and annotation were performed by incorporating RNA-Seq data. The genome sequence of the KC05 was deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number LUXP00000000.

  9. Identification of a RAPD marker linked to the Co-6 anthracnose resistant gene in common bean cultivar AB 136

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzate-Marin Ana Lilia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic variability of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum represents an obstacle for the creation of resistant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties. Gene pyramiding is an alternative strategy for the development of varieties with durable resistance. RAPD markers have been proposed as a means to facilitate pyramiding of resistance genes without the need for multiple inoculations of the pathogens. The main aims of this work were to define the inheritance pattern of resistance present in common bean cultivar AB 136 in segregating populations derived from crosses with cultivar Rudá (susceptible to most C. lindemuthianum races and to identify RAPD markers linked to anthracnose resistance. The two progenitors, populations F1 and F2, F2:3 families and backcross-derived plants were inoculated with race 89 of C. lindemuthianum under environmentally controlled greenhouse conditions. The results indicate that a single dominant gene, Co-6, controls common bean resistance to this race, giving a segregation ratio between resistant and susceptible plants of 3:1 in the F2, 1:0 in the backcrosses to AB 136 and 1:1 in the backcross to Rudá. The segregation ratio of F2:3 families derived from F2 resistant plants was 1:2 (homozygous to heterozygous resistant. Molecular marker analyses in the F2 population identified a DNA band of approximately 940 base pairs (OPAZ20(940, linked in coupling phase at 7.1 cM of the Co-6 gene. This marker is being used in our backcross breeding program to develop Rudá-derived common bean cultivars resistant to anthracnose and adapted to central Brazil.

  10. EFFECT OF PLANTING MEDIA (RICE HUSK AND COCO PEAT ON THE UPTAKE OF CADMIUM AND SOME MICRONUTRIENTS IN CHILLI (CAPSICUM ANNUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. Alzrog

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecological effects of heavy metals or trace elements in soils are closely related to their contents and speciation in the soil. They play a significant role in the metabolic pathways throughout the growth and development of plants when presented in required concentration. In this study the effect of rice husk and coco peat media on the cadmium uptake by chilli plant (Capsicum annuum L was investigated. The experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design (RBD comprising of three replications. Various concentrations of Cd were dosed to the media once after one week of transplantation. All the required agricultural practices were applied uniformly until harvesting. Cd accumulation in roots, shoots and fruits were analyzed during vegetative, flowering and maturity stages, using atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS. Results showed that both planting media exhibited higher accumulation of Cd in roots and shoots at the vegetative stage. The accumulated amount was found significantly dependent on the Cd dose injected to the media. Consequently, micronutrients contents and plant growth were also affected. The accumulated Cd in fruits was found slightly less in rice husk than coco peat media and above the prescribed safety limits recommended by FAO and WHO. Rice husk has higher impact on the microneutrients absorption than coco peat media. In this study, root length, plant hight, dry weight and fruits showed small differences among growing media.

  11. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food bean and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses Onim, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is being reported on a project aiming at genetic improvement of cowpea and Phaseolus bean for better disease resistance using induced mutations. The diseases of concern are anthracnose, angular leaf spot, halo blight and bean rust. Selection was effective in M 3 and M 4 generations and provided some lines with different resistance and yield levels, which will have to be examined further. (author)

  12. Synergistic mixtures of chitosan and Mentha piperita L. essential oil to inhibit Colletotrichum species and anthracnose development in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; de Araújo, Samara Amorim; Câmara, Marcos Paz Saraiva; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. essential oil (MPEO) alone or in combination to control the mycelial growth of five different Colletotrichum species, C. asianum, C. dianesei, C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii, identified as potential anthracnose-causing agents in mango (Mangifera indica L.). The efficacy of coatings of CHI and MPEO mixtures in controlling the development of anthracnose in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins was evaluated. CHI (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.3, 0.6, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μL/mL) alone effectively inhibited mycelial growth of all tested Colletotrichum strains in synthetic media. Mixtures of CHI (5 or 7.5 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.3, 0.6 or 1.25 μL/mL) strongly inhibited mycelial growth and showed additive or synergistic inhibitory effects on the tested Colletotrichum strains based on the Abbott index. The application of coatings of CHI (5 or 7.5 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.6 or 1.25 μL/mL) mixtures that presented synergistic interactions decreased anthracnose lesion severity in mango artificially contaminated with either of the tested Colletotrichum strains over 15 days of storage at 25 °C. The anthracnose lesion severity in mango coated with the mixtures of CHI and MPEO was similar or lower than those observed in mango treated with the synthetic fungicides thiophanate-methyl (10 μg a.i./mL) and difenoconazole (0.5 μg a.i./mL). The application of coatings containing low doses of CHI and MPEO may be an effective alternative for controlling the postharvest development of anthracnose in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Root treatment with rhizobacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora blight affects anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Jeong Do; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We previously selected rhizobacterial strains CCR04, CCR80, GSE09, ISE13, and ISE14, which were antagonistic to Phytophthora blight of pepper. In this study, we investigated the effects of root treatment of rhizobacteria on anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field in 2008 and 2009. We also examined the effects of volatiles produced by the strains on fruit ripening and on mycelial growth and spore development of Colletotrichum acutatum and Phytophthora capsici in the laboratory, identifying the volatile compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the house tests, all strains significantly (P anthracnose incidence on pepper fruit; strains GSE09 and ISE14 consistently produced higher numbers of pepper fruit or increased the fresh weight of red fruit more than the controls in both years. In the field tests, all strains significantly (P anthracnose occurrence on either green or red pepper fruit; strain ISE14 consistently produced higher numbers or increased fresh weights of red fruit more than the controls in both years. In the laboratory tests, volatiles produced by strains GSE09 and ISE13 only stimulated maturation of pepper fruit from green (unripe) to red (ripe) fruit; the volatiles of certain strains inhibited the growth and development of C. acutatum and P. capsici. On the other hand, GC-MS analysis of volatiles of strains GSE09 and ISE13 revealed 17 distinct compounds in both strains, including decane, dodecane, 1,3-di-tert-butylbenzene, tetradecane, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, and hexadecane. Among these compounds, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol only stimulated fruit ripening and inhibited growth and development of the pathogens. Taken together, strains GSE09 and ISE14 effectively reduced anthracnose occurrence and stimulated pepper fruit ripening and yield, possibly via bacterial volatiles. Therefore, these two strains could be potential agents for controlling Phytophthora blight and anthracnose, and for

  14. Mineralization of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on the growth and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-08-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manure to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P utilization efficiency in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P mineralization potential of two soluble P fertilizers (SPF), i.e., single superphosphate (SSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), and of insoluble rock phosphate (RP) with and without phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P utilization efficiency (PUE) of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried out on a loam (slightly alkaline) soil with 12 treatments: T0 - control; T1 - RP; T2 - SSP; T3 - DAP; T4 - PM; T5 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP; T6 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP; T7 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM; T8 - RP+PSB; T9 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP+PSB; T10 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP+PSB; and T11 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM+PSB. Phosphorus mineralization was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled conditions at 25 °C for periods of 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 60 days. A complementary greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) as a test crop. Growth, yield, P uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P mineralization in soil amended with RP was 6.0-11.5 mg kg-1, while both soluble P fertilizers resulted in 68-73 mg P kg-1 at day 0, which decreased by 79-82 % at the end of incubation. The integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in T11 stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Use of PSB decreased soil pH. In the greenhouse experiment, RP alone or RP+PSB did not have a significant impact on plant growth. However, the combined use of RP, PM and PSB in T11 resulted in similar growth, yield and P uptake of chilli as DAP. The PUE of applied P varied from 4 to 29 % and was higher in the treatments that included PSB. We conclude

  15. Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fernandes de Abreu

    2008-02-01

    collected, identified, dried into an oven at 50ºC for 48 h, ground to powder and their compounds extracted with ethanol. Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The 19 extracts were shared into two independent groups for screening and comparison in a completely randomized design, with five replications (pot with 3 plants. Plants at the first trifoliolate leaf stage were sprayed with extracts at concentration of 50 mg dry weight/mL. To assess the local effect, plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.2 x 10(6 conidia/mL 4 h after the treatment, whereas to study the residual and systemic effects, inoculation was performed after 7 days. Disease severity was evaluated 7 days after inoculation (dai on either whole plants or the non-treated leaf (systemic effect, using a scale from 1 to 9. Seaweeds and plants which significantly reduced anthracnose were compared in a follow-up experiment evaluated at both 7 and 12 dai. The extract of Bryothamnion seaforthii revealed local effect reducing the anthracnose severity by 35%. Ulva fasciata extract showed residual effect reducing the anthracnose at 12 dai by 22%. Compared to control, only extracts of Lemna sp. and U. fasciata systemically reduced the disease severity at 7 dai by 55 e 44%, respectively. The possible mode of action of these extracts is discussed.

  16. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onim, J.F.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M 2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  17. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chul Yun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013 in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively.

  18. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-09-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively.

  19. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively. PMID:25289014

  20. Extrato de alho no controle in vitro e in vivo da antracnose da videira Garlic extract in the in vitro and in vivo control of anthracnose of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Leite

    2012-01-01

    was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the crude extract of garlic in controlling anthracnose of grapevine (Elsinoe ampelina. In the first experiment in vitro, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 mL L-1 crude extract of garlic were added to potato-dextrose-agar medium (PDA before autoclaving for sterilization and to melting media. After 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of incubation at 24 ± 2ºC and photoperiod of 16 hours, the mycelial growth of E. ampelina was measured. In the second experiment in vitro, we repeated the methodology of adding the extract to the melting medium plus 2.5 mL-1 of vegetable oil and an absolute control with PDA only. After two and four hours of incubation at 24ºC and constant light, germination of E. ampelina was assessed. The experimental design for in vitro experiments was completely randomized with four replicates and the experimental plot consisted of a Petri dish. In the field experiment, after pruning of the grapevine cv. Isabel, the levels of crude extract of garlic plus oil were weekly sprayed on the leaves of the plant, except on the absolute control (no treatment. From the first symptoms of anthracnose of grapevine, the severity that was expressed as area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was evaluated. The design was in randomized blocks with five replicates. The crude extract of garlic reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen, especially when added to the culture medium prior to sterilization, when it expressed its maximal antifungal potential. When the vegetable oil was added to the extract levels, there was complete inhibition at the levels 25 or 30 mL L-1. This additive effect of these compounds was also noted for the germination test of E. ampelina. Under field conditions, the crude extract of garlic reduced the AUDPC by 83.59% at 25 mL L-1.

  1. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tanni Maria Werneck da.

    1988-12-01

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 27 0 C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 30 0 C under 12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs

  2. Introgression of heat shock protein (Hsp70 and sHsp) genes into the Malaysian elite chilli variety Kulai (Capsicum annuum L.) through the application of marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Yusuff, Oladosu A; Ismail, Mohd R; Miah, Gous

    2018-03-01

    Backcrossing together with simple sequence repeat marker strategy was adopted to improve popular Malaysian chilli Kulai (Capsicum annuum L.) for heat tolerance. The use of molecular markers in backcross breeding and selection contributes significantly to overcoming the main drawbacks such as increase linkage drag and time consumption, in the ancient manual breeding approach (conventional), and speeds up the genome recovery of the recurrent parent. The strategy was adopted to introgress heat shock protein gene(s) from AVPP0702 (C. annuum L.), which are heat-tolerant, into the genetic profile of Kulai, a popular high-yielding chilli but which is heat sensitive. The parents were grown on seed trays, and parental screening was carried out with 252 simple sequence repeat markers. The selected parents were crossed and backcrossed to generate F 1 hybrids and backcross generations. Sixty-eight markers appeared to be polymorphic and were used to assess the backcross generation; BC 1 F 1 , BC 2 F 1 and BC 3 F 1 . The average recipient allele of the selected four BC 1 F 1 plants was 80.75% which were used to produce the BC 2 F 1 generation. BC 1 -P 7 was the best BC 1 F 1 plant because it had the highest recovery at 83.40% and was positive to Hsp-linked markers (Hsp70-u2 and AGi42). After three successive generations of backcrossing, the average genome recovery of the recurrent parent in the selected plants in BC 3 F 1 was 95.37%. Hsp gene expression analysis was carried out on BC 1 F 1 , BC 2 F 1 and BC 3 F 1 selected lines. The Hsp genes were found to be up-regulated when exposed to heat treatment. The pattern of Hsp expression in the backcross generations was similar to that of the donor parent. This confirms the successful introgression of a stress-responsive gene (Hsp) into a Kulai chilli pepper variety. Furthermore, the yield performance viz. plant height, number of fruits, fruit length and weight and total yield of the improved plant were similar with the recurrent

  3. Avaliação de Fungicidas para o Controle de Antracnose em Folhas de Pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Evaluation of Fungicides for Controlling Anthracnose on Leaves of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauri José Tessmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A antracnose, causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, é uma doença foliar importante da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes nas fases de muda e planta jovem. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de fungicidas químicos no controle de antracnose em folhas de pupunheiras jovens, no Noroeste do Paraná. O ensaio foi conduzido com o delineamento experimental  em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos com fungicidas e uma testemunha  sem fungicida, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados os fungicidas chlorotalonil (2 g L-1, chlorotalonil+tiofanato metílico (1 + 0,4 g L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g L-1, azoxistrobina (80 mg L-1 e calda Viçosa (3 g L-1 de ácido bórico; 5 g L-  de sulfato de cobre; 6 g L-1 de sulfato de zinco; 3,5 g L-1 de cal hidratada. Cada fungicida foi pulverizado cinco vezes, com intervalo de 15 a 20 dias entre as aplicações. Verificou-se que todos os tratamentos com fungicidas proporcionaram redução estatisticamente significativa na intensidade da doença em relação à testemunha sem fungicida (P=0,05. Os fungicidas mais eficientes no controle da doença foram chlorotalonil e a mistura de tiofanato metílico+chlorotalonil.  
    Leaf anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum loeosporioides, is the most important disease of seedlings and young peach palm plants (Bactris gasipaes. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of some fungicides for controlling anthracnose on leaves of young peach palm (Bactris gasipaes, in Northwestern Paraná State, Brazil. An assay with randomized block design was carried out, with five different fungicides and a control, with four replicates. The fungicide evaluated were: chlorotalonil (2 g L- , chlorotalonil+methyl tiophanate (1 + 0,4 g L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g L-1, azoxystrobin (80 mg L-1 and calda Viçosa (boric acid 3 g L-1; copper sulfate 5 g L-1; zinc sulfate 6 g L-1; hydrated lime

  4. The First Genetic and Comparative Map of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.): Identification of QTLs for Anthracnose Resistance and Flowering Time, and a Locus for Alkaloid Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huyen T. T.; Ellwood, Simon R.; Adhikari, Kedar; Nelson, Matthew N.; Oliver, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We report the first genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). An F8 recombinant inbred line population developed from Kiev mutant × P27174 was mapped with 220 amplified fragment length polymorphism and 105 gene-based markers. The genetic map consists of 28 main linkage groups (LGs) that varied in length from 22.7 cM to 246.5 cM and spanned a total length of 2951 cM. There were seven additional pairs and 15 unlinked markers, and 12.8% of markers showed segregation distortion at P anthracnose resistance, flowering time, and alkaloid content allowed loci governing these traits to be defined. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant effects were identified for anthracnose resistance on LG4 and LG17, and two QTLs were detected for flowering time on the top of LG1 and LG3. Alkaloid content was mapped as a Mendelian trait to LG11. PMID:17526914

  5. Colletotrichum isolates related to Anthracnose of cashew trees in Brazil: morphological and molecular description using LSU rDNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Queijeiro Lopez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six isolates of fungi obtained from anthracnose lesions of cashew and associated host plants in Brazil, were compared by their cultural, morphological and partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal DNA characters. They showed a high degree of cultural variability. The average mycelial growth rate on all tested media ranged from 10.2-13.3 mm/day between the isolates. Most of them produced perithecia (sterile and fertile and some produced setae (sterile and fertile. All the isolates produced acervuli with predominantly cylindrical conidia (12.4-17.7 µmX 4.8-6.0 µm in width with round ends, which became septate on germination, and produced unlobed or slightlylobed appressoria. Comparison of the D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU rDNA sequences with those of other defined species of Colletotrichum and Glomerella grouped 35 of the isolates with known strains of C. gloeosporioides from different hosts (> 98.9% homology. The one exception (LARS 921 was identical to G. cingulata (LARS 238 from Vigna unguiculata.Trinta e seis isolados de fungos obtidos de lesões de antracnose em cajueiros e outras plantas consorciadas no Brasil, foram comparados quanto a seus aspectos culturais, morfológicos e seqüências parciais do rDNA 28S. Os isolados apresentaram elevado grau de variabilidade cultural, com taxa de crescimento médio, em todos os meios testados, entre 10,2 e 13,3 mm/dia. A maioria deles produziu peritécios (estéreis e férteis, e alguns produziram setas (estéreis e férteis nos diferentes meios. Todos apresentaram acérvulos com predominância de conídios cilíndricos (12,4-17,7 µm X 4,8-6,0 µm, de extremidades arredondadas, formando septos durante a germinação e produzindo apressórios ligeiramente lobados ou lisos. Comparando as seqüências do domínio D2 da larga subunidade (LSU do rDNA dos isolados com aquelas já identificadas de espécies de Colletotrichum/ Glomerella, verificou-se que 35 deles correspondem a C

  6. Screening of hypo virulence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its control effect on apple anthracnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Na; Tan Genjia; Li Zenzhi; Liu Shufang; Hou Xiaodan; Yang Weilai

    2007-01-01

    The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a nosogenesis important fungus that causes the serious economic loss on apple, however, inducing resistance of the host may reduce the loss. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was treated by ion implantation and by alternating magnetic field to induce aberrance. It was screened through eyeballing first, and then screened through growth on apple. Two aberrance strains (C100-2-5 and C0.25-1-2 were selected. Both the strains have good protective function and good effect to control the apple disease. (authors)

  7. Variation in physiological and chemical characteristics at developmental stage in different disease-resistant varieties of camellia oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z.; Dong, C.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Camellia oleifera Abel. is an important edible oil tree species from Southern China. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.), is responsible for more than 50% of C. oleifera production loss, and C. oleifera varieties differ in their resistance to anthracnose. The aim of this study was to assess resistance mechanisms by monitoring physiological and biochemical parameters of differentially resistant cultivars during the development of C. oleifera. C. oleifera fruit coats were analyzed between May and September for tannins, anthocyanins, soluble sugar content, pH, buffer capacity, activity of three enzyme (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase; polyphenol oxidase; peroxidase) and free radical scavenging capacity. Anthocyanins, soluble contents and free radical scavenging capacity were related to anthracnose resistance, with anthocyanins and soluble sugar contents of the resistant varieties nearly twofold higher than those of susceptible varieties. The results of free radical scavenging capacity showed that extracts from highly resistant varieties of C. oleifera fruit coats performed more efficiently in the scavenging of free radicals than those from susceptible varieties. The three enzyme activities of highly resistant varieties rose rapidly and continuously, while those of medium resistant and highly susceptible varieties increased initially and then decreased. Tannins, pH and buffer capacity showed no significant differences between different cultivars. This study broadens the understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in C. oleifera. (author)

  8. Linhagem isogênica no feijoeiro para resistência ao fungo da antracnose An isogenic dry bean line for resistance to the anthracnose fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available An isogenic dry bean line (Phaseolus vulgaris was developed using Rosinha 1454-10 as recurrent parent susceptible to Colletotrichum lindemuthiamun and Cornell 49-242 as the donor one. Ten backcrosses to the recurrent parent were made. Seedlings in the F1 generation of each backcross and in the F2 and F3 of the 10th backcross were inoculated using a spore suspension containing about 10(5 spores/ml, through a De Vilbiss atomizer, under greenhouse or laboratory conditions. The isogenic lines Rosinha 1454-10 and Rosinha 1454-10 Are Are will be used to estimate the losses of dry bean yield due to the anthracnose agent.

  9. Functional analysis of a regulator of G-protein signaling CgRGS1 in the rubber tree anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Man-Li; Ke, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Wen-Bo; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal agent of rubber anthracnose, which is also one of the important biological factors threatening the development of natural rubber industry in the world. Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) are key negative regulators of G-proteins, which play important roles in growth, development and pathogenic processes of plant pathogens. In this study, a RGS gene CgRGS1 was functionally characterized in C. gloeosporioides. Compared to the wild type, the CgRGS1 deletion mutant had slow vegetative growth, reduced conidia with multi-end germination, low appressorium formation rate, high resistance to oxidative stress and SDS. Moreover, the mutant was sensitive to osmotic pressure and showed decreased virulence. In conclusion, CgRGS1 is involved in regulation of vegetative growth, conidiation, germination, appressorium formation, oxidative stress, osmotic pressure response and pathogenicity in C. gloeosporioides.

  10. Construction of a System for the Strawberry Nursery Production towards Elimination of Latent Infection of Anthracnose Fungi by a Combination of PCR and Microtube Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagashima, Saki; Inukai, Tsuyoshi; Masuta, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    One of the major problems in strawberry production is difficulty in diagnosis of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum or Glomerella cingulata in latent infection stage. We here developed a diagnostic tool for the latent infection consisting of initial culturing of fungi, DNA extraction, synthesis of PCR-amplified probes and microtube hybridization (MTH) using a macroarray. The initial culturing step is convenient to lure the fungi out of the plant tissues, and to extract PCR-inhibitor-free DNA directly from fungal hyphae. For specific detection of the fungi, PCR primers were designed to amplify the fungal MAT1-2 gene. The subsequent MTH step using the PCR products as probes can replace the laborious electrophoresis step providing us sequence information and high-throughput screening. Using this method, we have conducted a survey for a few thousands nursery plants every year for three consecutive years, and finally succeeded in eliminating latent infection in the third year of challenge. PMID:28167891

  11. Construction of a System for the Strawberry Nursery Production towards Elimination of Latent Infection of Anthracnose Fungi by a Combination of PCR and Microtube Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Furuta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in strawberry production is difficulty in diagnosis of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum or Glomerella cingulata in latent infection stage. We here developed a diagnostic tool for the latent infection consisting of initial culturing of fungi, DNA extraction, synthesis of PCR-amplified probes and microtube hybridization (MTH using a macroarray. The initial culturing step is convenient to lure the fungi out of the plant tissues, and to extract PCR-inhibitor-free DNA directly from fungal hyphae. For specific detection of the fungi, PCR primers were designed to amplify the fungal MAT1-2 gene. The subsequent MTH step using the PCR products as probes can replace the laborious electrophoresis step providing us sequence information and high-throughput screening. Using this method, we have conducted a survey for a few thousands nursery plants every year for three consecutive years, and finally succeeded in eliminating latent infection in the third year of challenge.

  12. Construction of a System for the Strawberry Nursery Production towards Elimination of Latent Infection of Anthracnose Fungi by a Combination of PCR and Microtube Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagashima, Saki; Inukai, Tsuyoshi; Masuta, Chikara

    2017-02-01

    One of the major problems in strawberry production is difficulty in diagnosis of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum or Glomerella cingulata in latent infection stage. We here developed a diagnostic tool for the latent infection consisting of initial culturing of fungi, DNA extraction, synthesis of PCR-amplified probes and microtube hybridization (MTH) using a macroarray. The initial culturing step is convenient to lure the fungi out of the plant tissues, and to extract PCR-inhibitor-free DNA directly from fungal hyphae. For specific detection of the fungi, PCR primers were designed to amplify the fungal MAT1-2 gene. The subsequent MTH step using the PCR products as probes can replace the laborious electrophoresis step providing us sequence information and high-throughput screening. Using this method, we have conducted a survey for a few thousands nursery plants every year for three consecutive years, and finally succeeded in eliminating latent infection in the third year of challenge.

  13. Caracterização agronômica e pungência em pimenta de cheiro Agronomic traits and pungency of chilli pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina I Domenico

    2012-09-01

    údo de capsaicina, resultado inédito para uma pimenta de cheiro brasileira.Nine accessions of the Active Capsicum chinense Germplasm Bank of Instituto Agronômico were characterized and evaluated in climate and soil conditions of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from January to October 2010. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with nine treatments, five replications and eight plants per plot. Evaluated traits were plant height, plant growth habit, first flower anthesis, fruit yield, fresh fruit weight, fruit height and width, capsaicin content, ripe fruit color, fruit shape and fruit surface. For fruit and plant characterization were considered the four central plants of each plot; for capsaicin content evaluation were used three samples of five fruits of each accession. Capsaicin content was measured by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography. Plant height ranged from 1.13 to 0.85 m. The most accessions presented compact growth habit of plants. Accessions IAC 1644, IAC 1645 and IAC 1643 were the earliest for anthesis of first flower. IAC 1646 showed high fruit yield, fruit width and fresh weight, and IAC 1641 showed the longest fruits. IAC 1552 ('Murupi' stood out with highest capsaicin content, outperforming IAC 1646 ('Scotch Bonnet' and IAC 1644 ('Fidalga', habanero types. Fruits presented yellow, orange, salmon and red colors. The fruits presented the elongated, round, triangular, campanulated and blocked shape. The fruit surface was characterized as smooth, semi-rough and rough. In the climate and soil conditions where the research was developed and, regarding the accessions evaluated, there was high variability in chili peppers for agronomic traits and capsaicin content. IAC 1552 stood out with highest capsaicin content, first result for a Brazilian chilli pepper.

  14. Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse

  15. Keragaman Morfologi, Genetika, dan Patogenisitas Colletotrichum acutatum PenyebabAntraknosa Cabai di Jawa dan Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Ibrahim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum acutatum is known as the major causal agents of anthracnose disease of chilli pepper in Indonesia. This research was aimed to study genetic variability of C. acutatum in Java and Sumatera based on morphological and molecular characteristics and to evaluate pathogenicity of several isolates. Observation on morphological characteristics involved colour and growth of each colony as well as shape and size of conidia. Molecular identification was performed by DNA amplification using specific primer for C. acutatum, i.e. CaInt2/ITS4 followed by sequencing and nucleotide sequence analysis. Pathogenicity test for each isolate on Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens was conducted in the laboratory using detached chilli. Morphology variability was observed from 40 isolates of C. acutatum. Most of the isolates have white/beige colonies with fusiform conidia of 6.11–9.73 µm in length and 2.24­–2.73 µm in width. Pathogenicity of 3 C. acutatum isolates varies from moderate to high based on lesions size on infected chilli. Sequence analysis of 8 C. acutatum isolates indicated high homology among isolates from Java and Sumatera

  16. Nutrição do feijoeiro e intensidade da antracnose em função da aplicação de silício e cobre = Nutrition in bean plants and anthracnose intensity in function of silicon and copper application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Raquel Gomes Moraes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do silicato de cálcio e do sulfato de cobre na intensidade da antracnose e no teor nutricional do feijoeiro. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 (quatro doses de silicato decálcio, com quatro doses de sulfato de cobre e dois tratamentos adicionais (plantas nãoinoculadas e plantas pulverizadas com Benomyl. Foram feitas quatro avaliações da incidência e da severidade da doença, além de se mensurar a área foliar total. Ao término das avaliações, os dados de incidência e de severidade foram integrados ao longo do tempo, obtendo-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da incidência (AACPI e da severidade (AACPS. Os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Si e lignina foram avaliados naparte aérea. Observou-se decréscimo linear da AACPI com o aumento das doses de silicato de cálcio. Com o aumento das doses de cobre, houve redução de 35% na AACPS. O suprimento de silicato e de cobre alterou o teor de K, Mg, S, Zn, Ca e Si da parte aérea do feijoeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of calcium silicate and copper sulfate on anthracnose intensity and nutrition of bean plants. The experiment was conducted using an experimental design in randomized blocks following a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, (four levels of calcium silicate and four levels of copper sulfate and two additional treatments (plants without inoculation and plantssprinkled with Benomyl. Four evaluations of the incidence and severity of anthracnose were done, in addition to measuring total leaf area. At the end of the evaluations, incidence and severity data were integrated over time, obtaining the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. Contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Si and lignin were determined in the aerial part. A linear decrease of the intensity AUDPC was observed with the increase of the doses of calcium silicate. The severity AUDPC

  17. Transcriptional analysis and histochemistry reveal that hypersensitive cell death and H2O2 have crucial roles in the resistance of tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) to anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuchun; Hao, Xinyuan; Lu, Qinhua; Wang, Lu; Qian, Wenjun; Li, Nana; Ding, Changqing; Wang, Xinchao; Yang, Yajun

    2018-01-01

    Anthracnose causes severe losses of tea production in China. Although genes and biological processes involved in anthracnose resistance have been reported in other plants, the molecular response to anthracnose in tea plant is unknown. We used the susceptible tea cultivar Longjing 43 and the resistant cultivar Zhongcha 108 as materials and compared transcriptome changes in the leaves of both cultivars following Colletotrichum fructicola inoculation. In all, 9015 and 8624 genes were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible cultivars and their controls (0 h), respectively. In both cultivars, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched in 215 pathways, including responses to sugar metabolism, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS), biotic stimuli and signalling, transmembrane transporter activity, protease activity and signalling receptor activity, but DEG expression levels were higher in Zhongcha 108 than in Longjing 43. Moreover, functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs showed that hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) metabolism, cell death, secondary metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism are involved in the defence of Zhongcha 108, and 88 key genes were identified. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network demonstrated that putative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are activated by resistance (R) genes and mediate downstream defence responses. Histochemical analysis subsequently validated the strong hypersensitive response (HR) and H 2 O 2 accumulation that occurred around the hyphal infection sites in Zhongcha 108. Overall, our results indicate that the HR and H 2 O 2 are critical mechanisms in tea plant defence against anthracnose and may be activated by R genes via MAPK cascades.

  18. Ação fungicida do acaricida azocyclotin sobre a antracnose do feijoeiro comum Fungicidal action of azocyclotin acaricide on comon bean anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Santini

    2005-01-01

    ao trifenil hidróxido de estanho.The control effect of azocyclotin acaricide was tested to common bean anthracnose pathogen, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, in vitro, seedlings and in field conditions. The treatments in vitro were: 1 Test; 2 Azocyclotin (AZ- 1 AZ-1 mg.L-1; 3 Triphenil sthanic hydroxide (THE-1 mg L-1; 4 AZ-10 mg L-1; 5 THE-10 mg L-1; 6 AZ-100 mg L-1 and 7 THE-100 mg L-1 and in vivo treatments were: 1 Test; 2 AZ applyed 24 hours before inoculation (AZ-24; 3THE-24; 4 AZ-48; 5THE-48; 6 AZ-72; 7 THE-72; 8 AZ-96; 9 THE-96; 10 AZ-120; 11 THE-120; 12 AZ-144, and 13 THE-144. Azocyclotin was evaluated at 125 g.100 L-1 of water and fenthin hydroxide at 41,25 g a.i.100 L-1. The experiments were set up as a completely randomized design, with 5 repetitions. In field conditions, the treatments (g ha-1 a.i. included: 1 tebuconazole + fentin hydroxide-100 + 200; 2 tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin-40 + 100; 3 trifloxystrobin-125; 4 tebuconazole + azocyclotin-100 + 500; 5 azocyclotin - 500 and 6 without chemical. The experimental design was done using randomized blocks, with 4 replicates. The mycelial growth was determined through reading the fungi radial growth in BDA culture media. In vivo and in field conditions, evaluations were made with a scale of 1 to 9, where 1 = without symptoms and 9 = equal or more than 25% of foliar area with anthracnose symptoms. In vitro test, the treatment 7 presented the most effective mycelial development inhibition. Azocyclotin and triphenil sthanic hydroxide controlled dry bean anthracnose when applied until 144 hours before inoculation. A new field record was the control of bean anthracnose with azocyclotin acaricide, with effect on both to angular leaf spot and alternaria leaf spot. It was concluded that azocyclotin acaricide can control dry bean anthracnose with similar efficiency as fentin hydroxide.

  19. Efeito do óleo de soja no controle da antracnose e na conservação da manga cv. Palmer em pós-colheita Effect of soybean oil in the control of anthracnose and on post-harvest conservation of mango, cv. Palmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de pós-colheita da manga, a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. é a doença mais importante em termos de expressão econômica. Seu controle vem sendo feito pela imersão dos frutos por 5 minutos, em água a 55 ºC, acrescida de thiabendazo1 a 0,2%. Embora seja eficaz no controle dessa doença, esse fungicida pode deixar resíduo, o que não satisfaz os consumidores que vêm, a cada ano, aumentando as suas exigências por frutos livres de resíduos de agroquímicos e ambientalmente corretos. Dessa forma, esses experimentos foram conduzidos visando à seleção de produtos biológicos que tenham potencial para o controle da antracnose e para a conservação da manga na pós-colheita. Os frutos, colhidos no estádio de maturação 3 e 4, foram imersos por 5 minutos em thiabendazol a 0,24% e benomil a 0,1 % a 22 ºC, 40 ºC ou 45 ºC e em diferentes concentrações de óleo de soja isolado ou em mistura com benomil, thiabendazol e com extrato etanólico de sucupira (Pterodon pubescens Benth.. Após os tratamentos, os frutos foram mantidos em câmaras a 27 ± 1 ºC, 72 % a 85 % de UR (Experimento nº 1 e a 17ºC a 85% a 100% de UR (experimento nº 2. As avaliações foram efetuadas aos 15 dias (experimento nº 1 e aos 30 dias (experimento nº 2 após os tratamentos, determinando-se as porcentagens da superfície dos frutos cobertas com lesões, de frutos verdes, maduros e de vez, ºBrix e textura. O óleo de soja, isolado ou misturado com benomil ou thiabendazol, a 22 ºC ou a 40 ºC, aumentou o tempo de prateleira da manga Palmer e foi eficaz no controle da antracnose.The anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is the most important post-harvest disease of mango fruit. Its control has been done by immersion of fruits for 5 minutes in hot water at 55ºC containing the fungicide thiabendazole at 200 g/100 liters. Although efficient in the control of mango anthracnose, this fungicide can leave residues. This fact does

  20. bZIP transcription factor CgAP1 is essential for oxidative stress tolerance and full virulence of the poplar anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingjiao; Wang, Yonglin; Tian, Chengming

    2016-10-01

    Yeast AP1 transcription factor is a regulator of oxidative stress response. Here, we report the identification and characterization of CgAP1, an ortholog of YAP1 in poplar anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The expression of CgAP1 was highly induced by reactive oxygen species. CgAP1 deletion mutants displayed enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress compared with the wild-type strain, and their poplar leaf virulence was obviously reduced. However, the mutants exhibited no obvious defects in aerial hyphal growth, conidia production, and appressoria formation. CgAP1::eGFP fusion protein localized to the nucleus after TBH (tert-Butyl hydroperoxide) treatment, suggesting that CgAP1 functions as a redox sensor in C. gloeosporioides. In addition, CgAP1 prevented the accumulation of ROS during early stages of biotrophic growth. CgAP1 also acted as a positive regulator of several ROS-related genes (i.e., Glr1, Hyr1, and Cyt1) involved in the antioxidative response. These results highlight the key regulatory role of CgAP1 transcription factor in oxidative stress response and provide insights into the function of ROS detoxification in virulence of C. gloeosporioides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pre-Harvest Application of a New Biocontrol Formulation Induces Resistance to Post-Harvest Anthracnose and Enhances Fruit Yield in Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vivekananthan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest application of biocontrol formulations consisting of 1. the two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains FP7 and Pf1 of Pseudomonas fluorescens; 2. a strain of Bacillus subtilis Bs-1; and 3. a strain (Sc-1 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, given at fortnightly or monthly intervals and with or without a chitin amendment, were evaluated in two trials for their ability to reduce anthracnose in mango caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Growth of C. gloeosporioides in vitro was significantly reduced by strain FP7 and in both field trials the bacterial strain in combination with chitin significantly reduced infection. Pre-harvest application of these formulations at fortnightly intervals also significantly improved flower initiation, yield parameters (mean number of fruits and fruit yield and fruit quality (total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, free acidity, total, reducing and non- reducing sugar content. The delay in latent symptom expression increased by 15 days under stored conditions. The highest levels of phenolic content, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase on mango leaves, flowers and fruits were achieved with FP7 +chitin.

  2. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  3. Construction of a high-density genetic map using specific length amplified fragment markers and identification of a quantitative trait locus for anthracnose resistance in walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yufeng; Yin, Yanfei; Yang, Keqiang; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Huang, Long; Fan, Shu

    2015-08-18

    Walnut (Juglans regia, 2n = 32, approximately 606 Mb per 1C genome) is an economically important tree crop. Resistance to anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major objective of walnut genetic improvement in China. The recently developed specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is an efficient strategy that can obtain large numbers of markers with sufficient sequence information to construct high-density genetic maps and permits detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for molecular breeding. SLAF-seq generated 161.64 M paired-end reads. 153,820 SLAF markers were obtained, of which 49,174 were polymorphic. 13,635 polymorphic markers were sorted into five segregation types and 2,577 markers of them were used to construct genetic linkage maps: 2,395 of these fell into 16 linkage groups (LGs) for the female map, 448 markers for the male map, and 2,577 markers for the integrated map. Taking into account the size of all LGs, the marker coverage was 2,664.36 cM for the female map, 1,305.58 cM for the male map, and 2,457.82 cM for the integrated map. The average intervals between two adjacent mapped markers were 1.11 cM, 2.91 cM and 0.95 cM for three maps, respectively. 'SNP_only' markers accounted for 89.25% of the markers on the integrated map. Mapping markers contained 5,043 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) loci, which corresponded to two SNP loci per SLAF marker. According to the integrated map, we used interval mapping (Logarithm of odds, LOD > 3.0) to detect our quantitative trait. One QTL was detected for anthracnose resistance. The interval of this QTL ranged from 165.51 cM to 176.33 cM on LG14, and ten markers in this interval that were above the threshold value were considered to be linked markers to the anthracnose resistance trait. The phenotypic variance explained by each marker ranged from 16.2 to 19.9%, and their LOD scores varied from 3.22 to 4.04. High-density genetic maps for walnut containing 16

  4. Screening of Colletotrichum (Ascomycota isolates, causal agents of Soybean Anthracnose, for Laccase production Relevamiento de la producción de lacasa en aislamientos de Colletotrichum (Ascomycota, agente causal de antracnosis de la Soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Levin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum truncatum is the most common pathogen fungus associated with soybean anthracnose. Although the lignin-degrading enzyme laccase has been implicated in pathogenicity of a wide range of plant pathogenic fungi, its biological role in the Colletotrichum -soybean disease system is unknown. The extent of the infection in our country led us to examine laccase production in Argentinean Colletotrichum strains isolated from diseased soybean plants from different geographic locations. Ten strains (eight of them identified as C. truncatum , were screened for in vitro laccase production. Only six of the isolates, all of them C. truncatum , produced laccase activity when cultured on a defined medium based on pectin and asparagine as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Strain BAFC 3102 (isolated from Chaco province, yielded the highest laccase titers (44 U/L in this medium. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracellular culture fluids revealed one band with laccase activity (mol wt 67 kDa. CuSO 4 addition to media with either glucose or pectin as carbon sources increased up to 7-fold laccase production (280 U/L in the glucose medium, but the pattern of isoenzyme was not affected by culture age or medium composition. This is the first report on laccase production by C. truncatum.Colletotrichum truncatum es el hongo patógeno más comúnmente asociado con la antracnosis de soja. Aunque la enzima ligninolítica lacasa se relaciona con la patogenicidad de un amplio rango de hongos fitopatógenos, su rol biológico en la interacción Colletotrichum -soja aún se desconoce. La extensión de la infección en la Argentina , nos ha llevado a examinar la producción de lacasa en cepas aisladas de plantas enfermas de soja de diferentes regiones de nuestro país. Se evaluó la producción in vitro de lacasa en diez cepas (ocho de ellas identificadas como C. truncatum . Sólo seis, todas correspondientes a C. truncatum , produjeron

  5. Indução de resistência sistêmica à antracnose em feijoeiro-comum pela raça delta avirulenta de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Induction of systemic resistance to anthracnose in common bean by the avirulent delta race of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Diniz Campos

    2009-01-01

    /95, a virulent C. lindemuthianum patotype and reevaluated five days later for the enzyme activities. Significant increases in the activities of both beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase were observed after inoculation of inductive fungus at the two evaluation periods, at both plant development stages. The activities of both beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase varied among cultivars and among plant development stages. A significant correlation was observed between the disease severity and the enzyme activity. The avirulent delta race of C. lindemuthianum reduced the severity of anthracnose on common bean and may have the potential to control the disease.

  6. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

    1990-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

  7. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W.; Boag, T.S.; Panitz, M.; Sangchote, S.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

  8. Melhoramento do feijoeiro comum com grão tipo carioca, visando resistência à antracnose e à mancha angular Breeding of common bean with carioca type grain for the resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansuêmia Alves Couto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no trabalho, selecionar linhagens de feijoeiro comum que reunissem, além da alta produtividade, porte ereto e grãos do tipo Carioca, também a resistência à antracnose e à mancha angular. O material experimental constituiu-se de 143 linhagens oriundas de três famílias segregantes F1:4RC2 {[(G2333 X ESAL 696 X ESAL 696] X CI 140}. Foram conduzidos quatro experimentos em três localidades da região sul de Minas Gerais, avaliando-se a produção, o tipo de grão, o porte e a reação à mancha angular. A reação à antracnose foi determinada a partir de inoculações de plantas jovens de cada linhagem, com as raças 2047 e 1545, mantidas em câmara de nevoeiro por três dias e transferidas para casa de vegetação com irrigação por aspersão, a cada quatro horas. Selecionaram-se quatro linhagens com alta produtividade, porte mais arbustivo, grãos tipo carioca e com resistência à mancha angular (nota até 4. Uma das linhagens selecionada possui o alelo Co-4², outras duas possuem o alelo Co-7 de resistência à antracnose e a última, embora seja suscetível à antracnose, possui resistência à mancha angular (nota 3,97 e maior produtividade de grãos.Aiming to select common bean lines with high grain yield, Carioca grain type, upright plant habit and resistant to anthracnose and angular leaf spot, 143 lines were selected from three families of the cross F1:4RC2 {[(G2333 X ESAL 696 X ESAL 696] X CI 140}. The promising lines were selected based on the agronomical traits in four field experiments, set up in three places in Southern MG State using the square lattice design. The reaction of each line to the anthracnose was evaluated by inoculating the seedlings using the races 1545 and 2047, and kept in humid chamber during three days, and then moved to greenhouse with sprinkle irrigation every four hours. Four lines with high grain yield, upright plant habit, Carioca grain type, and resistance to angular leaf spot (score up

  9. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adshead, Peter; Cui, Yanou; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N eff , we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  10. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Cui, Yanou [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Shelton, Jessie [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2016-06-06

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N{sub eff}, we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  11. Chilly Senate gives Carter a hard time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Is the United States Senate about to deliver the final coup de grace to President Jimmy Carter Initial reaction from the Senate to Carter's Salt II agreement with Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev certainly points that way. The Salt II agreement still has to be submitted to a Senate that is as yet decidedly undecided about whether to ratify it. Washington sources indicate that 70 of the 100 senators are uncommitted, and 67 members must support the treaty if it is to be ratified

  12. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Peter; Cui, Yanou; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-06-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N eff , we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  13. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  14. Diversity of Genetic Resources and Genetic Association Analyses of Green and Dry Chillies of Eastern India Diversidad de Recursos Genéticos y Análisis de Asociación Genética de Ajíes Verdes y Secos del Este de India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Chattopadhyay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chilli (Capsicum annuum L. is regarded as one of the main commercial vegetable and spice crops at the global level. Maximum diversity can be noted among the cultivars/landraces available in India with respect to shape, size, yield, quality, and other traits. The present experiment was conducted to identify the most promising chilli variety suited for green and dry purposes, to study the genetic variability for different traits and to assess the association of different yield attributing traits with the green and dry yield of chilli. Thirty four genotypes were characterized during a 2-yr period. Most of the genotypes possessed the character constellation of C. annuum. Two genotypes, ‘Chaitali Pointed’ and ‘BC CH Sel-4’ were found most promising with respect to green fruit yield (272.79 g, 221.10 g per plant and dry fruit yield (54.56 g, 44.44 g per plant. Phenotypic and Genotypic Coefficient of Variation values for green fruit weight (119.95%, 111.26%, green fruit girth (89.76%, 48.93%, weight of red ripe fruit (112.02%, 111.93%, weight of dry fruit (111.63%, 110.97% and number of fruits per plant (86.05%, 85.02% were recorded to be high. Green fruit yield per plant, ascorbic acid content, and number of fruits per plant also showed very high broad-sense heritability and genetic advance. From the study of correlation and path coefficient analyses, the number of fruits per plant, green fruit length for green chilli, weight of dry fruit and the number of fruits per plant for dry chilli were found to the most important selection indices.El ají (Capsicum annuum L. es considerado como uno de los principales cultivos comerciales de vegetales y especias a nivel mundial. La máxima diversidad puede ser observada entre los cultivares y razas disponibles en India con respecto a forma, tamaño, producción, calidad, y otros rasgos. Este experimento se realizó para identificar la variedad de ají más promisoria y apropiada para fruto verde y seco

  15. Seleção de famílias de feijoeiro resistente à antracnose e à mancha-angular Selection of common bean families resistant to anthracnose and angular leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Geraldo de Morais Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar famílias de feijoeiro com resistência a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum e Phaeoisariopsis griseola e com outros fenótipos agronômicos desejáveis. As famílias utilizadas foram obtidas do cruzamento entre a linhagem H91, portadora de três alelos de resistência à antracnose, com três famílias F2:5 resistentes à mancha-angular, derivadas da cultivar Jalo EEP 558. Foi utilizado o delineamento látice quadrado em todos os experimentos. Inicialmente, foram avaliadas 144 famílias F2:3, no inverno de 2004, em Lavras, MG, com base no tipo de grão. Foram selecionadas 80 famílias F2:4 e avaliadas com a testemunha BRSMG Talismã, no período das águas de 2004/2005, no mesmo local. Considerando-se o tipo de grão e a resistência à mancha-angular e antracnose, foram mantidas 48 famílias F2:5, que foram avaliadas na seca de 2005, em Lavras e Lambari, MG. Essas 48 famílias passaram por inoculação das raças 2047, 73 e 1545 de C. lindemuthianum, para verificação da presença dos alelos de resistência Co-4², Co-5 e Co-7, respectivamente. Foram identificados genótipos da maioria das 48 famílias, quanto à reação à antracnose, das quais se destacaram quatro, em relação ao tipo de grão semelhante ao 'Carioca', de porte ereto, produtividade elevada e resistência à mancha-angular.The objective of this work was to select common bean families resistant to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Phaeoisariopsis griseola and, also, with superior agronomical traits. Families used were obtained from crosses of H91 lineage, bearer of three alleles resistant to anthracnose, and F2;5 families derived from the cultivar Jalo EEP 558, which is resistant to angular leaf spot. Square lattice design was used in all experiments. Initially the F2:3 families (144 were evaluated in the winter of 2004, in Lavras county, MG, Brazil, based on grain type. Eighty families (F2:4 were selected and evaluated with the check

  16. Genetic diversity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Nigeria using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fmodupe

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... gloeosporioides isolates and was effective in establishing genetic relationships ... Key words: Anthracnose disease, pathotypes, genetic diversity, amplified ..... isolates to use in an anthracnose resistance screening program.

  17. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of the Natural Saponin CAY-1, for Control of Several Strawberry Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The steroidal saponin from cayenne pepper, CAY-1, was tested as a potential fungicide in detached leaf assays and field trials. Efficacy of CAY-1 against strawberry anthracnose was compared to the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin. Both fungicides prevented anthracnose leaf lesions when applied to...

  18. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose; Tratamento termico e radiacao gamma no controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (PENZ.) PENTZ et SACC., agente causal da antracnose em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tanni Maria Werneck da

    1988-12-01

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 27{sup 0} C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 30{sup 0} C under (12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. Tratamento térmico e prochloraz no controle da antracnose em pós-colheita de frutos de banana 'Prata Anã' Thermotherapy and prochloraz to control of anthracnose on 'Prata Anã' bananas in post harvest conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barreto da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico, térmico e a refrigeração são os processos mais utilizados no tratamento pós-colheita das bananas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento térmico, químico e da combinação dos dois métodos e estes associados à baixa temperatura de conservação no controle da antracnose na pós-colheita da banana. Para tanto os experimentos foram realizados em três épocas quando, bananas (Musa sp da variedade 'Prata Anã' (AAB no estádio pré-climatérico eram coletadas e suas pencas individualizadas. As pencas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos com cinco repetições cada: 1. Tratamento térmico (imersão em água a 56ºC por seis minutos, seguido de resfriamento em água à temperatura ambiente; 2. Tratamento químico por seis minutos (imersão em calda fungicida (prochloraz 2,5 mL.L-1; 3. Tratamento térmico seguido do químico; 4. Testemunha, imersão em água por seis minutos. Após os tratamentos, as pencas eram divididas em duas partes iguais, sendo que uma parte ficou em câmara fria (14ºC com variação de 2ºC e a outra permaneceu à temperatura ambiente. O tratamento térmico não foi eficiente no controle da doença. O fungicida prochloraz a 2,5 mL.L-1 foi eficiente no controle da podridão pós-colheita. A refrigeração retardou o surgimento da doença em até 12 dias. Os resultados indicam que a baixa temperatura, associada ou não ao controle químico, é capaz de controlar a podridão pós-colheita dos frutos por 12 dias.Chemical control and refrigeration are two processes usually adopted in the treatment of the banana post harvest rot. This work has for objective to evaluate the effect on the control of the anthracnose in banana post harvest of the chemotherapy, of the thermotherapy, of the combination of the two listed methods and these all associated to the low conservation temperature. The experiments were replicate three times where banana fruit (Musa sp of the variety 'Prata An

  20. Evaluation of lactoperoxidase system treatment to reduce anthracnose, stem-end rot, and bacterial black spot development during storage of mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Nguyen, Doan Duy; Ducamp, Marie-Noelle; Dornier, Manuel; Montet, Didier; Reynes, Max; Loiseau, Gérard

    2005-08-01

    The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) was evaluated for the prevention of postharvest diseases caused by Xanthomonas campestris, Botryodiplodia theobromae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in 'Keitt' and 'Kent' mangoes. The LPS treatment significantly reduced the disease development on both cultivars after storage at 12 degrees C for 2 weeks, which was followed by a ripening at 25 degrees C. The LPS treatment did not alter the sensory quality of mango fruits (color, firmness, titrable acidity, and total soluble solids) when compared to untreated fruits. The LPS thus presents good potential alternative to the chemical fungicides traditionally used to improve the shelf life of mangoes.

  1. PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL ASSESMENT OF CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. (SWEET PEPPER AND CHILLI GERMPLASM FROM THE GENE POOL OF THE WORLD VEGETABLE CENTER (AVRDC UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ARARAT VALLEY IN ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Sarikyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On an experimental basis of the Scientific Center of vegetable, melon and industrial crops (Republic of Armenia 20 accessions of the world germplasm of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper, chili provided by the World Vegetable Center (AVRDC have been studied. The accessions resistant to such diseases as verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum Reincke, bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum (= Pseudomonas solanacearum, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, blossom end rot of fruit, and tip-burn have been selected. These genotypes of chili and sweet pepper are the promising initial material in breeding for resistance to common diseases. In collaboration with other breeders, five varieties of peppers were developed and released: sweet pepper cultivars Natalie, Emily, Miles, and chili cultivars Zita and Gita.

  2. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Chae Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA, has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM. BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.

  3. Expression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from Trichoderma harzianum in strawberry increases tolerance to crown rot diseases but interferes with plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, José A; Barceló, Marta; Pliego, Clara; Rey, Manuel; Caballero, José L; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Ruano-Rosa, David; López-Herrera, Carlos; de Los Santos, Berta; Romero-Muñoz, Fernando; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The expression of antifungal genes from Trichoderma harzianum, mainly chitinases, has been used to confer plant resistance to fungal diseases. However, the biotechnological potential of glucanase genes from Trichoderma has been scarcely assessed. In this research, transgenic strawberry plants expressing the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from T. harzianum, under the control of the CaMV35S promoter, have been generated. After acclimatization, five out of 12 independent lines analysed showed a stunted phenotype when growing in the greenhouse. Moreover, most of the lines displayed a reduced yield due to both a reduction in the number of fruit per plant and a lower fruit size. Several transgenic lines showing higher glucanase activity in leaves than control plants were selected for pathogenicity tests. When inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum, one of the most important strawberry pathogens, transgenic lines showed lower anthracnose symptoms in leaf and crown than control. In the three lines selected, the percentage of plants showing anthracnose symptoms in crown decreased from 61 % to a mean value of 16.5 %, in control and transgenic lines, respectively. Some transgenic lines also showed an enhanced resistance to Rosellinia necatrix, a soil-borne pathogen causing root and crown rot in strawberry. These results indicate that bgn13.1 from T. harzianum can be used to increase strawberry tolerance to crown rot diseases, although its constitutive expression affects plant growth and fruit yield. Alternative strategies such as the use of tissue specific promoters might avoid the negative effects of bgn13.1 expression in plant performance.

  4. The merging of two dynasties--identification of an African cotton leaf curl disease-associated begomovirus with cotton in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nouman Tahir

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV, the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite was not found. Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB were identified. Inoculation of the experimental plant species Nicotiana benthamiana showed that CLCuGV was competent to maintain both CLCuMB and ChLCB. Interestingly, the enations typical of CLCuD were only induced by CLCuGV in the presence of CLCuMB. Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident. This is the first time an African begomovirus has been identified on the Indian sub-continent, highlight the growing threat of begomoviruses and particularly the threat of CLCuD causing viruses to cotton cultivation in the rest of the world.

  5. Influence of solar irradiance, watering frequency and inorganic fertilizer on incidence of dieback disease and growth of Ceiba pentendra (L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkyi, K.A.; Owusu-Sekyere, E.; Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts at raising seedlings of Ceiba pentandra in nurseries have been hampered by damping-off, leaf spots and stem anthracnose causing stem dieback disease by fungal attack. Managing the disease by fungicides retarded growth of the seedlings; hence a method of controlling the dieback disease and boosting growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings based on environmental factors was investigated. Using a randomised complete block design in a factorial split-plot experiment, the dependence of survival and growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings on solar irradiance, watering frequency and NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer was studied to improve the survival rate of seedlings by preventing dieback disease in large-scale plantation development in Ghana. Solar irradiance, daily watering of 4.5 L per plot and inorganic fertilizer application of 1.0 g per seedling had the strongest effect in minimizing the incidence of dieback disease and ensuring 90 % survival and improved collar diameter growth. The levels of irradiance, watering regime and optimum fertilizer application required to control dieback disease and promote growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings were set, and could be adopted by tree growers. (au)

  6. Regeneration potential of seedling explants of chilli (Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... gation techniques for mass multiplication have become imperative. ... Abbreviations: BAP, 6-benzyle amino purine; NAA, a-naphthalene acetic acid; IBA .... were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means.

  7. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli: origin, distribution, and its economical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense. Capsicum has significantly economical value, for example as spices, vitamine, traditionaly medicine, and as an ornamental plant.

  8. Alternative food promotes broad mite control on chilli pepper plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, M.V.A.; Venzon, M.; de S. Bittencourt, M.C.; Rodríguez-Cruz, F.A.; Pallini, A.; Janssen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Many omnivorous arthropods are important natural enemies because they can feed on plant-provided pollen and several prey species, and thus persist in crops even in the absence of the target pest. Hence, populations of these predators can be established in a crop by providing alternative food, thus

  9. Molecular characterization of 'Bhut Jolokia' the hottest chilli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-14

    Aug 14, 2012 ... variations along with its extreme pungency might be related to ambient environmental factors of northeastern India. ... plant goes through; any type of environmental stress will ...... This work was funded by the Defence.

  10. Field Management of Anthracnose ( Colletotrichum lindemuthianum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v3i2.3 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  11. Genetic characterization of mango anthracnose pathogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolate specific RAPD fingerprints were obtained. Out of eight primers in RAPD, OPA-1, 3 and 18 were able to produce reproducible banding pattern. Each of these primers generated a short spectrum of amplicons, located between 661 and 2291-bp markers, indicative of genetic polymorphism. Dendogram revealed more ...

  12. Classification of chilli sauces: Multivariate pattern recognition using selected GCMS retention time peaks of chilli sauces samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Kah Hin; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain; Mohd Radzi Abas

    2008-01-01

    As a preliminary work on the possibility of separating classes of chili sauces based on taste or customer preferences, organic compounds from different kinds of chili sauces of various brands were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/ MS). It was found that these organic compounds do form a basis for separation of different types of sauces. The similarity and dissimilarity of chromatograms due to the organic composition of the chili sauces were explored by multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Both CA and PCA results exhibit four linearly separable classes, namely general sauces, hot sauces, sauces with benzoic acid and sauces with garlic. It was concluded that by using chosen retention peaks in the chromatograms of various sauce samples as multivariate features, CA and PCA can be successfully used to reveal the natural clusters existing in chili sauces according to their organic composition. (author)

  13. Farber's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management, and therapy of rare diseases, including the lipid storage diseases. Research on lipid storage diseases within the Network includes ... management, and therapy of rare diseases, including the lipid storage diseases. Research on lipid storage diseases within the Network includes ...

  14. Combined heat and gamma-irradiation treatments for the control of strawberry diseases under market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thomas, A.C.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Terblanche, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    The spoilage of strawberries under local market conditions was investigated. It was confirmed that the major losses are due to 'leak' disease caused by Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.) Lind. It was also established that further fruit losses in summer are due to anthracnose caused by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds. This is the first time that the latter pathogen has been isolated and identified and recognised as a problem on strawberries in South Africa. Studies with R. stolonifer in culture showed that 46 degrees Celsius for 20 min (the previous international standard heat treatment for fruit) was disappointing, while a treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 min effectively inhibited spore germination. Irradiation studies with cultures of R. stolonifer and C. acutatum showed that a dose of 200 and 100 krad, respectively, resulted in excellent inhibition of spore germination. However, irradiating in nitrogen gas resulted in a tenfold reduction in the effectiveness of the irradiation treatments. The use of nitrogen during irradiation, therefore, cannot be considered, especially where an effective control of the fungal pathogens is desired. Investigations with different cultivars clearly demonstrated the synergistic effect on disease control obtained when combining heat and irradiation treatments. The combination treatment (moist heat at 50-52 degrees Celsius for 10 min plus 200 krad), besides effectively controlling both diseases in strawberries, did not adversely affect berry quality. In simulated transport tests it was shown that a minimal amount of berry softening did occur with this treatment, but this adverse effect was negligible compared with the beneficial effect obtained from disease control. In semi-commercial experiments it was shown that the combination heat and irradiation treatment effectively controlled spoilage diseases for a period of several days from picking, thus allowing sufficient time to market the fruit under local market

  15. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Narusaka

    Full Text Available Housaku Monogatari (HM is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods.

  16. Controle da antracnose e qualidade de mangas (Mangifera indica L. cv. van dyke, após tratamento hidrotérmico e químico Anthracnose control and mango quality (Mangifera indica L. cv. van dyke after hydrothermal and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Carvalho Dias

    2005-04-01

    armazenamento. O fungicida Prochloraz (Sportak 110 mL/100 L, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico, inibiu totalmente o aparecimento de sintomas de antracnose.Anthracnose causes severe damage to the mango skin. Therefore, there is need to do the post-harvest phytosanitary treatment of the fruits through soaking in fungicide solution, which associated with the hydrothermal treatment has resulted into improved benefits. The present work has aimed at studying anthracnose control and post-harvest quality of mangoes (Mangifera indica L., cv. Van Dyke after hydrothermal treatment associated with chemical through the physical, physicochemical, chemical and phytopathologic analyses. The mangoes coming from the commercial orchard of the town of Janaúba-MG, of the 2000 crop, were harvested at the commercial maturation stage. After selection according to color uniformity, size and absence of mechanic and physiologic injuries, they were shipped in plastic boxes to the EPAMIG - CTNM - Nova Porteirinha - MG, fruit post-harvest laboratory, where the samples were submitted to the hydrothermal treatment in cold bath in solution containing the fungicides Thiabendazole (Tecto 400 mL/100L, Proclaraz (Sportak 10L/100L and Imazalil (Magnate 200mL/100L. After air-drying, the fruits were packed in plastic trays and stored at room temperature (25±2°C and RH 70% for a 12-day period and evaluated as to the intrinsic quality characteristics every 4 days. The experiment was conducted a completely randomized with 8 treatments, 4 replicates and experimental unit consisting of 4 fruits. The variations of pH, total soluble solids, total titrable acidity and total soluble sugars have not endangered the organoleptic characteristics of mangoes cv. Van Dyke stored under room temperature (25±2°C and RH 70% till 8 days' storage. The association of the hydrothermal treatment with the chemical was efficient in fruit anthracnose control for till 12 days' storage. The fungicide Prochloraz (Sportak 110 mL/100L

  17. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome (PCOS) Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Primary Hyperparathyroidism Prolactinoma Thyroid Tests Turner Syndrome Contact Us The National ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  18. The effect of fire on flowering dogwood stand dynamics in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Holzmueller; Shibu Jose; Michael A. Jenkins

    2006-01-01

    Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) survival is threatened across most of its range in forests of the eastern United States by dogwood anthracnose, a disease caused by the fungus Discula destructive Redlin. Where anthracnose is present, mortality of dogwood has been severe. Currently, no management techniques exist to reduce impacts of the disease...

  19. Transgenic sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) developed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important food and fodder crop. Fungal diseases such as anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum reduce sorghum yields. Genetic transformation can be used to confer tolerance to plant diseases such as anthracnose. The tolerance can be developed by introducing ...

  20. Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Hengbo; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2017-06-27

    Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Among these 33 genes, the expression level of TLP29 increased following the three pathogens inoculations, and its homolog from the disease resistant Chinese wild grape V. quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', was focused for functional studies. Over-expression of TLP29 from grape 'Shang-24' (VqTLP29) in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced its resistance to powdery mildew and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but decreased resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, the stomatal closure immunity response to pathogen associated molecular patterns was strengthened in the transgenic lines. A comparison of the expression profiles of various resistance-related genes after infection with different pathogens indicated that VqTLP29 may be involved in the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling pathways.

  1. Is syndromic data from rural poultry farmers a viable poultry disease reporting tool and means of identifying likely farmer responses to poultry disease incursion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubamba, C; Ramsay, G; Abolnik, C; Dautu, G; Gummow, B

    2018-05-01

    , this study identified chilli, Aloe Vera, garlic onion, moringa, and ash as traditional remedies that are commonly being used in Eastern Zambia, and which are also used to treat poultry diseases in Zimbabwe and Botswana. Only fourteen remedies described are conventionally accepted by veterinarians as remedies and disease control measures for poultry diseases. This study shows that syndromic data obtained from farmers is a useful disease reporting tool and could be used as an effective means of alerting authorities to disease incursion. In addition, it shows that these data may give a more accurate estimate of incidence for certain diseases than current surveillance methods and could be useful in assessing significant risk factors associated with disease occurrence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PEMANFAATAN SUMBER DAYA GENETIK LOKAL DALAM PERAKITAN VARIETAS UNGGUL CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM TAHAN TERHADAP PENYAKIT ANTRAKNOSA YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH COLLETOTRICHUM SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Syukur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of resistant varieties based on local resources is one way to solve the problem of anthracnose disease. This study aims to identify the species of anthracnose isolates (Colletotricum accutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and C. capsici from the various centers of chili production through the characterization of conidia, get the genotypes that are resistant to anthracnose disease, and get information about resistance to anthracnose disease of chili pepper lines. Research activities include morphological characterization of Colletotrichum isolates, screening of resistance the chili pepper lines to anthracnose disease, and screening of resistance the pepper genotypes of exploration results to anthracnose disease. The results showed that the isolates found in the field consist of 3 species, namely C. capsici, C. acutatum, and C. gloesporioides. Forty two isolates of 67 isolates were C. capsici, the rest were C. acutatum or C. gloesporioides. The chili pepper lines were tested, including the criteria for moderate to highly susceptible to anthracnose diseases caused by C. acutatum. IPB C15 Genotype was consistently more resistant to anthracnose caused by C. acutatum as compared to 27 other genotypes.

  3. Ribbing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukkada, Philson J; Franklin, Teenu; Rajeswaran, Rangasami; Joseph, Santhosh

    2010-01-01

    Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc

  4. Seleção de linhagens de feijão rosinha de boa cocção, resistentes à antracnose e mancha angular Selection of pink grain common bean lines with good cooking ability, resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Velásquez Faleiro e Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivares de feijoeiro com grão rosinha foram de grande importância, no passado, e ainda hoje, mesmo com a preferência pelo grão carioca, há nichos de mercado para feijões do grupo Rosinha. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi selecionar linhagens de feijoeiro comum com grão rosinha, alta produção de grãos, rápido cozimento e resistentes à antracnose e à mancha angular. A partir de cinco famílias F8 superiores, provenientes do cruzamento entre os genitores Rosinha Maria da Fé e ESAL 693, foram extraídas 143 linhagens as quais foram avaliadas na safra das águas de 2005/2006 em Lavras (MG. Dessas, manteve-se 99 linhagens que foram avaliadas em Lavras e Lambari (MG, na safra da seca de 2006. As 24 linhagens selecionadas foram novamente avaliadas nos dois locais, no inverno de 2006. Os caracteres avaliados foram produção e tipo de grão, tempo de cocção, reação à mancha angular e também, foi realizado o teste de resistência ao patótipo 65 de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Nas linhagens, observaram-se variabilidade genética para todos os caracteres avaliados, altas estimativas dos coeficientes de herdabilidade, assegurando elevados ganhos com a seleção. Foram selecionadas quatro linhagens com alta produção, tipo de grão ideal, com rápido tempo de cocção e resistência à mancha angular e à antracnose.Common bean cultivars with pink grain type used to be very important, although there is still some market spot for them. The objective of the research was to select common bean lines with pink grain, high grain yield with good cooking ability, and resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot. One hundred and forty three lines were selected from five F8 segregant families derived from the cross Rosinha Maria da Fé x ESAL 693. Those lines were evaluated in the rainy season of 2005/2006 at Lavras county, MG State. Ninety nine lines were kept and tested in the dry season of 2006 at Lavras and Lambari. The 24

  5. Pengaruh Daun Tanaman dalam Pemeraman terhadap Perkembangan Antraknos pada Pisang Ambon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toekidjo Martoredjo

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Using plant leaves such as banana leaves, glyricidia leaves, and rice straw for ripening resulted in lower ripening stage score than control or using chemical such as ethrel, although statistically they are not siginificantly different. Glyricidia leaves and rice straw inhibit disease symptom representing anthracnose (Colletotrichum musae development on Gros-Michel banana. Key words: anthracnose, fruit-ripening stage

  6. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Živković; Saša Stojanović; Žarko IVanović; Nenad Trkulja; Nenad Dolovac; Goran Aleksić; Jelica Balaž

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...

  7. Avaliação da incidência de antracnose, do desempenho e estado nutricional de variedades de mangueira, para cultivo orgânico, na região centro-norte do Estado de São Paulo Evaluation of anthracnose incidence, development and nutritional status of mango trees varieties for organic cultivation in north center region of São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Altafin Galli

    2009-09-01

    , provavelmente, sofreu toxicidade ao excesso de manganês, ocasionando diminuição em seu desenvolvimento.The consumer's profile change, allied to the risk of toxic substances contamination, is inducing the search for ecological alternatives of fruits production. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the anthracnose incidence, the development and nutritional status of mango varieties organically cultivated in Pindorama, SP. Seventeen mango varieties were used. The experiment was designed in completely randomized blocks, with 17 treatments (varieties and six replications. The anthracnose severity in leaves was evaluated by a diagrammatic scale, with grades attributed to the symptoms. The growth and development (plant height, stem and crown perimeter and the nutritional state indicated by leaf analysis were used for evaluation of the varietal behavior. The varieties Bourbon, Rocha and Rosa could be considered very susceptible to anthracnose and IAC 111, Alfa, Beta and Parvin were resistant; the mango varieties presented the same growth pattern; the largest plant heights corresponded to the largest diameters of the stem and crown; the Parvin variety presented the best performance among the varieties in relation to the anthracnose resistance, height and diameter of the stem and crown, and could be recommended for organic cultivation. The Omega and Alfa varieties also presented good development and could be indicated for that cultivation, at least in that initial phase; Surpresa and Rosa varieties did not present good field development in relation to the others, and should not be recommended for the organic cultivation, mainly the variety Rosa, which is quite susceptible to anthracnose. The concentrations of N, P and K were higher in the vegetative phase of the plants, when compared to the low concentration of Ca; there was lack of Boron in all the studied varieties; Rosa variety probably suffered toxicity to the excess of manganese, causing decrease in its development.

  8. Seleção de progenitores de quiabeiro com base em desempenho e ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bruno

    Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the Creative ... predominant format of round fruit, angular pods, or smooth fruit ..... fruit yield, quality and leaf curl disease severity traits of chilli pepper.

  9. Prostate Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Prostate Diseases Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... body. Approximately 3 million American men have some type of prostate disease. The most common prostate diseases ...

  10. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... But some of them can make you sick. Infectious diseases are diseases that are caused by germs. There ... many different ways that you can get an infectious disease: Through direct contact with a person who is ...

  11. Pick disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semantic dementia; Dementia - semantic; Frontotemporal dementia; FTD; Arnold Pick disease; 3R tauopathy ... doctors tell Pick disease apart from Alzheimer disease. (Memory loss is often the main, and earliest, symptom ...

  12. Prion Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Prion Diseases Prion diseases are a related group of ... deer and elk. Why Is the Study of Prion Diseases a Priority for NIAID? Much about TSE ...

  13. Periodontal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases. The primary research focus was on oral bacteria. Periodontal diseases were thought to begin when chalky white ... tools to target their treatment specifically to the bacteria that trigger periodontal disease. At the same time, because biofilms form ...

  14. Addison's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of potassium and low levels of sodium. What causes Addison’s disease? Addison’s disease is caused by injury to your ... example, a problem with your pituitary gland can cause secondary Addison’s disease. Or, you may develop Addison’s disease if you ...

  15. Graves' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 survey of clinical practice patterns in the management of Graves' disease. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2012 Dec;97( ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  16. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  17. Effect of the calcium, boron and sulphur in pre harvest applications over the severity of anthracnose(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and the fruit's quality of two papaya's varieties in Perez Zeledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montealegre Perez, Eduardo Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This research established the effect of the calcium, boron and sulphur in pre harvest applications over the severity of anthracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and the fruit's quality of two papaya's varieties, one creole and a hibrido in Perez Zeledon. The treatments were the folloguings: oxide of calcium plus dolomite, oxide of calcium plus boric acid plus dolomite, boric acid plus sulphate of potassium and dolomite, boric acid less dolomite and witness. The utilized sources were nitrate of calcium, boric acid and sulphate of potassium. The evaluations were realized both in the rainy season like in the dry season. There were evaluated: severity of anthracnosis, weight of the fruits, total soluble solids, shell's hardness, and stability of the flesh. The experimental design utilized was a complete block at random. There were got that the applications of oxide of calcium and boric acid less dolomite decreased the severity of the disease in the papaya's fruits, while that the boric acid plus sulphate tend to increase the disease. The treatment of boric acid plus sulphate decreased the weight of the fruits both in the rainy and dry season. Besides this treatment decreased the hardness of the shell, while that the treatments with boron increased that. Also the treatments with boric acid plus dolomite and boric acid less dolomite, increased the levels of total soluble solids in the papaya's fruits in the two varieties. Finally; the treatments: oxide of calcium plus boric acid and boric acid plus sulphate decreased the stability of the flesh in both varieties and both evaluated seasons, while the treatment with oxide of calcium increased the stability of the flesh in the hibrido during the dry season. (Author) [es

  18. Gaucher Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It is a type of lipid metabolism disorder. If you ... affected. It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types ...

  19. Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread to the nervous system, causing facial paralysis ( Bell's palsy ), or meningitis. The last stage of Lyme disease ... My Lyme Disease Risk? Bug Bites and Stings Bell's Palsy Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Meningitis View more About ...

  20. Stargardt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stargardt disease, lipofuscin accumulates abnormally. The Foundation Fighting Blindness supports research studying lipofuscin build up and ways to prevent it. A decrease in color perception also occurs in Stargardt disease. This is ...

  1. Refsum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... night blindness due to degeneration of the retina (retinitis pigmentosa). If the disease progresses, other symptoms may include ... night blindness due to degeneration of the retina (retinitis pigmentosa). If the disease progresses, other symptoms may include ...

  2. Addison Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... A problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  3. Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely need to plan for their loved one's future care. The final phase of the disease may ... disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Menkes Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Menkes disease is caused by a defective gene named ATPTA ... arteries. Weakened bones (osteoporosis) may result in fractures. × Definition Menkes disease is caused by a defective gene named ATPTA ...

  5. Fabry Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Fabry disease is caused by the lack of or faulty ... severe symptoms similar to males with the disorder. × Definition Fabry disease is caused by the lack of or faulty ...

  6. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  7. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  8. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lactose Intolerance Liver Disease Ménétrier’s Disease Microscopic Colitis Ostomy Surgery of the Bowel Pancreatitis Peptic Ulcers (Stomach ... and outreach materials. Clinical Trials Clinical trials offer hope for many people and opportunities to help researchers ...

  9. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidney Disease What's in ... Coping With Kidney Conditions Print What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  10. Sandhoff Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which had been particularly high in people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent, but Sandhoff disease ... which had been particularly high in people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent, but Sandhoff disease ...

  11. Fifth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and mouth ...

  12. Cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kazunori

    1992-01-01

    This paper is aimed to discuss the involvement of delayed radiation effects of A-bomb exposure in cardiovascular diseases. First, the relationship between radiation and cardiovascular diseases is reviewed in the literature. Animal experiments have confirmed the relationship between ionizing radiation and vascular lesions. There are many reports which describe ischemic heart disease, cervical and cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral disease occurring after radiation therapy. The previous A-bomb survivor cohort studies, i.e., the RERF Life Span Study and Adult Health Study, have dealt with the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence or incidence of cardiovascular diseases, pathological findings, clinical observation of arteriosclerosis, ECG abnormality, blood pressure abnormality, and cardiac function. The following findings have been suggested: (1) A-bomb exposure is likely to be involved in the mortality rate and incidence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases; (2) similarly, the involvement of A-bomb exposure is considered in the prevalence of the arch of aorta; (3) ECG abnormality corresponding to ischemic heart disease may reflect the involvement of A-bomb exposure. To confirm the above findings, further studies are required on the basis of more accurate information and the appropriate number of cohort samples. Little evidence has been presented for the correlation between A-bomb exposure and both rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease. (N.K.) 88 refs

  13. Autoinflammatory Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaranda P, Edgar; Spinel B, Nestor; Restrepo, Jose F; Rondon H, Federico; Millan S, Alberto; Iglesias G Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We present a review article on the autoinflammatory diseases, narrating its historical origin and describing the protein and molecular structure of the Inflammasome, the current classification of the autoinflammatory diseases and a description of the immuno genetics and clinical characteristics more important of every disease.

  14. Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  15. Gaucher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gaucher disease is a rare genetic disorder in which a person lacks an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Causes Gaucher disease is rare in the general population. People of Eastern and Central European (Ashkenazi) Jewish heritage are more likely to have this disease. It ...

  16. Dent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina R Rus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dent disease is an x-linked disorder of proximal renal tubular dysfunction that occurs almost exclusively in males. It is characterized by significant, mostly low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and chronic kidney disease. Signs and symptoms of this condition appear in early childhood and worsen over time. There are two forms of Dent disease, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and pattern of signs and symptoms (type 1 and type 2. Dent disease 2 is characterized by the features described above and also associated with extrarenal abnormalities (they include mild intellectual disability, hypotonia, and cataract. Some researchers consider Dent disease 2 to be a mild variant of a similar disorder called Lowe syndrome.We represent a case of a 3-year old boy with significant proteinuria in the nephrotic range and hypercalciuria. We confirmed Dent disease type 1 by genetic analysis.

  17. Morgellons Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyu Han

    2017-01-01

    Morgellons disease is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Herein, we report the first case of Morgellons disease in Korea. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of pruritic erythematous patches and erosions on the arms, hands, and chin. She insisted that she had fiber-like materials under her skin, which she had observed through a magnifying device. We performed skin biopsy, and observed a fiber extruding from the dermal side of the specimen. Histopathological examination sho...

  18. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtmeier Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1:270 in Finland to 1:5000 in North America. Since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. Furthermore, severe inflammation of the small bowel can be present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis should be made early since celiac disease causes growth retardation in untreated children and atypical symptoms like infertility or neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy with jejunal biopsy. In addition, tissue-transglutaminase antibodies are important to confirm the diagnosis since there are other diseases which can mimic celiac disease. The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown but is thought to be primarily immune mediated (tissue-transglutaminase autoantigen; often the disease is inherited. Management consists in life long withdrawal of dietary gluten, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement. However, complete normalization of histology can take years.

  19. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a multysystemic autoimmune disease induced by gluten in wheat, barley and rye. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, high prevalence (1%, widely heterogeneous expression and frequent association with other autoimmune diseases, selective deficit of IgA and Down, Turner and Williams syndrome. The basis of the disease and the key finding in its diagnostics is symptomatic or asymptomatic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa which resolves by gluten-free diet. Therefore, the basis of the treatment involves elimination diet, so that the disorder, if timely recognized and adequately treated, also characterizes excellent prognosis.

  20. Seleção de linhagens de feijoeiro com tipo de grão carioca e com os alelos co-4 e co-5 de resistência à antracnose Selection of common bean strains with carioca grain type, and with the alleles co-4 and co-5 for anthracnose resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Keller Marcondes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, identificar linhagens de feijão que reúnam, além da resistência à antracnose, alta produtividade de grãos do tipo carioca e resistência à mancha angular. Foram utilizadas 194 linhagens F5:6 extraídas de sete famílias segregantes, selecionadas do cruzamento entre os genitores H147 e B1. A linhagem H147 possui grãos tipo carioca, portadora do alelo Co-5, que confere resistência a várias raças de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. A linhagem B1 também possui grãos tipo carioca e é portadora do alelo Co-4, que confere resistência a outro grupo de raças do mesmo patógeno. As linhagens foram avaliadas na safra das águas 2005/2006, em Lavras, com a cultivar Talismã e H147 como testemunhas, com base na produtividade e tipo de grãos. Foram selecionadas 99 linhagens, as quais foram avaliadas na safra da seca/2006, juntamente com a testemunha Talismã, com base na produtividade, tipo de grão e resistência à mancha angular. Dessas 99 linhagens, foram selecionadas 24, as quais foram avaliadas na safra de inverno/2006 em Lavras e Lambari, com base no tipo de grão e produtividade. Essas 24 linhagens foram inoculadas com a raça 321 de C. lindemuthianum, que quebra a resistência conferida pelo alelo Co-4, mas não o Co-5. Para verificar a presença do alelo Co4 foi utilizado um marcador SCAR que amplifica um fragmento de 950 pb por meio do primer SAS 13. Foi possível identificar 14 linhagens que possuem a pirâmide de alelos Co-4/Co-5 e entre elas, quatro destacaram-se em todos os caracteres avaliados.The objective of the research was to identify bean strains that possess at the same time resistance to anthracnose, high grain yield of Carioca grain type and resistance to angular leaf spot. 194 strains F5:6 were taken from seven segregating families derived from the cross H147 x B1. The H147 line has Carioca grain type and Co-5 resistance allele to several races of C. lindemuthianum. The B1 line also has the

  1. Ação e caracterização química de óleos essenciais no manejo da antracnose do maracujá Chemical characterization and action of essential oils in the management of anthracnose on passion fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernandes Aquino

    2012-12-01

    the anthracnose control [Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.] associated with maturity stage of yellow passion fruit. Three experiments were evaluated, where it was tested the pathogenicity of six fungi isolates in a randomized design with six replicates, other with the same design in 2x2 factorial design (conidial suspension and mycelial discs and fruit (green and ripe, with six replicates. In treatment with fruits, we used a completely randomized in a factorial 5x3+1, five concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 μL mL-1 and three medicinal plant species, and tebuconazole, with five replicates. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. All isolates were pathogenic. Ripe fruits had larger lesions when inoculated with conidial suspension. The oil of C. citratus provided the small diameter of the lesions on the fruit until the 6 μL mL-1 concentration. At the concentration of 8 μL mL-1 all oils inhibited the fungal growth. Thymol (30.24%, citral (77.74% and eugenol (92.89% were major components in L. sidoides, C. citratus and O. gratissimum, respectively.

  2. Peyronie's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick L; Levine, Laurence A

    2007-11-01

    Peyronie's disease is a psychologically and physically devastating disorder that is manifest by a fibrous inelastic scar of the tunica albuginea, resulting in palpable penile scar in the flaccid condition and causing penile deformity, including penile curvature, hinging, narrowing, shortening, and painful erections. Peyronie's disease remains a considerable therapeutic dilemma even to today's practicing physicians.

  3. Parasitogenic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Radiological semiotics of parasitogenic diseases of the intestinal tract is presented. The problem of radiological examination in the case of the diseases consists in the determination of the large intestine state, depth and extension of lesions, and also in solution of treatment efficiency problem

  4. Batten Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the country. NIH is the leading supporter of biomedical research in the world. Much of NINDS’ research on Batten disease and the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses focuses on gaining a better understanding of the disease, gene therapy, and developing novel drugs to treat the disorders. ...

  5. Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ridding your body of toxic substances. Liver disease can be inherited (genetic) or caused by a variety of factors that damage the ... that you can't stay still. Causes Liver disease has many ... or semen, contaminated food or water, or close contact with a person who is ...

  6. Leigh's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-linked form of Leigh’s disease, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet may be recommended. View Full Treatment Information Definition Leigh's disease is a rare inherited neurometabolic disorder that affects the central nervous system. This progressive disorder begins in infants between the ...

  7. Meniere's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ears and head) special tests that check your balance and how well your ears work. Can Meniere’s disease be prevented or avoided? Because ... find ways to limit the stress in your life or learn how to deal with stress ... Let your family, friends, and co-workers know about the disease. Tell ...

  8. Parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    Foundations of roentgenological semiotics of parasitic diseases of lungs, w hich are of the greatest practical value, are presented. Roentgenological pictu res of the following parasitic diseases: hydatid and alveolar echinococcosis, pa ragonimiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiasis, bilharziasis (Schistosomias is) of lungs, are considered

  9. Angara disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... 1988). Since the disease emerged in this specific geographic area, HHS was initially referred to as “Angara. Disease”. The disease is caused by an avian adenovirus serotype-iv in Pakistan. This virus is responsible for development of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the cells of liver, pancreas and kidneys.

  10. Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... monitor a disease) for HD. A large and related NINDS-supported study aims to identify additional genetic factors in people that influence the course of the disease. Other research hopes to identify variations in the genomes of individuals with HD that may point to new targets ...

  11. Coeliac disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-08

    Mar 8, 2013 ... Two factors are involved in the development of coeliac disease, namely the ... degradation by gastric, pancreatic and intestinal brush ... epithelial layer with chronic inflammatory cells in patients ... Coeliac disease increases the risk of malignancies, such as small bowel adenocarcinoma and enteropathy-.

  12. Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karjoo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy is characterized by intestinal mucosal damage and malabsorption from dietary intake of wheat, rye or barley. Symptoms may appear with introduction of cereal in the first 3 years of life. A second peak in symptoms occurs in adults during the third or forth decade and even as late as eight decade of life. The prevalence of this disease is approximately 1 in 250 adults. The disease is more prevalent in Ireland as high as 1 in 120 adults. The disorder occurs in Arab, Hispanics, Israeli Jews, Iranian and European but is rare in Chinese and African American. To have celiac disease the patient should have the celiac disease genetic markers as HLA DQ 2 and HLA DQ 8. Patient with celiac disease may have 95 per cent for DQ 2 and the rest is by DQ 8. Someone may have the genetic marker and never develops the disease. In general 50 percent with markers may develop celiac disease. To develop the disease the gene needs to become activated. This may happen with a viral or bacterial infection, a surgery, delivery, accident, or psychological stress. After activation of gene cause the tight junction to opens with the release of Zonulin This results in passage of gluten through the tight junction and formation of multiple antibodies and autoimmune disease. This also allows entrance of other proteins and development of multiple food allergies. As a result is shortening, flattening of intestinal villi resulting in food, vitamins and minerals malabsorption.

  13. Refractory disease in autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos, Carlos; Kallenberg, Cees; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    Refractory disease (RD) definition has different meanings but it is dynamic, according to knowledge and the availability of new drugs. It should be differentiated from severe disease and damage definitions and it must take into account duration of adequate therapy and compliance of the patient. It

  14. Thyroid diseases and cerebrovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Brandjes, D. P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Stam, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Acute cerebral ischemia has been described in different diseases of the thyroid gland, and not only as a result of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic stroke. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies on the relationship between thyroid diseases and

  15. Morgellons Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyu Han

    2017-04-01

    Morgellons disease is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Herein, we report the first case of Morgellons disease in Korea. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of pruritic erythematous patches and erosions on the arms, hands, and chin. She insisted that she had fiber-like materials under her skin, which she had observed through a magnifying device. We performed skin biopsy, and observed a fiber extruding from the dermal side of the specimen. Histopathological examination showed only mild lymphocytic infiltration, and failed to reveal evidence of any microorganism. The polymerase chain reaction for Borrelia burgdorferi was negative in her serum.

  16. [Infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; de Vallière, Serge; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-07

    In 2008, several publications have highlighted the role of climate change and globalization on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Studies have shown the extension towards Europe of diseases such as Crimea-Congo fever (Kosovo, Turkey and Bulgaria), leismaniosis (Cyprus) and chikungunya virus infection (Italy). The article also contains comments on Plasmodium knowlesi, a newly identified cause of severe malaria in humans, as well as an update on human transmission of the H5NI avian influenza virus. It also mentions new data on Bell's palsy as well as two vaccines (varicella-zoster and pneumococcus), and provides a list of recent guidelines for the treatment of common infectious diseases.

  17. Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Ramanath N; Georgeson, Keith E

    2008-11-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a relatively common condition managed by pediatric surgeons. Significant advances have been made in understanding its etiologies in the last decade, especially with the explosion of molecular genetic techniques and early diagnosis. The surgical management has progressed from a two- or three-stage procedure to a primary operation. More recently, definitive surgery for Hirschsprung disease through minimally invasive techniques has gained popularity. In neonates, the advancement of treatment strategies for Hirschsprung disease continues with reduced patient morbidity and improved outcomes.

  18. Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2012-02-03

    Crohn\\'s disease is a disorder mediated by T lymphocytes which arises in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of a breakdown in the regulatory constraints on mucosal immune responses to enteric bacteria. Regulation of immune reactivity to enteric antigens has improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of Crohn\\'s disease, and has expanded therapeutic options for patients with this disorder. Disease heterogeneity is probable, with various underlying defects associated with a similar pathophysiological outcome. Although most conventional drug treatments are directed at modification of host response, therapeutic manipulation of the enteric flora is becoming a realistic option.

  19. Norries disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-month-old male infant was found to have Norrie′s disease. The clinical presentation and detailed histological features diagnostic of the disease are discussed. This is the first authentic, histologically proven case of Norrie′s disease from India. The absence of hearing loss and mental retardation at the time of presentation at the early stage of infancy and the fact that the case was sporadic do not detract from the diagnosis. However the child at the age of one year developed hearing loss.

  20. Molecular taxonomic, epidemiological and population genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The major limitation to the profitable and sustainable production of D. alata is its susceptibility to anthracnose disease. The availability of resistant varieties could potentially form the cornerstone of an integrated management strategy for yam ...

  1. Blount disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unlike bowlegs , which tend to straighten as the child develops, Blount disease slowly gets worse. It can cause severe bowing of one or both legs. This condition is more common among African American children. It is also associated with obesity ...

  2. Pneumococcal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pneumococcal disease kills one in every four to five people over the age of 65 who gets it. ... A second PPSV23 vaccine is recommended for these persons five years after the first PPSV23. CDC recommends only ...

  3. Behcet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases. Contact Us NIAMS Archive Viewers and Players Social Media Moderation Policy FOIA Privacy Statement Accessibility Disclaimer Digital Strategy ...

  4. Coeliac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, Norelle R; Husby, Steffen; Sanders, David S

    2018-01-01

    Coeliac disease is increasingly recognized as a global problem in both children and adults. Traditionally, the findings of characteristic changes of villous atrophy and increased intraepithelial lymphocytosis identified in duodenal biopsy samples taken during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy have...... been required for diagnosis. Although biopsies remain advised as necessary for the diagnosis of coeliac disease in adults, European guidelines for children provide a biopsy-sparing diagnostic pathway. This approach has been enabled by the high specificity and sensitivity of serological testing. However......, these guidelines are not universally accepted. In this Perspective, we discuss the pros and cons of a biopsy-avoiding pathway for the diagnosis of coeliac disease, especially in this current era of the call for more biopsies, even from the duodenal bulb, in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. In addition, a contrast...

  5. Addison disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of Addison disease include: Chronic diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting Darkening of the skin in some places Dehydration Dizziness when standing up Low-grade fever Extreme weakness , fatigue , and slow, sluggish movement Darker ...

  6. Alpers' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... underlying liver disease, failure to thrive, infection-associated encephalopathy, spasticity, myoclonus (involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles), seizures, or liver failure. An increased protein level is seen in ...

  7. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be caused by diseases, such as connective tissue disorders, excessive iron buildup in your body (hemochromatosis), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments. Causes of heart infection A heart infection, ...

  8. Alexander Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Neurosurgery Research Fellowships Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research ... Disease Information Page What research is being done? Recent discoveries show that most individuals (approximately 90 percent) with ...

  9. Retinal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & Research ... central portion of the retina called the macula. Usher Syndrome Usher syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  10. Sever's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boys 10 years to 12 years of age. Soccer players and gymnasts often get Sever’s disease, but ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  11. Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The disease leads to shaking ( tremors ) and trouble walking and moving . ... include: Difficulty starting movement, such as starting to walk or ... are not moving. This is called resting tremor. Occur when your ...

  12. Behcet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and affect the central nervous system, causing memory loss and impaired speech, balance, and movement. The effects of the disease may include blindness, stroke, swelling of the spinal cord, and intestinal ...

  13. Extrapyramidal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010380 Evaluation non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and its influence on ability of daily living. WANG Rongfei(王荣飞),et al. Dept Neurol,1st Hosp,Guangzhou Med Coll,Guangzhou 510000. Chin J Neurol 2010;43(4):273-276. Objective To evaluate the non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD),and its influence on ability of daily living (ADL) in PD

  14. Menkes disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tümer, Zeynep; Møller, Lisbeth B

    2010-01-01

    Menkes disease (MD) is a lethal multisystemic disorder of copper metabolism. Progressive neurodegeneration and connective tissue disturbances, together with the peculiar 'kinky' hair are the main manifestations. MD is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, and as expected the vast majority...... of surplus copper from cells. Severely affected MD patients die usually before the third year of life. A cure for the disease does not exist, but very early copper-histidine treatment may correct some of the neurological symptoms....

  15. Elm diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Peacock

    1989-01-01

    Dutch elm disease was found in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1930, and is now in most of the contiguous 48 states. The disease is caused by a fungus that has killed millions of wild and planted elms. Losses have been the greatest in the eastern United States. The fungus attacks all elms, but our native species, American, slippery, and rock elm have little or no resistance to the...

  16. Ollier disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüppner Harald

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enchondromas are common intraosseous, usually benign cartilaginous tumors, that develop in close proximity to growth plate cartilage. When multiple enchondromas are present, the condition is called enchondromatosis also known as Ollier disease (WHO terminology. The estimated prevalence of Ollier disease is 1/100,000. Clinical manifestations often appear in the first decade of life. Ollier disease is characterized by an asymmetric distribution of cartilage lesions and these can be extremely variable (in terms of size, number, location, evolution of enchondromas, age of onset and of diagnosis, requirement for surgery. Clinical problems caused by enchondromas include skeletal deformities, limb-length discrepancy, and the potential risk for malignant change to chondrosarcoma. The condition in which multiple enchondromatosis is associated with soft tissue hemangiomas is known as Maffucci syndrome. Until now both Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome have only occurred in isolated patients and not familial. It remains uncertain whether the disorder is caused by a single gene defect or by combinations of (germ-line and/or somatic mutations. The diagnosis is based on clinical and conventional radiological evaluations. Histological analysis has a limited role and is mainly used if malignancy is suspected. There is no medical treatment for enchondromatosis. Surgery is indicated in case of complications (pathological fractures, growth defect, malignant transformation. The prognosis for Ollier disease is difficult to assess. As is generally the case, forms with an early onset appear more severe. Enchondromas in Ollier disease present a risk of malignant transformation of enchondromas into chondrosarcomas.

  17. Utilization of chitinolytic bacterial isolates to control anthracnose of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... Assay of antagonistic bacterial chitinolytic to C. gloeosporioides was ... 1632 Afr. J. Biotechnol. ... microorganisms, by their interactions with various plant ... ristics such as colony, mycelia as well as shape and size of conidia.

  18. Identification of common bean alleles resistant to anthracnose using RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L.M. Castanheira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers were identified close to common bean alleles responsible for resistance to the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and may be useful in selecting plants resistant to this pathogen. DNA from F2 plants of the crosses Carioca 300V x P45, Carioca 300V x Ouro and P24 x Ouro was amplified by RAPD. Line P45 has the Co.4 allele for resistance, and the Ouro cultivar has the Co.5 allele. The primer OPC08 amplified a DNA fragment of about 1059 bp linked to the Co.4 allele. The recombination frequency was 0.133 (SE = 0.039; 95% CI = 0.056-0.211. Using the primer OPF10 a DNA fragment of about 912 bp was amplified and found to be associated with the Co.5 allele. The recombination frequency was 0.115 (SE = 0.038; 95% CI = 0.041-0.189. A second marker (1122 pb amplified by the OPR03 primer was identified in the population P24 x Ouro. The recombination frequency for this marker was 0.363 (SE = 0.081; 95% CI = 0.205-0.522. Both these markers flanked the Co.5 allele. The markers identified in this study may be useful in identifying lines with the Co.4 and Co.5 alleles.Marcadores RAPD foram identificados próximos de alelos do feijão responsáveis pela resistência ao Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, visando auxiliar na seleção de plantas resistentes ao patógeno. Empregou-se o método dos bulks segregantes de DNA extraídos de plantas F2 dos seguintes cruzamentos: Carioca 300V x P45, Carioca 300V x Ouro e P24 x Ouro. A linhagem P45 é portadora do alelo Co.4 de resistência e o cultivar Ouro é portador do alelo Co.5, os quais foram marcados. Procedeu-se à reação RAPD dos bulks e foi identificado o iniciador OPC08 que amplificou um fragmento de DNA com cerca de 1059 pb, ligado ao alelo Co.4. A freqüência de recombinação foi de 0,133 (erro padrão 0,039 e o intervalo de confiança foi 0,056 e 0,211, com 95% de probabilidade. Em relação ao alelo Co.5 foi identificado um fragmento de DNA amplificado pelo iniciador OPF10 com cerca de 912 pb, na análise dos bulks provenientes dos cruzamentos Carioca 300V x Ouro e P24 x Ouro. A freqüência de recombinação foi de 0,115 (erro padrão 0,038 e o intervalo de confiança foi 0,041 e 0,189. Um segundo marcador foi identificado a partir da análise da população P24 x Ouro, resultante da amplificação pelo iniciador OPR03, e possui cerca de 1122 pb. A freqüência de recombinação foi 0,363 (erro padrão 0,081 e o intervalo de confiança variou de 0,205 a 0,522. Constatou-se que esses dois marcadores estão flanqueando o alelo Co.5 e a seleção de plantas resistentes de uma população F2 por meio dos marcadores será eficiente em 83% dos casos.

  19. Lupinus mutabilis in Ecuador with special emphasis on anthracnose resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconi, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Tailoring Food Sciences to Endogenous Patterns of Local Food Supply for Future Nutrition (TELFUN) project aimed to support people to choose their own way of producing, processing, and consuming local foods that fit best in their local conditions. The central research question was: how do

  20. Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Rheumatic Disease Pregnancy & Rheumatic Disease Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Diseases with the potential to affect ... control. What are the effects of pregnancy on rheumatic disease? The effects of pregnancy on rheumatic diseases vary ...

  1. Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Roon, Alexander C; Reese, George E; Orchard, Timothy R; Tekkis, Paris P

    2007-11-07

    Crohn's disease is a long-term chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterised by transmural, granulomatous inflammation that occurs in a discontinuous pattern, with a tendency to form fistulae. The cause is unknown but may depend on interactions between genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and mucosal immunity. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments in adults to induce remission in Crohn's disease? What are the effects of lifestyle interventions in adults with Crohn's disease to maintain remission? What are the effects of surgical interventions in adults with small-bowel Crohn's disease to induce remission? What are the effects of surgical interventions in adults with colonic Crohn's disease to induce remission? What are the effects of medical interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease; and to maintain remission following surgery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to March 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 60 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aminosalicylates, antibiotics, azathioprine/mercaptopurine, ciclosporin, corticosteroids (oral), enteral nutrition, fish oil, infliximab, methotrexate, probiotics, resection, segmental colectomy, smoking cessation, and strictureplasty.

  2. Dent's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakker Rajesh V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dent's disease is a renal tubular disorder characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction, including low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive renal failure. These features are generally found in males only, and may be present in early childhood, whereas female carriers may show a milder phenotype. Prevalence is unknown; the disorder has been reported in around 250 families to date. Complications such as rickets or osteomalacia may occur. The disease is caused by mutations in either the CLCN5 (Dent disease 1 or OCRL1 (Dent disease 2 genes that are located on chromosome Xp11.22 and Xq25, respectively. CLCN5 encodes the electrogenic Cl-/H+ exchanger ClC-5, which belongs to the CLC family of Cl- channels/transporters. OCRL1 encodes a phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2 5-phosphatase and mutations are also associated with Lowe Syndrome. The phenotype of Dent's disease is explained by the predominant expression of ClC-5 in the proximal tubule segments of the kidney. No genotype-phenotype correlation has been described thus far, and there is considerable intra-familial variability in disease severity. A few patients with Dent's disease do not harbour mutations in CLCN5 and OCRL1, pointing to the involvement of other genes. Diagnosis is based on the presence of all three of the following criteria: low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and at least one of the following: nephrocalcinosis, kidney stones, hematuria, hypophosphatemia or renal insufficiency. Molecular genetic testing confirms the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis includes other causes of generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubules (renal Fanconi syndrome, hereditary, acquired, or caused by exogenous substances. Antenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic testing is not advised. The care of patients with Dent's disease is supportive, focusing on the treatment of hypercalciuria and

  3. Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mean age of onset of Parkinson's disease is about 65 years, with a median time of 9 years between diagnosis and death. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of fetal cell or stem cell......-derived therapy in people with Parkinson's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to September 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from...

  4. Hashimoto's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed with hypothyroidism or had not yet started treatment for hypothyroidism. 4 Problems during pregnancy. The unborn baby's brain ... can last up to a year and requires treatment. Most often, thyroid function returns to normal as the ... from Hashimoto's disease treated during pregnancy? During pregnancy, ...

  5. Prionic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Q-C Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are neurodegenerative illnesses due to the accumulation of small infectious pathogens containing protein but apparently lacking nucleic acid, which have long incubation periods and progress inexorably once clinical symptoms appear. Prions are uniquely resistant to a number of normal decontaminating procedures. The prionopathies [Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD and its variants, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS syndrome and fatal familial insomnia (FFI] result from accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein in the brains of normal animals on both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The accumulation of this protein or fragments of it in neurons leads to apoptosis and cell death. There is a strong link between mutations in the gene encoding the normal prion protein in humans (PRNP - located on the short arm of chromosome 20 – and forms of prion disease with a familial predisposition (familial CJD, GSS, FFI. Clinically a prionopathy should be suspected in any case of a fast progressing dementia with ataxia, myoclonus, or in individuals with pathological insomnia associated with dysautonomia. Magnetic resonance imaging, identification of the 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, tonsil biopsy and genetic studies have been used for in vivo diagnosis circumventing the need of brain biopsy. Histopathology, however, remains the only conclusive method to reach a confident diagnosis. Unfortunately, despite numerous treatment efforts, prionopathies remain short-lasting and fatal diseases.

  6. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a long and relatively healthy life. What Causes Parkinson's Disease? In the very deep parts of the brain, there is a collection of nerve cells that help control movement, known as the basal ganglia (say: BAY-sul GAN-glee-ah). In a ...

  7. Grover's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for Authors Information for Reviewers Human & Animal Rights Job Postings Sections of the ... dermatosis) is a condition that appears suddenly as itchy red spots on the trunk, most often in older men. Minor cases of Grover's disease may be rather common. ...

  8. Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; Law, Ian; Jønch, Aia

    2011-01-01

    In this open-label pilot study, the authors evaluated the effect of memantine on the distribution of brain glucose metabolism in four Huntington's disease (HD) patients as determined by serial 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose [F(18)]FDG-PET scans over a period of 3-4 months (90-129 days, with one patient...

  9. Canavan disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affects how the body breaks down and uses aspartic acid . ... scan Head MRI scan Urine chemistry for elevated aspartic acid ... Matalon KM, Matalon RK. Aspartic acid (Canavan disease). In: ... JW III, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. ...

  10. DEVIC'S DISEASE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had been poor in the right eye and he had found it hard to pass urine. ... right optic:-nerve disease, and was followed in 1880 by mention pupil was large and reacted very sluggishly to light, and the left .... The enzyme theory is that an enzyme-.

  11. Wilson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eye (jaundice) Golden-brown eye discoloration (Kayser-Fleischer rings) Fluid buildup ... is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, which means that to develop the disease you must inherit one copy of the ...

  12. Morgellons disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John

    2008-01-01

    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients.

  13. Celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Jensen, Michael Dam; Reimer, Maria Christina

    2015-01-01

    This national clinical guideline approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology describes the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease (CD) in adults. CD is a chronic immunemediated enteropathy of the small intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing proteins......, which are found in wheat, rye, and barley. The disease prevalence is 0.5-1.0%, but CD remains under-diagnosed. The diagnosis relies on the demonstration of lymphocyte infiltration, crypt hyperplasia, and villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies. Serology, malabsorption, biochemical markers......, and identification of specific HLA haplotypes may contribute to CD diagnosis. Classical CD presents with diarrhoea and weight loss, but non-classical CD with vague or extraintestinal symptoms is common. The treatment for CD is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD), which, in the majority of patients, normalises...

  14. disease patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mamishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is an inherited disorder of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase complex. This disorder results in recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Aspergillus species are the most common fungal infections in these patients. Case Report: Herein, we present a case of fungal infection in a girl with CGD. We confirmed aspergillosis through the positive microscopic and macroscopic examinations, as well as radiology results. Invasive aspergillosis in this patient with pneumonia, lung abscess, and osteomyelitis of the ribs was not initially treated with amphotericin B (Am B and recombinant interferon-gamma. Conclusion: Among infectious diseases, fungal infections, in particular aspergillosis, remain a serious problem in CGD patients. Considering poor clinical response and deficient immune system, rapid diagnosis of fungal infection and optimizing the treatment of these patients are recommended.

  15. [Addison's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinkler, M

    2012-09-01

    The clinical signs and symptoms of primary adrenal insufficiency are unspecific often causing a delayed diagnosis or even misdiagnosis. In the diagnostic work-up the short synacthen test is regarded as the gold standard. Hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone are the preferred therapy for Addison's disease. The management and surveillance of therapy requires experience and several aspects need to be followed to prevent side effects which might occur due to overtreatment or undertreatment. Very important aspects in therapy are the repeated teaching of the patient and relatives, the issuing of an emergency steroid card and the prescription of a glucocorticoid emergency set. Acute adrenal failure (adrenal crisis), which might be the first manifestation of adrenal insufficiency, is a life-threatening situation requiring immediate glucocorticoid administration and fluid substitution. The most common causes for an adrenal crisis are gastrointestinal infections and fever and discontinuation of glucocorticoid therapy. This article gives an up-to-date overview of diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of Addison's disease.

  16. Joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss how x-ray examination is essential in the diagnosis and evaluation of the arthritides. Most arthritides are first suspected by the clinician, and x-ray evaluation of these entities along with laboratory testing is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and in staging of the disease process. Several arthritides are often diagnosed first by the podiatrist on x-ray evaluation, including pseudogout, ankylosing spondylitis, early rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative joint disease, and tuberculosis of bone. The joint responds to insult in only a limited number of ways that become apparent on x-ray. The soft tissues surrounding the joint, the articulating bones, and alignment of the joint space may all be involved by the arthritic process. On roentgenographic examination, the soft tissues must be examined for edema, masses, calcifications, and atrophy. The articulating bones must be examined for demineralization, erosions, osteophytes, periosteal reaction, cysts and sclerosis

  17. Thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  18. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  19. Gaucher's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainaux, B.; Christophe, C.; Hanquinet, S.; Perlmutter, N.

    1992-01-01

    We report our observations made by conventional radiography, ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3 1/2-year-old girl with Gaucher's disease. The interest of the case consists in the exceptional lungs involvement, the demonstration by MRI of the bone marrow involvement and the necrosis and fibrosis of the liver, as shown by CT. This liver complication has been previously reported only once. (orig.)

  20. Mitochondrial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent Kurt; Turgut Topal

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the major energy source of cells. Mitochondrial disease occurs due to a defect in mitochondrial energy production. A valuable energy production in mitochondria depend a healthy interconnection between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. A mutation in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA may cause abnormalities in ATP production and single or multiple organ dysfunctions, secondarily. In this review, we summarize mitochondrial physiology, mitochondrial genetics, and clinical expression and ...

  1. Cushing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Esteche, V.; Menafra Prieto, M.; Ormaechea Gorricho, R.; Vignolo Scalone, G.; Larre Borges, A.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the Cushings disease in its various aspects. It highlights the importance of early diagnosis to avoid repercussions hypercortisolism secondary to parenchymal. We describe the findings in the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), noting that the pituitary adenoma is often of small size and sometimes not visible on MRI. The treatment of choice remains surgical treatment other contingencies exist for particular cases (Author) [es

  2. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  3. Heavy Chain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy ... the disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy ...

  4. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    Hedychiums have been reported to possess antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities [4,5]. Strawberry anthracnose, caused by the plant...pathogens Colletotrichum species is one of the most important diseases affecting strawberries worldwide [6]. Colletotrichum fragariae Brooks is most...often associated with anthracnose crown rot of strawberries grown in hot, humid areas such as the southeastern United States [7]. The azalea lace bug

  5. REVENUE ANALYSIS AND EFFICIENCY FARMING RED CHILLI IN MINGGIR DISTRIC,T SLEMAN SUB-PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Saputro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Red chili farm is potentially to develops because can increase the earning of farmer, but how much the farmer earning and factors that it’s production are not known. This research aim to know earnings of farmer of red chili, knowing factors any kind of influencing red chili production and efficiency usage of factors produce at red chili of farming. Basic method which is used in this research is descriptive analysis method. Research location determined with sampling purposive that is in District Stand aside. Farmer of sample determined with systematic random sampling and taken by 30 samples. Data analyze with: (1 revenue analysis, (2 multiple linear regression, (3 function of CobbDouglas. Result of research was indicated that farmer mean earning per hectare of red chili is IDR 80.098.297, 00 wide of factors of production of farm, seed, phonska fertilizer, cage manure, pesticide, and labor have an effect significant at 95 percent level while manure of urea have an effect not significant. Efficiency usage of factors produce inefficient red chili of farming for example wide of farm, seed, urea fertilizer, phonska fertilize, cage manure, pesticide, and labor.

  6. Defense gene expression in root galls induced by Nacobbus aberrans in CM334 chilli plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar-Luna E.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum L. CM334 is susceptible to Nacobbus aberrans but highly resistant to Phy-tophthora capsici. Resistance to P. capsici is associated with the over-expression of various defense genes such as those encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. The transcriptional alterations of defense-related genes were determined in galls induced by N. aberrans (Na in CM334 chili roots. Transcripts accumulation of WRKY-a, WRKY1, POX (peroxidase, PR-1 (pathogenesis-related protein 1, and EAS (5-epiaristolochene synthase was estimated by qRT-PCR, and they were compared with those recorded in the incompatible CM334- P. capsici (Pc interaction. The levels of all studied genes were significantly (P s 0.05 lower (WRKY1, POX and PR-1 or down-regulated (WRKY-a and EAS in the presence of N. aberrans; in contrast, in the incompatible interaction, all genes were significantly up-regulated. The alterations induced by N. aberrans could be necessary to ensure the successful completion of its life cycle in CM334 chili roots.

  7. Chilly Climates, Balancing Acts, and Shifting Pathways: What Happens to Women in STEM Doctoral Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Cabay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Women in doctoral programs in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM leave without finishing at higher rates than men and, as with men, turn away from academic and research careers. This qualitative study examines the day-to-day influences on female doctoral students during their third or fourth year in physical science and engineering programs. Ethnographic cognitive interviewing and online incident reports document the specific experiences and reactions of 28 participants over a six-month period. The data were analyzed to identify key incidents, categories and recurring themes. Some incidents contributed to women’s growing sense of competence, recognition and identification of oneself as a scientist. Others fit a model of microaggressions and gender barriers in a predominantly masculine culture. Problems of work-life balance were demonstrated for some women. Incidents generated responses by some participants that they would disengage from a research-intensive career trajectory toward alternate career interests outside of academic research. The findings provide information about the lived experiences of women in doctoral programs and suggest that the metaphor of career pathways may be more useful than pipelines in explaining the direction of women who are advanced doctoral students in research-intensive fields.

  8. Studying How Plants Defend Themselves: A Chemical Weapon Produced by Chilli Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2011-01-01

    Students often prefer to study animals rather than plants, because they see plants as passive, less interesting organisms. This paper proposes a simple hands-on laboratory exercise for high-school students (grade 12) to arouse their interest in learning about plants and to demonstrate to them that plants are active organisms capable of defending…

  9. Gender and Choosing a STEM Major in College: Femininity, Masculinity, Chilly Climate, and Occupational Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard M.; Wagner, Ashley; Killion, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Masculinity and femininity have played a substantial role in how social scientists explain the gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The masculine culture of science is thought to be inconsistent with occupational values associated with feminine personalities, and to create a discriminatory academic…

  10. Estimation of Para Red Dye in Chilli Powder and Tomato Sauces by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    food is strictly prohibited because of its ability to form carcinogenic compounds. Although there were a ... numbers of synthetic dyes available in markets used not only to enhance ..... panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and ...

  11. ‘Thrilled with Chilly Horror’: A Formulaic Pattern in Gothic Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a body of research into the conventions which govern the composition of Gothic texts. Gothic fiction resorts to formulas or formula-like constructions, but whereas in writers such as Ann Radcliffe this practice is apt to be masked by stylistic devices, it enjoys a more naked display in the–in our modern eyes–less ‘canonical’ Gothics, and it is in these that we may profitably begin an analysis. The novel selected was Peter Teuthold’s The Necromancer (1794–a very free translation of K. F. Kahlert’s Der Geisterbanner (1792 and one of the seven Gothic novels mentioned in Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey.

  12. Is It Getting Chilly in Here? Men and Women at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipczak, Bob

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the problems that have arisen in the workplace because of the fear of sexual harassment charges. Describes the gender communication training needed to build a climate of understanding and allow teamwork to flourish. (JOW)

  13. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  14. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  15. Diseases of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Different forms of skull diseases viz. inflammatory diseases, skull tumors, primary and secondary bone tumors, are considered. Roentgenograms in some above-mentioned diseases are presented and analysed

  16. Hirayama disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul T Tayade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male, who gave up his favorite sport cricket and started playing football, presented with one-year history of slowly progressive atrophic weakness of forearms and hands. Neurological examination showed weak and wasted arms, forearms and hand but no evidence of pyramidal tract, spinothalmic tract and posterior column lesions. Plain cervical spine radiographs showed no abnormal findings. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed asymmetric cord atrophy; images obtained with neck flexed showed the anterior shifting of the posterior wall of the lower cervical dural sac resulting in cord compression. These findings suggest Hirayama disease, a kind of cervical myelopathy related to the flexion movements of the neck.

  17. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your local chapter Join our online community Parkinson's Disease Dementia Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment ... disease. About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Parkinson's disease dementia The brain changes caused by Parkinson's ...

  18. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  19. What Is Celiac Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 ...

  20. Celiac Disease Changes Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 ...

  1. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  2. Associated Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gland in the neck, thick and coarse hair. Addison’s Disease Arare disease involving the adrenal gland. The prevalence of celiac disease in people with addison’s disease is significant. Symptoms of Addison’s may include weight ...

  3. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  4. Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Mad Cow Disease What's ... are people to get it? What Is Mad Cow Disease? Mad cow disease is an incurable, fatal ...

  5. Niemann-Pick disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPD; Sphingomyelinase deficiency; Lipid storage disorder - Niemann-Pick disease; Lysosomal storage disease - Niemann-Pick ... lipofuscinoses or Batten disease (Wolman disease, cholesteryl ... metabolism of lipids. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  6. American Lyme Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases, 35: 451-464, 2002) What is Lyme Disease? Lyme disease (LD) is an infection caused by ... mission with your own tax-deductible contribution. American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. PO Box 466 Lyme, CT 06371 ...

  7. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often DO NOT consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  8. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 13,2017 Understand the risks of ... inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be ...

  9. Men and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  10. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  11. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  12. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  13. Osler's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U.; Lieb, J.; Schneider, G.; Ulmer, S.

    2013-01-01

    Osler's disease, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes and often in organs, such as the lungs, liver and brain (arteriovenous malformations AVM). Various types are known. Patients may present with epistaxis. Teleangiectasia can be identified by visual inspection during physical examination of the skin or oral cavity or by endoscopy. Diagnosis is made after clinical examination and genetic testing based on the Curacao criteria. Modern imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become more important as they can depict the AVMs. Pulmonary AVMs can be depicted in CT imaging even without the use of a contrast agent while other locations including the central nervous system (CNS) usually require administration of contrast agents. Knowledge of possible clinical manifestations in various organs, possible complications and typical radiological presentation is mandatory to enable adequate therapy of these patients. Interventional procedures are becoming increasingly more important in the treatment of HHT patients. (orig.) [de

  14. Renal disease in patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpheng, Boonphiphop; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Wijarnpreecha, Karn

    2018-04-01

    Celiac disease, an inflammatory disease of small bowel caused by sensitivity to dietary gluten and related protein, affects approximately 0.5-1% of the population in the Western world. Extra-intestinal symptoms and associated diseases are increasingly recognized including diabetes mellitus type 1, thyroid disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and ataxia. There have also been a number of reports of various types of renal involvement in patients with celiac disease including diabetes nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome related to malabsorption, oxalate nephropathy, and associations of celiac disease with chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease. This review aims to present the current literature on possible pathologic mechanisms underlying renal disease in patients with celiac disease.

  15. Hematopoietic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi, Hiroo

    1992-01-01

    A-bombing panicked many people with anxiety because they suffered from various symptoms after A-bombing (ie, they generally called them A-bomb disease). In this chapter, major two conditions (ie, leukopenia and anemia), which caused their symptoms, are reviewed based on the early data soon after A-bombing. According to the chronological changes in both white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts, both leukopenia and anemia are discussed. The findings can be divided into acute (one week or at least 10 days), subacute (2 weeks to one month), and delayed (thereafter) periods. During an acute period, some exposed even at ≤200 m from the hypocenter showed WBC count of 6,000/mm 3 or more one week after exposure but others exposed at 1,500-2,000 m showed WBC count of less than 3,000/mm 3 , suggesting the influence of shielding on WBC count. WBC count sometimes became the lowest during a subacute period, although it was normal during an acute period. A survey for WBC count during a delayed period (one year later) showed that WBC count of less than 4,000/mm 3 was more frequent in the exposed group (78/523 A-bomb survivors, 14.9%) than the non-exposed group (6/173 persons, 3.5%). In the exposed group, leukopenia was independent of distance and symptoms at the time of exposure. For anemia, there was no data available during an acute period. Anemia frequently occurred during a subacute period. Morphological abnormality of RBC tended to be high in death cases. A delayed survey on anemia 10 years after exposure showed that there was no statistically significant difference in any of the factors, such as hemoglobin, RBC count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, between the exposed and non-exposed groups. (N.K.)

  16. Association between periodontal diseases and systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Weidlich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease may be associated with systemic diseases. This paper reviewed the published data about the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and respiratory diseases, focusing on studies conducted in the Brazilian population. Only a few studies were found in the literature focusing on Brazilians (3 concerning cardiovascular disease, 7 about pregnancy outcomes, 9 about diabetes and one regarding pneumonia. Although the majority of them observed an association between periodontitis and systemic conditions, a causal relationship still needs to be demonstrated. Further studies, particularly interventional well-designed investigations, with larger sample sizes, need to be conducted in Brazilian populations.

  17. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  18. Lysosomal storage disease 2 - Pompe's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Reuser, Arnold J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Pompe's disease, glycogen-storage disease type II, and acid maltase deficiency are alternative names for the same metabolic disorder. It is a pan-ethnic autosomal recessive trait characterised by acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency leading to lysosomal glycogen storage. Pompe's disease is also

  19. Huntington's disease: a perplexing neurological disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huntington's disease is an inherited intricate brain illness. It is a neurodegenerative, insidious disorder; the onset of the disease is very late to diagnose. It is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, which encodes an abnormally long polyglutamine repeat in the Huntingtin protein. Huntington's disease ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expert Briefings: Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease NY Nightly News with Chuck ... Briefings: What's in the Parkinson's Pipeline? Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease 2010 Expert Briefings: Legal Issues: ...

  1. Parkinson disease - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for Care Partners Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Innovations in PD Nurse Education CareMAP: Managing Advanced Parkinson's ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis How Is Parkinson's Disease ...

  3. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  4. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Pediatric Celiac Disease If your child has celiac disease, ... physician. Established by the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) Celiac Disease Eosinophilic ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Gait, Balance and Falls in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Coping ... Conference: Lessons Learned How Does the DBS Device Work? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Managing Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis CareMAP: ...

  6. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many ... viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ...

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease ...

  8. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  9. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 29,2018 The following ... clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent ...

  10. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. Who Gets ALS? Although this disease can strike anyone, ALS is extremely rare in kids. According ... home to provide care that the family cannot handle alone. Living With Lou Gehrig's Disease Living with ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Does Caregiving Change from Day to Day? Unconditional Love How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect the Urinary System? ... Mind Guide to Parkinson's Disease Guide to Deep Brain Stimulation Sleep: A Mind Guide to Parkinson’s Disease ...

  12. Lyme Disease Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... materials Why is CDC concerned about Lyme disease? Data and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... sixth most common Nationally Notifiable disease . Lyme Disease Data File To facilitate the public health and research ...

  13. Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases Arthritis is often used to refer to any ... primary immunodeficiency syndrome March 11, 2013 Arthritis and Rheumatic Disease News Research Brief | January 9, 2017 Tofacitinib Shows ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis OHSU - Overview of Parkinson's ... Disease? What Are Some Strategies to Improve the Quality of Community Care for PD Patients? CareMAP: Dealing ...

  15. Chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, together with other related non -communicable diseases. (NCDs), poses not only a threat ... but because if we do not act against NCDs we will also be increasing individual and ... respiratory diseases and cancer. This is in recognition ...

  16. Tay-Sachs Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disease. It is a type of lipid metabolism disorder. It causes too ... cells, causing mental and physical problems. . Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first few ...

  17. Menopause and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Menopause and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 23,2017 Heart ... can become more evident after the onset of menopause. Menopause does not cause cardiovascular diseases . However, certain ...

  18. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  19. Lyme disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to the ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a deer ...

  20. Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... How many Americans over age 65 may have Alzheimer's disease? as many as 5 million as many ...