WorldWideScience

Sample records for chilli anthracnose disease

  1. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Po Po; Prihastuti, Haryudian; Phoulivong, Sitthisack; Taylor, Paul W J; Hyde, Kevin D

    2008-10-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum species have been reported as causal agents of chilli anthracnose disease worldwide. The ambiguous taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species has resulted in inaccurate identification which may cause practical problems in plant breeding and disease management. Although the management and control of anthracnose disease are still being extensively researched, commercial cultivars of Capsicum annuum that are resistant to the pathogens that cause chilli anthracnose have not yet been developed. This paper reviews the causal agents of chilli anthracnose, the disease cycle, conventional methods in identification of the pathogen and molecular approaches that have been used for the identification of Colletotrichum species. Pathogenetic variation and population structure of the causal agents of chilli anthracnose along with the current taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species are discussed. Future developments leading to the disease management strategies are suggested. PMID:18837103

  2. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Po Po THAN; Haryudian PRIHASTUTI; Sitthisack PHOULIVONG; Paul W.J. TAYLOR; Kevin D. HYDE

    2008-01-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum species have been reported as causal agents of chilli anthracnose disease worldwide. The ambiguous taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species has resulted in inaccurate identification which may cause practical problems in plant breeding and disease management. Although the management and control of anthracnose disease are still being extensively researched, commercial eultivars of Capsicum annuum that are resistant to the pathogens that cause chilli anthracnose have not yet been developed. This paper reviews the causal agents of chilli anthracnose, the disease cycle, conventional methods in identification of the pathogen and molecular approaches that have been used for the identification of Colletotrichum species. Pathogenetic variation and population structure of the causal agents of chilli anthracnose along with the current taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species are discussed. Future developments leading to the disease management strategies are suggested.

  3. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species§

    OpenAIRE

    Than, Po Po; Prihastuti, Haryudian; Phoulivong, Sitthisack; Taylor, Paul W.J.; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum specie...

  4. Characterization of Indigenous Rhizobacterial Isolates from Healthy Chilli Rhizosphere Capable of Inducing Resistance Against Anthracnose Disease (Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides).

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah Fatimah; T. Habazar; D. Arbain; Nurbailis Nurbailis

    2014-01-01

    Antrachnose disease on chilli  caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is difficult to be controlled because the disease can be transmitted through the seeds, and has a high genetic diversity. One of promising alternative control is using biological control agents, such as groups of rhizobacteria. The objective of this research were : to characterize the morphology, physiology and molecular of  selected rhizobacterial isolates,  which were capable of controlling the anthracnose disease  and ...

  5. Characterization of Indigenous Rhizobacterial Isolates from Healthy Chilli Rhizosphere Capable of Inducing Resistance Against Anthracnose Disease (Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antrachnose disease on chilli  caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is difficult to be controlled because the disease can be transmitted through the seeds, and has a high genetic diversity. One of promising alternative control is using biological control agents, such as groups of rhizobacteria. The objective of this research were : to characterize the morphology, physiology and molecular of  selected rhizobacterial isolates,  which were capable of controlling the anthracnose disease  and to enhance the growth and yield chilli. Three  rhizobacterial isolates (B1.37, B2.11 and P1.31 were used. These isolates were indentified based on morphology (colony form, elevation, edge, and color, physiology (gram tes, the production of hormone IAA, chitinase enzyme, hydrogen cyanide, and solvents phosphate and molecular.  The isolates were identified by using  16S rRNA sequencing.  The results indicated that isolate B1.37 belonged to species of Bacillus cereus strain ML 267, isolate B2.11 belonged to Bacillus cereus strain LH8 and isolate P1.31 belonged to  Chryseobacterium gleum strain NBRC 15054.

  6. The Screening and the Use of Antagonists for Biological Control of Anthracnose of Chilli at Pre-and Post-Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 301 of isolates of microorganism were isolated from pepper leaves and fruit skin, including fungi bacteria and yeast. They were tested inhibition of mycelia l growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose, on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The result showed that 145 isolate inhibited the growth of mycelia l by 45-70 %. The selected high efficiency antagonists were tested for potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected pepper fruit. The selected four isolate antagonists including Y18, YFm1, YFm2 and AC2-1 were finding suitable method test for control of anthracnose disease. The results show that application of antagonistic microorganism before inoculation of C. gloeosporiodes was superior in disease controlling than inoculation regardless the use of pathogen inoculation procedures. Antagonist Y18, YFm1 and YFm2 were test ability in greenhouse, in was found that three isolates have high efficiency for control anthracnose disease. Under field condition, spraying cell suspension of Y18, YFm2 and Yfm1 on pepper fruit before inoculation C. gloeosporioides and cover with plastic bag. 14 day after treatment it was found that Y18, YFm2, YFm1 and control had percentage of fruit disease by 33.33, 40.7, 73.4 and 100 % respectively. When study ability of three isolate in field at found anthracnose disease revealed that Y18 and YFm2 could control of C. gloesporiodides within 12 day after treatment. Addition, YFm2 could control of C. gloeosporidide in field at not found anthracnose high efficiency. The efficiency test of YFm2 for anthracnose controlling on chilli fruit for export were kept at 13 degree C for 18 days. YFm2 showed 100 % control of anthracnose with satisfactory firmness of chilli friut.

  7. High yielding and moderately resistant to fruit rot disease chilli hybrid – CCH 1 (TNAU Chilli Hybrid CO 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pugalendhi, D. Veeraragavathatham, V. A. Sathiyamurthy and S. Natarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is one of the serious diseases in chilli which affects whole plant and also fruits in particular. A study wasundertaken to develop a high yielding and anthracnose disease resistant hybrid in chilli at the Dept. of Vegetable Crops, HC &RI, TNAU, Coimbatore during 2004-05. As a first step, ninety three germplasm lines maintained in the Dept. of Vegetablecrops were evaluated for disease resistant and yield. Three single plant selections namely Sln 1, Sln 2 and Sln 3 made inadvanced generations of a hybrid were found to be resistant and the genotypes Arka Lohit, Pepper Hot, CA 97, KDC 1,CC 4, CA 95, CA 115 and CA 59 were found to be moderately resistant. These selected lines were used both as male(testers and lines as female parents and 30 hybrids were obtained. All these hybrids were tested for the performance ofyield, quality and disease resistance. Among them the hybrid combination of Sln 1 x CA 97 was identified as bestperformed hybrid CCH 1(TNAU Chilli Hybrid CO 1. This was test verified across the state in 8 MLT and 103 ARTplots along with NS 1701 and K 1 as check. The results showed that the per cent increase was 14.65 over NS 1701 and51.40 over K 1for green fruit yield and 19.15 and 60.86 for dry fruit yield respectively. The fruit rot incidence in termsof Percentage of Disease Index (PDI observed was 12.50 and hence it is comes under moderately resistant group. Thisentry CCH 1 has been released as TNAU Chilli Hybrid CO 1 during the year 2009-10.

  8. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  9. Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of chili in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.; Liu, F.; Wang, W.-Z.; Liu, L.; Cai, L.; Liu, X.-L.

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a serious disease of more than 30 plant genera. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect chili in different countries. Although China is the largest chiliproducing country, little is known about the species that have been infecting c

  10. ROOT ROT OF CHILLI INCITED BY Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. AND ITS MANAGEMENT- A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Madhuri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilli (Capsicum annum L. belongs to the family solanaceae is mainly cultivated for its vegetable green fruits and dry chilli as the spice. It is believed to be originated from South America. It is a rich source of Vitamin C, A and B. Chilli is valued for pungency which is imparted by an alkaloid, Capsaicin and the red pigments (Capsanthin, Capsorubin and Capxanthin. Chillies are widely used as spice, condiment, culinary, supplement, medicine, vegetable and are ornamental plants too. It is an important food flavouring ingredientfor flavouring many vegetarian and non-vegetarian food products. In view of its multifarious uses, the demand for chillies has been on the increase world over. In India it is an important cash crop, which is grown for the domestic market and for export. In India, chillies are grown in almost all states of the country and the major growing states in terms of production are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. There are several varieties of chilli cultivated in India. The most popular among these are, Sannam, LC334, Byadagi, Wonderhot, Jwala etc. The crop suffers from many diseases like damping off, anthracnose or fruit rot or dieback, wilt, leaf spots and powdery mildew. Among the fungal diseases, root rot of chilli caused by Sclerotium rolfsii has attained the economic importance. In recent years, this disease is causing the economic losses in chillies crop (Kalmesh and Gurjar 2001.

  11. Anthracnose: A new strawberry disease in Serbia and its control by fungicides

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović Mirko S.; Duduk Bojan B.; Ivanović Milan M.; Ivanović Miroslav S.

    2007-01-01

    Anthracnose is a destructive disease of strawberry fruits in warm and continental climate. During 2004, in the vicinity of Valjevo, there were severe losses in two strawberry plantations due to fruit anthracnose. Two fungal isolates, GG-6A and GG-JUP were recovered from strawberry stolons and fruits showing severe anthracnose symptoms. Based on morphological and pathological characteristics, and PCR analyses with specific primers of reference species, isolate GG-6A was identified as Colletotr...

  12. Anthracnose: A new strawberry disease in Serbia and its control by fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Mirko S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a destructive disease of strawberry fruits in warm and continental climate. During 2004, in the vicinity of Valjevo, there were severe losses in two strawberry plantations due to fruit anthracnose. Two fungal isolates, GG-6A and GG-JUP were recovered from strawberry stolons and fruits showing severe anthracnose symptoms. Based on morphological and pathological characteristics, and PCR analyses with specific primers of reference species, isolate GG-6A was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and GG-JUP isolate as C. acutatum. This is the first identification of C. acutatum in strawberry in Serbia. In order to control strawberry anthracnose, five fungicides and their combinations were applied four times during the flowering. The best fruit protection was achieved by fungicides Metiram + piraclostrobin (Cabrio top, Captan FL and Fludioksinil + ciprodinil (Swich. Less effective were Benomil (Benlate and Krezoksim-metil (Stroby. Pathogen is transmitted by planting material, so phytosanitary measures are extremely important in preventing the disease.

  13. Effect of Seed Bacterization on Plant Growth Response and Induction of Disease Resistance in Chilli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasmeen Siddiqui; Sariah Meon

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the induction of disease resistance, and growth response in chilli plants elicited by plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria [Pseudomonas aeruginosa (UPMP3), Burkholderia cepacia (UPMB3), and Serratia marcescens (UPMS3)]. Seed bacterization with UPMP3 and UPMB3 significantly increased peroxidase (PO),polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities. This increase corresponded to greater reduction in pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. UPMS3 alone or as mixture with UPMP3 and UPMB3 did not show any significant reduction in disease incidence. However, all the isolates tested did not inhibit the seed germination and seedling establishment in chilli.

  14. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Breeding for soybean resistance to anthracnose disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of a mission to evaluate projects using mutation breeding techniques to develop resistance in soybeans to anthracnose disease. The project to date is generally successful in that training has been provided to numerous scientists in Thailand, and this will lead to improved University teaching and better research. Several changes in experimental procedure are suggested to increase the chances of finding anthracnose resistance in soybean

  15. Molecular characterization of Chilli leaf curl virus and satellite molecules associated with leaf curl disease of Amaranthus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, B; Kumar, R Vinoth; Chakraborty, S

    2014-04-01

    Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is an annual or short-lived perennial plant used as leafy vegetables, cereals and for ornamental purposes in many countries including India. During 2011, leaf samples of Amaranthus plants displaying leaf curling, leaf distortion, leaf crinkling and yellow leaf margins were collected from Banswara district, Rajasthan in India. Full-length clones of a monopartite begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were characterized. The complete nucleotide sequence of the isolated begomovirus features as a typical 'Old World' begomovirus with the highest nucleotide per cent identity with Chilli leaf curl virus and hence, considered as an isolate of Chilli leaf curl virus. The complete nucleotide sequences of betasatellite and alphasatellite possess maximum nucleotide identity with Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand betasatellite and Chilli leaf curl alphasatellite, respectively. This is the first report of the association of chilli-infecting begomovirus and satellite molecules infecting a new host, Amaranthus, causing leaf curl disease. PMID:24368759

  16. Sorghum pathology and biotechnology - A fungal disease perspective: Part II. Anthracnose, stalk rot, and downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar diseases and stalk rots are among the most damaging diseases of sorghum in terms of lost production potential, thus commanding considerable research time and expenditure. This review will focus on anthracnose, a fungal disease that causes both foliar symptoms and stalk rots along with the st...

  17. Screening of chitinolytic actinomycetes for biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii stem rot disease of chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Pattanapipitpaisal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and eighty three strains were isolated from rhizoshere-associated soils, from Ubon Ratchathani andSrisaket province, using Enrichment Media for isolation of Chitinase-producing Actinomycetes agar (EMCA agar. All strainswere screened for chitinolytic activity and sixty eight strains gave significant clear zone on EMCA agar plates. The selectedchitinolytic strains were assayed for in vitro antagonism against Sclerotium rolfsii using cornmeal agar (CMA agar assayprocedure and the result showed that thirteen isolates have remarkable inhibiting the growth of the fungus and the top fiveantagonistic actinomycetes were PACCH 277, PACCH129, PACCH225, PACCH24 and PACCH246, respectively. The resultindicated that these actinomycetes produce chitinase which catalyze the degradation of chitin, resulting in inhibition of S.rolfsii growth. Their abilities to control the disease development were tested for in vivo biocontrol assay on chilli seedlings.Two out of thirteen candidate, PACCH24 and PACCH225, antagonists reduced the disease development at 90%. It wassuggested that the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogen in vitro was not related to the disease reduction in vivo. Thestrain PACCH24 was further identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus according to morphological characteristic, cell walland cellular sugar analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. The study implies a novel chitinolytic actinomycete which could bedeveloped to be a biological agent which would be included as a complement with organic fertilizers in order to control stemrot disease and promote growth of chilli.

  18. Mass-screening techniques of some tropical crops for resistance to anthracnose diseases using phytotoxic metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic metabolites, also known as chemopathogens, are one of the weapons used by pathogens to induce a disease condition in susceptible host plants. Many pathogens are known to produce toxins both in vitro and in vivo, and these toxins have been implicated in the development of disease symptoms in the host tissues. Among such pathogens are various Colletotrichum spp., the causal agents of anthracnose. Anthracnose is one of the most devastating diseases of many tropical crops such as cereals, legumes, tuber/root crops and fruits. Colletotrichum f. sp. manihotis, C. gloeosporioides, C . lindemuthianum, C . truncatum and C. graminicola are the causal agents of cassava, yam, cowpea, soybean and maize anthracnose, respectively, and produce toxic metabolites in culture that fluoresce between 254 and 366 nm. Disease symptoms induced on these crops by the extracted metabolites of the respective pathogens are similar to those induced by the pathogens during natural infections. Bioassays of the purified culture filtrate of these pathogens using the respective host plants produced different sizes of lesions. Results of the in vitro screening of these crops using toxic metabolites produced by the respective pathogens showed a positive correlation with field screenings based on natural epidemics. Toxic metabolites appear to be a more effective technique for screening crops for resistance to anthracnose and other diseases caused by toxigenic pathogens than screening methods based on natural disease infections. (author)

  19. Genome Sequence and Annotation of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a Causal Agent of Crucifer Anthracnose Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampounis, Antonios; Pigné, Sandrine; Dallery, Jean-Félix; Wittenberg, Alexander H J; Zhou, Shiguo; Schwartz, David C; Thon, Michael R; O'Connell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an ascomycete fungus causing anthracnose disease on numerous cultivated plants in the family Brassicaceae, as well as the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana We report an assembly of the nuclear genome and gene annotation of this pathogen, which was obtained using a combination of PacBio long-read sequencing and optical mapping. PMID:27540062

  20. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    OpenAIRE

    Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; B.M.R. Bandara

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does n...

  1. Identification of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease of coffee in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phuong; Vinnere Pettersson, Olga; Olsson, Peter; Liljeroth, Erland

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, C. capsici and C. boninense associated with anthracnose disease on coffee (Coffea spp.) in Vietnam were identified based on morphology and DNA analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA and a portion of mitochondrial small subunit rRNA were concordant and allowed good separation of the taxa. We found several Colletotrichum isolates of unknown species and their taxonomic position rema...

  2. Spot Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Tulip Tree in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Okryun; Choi, Okhee; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Kim, Jinwoo; Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk

    2012-01-01

    The tulip tree (Liriodendron chinense) has been widely cultivated in Korea as a street or garden tree for its large flowers, which have a superficial resemblance to tulips. Occurrence of anthracnose disease on the leaves of tulip trees growing on the campus of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea, has been observed. Based on mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and internal transcribed spacer sequence, the causal fungus was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This is ...

  3. In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. prostrata and D. scandens leaf extract have the potentials as veritable control agents of anthracnose disease of cowpea in Africa. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 29-36

  4. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mungsuntisuk Isada; Intra Bungonsiri; Nihira Takuya; Igarashi Yasuhiro; Panbangred Watanalai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the...

  5. Inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Control of Postharvest Anthracnose Disease on Mango Fruit Using Propionic Acid Combined with Bee-Carnauba Wax Emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Do Chi Thinh; Kaewalin Kunasakdakul

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the most significant postharvest disease of mangos and negatively affect handling and marketing of mango fruits in Vietnam. A mixture of bee-carnauba wax and propionic acid has successfully inhibited linear growth and spore germination of C. gloeosporioides (in vitro) and prevented anthracnose diseases of mango fruits (in vivo). A complete reduction in mycelial growth and spore germination was observed when a mixture of 0.09% propionic a...

  6. Screening of lactic acid bacteria as biological control against chilli seeds pathogen ( Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Saleh W. El Mabrok, Zaiton Hassan, Ahmed Mahir Mokhtar and Khaled M. A. "

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Chilli, Caps/Cum annum L. cultlvatien has existed for several hundred years as a sustainable form of agriculture in Malaysia and in many other countries. It is an annual herbaceous vegetable and spice grown in both tropical and sub-tropical regions and belongs to family Solanaceae. The sustainability of chilli-based agriculture is threatened by a number of factors. Main biotic stresses such as bacterial wilt, anthracnose, viruses andseveral insect pests have been reported to impa...

  7. Colletotrichum spp. associated with anthracnose disease on Coffee in Vietnam and on some other major tropical crops

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phuong

    2010-01-01

    The genus Colletotrichum consists of many economically important pathogenic fungi on a broad range of host plants world-wide. They cause significant economic losses to tropical crops: fruits, cereals, grasses, vegetables, etc., due to diseases at different stages of plant development. Several species of Colletotrichum cause anthracnose on coffee and other major crops, which are valuable trade commodities in Vietnam and Thailand. However, populations of these pathogens have been poorly studied...

  8. Efficacy of Crude Extract of Antifungal Compounds Produced from Bacillus subtilis on Prevention of Anthracnose Disease in Dendrobium Orchid

    OpenAIRE

    Benjaphorn Prapagdee; Lalita Tharasaithong; Ratchaya Nanthaphot; Cholakan Paisitwiroj

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of crude extracts of antifungal compounds produced from Bacillus subtilis SSE4 against plant fungal pathogen; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Antifungal compounds in culture filtrate were extracted by ethyl acetate, hexane or dichloromethane and assessed for their efficacy to inhibit the growth of C. gloeosporioides on agar plates and for prevention of anthracnose disease in Dendrobium. The results showed that crude extracts of ant...

  9. Application of silver nanoparticles for the control of colletotrichum species in vitro and pepper anthracnose disease in field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang Woo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Yun Seok; Kim, Kyong Su; Lee, Youn Su

    2011-09-01

    Pepper anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is one of the most important limiting factors for pepper production in Korea, its management being strongly dependent on chemicals. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibilities of using silver nanoparticles instead of commercial fungicides. In this study, we evaluated the effect of silver nanoparticles against pepper anthracnose under different culture conditions. Silver nanoparticles (WA-PR-WB13R) were applied at various concentrations to determine antifungal activities in vitro and in the field. The application of 100 ppm concentration of silver nanoparticles produced maximum inhibition of the growth of fungal hyphae as well as conidial germination in comparison to the control in vitro. In field trials, the inhibition of fungi was significantly high when silver nanoparticles were applied before disease outbreak on the plants. Scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the silver nanoparticles caused a detrimental effect on mycelial growth of Colletotrichum species. PMID:22783103

  10. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Abayasekara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity and cell wall lignification. ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  11. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

    2013-03-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  12. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; Bandara, B. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  13. Genetics of anthracnose panel canker disease resistance and its relationship with yield and growth characters in half-sib progenies of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Paulo de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell-Arg] anthracnose panel canker disease resistance, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., and growth and yield characters were assessed at three years old in the nursery, in 18 half-sib progenies. There were highly significant (P < 0.01 genetic differences among progenies for most characters. The genetic component of variance accounted for 3.37, 6.07, 12.74, 12.13, 19.82 and 3.58% of the phenotypic variance for anthracnose-infected area, anthracnose lesion stripe length, yield, girth, virgin bark thickness and total number of latex vessel rings, respectively. Narrow-sense heritability estimates for the above characters were 13.45, 24.30, 50.97, 48.52, 79.30 and 14.30%, respectively. No significant genetic correlations were found among anthracnose panel canker resistance, yield and growth characters. The frequency distribution of anthracnose-infected area and anthracnose lesion stripe length suggests polygenic control. Selecting the best three progenies out of 18 progenies would result in a genetic gain of 12.87 and 24.24% for infected area and lesion stripe length, respectively. The best five selected individuals out of 50 individuals within each progeny would result in a genetic gain of 9.47 and 24.62%, with a total gain of 22.34 and 48.87% for these two characters, respectively.

  14. Why are chillies pungent?

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Renee M

    2001-01-01

    Early voyagers to the Americas, including Central America, Mexico, Peru, and Chile, found many forms of peppers, among them the 'hot' (pungent) ones. In Spain these hot peppers are called chili, meaning from Chile, and in India, chillies. When asked to guess the source of chillies, one might think of Mexico. However, despite the plant's popularity in that country, it is believed that chillies- or, to use the misleading but widely used name by which they are called in the United States, chili...

  15. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungsuntisuk Isada

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. Results A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0% were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8% were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6% could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87% belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2 and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2 and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1. Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three

  16. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  17. Co-segregation analysis and mapping of the anthracnose Co-10 and angular leaf spot Phg-ON disease resistance genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) are devastating diseases of common bean. Ouro Negro is a highly productive Mesoamerican black-seeded common bean cultivar possessing the dominant Co-10 and Phg-ON genes that confer resistance to ANT and ALS, respectively. In this study we elucidate the ...

  18. Involvement of miR160/miR393 and their targets in cassava responses to anthracnose disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinweha, Nattaya; Asvarak, Thipa; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2015-02-01

    Cassava is a starchy root crop for food and industrial applications in many countries around the world. Among the factors that affect cassava production, diseases remain the major cause of yield loss. Cassava anthracnose disease is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Severe anthracnose attacks can cause tip die-backs and stem cankers, which can affect the availability of planting materials especially in large-scale production systems. Recent studies indicate that plants over- or under-express certain microRNAs (miRNAs) to cope with various stresses. Understanding how a disease-resistant plant protects itself from pathogens should help to uncover the role of miRNAs in the plant immune system. In this study, the disease severity assay revealed different response to C. gloeosporioides infection in two cassava cultivars. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis uncovered the differential expression of the two miRNAs and their target genes in the two cassava cultivars that were subjected to fungal infection. The more resistant cultivar revealed the up-regulation of miR160 and miR393, and consequently led to low transcript levels in their targets, ARF10 and TIR1, respectively. The more susceptible cultivar exhibited the opposite pattern. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to defense and stress responsiveness, fungal elicitor responsiveness and hormonal responses were the most prevalent present in the miRNAs gene promoter regions. The possible dual role of these specific miRNAs and their target genes associated with cassava responses to C. gloeosporioides is discussed. This is the first study to address the molecular events by which miRNAs which might play a role in fungal-infected cassava. A better understanding of the functions of miRNAs target genes should greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanism underlying susceptibility and lead to new strategies to enhance disease tolerance in this economically important crop. PMID:25462963

  19. Strawberry Anthracnose: Cultural Control Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletotrichum species incite serious diseases of many fruit and vegetable crops worldwide, and three species, C. acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, are major pathogens of strawberry. Strawberry anthracnose crown rot has been a destructive disease in strawberry nurseries and fruit prod...

  20. Sorghum germplasm resistance to anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose is one of the most damaging diseases for sorghum production. The disease can be successfully managed through the use of resistant cultivars, but the development of resistant cultivars is hindered by extensive variation in virulence within the pathogen population. Additional sources of ...

  1. Optimal control of anthracnose using mixed strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mbogne, David Jaurès Fotsa; Thron, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose and study a spatial diffusion model for the control of anthracnose disease in a bounded domain. The model is a generalization of the one previously developed in [14]. We use the model to simulate two different types of control strategies against anthracnose disease. Strategies that employ chemical fungicides are modeled using a continuous control function; while strategies that rely on cultivational practices (such as pruning and removal of mummified fruits) are model...

  2. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    OpenAIRE

    Ping-Chung Kuo; Ting-Fang Hsieh; Mei-Chi Lin; Bow-Shin Huang; Jenn-Wen Huang; Hung-Chang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify t...

  3. In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu; Anita Ehi Owoeye

    2013-01-01

    Aim/Background: Colletotrichum destructivum is one of the most important causes of anthracnose disease of cowpea leading to a great reduction in their production and yield potentials. The constant application of chemicals to control these phytopathogens poses potential threats to human health and the environment. Potential non-chemical control strategy such as the use of botanicals would be a better alternative. Botanicals are readily available, safe, efficacious and eco-friendly. This study ...

  4. Application of Silver Nanoparticles for the Control of Colletotrichum Species In Vitro and Pepper Anthracnose Disease in Field

    OpenAIRE

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang Woo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Yun Seok; Kim, Kyong Su; Lee, Youn Su

    2011-01-01

    Pepper anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is one of the most important limiting factors for pepper production in Korea, its management being strongly dependent on chemicals. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibilities of using silver nanoparticles instead of commercial fungicides. In this study, we evaluated the effect of silver nanoparticles against pepper anthracnose under different culture conditions. Silver nanoparticles (WA-PR-WB13R) were applied at various concentra...

  5. Guava Fruit Anthracnose and the Effects on its Nutritional and Market Values in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. Amusa; O.A. Ashaye; M.O. Oladapo; M. O. Oni

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of guava fruit anthracnose was investigated at Ibadan in the humid forest of Southern Nigeria. Result of the investigation revealed that Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was responsible for the anthracnose and the fruit rot diseases of guava fruit. Eighty percent of the guava plants were found infected with anthracnose disease and over 40% of the fruit produced on those trees were severely infected. The non-infected guava fruit was significantly higher than the anthracnose infecte...

  6. Species of the Colletotrichum acutatum complex associated with anthracnose diseases of fruit in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Carlos A D; Damm, Ulrike; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Massola Júnior, Nelson S; Crous, Pedro W

    2016-04-01

    Although Colletotrichum acutatum was recently investigated and shown to be a species complex comprising about 30 species, the name is still used in its broad sense for anthracnose pathogens of fruits in Brazil. In this study, a multilocus molecular analysis was carried out based on a dataset of ITS, HIS3, GAPDH, CHS-1, TUB2 and ACT sequences of Colletotrichum strains belonging to the C. acutatum species complex from fruits collected in different regions in Brazil combined with sequences of ex-type and other reference strains of species belonging to this complex. The strains were revealed to belong to Colletotrichum nymphaeae, Colletotrichum melonis, Colletotrichum abscissum and one new species, namely Colletotrichum paranaense, from apple and peach. Morphological descriptions of the new species and a strain closely related to but diverging from C. melonis are provided. From the data presently available, the most common species on apple fruits in Brazil is C. nymphaeae. In a pathogenicity test, strains of all four species caused lesions on detached apple, peach and guava fruits, except for strain CBS 134730 that did not infect guava fruits. PMID:27020156

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF CULTURAL PARAMETERS ON THE GROWTH AND SPORULATION OF COLLETOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES CAUSING ANTHRACNOSE DISEASE OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose which is a serious post harvest disease in mango accounting for 15-20% loss. The variation in nutritional and physiological characteristics among five isolates of C. gloeosporioides collected from different agro-climatic regions of India was investigated. All the isolates showed differential response in requirements of media, temperature and media pH for growth and sporulation. Malt Extract Agar (MEA medium was best suited for growth in terms of radial mycelial diameter for all the isolates. Among the studied isolates, Cg 72 (from Maharashtra showed more virulence and maximum sporulation (137.5×103 mL-1 at 28°C and media pH 6. Maximum growth and virulence at 28°C was observed with Cg 62 isolate. Media of pH 6 was found to be most suitable for the growth of respective isolates (s, but Cg 62 which was collected from Bihar found most virulent in this experiment.

  8. Genetics of anthracnose panel canker disease resistance and its relationship with yield and growth characters in half-sib progenies of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves; Edson Luiz Furtado; Ondino Cleante Bataglia; Altino Aldo Ortolani; André May; Giselle Olmos Belletti

    1999-01-01

    Rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell-Arg] anthracnose panel canker disease resistance, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., and growth and yield characters were assessed at three years old in the nursery, in 18 half-sib progenies. There were highly significant (P < 0.01) genetic differences among progenies for most characters. The genetic component of variance accounted for 3.37, 6.07, 12.74, 12.13, 19.82 and 3.58% of the phenotypic variance for a...

  9. Field evaluation of foliar anthracnose disease response for sorghum germplasm from the Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose occurs in most sorghum producing regions worldwide and the pathogen is highly variable; thus, additional sources of resistance are needed for sorghum improvement. To identify resistant sources, 41 sorghum accessions from the Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe were evaluated for fol...

  10. The First Report of the Occurrence of Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. & Sacc. on Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus spp. in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanto Masyahit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The increasing of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp. plantations in Malaysia enhances the researches on this crop, particularly focusing on its physico-chemical characteristics, great potential health benefits and nutritional value. However, its scientific report of disease is still lacking, primarily on anthracnose disease. This study was then conducted to investigate the distribution of anthracnose disease on dragon fruit and to correlate its occurrence with weather and cultural data. Approach: Survey and sampling were conducted on dragon fruit-growing areas in Peninsular Malaysia since December 2007 until August 2008 to measure the Disease Incidence (DI and Disease Severity (DS. The diseased stem and fruit were sampled and brought to laboratory for isolation and identification. DI data were plotted with DS and then correlated using Pearson correlation with weather and cultural data. Results: Of the 43 surveyed-farms in 11 states, DI and DS were successfully recorded on three dragon fruit species from 36 farms (83.72%. The infected stem and fruit had reddish-brown lesions with chlorotic haloes symptoms. The lesion had brown centers and coalesced to rot. Based on its whitish-orange colony, septated hypae and capsule-like conidia and the pathogenicity test, the pathogen was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. One way ANOVA with DMRT test highlighted that the most disease occurrence was found in Malacca (mean of DI and DS, 57.30 and 21.20%, whereas the lowest in Kelantan state (mean of DI and DS, 6.70 and 4.30%. Pearson coefficient correlations were around 0.107-0.261 for relationships between disease occurrence and age of crops and acreage of farm, from-0.049 to-0.237 for disease prevalence with relative humidity and rainfall and around-0.012-0.173 for disease occurrence with monthly temperature, wind velocity and altitude. Conclusion: The occurrence of anthracnose on dragon fruit in Peninsular Malaysia was more

  11. Exploitation of Trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, A; Eswaran, A; Sanjeevkumas, K

    2011-10-01

    Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere) were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic effects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the Trichoderma isolate TVC3 recorded complete inhibition on the mycelial growth of pathogen at 15% concentration. Moreover, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of the isolate TVC3 recorded maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length and vigour index of chilli. The study identified the Trichoderma isolate (TVC3) performed well in inhibiting the mycelial growth of pathogen as well as increased the plant growth in chilli. PMID:24031794

  12. Biology and pathology of turfgrass anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose is a destructive fungal disease of weakened turf that occurs throughout the United States, Canada, and Western Europe and is particularly severe on annual bluegrass (Poa annua). In this article, we provide an overview of the biology, host range and epidemiology of the fungus responsible...

  13. Mathematical modelling and optimal control of anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Fotsa, David; Houpa, Elvis; Békollé, David; Thron, Christopher; Ndoumbé, Michel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose two nonlinear models for the control of anthracnose disease. The first is an ordinary differential equation (ODE) model which represents the within-host evolution of the disease. The second includes spatial diffusion of the disease in a bounded domain. We demonstrate the well-posedness of those models by verifying the existence of solutions for given initial conditions and positive invariance of the positive cone. By considering a quadratic cost functional and applyin...

  14. Olive Anthracnose and its effect on oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Moral, J.; Xaviér, C.; Roca, L.F.; Romero, J.; Moreda, W.; Trapero, A.

    2014-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea) is one of the first domesticated and cultivated trees that is widely distributed in the Mediterranean regions. The Anthracnose, caused by the two complex fungal species Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides, is the most important disease adversely affecting the olive oil quality. Even so, the effect of Anthracnose on oil quality is largely unknown and many questions remain unanswered. This offers a unique opportunity to study how Co...

  15. Genetic divergence in chilli accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Dushyantha Kumar, Anand kantti and H. Mallikarjunaiah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic diversity in 25 chilli genotypes for various characters revealed substantial differences for all the traits.Based on D2 values, the genotypes were clustered into eight constellations. Cluster I contained nine genotypes fallowed bycluster-II (four cluster IV and V (two each. The maximum inter cluster distance (D=12.75 was observed between cluster VIand cluster VIII. The cluster IV recorded maximum intracluster distance (D=5.91.Intercrossing among the genotypesbelonging to cluster III, IV and I was suggested to develop high yielding varieties with other desirable characters or may beused as potential donors for future hybridization programme to develop better chilli variety with good fruit yield

  16. Genetic divergence in chilli accessions

    OpenAIRE

    B.M. Dushyantha Kumar, Anand kantti and H. Mallikarjunaiah

    2010-01-01

    A study of genetic diversity in 25 chilli genotypes for various characters revealed substantial differences for all the traits.Based on D2 values, the genotypes were clustered into eight constellations. Cluster I contained nine genotypes fallowed bycluster-II (four) cluster IV and V (two each). The maximum inter cluster distance (D=12.75) was observed between cluster VIand cluster VIII. The cluster IV recorded maximum intracluster distance (D=5.91).Intercrossing among the genotypesbelonging t...

  17. Biology and Control of Pepper Anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Marvel, Josh K

    2003-01-01

    Anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum capsici or C. gloeosporioides) of bell peppers (Capsicum annum) has become a serious problem in recent years on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The purpose of this research was to characterize isolates of the fungus from the Eastern United States, to compare them with the type species from the American Type Culture Collection, and to evaluate fungicides for disease management. Two cultivars of pepper were inoculated with a conidial suspension, and held in...

  18. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Amal K; Banerji, Pratim

    2016-06-01

    Dietary spices and their active constituents provide various beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system by variety of mechanisms such as influence of gastric emptying, stimulation of gastrointestinal defense and absorption, stimulation of salivary, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions. Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), commonly known as chilli, is a medicinal spice used in various Indian traditional systems of medicine and it has been acknowledged to treat various health ailments. Therapeutic potential of chilli and capsaicin were well documented; however, they act as double-edged sword in many physiological circumstances. In traditional medicine chilli has been used against various gastrointestinal complains such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and so on. In chilli, more than 200 constituents have been identified and some of its active constituents play numerous beneficial roles in various gastrointestinal disorders such as stimulation of digestion and gastromucosal defense, reduction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, inhibition of gastrointestinal pathogens, ulceration and cancers, regulation of gastrointestinal secretions and absorptions. However, further studies are warranted to determine the dose ceiling limit of chilli and its active constituents for their utilization as gastroprotective agents. This review summarizes the phytochemistry and various gastrointestinal benefits of chilli and its various active constituents. PMID:26756096

  19. Co-segregation analysis and mapping of the anthracnose Co-10 and angular leaf spot Phg-ON disease-resistance genes in the common bean cultivar Ouro Negro

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves-Vidigal, MC; Cruz, AS; Lacanallo, GF; Vidigal Filho, PS; Sousa, LL; Pacheco, CMNA; McClean, P.; Gepts, P.; Pastor-Corrales, MA

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) are devastating diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ouro Negro is a highly productive common bean cultivar, which contains the Co-10 and Phg-ON genes for resistance to ANT and ALS, respectively. In this study, we performed a genetic co-segregation analysis of resistance to ANT and ALS using an F2 population from the Rudá × Ouro Negro cross and the F2:3 families from the AND 277 × Ouro Negro cross. Ouro Negro is resistant to races 7 an...

  20. Control of some important soil-borne fungi by chitin associated with chilli (capsicum annuum l.) in lower sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae is one of the most important cash crop of the southern parts of Pakistan. Capsicum is cultivated on a large scale in a lower region of Sindh, Pakistan. It is an important and profitable crop of Pakistan. Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect the productivity of chilli crop. It is infected by a number of diseases particularly soil-borne diseases. Surveys of soil-borne fungal diseases associated with chilli crop in different areas of lower Sindh, including, Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Kunri, Samaro, Kot Ghulam uhammad and Digri, were conducted, and chilli plants showing symptoms of wilting were collected. A number of soil-borne root infecting fungi were isolated and identified, such as, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium sp., and Rhizoctonia solani, from collected disease plants. It was observed that all the major varieties of chillies (i.e., Sanam, Talhari, Ghotaki, Mexi), growing in lower Sindh, were highly susceptible to these fungi. The main objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of chitin for the management of soil-borne diseases of chilli plant by different methods, i.e., soil amendment and transplant root dip method. Results indicated that of the two methods, the soil amendment method was more effective while transplant root dip method was less effective. (author)

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE Lanr1 GENE OF RESISTANCE TO ANTHRACNOSE OF NARROW-LEAFED LUPINE (Lupinus angustifolius L.) USING DNA-MARKERS AnSeq3 AND AnSeq4

    OpenAIRE

    S.Yu. GRISHIN; V.V. ZAYAKIN; I.Ya. NAM; P.A. AGEEVA; M.I. LUKASHEVICH; N.S. KUPTSOV

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose is one of the fungal diseases of the narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) caused by Colletotrichum lupini. Resistance to anthracnose is not absolute in character, as the plants with high resistance can be affected by the pathogen but in less extent than those non-resistant. Recent suggestions of the total number of genes involved in control of anthracnose tolerance are discrepant. Current approach in breeding anthracnose-tolerant lupine is based on combination of non-al...

  2. Effect of Sowing Date on Anthracnose of Sorghum in the Nigerian Sudan Savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, O; Marley, PS.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of different sowing dates on anthracnose using ICSV 247, a midge resistant cultivar was investigated under field conditions in 1995 and 1996 at Bagauda, Nigeria. Early planting in June and July had higher disease i.e. foliar and panicle anthracnose incidence than the late July and August sowings. Although there was a significant correlation between higher relative humidity for the early sowings and disease severity, the June and early July sowings gave higher yields (although with ...

  3. Chinese sorghum germplasm evaluated for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis K. Prom

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty Chinese sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] accessions maintained by the USDA-ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, Georgia were evaluated for multiple disease resistance. The level of sorghum downy mildew (SDM infection with systemic infection and local lesion development for infected plants was low to very high. Accessions PI511832, PI563519, PI563521, PI563850, PI610677 and P 610724 were the most resistant to sorghum downy mildew, whereas PI610692 and PI610720 were the most susceptible SDM. Thirty-three of the 40 sorghum accessions tested were susceptible to anthracnose. Four accessions, PI430471, PI563905, PI563924 and PI563960, were uniformly resistant to anthracnose. No sorghum accession exhibited resistance to both downy mildew and anthracnose. Because resistance was observed for anthracnose or downy mildew within the subset of the Chinese germplasm collection, additional screening of the collection could help identify accessions conferring resistance to multiple diseases to enhance sorghum improvement

  4. Optimal control of anthracnose using mixed strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotsa Mbogne, David Jaures; Thron, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose and study a spatial diffusion model for the control of anthracnose disease in a bounded domain. The model is a generalization of the one previously developed in [15]. We use the model to simulate two different types of control strategies against anthracnose disease. Strategies that employ chemical fungicides are modeled using a continuous control function; while strategies that rely on cultivational practices (such as pruning and removal of mummified fruits) are modeled with a control function which is discrete in time (though not in space). For comparative purposes, we perform our analyses for a spatially-averaged model as well as the space-dependent diffusion model. Under weak smoothness conditions on parameters we demonstrate the well-posedness of both models by verifying existence and uniqueness of the solution for the growth inhibition rate for given initial conditions. We also show that the set [0, 1] is positively invariant. We first study control by impulsive strategies, then analyze the simultaneous use of mixed continuous and pulse strategies. In each case we specify a cost functional to be minimized, and we demonstrate the existence of optimal control strategies. In the case of pulse-only strategies, we provide explicit algorithms for finding the optimal control strategies for both the spatially-averaged model and the space-dependent model. We verify the algorithms for both models via simulation, and discuss properties of the optimal solutions. PMID:26407644

  5. Overexpression of a Defensin Enhances Resistance to a Fruit-Specific Anthracnose Fungus in Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Sangkyu; Park, Soomin; Oh, Byung-Jun; Back, Kyoungwhan; Han, Oksoo; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL−1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose d...

  6. Differential resistances to anthracnose in Capsicum baccatum as responding to two Colletotrichum pathotypes and inoculation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mahasuk, Pitchayapa; Chinthaisong, Jittima; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-01-01

    Chili anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the major diseases to chili production in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Breeding for durable anthracnose resistance requires a good understanding of the resistance mechanisms to different pathotypes and inoculation methods. This study aimed to investigate the inheritances of differential resistances as responding to two different Colletotrichum pathotypes, PCa2 and PCa3 and as by two different inoculation methods, microinject...

  7. Differential resistances to anthracnose in Capsicum baccatum as responding to two Colletotrichum pathotypes and inoculation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasuk, Pitchayapa; Chinthaisong, Jittima; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-09-01

    Chili anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the major diseases to chili production in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Breeding for durable anthracnose resistance requires a good understanding of the resistance mechanisms to different pathotypes and inoculation methods. This study aimed to investigate the inheritances of differential resistances as responding to two different Colletotrichum pathotypes, PCa2 and PCa3 and as by two different inoculation methods, microinjection (MI) and high pressure spray (HP). Detached ripe fruit of Capsicum baccatum 'PBC80' derived F2 and BC1s populations was assessed for anthracnose resistance. Two dominant genes were identified responsible for the differential resistance to anthracnose. One was responsible for the resistance to PCa2 and PCa3 by MI and the other was responsible for the resistance to PCa3 by HP. The two genes were linked with 16.7 cM distance. PMID:24273429

  8. Synergistic interaction among begomoviruses leads to the suppression of host defense-related gene expression and breakdown of resistance in chilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kushwaha, Nirbhay; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2016-05-01

    Chilli (Capsicum sp.) is one of the economically important spice and vegetable crops grown in India and suffers great losses due to the infection of begomoviruses. Conventional breeding approaches have resulted in development of a few cultivars of chilli resistant to begomoviruses. A severe leaf curl disease was observed on one such resistant chilli cultivar (Capsicum annuum cv. Kalyanpur Chanchal) grown in the experimental field of the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Four different viral genomic components namely, Chilli leaf curl virus (DNA A), Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite (DNA β), Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (DNA A), and Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (DNA B) were associated with the severe leaf curl disease. Further, frequent association of these four genomic components was also observed in symptomatic plants of other chilli cultivars (Capsicum annuum cv. Kashi Anmol and Capsicum chinense cv. Bhut Jolokia) grown in the experimental field. Interaction studies among the isolated viral components revealed that Nicotiana benthamiana and chilli plants inoculated with four genomic components of begomoviruses exhibited severe leaf curl disease symptoms. In addition, this synergistic interaction resulted in increased viral DNA accumulation in infected plants. Resistant chilli plants co-inoculated with four genomic components of begomoviruses showed drastic reduction of host basal (ascorbate peroxidase, thionin, polyphenol oxidase) and specific defense-related gene (NBS-LRR) expression. Our results suggested that synergistic interaction among begomoviruses created permissive cellular environment in the resistant chilli plants which leads to breakdown of natural resistance, a phenomenon observed for the first time in chilli. PMID:26780359

  9. Inheritance of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) resistance in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolsawat, O; Mahanil, S; Laosuwan, P; Wongkaew, S; Tharapreuksapong, A; Reisch, B I; Tantasawat, P A

    2013-01-01

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two of the major diseases of most grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Thailand. Therefore, breeding grapevines for improved downy mildew and anthracnose resistance is crucial. Factorial crosses were made between three downy mildew and/or anthracnose resistant lines ('NY88.0517.01', 'NY65.0550.04', and 'NY65.0551.05'; male parents) and two or three susceptible cultivars of V. vinifera ('Black Queen', 'Carolina Black Rose', and/or 'Italia'; female parents). F1 hybrid seedlings were evaluated for downy mildew and anthracnose resistance using a detached/excised leaf assay. For both diseases, the general combining ability (GCA) variance among male parents was significant, while the variance of GCA among females and the specific combining ability (SCA) variance were not significant, indicating the prevalence of additive over non-additive gene actions. The estimated narrow sense heritabilities of downy mildew and anthracnose resistance were 55.6 and 79.2%, respectively, suggesting that downy mildew/anthracnose resistance gene(s) were highly heritable. The 'Carolina Black Rose x NY65.0550.04' cross combination is recommended for future use. PMID:24391016

  10. The Use of Microorganism for Biological Control of Anthracnose in Nam Dok Mai Mango for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antagonist were tested inhibition of mycelial growth of Collectorichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose on potato dextrose agar (PDA) revealed that 46 isolated that 46 isolate inhibited the growth of mycelia by 40.01-60.00 5. The selected four isolates inhibit the growth of fungal nycelia by 47.01-50.00 % including YFm1, YFm2, Y18 and AC2-1 were test for the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism before inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. This result slow that four isolate antagonistic reduced sized of lesion on Nam Dok Mai mango by 89.23, 75.38, 58.46 and 33.85 %, respectively as compare the control. Five isolate of antagonist including YFm1, YFm2, Y18, CLY35 and CLY23 could inhibited the growth of mycelia on PDA by 44.01-50.00 % were test the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism after inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. It was found that this application could not inhibit anthracnose on fruit mango as compare to the control. YFm1 were test for the potential inhibition anthracnose disease under field condition. It was found that YFm1 could control of C. gloeosporioides within 7 and 14 day after spraying antagonistic suspension. The efficiency test of YFm1 for anthracnose controlling on mango was followed by export treatment Azoxystrobin, ET-fon and showed 55.55%, 77.77 % and 88.88 % anthracnose infection and/or spoilage respectively

  11. Introgression and pyramiding into common bean market class fabada of genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and potyvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J. J.; Campa, Ana; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Giráldez, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose and bean common mosaic (BCM) are considered major diseases in common bean crop causing severe yield losses worldwide. This work describes the introgression and pyramiding of genes conferring genetic resistance to BCM and anthracnose local races into line A25, a bean genotype classified as market class fabada. Resistant plants were selected using resistance tests or combining resistance tests and marker-assisted selection. Lines A252, A321, A493, Sanilac BC6-Are, and BRB130 were us...

  12. Chitosan controls postharvest anthracnose in bell pepper by activating defense-related enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Edirisinghe, Madushani; Ali, Asgar; Maqbool, Mehdi; Alderson, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Anthracnose, a postharvest disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici is the most devastating disease of bell pepper that causes great economic losses especially in tropical climates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of chitosan (low molecular weight from crab shell, Mw: 50 kDa and 75–85 % deacetylated) against anthracnose by inducing defense-related enzymes. The concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan were used to control...

  13. Effect of Sowing Date on Anthracnose of Sorghum in the Nigerian Sudan Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi, O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different sowing dates on anthracnose using ICSV 247, a midge resistant cultivar was investigated under field conditions in 1995 and 1996 at Bagauda, Nigeria. Early planting in June and July had higher disease i.e. foliar and panicle anthracnose incidence than the late July and August sowings. Although there was a significant correlation between higher relative humidity for the early sowings and disease severity, the June and early July sowings gave higher yields (although with high mould severity than later sowing dates. Results indicate that the use of sowing date as a measure for control of anthracnose on sorghum will only be meaningful when farmers integrate it with other control measures including the use of resistant varieties. Based on this data, the need for careful adoption of ICSV 247 in highly midge infested areas of the Sudan savanna is highlighted.

  14. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae. PMID:24854442

  15. Strawberry Anthracnose Ripe Fruit Rot and Management Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Louws, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Briefly describes anthracnose symptoms on ripe strawberry fruit, then recommends ways to manage for the anthracnose, including removal and burying or burning infected and nearby plants, avoiding overhead irrigation, and picking fruits from the infected areas last.

  16. Exposure to ozone reduces postharvest quality loss in red and green chilli peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacz, Marcin; Rees, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of continuous exposure to ozone at 0.45, 0.9 and 2μmolmol(-1) on quality changes during the storage of red and green chilli peppers at 10°C was investigated. Ozone at 0.45 and 0.9μmolmol(-1) reduced disease incidence in red peppers, with no further benefits at 2μmolmol(-1). Ozone at 0.9μmolmol(-1) reduced weight loss during storage and improved firmness maintenance. Skin colour was bleached in red peppers exposed to ozone at 2μmolmol(-1), and in green ones at all tested doses. Total phenolic content was not affected by ozone but antioxidant activity was reduced in green chilli peppers exposed to ozone at 2μmolmol(-1), due to lower ascorbic acid content in those samples. Ozone at 0.9μmolmol(-1) extended the shelf-life of chilli peppers. PMID:27211651

  17. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

  18. Characterization of Glomerella strains recovered from anthracnose lesions on common bean plants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Quélen L; Pinto, Joyce M A; Vaillancourt, Lisa J; Souza, Elaine A

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is an important disease of common bean, resulting in major economic losses worldwide. Genetic diversity of the C. lindemuthianum population contributes to its ability to adapt rapidly to new sources of host resistance. The origin of this diversity is unknown, but sexual recombination, via the Glomerella teleomorph, is one possibility. This study tested the hypothesis that Glomerella strains that are frequently recovered from bean anthracnose lesions represent the teleomorph of C. lindemuthianum. A large collection of Glomerella isolates could be separated into two groups based on phylogenetic analysis, morphology, and pathogenicity to beans. Both groups were unrelated to C. lindemuthianum. One group clustered with the C. gloeosporioides species complex and produced mild symptoms on bean tissues. The other group, which belonged to a clade that included the cucurbit anthracnose pathogen C. magna, caused no symptoms. Individual ascospores recovered from Glomerella perithecia gave rise to either fertile (perithecial) or infertile (conidial) colonies. Some pairings of perithecial and conidial strains resulted in induced homothallism in the conidial partner, while others led to apparent heterothallic matings. Pairings involving two perithecial, or two conidial, colonies produced neither outcome. Conidia efficiently formed conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs), but ascospores never formed CATs. The Glomerella strains formed appressoria and hyphae on the plant surface, but did not penetrate or form infection structures within the tissues. Their behavior was similar whether the beans were susceptible or resistant to anthracnose. These same Glomerella strains produced thick intracellular hyphae, and eventually acervuli, if host cell death was induced. When Glomerella was co-inoculated with C. lindemuthianum, it readily invaded anthracnose lesions. Thus, the hypothesis was not supported: Glomerella strains from anthracnose

  19. Association of RGA-SSCP markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantasawat, P A; Poolsawat, O; Prajongjai, T; Chaowiset, W; Tharapreuksapong, A

    2012-01-01

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two major diseases that severely affect most grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown commercially in Thailand. Progress of conventional breeding programs of grapevine for improved resistance to these diseases can be speeded up by selection of molecular markers associated with resistance traits. We evaluated the association between 13 resistance gene analog (RGA)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in 71 segregating progenies of seven cross combinations between susceptible cultivars and resistant lines. F(1) hybrids from each cross were assessed for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose (isolates Nk4-1 and Rc2-1) under laboratory conditions. Association of resistance traits with RGA-SSCP markers was evaluated using simple linear regression analysis. Three RGA-SSCP markers were found to be significantly correlated with anthracnose resistance, whereas significant correlation with downy mildew resistance was observed for only one RGA-SSCP marker. These results demonstrate the usefulness of RGA-SSCP markers. Four candidate markers with significant associations to resistance to these two major diseases of grapevine were identified. However, these putative associations between markers and resistance need to be verified with larger segregating populations before they can be used for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22869536

  20. Co-segregation analysis and mapping of the anthracnose Co-10 and angular leaf spot Phg-ON disease-resistance genes in the common bean cultivar Ouro Negro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Vidigal, M C; Cruz, A S; Lacanallo, G F; Vidigal Filho, P S; Sousa, L L; Pacheco, C M N A; McClean, P; Gepts, P; Pastor-Corrales, M A

    2013-09-01

    Anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) are devastating diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ouro Negro is a highly productive common bean cultivar, which contains the Co-10 and Phg-ON genes for resistance to ANT and ALS, respectively. In this study, we performed a genetic co-segregation analysis of resistance to ANT and ALS using an F2 population from the Rudá × Ouro Negro cross and the F2:3 families from the AND 277 × Ouro Negro cross. Ouro Negro is resistant to races 7 and 73 of the ANT and race 63-39 of the ALS pathogens. Conversely, cultivars AND 277 and Rudá are susceptible to races 7 and 73 of ANT, respectively. Both cultivars are susceptible to race 63-39 of ALS. Co-segregation analysis revealed that Co-10 and Phg-ON were inherited together, conferring resistance to races 7 and 73 of ANT and race 63-39 of ALS. The Co-10 and Phg-ON genes were co-segregated and were tightly linked at a distance of 0.0 cM on chromosome Pv04. The molecular marker g2303 was linked to Co-10 and Phg-ON at a distance of 0.0 cM. Because of their physical linkage in a cis configuration, the Co-10 and Phg-ON resistance alleles are inherited together and can be monitored with great efficiency using g2303. The close linkage between the Co-10 and Phg-ON genes and prior evidence are consistent with the existence of a resistance gene cluster at one end of chromosome Pv04, which also contains the Co-3 locus and ANT resistance quantitative trait loci. These results will be very useful for breeding programs aimed at developing bean cultivars with ANT and ALS resistance using marker-assisted selection. PMID:23760652

  1. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period. PMID:27298600

  2. Impact of globalization on Spatial Price Linkages in chillies: Empirical analysis using Cointegration Test

    OpenAIRE

    R.V.Sujatha; Y.Eswara Prasad; Suhasini, K.

    2007-01-01

    Till recently, international trade in chillies was dominated by India. However, the exports from the country has come down considerably as China has emerged as a principal exporter of chillies. Chilli exports from India are mostly to Sri Lanka, USA, Nepal, Mexico and Bangladesh. India has immense potential to grow and export different types of chillies required by various markets around the world. India today faces stiff competition from China and Pakistan who offer their produce in internati...

  3. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Joon-Hee; Shim, Hongsik; Shin, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near th...

  4. Molecular and Phenotypic Analyses Reveal Association of Diverse Colletotrichum acutatum Groups and a Low Level of C. gloeosporioides with Olive Anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Talhinhas, Pedro; Sreenivasaprasad, S.; Neves-Martins, João; Oliveira, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) is an important disease causing major yield losses and poor oil quality in olives. The objectives were to determine the diversity and distribution pattern of Colletotrichum spp. populations prevalent in olives and their relatedness to anthracnose pathogens in other hosts, assess their pathogenic variability and host preference, and develop diagnostic tools. A total of 128 Colletotrichum spp. isolates representing all olive-growing areas in Portugal and a few ...

  5. Endophytic bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of Amazon Paullinia cupana associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Ferreira, Almir José; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens, which make them candidate for disease suppression. Anthracnose is a disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., a phytopathogen that can infect guarana (Paullinia cupana), an important commercial crop in the Brazilian Amazon. We investigated the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose guarana plants. The PCR-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed differences in the structure of the evaluated communities. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria composition using culture-dependent and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria phyla. Firmicutes comprised the majority of isolates in asymptomatic plants (2.40E(-4)). However, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed differences at the genus level for Neisseria (1.4E(-4)), Haemophilus (2.1E(-3)) and Arsenophonus (3.6E(-5)) in asymptomatic plants, Aquicella (3.5E(-3)) in symptomatic anthracnose plants, and Pseudomonas (1.1E(-3)), which was mainly identified in asymptomatic plants. In cross-comparisons of the endophytic bacterial communities as a whole, symptomatic anthracnose plants contained higher diversity, as reflected in the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices estimation (P < 0.05). Similarly, comparisons using LIBSHUFF and heatmap analysis for the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed differences between endophytic bacterial communities. These data are in agreement with the NMSD and ANOSIM analysis of DGGE profiles. Our results suggest that anthracnose can restructure endophytic bacterial communities by selecting certain strains in the phyllosphere of P. cupana. The understanding of these interactions is important for the development of strategies of biocontrol for Colletotrichum. PMID:26090305

  6. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Felderhoff, Terry; M McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. PMID:27194807

  7. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    OpenAIRE

    P. E. V. Aguiar; S. M. Bonaldo; S. R. G. Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated) the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of T...

  8. Biocontrol activity and primed systemic resistance by compost water extracts against anthracnoses of pepper and cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We investigated direct and indirect effects of compost water extracts (CWEs) from Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 for the control of anthracnoses caused by Colletotrichum coccodes on pepper and C. orbiculare on cucumber. All tested CWEs significantly (P anthracnose severities; Iljuk-3, Shinong-9, and BABA for pepper and Iljuk-7 for cucumber had more protective activities than curative activities. In addition, root treatment of CWEs suppressed anthracnoses on the plants by the pathogens; however, CWE treatment on lower leaves failed to reduce the diseases on the upper leaves of the plants. The CWE root treatments enhanced not only the expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, and CaPR-10 in pepper and PR1-1a, PR-2, PR-3, and APOX in cucumber but also the activity of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in pepper and cucumber under pathogen-inoculated conditions. However, the CWE treatments failed to induce the plant responses under pathogen-free conditions. These results indicated that the CWEs had direct effects, reducing anthracnoses by C. coccodes on pepper leaves and C. orbiculare on cucumber leaves through protective and curative effects. In addition, CWE root treatments could induce systemic resistance in the primed state against pathogens on plant leaves that enhanced PR gene expression, defense-related enzyme production, and hydrogen peroxide generation rapidly and effectively immediately after pathogen infection. Thus, the CWEs might suppress anthracnoses on leaves of both pepper and cucumber through primed (priming-mediated) systemic resistance. PMID:21281115

  9. Biocontrol of Postharvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit with Debaryomyces Nepalensis and Effects on Storage Quality and Postharvest Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Wan, Bin; Feng, Shuhan; Shao, Yuanzhi

    2015-11-01

    Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit. PMID:26445226

  10. Influência das variáveis ambientais no progresso da antracnose do feijoeiro e eficiência de tiofanato metílico + clorotalonil no controle da doença Influence of the environmental variables in the progress of anthracnose of bean and efficiency of thiophanate methyl + chlorothalonil in the control of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvanir Garcia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Minas Gerais a antracnose destaca-se como uma das principais doenças foliares do feijoeiro comum, pela sua ocorrência em diversas épocas de plantio e redução na produção. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a ocorrência, o progresso da doença e a eficiência do controle químico da antracnose. Foram avaliadas parcelas com e sem tratamento fungicida (Tiofanato metílico + Clorotalonil, 240 + 600g i.a./ha em cinco épocas de avaliação da doença em 24 plantios da cultivar carioca, de 04/96 à 03/97. Não se constatou a ocorrência da antracnose no período de fevereiro a março de 1997. O tratamento com fungicida resultou em menor severidade da doença e maior produção, principalmente nos meses de maior severidade dela. A severidade da doença correlacionou-se com as variáveis ambientais de temperatura máxima e mínima e umidade relativa aos 43, 57 e 71 dias após a emergência. Houve correlação negativa entre severidade da doença e produtividade do feijoeiro.In Minas Gerais the anthracnose is one of the most important leaf diseases of the common bean due to occur at various planting time and to reduce the production. The present experiment was performed aiming to evaluate occurrence, progress of the disease and the efficiency of fungicide on the control of bean anthracnose. Plots with and without fungicide treatment (Thiophanate methyl + Chlorothalonil, 240 + 600g a. i./ha were evaluated in five times of evaluation during 24 sowing times of bean cultivar Carioca, between April/96 and March/97. The occurrence of the anthracnose was not verified during february and march of 1997. Treatment with fungicide resulted in the lower disease severity and higher yield, mainly in the months of higher severity of the disease. There was significant correlation between the severity and the maximum and minimum temperature and relative humidity 43, 57 and 71 days after emergency. There was a negative correlation between severity of the disease

  11. Implementation of Web-Based Chilli Expert Advisory System Using ABC Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V.P.R.Sridhar,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The presently developed paper deals with the concepts of web based online expert systems and machine learning Algorithms in the field of Artificial Intelligence. An expert system follows the methodology of task-based specification and it is independent in case of problem solving. Where as, the machine learning technique is used to find the good optimal solution. This paper mainly focuses on the investigations on the diseases and treatment to the diseases which were effected to the chilli plants by using the mechanism of Rule based system and Artificial Bee Colony1 (ABC algorithm. The rules in the database is processed by the rule based system and if the required rules are not present in the database, then the system goes to the Machine learning algorithm technique used expert system. Thus, by applying machine learning techniques, resulting to best global optimized solution for recognizing the diseases in chilli plants. This expert system is a web based online application for online users with java as front end and MySQL as backend.

  12. Real-Time PCR Detection of Dogwood Anthracnose Fungus in Historical Herbarium Specimens from Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Masuya, Hayato; Zhang, Jian; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species (dogwoods) are popular ornamental trees and important understory plants in natural forests of northern hemisphere. Dogwood anthracnose, one of the major diseases affecting the native North American Cornus species, such as C. florida, is caused by the fungal pathogen Discula destructiva. The origin of this fungus is not known, but it is hypothesized that it was imported to North America with its host plants from Asia. In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to detect D. destructiva in dried herbarium and fresh Cornus samples. Several herbarium specimens from Japan and China were detected positive for D. destructiva, some of which were collected before the first report of the dogwood anthracnose in North America. Our findings further support that D. destructiva was introduced to North America from Asia where the fungus likely does not cause severe disease. PMID:27096929

  13. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth comp...

  14. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    OpenAIRE

    M.E.S Cruz; K.R.F. Schwan-Estrada; E. Clemente; A.T. Itako; J.R. Stangarlin; M.J.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v) for 3 ...

  15. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Hyoun Seo

    Full Text Available Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease.

  16. Evaluation of a prebiotic and potassium for the control of anthracnose in the tree tomato

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Anthracnose is the most limiting disease in the production of the tree tomato; losses may exceed 50% if control measures are not appropriate. For this reason, farmers use continuous applications of fungicides. Prebiotics have been successfully tested in animals and humans in order to stimulate the growth of intestinal flora and fauna to improve digestion, achieve greater increases in weight, reduce infections and stimulate the immune system. In plants, there are no data on their effectiveness...

  17. Screening of microbial culture filtrates, plant extracts and fungicides for control of mango anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) induces losses of up to 40% in most mango growing regions in Colombia. A series of exploratory experiments were carried out to evaluate 14 potentially antagonistic microorganisms, six plant extracts and 10 fungicides for disease control based on their ability to inhibit spore germination, mycelium growth and development of symptoms on detached fruits. In vitro experiments showed that spore germination of C. gloeosporioides was strongly inhibited (P...

  18. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Sangkyu; Park, Soomin; Oh, Byung-Jun; Back, Kyoungwhan; Han, Oksoo; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease. PMID:24848280

  19. Effect of Fungicides and Plant Extracts on the Conidial Germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Causing Mango Anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Alam, Shahidul; Parvin, Rehana; Farhana, Khandaker Mursheda; Kim, Sang-Beom; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2005-01-01

    In Northern Bangladesh, generally mango trees are planted as agroforest that gives higher Net Present Value (NPV) than traditional agriculture. Mango anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is seen as a very destructive and widely distributed disease, which results in poor market value. Five fungicides such as Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45, Thiovit and Redomil were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Dithane M-45 and Redomil were the most effective...

  20. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Highbush Blueberry Caused by Colletotrichum Species in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee

    2009-01-01

    A total of 82 isolates of Colletotrichum species were obtained from anthracnose symptoms of highbush blueberry trees grown in the Gochang area of Korea during a disease survey in 2008. Out of the isolates, 75 were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the others as C. acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Twenty six of C. gloeosporioides isolates produced their teleomorph Glomerella cingulata in PDA culture. Three isolates of each C. gloeosporioides an...

  1. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    OpenAIRE

    César Luis Siqueira Júnior; Maria das Graças Machado Freire; Antônio Sérgio Nascimento Moreira; Maria Ligia Rodrigues Macedo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) conc...

  2. Chitosan controls postharvest anthracnose in bell pepper by activating defense-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Madushani; Ali, Asgar; Maqbool, Mehdi; Alderson, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Anthracnose, a postharvest disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici is the most devastating disease of bell pepper that causes great economic losses especially in tropical climates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of chitosan (low molecular weight from crab shell, Mw: 50 kDa and 75-85 % deacetylated) against anthracnose by inducing defense-related enzymes. The concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan were used to control the fungus in vitro and postharvest. There was a reduction in C. capsici mycelial growth and the highest chitosan concentration (2.0 %) reduced the growth by 70 % after 7 days incubation. In germination test, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan reduced spore germination in C. capsici between 80 % and 84 %, respectively. In postharvest trial the concentration of 1.5 % decreased the anthracnose severity in pepper fruit by approximately 76 % after 28 days of storage (10 ± 1 °C; 80 % RH). For enzymatic activities, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan increased the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolics in inoculated bell pepper during storage. Based on these results, the chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. capsici, as well as potential to induce resistance on bell pepper. PMID:25477684

  3. Association Between Chilli Food Habits with Iron Status and Insulin Resistance in a Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have indicated that the consumption of chilli-containing foods can influence iron absorption and affect serum insulin and glucose concentrations, which may help to alleviate diabetes or prediabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric data, and chilli food habit data collected from 8433 adults (aged 18 to 99), in 2009, as part...

  4. Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of green chilli paste and its ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Griangsak Chairote

    2010-01-01

    Green chilli paste and its ingredients (chilli, red onion and garlic) from different stages of processing were analysed for total phenolic content and antioxidant properties, i.e. total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching activity. The effects of processing stage on total phenolic content and antioxidant properties of green chilli paste and its ingredients were discussed, along with the correlation between the total phenolic content and the antio...

  5. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  6. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production. PMID:26361475

  7. EFFICACY OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS IN CONTROLLING RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON NAGA KING CHILLI ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus Ngullie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available biocontrol agents were evaluated either alone or in various combinations for finding out their efficacy in suppressing Rhizoctonia seedling rot incidence and promoting plant growth of Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq. in green house as well field conditions. Among all tested combination, the treatment containing combination of T. viride +P. fluorescens was found most effective in reducing the incidence of seedling rot in both greenhouse and field condition. Highest per plant yield was also recorded from the same combination and it was followed by T. viride. However, the commercially available fungicide Copper oxychloride (0.1% showed 9.82 % and11.88% disease incidence in greenhouse and field condition respectively

  8. Gnomonia Leptostyla (Fr.) Ces. et de Not. causer of walnut anthracnose in the east part of the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Karov, Ilija; Mitrev, Sasa; Kovacevik, Biljana; Stoyanova, Zornitsa; Kostadinovska, Emilija; Rodeva, Rossitza

    2014-01-01

    The anthracnose is one of the most destructive diseases of walnut(Juglans regia L.) worldwide. The causal agent is an ascomycetous fungus(Gnomonia leptostyla (Fr.) Ces. et de Not.) (anamorph Marssonina juglandis Lib.) Magn.). In the last years symptoms of the disease were observed with increasing frequency in Macedonia. The leaves, nuts, and occasionally shoots were affected. Leaf spots were dark brown, more or less circular and often coalesced forming larger dead areas. Black minute fruit...

  9. Foliar Application of Extract from an Azalomycin-Producing Streptomyces malaysiensis Strain MJM1968 Suppresses Yam Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Sasikumar; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Woh

    2016-06-28

    Yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C.g) is the most devastating disease of yam (Dioscorea sp.). In the present study, we evaluated the culture filtrate extract (CFE) of azalomycin-producing Streptomyces malaysiensis strain MJM1968 for the control of yam anthracnose. MJM1968 showed strong antagonistic activity against C.g in vitro. Furthermore, the MJM1968 CFE was tested for inhibition of spore germination in C.g, where it completely inhibited spore germination at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. To assess the in planta efficacy of the CFE and spores of MJM1968 against C.g, a detached leaf bioassay was conducted, which showed both the treatments suppressed anthracnose development on detached yam leaves. Furthermore, a greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the CFE from MJM1968 as a fungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. The CFE non-treated plants showed a disease severity of >92% after 90 days of artificial inoculation with C.g, whereas the disease severity of CFE-treated and benomyl-treated yam plants was reduced to 26% and 15%, respectively, after 90 days. Analysis of the yam tubers from the CFE-treated and non-treated groups showed that tubers from the CFE-treated plants were larger than that of non-treated plants, which produced abnormal smaller tubers typical of anthracnose. This study demonstrated the utility of the CFE from S. malaysiensis strain MJM1968 as a biofungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. PMID:26975770

  10. Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis

    OpenAIRE

    Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizábal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 104 CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 105 for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 105 for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively le...

  11. Impact of anthracnose on the yield of soybean subjected to chemical control in the north region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moab Diany Dias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Losses due to soybean anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum truncatum, have not been systematically quantified in the field, and the efficacy of chemical control of this disease is not known. This study shows an estimate of losses associated with the disease in soybean crops in the north of the country. Two trials with cv. M9144 RR were carried out in commercial fields in Tocantins State in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 growing seasons, in randomized blocks, with four replicates. Foliar applications were performed on plants at R1/R2 and R5.2 stages, employing CO2-pressurized equipment and application volume of 200 L ha-1. Nine fungicides and one untreated control were compared, and the disease gradients in the two seasons were obtained. The percentage of infected pods was calculated at the R6 stage. Grain yield ranged from 3,288 to 3,708 kg/ha in the untreated plots in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, respectively, and from 3,282 to 4,110 kg/ha in the treated plots. In the 2010/2011 season, only azoxystrobin + cyproconazole significantly reduced the disease incidence, compared to untreated control plots, not differing from the remaining treatments. In the 2011/2012 season, there were no significant differences between treated and untreated plots. Highly significant correlations (p < 0.01 were found between yield and soybean anthracnose incidence on pods in both years (r = -0.85. For each 1% increment in the disease incidence, c. 90 kg/ha of soybean grain were lost. The current study determined that significant losses due to anthracnose occur in commercial crops in the north of the country and highlighted the limitation of chemical control as anthracnose management method.

  12. Reasons of Chilli Rot in Greenhouse and Its Preventive Measures%大棚辣椒烂果原因及其防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丽丽

    2015-01-01

    In the cultivation of chilli in greenhouse, the main incentive reasons of fruit rot are blight, gray mold, anthrax, sunburn and navel rot and others. The article introduces the main symptom of these diseases, suggests effective preventive measures, and provides a beneficial reference for reducing rot rate of chilli in greenhouse.%在棚室辣椒种植中,烂果的主要诱因有疫病、灰霉病、炭疽病、日灼病、脐腐病等,介绍这些病的主要症状,提出有效的防治措施,为减少大棚辣椒的烂果率提供有益的借鉴。

  13. Interaction Between An Insect Pseudotheraptus devastans dist And A Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz On Setting Of Anthracnose On Cassava Cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Makambila, C.

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of an insect Pseudotheraptus devastans and of a fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on cassava anthracnose development has been studied. Disease setting is made in two stages : realization of wounds on cassava cuttings by Pseudotheraptus devastans, then invasion of those ones by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Infection also needs a high level of relative humidity (87 %) and a favourable temperature. Optimal values are situated between 24 and 28°C.

  14. Interaction Between An Insect Pseudotheraptus devastans dist And A Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz On Setting Of Anthracnose On Cassava Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makambila, C.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of an insect Pseudotheraptus devastans and of a fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on cassava anthracnose development has been studied. Disease setting is made in two stages : realization of wounds on cassava cuttings by Pseudotheraptus devastans, then invasion of those ones by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Infection also needs a high level of relative humidity (87 % and a favourable temperature. Optimal values are situated between 24 and 28°C.

  15. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  16. Microsatellite isolation and characterization for Colletotrichum spp, causal agent of anthracnose in Andean blackberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulanda, M L; López, A M; Isaza, L; López, P

    2014-01-01

    The genus Colletotrichum, comprised of pathogenic fungi that affect plants grown worldwide, causes the disease known as anthracnose in several fruit and vegetable species. Several studies conducted on plants have shown that the disease is characterized by the presence of one or several species of the fungus attacking the fruit or other organs of the same host. To develop and implement effective control strategies, it is vital to understand the genetic structure of the fungus in agricultural systems, identify associated Colletotrichum species, and define the subpopulations responsible for the disease. Molecular tools were accordingly developed to characterize genotypic populations of Colletotrichum spp, causal agent of anthracnose in commercial crops of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.). A microsatellite-enriched library for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was developed to identify and characterize microsatellite loci among isolates collected in R. glaucus plantations. Thirty microsatellites were developed and tested in 36 isolates gathered from eight different blackberry-production areas of Colombia. Ten pairs of microsatellites were polymorphic. PMID:25299081

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H.; Padder, Bilal A.; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  20. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control.

  1. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Hee; Shim, Hongsik; Shin, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2015-06-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control. PMID:26060435

  2. Morphological and molecular characterization of 11 varieties of native chilli peppers of the Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Davila, Goldis

    2013-01-01

    Peruvian Amazonia is one of the most diverse ecosystem of the world. With its specific location and climatic conditions forms a habitat for more than 50% species and represents origin of many plant species with high economic, cultural and medicinal importance. Among these species are native chilli peppers (Capsicum sp.). Till today there isn’t complete information about diversity of Amazonian chilli peppers although its importance is increasing. For present research were chosen and collected ...

  3. Expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in avocados fumigated with thyme oil vapours and control of anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Malick; Sivakumar, Dharini; Beukes, Mervyn; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Thyme oil (TO) fumigation (96μll(-1)) to cv. Hass and Ryan avocados significantly reduced anthracnose incidence compared to prochloraz and the untreated control. Also, enhanced activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase were noted in both cultivars. TO fumigation induced the expression of both β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase genes in naturally infected fruit of both cultivars, during storage at 7 or 7.5°C for up to 21d and during subsequent simulated market shelf conditions at 20°C for 5d. However, the impact of TO fumigation on the β-1,3-glucanase gene expression was higher in both cultivars. Higher gene regulation and β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase activities were observed in cv. Ryan compared to Hass. Although TO fumigation significantly reduced anthracnose incidence in both naturally infected cultivars, the inhibitory effect was slightly higher in cv. Ryan than Hass. Thus, postharvest TO fumigation had positive effects on enhancing anthracnose disease resistance during storage and also gave a residual effect during the simulated shelf life. PMID:26471637

  4. Minimum number of assessment times to compare chemical control treatments for papaya fruit anthracnose Número m��nimo de épocas de avaliações para comparar tratamentos de controle químico da antracnose do mamoeiro

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ R. LIBERATO; Cosme D Cruz; JOSELI S. TATAGIBA; Laércio Zambolim

    2004-01-01

    The chemical treatment evaluation in the field to control post-harvest fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) requires a suitable disease incidence assessment on harvested papaya (Carica papaya) fruits. The minimum number of papaya fruit harvests was determined for valid treatment comparison in field trials for anthracnose chemical control. Repeatability analysis was done using previously published data. The coefficient determination (R²) estimate range, using four methods, and ba...

  5. Anthracnose resistance in sorghum breeding lines developed from Ethiopian germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninety-nine dwarf and photoperiod-insensitive breeding lines developed from Ethiopian sorghum germplasm were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated for anthracnose resistance at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2008 and 2009 growing seaso...

  6. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Siqueira Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v concentration of essential oil. The studies with the fresh fruits treated with 5% (v/v castor oil in aqueous emulsions resulted in effective reduction of pathogen spread in these fruits. No lesion was found in the fruits treated with oil, when compared to the control fruits. Castor oil showed no effect against the P. caricapapayae when tested in vitro. These results suggested the potential use of the castor bean essential oil and its fatty acids constituents for the control of anthracnose in papaya fruits.

  7. Impact of anthracnose on the yield of soybean subjected to chemical control in the north region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moab Diany Dias; Valdeci Fernandes Pinheiro; Adalberto Corrêa Café-Filho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Losses due to soybean anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum truncatum, have not been systematically quantified in the field, and the efficacy of chemical control of this disease is not known. This study shows an estimate of losses associated with the disease in soybean crops in the north of the country. Two trials with cv. M9144 RR were carried out in commercial fields in Tocantins State in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 growing seasons, in randomized blocks, with four replicates. Folia...

  8. Improved control of anthracnose rot in loquat fruit by a combination treatment of Pichia membranifaciens with CaCl(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Zheng, Yonghua; Tang, Shuangshuang; Wang, Kaituo

    2008-08-15

    The beneficial effect of 2% CaCl(2) (w/v) on the antagonistic yeast Pichia membranifaciens for control of anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in postharvest loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica L.) and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. The results showed that treatment with P. membranifaciens at 1x10(8) CFU ml(-1) or 2% CaCl(2) alone both resulted in significantly smaller lesion diameter and lower disease incidence of anthracnose rot on loquat fruit wounds compared with the controls. The biocontrol activity of P. membranifaciens on the disease was enhanced by the addition of 2% CaCl(2), the combined treatment of P. membranifaciens with CaCl(2) resulted in a remarkably improved control of the disease in comparison with the treatment of P. membranifaciens or CaCl(2) alone. P. membranifaciens in combination with CaCl(2) induced higher activities of two defense-related enzymes chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase in loquat fruit than applying the yeast or CaCl(2) alone. The in vitro experiment showed that the addition of 2% CaCl(2) in the suspensions of P. membranifaciens significantly inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of C. acutatum than the yeast or CaCl(2) alone. However, adding CaCl(2) did not significantly influence the population of P. membranifaciens in NYDB medium or fruit wounds. These results suggest that CaCl(2) could improve the biocontrol activity of P. membranifaciens on anthracnose rot in loquat fruit. It is postulated that the improved control of the disease is directly because of the higher inhibitory effect on pathogen growth and indirectly because of the enhanced disease resistance in loquat fruit by the combination treatment. PMID:18590937

  9. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Some Commercial Samples of Chilli Peppers from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Guadalupe Troconis-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum provides antioxidant compounds, such as phenolics and carotenoids, into the diet. In Mexico, there is a wide diversity of species and varieties of chilli peppers, a fruit which has local cultural and gastronomic importance. In the present study, the relationship of the carotenoid and phenolic profiles with the RAPD fingerprint of three different commercial cultivars of chilli peppers of seven regions of Mexico was investigated. Through RAPD, the species of chilli were differentiated by means of different primers (OPE-18, MFG-17, MFG-18, C51, and C52. The genetic distance found with OPE 18 was in the order of 2.6. The observed differences were maintained when the chromatographic profile of carotenoids, and the molecular markers were analyzed, which suggest a close relationship between carotenoids and the genetic profile. While the chromatographic profile of phenols and the molecular markers were unable to differentiate between genotypes of chilli peppers. In addition, by using infrared spectroscopy and statistical PCA, differences explained by geographic origin were found. Thus, this method could be an alternative for identification of chilli species with respect to their geographic origin.

  10. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Some Commercial Samples of Chilli Peppers from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troconis-Torres, Ivonne Guadalupe; Rojas-López, Marlon; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo; Dorantes-Álvarez, Lidia; Tellez-Medina, Darío; Jaramillo-Flores, María Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The genus Capsicum provides antioxidant compounds, such as phenolics and carotenoids, into the diet. In Mexico, there is a wide diversity of species and varieties of chilli peppers, a fruit which has local cultural and gastronomic importance. In the present study, the relationship of the carotenoid and phenolic profiles with the RAPD fingerprint of three different commercial cultivars of chilli peppers of seven regions of Mexico was investigated. Through RAPD, the species of chilli were differentiated by means of different primers (OPE-18, MFG-17, MFG-18, C51, and C52). The genetic distance found with OPE 18 was in the order of 2.6. The observed differences were maintained when the chromatographic profile of carotenoids, and the molecular markers were analyzed, which suggest a close relationship between carotenoids and the genetic profile. While the chromatographic profile of phenols and the molecular markers were unable to differentiate between genotypes of chilli peppers. In addition, by using infrared spectroscopy and statistical PCA, differences explained by geographic origin were found. Thus, this method could be an alternative for identification of chilli species with respect to their geographic origin. PMID:22665993

  11. Molecular characterization of `Bhut Jolokia' the hottest chilli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Purkayastha; S I Alam; H K Gogoi; L Singh; V Veer

    2012-09-01

    The northeast region of India, considered as ‘hot spot’ of biodiversity, having unique ecological environment with hot and high-humidity conditions, has given rise to the world’s hottest chilli, ‘Bhut Jolokia’, which is at least two times hotter than Red Savina Habanero in terms of Scoville heat units (SHU). This study was undertaken to determine the distinctiveness of ‘Bhut Jolokia’ from Capsicum frutescens or Capsicum chinense through sequencing of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-internal transcribed (ITS) region along with its phylogenetic analysis. Although a compensatory base change (CBC) in the ITS2 region was not observed between the closely related species of C. frutescens and C. chinense when compared with Bhut Jolokia; phylogenetic analysis using ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 sequences indicated a distinct clade for all the accessions of ‘Bhut Joloikia’, while C. frutescens and C. chinense occupied discrete lineages. Further, a unique 13-base deletion was observed in all the representative accessions of ‘Bhut Jolokia’, making it distinct from all other members within the genus and beyond. The degree of genetic variations along with its extreme pungency might be related to ambient environmental factors of northeastern India.

  12. Screening onions and related species for resistance to Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) is an airborne disease which causes significant yield losses in onion (Allium cepa var. cepa) and shallot (A. cepa var. ascalonicum) in tropical regions. There is scant variation in the response to the pathogen within A. cepa, but high resistance was found in accessions of A. fistulosum, A. galanthum, A. roylei and other onion-related species. Their introgression recently became feasible, and their resistances to temperate diseases are currently being exploited. Screening for resistance to anthracnose is facilitated by in vitro multiplication of the plant material and the use of massive experimental inoculation under conditions highly conducive to the disease (27oC, 95% relative humidity) in a growing chamber. These elements provide economic, quick, repeatable and reliable screening. Protocols for the in vitro introduction of Allium plant material, for its multiplication and its acclimatisation are provided. On average, the number of explants doubles every three to four weeks. An aggressive strain should be selected, and the inoculum produced as a suspension of conidia, which is mass sprayed on the populations to be screened. High relative humidity (100%) should be ensured by covering the plants with plastic bags during the incubation period (48 to 96 hours after inoculation). The disease is scored after two weeks. A high level of resistance was found in accessions of A. galanthum and A. fistulosum, and partial resistance in A. roylei. A genetic analysis of the resistance in A. roylei to a Brazilian isolate, revealed that it is dominantly inherited and most probably determined by more than one gene. (author)

  13. Fungicide Spray Program to Reduce Application in Anthracnose of Strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Myeong Hyeon Nam; Hyeon Suk Kim; Yun Gyu Nam; Peres, N. A.; Hong Gi Kim

    2011-01-01

    The effect of various fungicides on anthracnose of strawberry, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, wasdetermined in vitro, and in greenhouse and field trials. The EC50 values of benomyl were clearly differentbetween two sensitive and resistant groups of isolates. Iminoctadine tris had lower EC50 values than mancozeband propineb as protective fungicides and the response of mancozeb, propineb and azoxystrobin was variabledepending on the isolate. In the greenhouse, pre- and post- inoculat...

  14. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. PMID:24128452

  15. Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose stalk rot (Colletotrichum graminicola in tropical maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herberte Pereira da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Generation means was used to study the mode of inheritance of resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in tropical maize. Each population was comprised of six generations in two trials under a randomized block design. Inoculations were performed using a suspension of 10*5 conidia mL -1 applied into the stalk. Internal lesion length was directly measured by opening the stalk thirty days after inoculation. Results indicated contrasting modes of inheritance. In one population, dominant gene effects predominated. Besides, additive x dominant and additive x additive interactions were also found. Intermediate values of heritability indicated a complex resistance inheritance probably conditioned by several genes of small effects. An additive-dominant genetic model sufficed to explain the variation in the second population, where additive gene effects predominated. Few genes of major effects control disease resistance in this cross. Heterosis widely differed between populations, which can be attributed to the genetic background of the parental resistant lines.

  16. The impact of weather conditions on response of sorghum genotypes to anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainfall is a major climatic factor influencing anthracnose development and in this study, 68 sorghum accessions were evaluated for anthracnose resistance under dry and wet growing conditions at the Texas A&M Agricultural Experiment Station, near College Station, Texas. Accessions, planted in a ran...

  17. Use of Promising Bacterial Strains for Controlling Anthracnose on Leaf and Fruit of Mango Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakong YENJIT

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A total 146 isolates of bacteria were taken from leaf surface, fruit skin, and blossom of mango (var. Nam Dorkmai. They were tested for the inhibition of mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose, on potato dextrose agar (PDA. Seventy-four bacterial isolates inhibited the growth of fungal mycelia by 24.51-49.10%. The 40 highly effective isolates out of 74 isolates were further tested for the potential to reduce the development of anthracnose lesion on detached leaves of mango marcotages at 24 h after inoculation of pathogen. Results indicated that 12 isolates provided high efficacy for inhibiting disease by 51.39-86.11%. Application of these bacteria on mango fruits at 24 h prior to the inoculation of the pathogen revealed that isolates B46 and B12 suppressed disease by 50.36 and 44.13% respectively while Trichoderma harzianum CB-Pin-01 provided 37.30% of the inhibition. For controlling post-harvest disease, an isolate B12 or B12 integrated with hot water treatment (55 oC provided 91.33 and 88.00% of disease severity reduction respectively when applied at 24 h before inoculation of pathogen. Isolates B12 and B44 were identified as Bacillus subtilis while B46 and K112 were B. licheniformis and B. cereus respectively. The mechanism of these isolates for controlling C. gloeosporioides was the reduction of spore germination and the inhibition of germ-tube elongation.

  18. 辣椒炭疽病抗性资源筛选%Screening on the Resistance Resources of Capsicum anthracnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆丽; 秦刚

    2013-01-01

    调查了46份辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)材料对辣椒炭疽病(Collectotrichum sp.)的田间抗性表现.结果表明,19份材料对辣椒炭疽病有较强的抗性.以成都及近郊县的主要致病菌胶孢炭疽菌(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)为接种菌源,采用针刺接种法对绿色成熟果(青熟果)和红色成熟果(红熟果)的23份辣椒资源进行辣椒炭疽病抗性筛选.结果表明,9份材料表现为抗病,6份材料表现为耐病,8份材料表现为感病.室内抗性筛选结果与田间抗性表现基本一致.%Field resistance performance of 46 pepper materials on Capsicum anthracnose was investigated.It showed that 19 materials had a C.resistance to Capsicum anthracnose.For further acquiring resistance resources of C.anthracnose,23 pepper materials were inoculated the primary pathogen(C.gloeosporioides) of Chengdu and suburbancounty by green and red mature fruit acupuncture inoculation method.The results indicated that 9 materials showed resistant,6 materials had tolerance of the disease,8 materials were susceptible to the disease.The results of interior resistance screening were basically consistent with the field resistance performance.

  19. Two Brief Interventions to Mitigate a "Chilly Climate" Transform Women's Experience, Relationships, and Achievement in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gregory M.; Logel, Christine; Peach, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Zanna, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized-controlled trial, we tested 2 brief interventions designed to mitigate the effects of a "chilly climate" women may experience in engineering, especially in male-dominated fields. Participants were students entering a selective university engineering program. The "social-belonging intervention" aimed to protect…

  20. [Effects of silicon on flowering Chinese cabbage's anthracnose occurence, flower stalk formation, and silicon uptake and accumulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian; Feng, Hong-Xian; Yang, Yue-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    Different concentrations of silicon (Si) were applied to flowering Chinese cabbbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) to study their effects on the flowering Chinese cabbage's anthracnose occurrence, flower stalk formation, and Si uptake and accumulation. The results indicated that Si could obviously control the occurrence of anthracnose, and the effect was genotype-dependant. The plants of susceptible cultivar applied with 2.5 mmol L(-1) Si and those of resistant cultivar applied with 0.5 mmol L(-1) Si exhibited the highest resistance to Colletotrichum higginsianum, with the lowest disease index and the higheist flower stalk yield. Si application also obviously affected the quality of flower stalk. For susceptible cultivar, Si application promoted the synthesis of chlorophyll, crude fiber and vitamin C, and induced the formation of soluble sugars. The contents of chlorophyll and crude fiber increased with increasing Si level. For resistant cultivar, the chlorophyll content increased while vitamin C content decreased with increasing Si level, but Si application had less effect on the contents of crude fiber and soluble sugars. For both cultivars, Si application did not have significant effect on the contents of crude protein and soluble protein but remarkably increased the Si accumulation in plant leaves, and the leaf Si content was significantly increased with increasing Si level. The Si granules deposited in leaf tissues were not equal in size, and distributed unevenly in epidermis tissues. It was concluded that the accumulation of Si in leaves could increase the resistance of plant to anthracnose, but there was no linear correlation between the accumulated amount of Si and the resistance. PMID:18655585

  1. Introgression and pyramiding into common bean market class fabada of genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and potyvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juan José; Campa, Ana; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Giraldez, Ramón

    2012-03-01

    Anthracnose and bean common mosaic (BCM) are considered major diseases in common bean crop causing severe yield losses worldwide. This work describes the introgression and pyramiding of genes conferring genetic resistance to BCM and anthracnose local races into line A25, a bean genotype classified as market class fabada. Resistant plants were selected using resistance tests or combining resistance tests and marker-assisted selection. Lines A252, A321, A493, Sanilac BC6-Are, and BRB130 were used as resistance sources. Resistance genes to anthracnose (Co-2 ( C ), Co-2 ( A252 ) and Co-3/9) and/or BCM (I and bc-3) were introgressed in line A25 through six parallel backcrossing programs, and six breeding lines showing a fabada seed phenotype were obtained after six backcross generations: line A1258 from A252; A1231 from A321; A1220 from A493; A1183 and A1878 from Sanilac BC6-Are; and line A2418 from BRB130. Pyramiding of different genes were developed using the pedigree method from a single cross between lines obtained in the introgression step: line A1699 (derived from cross A1258 × A1220), A2438 (A1220 × A1183), A2806 (A1878 × A2418), and A3308 (A1699 × A2806). A characterization based on eight morpho-agronomic traits revealed a limited differentiation among the obtained breeding lines and the recurrent line A25. However, using a set of seven molecular markers linked to the loci used in the breeding programs it was possible to differentiate the 11 fabada lines. Considering the genetic control of the resistance in resistant donor lines, the observed segregations in the last backcrossing generation, the reaction against the pathogens, and the expression of the molecular markers it was also possible to infer the genotype conferring resistance in the ten fabada breeding lines obtained. As a result of these breeding programs, genetic resistance to three anthracnose races controlled by genes included in clusters Co-2 and Co-3/9, and genetic resistance to BCM controlled

  2. Weather based warning systems for bean angular-leaf-spot and anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data available in the literature were used to develop a warning system for bean angular leaf spot and anthracnose, caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, respectively. The model is based on favorable environmental conditions for the infectious process such as continuous leaf wetness duration and mean air temperature during this subphase of the pathogen-host relationship cycle. Equations published by DALLA PRIA (1977 showing the interactions of those two factors on the disease severity were used. Excell spreadsheet was used to calculate the leaf wetness period needed to cause different infection probabilities at different temperature ranges. These data were employed to elaborate critical period tables used to program a computerized electronic device that records leaf wetness duration and mean temperature and automatically shows the daily disease severity value (DDSV for each disease. The model should be validated in field experiments under natural infection for which the daily disease severity sum (DDSS should be identified as a criterion to indicate the beginning and the interval of fungicide applications to control both diseases.

  3. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  4. Testing the efficacy of a chilli-tobacco rope fence as a deterrent against crop-raiding elephants

    OpenAIRE

    Chelliah, K; G Kannan; Kundu, S.; Abilash, N; Madhusudan, A; Baskaran, N; Sukumar, R.

    2010-01-01

    Chilli-based repellents have shown promise as deterrents against crop-raiding elephants in Africa. We experimented with ropes coated with chilli-based repellent as a cheap alternative to existing elephant cropraid deterrent methods in India. Three locations (Buxa Tiger Reserve, Wyanad Wildlife Sanctuary and Hosur Forest Division) representing varying rainfall regimes from high to low, and with histories of intense elephant-agriculture conflict, were selected for the experiments that were cond...

  5. Method development and survey of Sudan I–IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I–IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml−1. Low concentrations (adulteration. PMID:26824489

  6. Method development and survey of Sudan I-IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I-IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml(-1). Low concentrations (adulteration. PMID:26824489

  7. Extension helps strawberry growers fight aggressive plant disease

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Virginia's strawberry growers have been dealing with an uninvited guest in their fields this winter, anthracnose crown rot, one of the most destructive diseases of strawberries in the southeastern United States.

  8. Genetic and physical localization of an anthracnose resistance gene in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengming; Gao, Muqiang; Deshpande, Shweta; Lin, Shaoping; Roe, Bruce A; Zhu, Hongyan

    2007-12-01

    Anthracnose of alfalfa, caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum trifolii, is one of the most destructive diseases of alfalfa worldwide. An improved understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying host resistance will facilitate the development of resistant alfalfa cultivars, thus providing the most efficient and environmentally sound strategy to control alfalfa diseases. Unfortunately, cultivated alfalfa has an intractable genetic system because of its tetrasomic inheritance and out-crossing nature. Nevertheless, the model legume Medicago truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, has the potential to serve as a surrogate to map and clone the counterparts of agronomically important genes in alfalfa -- particularly, disease resistance genes against economically important pathogens. Here we describe the high-resolution genetic and physical mapping of RCT1, a host resistance gene against C. trifolii race 1 in M. truncatula. We have delimited the RCT1 locus within a physical interval spanning approximately 200 kb located on the top of M. truncatula linkage group 4. RCT1 is part of a complex locus containing numerous genes homologous to previously characterized TIR-NBS-LRR type resistance genes. The result presented in this paper will facilitate the positional cloning of RCT1 in Medicago. PMID:17891371

  9. 浅谈玉米北方炭疽病%The Corn Northern Anthracnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崎峰

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, corn varieties were updated faster and faster. As a result, the resistance against diseases and insect pests varies between species. Northern Anthracnose in Heihe area of northern Heilongjiang province is becoming more and more serious. It has become the main disease of local area and has caused massive loss. We should strengthen the research on the regularity and control strategies of the disease.%近年来玉米品种更新换代比较快,品种种类繁多,对各种病虫害抵抗力各不相同。黑龙江省北部黑河地区北方炭疽病日趋加重,已成为当地的主要病害,该病在黑龙江省北部地区普遍发生,局部地区损失较重,应加强对该病发生规律和防治策略的研究。本文的研究目的正在于此。

  10. Efficiency of a yeast-based formulation for the biocontrol of postharvest anthracnose of papayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Rabelo de Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify formulations of biological agents that enable survival, stability and a good surface distribution of the antagonistic agent, studies that test different application vehicles are necessary. The efficiency of two killer yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (strain 422 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii (strain 443, associated with five different application vehicles, was assessed for the protection of postharvest papayas. In this study, after 90 days of incubation at 4ºC, W. anomalus (strain 422 and M. guilliermondii (strain 443 were viable with all application vehicles tested. Fruits treated with different formulations (yeasts + application vehicles had a decreased severity of disease (by at least 30% compared with untreated fruits. The treatment with W. anomalus (strain 422 + 2% starch lowered disease occurrence by 48.3%. The most efficient treatments using M. guilliermondii (strain 443 were those with 2% gelatin or 2% liquid carnauba wax, both of which reduced anthracnose by 50% in postharvest papayas. Electron micrographs of the surface tissues of the treated fruits showed that all application vehicles provided excellent adhesion of the yeast to the surface. Formulations based on starch (2%, gelatin (2% and carnauba wax (2% were the most efficient at controlling fungal diseases in postharvest papayas.

  11. An integrated approach for the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Naik, M K; Ajithkumar, K

    2013-02-01

    An integrated approach for management of aflatoxin contamination in chilli was undertaken by evaluating the fungicides, bioagents and plant extracts against Aspergillus flavus under both in vitro and field condition. Maximum inhibition of radial growth (91.1%) was observed with 0.3% mancozeb followed by captan (85.2%). Carbendazim (73%) was effective and superior over other systemic fungicides. A complete inhibition (100%) of A. flavus was observed in neem seed kernel extract (NSKE), nimbicidin and pongamia oil at 5%. An indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens bioagent isolate inhibited (74.9%) the growth of A. flavus over Trichoderma harzianum (70.4%). The superior performing fungicides, plant extracts and bioagents identified under in vitro were used for challenge inoculation on chilli fruits and so also for field evaluation. The captan treated fruits recorded the least infection of A. flavus (1.6%) followed by P. fluorescens (2.0%), NSKE (2.2%) and nimbicidin treated fruits (7.8%) as against control (38.3%). As regards to field evaluation, the least incidence was recorded in NSKE sprayed chilli plot (1.6%) and was on par with captan (2.2%), P. fluorescens (2.4%) and T. harzianum (2.6%) compared to control (7.4%). Hence, a pre-harvest spray of NSKE (5%) or mancozeb (0.3%) or P. fluorescens (1 × 10(8) cfu/ml) 10 days before harvest of chilli is recommended for field level management of aflatoxin. PMID:24425902

  12. EFFICACY OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS IN CONTROLLING RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON NAGA KING CHILLI ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marinus Ngullie; Loli Daiho

    2013-01-01

    Available biocontrol agents were evaluated either alone or in various combinations for finding out their efficacy in suppressing Rhizoctonia seedling rot incidence and promoting plant growth of Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in green house as well field conditions. Among all tested combination, the treatment containing combination of T. viride +P. fluorescens was found most effective in reducing the incidence of seedling rot in both greenhouse and field condition. Highest pe...

  13. Empowerment Of Farmer Group In Improving Chilli Farming Income In Kerinci District, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Karim; Hani Sri Handayawati; Wiwiek Ruminarti

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the agricultural development is to raise the quality of human resources and the livelihood of farmers and their families. The role of farmer groups are very important in supporting the agricultural intensification program, but their ability to adopt new technologies are still very limited. Base on these facts then problems of this research is role of the chilli farmers group empowerment in improving the farming revenues.The research was carried out in the Air Hangat Timur Subdistri...

  14. Aphid-induced Defences in Chilli Affect Preferences of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Khalid A.; M. N. Mohamad Roff; Hallett, Rebecca H.; Idris, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly (WF), Bemisia tabaci, is a major pest that damages a wide range of vegetable crops in Malaysia. WF infestation is influenced by a variety of factors, including previous infestation of the host plant by other insect pests. This study investigated the effects of previous infestation of host chilli plants by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on the olfactory behavioural response of B. tabaci, using free-choice bioassay with a Y-tube olfactometer. We analysed volatil...

  15. Empowerment Of Farmer Group In Improving Chilli Farming Income In Kerinci District, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Karim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the agricultural development is to raise the quality of human resources and the livelihood of farmers and their families. The role of farmer groups are very important in supporting the agricultural intensification program, but their ability to adopt new technologies are still very limited. Base on these facts then problems of this research is role of the chilli farmers group empowerment in improving the farming revenues.The research was carried out in the Air Hangat Timur Subdistrict, Kerinci District, many farmers who insist the chili farming traditionally, they have not implemented the recommended agrotechnologies package. The number of samples as much as two groups of farmers, including 28 farmers from the Pinang-Jaya farmers group and 17 farmers from Usaha-Sepakat farmer groups. To find out the improvement level of farmers ability in improving farmer income, it is conducted the Coefficient Spearman test.The results showed that the ability of chilli agrotechnology implementation is included in the category of “intermediate”. There is a strong relationship between farmer age, educational level, experience farming and the number of family member with the farmer capability in implementing chilli agrotechnologies. Keywords: farmer group, chili farming, farming income

  16. In vitro assessment of the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from sun-dried chilli peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Alessandro; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Tundis, Rosa; Galvin, Karen; Menichini, Francesco; O'Brien, Nora; Loizzo, Monica R

    2014-03-01

    Chilli peppers have been recognized as an excellent source of antioxidants as they are rich in bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids which are known to exert various beneficial effects in vivo. Absorption is an important factor in the determination of the potential biological effects of carotenoids. The bioaccessibility of a food constituent such as a carotenoid represents its potential to be absorbed in humans. There is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from dried peppers. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: first, to determine the carotenoid content of 20 varieties of red, orange or yellow coloured sun-dried chilli peppers belonging to either of four Capsicum species (annuum, baccatum, chinense and chacoense); and second, to quantify the carotenoid micellarization (bioaccessibility) following an in vitro digestion procedure. Red peppers had a higher carotenoid content and bioaccessibility than either the orange peppers or yellow pepper. Xanthophylls showed greater bioaccessibility than carotenes. Our findings confirm that dried chilli peppers are a good source of carotenoids. PMID:24272195

  17. Aphid-induced Defences in Chilli Affect Preferences of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Khalid A; Mohamad Roff, M N; Hallett, Rebecca H; Idris, A B

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly (WF), Bemisia tabaci, is a major pest that damages a wide range of vegetable crops in Malaysia. WF infestation is influenced by a variety of factors, including previous infestation of the host plant by other insect pests. This study investigated the effects of previous infestation of host chilli plants by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on the olfactory behavioural response of B. tabaci, using free-choice bioassay with a Y-tube olfactometer. We analysed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by non-infested and M. persicae-infested chilli plants using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results showed that female WFs preferred non-infested to pre-infested plants. Collection and analysis of volatile compounds emitted by infested plants confirmed that there were significant increases in the production of monoterpenes (cymene; 1,8-cineole), sesquiterpenes (β-cadinene, α-copaene), and methyl salicylate (MeSA) compared to non-infested plants. Our results suggest that host plant infestation by aphids may induce production of secondary metabolites that deter B. tabaci from settling on its host plants. These results provide important information for understanding WF host selection and dispersal among crops, and also for manipulating WF behaviour to improve IPM in chilli. PMID:26334135

  18. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v for 3 minutes and stored for 11 days under environmental conditions. Next, other berries were immersed into essential oil emulsions of Allium sativum, Copaifera langsdorfii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Eugenia caryophyllata at 5% for 3 minutes but stored for 11 days. Berries immersed into distilled water were used as control-treatments. The percentage of disease incidence observed in the control-treatment was similar to the ones observed in the extract of A. indica at 2%. The control-treatment showed disease severity of 75.13% and the percentage of disease control was 20.85%. Fruit immersed into distilled water presented less effectiveness than the ones immersed into citric extracts, which promoted the highest effectiveness. Citric extract at 4% was the most efficient treatment because the disease incidence was 19.44%, the disease severity was 9.34% and the disease control was 90.16%. Less severity and, consequently, more disease control were achieved by immersing the berries into the emulsion of essential oil of A. sativum, followed by treatments with C. langsdorfii, E. caryophyllata and C. zeylanicum.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world’s most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  20. Reduction of aflatoxins in dundi-cut whole red chillies (capsicum indicum)by manual sorting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundi-cut whole red chillies (Capsicum indicum) are the most revenue- generating commodity of Pakistan. Accordingly, the competence and magnitude of manual hand-picked sorting of red chillies on the reduction of total aflatoxins (AFs) content were assessed during the present study. AFs contents were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. On the basis of AFs content, red chilli samples were grouped as Group A with 1 to 20 mu g/kg, Group B with 20 to 30?g/kg, Group C with 30-100?g/kg and Group D quality samples with 100 to 150g/kg. Physically identified defects including midget/dwarfed, damaged, broken, dusty and dirty were looked for and such pods were removed. A reduction of 90-100% of AFs was achieved in Group A, 65-80% in B, 65-75% in C and 70% in D quality samples. An average of 78% reduction in AFs content was achieved. Hence, the non-destructive physical hand-picked sorting of red chillies can be applied as a rapid, safe and cost effective method for the reduction of AFs content in red chillies with preserved nutritional values. (author)

  1. Molecular Identification of Fungi Isolated from Bean Tissues with Anthracnose Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Maritza Vanegas Berrouet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this work, endophytic fungi from leaves and pods of bean presenting anthracnose symptoms were isolated from plantscollected at different municipalities in the province of Antioquia (Colombia. Isolates were identified by sequencing the rDNA ITS regions together with the examination of reproductive structures during sporulation in culture media. Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose was isolated in all samples showing symptoms of this disease. These results were confirmed by duplex PCR using the specific primers CD1/CD2 and CY1/CY2. Additionally, 17 endophytic fungi were obtained. Fourteen isolates did not sporulate in culture media (Mycelia sterilia but were identified by phylogenetic analysis of the ITS regions as the Ascomycetes: Leptosphaerulina (3, Diaporthe (3, Gibberella (1, Plectosphaerella (1 and Biscogniauxia (1and the mitosporic genera Phoma (2, Alternaria (2 and Stemphylium(1. Three isolates were identified combining morphologica and molecular analysis as Fusarium (2 and Curvularia lunata (1. This work increases our knowledge of the mycobiota of legume plants and will serve as support of future studies aimed at determining the effect of these fungi on the development of anthracnose as well as other problems affecting the bean crop.IDENTIFICACIÓN MOLECULAR DE HONGOS AISLADOS DETEJIDOS DE FRÍJOL CON SÍNTOMAS DE ANTRACNOSISRESUMENEn este estudio se realizó el aislamiento de hongos en tejidos foliares y vainas de fríjol con síntomas de antracnosis, procedentes de cultivos de diferentes municipios del departamento de Antioquia (Colombia. La identificación de los aislamientos se realizó con base en la secuenciación de las regiones ITS del ADN ribosomal y se confirmó por observación microscópica de estructuras reproductivas en aquellos aislamientos que esporulaban en medios de cultivo. En todas las muestras sintomáticas, se logró el aislamiento del agente causal de la antracnosis

  2. Effect of fungicides and alternative products in control of anthracnose and black spot of guava
    Efeito de fungicidas e produtos alternativos no controle da antracnose e da pinta preta da goiaba

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herman Fischer; Bruna Lourenço da Silva; Ana Raquel Soares; Maria Cecília de Arruda Palharini; Marise Cagnin Martins Parisi; Lilian Amorin

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides in controlling in vitro and in vivo the causal agents of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum) and black spot (Guignardia psidii) and evaluate the effect of alternative products to control these diseases. Inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogens was evaluated for ten fungicides at concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 mg L-1 of active ingredient in potato-dextrose-agar medium. The effectiveness of the fungicides a...

  3. Control of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum musae on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Using Antagonistic Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supuk Mahadtanapuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 400 bacterial strains, isolated from leaf surfaces of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and hot springs in the Chiang Mai province of northern Thailand, were screened in vitro for antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum musae, an anthracnose fungus. Three isolates provided greater than 75% growth inhibition of the fungus in vitro and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis. Using in planta tests, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis were shown to efficiently colonize the curcuma bracts, provide a statistically significant growth suppression of C. musae over that of B. licheniformis, and all three isolates could provide 100% inhibition of conidial fungal germination. When B. licheniformis was co-inoculated in combination with either of the other two bacteria, the ability of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis to suppress the fungal disease was dramatically reduced. Both B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis were found to contain an isoform of iturin A with antifungal activity against C. musae. As a preventative measure to control the spread of C. musae and reduce the severity of fungal infections, B. amyloliquefaciens could be used to inoculate curcuma flowers cost effectively and reduce the need for the toxic synthetic fungicides currently in use.

  4. Incisor toothwear caused by a dietary habit involving chillies-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Liam; Antonarakis, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    Toothwear cases can vary dramatically in their presentation, with some displaying quite peculiar patterns. This case report outlines a patient's unusual eating habit that had led to a localized pattern of toothwear affecting his maxillary and mandibular central incisors. The patient had a habit of eating fresh chillies between his incisors after most evening meals; this was followed by immediate toothbrushing, which he had done for many years. This case illustrates that, not only is diet analysis important in identifying aetiological factors in toothwear cases, but also dietary habits. PMID:15938340

  5. Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. Strains reduce natural occurrence of anthracnose in soybean (Glycine max L.) in central Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manisha; Johri, Bhavdish N; Sharma, Alok

    2006-05-01

    Biological control is an accepted important component of current plant disease management strategies. Introduction of bacterized seeds carrying bacterial isolates with proven growth-promotion capabilities and antagonistic characteristics offer a valid alternative to chemical protectants. Root colonization of disease-susceptible (PS 1024) and moderately resistant (PS1042) varieties of soyabean (Glycine Max L) by fluorescent pseudomonad (FLPs) strains GRP3, PEn-4, PRS1, and WRS-24 was studied in relation to natural occurrence of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum dematium (Pers Ex Fr.) Grove. Rhizoplane population of FLPs was maintained at a critical level (5.3 cfu) up to 30 days of plant growth, followed by a steep decline. Indigenous FLPs population, however, remained nearly unchanged (3.0 to 2.4 log g(-1) root) between 30 days and 75 days of plant growth. The relative FLPs population in rhizosphere was lower than that in rhizoplane. Although intervarietal difference was observed, the root/shoot length remained unaffected. Compared to nonbacterized control, dry root weight was improved by FLPs treatment. Severity of foliar anthracnose was reduced significantly after FLPs treatment in the variety PS 1042. Because the point of FLPs treatment (seed bacterization) was away from the site of disease appearance (leaf), operation of induced systemic resistance in strains PEn-4 and GRP3 appears imminent. PMID:16604418

  6. Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Santamaría Basulto

    2011-10-01

    , although it is possible to find other Colletotrichum species causing diseases in the same crop. In order to control anthracnose in Yucatán, several fungicides are recommended, but not all of them are allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA of the United States, the main country to which Yucatan's papaya is exported. This study aimed to identify the causal agent of anthracnose of papaya in Yucatan, to evaluate the effect of fungicides that have EPA registration on species that cause anthracnose and to explore the effect of resistance inducers in controlling this disease. During March and May 2006, nine isolates of Colletotrichum were obtained from fruits of three producing regions of Yucatán, which were identifed using taxonomic keys. The product evaluation was done by sensitivity in vitro bioassays and the effectiveness in inoculated fruits, ensuing in August 2007, November 2007 and February 2008, the effect of postharvest application of fungicides and resistance inducers on anthracnose on naturally infected fruits from the field were evaluated. In the three sites, two species that cause anthracnose were found and identified as C. gloeosporioides and C. dematium. Under in vitro conditions, C. gloeosporioides development was inhibited by prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin and chlorothalonil; C. dematium development was inhibited only by prochloraz, ferbam and chlorothalonil. In inoculated fruits, prochloraz was 100% effective for both species, while azoxystrobin was 87.5% effective in C. gloeosporioides and 3.3% in C. dematium.

  7. Candidate Gene Identification with SNP Marker-Based Fine Mapping of Anthracnose Resistance Gene Co-4 in Common Bean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Burt

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, is an important fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Alleles at the Co-4 locus confer resistance to a number of races of C. lindemuthianum. A population of 94 F4:5 recombinant inbred lines of a cross between resistant black bean genotype B09197 and susceptible navy bean cultivar Nautica was used to identify markers associated with resistance in bean chromosome 8 (Pv08 where Co-4 is localized. Three SCAR markers with known linkage to Co-4 and a panel of single nucleotide markers were used for genotyping. A refined physical region on Pv08 with significant association with anthracnose resistance identified by markers was used in BLAST searches with the genomic sequence of common bean accession G19833. Thirty two unique annotated candidate genes were identified that spanned a physical region of 936.46 kb. A majority of the annotated genes identified had functional similarity to leucine rich repeats/receptor like kinase domains. Three annotated genes had similarity to 1, 3-β-glucanase domains. There were sequence similarities between some of the annotated genes found in the study and the genes associated with phosphoinositide-specific phosphilipases C associated with Co-x and the COK-4 loci found in previous studies. It is possible that the Co-4 locus is structured as a group of genes with functional domains dominated by protein tyrosine kinase along with leucine rich repeats/nucleotide binding site, phosphilipases C as well as β-glucanases.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOCHTHONUS LACTIC FLORA OF A CAMPANIAN CHILLI CHEESE PRODUCED FROM RAW SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mormile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural lactic flora of the artisanal chilli “Tramonti” cheese, a typical product manufactured in the “Lattari mountains”, area of Salerno province (Italy, was investigated. Particular attention was paid to the growth dynamics assessment and to the molecular identification of the indigenous lactic acid bacteria involved in the ripening of this cheese made with raw sheep milk without starter cultures. One batch was monitored taking 4 sample on 0, 30, 50 and 105 ripening days. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were enumerated and randomly isolated on MRS and LM17 agar (32ºC x 48h -mesophilic flora- and 42°C x 48h -thermophilic flora, respectively. N. 66 presumptive lactic acid bacteria isolates, gram positive and catalase negative, were genotipically identified by Ribotyping. Mesophilic Lactobacillus remained at levels of 107 cfu/g during whole maturation time and thermophilic Lactobacillus, from initial values of 105 cfu/g, reached concentratios of 106 cfu/g at the end of maturation. Mesophilic and thermophilic Lactococcus showed, on average, levels of 106 since the beginning of the ripening. Ribotyping allowed to detect 4 lactic acid bacteria species: Enterococcus faecium (65,15%, Lactococcus lactis spp. cremoris (24,24%, Enterococcus faecalis (6,06% and Enterococcus durans (4,54%, showing the diversity of indigenous lactic acid bacteria of chilli “Tramonti” cheese.

  9. Field evaluation of anthracnose resistance for sorghum germplasm from the Sikasso region in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA, ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains 132 sorghum landraces from the Sikasso region of Mali. This germplasm was inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated for foliar anthracnose resistance at the USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico...

  10. Evaluation of Pseudomonas syringae Strain ESC11 for Biocontrol of Crown Rot and Anthracnose of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC11, and 250 'g/ml each of thiabendazole (TBZ) and imazalil reduced crown rot of banana caused by a Fusarium sp. by 0-88% and 73-88%, respectively, in laboratory experiments. ESC11 alone did not significantly reduce rot, mold, or anthracnose in most field trials. TBZ an...

  11. Effect of starvation on vein preference of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on chilli as host plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Sakinah, A.; Mohamad Roff M., N.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a cosmopolitan pest of horticultural crops. It caused serious damaged to the plants by feeding on plant saps as direct damage and transmit virus as indirect damage. Vein preferences of both female and male whitefly (WF) on chilli plant were recorded using Dinolite, a portable microscope, under laboratory conditions. WF adults of both sexes were starved for 2 and 4 hours before used for observation while no starvation for control individual (treatment). Results showed that both female and male preferred to feed on secondary veins rather than lamina, midrib and vein. From the result of whitefly preferred target site, hopefully this information will help to improve control tactics in WF management.

  12. Quantitative chemical analysis of lead in canned chillis by spectrophotometric and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work are the quantification of lead contents in two types of canned chilli of three trademarks, determining its inside of maximum permissible level (2 ppm), comparing moreover two trademarks that have flask and canned presentation for to determine the filling effect in the final content of lead, moreover make a comparative study of the techniques using on base to exactitude, linearity and sensibility. The techniques used were atomic absorption spectrophotometry, plasma emission spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence. The preliminary treatment of the samples was by calcination, continued of the ashes dissolution in acid medium, for later gauge a determinate volume for analyze by atomic absorption and plasma emission. For the analysis by x-ray fluorescence, after solubilyzing ashes, its precipitate the lead with PCDA (Pyrrolidine carbodithioic ammonium acid) then its filtered, filter paper is dried and counted directly. The standards preparation is made following the same procedure as in samples using lead titrisol solution. For each technique the recovery percent is determined by the addition of enough know amount. For each technique calibration curves are plotted been determined that the three are lineal in the established range of work. The recovery percent in three cases is superior to ninety five percent. By means of a variance analysis it was determined that lead contain in samples do not exceed two ppm., and the lead content in canned chillis is superior to contained in glass containers (1.7, 0.4 ppm respectively). X-ray fluorescence analysis is different to the attained results by the other two techniques due to its sensibility is less. The most advisable techniques for this kind of analysis are atomic absorption spectrophotometry and plasma emission. (Author)

  13. The Effects of a Warm or Chilly Climate Toward Socioeconomic Diversity on Academic Motivation and Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin

    2016-02-01

    Persistent academic achievement gaps exist between university students from high and low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The current research proposes that the extent to which a university is perceived as actively supporting versus passively neglecting students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds can influence low-SES students' academic motivation and self-concepts. In Experiments 1 and 2, low-SES students exposed to cues suggestive of an institution's warmth toward socioeconomic diversity demonstrated greater academic efficacy, expectations, and implicit associations with high academic achievement compared with those exposed to cues indicating institutional chilliness. Exploring the phenomenology underlying these effects, Experiment 3 demonstrated that warmth cues led low-SES students to perceive their socioeconomic background as a better match with the rest of the student body and to perceive the university as more socioeconomically diverse than did chilliness cues. Contributions to our understanding of low-SES students' psychological experiences in academic settings and practical implications for academic institutions are discussed. PMID:26634272

  14. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for rapid diagnosis of chilli veinal mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Chandra, Satish; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) causes significant economic loss to chilli cultivation in northeastern India, as well as in eastern Asia. In this study, we have developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis of ChiVMV. Amplification could be visualized after adding SYBR Green I (1000×) dye within 60 min under isothermal conditions at 63 °C, with a set of four primers designed based on the large nuclear inclusion protein (NIb) domain of ChiVMV (isolate KC-ML1). The RT-LAMP method was 100 times more sensitive than one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with a detection limit of 0.0001 ng of total RNA per reaction. PMID:27063408

  15. Diseases of Landscape Ornamentals. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles C.; Sydnor, T. Davis

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with recognizing and controlling diseases found on ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 80 slides illustrating various foliar diseases (anthracnose, black spot, hawthorn leaf blight,…

  16. Antifungal Activity of Plant Products for the Management of Fruit Rot Infection in Chillies

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sundaramoorthy; S. Usharani; Ancy P. George

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of 13 plant products were evaluated against chilli fruit rot and dieback incited by Colletotrichum capsici. Among them bulbs of A. sativum (20%) and A. cepa (60%) and seed extract A. indica 60% gave complete inhibition of the pathogen and were on par with carbendazim (0.1%) leaf extracts of D. metel, E. globulus and P. juliflora at 60% concentration totally inhibited the mycelial growth of C. capsici. Conidial germination of C. capsici was com...

  17. “E SE COLOCAR PIMENTA?”: A CONSTRUÇÃO EMPREENDEDORA DA CHILLI BEANS

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão; Suélen Matozo Franco; Flávia Zimmerle da Nóbrega Costa; Henrique Cassiano Nascimento de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, brands play greater role in companies’ market performance. The most common approach in the theory of brand management is strategic. However, many brands have become successful by adopting an “unconventional” logic, indicating an entrepreneurial brand building, guided mainly by intuition. We identified Chilli Beans as a brand that illustrates this phenomenon. The aim of the study was to identify the practices adopted by the brand’s entrepreneur to make it successful. To investiga...

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of an Anthracnose-Resistant Tea Plant Cultivar Reveals Genes Associated with Resistance to Colletotrichum camelliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    Full Text Available Tea plant breeding is a topic of great economic importance. However, disease remains a major cause of yield and quality losses. In this study, an anthracnose-resistant cultivar, ZC108, was developed. An infection assay revealed different responses to Colletotrichum sp. infection between ZC108 and its parent cultivar LJ43. ZC108 had greater resistance than LJ43 to Colletotrichum camelliae. Additionally, ZC108 exhibited earlier sprouting in the spring, as well as different leaf shape and plant architecture. Microarray data revealed that the genes that are differentially expressed between LJ43 and ZC108 mapped to secondary metabolism-related pathways, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. In addition, genes involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling as well as plant-pathogen interaction pathways were also changed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the expression of 27 selected genes in infected and uninfected tea plant leaves. Genes encoding a MADS-box transcription factor, NBS-LRR disease-resistance protein, and phenylpropanoid metabolism pathway components (CAD, CCR, POD, beta-glucosidase, ALDH and PAL were among those differentially expressed in ZC108.

  19. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial ...

  20. BRS Esteio - Common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Helton Santos Pereira; Leonardo Cunha Melo; Luís Cláudio de Faria; Adriane Wendland; Maria José Del Peloso; Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da Costa; Adriano Stephan Nascente; José Luis Cabrera Díaz; Hélio Wilson Lemos de Carvalho; Válter Martins de Almeida; Carlos Lásaro Pereira de Melo; Antônio Félix da Costa; Sheila Cristina Prucoli Posse; Mariana Cruzick de Souza Magaldi; Ângela de Fátima Barbosa Abreu

    2013-01-01

    BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 BrazilianStates. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days), an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1,which is 8.1% higher than that of the control cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1), upright growth, tolerance to lodging,and moderate resistance to anthracnose.

  1. Weather based warning systems for bean angular-leaf-spot and anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Erlei Melo Reis; Marta Maria Casa Blum

    2012-01-01

    Data available in the literature were used to develop a warning system for bean angular leaf spot and anthracnose, caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, respectively. The model is based on favorable environmental conditions for the infectious process such as continuous leaf wetness duration and mean air temperature during this subphase of the pathogen-host relationship cycle. Equations published by DALLA PRIA (1977) showing the interactions of those two factors...

  2. Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose stalk rot (Colletotrichum graminicola) in tropical maize inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Herberte Pereira da Silva; Regina Mélo Sartori Coêlho Morello; Maria Teresa Gomes Lopes; Kátia Regiane Brunelli; Rodrigo Rodrigues Matiello; Luis Eduardo Aranha Camargo

    2012-01-01

    Generation means was used to study the mode of inheritance of resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in tropical maize. Each population was comprised of six generations in two trials under a randomized block design. Inoculations were performed using a suspension of 10*5 conidia mL -1 applied into the stalk. Internal lesion length was directly measured by opening the stalk thirty days after inoculation. Results indicated contrasting modes of inheritance. In one population, dominant gene effects p...

  3. Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Shrestha, Anupama; Kim, Du-Yeon; Park, Kyungseok; Pak, Chun Ho; Kim, Ki Deok

    2013-06-01

    We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P metalaxyl treatment in the 2007 and 2009 tests, but not in the 2008 test. In the 2-year plastic house tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit. PMID:25288942

  4. Molecular characterizations of microbial antagonists and development of bioformulations for management of bacterial wilt of Naga Chilli (Capsicum chinens Jacq. in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohit Kataki, Kuldeep Talukdar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive strains of five different saprophytic antagonists Trichoderma parareesei TPJ-S-1, Trichoderma viride TVJ-S-1, Paecilomyces variotii Isolate-1, Bacillus thuringiensis BTJ-S-1 and Citrobacter farmeri CTJ-S-1 and their consortial formulations were evaluated during 2012-14, for their effectiveness in management of bacterial wilt disease (c. o. Ralstonia solanacearum of Naga chilli (Capsicum chinens Jacq.. The molecular characterization of selected antagonists was undertaken to determine their distinctiveness from their close relatives through sequencing of the 18S & 28S region of ribosomal DNA in case of fungal antagonists and 16S region in case of bacterial antagonists along with its phylogenetic analysis. The antagonistic potential of the five microbes were tested in vitro singly and in consortia against R. solanacearum adopting dual culture method. Altogether 31 treatment combinations were compared; the inhibition zones (mm and percent inhibitions were recorded and analyzed. The highest inhibition (91.47% against R. solanacearum was recorded in consortia of T. parareesei, T. viride and B. thuringiensis followed by the consortia of T. parareesei, T. viride, P. variotii, B. thuringiensis and C. farmeri (82.22%. Quantitative aspect of population dynamics of selected antagonists in three different substrate carrier viz. vermicompost, talcum powder (TP and mustard oil cake (MOC were compared to evaluate their shelf – life at different days of storage

  5. Impact of the cultural roots of the wild chilli “Piquín” (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum in the northeast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalón-Mendoza Horacio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chilli peppers “piquin” (C. annuum L. var. glabriusculum is a wild species of northeastern Mexico, it has an important role in the historical and regional development. The objective of the present investigation was to identify and assess the impact of wild chilli "piquin” roots cultural on the northeastern Mexican population and its historical prospects among the population. Data were generated with the help of a well documented survey and results obtained from the survey were statistically analysis at p ≤ 0.05. Results of the study revealed that 74% population of the of the study area consumed chilli (piquin fruits almost entire year by using the techniques of fruits preservation. Results of the study strongly recommended that there is a need to protect the natural resources of the northeastern Mexico. Strategies should generate for improving ecological awareness in collectors for the management of the specie. The price of per kilogram chilli fruit is depends on the amount of fruit collected per day by the people, climatic conditions and season of the year some time prices can be reached up to US$ 85 per kg of fresh fruit in the month of April. The participation of females was reported very low in the productive processes or value chain of the piquin chilli peppers in the rural area of Northeastern Mexico.

  6. Effect of mutagens on seed germination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of chilli variety CO-2 (Coimbatore-2) were irradiated with gamma rays ranging from 10 kR to 35 kR at an interval of 5 kR and the effect on seed germination, seedling survival, percent lethality and seedling injury were studied. Lower doses were stimulative, while higher doses had inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling survival. The highest percentage of seed germination (37.5) and seedling survival (31.3) was recorded at 10 kR as compared to 28 percent of germination and 3.3 percent seedling survival in control. Percent lethality (9.6%) and seedling injury (6.5%) were comparatively low than the lethality percentage and seedling injury of the higher dose treatments. In chemical mutagen treatments, the maximum seed germination (54.5%) and seedling survival (51.2%), seedling lethality (0.97%) and seedling injury (1.37%) were obtained in the treated seeds of EMS at 0.5% concentration followed by 39.5% seed germination and 30.0% seedling survival, seedling lethality (3.8%) and seedling injury (3.06%) of MMS. The stimulative effect of seed germination is more in chemical mutagens than the physical mutagen. There was a proportionate decrease in germination percentage and seedling survival with an increase in dose/concentration of both the chemicals. (author)

  7. CAPSAICIN AND ASCORBIC ACID VARIABILITY IN CHILLI AND PAPRIKA CULTIVARS AS REVEALED BY HPLC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Tilahun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin and ascorbic acid contents of seven Indian peppers varieties/accessions from Capsicum annuum (CA 97, CCH, K1, KTPL19, Arka Abhir and Bayadagi Kaddi and C. frutescens (CF1 species were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Based on their pungency value, all the chilli accession/varieties (CA 97, CCH, K1, and CF 1 were classified as highly pungent peppers. The accession CF1 showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (445mg 100g -1 DW with corresponding pungency value of 71,200 SHUs and Arka Abhir variety showed the lowest capsaicin concentration (29mg 100g -1 DW with 4,672 SHUs of pungency value. Similarly, Bayadaggi kaddi variety showed the highest ascorbic acid content (189 mg/100 FW and the accession CA 97 showed the lowest ascorbic acid contents (55.3 mg/100 FW. The variability in capsaicin and ascorbic acid content presented in the pepper germplasm can be exploited for breeding cultivars with improved nutritional qualities. Moreover, CF1and Bayadagi kaddi can be used as a potential source for capsaicin and vitamin C, respectively.

  8. Identification of a New Anthracnose of Peppers and Screening of Fungicides%1种辣椒新炭疽病的初步鉴定及室内药剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 王连英; 黄新根; 崔汝强; 宋水林

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose was an important disease of peppers, influencing their yield and quality. A new anthracnose only appearing on the pepper fruits was found in the production of pepper cultivars“XinXiang 15”. Its typical lesion was oval in shape with tawny powder at the center,and with outer water soaked zones, but without concentric black dots. The new anthracnose was difficult to control by using the general fungicides. It was found that no seta was observed on conidia. Conidia were single-celled, 12.5 μm×3.75 μm in size, with a sub-acute end and oil droplets in each cell after keeping the humidity and detecting the mildew by microscope. The pathogen was identified as Collectotrichum acutatum Simmonds after isolating and culturing and validating by Koch’s Rule. In order to obtain the better fungicides to control the new anthracnose disease, inhibition effects of 8 fungicides against the fungal from pepper cultivars“XinXiang 15”were detected by Oxford-Cup in vitro. The results showed that 250 g/L propiconazole EC diluted 3 000 times had obvious inhibition effects and long duration time, which could be regarded as a candidate fungicide to control the new anthracnose caused by Collectotrichum acutatum on peppers. This research provided theoretic evidences and fungicide references for the new anthracnose control.%炭疽病是辣椒上的重要病害,影响了辣椒的产量与品质。生产中,在“辛香15号”辣椒上发现了1种新炭疽病,仅在辣椒果实上发生,典型病斑为椭圆形,周围水渍状,中间呈黑色同心轮纹,无小黑点出现,对常用杀菌剂不敏感;保湿后镜检发现,该病菌产生分生孢子盘,无刚毛,分生孢子近长椭圆形,无色,单孢,大小为12.5μm×3.75μm,有油球,一端稍尖;进一步分离培养病原菌并通过柯赫氏法则验证后,初步将其鉴定为尖孢炭疽菌(Collectotrichum acutatum Simmonds)。为了获得对该病效果好的化学药

  9. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para quantificação da severidade da antracnose em frutos de maracujá amarelo Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic scale to evaluate anthracnose severity in yellow passion fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma escala diagramática foi desenvolvida com o intuito de padronizar a avaliação da severidade da antracnose em frutos de maracujá amarelo, causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. A escala foi elaborada considerando os limites máximos e mínimos de severidade da doença. Os valores percentuais de sintomas de antracnose seguiram incrementos logarítmicos (1, 3, 8, 21, 44 e 70%. Para a validação da escala, dez avaliadores (cinco inexperientes e cinco experientes quantificaram a severidade da doença, sem e com o uso da escala, a partir de 50 frutos com diferentes níveis de doença. As avaliações com a escala diagramática foram mais precisas e acuradas nas estimativas da maioria dos avaliadores, e proporcionaram maior reprodutibilidade entre avaliações dos avaliadores. A escala diagramática proposta foi considerada adequada para estimar a severidade da antracnose em frutos de maracujá amarelo e poderá ser utilizada em estudos epidemiológicos e de controle desta doença.A diagrammatic scale was developed to standardize severity assessments of anthracnose on yellow passion fruit, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The scale was elaborated considering the maximum and minimum limits of disease severity. The percentile values for anthracnose symptoms followed logarithmic increments (1, 3, 8, 21, 44 e 70%. To validate the scale, ten raters (five inexperienced and five experienced quantified the disease severity, without and using the scale, of 50 fruits with anthracnose symptoms. Assessments with the diagrammatic scale had higher precision and accuracy for majority of raters, besides being more reproducible among raters. The proposed diagrammatic scale was considered adequate to estimate anthracnose severity in yellow passion fruits and could be used in epidemiological and control studies.

  10. Effect of ozone on anthracnose physicochemical responses and gene expression in papaya (carica papaya l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Mei Kying

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of varying levels of ozone (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 or 5.0 ppm) for 96 h on 1. the in vitro and in vivo growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal organism of anthracnose; 2. the reactive oxygen species generation and spore mitochondria of C. gloeosporioides using transmission electron microscope, fluorescence microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope; 3. the production of defence-related enzymes in papaya; 4. microbiological analysi...

  11. BRS Esteio - Common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 BrazilianStates. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days, an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1,which is 8.1% higher than that of the control cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1, upright growth, tolerance to lodging,and moderate resistance to anthracnose.

  12. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins in chilli, peanut and rice using silica based monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayoon, Wejdan Shakir; Saad, Bahruddin; Lee, Tien Ping; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2012-07-15

    A simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic with fluorescence detection method for the determination of the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in peanuts, rice and chilli was developed. The sample was extracted using acetonitrile:water (90:10, v/v%) and then purified by using ISOLUTE® multimode solid phase extraction. After the pre-column derivatisation, the analytes were separated within 3.7 min using Chromolith® performance RP-18e (100-4.6mm) monolithic column. To assess the possible effects of endogenous components in the food items, matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification and validation. The recoveries of aflatoxins that were spiked into food samples were 86.38-104.5% and RSDs were aflatoxins in peanut (9), rice (5) and chilli (10) samples. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis using triple quadruple analyser and operated in the multiple reaction monitoring modes on the contaminated samples was performed for confirmation. PMID:25683424

  13. Evaluation of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as biological control agents of Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood poses a significant risk to many food and ornamental crops in the Caribbean, Florida and Texas. We evaluated two species of phytoseiid mite as predators of S. dorsalis. In leaf disc assays, gravid females of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius s...

  14. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial behaviour evolution of non cooked pressed cheese paste while in refrigerated storage, made with red chilli powder, treated by heat or ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of different physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of a Tunisian manufactured cheese made of non cooked pressed cheese paste with red chilli powder treated by heat, was measured while in refrigerated storage and compared to the one treated by ionization (author)

  15. Morphological, Serological and Molecular Analyses of Anthracnose-Causing Agent on Banana Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the genus Colletotrichum, C. musae and C. gloeosporoides, occur as infecting species of banana. The study focused on examining the etiology of anthracnose on banana fruits sold on the domestic market. An isolate was obtained from a deseased banana fruit on PDA medium, forming a white colony with intensive and uniformed growth. It was not possible to identify the isolated fungus based on its morphological characteristics. Positive serological reaction in an ELISA test with monoclonal antibodies for C. acutatum indicated an antigen site for the used monoclonal antibodies. Positive reaction when C. gloeosporioides-specific primers were applied indicated a similarity in the ITS sequence ofthe fungus and the examined isolate from banana fruit. Although there are no available data in literature that C. gloeosporioides-specific CgInt primer can be used for amplification of the phylogenetically related C. musae, our results do not exclude that the isolate could be C. musae. The host plant, symptoms observed and colony characteristics of the fungus isolated from the banana fruit mostly correspond to C. musae. Based on morphological, antigenand gentic characteristics, the isolate from banana was determined as Colletotrichum sp., while species identification of the anthracnose-causing agent on banana requires additional analysis.

  16. Promoção do crescimento do feijoeiro e controle da antracnose por Trichoderma spp Plant growth promotion of common bean and anthracnose control by Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Aparecida de Souza Pedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de Trichoderma spp. em promover o crescimento de plantas de feijão e reduzir a severidade da antracnose do feijoeiro (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, bem como identificar os isolados mais eficientes. Sessenta isolados de Trichoderma spp. foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de promoção do crescimento nas plantas. Os sete isolados que mais se destacaram foram adicionados ao substrato de cultivo e avaliados quanto à redução na severidade da antracnose em plantas de feijão tratadas com conídios de C. lindemuthianum. Os mais eficientes no controle da doença foram identificados por sequenciamento de DNA. O isolado IB 28/07 foi avaliado nas concentrações 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2% (peso:volume, que reduziram a severidade da doença em 41,51, 55,15, 81,82 e 96,06%, respectivamente. Os isolados mais eficientes de Trichoderma spp. podem proporcionar aumentos superiores a 30% na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas e reduzir a severidade da doença entre 63 e 98%. Esses isolados foram identificados como pertencentes às espécies Trichoderma harzianum, T. strigosum e T. theobromicola.The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma spp. to promote growth of common bean plants and to reduce severity of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, as well as to identify the best performing isolates. Sixty Trichoderma spp. isolates were evaluated as to their capacity to promote growth in common bean. The seven isolates that stood out were added to the culture substrate and assessed for reduction in severity of anthracnose in bean plants treated with C. lindemuthianum conidia. The most efficient isolates in controlling the disease were identified by DNA sequencing. The IB 28/07 isolate was evaluated in the concentrations 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% (weight:volume, which reduced disease severity in 41.51, 55.15, 81.82, and 96.06%, respectively. The most efficient Trichoderma spp

  17. Yeast Biocontrol of a Fungal Plant Disease: A Model for Studying Organism Interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchaichaovivat, Arun; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2008-01-01

    An experiment on the action of the yeast, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", against a fungal plant disease is proposed for secondary students (Grade 11) to support their study of organism interrelationship. This biocontrol experiment serves as the basis for discussing relationships among three organisms (red chilli fruit, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae," and…

  18. Correlation between different markers for the assessment of red chilli pepper powders stability during shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Corradini, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Pungency and red colour of Capsicum powders deteriorate during processing and storage, resulting in a decrease in market value. Two varieties of pepper with different pungencies were monitored for capsaicinoids, colour and furosine. Aliquots were stored at room and at low temperature during one year. At low temperature all indicators were stable in both varieties, while at room temperature, redness and capsacinoids decreased significantly, while furosine increased. High correlation was found between those markers. The more pungent variety exhibited higher stability in terms of all parameters. Differences observed suggest a potential protective effect exerted by capsaicinoids on powder stability. The decrease in capsaicinoids and redness accompanied by furosine increase showed a linkage between those markers never reported before. Considering that capsaicinoids and furosine occurrence have strong impact on the nutritional profile, the findings of this work show relevant changes in the nutritional value of chilli pepper powder after storage. PMID:27045952

  19. “E SE COLOCAR PIMENTA?”: A CONSTRUÇÃO EMPREENDEDORA DA CHILLI BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, brands play greater role in companies’ market performance. The most common approach in the theory of brand management is strategic. However, many brands have become successful by adopting an “unconventional” logic, indicating an entrepreneurial brand building, guided mainly by intuition. We identified Chilli Beans as a brand that illustrates this phenomenon. The aim of the study was to identify the practices adopted by the brand’s entrepreneur to make it successful. To investigate it, we adopted narratology as a way to rebuild the brand’s history. Data were collected through narrative interviews and secondary data. The results reveal several aspects adopted in this process, which are comprehended under an entrepreneurial marketing perspective. Thus, the study contributes to the understanding of this phenomenon by drawing attention to some little investigated aspects in the marketing field: an entrepreneurial branding approach.

  20. Efficacy of Certain Insecticides on the Population of Chilli Bug, Elasmomia granulipes Ww. (Hemiptera - Coreidae in Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lukhoi Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Elasmomia granulipes Ww. has been found to be a serious pest on chillis - Capsicum annum L and C. frutesuns L in Manipur. Efficacy of seven insecticides against it, the application of Dimethoate (0.04 and Endosulfan (0.07 on the crop plant during 2011 and 2012 revealed more effective in minimizing the population of the insect pest. Further, it has been observed that the insecticides do not affect the bio-control agents. As a result of the treatment with these insecticides, the highest yield of crop had been recorded from the treated plot with Dimethoate (0.04 and Endosulfan (0.07 whereas Neem oil fresh and phosalone (0.04% affected insect population at minimum resulting less yield of crops.

  1. Anthracnose of lucky bamboo Dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus Colletotrichum dracaenophilum in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed A.; Elshahawy, Ibrahim E.

    2016-01-01

    Dracaena sanderiana, of the family Liliaceae, is among the ornamental plants most frequently imported into Egypt. Typical anthracnose symptoms were observed on the stems of imported D. sanderiana samples. The pathogen was isolated, demonstrated to be pathogenic based on Koch’s rule and identified as Colletotrichum dracaenophilum. The optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 25 to 30 °C, maintained for 8 days. Kemazed 50% wettable powder (WP) was the most effective fungicide against the pathogen, as no fungal growth was observed over 100 ppm. The biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride followed by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus caused the highest reduction in fungal growth. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first time that this pathogen was observed on D. sanderiana in Egypt.

  2. Dionísio Usa Chilli Beans? – Análise Mitológica da Publicidade da “Marca da Pimenta”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildembergue Leite de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With a growing emphasis on the symbolic dimension of consumption, brands have started to act as channels of self-expression and transformation of culture and society, while producing and reproducing myths. One of the major mechanisms used for this purpose is advertising. Chilli Beans can be presented as a brand that adopts this premise. Therefore, this research was guided by the following question: How do myths reproduced in Chilli Beans’s advertising function to give the brand meaning? To this purpose, we used Barthesian Semiology to analyze print advertising developed by the brand along its history. Results reveal a reproduction of twelve myths that sustain the metanarrative that gives meaning to the brand: hedonism.

  3. Atividade de peroxidase e polifenoloxidase na resistência do feijão à antracnose Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity in bean anthracnose resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Diniz Campos

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das enzimas peroxidase e polifenoloxidase na resistência à antracnose de quatro cultivares de feijão. Plântulas de feijão foram pulverizadas com ácido salicílico e com a raça delta de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (fungo indutor e submetidas à inoculação do patótipo virulento 33/95 de C. lindemuthianum três dias após a aplicação do fungo indutor e do ácido salicílico. Essas plantas foram avaliadas quanto à atividade enzimática e teores de fenóis, três dias após a aplicação do fungo indutor e cinco dias após a inoculação do patótipo virulento. Acréscimos nas atividades dessas enzimas foram maiores nos tratamentos com ácido salicílico e fungo indutor em todas as cultivares. Maiores estímulos nas atividades enzimáticas foram observados nas cultivares com maior resistência à doença. Constatou-se o aparecimento de uma isoperoxidase nos tratamentos com fungo indutor, ácido salicílico, após inoculação do patótipo virulento, e na testemunha, nas cultivares AB 136, Rio Tibagi e Macanudo. Houve correlação positiva entre as atividades da peroxidase e da polifenoloxidase, os teores de compostos fenólicos e a resistência à antracnose.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzymes in anthracnose resistance of four bean cultivars. Seedlings were sprinkled with salicylic acid and delta race of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (inducer fungus and after three days they were inoculated with 33/95 virulent pathotype of C. lindemuthianum. Enzyme activity and phenol levels were evaluated three days after inducer fungus application and five days after inoculation with virulent pathotype. Plants treated with salicylic acid and inducer fungus presented higher activity increases of both enzymes, in all cultivars. Higher impulses in enzymatic activity were observed in cultivars with higher disease resistance. One

  4. Coupling carbon nanotube film microextraction with desorption corona beam ionization for rapid analysis of Sudan dyes (I-IV) and Rhodamine B in chilli oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Huang, Yun-Qing; He, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-03-01

    A rapid analysis method by coupling carbon nanotube film (CNTF) microextraction with desorption corona beam ionization (DCBI) was developed for the determination of Sudan dyes (I-IV) and Rhodamine B in chilli oil samples. Typically, CNTF was immersed into the diluted solution of chilli oil for extraction, which was then placed directly under the visible plasma beam tip of the DCBI source for desorption and ionization. Under optimized conditions, five dyes were simultaneously determined using this method. Results showed that the analytes were enriched by the CNTF through the π-π interactions, and the proposed method could significantly improve the sensitivities of these compounds, compared to the direct analysis by DCBI-MS/MS. The method with a linear range of 0.08-12.8 μg g(-1) and good linear relationships (R(2) > 0.93) in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was developed. Satisfactory reproducibility was achieved. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 20.0%. The recoveries ranged from 80.0 to 110.0%, and the limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 1.4-21 ng g(-1). Finally, the feasibility of the method was further exhibited by the determination of five illegal dyes in chilli powder. These results demonstrate that the proposed method consumes less time and solvent than conventional HPLC-based methods and avoids the contamination of chromatographic column and ion source from non-volatile oil. With the help of a 72-well shaker, multiple samples could be treated simultaneously, which ensures high throughput for the entire pretreatment process. In conclusion, it provides a rapid and high-throughput approach for the determination of such illicit additions in chilli products. PMID:25619730

  5. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and...

  6. Application of Rhizobacteria for Plant Growth Promotion Effect and Biocontrol of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Yun Seok; Lee, Youn Su

    2012-01-01

    In vitro and greenhouse screening of seven rhizobacterial isolates, AB05, AB10, AB11, AB12, AB14, AB15 and AB17, was conducted to investigate the plant growth promoting activities and inhibition against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in pepper. According to identification based on 16S rDNA sequencing, the majority of the isolates are members of Bacillus and a single isolate belongs to the genus Paenibacillus. All seven bacterial isolates were capable of inhibiting C. acutatum t...

  7. RAPD analysis of genetic variability among Stylosanthes guianenesis accessions of resistant and susceptible to the stylo anthracnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Changshun; Zou Dongmei; Zhang Yizheng

    2005-01-01

    Stylosanthes guianenesis Sw. is an important tropical forage legume grown and utilized in the tropics and the subtropics of South China. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., is a major constraint to the extensive use of Stylosanthes. Forty-five accessions of S. guianensis were assessed with RAPD for genetic diversity and for resistance to anthracnose. RAPD analysis was performed using twenty primers screened from 200 arbitrary oligonucleotides, and a 71.5% level of polymorphism was found. The dendrogram obtained with unweighted pair group method of averages (UPGMA) based on the RAPD data showed genetic similarity from 50% to 94% among all stylo accessions, and fourteen clusters were defined at 66.5% genetic similarity. Two strains of C. gloeosporioides from stylo in China were used for anthracnose resistance screening. All plant accessions showed variation in the reaction to two strains and the correlation of resistance had a value of 0.904. Multiple correspondence analysis displayed a random distribution of the resistance or susceptibility response with respect to the genetic diversity measured by RAPD analysis except one group. Mean distance was also calculated to determine the diversity within clusters. From our results, the RAPD analysis is an effective and efficient technique of providing quantitative estimates of genetic similarity among stylo accessions.

  8. Screening of Marine Antagonistic Fungi and Their Control Efficiency on Downy Mildew and Anthracnose Diseases of Harvested Litchi Fruit%海洋真菌的筛选及其对离体荔枝果霜霉病和炭疽病的防效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兰兰; 黄曦; 李昆志; 陈丽梅; 黄庶识

    2011-01-01

    Sixty-four strains of marine-derived fungi were isolated from the sediment and seawater collected from mangrove forest in Beibu Bay in China. Eight strains were demonstrated to be inhibitive against mycelial growth of both Perono-phythora litchii and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Fermentation filtrate of the strains MF-3、MF-13、MF-15 and MF-16 had high inhibition activity against mycelial growth of P. Litchii by over 94% inhibitory rate, and the strains MF-3 and MF-16 could restrain mycelial growth of C. Gloeosporioides by over 70% . Fruit preservation experiments demonstrated that browning index of the Iichi fruit treated by the fermentation filtrate of the five strains MF-3, MF-6, MF-8, MF-13 and MF-95 was lower than that of CK, and the strain MF-9 was the best on prevention of fruit browning. When Iichi fruits were immersed in the fermentation filtrate of MF-6、MF-8 and MF-9, separately, for 1 d and then inoculated with P. Litchii, disease incidence was 68.3 %, 71.67% and 66.18%, respectively, after 3d, significantly lower than that of control (87.2% ) or dimethomorph treatment (84.2%) ( P < 0.05) . The onset of fruit putrefaction could be post-poned 1 d in comparison with CK. After 3 d of inoculation with C. Gloeosporioides, disease incidence could be reduced to 64.44% by MF-6 treatment, without significant difference from that of zineb (62.54%) or badistan (62.76% ) treatment. According to morphological and molecular characteristics, strain MF-3、MF-6、MF-8、MF-9 and MF-13 were identified as Eupenicillium brefeldianum, Penicilllium janthinellum, Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium oxalicum and As-pergillus clavalonanicus, respectively.%从广西北部湾红树林区的近海海底沉积物与海水样品中分离出64株海洋真菌,以荔枝霜疫霉菌Peronophythora litchii和荔枝炭疽病菌Colletotrichum gloeosporioides为拮抗对象,发现有8株菌株对病原菌菌丝生长有较强的抑制作用,其中菌株MF-3、MF-13、MF-15和MF-16的

  9. Changes in the Aggressiveness and Fecundity of Hot Pepper Anthracnose Pathogen (Colletotricum acutatum under Elevated CO₂ and Temperature over 100 Infection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Koo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We observed the changes in aggressiveness and fecundity of the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum on hot pepper, under the ambient and the twice-ambient treatments. Artificial infection was repeated over 100 cycles for ambient (25°C/400 ppm CO₂ and twice-ambient (30°C/700 ppm CO₂ growth chamber conditions, over 3 years. During repeated infection cycles (ICs on green-pepper fruits, the aggressiveness (incidence [% of diseased fruits among 20 inoculated fruits] and severity [lesion length in mm] of infection and fecundity (the average number of spores per five lesions of the pathogen were measured in each cycle and compared between the ambient and twice-ambient treatments, and also between the early (ICs 31–50 and late (ICs 81–100 generations. In summary, the pathogen’s aggressiveness and fecundity were significantly lower in the late generation. It is likely that aggressiveness and fecundity of C. acutatum may be reduced as global CO₂ and temperatures increase.

  10. Changes in the Aggressiveness and Fecundity of Hot Pepper Anthracnose Pathogen (Colletotricum acutatum) under Elevated CO2 and Temperature over 100 Infection Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Tae-Hoon; Hong, Sung-Jun; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2016-06-01

    We observed the changes in aggressiveness and fecundity of the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum on hot pepper, under the ambient and the twice-ambient treatments. Artificial infection was repeated over 100 cycles for ambient (25°C/400 ppm CO2) and twice-ambient (30°C/700 ppm CO2) growth chamber conditions, over 3 years. During repeated infection cycles (ICs) on green-pepper fruits, the aggressiveness (incidence [% of diseased fruits among 20 inoculated fruits] and severity [lesion length in mm] of infection) and fecundity (the average number of spores per five lesions) of the pathogen were measured in each cycle and compared between the ambient and twice-ambient treatments, and also between the early (ICs 31-50) and late (ICs 81-100) generations. In summary, the pathogen's aggressiveness and fecundity were significantly lower in the late generation. It is likely that aggressiveness and fecundity of C. acutatum may be reduced as global CO2 and temperatures increase. PMID:27298601

  11. Assessment of genetic diversity and anthracnose disease response among Zimbabwe sorghum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a Zimbabwe sorghum collection of 1,235 accessions from different provinces. This germplasm has not been extensively employed in U.S. breeding programs due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic characterization. Therefore, 68 accessions from th...

  12. Effect of fungicides and alternative products in control of anthracnose and black spot of guavaEfeito de fungicidas e produtos alternativos no controle da antracnose e da pinta preta da goiaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides in controlling in vitro and in vivo the causal agents of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum and black spot (Guignardia psidii and evaluate the effect of alternative products to control these diseases. Inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogens was evaluated for ten fungicides at concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 mg L-1 of active ingredient in potato-dextrose-agar medium. The effectiveness of the fungicides azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, cyproconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin in controlling disease incidence and severity of anthracnose, through applications in the field, was measured in fruits collected at three stages of maturation, according to the skin color (dark green, light green and yellowish green. In postharvest dipping of fruits, the products evaluated were citric acid, peracetic acid, salicylic acid, sodium bicarbonate, chlorine dioxide, Ecolife® and chitosan. The fungicides azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole were highly effective in inhibiting the in vitro mycelial growth of G. psidii and moderately to highly effective in inhibiting C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. In field conditions, the fungicide azoxystrobin + difenoconazole was effective in controlling anthracnose and black spot in fruit at three maturity stage (skin color yellowish green. The alternative products tested were ineffective in the curative control of anthracnose and early blight at postharvest of guava. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência de fungicidas no controle in vitro e in vivo dos agentes causais da antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e C. acutatum e da pinta preta (Guignardia psidii da goiaba e avaliar o efeito de produtos alternativos no controle pós-colheita destas doenças. A inibição do crescimento micelial dos patógenos foi avaliada para

  13. Application of biotechnology and mutation techniques for anthracnose resistance and compactness in Dioscorea sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High quality yam corms (Dioscorea alata), clone 5969, were collected so they would germinate in a greenhouse to obtain nodal segments to be tested in vitro. For regeneration, the medium used Murashige and Skoog, modified with Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and activated charcoal. LD-50 was determined to be between 10 and 20 Gy, and one hundred explants were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy and were multiplied up to M1V6. Then, three different acclimatization tests were carried out. Throughout these tests, attention was focused on survival, number of leaves, and initial and final height. Meanwhile, leaves infected with anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloesporioides) were collected. The fungus was isolated, and acervulum and mycelium were produced to obtain conidia. Later, single spore cultures underwent a molecular analysis. The acclimated and irradiated plants were inoculated with 0.5x106/ml of Colletotrichum gloesporioides conidia. These plants were placed within a humid chamber for 48 hours, and survival and the percentage of damaged plants were observed for two months. (author)

  14. Controle Químico de Antracnose em Mudas de Pupunheira em Viveiro Chemical Control of Anthracnose on Peach Palm Transplants in Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudimar Mafacioli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A antracnose, causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum loeosporioides, é a principal doença da parte aérea da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes var gasipaes em viveiros de mudas no Centro-Sul do Brasil. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de novas formulações de fungicidas no controle de antracnose em mudas de pupunheira, na fase de viveiro. O ensaio foi conduzido no período de abril a agosto de 2006, com o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos com fungicidas e uma testemunha sem fungicida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por dez mudas. Foram avaliados os seguintes fungicidas através de pulverização da parte aérea: piraclostrobina+epoxiconazole (0,13 + 0,05 g.L-1, tetraconazole (0,1 g.L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g.L-1, chlorotalonil (2 g.L-1 e chlorotalonil+tiofanato metílico(1 + 0,4 g.L-1. A severidade (percentagem da área foliar doente a doença foi avaliada quinze dias após a sétima aplicação (última. Verificou-se que todos os tratamentos com fungicidas proporcionaram redução estatisticamente significativa na intensidade da doença em relação à testemunha sem fungicida (P £ 0,05. Os tratamentos com os diferentes fungicidas não diferiram significativamente entre si. Os fungicidas avaliados proporcionaram índice de controle da doença de 68 % a 78 %.  
    Leaf anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum loeosporioides, is the most important disease of peach palm plants (Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes in nurseries in the Central and Southern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of some new formulations of fungicides for controlling anthracnose transplants in orchards. An assay with randomized block design was carried out, with five different fungicides and a control, with four replicates. Each replicated had 10 plants. The fungicides evaluated were: piraclostrobin + epoxiconazole

  15. Treatment efficacy with ultraviolet light on the development of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and mango postharvest quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laboratorio de Tecnologia Poscosecha and the Laboratorio de Microbiologia Agricola of the Centro de Investigaciones Agronomicas, of the Universidad de Costa Rica have initiated an mango investigation Tommy Atkins with export quality. The first trial has involved in the exposure of the fruit from the Liberia and Guanacaste area, to UV-C light at different times: 0,5,10,15,20 minutes doses corresponding to 0 kJ/m2-3,28 kJ/m2-6,57 kJ/m2-9,86 kJ/m2-13,15 kJ/m2. For the generation of radiation has been used a lamp 30-watts General Electric G30T8 (253,7 nm), at a distance of 15 cm above the surface of the fruit. The prochloraz fungicide commercial treatment is included (1mL/L), more hot water at 53 degrees Celsius and immersion for 3 minutes. The fruit has stored in a cold chamber at a temperature of 13 degrees Celsius ± 1 degree Celsius and a humidity of 85% for two weeks.The mango is then passed to an ambient temperature (20-22 degrees Celsius). For the second test has used mangoes of the Atenas area; the same processes are applied but with two best treatments (associated with the least damage of darkening of the skin on) observed in the first trial (5 to 10 minutes of exposure to UV-C light) in combination with wax. The evaluations and comparisons of the 2 trials were analyzed, looking at the incidence and severity of anthracnose, weight loss variables, external and internal color, Brix, acidity, firmness, incidence of damage on the shell caused by exposure to radiation and application of treatments

  16. Study on Inhibitory Effect of Green Banana Fruit Extract on the Anthracnose from Three Tropical Fruits%青香蕉提取物对三种热带水果炭疽病菌抑制效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    extract from dry sample, the water extract from pericarp had no obvious inhibiting effect on banana anthracnose, the heat water treatment could enhance the inhibition effects of cold or hot water extract from pericarp on mango and papaya anthracnose. The water extract from pulp only showed little inhibiting effect on three kinds of fruit anthracnose;however, the heat water treatment could enhance the inhibition effects of cold or hot water extract from pulp on the three kinds of fruit anthracnose, and the best suppression effect was found in banana anthracnose. After cold treatment to banana fruit, only hot water extract showed inhibiting effect on these anthracnose germination. The results of MIC test showed that, the MIC of hot water extract from green banana fresh sample on three kinds of anthracnose was 10%. These results were great help to make further understanding of the systematic resistance to disease for banana fruit and had the theoretical and practical significance to extend the theory of biological control of postharvest fruits and vegetables.

  17. Advances on Biologically Controling Pepper Anthracnose%辣椒炭疽病生物防治技术的研究与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋桂芳; 宋力

    2014-01-01

    The pepper anthracnose is harmful to the development of pepper industry and mainly causes large number of pep-per deciduous leaves, rotten fruit, seedling death, affects the yield and quality of pepper. The control of the different types of antagonistic microorganisms for pepper anthracnose, the technology of inducing pepper resistance, the application of plant fungicide,and biological control of pepper anthracnose at home and abroad were reviewed. The prospects of the biological control of pepper anthracnose were proposed.%辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)炭疽病是危害辣椒产业发展的病害之一,主要影响辣椒生长,引起烂果、幼苗死亡等,导致辣椒减产。分析了不同种类拮抗微生物对辣椒炭疽病的防治,辣椒抗性诱导技术,植物源杀菌剂提取与应用,以及目前国内外辣椒炭疽病生物防治技术的研究现状,并就辣椒炭疽病生物防治技术前景进行了展望。

  18. Identification of SCAR markers linked to Rca 2 anthracnose resistance gene and their assessment in strawberry germ plasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerceteau-Köhler, E; Guérin, G; Denoyes-Rothan, B

    2005-09-01

    Bulked segregant analysis combined with AFLPs was used to identify molecular markers linked to the Rca 2 gene conferring resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum pathogenicity group 2 which causes anthracnose in the octoploid strawberry Fragaria x ananassa. DNA bulks originating from a cross between the resistant cultivar 'Capitola' and the susceptible cultivar 'Pajaro' were screened with 110 EcoRI/M se IAFLP combinations. Four AFLP markers were found linked in coupling phase to Rca 2 with recombination percentages between 0% and 17.7%. Among the four markers linked to the resistance gene, two were converted into SCAR markers (STS-Rca 2417 and STS-Rca 2240) and screened in a large segregating population including 179 genotypes. The Rca 2 resistance gene was estimated to be 0.6 cM from STS-Rca 2417 and 2.8 cM from STS-Rca 2240. The presence/absence of the two SCAR markers was further studied in 43 cultivars of F. x ananassa, including 14 susceptible, 28 resistant, and one intermediate genotype. Results showed that 81.4% and 62.8% of the resistant/susceptible genotypes were correctly predicted by using STS-Rca 2417 and STS-Rca 2240, respectively. The 14 susceptible genotypes showed no amplification for either SCARs. These developed SCARs constitute new tools for indirect selection criteria of anthracnose resistance genotypes in strawberry breeding programs. PMID:16003555

  19. 武汉梅花炭疽病病菌的多样性研究%Diversity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Causing Anthracnose on Plum Trees in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕锐玲; 付艳苹; 谢甲涛; 程家森; 姜道宏

    2011-01-01

    炭疽病是梅花(Prunus mume)栽培中的重要病害,对梅花的栽培构成严重威胁.本研究从武汉发病的梅花叶片样品上分离、获得了170个炭疽病菌菌株,它们在形态特征、致病性、分子遗传水平等方面都表现出较大的差异.按菌落形态、色素分泌、拟菌核产生、分生孢子及孢子梗形态和大小等形态特征将梅树炭疽病菌分为7种类型,其中Ⅵ型和Ⅶ型菌株在PDA培养基上可以连续产生大量的有性后代.7种类型的菌株只能侵染梅花、樱树、梨树、苹果、桃树、杏树等蔷薇科园艺植物,并且存在着明显的致病力分化,但不侵染吉祥草、柑桔、大叶黄杨、豇豆、紫荆、高粱等供试的其它科植物.依据致病力可将梅树炭疽病菌分为强、中、弱3类.ITS序列表明它们均属于胶孢炭疽(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).对其中7种类型36个梅树炭疽病菌菌株的进行了RAPD聚类分析,在55%相似水平上,供试菌株可以分为3组,所聚类群与形态学类型和致病力分化所形成的强、中、弱3类没有明显的相关性.表明梅花炭疽病菌菌株间存在丰富的遗传多样性.%Wuhan is the global research and resource center of the plum( Prunus nume). Anthracnose is an important plant disease of the plum. In this study, 170 fungal isolates were isolated from plum leaves showing anthracnose symptoms collected from Wuhan, Hubei Province.The isolates were classified into seven types based on colony morphology, pigment production, morphology and size of spore conidia and conidiophore. Isolates of all types could infect Rosaceae fruit trees, but could not infect plant species belonging to other tested families. Pathogenicity differed among the isolates on different species of fruit trees in the family Rosaceae.Isolates of all types were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on ITS sequence,although there was great diversity on biological characteristics and

  20. Utilização do extrato aquoso de cinamomo no controle da antracnose da videira Use of aqueous extract of chinaberry to control grapevine anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mendes da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do extrato aquoso de cinamomo (Melia azedarach L. sobre Elsinoe ampelina, agente etiológico da antracnose da videira, e no controle da doença. Para os experimentos de crescimento micelial, esporulação e geminação de conídios do fungo foram utilizadas as concentrações de 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 mL L-1 de extrato, além dos tratamentos padrões com calda bordalesa e mancozebe. Em condições de campo, um experimento foi conduzido em vinhedo comercial por dois ciclos consecutivos (2009/2010, 2010/2011, no qual se avaliaram concentrações crescentes de extrato, acrescidos de óleo vegetal (2,5 mL L-1, além de uma testemunha absoluta (sem tratamento e do tratamento padrão com calda bordalesa. A partir de 20 mL L-1 de extrato, houve total inibição da esporulação. Enquanto que a concentração de 50 mL L-1 diminuiu em 99,4% o diâmetro da colônia do fitopatógeno, não diferindo do tratamento com calda bordalesa, além de reduzir a germinação de conídios em 84,8 e 90,8% em relação à testemunha, 12 e 24 horas após incubação. No primeiro ano do experimento de campo, houve efeito linear negativo das concentrações do extrato sobre a severidade da antracnose. No entanto, no segundo ano, o uso de óleo vegetal como adjuvante mascarou o efeito do extrato. A aplicação isolada de óleo vegetal reduziu em 64,0% a AACPD, similar aos resultados obtidos com todas as concentrações de extrato de cinamomo e com o tratamento padrão com calda bordalesa.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of chinaberry (Melia azedarach L. on Elsinoe ampelina, the etiological agent of grapevine anthracnose, and on the disease control. For the trials of mycelial growth, sporulation and conidium germination, the concentrations 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mL L-1 extract were used, besides standard treatments with bordeaux mixture and mancozeb. Under field conditions, an experiment was

  1. Life Cycle of Gall Midge on Red Chilli in West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munzir Busniah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the life cycle of the gall midge (Asphondylia capsici Barnes (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae has been performed in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The experiment was conducted in laboratory experiments carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Pest Disease, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Andalas Padang, from January to June 2012. The objective was to study the life cycle of the gall midge in pepper. Gall midge egg white, elongated round, length 0,69 and width 0,35 mm. Early instar larvae rounded elongated, transparent color and a whitish or yellowish white. Instar larva up getting flattened by the color yellow to brownish yellow. The larvae live in the chilies. Pupa brown to blackish brown, 3.0 mm long and 2.3 mm wide, located in the chilies. Pradewasa stage lasted 22 days. Imago brown or blackish brown. Imago body length of males and females is almost the same, at 2.8 mm, but the body of the female imago fatter than the males. Imago males live longer (35 hours compared with female imago (32 hours. Imago female fecundity is 124 eggs. The life cycle of gall midge on pepper plants 25 days.

  2. Whole genome sequence and genome annotation of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of anthracnose in pepper plants in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum acutatum is a destructive fungal pathogen which causes anthracnose in a wide range of crops. Here we report the whole genome sequence and annotation of C. acutatum strain KC05, isolated from an infected pepper in Kangwon, South Korea. Genomic DNA from the KC05 strain was used for the whole genome sequencing using a PacBio sequencer and the MiSeq system. The KC05 genome was determined to be 52,190,760 bp in size with a G + C content of 51.73% in 27 scaffolds and to contain 13,559 genes with an average length of 1516 bp. Gene prediction and annotation were performed by incorporating RNA-Seq data. The genome sequence of the KC05 was deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number LUXP00000000.

  3. Whole genome sequence and genome annotation of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of anthracnose in pepper plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Hee; Chon, Jae-Kyung; Ahn, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Ik-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2016-06-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is a destructive fungal pathogen which causes anthracnose in a wide range of crops. Here we report the whole genome sequence and annotation of C. acutatum strain KC05, isolated from an infected pepper in Kangwon, South Korea. Genomic DNA from the KC05 strain was used for the whole genome sequencing using a PacBio sequencer and the MiSeq system. The KC05 genome was determined to be 52,190,760 bp in size with a G + C content of 51.73% in 27 scaffolds and to contain 13,559 genes with an average length of 1516 bp. Gene prediction and annotation were performed by incorporating RNA-Seq data. The genome sequence of the KC05 was deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number LUXP00000000. PMID:27114908

  4. CONTRIBUTION TO THE PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND CHEMICAL TESTS OF THE EXTRACTS OF Citrus limonium (LEMON and Capsicum frutescens L. (CHILLI PEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiza Cristina Carlos Freire

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural medicine has been used by man since time immemorial, and this use has grown considerably in recent times. Thus, this study aims to make a comparator analysis regarding the phytochemical test, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extracts of the leaves in ethanol and their respective fractions of Citrus limonium (lemon and Capsicum frutescens L. (chilli pepper. To compare them was observed that ethanol extract of both plants showed the better antioxidant activity, Capsicum frutescens L. with 204.60 ppm and 99.07 ppm with Citrus limonium. With regard to the phenolic content of the hexane extract and lemon extract in ethanol pepper were those that showed a higher content. Overall, it was noted that Citrus limonium excelled both in relation to their antioxidant activity and the phenolic content.

  5. Chilly Ties Persist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sino-Japanese relations seem unlikely to improve under the leadership of Shinzo Abe The deteriorating state of relations between China and Japan may persist under the government of Shinzo Abe, who won the presidential election of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) on September 20 and was

  6. Chilly Trade Winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Traders brave the ill effects of the global economic crisis in one of China’s largest export centers Hongye Cartons Packing Salesroom in Yiwu sells carton packages just across the street from Yiwu International Trade City,a mam-

  7. Control of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum musae on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Using Antagonistic Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Supuk Mahadtanapuk; Mondhon Sanguansermsri; Robert W. Cutler; Vicha Sardsud; Somboon Anuntalabhochai

    2007-01-01

    Over 400 bacterial strains, isolated from leaf surfaces of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and hot springs in the Chiang Mai province of northern Thailand, were screened in vitro for antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum musae, an anthracnose fungus. Three isolates provided greater than 75% growth inhibition of the fungus in vitro and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis. Using in planta tests, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis were shown to ...

  8. Linkage mapping of the Phg-1 and Co-1(4) genes for resistance to angular leaf spot and anthracnose in the common bean cultivar AND 277.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Anelise S; Garcia, Alexandre; Kami, J; Vidigal Filho, Pedro S; Sousa, Lorenna L; McClean, P; Gepts, P; Pastor-Corrales, M A

    2011-03-01

    The Andean common bean AND 277 has the Co-1(4) and the Phg-1 alleles that confer resistance to 21 and eight races, respectively, of the anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) pathogens. Because of its broad resistance spectrum, Co-1(4) is one of the main genes used in ANT resistance breeding. Additionally, Phg-1 is used for resistance to ALS. In this study, we elucidate the inheritance of the resistance of AND 277 to both pathogens using F(2) populations from the AND 277 × Rudá and AND 277 × Ouro Negro crosses and F(2:3) families from the AND 277 × Ouro Negro cross. Rudá and Ouro Negro are susceptible to all of the above races of both pathogens. Co-segregation analysis revealed that a single dominant gene in AND 277 confers resistance to races 65, 73, and 2047 of the ANT and to race 63-23 of the ALS pathogens. Co-1(4) and Phg-1 are tightly linked (0.0 cM) on linkage group Pv01. Through synteny mapping between common bean and soybean we also identified two new molecular markers, CV542014(450) and TGA1.1(570), tagging the Co-1(4) and Phg-1 loci. These markers are linked at 0.7 and 1.3 cM, respectively, from the Co-1(4) /Phg-1 locus in coupling phase. The analysis of allele segregation in the BAT 93/Jalo EEP558 and California Dark Red Kidney/Yolano recombinant populations revealed that CV542014(450) and TGA1.1(570) segregated in the expected 1:1 ratio. Due to the physical linkage in cis configuration, Co-1(4) and Phg-1 are inherited together and can be monitored indirectly with the CV542014(450) and TGA1.1(570) markers. These results illustrate the rapid discovery of new markers through synteny mapping. These markers will reduce the time and costs associated with the pyramiding of these two disease resistance genes. PMID:21113774

  9. Induced mutations for disease resistance in Stylosanthes guyanensis (Aubl.) Sw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stylosanthes Sw. is a genus that originated in Central and South America and now can be found virtually throughout the tropics and, to a lesser extent, in the subtropics. Owing to its hardiness, Stylosanthes is very promising for use as a pasture plant for growing in very poor soils characterized by Al3+ saturation of 60%. Several species of this genus, including S. guyanensis, have their potential limited by the incidence of anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Efforts based on natural resistance were not very promising and so research work was begun using induced mutations to obtain sources of resistance. Radiosensitivity determination was carried out on the basis of lethal dose 50 (38 kR) and growth rate 35 (48.5 kR). Paternal seeds were treated and sown in the field in lines of individual plants. The M1 generation was harvested using the bulk method in August 1984 and was taken to the field in December 1984. Seeds treated at 48.5 kR were sown in January 1984. The M2 generation, treated at 38 kR, was set under conditions of high natural anthracnose incidence. The M1 generation, treated at 48.5 kR, was replanted in January 1986. Irradiation treatments since 1984 indicated the presence of two atypic individuals. It seems that treatment at 48.5 kR affected seed production, reducing the yield. Under natural conditions, anthracnose incidence was very light until now. However, another year will be necessary to completely evaluate the effect of treatments on disease occurrence. Artificial inoculation with a very high concentration of spores will yield evidence of individuals which have acquired resistance to anthracnose through induced mutations. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  10. Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fernandes de Abreu

    2008-02-01

    collected, identified, dried into an oven at 50ºC for 48 h, ground to powder and their compounds extracted with ethanol. Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The 19 extracts were shared into two independent groups for screening and comparison in a completely randomized design, with five replications (pot with 3 plants. Plants at the first trifoliolate leaf stage were sprayed with extracts at concentration of 50 mg dry weight/mL. To assess the local effect, plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.2 x 10(6 conidia/mL 4 h after the treatment, whereas to study the residual and systemic effects, inoculation was performed after 7 days. Disease severity was evaluated 7 days after inoculation (dai on either whole plants or the non-treated leaf (systemic effect, using a scale from 1 to 9. Seaweeds and plants which significantly reduced anthracnose were compared in a follow-up experiment evaluated at both 7 and 12 dai. The extract of Bryothamnion seaforthii revealed local effect reducing the anthracnose severity by 35%. Ulva fasciata extract showed residual effect reducing the anthracnose at 12 dai by 22%. Compared to control, only extracts of Lemna sp. and U. fasciata systemically reduced the disease severity at 7 dai by 55 e 44%, respectively. The possible mode of action of these extracts is discussed.

  11. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-09-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively. PMID:25289014

  12. Efficacy of ginger oil and extract combined with gum arabic on anthracnose and quality of papaya fruit during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asgar; Hei, Goh Kar; Keat, Yeoh Wei

    2016-03-01

    Effect of 2.0 % ginger oil (GO) and 1.5 % ginger extract (GE) in combination with 10.0 % gum arabic (GA) was evaluated for the postharvest control of anthracnose and maintaining quality of Eksotika II papaya fruit during storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 80-85 % RH. Antifungal compounds present in GO and GE were analyzed using gas chromatography and GO was found to contain α-pinene, 1, 8-cineole and borneol, while only borneol was present in GE due to different extraction methods applied. The highest antifungal activity was shown in 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA, which significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited spore germination by 93 %. Based on the physicochemical properties tested, 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA significantly delayed the ripening of papaya. These results show that 10.0 % GA combined with 2.0 % GO is an effective postharvest biofungicide for papaya. PMID:27570268

  13. Extrato de alho no controle in vitro e in vivo da antracnose da videira Garlic extract in the in vitro and in vivo control of anthracnose of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Leite

    2012-01-01

    was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the crude extract of garlic in controlling anthracnose of grapevine (Elsinoe ampelina. In the first experiment in vitro, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 mL L-1 crude extract of garlic were added to potato-dextrose-agar medium (PDA before autoclaving for sterilization and to melting media. After 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of incubation at 24 ± 2ºC and photoperiod of 16 hours, the mycelial growth of E. ampelina was measured. In the second experiment in vitro, we repeated the methodology of adding the extract to the melting medium plus 2.5 mL-1 of vegetable oil and an absolute control with PDA only. After two and four hours of incubation at 24ºC and constant light, germination of E. ampelina was assessed. The experimental design for in vitro experiments was completely randomized with four replicates and the experimental plot consisted of a Petri dish. In the field experiment, after pruning of the grapevine cv. Isabel, the levels of crude extract of garlic plus oil were weekly sprayed on the leaves of the plant, except on the absolute control (no treatment. From the first symptoms of anthracnose of grapevine, the severity that was expressed as area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was evaluated. The design was in randomized blocks with five replicates. The crude extract of garlic reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen, especially when added to the culture medium prior to sterilization, when it expressed its maximal antifungal potential. When the vegetable oil was added to the extract levels, there was complete inhibition at the levels 25 or 30 mL L-1. This additive effect of these compounds was also noted for the germination test of E. ampelina. Under field conditions, the crude extract of garlic reduced the AUDPC by 83.59% at 25 mL L-1.

  14. Simultaneous determination of 14 oil-soluble synthetic dyes in chilli products by high performance liquid chromatography with a gel permeation chromatography clean-up procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghong; Zhao, Bo; Xiao, Ruiqi; Yun, Wen; Xiao, Zhaojing; Tu, Dawei; Chen, Shiqi

    2014-02-15

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 14 fat-soluble dyes in chilli products. The samples were extracted with hexane/acetone. The cleanup was performed with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) cleanup system. A HPLC separation was performed using variable wavelength detector and a gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid and methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as the mobile phases. Good linearity (R² ≥ 0.995) was observed between 0.1 and 5.0 μg/mL. Detection limits of the investigated dyes, which were evaluated at signal to noise ratio of 3, were in the ranges of 11-71 μg/kg. The recoveries of the 14 synthetic colourants in three matrices ranged from 73.4% to 103.5%. Relative standard deviations ranged from 3.7% to 12.3%. The method has been successfully used for the determination of banned dyes in real samples. PMID:24128569

  15. EFFECT OF PLANTING MEDIA (RICE HUSK AND COCO PEAT ON THE UPTAKE OF CADMIUM AND SOME MICRONUTRIENTS IN CHILLI (CAPSICUM ANNUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. Alzrog

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecological effects of heavy metals or trace elements in soils are closely related to their contents and speciation in the soil. They play a significant role in the metabolic pathways throughout the growth and development of plants when presented in required concentration. In this study the effect of rice husk and coco peat media on the cadmium uptake by chilli plant (Capsicum annuum L was investigated. The experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design (RBD comprising of three replications. Various concentrations of Cd were dosed to the media once after one week of transplantation. All the required agricultural practices were applied uniformly until harvesting. Cd accumulation in roots, shoots and fruits were analyzed during vegetative, flowering and maturity stages, using atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS. Results showed that both planting media exhibited higher accumulation of Cd in roots and shoots at the vegetative stage. The accumulated amount was found significantly dependent on the Cd dose injected to the media. Consequently, micronutrients contents and plant growth were also affected. The accumulated Cd in fruits was found slightly less in rice husk than coco peat media and above the prescribed safety limits recommended by FAO and WHO. Rice husk has higher impact on the microneutrients absorption than coco peat media. In this study, root length, plant hight, dry weight and fruits showed small differences among growing media.

  16. 草莓抗炭疽病遗传图谱及其QTL初分析%GENETIC MAPPING AND PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR ANTHRACNOSE RESISTANCE IN STRAWBERRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 高志红; 段可; 刘建成; 叶正文; 高清华

    2012-01-01

    Strawberry anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum species, is the major production constraint in rangtze River valley with humid summer and autumn. Normally, control of the disease relies on frequent and regular fungicide applications. Modern strawberry breeding programs including the use of molecular markers, makes it possible to combine several different resistance genes. A genetic map is necessary for the reliable detection, mapping and estimation of gene effects of anthracnose resistance of strawberry genome. In this study, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were used to assay an F2 population from a cross between Hokowase ( Fragaria x ananassa Duchase) and Sweet Charlie (Fragaria x ananassa Duehase). 210 F2 plants were used for map construction using 109 SSRs and 34 AFLPs, including 6 strawberry probes which correspond to the known genes. This map consisted of 143 markers distributed in seven linkage groups, covering 451.8cM with an average distance of 3.4cM between two adjacent markers and only three gaps of 〉5cM were found. The linkage map was located on 3 linkage groups, i.e. LG3, LG5 and LG6. Based on composite interval mapping, two QTLs were identified for c. acutatum resistance i. e. on LG3, LG5, explaining 31.6% of the resistance disease variance. One QTLs was identified for C. gloeosporioidesresistance on LG6, explaining 68.4% of the resistance disease variance.%为获得与草莓炭疽病密切相关的分子标记,需构建高密度与抗病相关的遗传连锁图,本研究以易感草莓炭疽病品种宝交早生(Hokowase)与高抗草莓炭疽病品种甜查理(SweetCharlie)杂交的210个F2代群体材料为作图群体,构建了包含34个AFLP标记和109个SSR标记的分子遗传图谱,并对抗草莓炭疽病相关因素进行了QTL分析。该图谱共包括7个连锁群和133个遗传标记,平均每个连锁群有19个遗传标记。遗

  17. Linkage mapping of the Phg-1 and Co-1 4 genes for resistance to angular leaf spot and anthracnose in the common bean cultivar AND 277

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Anelise S.; Garcia, Alexandre; Kami, J.; Pedro S. Vidigal Filho; Sousa, Lorenna L.; McClean, P.; Gepts, P.; Pastor-Corrales, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Andean common bean AND 277 has the Co-1 4 and the Phg-1 alleles that confer resistance to 21 and eight races, respectively, of the anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) pathogens. Because of its broad resistance spectrum, Co-1 4 is one of the main genes used in ANT resistance breeding. Additionally, Phg-1 is used for resistance to ALS. In this study, we elucidate the inheritance of the resistance of AND 277 to both pathogens using F2 populations from the AND 277 × Rudá and AND 277...

  18. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 270 C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 300 C under 12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs

  19. Biocontrol of Strawberry Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fragariae%草莓炭疽病的生物防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉沐祥; 杨敬辉; 吴祥; 肖婷; 姚克兵; 庄义庆

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究草莓炭疽病(Colletotrichum fragariae)的生物防治方法。[方法]采用菌丝生长抑制法测定枯草芽孢杆菌( Bacillus subtilis)(BS)和蛇床子素(SC)对草莓炭疽病菌的室内抑菌活性,并进行田间防治试验。[结果]室内测定结果表明,BS和 SC对草莓炭疽病菌菌丝生长都有极强的抑菌活性,其 EC50值分别为0.0075和1.0630 ml/L。田间防治结果显示,无论在避雨或露天条件下,BS(用量600~750 g/hm2)和25%咪鲜胺 EC (用量600 ml/hm2),在防治3次后7和14天的防治效果均达76%以上,但两药剂与SC(用量1800~2700 ml/hm2)的田间防治效果间有极显著差异(P<0.01)。[结论]枯草芽孢杆菌可以用于草莓炭疽病的防控。%[Objective] The aim was to explore biocontrol approaches of strawberry an-thracnose. [Method] With hyphal growth inhibition method, bacteriostatic activities of Bacil us subtilis and Osthole on strawberry anthracnose were measured and field test was carried out. [Result] The results show that both of Bacil us subtilis and Osthole were of higher bacteriostatic activity on strawberry anthracnose, and the values of EC50 were 0.007 5 mg/L and 1.063 0 ml/L, respectively. The result of field test show that the prevention effects of Bacil us subtilis (600-750 g/hm2) and 25% prochloraz (600 ml/hm2) both achieved higher than 76%, 7 and 14 d after triple medical applica-tions with rains sheltered or in open field. But the effects were of extremely signifi-cant differences with that of Osthole (1 800-2 700 ml/hm2) (P<0.01). [Conclusion] Bacil us subtilis can be made use of for control ing strawberry anthracnose.

  20. Avaliação de Fungicidas para o Controle de Antracnose em Folhas de Pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Evaluation of Fungicides for Controlling Anthracnose on Leaves of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauri José Tessmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A antracnose, causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, é uma doença foliar importante da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes nas fases de muda e planta jovem. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de fungicidas químicos no controle de antracnose em folhas de pupunheiras jovens, no Noroeste do Paraná. O ensaio foi conduzido com o delineamento experimental  em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos com fungicidas e uma testemunha  sem fungicida, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados os fungicidas chlorotalonil (2 g L-1, chlorotalonil+tiofanato metílico (1 + 0,4 g L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g L-1, azoxistrobina (80 mg L-1 e calda Viçosa (3 g L-1 de ácido bórico; 5 g L-  de sulfato de cobre; 6 g L-1 de sulfato de zinco; 3,5 g L-1 de cal hidratada. Cada fungicida foi pulverizado cinco vezes, com intervalo de 15 a 20 dias entre as aplicações. Verificou-se que todos os tratamentos com fungicidas proporcionaram redução estatisticamente significativa na intensidade da doença em relação à testemunha sem fungicida (P=0,05. Os fungicidas mais eficientes no controle da doença foram chlorotalonil e a mistura de tiofanato metílico+chlorotalonil.  
    Leaf anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum loeosporioides, is the most important disease of seedlings and young peach palm plants (Bactris gasipaes. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of some fungicides for controlling anthracnose on leaves of young peach palm (Bactris gasipaes, in Northwestern Paraná State, Brazil. An assay with randomized block design was carried out, with five different fungicides and a control, with four replicates. The fungicide evaluated were: chlorotalonil (2 g L- , chlorotalonil+methyl tiophanate (1 + 0,4 g L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g L-1, azoxystrobin (80 mg L-1 and calda Viçosa (boric acid 3 g L-1; copper sulfate 5 g L-1; zinc sulfate 6 g L-1; hydrated lime

  1. Controle pós-colheita da antracnose da banana -prata anã tratada com fungicidas e mantida sob refrigeração Dwarf silver banana post-harvest anthracnose control with fungicides and under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Santos Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A antracnose é uma das principais doenças após a colheita da banana, causada pelas diferentes raças fisiológicas do fungo Colletotrichum musae, e que se manifesta na maioria das vezes na fruta madura, comprometendo a sua qualidade. Seu aparecimento está relacionado ao manuseio inadequado, ausência de controle químico em campo e de refrigeração. A aplicação de produtos químicos é efetuada durante o beneficiamento, sendo importante salientar que pode iniciar com a fruta ainda no campo. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o efeito de fungicidas utilizados após a colheita, visando o controle da antracnose em bananas, cultivar Prata Anã, armazenadas a 20ºC e 12ºC. Para isso, foi testada a ação dos fungicidas tiabendazol e imazalil no controle de Colletotrichum musae. No teste, foram empregados isolados das cultivares Prata Anã, FHIA 02 e ST 4208, inoculados em bananas-prata anã. As avaliações foram efetuadas a cada 3 dias, por meio de medições do tamanho das lesões (mm², sendo as frutas inoculadas descartadas no estádio de maturação 7 (amarelo com pontas marrom. Os tratamentos mais eficientes no controle da doença foram aqueles em que as bananas foram tratadas com o fungicida tiabendazol. No estudo, também foi verificada diferença em relação à patogenicidade dos isolados utilizados, que demonstraram especificidade quanto a cultivar.Anthracnose is one of the main post-harvest disease of the banana, caused by different physiological races of Colletotrichum musae. It manifests itself mostly in ripe fruits, threatening its quality. Its appearance is related to the inadequate handling, absence of chemical control in field, and cooling. Application of chemical products is usually done during the processing, but it is important to point out that it can be done while the fruit is still in the field. This work had as an objective to verify the effect post-harvest application of fungicides to control anthracnose in

  2. The application of laser microdissection to in planta gene expression profiling of the maize anthracnose stalk rot fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weihua; Coughlan, Sean; Crane, Edmund; Beatty, Mary; Duvick, Jon

    2006-11-01

    Laser microdissection (LM) offers a potential means for deep sampling of a fungal plant-pathogen transcriptome during the infection process using whole-genome DNA microarrays. The use of a fluorescent protein-expressing fungus can greatly facilitate the identification of fungal structures for LM sampling. However, fixation methods that preserve both tissue histology and protein fluorescence, and that also yield RNA of suitable quality for microarray applications, have not been reported. We developed a microwave-accelerated acetone fixation, paraffin-embedding method that fulfills these requirements and used it to prepare mature maize stalk tissues infected with an Anemonia majano cyan fluorescent protein-expressing isolate of the anthracnose stalk rot fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. We successfully used LM to isolate individual maize cells associated with C. graminicola hyphae at an early stage of infection. The LM-derived RNA, after two-round linear amplification, was of sufficient quality and quantity for global expression profiling using a fungal microarray. Comparing replicated LM samples representing an early stage of stalk cell infection with samples from in vitro-germinated conidia, we identified 437 and 370 C. graminicola genes showing significant up- or downregulation, respectively. We confirmed the differential expression of several representative transcripts by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and documented extensive overlap of this dataset with a PCR-subtraction library enriched for C. graminicola transcripts in planta. Our results demonstrate that LM is feasible for in planta pathogen expression profiling and can reveal clues about fungal genes involved in pathogenesis. The method in this report may be advantageous for visualizing a variety of cellular features that depend on a high degree of histochemical preservation and RNA integrity prior to LM. PMID:17073306

  3. Relação entre número de estegmata na epiderme foliar e intensidade da antracnose em Stylosanthes spp Relationship between number of stegmata on leaf epidermis and anthracnose intensity in Stylosanthes spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Fátima Jerba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o número de estegmata em cinco espécies de Stylosanthes e relacioná-lo à severidade da antracnose. Quantificaram-se os estegmata em secções foliares paradérmicas, coradas com safranina a 1%. A antracnose foi avaliada no 12º dia, depois da inoculação de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. As espécies apresentaram número semelhante de estegmata na epiderme foliar, à exceção de S. guianensis, que apresentou menor quantidade. Maior severidade da antracnose foi observada em S. macrocephala e, em seguida, em S. capitata. Não foi constatada correlação significativa entre número de estegmata na epiderme foliar e a severidade da doença.The objective of this work was to quantify the number of stegmata in leaf epidermis of five Stylosanthes species, and correlate it to anthracnose severity. Counting of stegmata number per cell unit was done on paradermal sections stained with 1% saffranine. Anthracnose severity was appraised 12 days after inoculation using isolate of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The number of stegmata was similar among the species, except for S. guianensis, which presented lower quantity. Anthracnose severity was higher on S. macrocephala followed by S. capitata. No significant correlation was observed between anthracnose severity and number of stegmata in leaf epidermal cells of the studied species.

  4. Progress on Genetics and Breeding of Resistance to Anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) in Pepper%辣椒抗炭疽病遗传与育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙春英; 毛胜利; 张正海; 王立浩; 张宝玺

    2013-01-01

    Pepper anthracnose, caused by various species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum spp., is one of the main restrains to worldwide pepper production. Anthracnose-resistance varieties are scarce in cultivated Capsicum annuum, while are known in C. baccatum and C. chinense. This paper depicts methods to screen pepper sources resistant to anthracnose, mechanisms and inheritance mode of resistance, and progress in anthracnose resistance breeding. The research direction in the future is put forward.%辣椒炭疽病是由刺盘孢属(Colletotrichum)真菌引起的,已成为辣椒生产的主要障碍之一.常用栽培种一年生辣椒(Capsicum annuum)缺乏对该病的抗性,抗源主要来自于辣椒的另外两个种下垂辣椒(C.baccatum)和中国辣椒(C.chinense).本文就辣椒对炭疽病的抗性鉴定方法、抗性机制、抗性遗传以及抗病育种等方面的国内外研究现状进行了总结,并讨论了今后的研究重点.

  5. Mineralization of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on the growth and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-08-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manure to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P utilization efficiency in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P mineralization potential of two soluble P fertilizers (SPF), i.e., single superphosphate (SSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), and of insoluble rock phosphate (RP) with and without phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P utilization efficiency (PUE) of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried out on a loam (slightly alkaline) soil with 12 treatments: T0 - control; T1 - RP; T2 - SSP; T3 - DAP; T4 - PM; T5 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP; T6 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP; T7 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM; T8 - RP+PSB; T9 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP+PSB; T10 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP+PSB; and T11 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM+PSB. Phosphorus mineralization was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled conditions at 25 °C for periods of 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 60 days. A complementary greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) as a test crop. Growth, yield, P uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P mineralization in soil amended with RP was 6.0-11.5 mg kg-1, while both soluble P fertilizers resulted in 68-73 mg P kg-1 at day 0, which decreased by 79-82 % at the end of incubation. The integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in T11 stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Use of PSB decreased soil pH. In the greenhouse experiment, RP alone or RP+PSB did not have a significant impact on plant growth. However, the combined use of RP, PM and PSB in T11 resulted in similar growth, yield and P uptake of chilli as DAP. The PUE of applied P varied from 4 to 29 % and was higher in the treatments that included PSB. We conclude

  6. MSI.R scripts reveal volatile and semi-volatile features in low-temperature plasma mass spectrometry imaging (LTP-MSI) of chilli (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Becerra, Roberto; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Winkler, Robert

    2015-07-01

    In cartography, the combination of colour and contour lines is used to express a three-dimensional landscape on a two-dimensional map. We transferred this concept to the analysis of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data and developed a collection of R scripts for the efficient evaluation of .imzML archives in a four-step strategy: (1) calculation of the density distribution of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) signals in the .imzML file and assembling of a pseudo-master spectrum with peak list, (2) automated generation of mass images for a defined scan range and subsequent visual inspection, (3) visualisation of individual ion distributions and export of relevant .mzML spectra and (4) creation of overlay graphics of ion images and photographies. The use of a Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) colour model in MSI graphics takes into account the human perception for colours and supports the correct evaluation of signal intensities. Further, readers with colour blindness are supported. Contour maps promote the visual recognition of patterns in MSI data, which is particularly useful for noisy data sets. We demonstrate the scalability of MSI.R scripts by running them on different systems: on a personal computer, on Amazon Web Services (AWS) instances and on an institutional cluster. By implementing a parallel computing strategy, the execution speed for .imzML data scanning with image generation could be improved by more than an order of magnitude. Applying our MSI.R scripts ( http://www.bioprocess.org/MSI.R ) to low-temperature plasma (LTP)-MSI data shows the localisation of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in the cross-cut of a chilli (Capsicum annuum) fruit. The subsequent identification of compounds by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS, LC-MS) proves that LTP-MSI enables the direct measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) distributions from biological tissues. PMID:26007697

  7. Screening of hypo virulence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its control effect on apple anthracnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a nosogenesis important fungus that causes the serious economic loss on apple, however, inducing resistance of the host may reduce the loss. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was treated by ion implantation and by alternating magnetic field to induce aberrance. It was screened through eyeballing first, and then screened through growth on apple. Two aberrance strains (C100-2-5 and C0.25-1-2 were selected. Both the strains have good protective function and good effect to control the apple disease. (authors)

  8. Cataloging proteins putatively secreted during the biotrophy-necrotrophy transition of the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum truncatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Vijai; Banniza, Sabine; Vandenberg, Albert; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou

    2011-10-01

    Hemibiotrophic phytopathogenic fungi cause devastating diseases in agronomically important crops. These fungal pathogens exploit a stealth bi-phasic infection strategy to colonize host plants. Their morphological and nutritional transition from biotrophy (characterized by voluminous intracellular primary hyphae) to necrotrophy (characterized by thin secondary hyphae) known as the biotrophy-necrotrophy switch (hemibiotrophy) is critical in symptom and disease development. To establish successful hemibiotrophic parasitism, pathogens likely secrete suites of proteins at the switch that constitute the biotrophy-necrotrophy switch secretome. To catalogue such proteins, a directional cDNA library was constructed from mRNA isolated from infected Lens culinaris leaflet tissues displaying the switch of Colletotrichum truncatum, and 5000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated. Four potential groups (hydrolytic enzymes, cell envelope-associated proteins [CEAPs], candidate effectors and proteins with diverse functions) were identified from pathogen-derived ESTs. Expression profiling of transcripts encoding CEAPs and candidate effectors in an infection time-course revealed that the majority of these transcripts were expressed or induced during the necrotrophic phase and repressed during the biotrophic phase of in planta colonization, indicating the massive accumulation of proteins at the switch. Taken together, our data suggest that the hemibiotrophic mode of fungal proliferation entails complex interactions of a pathogen with its host wherein the pathogen requires live host cells prior to switching to the necrotrophic phase. The microbial proteins employed during pathogenesis are likely to have defined roles at specific stages of pathogenesis. PMID:21897125

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens L.) AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM AZIDE AT GENERATIVE STAGE OF M1 GENERATION

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Agung Eka Saraswati; Made Pharmawati; I Ketut Junitha

    2013-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) is one vegetable crop that has high economic value.  There are several problems in cultivation of chili pepper, for examples limited land, bad weather, and pests and diseases, which result in low production. These problems can be solved by developing new cultivar which has superior quality.  New cultivars of chili pepper plants can be obtained through induced mutation using chemical mutagen. In this research sodium azide (NaN3) was used as mutagen in chi...

  10. Variation in physiological and chemical characteristics at developmental stage in different disease-resistant varieties of camellia oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camellia oleifera Abel. is an important edible oil tree species from Southern China. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.), is responsible for more than 50% of C. oleifera production loss, and C. oleifera varieties differ in their resistance to anthracnose. The aim of this study was to assess resistance mechanisms by monitoring physiological and biochemical parameters of differentially resistant cultivars during the development of C. oleifera. C. oleifera fruit coats were analyzed between May and September for tannins, anthocyanins, soluble sugar content, pH, buffer capacity, activity of three enzyme (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase; polyphenol oxidase; peroxidase) and free radical scavenging capacity. Anthocyanins, soluble contents and free radical scavenging capacity were related to anthracnose resistance, with anthocyanins and soluble sugar contents of the resistant varieties nearly twofold higher than those of susceptible varieties. The results of free radical scavenging capacity showed that extracts from highly resistant varieties of C. oleifera fruit coats performed more efficiently in the scavenging of free radicals than those from susceptible varieties. The three enzyme activities of highly resistant varieties rose rapidly and continuously, while those of medium resistant and highly susceptible varieties increased initially and then decreased. Tannins, pH and buffer capacity showed no significant differences between different cultivars. This study broadens the understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in C. oleifera. (author)

  11. 葡萄白腐病、炭疽病、黑痘病、霜霉病和白粉病的识别与防治%ldentification and Control of White Rot, Anthrac-nose, Black Pox, Downy Mildew and Powdery Mildew of Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷

    2013-01-01

    Damage symptom and onset characteristics of white rot, anthracnose, black pox,downy mildew and powdery mildew of grape were introduced. More-over, the comprehensive prevention measures were proposed mainly on pre-vention.These diseases should be con-trolled on the basis of enhancing culti-vation management,improving diseasere-sistant capacity of plants, and chemicals should be applied timely at the initial infection stage .The study provided a support for relieving damages of grape diseases, improving yield and quality of grape.%介绍了葡萄白腐病、炭疽病、黑痘病、霜霉病和白粉病的危害症状及发病特点,提出防治这些病害应以预防为主,在加强栽培管理、增强树势、提高树体抗病能力的基础上,在发病初期及时施用化学药剂,以达综合防治的目的。为减轻病害危害,提高葡萄的产量和品质提供了一定的依据。

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens L. AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM AZIDE AT GENERATIVE STAGE OF M1 GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Agung Eka Saraswati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. is one vegetable crop that has high economic value.  There are several problems in cultivation of chili pepper, for examples limited land, bad weather, and pests and diseases, which result in low production. These problems can be solved by developing new cultivar which has superior quality.  New cultivars of chili pepper plants can be obtained through induced mutation using chemical mutagen. In this research sodium azide (NaN3 was used as mutagen in chili pepper in order to obtain genetic variations that are useful in  increasing its  production.  The research was designed in  randomized  block  design. The observations were made on the response of plant morphology at generative stage, including plant height, number of branch, number of leaf, leaf length and leaf width.  The results showed that sodium azide increased plant height, branch number, leaf number and leaf length.  Sodium azide at concentrations of 2 mM and 5 mM were most effective in increasing plant height, number of leaves and number of branches. Keywords: Capsicum frutescens L., morphology, mutation, sodium azide

  13. Controle da antracnose e qualidade de mangas (Mangifera indica L. cv. haden, após tratamento hidrotémico e armazenamento refrigerado em atmosfera modificada Control of anthracnose and quality of mangoes (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden, after hydrothermic treatment and storage under refrigeratio and in modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Costa Lima

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A antracnose é uma doença que causa grandes prejuízos a comercialização da manga (Mangifera indica L. e o seu controle é importante para manter a qualidade do fruto. Desta forma, com o presente trabalho objetivou-se estudar o controle da antracnose e qualidade pós-colheita de mangas, cv. Haden, após tratamento hidrotérmico e armazenamento sob refrigeração em atmosfera modificada. As mangas foram obtidas em pomar comercial localizado no município de Janaúba - MG, da safra de 2000. As amostras foram submetidas a tratamento hidrotérmico (55ºC por 5 minutos e banho frio e após secagem ao ar, os frutos foram acondicionados em bandejas de isopor, recobertas por filme de PVC flexível e auto-adesivo com 15 micras de espessura e armazenados sob refrigeração (10ºC e 70% de UR em BOD, por um período de 12 dias. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 8 tratamentos, 3 repetições e unidade experimental composta de 4 frutos. Realizou-se avaliações físicas, físico-químicas, químicas e fitopatológicas a cada 4 dias. Com base nas características avaliadas podemos concluir que o tratamento hidrotérmico, embalagem e refrigeração não influenciou na perda de massa de mangas, mas reduziram a incidência de antracnose. Frutos embalados e refrigerados a 10ºC mantiveram as características ótimas para o consumo até os 12 dias de armazenamento e os não embalados e não refrigerados até os 8 dias de armazenamento.The anthracnose is a major disease that causes damage to mangoes (Mangifera indica L. and affects their commercialization. Due to its importance, the present work had as objective to study the control of anthracnose and quality mangoes cv. Haden, after hydrothermic treatment and storage under refrigeration in modified atmosphere. The mangoes were obtained from a commercial orchard in the city of Janaúba - MG, the harvest of 2000. The samples were submitted the hydrothermic treatment (55º

  14. 甘蔗寒冻害等级指标及灾损指标的初步研究%Study on the Grade Indexes of Sugar-cane Chilly Injury or Freezing Injury and Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宗琨; 黄城华; 孟翠丽; 潘有强

    2014-01-01

    为明晰甘蔗遭受不同寒冻害类型影响的症状变化及其产量、糖分含量损失情况,进而完善甘蔗寒冻害等级指标体系。综合2007/2008-2010/2011年冬季广西南、中、北甘蔗主产区不同甘蔗品种遭受寒冻害影响调查分析与典型寒冻害年份甘蔗产量、蔗糖分含量损失与气象资料相关关系分析。建立和完善甘蔗辐射型、平流型寒冻害等级指标及甘蔗产量、蔗糖分含量寒冻害损失指标,规范甘蔗不同寒冻害类型等级下受害表观症状。研究结果对开展甘蔗寒冻害动态监测预警与灾损量化评估及灾情调查、灾害防御等有积极意义。%The aim of the study is to clarify the change characteristics of sugar-cane and its yield and sugar content loss after different types of freezing injury,so as to improve the grade indexes of sugar-cane chilly injury or freezing injury. The author investigated the sugar-cane field disasters in the winter from 2007/2008 to 2010/2011 and analyzed injury effect on the main sugar-cane varieties in different climate zones in Guangxi Province and the relationship between sugar-cane yield, sugar content loss and meteorological data in typical cold disaster years. The grade indexes of sugar-cane chilly injury or freezing injury and its loss were established or improved, and its apparent affected symptoms were formulated. The results had positive significance on the dynamic monitoring of sugar-cane chilly and frozen injury, early warning and loss evaluation, as well as the sugar-cane disasters investigation and prevention measures.

  15. Nutrição do feijoeiro e intensidade da antracnose em função da aplicação de silício e cobre = Nutrition in bean plants and anthracnose intensity in function of silicon and copper application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Raquel Gomes Moraes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do silicato de cálcio e do sulfato de cobre na intensidade da antracnose e no teor nutricional do feijoeiro. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 (quatro doses de silicato decálcio, com quatro doses de sulfato de cobre e dois tratamentos adicionais (plantas nãoinoculadas e plantas pulverizadas com Benomyl. Foram feitas quatro avaliações da incidência e da severidade da doença, além de se mensurar a área foliar total. Ao término das avaliações, os dados de incidência e de severidade foram integrados ao longo do tempo, obtendo-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da incidência (AACPI e da severidade (AACPS. Os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Si e lignina foram avaliados naparte aérea. Observou-se decréscimo linear da AACPI com o aumento das doses de silicato de cálcio. Com o aumento das doses de cobre, houve redução de 35% na AACPS. O suprimento de silicato e de cobre alterou o teor de K, Mg, S, Zn, Ca e Si da parte aérea do feijoeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of calcium silicate and copper sulfate on anthracnose intensity and nutrition of bean plants. The experiment was conducted using an experimental design in randomized blocks following a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, (four levels of calcium silicate and four levels of copper sulfate and two additional treatments (plants without inoculation and plantssprinkled with Benomyl. Four evaluations of the incidence and severity of anthracnose were done, in addition to measuring total leaf area. At the end of the evaluations, incidence and severity data were integrated over time, obtaining the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. Contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Si and lignin were determined in the aerial part. A linear decrease of the intensity AUDPC was observed with the increase of the doses of calcium silicate. The severity AUDPC

  16. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition of...... human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should not...... stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases. The...

  17. Pathogen identification of a new anthracnose of pepper in Zhijiang, Hunan%湖南芷江辣椒上一种新炭疽病的病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏花; 朱宏建; 周倩; 高必达

    2012-01-01

    2009年8月湖南省芷江县线果型辣椒品种红秀2003未成熟果实上发生了一种新炭疽病.典型病斑长椭圆状,其中央呈成片黄褐色粉末,外围粉红色小点呈同心圆排列,边缘水渍状.8个分离菌株(HNZJ001 -HNZJ008)培养时菌落初呈白色,渐变为浅红色,后期加深,具明显灰黑色同心轮纹.分生孢子盘无刚毛,分生孢子单胞,大小为15.8μm×4.1μm,含2~7个油球,一端稍尖.分离菌株HNZJ001针刺接种,在离体的成熟果和未成熟果上均产生病斑,而作为对照的胶孢炭疽菌Collectotrichum gloeosporioides菌株LSQ1不能侵染未成熟果.核糖体RNA基因内转录间隔区(ITS)的PCR产物经测序后做BLAST分析,结果表明该菌与尖孢炭疽菌Cacutatum(有性阶段为尖孢小丛壳Glomerella acutata)的ITS序列100%相同,系统进化分析显示置信度高达100%,据此确定该病原为尖孢炭疽菌.这是国内辣椒上尖孢炭疽菌的首次报道.%A new anthracnose disease was found on immature fruits of chili pepper (Cayenne pepper cv. Hongxiu 2003, line fruited) in Zhijiang county, Hunan, in August of 2009. Typical lesion was long oval in shape with tawny powder at the center, concentric pink dot periphery and outer water soaked zone. All 8 isolates (HNZJ001-HNZJ008) showed the colonies white at the early stage, then pink, finally dark with obvious grey black concentric rings. No seta was observed on acervuli. Conidia were single-celled, 15. 8 \

  18. Ação fungicida do acaricida azocyclotin sobre a antracnose do feijoeiro comum Fungicidal action of azocyclotin acaricide on comon bean anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Santini

    2005-01-01

    ao trifenil hidróxido de estanho.The control effect of azocyclotin acaricide was tested to common bean anthracnose pathogen, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, in vitro, seedlings and in field conditions. The treatments in vitro were: 1 Test; 2 Azocyclotin (AZ- 1 AZ-1 mg.L-1; 3 Triphenil sthanic hydroxide (THE-1 mg L-1; 4 AZ-10 mg L-1; 5 THE-10 mg L-1; 6 AZ-100 mg L-1 and 7 THE-100 mg L-1 and in vivo treatments were: 1 Test; 2 AZ applyed 24 hours before inoculation (AZ-24; 3THE-24; 4 AZ-48; 5THE-48; 6 AZ-72; 7 THE-72; 8 AZ-96; 9 THE-96; 10 AZ-120; 11 THE-120; 12 AZ-144, and 13 THE-144. Azocyclotin was evaluated at 125 g.100 L-1 of water and fenthin hydroxide at 41,25 g a.i.100 L-1. The experiments were set up as a completely randomized design, with 5 repetitions. In field conditions, the treatments (g ha-1 a.i. included: 1 tebuconazole + fentin hydroxide-100 + 200; 2 tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin-40 + 100; 3 trifloxystrobin-125; 4 tebuconazole + azocyclotin-100 + 500; 5 azocyclotin - 500 and 6 without chemical. The experimental design was done using randomized blocks, with 4 replicates. The mycelial growth was determined through reading the fungi radial growth in BDA culture media. In vivo and in field conditions, evaluations were made with a scale of 1 to 9, where 1 = without symptoms and 9 = equal or more than 25% of foliar area with anthracnose symptoms. In vitro test, the treatment 7 presented the most effective mycelial development inhibition. Azocyclotin and triphenil sthanic hydroxide controlled dry bean anthracnose when applied until 144 hours before inoculation. A new field record was the control of bean anthracnose with azocyclotin acaricide, with effect on both to angular leaf spot and alternaria leaf spot. It was concluded that azocyclotin acaricide can control dry bean anthracnose with similar efficiency as fentin hydroxide.

  19. Efeito do óleo de soja no controle da antracnose e na conservação da manga cv. Palmer em pós-colheita Effect of soybean oil in the control of anthracnose and on post-harvest conservation of mango, cv. Palmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de pós-colheita da manga, a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. é a doença mais importante em termos de expressão econômica. Seu controle vem sendo feito pela imersão dos frutos por 5 minutos, em água a 55 ºC, acrescida de thiabendazo1 a 0,2%. Embora seja eficaz no controle dessa doença, esse fungicida pode deixar resíduo, o que não satisfaz os consumidores que vêm, a cada ano, aumentando as suas exigências por frutos livres de resíduos de agroquímicos e ambientalmente corretos. Dessa forma, esses experimentos foram conduzidos visando à seleção de produtos biológicos que tenham potencial para o controle da antracnose e para a conservação da manga na pós-colheita. Os frutos, colhidos no estádio de maturação 3 e 4, foram imersos por 5 minutos em thiabendazol a 0,24% e benomil a 0,1 % a 22 ºC, 40 ºC ou 45 ºC e em diferentes concentrações de óleo de soja isolado ou em mistura com benomil, thiabendazol e com extrato etanólico de sucupira (Pterodon pubescens Benth.. Após os tratamentos, os frutos foram mantidos em câmaras a 27 ± 1 ºC, 72 % a 85 % de UR (Experimento nº 1 e a 17ºC a 85% a 100% de UR (experimento nº 2. As avaliações foram efetuadas aos 15 dias (experimento nº 1 e aos 30 dias (experimento nº 2 após os tratamentos, determinando-se as porcentagens da superfície dos frutos cobertas com lesões, de frutos verdes, maduros e de vez, ºBrix e textura. O óleo de soja, isolado ou misturado com benomil ou thiabendazol, a 22 ºC ou a 40 ºC, aumentou o tempo de prateleira da manga Palmer e foi eficaz no controle da antracnose.The anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is the most important post-harvest disease of mango fruit. Its control has been done by immersion of fruits for 5 minutes in hot water at 55ºC containing the fungicide thiabendazole at 200 g/100 liters. Although efficient in the control of mango anthracnose, this fungicide can leave residues. This fact does

  20. Caracterização agronômica e pungência em pimenta de cheiro Agronomic traits and pungency of chilli pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina I Domenico

    2012-09-01

    údo de capsaicina, resultado inédito para uma pimenta de cheiro brasileira.Nine accessions of the Active Capsicum chinense Germplasm Bank of Instituto Agronômico were characterized and evaluated in climate and soil conditions of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from January to October 2010. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with nine treatments, five replications and eight plants per plot. Evaluated traits were plant height, plant growth habit, first flower anthesis, fruit yield, fresh fruit weight, fruit height and width, capsaicin content, ripe fruit color, fruit shape and fruit surface. For fruit and plant characterization were considered the four central plants of each plot; for capsaicin content evaluation were used three samples of five fruits of each accession. Capsaicin content was measured by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography. Plant height ranged from 1.13 to 0.85 m. The most accessions presented compact growth habit of plants. Accessions IAC 1644, IAC 1645 and IAC 1643 were the earliest for anthesis of first flower. IAC 1646 showed high fruit yield, fruit width and fresh weight, and IAC 1641 showed the longest fruits. IAC 1552 ('Murupi' stood out with highest capsaicin content, outperforming IAC 1646 ('Scotch Bonnet' and IAC 1644 ('Fidalga', habanero types. Fruits presented yellow, orange, salmon and red colors. The fruits presented the elongated, round, triangular, campanulated and blocked shape. The fruit surface was characterized as smooth, semi-rough and rough. In the climate and soil conditions where the research was developed and, regarding the accessions evaluated, there was high variability in chili peppers for agronomic traits and capsaicin content. IAC 1552 stood out with highest capsaicin content, first result for a Brazilian chilli pepper.

  1. Efeito do tratamento hidrotérmico e químico de frutos de banana 'Prata' no controle da antracnose em pós-colheita Thermotherapy of banana 'Prata' to control post-harvest anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sponholz

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou testar a eficiência da hidroterapia e de alguns fungicidas no controle da antracnose causada por Colletotrichum musae e verificar o seu efeito na evolução da cor de frutos de banana (Musa spp. 'Prata'. Buquês foram atomizados com C. musae (2,5 x 10(6 esporos/ml em água e imersos 24 h depois em água a 45 ºC, 50 ºC e 53 ºC, durante 0, 10, 15 e 20 min. Outros buquês foram imersos por 3 min nos fungicidas tebuconazole, procloraz, difenoconazole e propiconazole nas doses de 0, 62,5, 100, 125 e 250 mg.l-1. Nos frutos tratados a 45 ºC por 20 min (5, 10 ou 15 min foram ineficientes a incidência da doença foi de um fruto infetado por buquê. A exposição dos frutos a 50 ºC por 20 min reduziu a área lesionada em 85% e a 53 ºC por 15 e 20 min, os frutos apresentaram uma área lesionada de aproximadamente 3% e 0%, respectivamente. Frutos não tratados apresentavam 53% da área lesionada aos 12 dias de armazenamento. Os fungicidas procloraz em doses de 100, 125 e 250 mg.l-1, e propiconazole a 250 mg.l-1 foram os mais eficientes no controle da doença. Os frutos estavam sadios após 15 dias de armazenamento, enquanto que a testemunha apresentava aproximadamente 60% da área do fruto lesionada. Em armazenamentos de até 12 dias, o fungicida tebuconazole a 250 mg.l-1, procloraz a 62,5 mg.l-1 e propiconazole a 62,5, 100 e 125 mg.l-1 reduziram a área lesionada dos frutos para 1 a 3%. O fungicida difenoconazole foi ineficiente no controle da antracnose.This study was done to determine the efficacy of hydrotherapy and some fungicides to control banana (Musa spp. anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae and their effect on the color development in banana fruits of cultivar 'Prata'. Bunches of banana were sprayed with the conidial suspension (2.5 x 10(6 /ml of the pathogen and 24 h later were immersed for 0, 10, 15 or 20 min in hot water at 45 ºC, 50 ºC or 53 ºC. Another group of inoculated bunches was immersed for three

  2. Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse

  3. 阿月浑子炭疽病菌的种类鉴定%Species Identification of Pathogen Causing Pistacia vera L .Anthracnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜勇; 申红妙; 冉隆贤; 路丙社; 张楠

    2014-01-01

    Obj ective The aim of the study was to investigate the symptom characteristics and pathogen types of Pistaciavera anthracnose in Hebei•[Method]The strains were collected from Shexian and Tangxian counties in Hebei province from 2005 to 2008 and all isolates showed simi-lar characteristics in colony•Pathogen was identified by microscopy,pathogenicity,host range, biological analysis and homology comparison of rDNA-ITS sequences•[Results]All isolates in-fected strawberry leaves but did not infect pepper,grape,Japanese euonymus leaves and apple fruits•The DNA of strain CN504 was used as a template,and one rDNA-ITS fragment of 583 bp was amplified•The obtained sequences were compared with those in GenBank•One hundred se-quences with the highest homology belonged to Colletotrichum gloeosporioiaes Penz or sexual stage of Glomerellacingulata Stonem•Their homology ranged from 98% to 99%•[Conclusion]Based on morphology,biological traits and sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS),pathogen of pistachio anthracnose was identified as C•gloeosporioiaes.%【目的】对阿月浑子炭疽病在河北省的危害、症状特点以及病原菌的种类进行研究。【方法】2005-2008年分别从河北省涉县和唐县两个病区采集发病材料,进行病菌分离,对获得的分离菌株通过显微观察、致病性测定、寄主范围测定、生物学测定以及rDNA-ITS序列同源性比较进行病菌的种类鉴定。【结果】所获菌株对阿月浑子均可致病,并可引起草莓叶片发病,但对辣椒、葡萄、黄杨的叶片以及苹果的果实均不致病。以菌株 CN504的DNA 为模板,扩增得到了全长为583 bp 的 DNA 片段,并获得了该菌的 rDNA-ITS 序列。将该序列与 GenBank 中已有的DNA序列进行同源性比较,发现与其同源性最高的100个ITS序列菌株均为胶孢炭疽菌Colletotrichumgloeospo-rioiaes Penz或胶孢炭疽菌

  4. Indução de resistência sistêmica à antracnose em feijoeiro-comum pela raça delta avirulenta de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Induction of systemic resistance to anthracnose in common bean by the avirulent delta race of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Diniz Campos

    2009-01-01

    /95, a virulent C. lindemuthianum patotype and reevaluated five days later for the enzyme activities. Significant increases in the activities of both beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase were observed after inoculation of inductive fungus at the two evaluation periods, at both plant development stages. The activities of both beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase varied among cultivars and among plant development stages. A significant correlation was observed between the disease severity and the enzyme activity. The avirulent delta race of C. lindemuthianum reduced the severity of anthracnose on common bean and may have the potential to control the disease.

  5. Identificação e variabilidade genética de isolados de Colletotrichum causando antracnose em inflorescências de plantas ornamentais tropicais Identification and genetic variability of Colletotrichum isolates causing anthracnose in inflorescence of ornamental tropical plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Meireles Barguil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A antracnose afeta a qualidade de inflorescências de plantas ornamentais tropicais, e a espécie fúngica Colletotrichum gloeosporioides tem sido relacionada a essa doença apenas por análises morfológicas. Por isso, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos identificar isolados de Colletotrichum coletados em plantas de antúrio (Anthurium andraeanum, bastão do imperador (Etlingera elatior e helicônia (Heliconia spp., por meio de caracteres morfológicos e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR, e avaliar a variabilidade genética por meio de oligonucleotídeos arbitrários (AP-PCR. Pelas características morfológicas de tamanho de conídio e de apressório, todos os isolados foram identificados como C. gloeosporioides. Um fragmento de 450pb específico para C. gloeosporioides foi amplificado em todos os isolados analisados, com exceção de C 23 e C 35. A caracterização molecular realizada com três oligonucleotídeos arbitrários ((GACAC3, (GACA4 e (CAG5 possibilitou a formação de três grupos de isolados, com padrões de bandas distintos. Portanto, conclui-se que as metodologias utilizadas foram eficientes na identificação de isolados de C. gloeosporioides provenientes das espécies ornamentais avaliadas e que, nos isolados analisados, não existe relação entre a similaridade observada no padrão de bandas obtido por AP-PCR e a área de coleta ou a planta hospedeira.Anthracnose affects inflorescences quality of ornamentals tropical plants and the fungi specie Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been related with this disease based only on morphology. Therefore, the objectives of this research was to identify Colletotrichum isolates collected on anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum, torch ginger (Etlingera elatior and heliconia (Heliconia spp. plants by means of morphology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR and also verify the genetic variability using arbitrary-primed PCR (AP-PCR. All isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides by

  6. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

  7. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

    1990-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

  8. First report of anthracnose of mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata) caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross; family Polygonaceae) is an exotic annual barbed vine that is now invasive in the northeastern USA, Mississippi, and Oregon and is a target of biological control efforts. In July, 2010, diseased P. perfoliata plants were found along the Firtina Rive...

  9. STUDIES OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING ECOLOGICALLY BASED CREAM CAPSAICIN IN THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia PANDIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since herbal medicine makes strides to improve or cure of diseases or serious diseases to human, wherepreparations obtained by chemical are replaced successfully with herbal preparations obtained herbs, aromatic orthose of spontaneous. Thus, in this paper, several attempts are made to prepare a capsaicin based creams antrheumatic. This product is an environmentally friendly product, 100% vegetable produced in the laboratory as abase flossing a chilli extract obtained from private household, beeswax, distilled water, alcohol and peppermint oil.By obtaining this cream was intended to improve or cure people suffering from rheumatism, to relieve pain causedby arthritis, you know, is a readily available even at home, easy to manage, with immediate good results withoutside effects.

  10. Quitosana reduz a severidade da antracnose e aumenta a atividade de glucanase em feijoeiro-comum Chitosan reduces the anthracnose severity and increases the glucanase activity in common bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle da antracnose em feijoeiro-comum pela aplicação de quitosana. A quitosana foi pulverizada em plantas de feijão-comum, em diferentes concentrações, no estádio V3, em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram também submetidas à inoculação de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. A dose de 9 mg de quitosana por planta propiciou redução em mais de 50% na severidade da antracnose e não causou fitotoxicidade. O efeito protetor foi local e mais intenso no intervalo de tempo de 4 dias entre tratamento e inoculação. Observou-se redução significativa no crescimento micelial e inibição total da germinação de esporos de C. lindemuthianum, quando se utilizou o polissacarídeo a 1 mg mL-1 e 80 µg mL-1, respectivamente. Em folhas do feijoeiro, a quitosana provocou o aumento na atividade de glucanase. Quitosana apresenta propriedades antifúngicas contra C. lindemuthianum, bem como potencial para induzir resistência à planta, e pode ser uma alternativa para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of chitosan on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris anthracnose. Different concentrations of chitosan suspension were sprayed on plants at V3 stage, in greenhouse; plants were also infected with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The concentration of 9 mg per plant reduced the anthracnose severity in more than 50%, without causing any toxic effect on bean plants. The protecting effect was local and more intense in a time interval of 4 days between treatment and inoculation. Mycelium growth reduction and spore germination inhibition of C. lindemuthianum were observed, when chitosan was used at 1 mg mL-1 and 80 µg mL-1, respectively. Chitosan increased the glucanase activity in bean leaves. Chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. lindemuthianum, as well as potential to induce resistance on bean plants. Therefore, the plant spraying with chitosan can be an

  11. Actigard May Reduce Disease in Strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Discusses the results of a two year study conducted to evaluate Actigard for its ability to control anthracnose on strawberry in greenhouse at Virginia Tech and field studies at Kentland Farm in Whitethorne, VA beginning in 2002.

  12. Mapeamento de genes de resistência do feijoeiro à ferrugem, antracnose e mancha-angular usando marcadores RAPD Mapping rust, anthracnose and angular leaf spot resistance genes in common bean using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio G. Faleiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A organização de diferentes genes de resistência da cultivar Ouro Negro de feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris à ferrugem, antracnose e mancha-angular foi estudada com o auxílio de marcadores moleculares. Uma população de 154 linhas endogâmicas recombinantes (RIL's obtidas do cruzamento entre as cultivares Ouro Negro e Rudá foram inoculadas com sete raças fisiológicas de Uromyces appendiculatus, três de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, e quatro de Phaeoisariopsis griseola. Amostras de DNA de cada uma das RIL's foram amplificadas via PCR utilizando 70 diferentes primers. A análise da segregação da resistência à ferrugem, antracnose e mancha-angular na população de 154 RIL's revelou diferentes modos de herança para a resistência a cada uma das raças fisiológicas. A análise de ligação genética revelou que os diferentes genes de resistência à ferrugem e à antracnose estão no mesmo grupo de ligação. Os genes de resistência à mancha-angular também foram mapeados juntos, porém em outro grupo de ligação. Verificou-se neste trabalho que a utilidade dos marcadores RAPD, previamente identificados como ligados a genes de resistência do feijoeiro a doenças foi restrita. Apenas cinco dos 38 marcadores moleculares testados foram validados na população de RIL's como ligados aos genes de resistência à ferrugem e à antracnose. Três novos marcadores (OBA16(669 e OBA16(583 a 10,4 cM em acoplamento e OAD9(3210 a 13,9 cM em repulsão ligados ao bloco gênico de resistência da cultivar Ouro Negro à mancha-angular foram identificados.Molecular markers were used to study the organization of rust, anthracnose and angular leaf spot resistance genes in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Ouro Negro cultivar. A segregant population of 154 recombinant inbred lines (RIL´s from the crossing between Ouro Negro and Rudá cultivars was inoculated under controlled conditions with seven races of Uromyces appendiculatus, three of

  13. Melhoramento do feijoeiro comum com grão tipo carioca, visando resistência à antracnose e à mancha angular Breeding of common bean with carioca type grain for the resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansuêmia Alves Couto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no trabalho, selecionar linhagens de feijoeiro comum que reunissem, além da alta produtividade, porte ereto e grãos do tipo Carioca, também a resistência à antracnose e à mancha angular. O material experimental constituiu-se de 143 linhagens oriundas de três famílias segregantes F1:4RC2 {[(G2333 X ESAL 696 X ESAL 696] X CI 140}. Foram conduzidos quatro experimentos em três localidades da região sul de Minas Gerais, avaliando-se a produção, o tipo de grão, o porte e a reação à mancha angular. A reação à antracnose foi determinada a partir de inoculações de plantas jovens de cada linhagem, com as raças 2047 e 1545, mantidas em câmara de nevoeiro por três dias e transferidas para casa de vegetação com irrigação por aspersão, a cada quatro horas. Selecionaram-se quatro linhagens com alta produtividade, porte mais arbustivo, grãos tipo carioca e com resistência à mancha angular (nota até 4. Uma das linhagens selecionada possui o alelo Co-4², outras duas possuem o alelo Co-7 de resistência à antracnose e a última, embora seja suscetível à antracnose, possui resistência à mancha angular (nota 3,97 e maior produtividade de grãos.Aiming to select common bean lines with high grain yield, Carioca grain type, upright plant habit and resistant to anthracnose and angular leaf spot, 143 lines were selected from three families of the cross F1:4RC2 {[(G2333 X ESAL 696 X ESAL 696] X CI 140}. The promising lines were selected based on the agronomical traits in four field experiments, set up in three places in Southern MG State using the square lattice design. The reaction of each line to the anthracnose was evaluated by inoculating the seedlings using the races 1545 and 2047, and kept in humid chamber during three days, and then moved to greenhouse with sprinkle irrigation every four hours. Four lines with high grain yield, upright plant habit, Carioca grain type, and resistance to angular leaf spot (score up

  14. Possibilities of Strawberry Integrated Disease Management in Different Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years strawberry production in Croatia is constantly increasing. One of the main problems in production are diseases. During two-year trials in strawberry plantations in northern Croatia, the occurrence of diseases was monitored in order to establish the most effective methods of integrated disease management. Trials were performed in three cultivation system: open field, greenhouse and hydroponics. The most frequent disease in all three production systems was gray mould (Botrytis cinerea. In open field production, the occurrence of common leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae and leaf scorch (Diplocarpon earliana were also frequently observed, while leaf blotch (Gnomonia comari, leaf blight (Phomopsis obscurans and fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp. were only sporadically present. For the control of the most important disease, gray mould, forecast model BOTMAN was implemented. As relatively simple model based on meteorological data, BOTMAN allowed effective, ecologically and economically more acceptable control, based on integrated chemical and biological measures. Meteorological data were obtained from the State Hydrometeorological Department (DHMZ. Results showed no significant difference in intensity of gray mould infection between usual chemical control and BOTMAN-based control. Two-years research on strawberry disease management in Croatia revealed perspective possibilities of integrated strawberry disease management.

  15. Possibilities of Strawberry Integrated Disease Management in Different Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years strawberry production in Croatia is constantly increasing. One of the main problems in production are diseases. During two-year trials in strawberry plantations in northern Croatia, the occurrence of diseases was monitored in order to establish the most effective methods of integrated disease management. Trials were performed in three cultivation system: open field, greenhouse and hydroponics. The most frequent disease in all three production systems was gray mould (Botrytis cinerea. In open field production, the occurrence of common leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae and leaf scorch (Diplocarpon earliana were also frequently observed, while leaf blotch (Gnomonia comari, leaf blight (Phomopsis obscurans and fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp. were only sporadically present. For the control of the most important disease, gray mould, forecast model BOTMAN was implemented. As relatively simple model based on meteorological data, BOTMAN allowed effective, ecologically and economically more acceptable control, based on integrated chemical and biological measures. Meteorological data were obtained from the State Hydrometeorological Department (DHMZ. Results showed no significant difference in intensity of gray mould infection between usual chemical control and BOTMAN-based control. Two-years research on strawberry disease management in Croatia revealed perspective possibilities of integrated strawberry disease management.

  16. Seleção de famílias de feijoeiro resistente à antracnose e à mancha-angular Selection of common bean families resistant to anthracnose and angular leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Geraldo de Morais Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar famílias de feijoeiro com resistência a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum e Phaeoisariopsis griseola e com outros fenótipos agronômicos desejáveis. As famílias utilizadas foram obtidas do cruzamento entre a linhagem H91, portadora de três alelos de resistência à antracnose, com três famílias F2:5 resistentes à mancha-angular, derivadas da cultivar Jalo EEP 558. Foi utilizado o delineamento látice quadrado em todos os experimentos. Inicialmente, foram avaliadas 144 famílias F2:3, no inverno de 2004, em Lavras, MG, com base no tipo de grão. Foram selecionadas 80 famílias F2:4 e avaliadas com a testemunha BRSMG Talismã, no período das águas de 2004/2005, no mesmo local. Considerando-se o tipo de grão e a resistência à mancha-angular e antracnose, foram mantidas 48 famílias F2:5, que foram avaliadas na seca de 2005, em Lavras e Lambari, MG. Essas 48 famílias passaram por inoculação das raças 2047, 73 e 1545 de C. lindemuthianum, para verificação da presença dos alelos de resistência Co-4², Co-5 e Co-7, respectivamente. Foram identificados genótipos da maioria das 48 famílias, quanto à reação à antracnose, das quais se destacaram quatro, em relação ao tipo de grão semelhante ao 'Carioca', de porte ereto, produtividade elevada e resistência à mancha-angular.The objective of this work was to select common bean families resistant to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Phaeoisariopsis griseola and, also, with superior agronomical traits. Families used were obtained from crosses of H91 lineage, bearer of three alleles resistant to anthracnose, and F2;5 families derived from the cultivar Jalo EEP 558, which is resistant to angular leaf spot. Square lattice design was used in all experiments. Initially the F2:3 families (144 were evaluated in the winter of 2004, in Lavras county, MG, Brazil, based on grain type. Eighty families (F2:4 were selected and evaluated with the check

  17. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of the Natural Saponin CAY-1, for Control of Several Strawberry Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The steroidal saponin from cayenne pepper, CAY-1, was tested as a potential fungicide in detached leaf assays and field trials. Efficacy of CAY-1 against strawberry anthracnose was compared to the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin. Both fungicides prevented anthracnose leaf lesions when applied to...

  18. Evaluation of leaf wetness duration models for operational use in strawberry disease-warning systems in four US states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, Verona O.; Fraisse, Clyde W.; Peres, Natalia A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.; Gleason, Mark; Ellis, Michael; Schnabel, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Leaf wetness duration (LWD) plays a key role in disease development and is often used as an input in disease-warning systems. LWD is often estimated using mathematical models, since measurement by sensors is rarely available and/or reliable. A strawberry disease-warning system called "Strawberry Advisory System" (SAS) is used by growers in Florida, USA, in deciding when to spray their strawberry fields to control anthracnose and Botrytis fruit rot. Currently, SAS is implemented at six locations, where reliable LWD sensors are deployed. A robust LWD model would facilitate SAS expansion from Florida to other regions where reliable LW sensors are not available. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of mathematical models to estimate LWD and time of spray recommendations in comparison to on site LWD measurements. Specific objectives were to (i) compare model estimated and observed LWD and resulting differences in timing and number of fungicide spray recommendations, (ii) evaluate the effects of weather station sensors precision on LWD models performance, and (iii) compare LWD models performance across four states in the USA. The LWD models evaluated were the classification and regression tree (CART), dew point depression (DPD), number of hours with relative humidity equal or greater than 90 % (NHRH ≥90 %), and Penman-Monteith (P-M). P-M model was expected to have the lowest errors, since it is a physically based and thus portable model. Indeed, the P-M model estimated LWD most accurately (MAE model was the most robust for estimating LWD and for advising growers on fungicide-spray timing for anthracnose and Botrytis fruit rot control and is therefore the model we recommend for expanding the strawberry disease warning beyond Florida, to other locations where weather stations may be deployed with lower precision sensors, and net radiation observations are not available.

  19. Chilly Dark Sectors and Asymmetric Reheating

    OpenAIRE

    Adshead, Peter; Cui, Yanou; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective...

  20. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Peter; Cui, Yanou; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-06-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N eff , we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  1. Chilly Dark Sectors and Asymmetric Reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, $N_{\\mathrm{eff}}$, we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and ...

  2. Chilly Environments, Stratification, and Productivity Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Fogerty, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Productivity differences between sociology PhD's were examined controlling for both human capital and life style differences. Productivity was defined in two ways. First, we looked at differences in article productivity to date. Next, differences in the average productivity of faculty (defined as total articles to date divided by years of…

  3. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose; Tratamento termico e radiacao gamma no controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (PENZ.) PENTZ et SACC., agente causal da antracnose em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tanni Maria Werneck da

    1988-12-01

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 27{sup 0} C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 30{sup 0} C under (12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs.

  4. Tratamento térmico e prochloraz no controle da antracnose em pós-colheita de frutos de banana 'Prata Anã' Thermotherapy and prochloraz to control of anthracnose on 'Prata Anã' bananas in post harvest conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barreto da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico, térmico e a refrigeração são os processos mais utilizados no tratamento pós-colheita das bananas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento térmico, químico e da combinação dos dois métodos e estes associados à baixa temperatura de conservação no controle da antracnose na pós-colheita da banana. Para tanto os experimentos foram realizados em três épocas quando, bananas (Musa sp da variedade 'Prata Anã' (AAB no estádio pré-climatérico eram coletadas e suas pencas individualizadas. As pencas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos com cinco repetições cada: 1. Tratamento térmico (imersão em água a 56ºC por seis minutos, seguido de resfriamento em água à temperatura ambiente; 2. Tratamento químico por seis minutos (imersão em calda fungicida (prochloraz 2,5 mL.L-1; 3. Tratamento térmico seguido do químico; 4. Testemunha, imersão em água por seis minutos. Após os tratamentos, as pencas eram divididas em duas partes iguais, sendo que uma parte ficou em câmara fria (14ºC com variação de 2ºC e a outra permaneceu à temperatura ambiente. O tratamento térmico não foi eficiente no controle da doença. O fungicida prochloraz a 2,5 mL.L-1 foi eficiente no controle da podridão pós-colheita. A refrigeração retardou o surgimento da doença em até 12 dias. Os resultados indicam que a baixa temperatura, associada ou não ao controle químico, é capaz de controlar a podridão pós-colheita dos frutos por 12 dias.Chemical control and refrigeration are two processes usually adopted in the treatment of the banana post harvest rot. This work has for objective to evaluate the effect on the control of the anthracnose in banana post harvest of the chemotherapy, of the thermotherapy, of the combination of the two listed methods and these all associated to the low conservation temperature. The experiments were replicate three times where banana fruit (Musa sp of the variety 'Prata An

  5. Analysis of volatile compounds in oleoresin obtained from wind-dried and baked chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) using solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass%固相微萃取-气相色谱质谱联用分析辣椒油树脂挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雁平; 张东

    2011-01-01

    Volatile components emitted from oleoresin of wind-dried and baked Capsicum annuum L. with cultivation place of Wangdu of Hebei were analyzed by using solid- phase micro- extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass. 28 Volatile components were identified in oleoresin from wind-dried chilli. Acetic acid ( 14.43 % ) ,2 ,4a,5,6 ,7 ,8,9,9a- octahydro-3,5,5 - trimethyl-9- methylene- 1H- benzocycloheptene ( 5.74% ), 1 -methoxy-4- (1-propenyl) - benzene ( 5.67% ) and 10s, 11 s- himachala-3 ( 12 ) ,4- diene (41.14%) were the primary volatile components. On the other hand,32 volatile components were identified in oleoresin from baked chilli, beta-Myrcene(3.14% ) ,2,6- dimethyl-2,6-octadiene(5.54% ) ,2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one( 10.15% ),1 a,2,3,4,4a,5,6, 7 b- octahydro- 1,1, 4,7- tetramethyl- 1H- cycloprop [ e ] azulene ( 3.51% ) ,4- ( 1 - methylethyl ) -benzaldehyde ( 6.54% ), phenyl ethyl tiglate( 8.12% ), 1 - methoxy-4- ( 1 - propenyl ) - benzene ( 23.45 % ) and 1, 6-dimethyl-4 - ( 1 - methylethyl ) - naphthalene ( 3.69% ) were the primary volatile components. The composition of volatile components clearly differed between wind-dried and baked chilli.%以河北望都产朝天椒为原料,利用固相微萃取-气相色谱质谱联用技术分析风干辣椒和焙烤辣椒油树脂挥发性成分.从风干辣椒中共鉴定出28种挥发性成分,其中主要挥发性成分为:乙酸(14.43%),2,4a,5,6,7,8,9,9a-八氢-3,5,5-三甲基-9-亚甲基1H-苯(并)环庚烯(5.74%),1-甲氧基-4-(1-丙烯基)-笨(5.67%),10s,11s-Himachala-3(12),4-diene(41.14%).从焙烤辣椒中共鉴定出32种挥发性成分,其中主要挥发性成分为:β-月桂烯(3.14%),2,6-二甲基-2,6-辛二烯(5.54%),2-异丙基-5-甲基-3-环己烯-1-酮(10.15%),1a,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7b-八氢-1,1,4,7-四甲基-环丙苷菊(3.51%),4-(1-甲乙基)-苯甲醛(6.54%),苯基乙酸酯(8.12%),1-甲氧基-4-(1-丙烯基)-苯(23.45%),1,6-二甲基-4-(1-甲乙基)-萘(3.69%).风干

  6. Isolation and Screening of Dominant Antagonistic Yeasts of Banana Anthracnose%香蕉炭疽病优势拮抗酵母菌的分离及筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笑梅; 范飞; 李新国; 龙超安; 李绍鹏

    2013-01-01

    采用稀释平板法和平板划线法从8个不同品种的香蕉果实上分离纯化酵母菌,并将其与香蕉炭疽病原菌进行平板对峙培养及离体防效试验,以筛选优势拮抗酵母菌.结果表明:从香蕉果实上共分离纯化酵母菌329株;平板对峙培养后获得3株拮抗香蕉炭疽病原菌作用明显的酵母菌;离体防效试验筛选出1株拮抗效果较好且稳定的优势拮抗酵母菌Z-BR-16,以无菌水为对照,接种7d后,其1.0×108 CFU/mL菌液对香蕉炭疽病的抑制率为75.94%.%Yeast strains were separated and purified from 8 banana species through pour plate and streak plate methods, and dominant antagonistic yeasts were obtained by culturing them with the banana anthrax pathogen through confront culture method and in-vitro test. The result showed that there were 329 yeast strains purified from the banana fruits. The 3 yeast strains which had obvious antagonism to the banana anthrax pathogen were screened out. Finally, The yeast strain Z-BR-16 wich had the best and the most stable antagonistic effect was screened out. Compared with sterile water, the inhibition rate of the yeast strain Z-BR-16 in 1.0×108 CFU/ml to the banana anthracnose was up to 75.94% after 7 days after vaccination.

  7. 海南胡椒主要真菌病害调查与病原鉴定%Investigation of Main Fungi Diseases of Pepper (piper nigrum L. nm) in Hainan Province and Its Pathogen Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔昌华; 郑服丛; 贺春萍; 李锐; 何小兵; 郑肖兰

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The paper was to confirm the current major diseases of pepper in Hainan Province and their corresponding pathogens.[ Method]The Pepper gardens in the main cultivation regions of 13 species of Pepper in Hainan Province were systematically investigated, and the pathogens of the obtained specimens were isolated and identified. [ Result] Seven fungal diseases in pepper were totally investigated, including blast, anthracnose, blight, slow wilt, root rot, basal rot and Sclerotinia. Currently, the diseases with the serious damage on pepper include blast, anthracnose, blight and slow wilt. [ Conclusion ]The result provides the theoretical basis for the integrated control of diseases in Pepper,and is also benefit for scientific research workers to master the latest dynamic of diseases.%[目的]明确当前海南胡椒主要真菌病害及对应病原菌种类.[方法]对海南13个胡椒主要种植区域的胡椒园进行系统调查,对所得标本进行病原菌分离、鉴定.[结果]共调查到真菌病害7种,分别为胡椒瘟病、炭疽病、枯萎病、慢蔫病、根腐病、基腐病、菌核病.目前,危害胡椒最严重的为胡椒瘟病、胡椒炭疽病、慢蔫病和枯萎病.[结论]研究结果为胡椒病害的综合防治和科研工作者掌握其最新动态提供了理论依据.

  8. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causing anthracnose of mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata) in Turkey, is a potential biological control agent of this weed in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross; family Polygonaceae) is an exotic annual barbed vine that has invaded the northeastern USA, Mississippi, and Oregon. In July of 2010, in a search for potential biological control pathogens, diseased P. perfoliata plants were found along the Firtina...

  9. Produtividade de linhagens de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris dos grupos Rosinha e Roxinho resistentes ao fungo da antracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Productivity of dry bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris of rosinha and roxinho groups resistant to the anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando conhecer a capacidade produtiva de linhagens resistentes ao agente da antracnose e pertencentes aos grupos Rosinha e Roxinho, dezesseis ensaios em blocos ao acaso foram instalados em Campinas, no cultivo das águas de 1977 e 1978, tendo como controles 'Rosinha G2' e 'Roxo-Minas', nos respectivos grupos. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos para as linhagens comuns aos ensaios de 1977 e 1978, mostrou que nenhuma do grupo Rosinha foi superior a Rosinha G2, embora produções médias de 1.876, 1.813 e 1.800kg/ha tenham sido observadas na ausência do patógeno, conseguindo o controle 1.533kg/ha. No grupo Roxinho, oito linhagens, com produções médias de 1.490 a 2.027kg/ha, foram superiores às observadas para o controle 'Roxo-Minas', as quais variaram de 880 a 1.367kg/ha, sem que fosse notada a presença do fungo da antracnose. A interação linhagem x ano não foi significativa, não acontecendo o mesmo com o efeito de ano. As melhores linhagens serão incluídas nos ensaios regionais e algumas terão suas sementes aumentadas em quantidade, para posterior distribuição aos agricultores da região de Campinas.Aiming at the knowledge of yielding capacity of dry bean lines resistant to the anthracnose agent and belonging to the Rosinha and Roxinho groups, sixteen trials in randomized complete-block design were carried out in the Main Experimental Station of Campinas in the rainy season of 1977 and 1978, having 'Rosinha G2' and 'Roxo-Minas' as controls. None of the Rosinha lines outyielded 'Rosinha G2', at the 5% level although high mean yields, around 1,830kg/ha, were observed for some of them in the pathogen absence. On the other hand, 8 lines of 'Roxinho' group were superior to the control 'Roxo-Minas' at the 5% level having mean yields ranging from 1,490 to 2,027 kg/ha, without the presence of the pathogen. The interaction line x year was not significant but the year effect was. The best lines will be included in the regional

  10. Characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with diseases of Proteaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbe, Carolien M; Denman, Sandra; Cannon, Paul F; Groenewald, J Z Ewald; Lamprecht, Sandra C; Crous, Pedro W

    2004-01-01

    Colletotrichum spp. are known to occur on and cause diseases of Proteaceae, but their identities are confused and poorly understood. The aim of the present study thus was to identify accurately the Colletotrichum spp. associated with diseases of cultivated Proteaceae. Colletotrichum spp. associated with proteaceous hosts growing in various parts of the world were identified based on morphology, sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1, ITS-2), the 5.8S gene, and partial sequences of the β-tubulin gene. Four species of Colletotrichum were found to be associated with Proteaceae. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a cosmopolitan species known to occur on numerous hosts, was isolated from Protea cynaroides cultivated in South Africa and Zimbabwe, and from a Leucospermum sp. in Portugal. A recently described species, C. boninense was associated with Zimbabwean and Australian Proteaceae but also occurred on a Eucalyptus sp. in South Africa. This represents a major geographical and host extension for the species and a description of the African strains is provided. Colletotrichum crassipes was represented by a single isolate obtained from a Dryandra plant in Madeira. Colletotrichum acutatum was isolated from Protea and Leucadendron in South Africa as well as from other hosts occurring elsewhere. A pathologically distinct population of this species was found to occur on Hakea in South Africa. This population is described as C. acutatum f. sp. hakeae, and its relationship with other strains of C. acutatum is discussed. Contrary to earlier literature reports linking C. gloeosporioides to anthracnose of Proteaceae, the present study has shown that several distinct species of Colletotrichum are associated with different diseases of this crop, which has serious implications for quarantine and disease control practices. PMID:21148951

  11. Effect of the lactoperoxidase system against three major causal agents of disease in mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Nguyen, Doan Duy; Ducamp, Marie-Noelle; Dornier, Manuel; Montet, Didier; Loiseau, Gérard

    2005-07-01

    The antibacterial activity of the lactoperoxidase system (LPS) on the growth of Xanthomonas campestris, the causal agent of bacterial black spot in mangoes, Botryodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of stem-end rot disease in mangoes, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of anthracnose disease in mangoes, was determined during culture at 30 degrees C and at several pH values (4.5, 5.5, and 6.5). When the results of using the LPS were compared with those from control cultures without the LPS reagents, the growth of the three microorganisms was totally inhibited in all of the conditions tested. Viability tests enumerating cultivable cells of X. campestris showed that the LPS had a bactericidal effect, whatever the pH value. This effect is faster at pH 5.5, corroborating the results reported in the literature (optimal pH for the LPS efficiency). Further, we proved that hydrogen peroxide alone had little inhibition effect on the growth of the microorganisms studied. This compound is essentially used to convert thiocyanate into hypothiocyanate during the lactoperoxidase reaction. The potential of the LPS for the postharvest treatment of the fruits for controlling microbial diseases was thus demonstrated. Nevertheless, further studies are needed on fresh fruits before envisaging any application. PMID:16013395

  12. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on fungal disease development in Cucumis sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, A.B.; Teramura, A.H.; Sisler, H.D. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion due to increased atmospheric pollutants has received considerable attention because of the potential increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation that will reach the earth's surface. Three cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars were exposed to a daily dose of 11.6 kJ m{sup {minus}2} biologically effective ultraviolet-B (UV-B{sub BE}) radiation in an unshaded greenhouse before and/or after injection by Colletotrichum lagenarium (Pass.) Ell. and Halst. or Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. and Arth. and analyzed for disease development. Two of these cultivars, Poinsette and Calypso Hybrid, were disease resistant, while the third cultivar, Straight-8, was disease susceptible. Preinfectional treatment of 1 to 7 days with UV-B{sub BE} in Straight-8 led to greater severity of both diseases. Postinfectional UV treatment did not lead to increased disease severity caused by C. lagenarium, while preinfectional UV treatment in both Straight-8 and Poinsette substantially increased disease severity. Although resistant cultivars Poinsette and Calypso Hybrid showed increased anthracnose disease severity when exposed to UV-B, this effect was apparent only on the cotyledons. Both higher spore concentration and exposure to UV-B radiation resulted in greater disease severity. Of the cucumber cultivars tested for UV-B sensitivity, growth in Poinsette was most sensitive and Calypso Hybrid was least sensitive. These preliminary results indicate that the effects of UV-B radiation on disease development in cucumber vary depending on cultivar, timing and duration of UV-B exposure, inoculation level, and plant age.

  13. Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ePublications > Our ePublications > Lung disease fact sheet ePublications Lung disease fact sheet This information in Spanish (en ... disease? More information on lung disease What is lung disease? Lung disease refers to disorders that affect ...

  14. 热处理对四种果实上炭疽菌的抑制作用及防治效果%Inhibiting and Controlling Effect of Heat Treatment on Anthracnose Diseases in Litchi, Logan, Mango and Papaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海慧; 陈维信; 刘爱媛

    2005-01-01

    从荔枝、龙眼、杧果、木瓜果皮中分离出的炭疽病菌均为胶孢炭疽菌(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Pehz.),不同来源的菌株对4种果实及叶片的致病力和对热处理的反应没有显著性差异.胶孢炭疽菌分生孢子在48℃温水中处理10 min后萌发率显著降低.分生孢子的致死温度为50℃10 min或55℃5 min.菌丝比分生孢子对热处理的敏感性低.48℃温水处理2~30 min对菌丝生长没有抑制作用.在52℃、55℃温水中处理5 min或60C温水中处理2 min后菌丝生长速度显著降低.菌丝的致死温度为60℃30 min.热水浴处理是防治杧果、木瓜采后炭疽病的一种较为有效的方法,处理温度和时间可选用52~55℃5~10 min.

  15. Expression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from Trichoderma harzianum in strawberry increases tolerance to crown rot diseases but interferes with plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, José A; Barceló, Marta; Pliego, Clara; Rey, Manuel; Caballero, José L; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Ruano-Rosa, David; López-Herrera, Carlos; de Los Santos, Berta; Romero-Muñoz, Fernando; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The expression of antifungal genes from Trichoderma harzianum, mainly chitinases, has been used to confer plant resistance to fungal diseases. However, the biotechnological potential of glucanase genes from Trichoderma has been scarcely assessed. In this research, transgenic strawberry plants expressing the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from T. harzianum, under the control of the CaMV35S promoter, have been generated. After acclimatization, five out of 12 independent lines analysed showed a stunted phenotype when growing in the greenhouse. Moreover, most of the lines displayed a reduced yield due to both a reduction in the number of fruit per plant and a lower fruit size. Several transgenic lines showing higher glucanase activity in leaves than control plants were selected for pathogenicity tests. When inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum, one of the most important strawberry pathogens, transgenic lines showed lower anthracnose symptoms in leaf and crown than control. In the three lines selected, the percentage of plants showing anthracnose symptoms in crown decreased from 61 % to a mean value of 16.5 %, in control and transgenic lines, respectively. Some transgenic lines also showed an enhanced resistance to Rosellinia necatrix, a soil-borne pathogen causing root and crown rot in strawberry. These results indicate that bgn13.1 from T. harzianum can be used to increase strawberry tolerance to crown rot diseases, although its constitutive expression affects plant growth and fruit yield. Alternative strategies such as the use of tissue specific promoters might avoid the negative effects of bgn13.1 expression in plant performance. PMID:26178245

  16. Influence of solar irradiance, watering frequency and inorganic fertilizer on incidence of dieback disease and growth of Ceiba pentendra (L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts at raising seedlings of Ceiba pentandra in nurseries have been hampered by damping-off, leaf spots and stem anthracnose causing stem dieback disease by fungal attack. Managing the disease by fungicides retarded growth of the seedlings; hence a method of controlling the dieback disease and boosting growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings based on environmental factors was investigated. Using a randomised complete block design in a factorial split-plot experiment, the dependence of survival and growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings on solar irradiance, watering frequency and NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer was studied to improve the survival rate of seedlings by preventing dieback disease in large-scale plantation development in Ghana. Solar irradiance, daily watering of 4.5 L per plot and inorganic fertilizer application of 1.0 g per seedling had the strongest effect in minimizing the incidence of dieback disease and ensuring 90 % survival and improved collar diameter growth. The levels of irradiance, watering regime and optimum fertilizer application required to control dieback disease and promote growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings were set, and could be adopted by tree growers. (au)

  17. Combined heat and gamma-irradiation treatments for the control of strawberry diseases under market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spoilage of strawberries under local market conditions was investigated. It was confirmed that the major losses are due to 'leak' disease caused by Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.) Lind. It was also established that further fruit losses in summer are due to anthracnose caused by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds. This is the first time that the latter pathogen has been isolated and identified and recognised as a problem on strawberries in South Africa. Studies with R. stolonifer in culture showed that 46 degrees Celsius for 20 min (the previous international standard heat treatment for fruit) was disappointing, while a treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 min effectively inhibited spore germination. Irradiation studies with cultures of R. stolonifer and C. acutatum showed that a dose of 200 and 100 krad, respectively, resulted in excellent inhibition of spore germination. However, irradiating in nitrogen gas resulted in a tenfold reduction in the effectiveness of the irradiation treatments. The use of nitrogen during irradiation, therefore, cannot be considered, especially where an effective control of the fungal pathogens is desired. Investigations with different cultivars clearly demonstrated the synergistic effect on disease control obtained when combining heat and irradiation treatments. The combination treatment (moist heat at 50-52 degrees Celsius for 10 min plus 200 krad), besides effectively controlling both diseases in strawberries, did not adversely affect berry quality. In simulated transport tests it was shown that a minimal amount of berry softening did occur with this treatment, but this adverse effect was negligible compared with the beneficial effect obtained from disease control. In semi-commercial experiments it was shown that the combination heat and irradiation treatment effectively controlled spoilage diseases for a period of several days from picking, thus allowing sufficient time to market the fruit under local market

  18. Glomerular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  19. Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Article Body What is Kawasaki disease? Kawasaki disease is a serious and perplexing disease, the cause of which is ... influenza) with aspirin has been linked with a serious disease called Reye syndrome. Always consult your pediatrician before ...

  20. Avaliação da produtividade de linhagens de feijoeiro resistentes ao fungo da antracnose Productivity of dry bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris resistant to the anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade produtiva de linhagens de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris resistentes ao fungo da antracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum pertencentes aos grupos Preto, Chumbinho e Diversas, foi estimada em experimentos em blocos ao acaso, instalados em Campinas, no cultivo das águas de 1977, 1978 e 1979. Utilizaram-se os cultivares Moruna, Aroana e Carioca como controles para as linhagens dos grupos Preto, Chumbinho e Diversos respectivamente. Pela análise estatística dos dados obtidos pelas linhagens do grupo Preto, comuns aos ensaios de 1977 e 1978, 1978 e 1979, observou-se que as de prefixos 5-9-4-3-1-4, 5-9-4-3-1-5, 18-1-6 e 5-9-4-3-1-6, com médias de 2.100, 2.079, 2.055 e 2.028kg/ha, foram superiores ao 'Moruna', que produziu 1.580kg/ha. No grupo Chumbinho, cujas linhagens foram avaliadas em 1978 e 1979, a de prefixo 5-1-1-5-1-9, com 2.336kg/ha, destacou-se das demais, embora esta produtividade média estivesse ao mesmo nível, estatisticamente, da verificada para o 'Aroana', 2.136kg/ha. Para as linhagens do grupo Diversos, estudadas em 1978 e 1979, apenas 10-3-1 e 10-6-2, com produções médias de 3.133 e 2.823kg/ha, foram superiores, respectivamente, a 2.375 e 2.355kg/ha, observadas para o 'Carioca'. Outras linhagens deste grupo tiveram médias acima do controle, como 10-9-2, 10-9-1 e 10-5-1, com 2.698, 2.686 e 2.649kg/ha (Carioca - 2.355kg/ha na ausência do patógeno. Nas análises conjuntas foram notados efeitos significativos para ano em onze dos doze grupos de experimentos e em apenas dois para a interação tratamento x ano. As melhores linhagens serão colocadas nos ensaios regionais e algumas terão suas sementes aumentadas e colocadas à disposição dos agricultores da região de Campinas.With the objective of knowing the yielding ability of dry bean lines of Preto, Diversos and Chumbinho groups resistant to the anthracnose agent, trials in randomized complete-block design were carried out in the Main Experimental Station of

  1. Ribbing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc

  2. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

  3. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Narusaka

    Full Text Available Housaku Monogatari (HM is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods.

  4. Screening Landraces for Additional Sources of Field Resistance to Cassava Mosaic Disease and Green Mite for Integration into the Cassava Improvement Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adebola Raji; Oluseyi Ladeinde; Alfred Dixon

    2008-01-01

    Twelve cassava landraces were evaluated for sources of resistance genes to diseases and pests of major economic importance in Africa. The objective was to assess their levels of field resistance to mosaic disease (ACMD), bacterial blight (CBB), anthracnose (CAD), and green mite (CGM), compared to TMS30572, an elite cultivar widely adopted in Africa. Considerable genotypic variation was observed among cultivars for resistance to ACMD and CGM but not for CBB and CAD. The lowest mean Incidence of 12% and severity of 1.8 on a scale of 1-5 for ACMD was recorded for Atu, a landrace with farmer acceptable qualities. In comparison, the improved cultivar, TMS 30572, had a mean disease incidence of 72% and a severity score of 2.8. Another landrace, MS-20 had the lowest CGM damage score (2.1) while TMS 30572 emerged as one of the susceptible cultivars with a damage score of 3. Additional sources of resistance to ACMD and CGM that may possibly be better than the popular improved cultivar, TMS 30572, were identified in this study. These could serve as novel sources of additional genes to complement existing resources for elite cassava breeding in Africa.

  5. Fungicides and silicate clay on the control of antracnosis in yellow passionfruit
    Fungicidas e argila silicatada no controle da antracnose do maracujá amarelo

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Augusto Martins Peruch; André Martins Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    The anthracnose, caused by Glomerella cingulata (anamorf Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), is the most important fungal disease for aerial parts of yellow passionfruit. However, few studies about anthracnose control in field conditions have been published. The objective of this research was to evaluate silicate clay and fungicides for anthracnose control. Treatments evaluated were: tebuconazole (20g i.a./100L), copper oxychloride (180g i.a./100L), silicate clay (15g /L) and control (untreated ...

  6. Controle da antracnose e qualidade de mangas (Mangifera indica L. cv. van dyke, após tratamento hidrotérmico e químico Anthracnose control and mango quality (Mangifera indica L. cv. van dyke after hydrothermal and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Carvalho Dias

    2005-04-01

    armazenamento. O fungicida Prochloraz (Sportak 110 mL/100 L, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico, inibiu totalmente o aparecimento de sintomas de antracnose.Anthracnose causes severe damage to the mango skin. Therefore, there is need to do the post-harvest phytosanitary treatment of the fruits through soaking in fungicide solution, which associated with the hydrothermal treatment has resulted into improved benefits. The present work has aimed at studying anthracnose control and post-harvest quality of mangoes (Mangifera indica L., cv. Van Dyke after hydrothermal treatment associated with chemical through the physical, physicochemical, chemical and phytopathologic analyses. The mangoes coming from the commercial orchard of the town of Janaúba-MG, of the 2000 crop, were harvested at the commercial maturation stage. After selection according to color uniformity, size and absence of mechanic and physiologic injuries, they were shipped in plastic boxes to the EPAMIG - CTNM - Nova Porteirinha - MG, fruit post-harvest laboratory, where the samples were submitted to the hydrothermal treatment in cold bath in solution containing the fungicides Thiabendazole (Tecto 400 mL/100L, Proclaraz (Sportak 10L/100L and Imazalil (Magnate 200mL/100L. After air-drying, the fruits were packed in plastic trays and stored at room temperature (25±2°C and RH 70% for a 12-day period and evaluated as to the intrinsic quality characteristics every 4 days. The experiment was conducted a completely randomized with 8 treatments, 4 replicates and experimental unit consisting of 4 fruits. The variations of pH, total soluble solids, total titrable acidity and total soluble sugars have not endangered the organoleptic characteristics of mangoes cv. Van Dyke stored under room temperature (25±2°C and RH 70% till 8 days' storage. The association of the hydrothermal treatment with the chemical was efficient in fruit anthracnose control for till 12 days' storage. The fungicide Prochloraz (Sportak 110 mL/100L

  7. Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that ... higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some ...

  8. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  9. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Heart Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Heart Disease Print A A ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the cardiovascular ...

  10. Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Lyme disease is caused by bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi ( B burgdorferi ). Blacklegged ticks and other species of ... Names Borreliosis; Bannwarth syndrome Images Lyme disease organism, Borrelia burgdorferi Tick, deer engorged on the skin Lyme disease - ...

  11. Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of ...

  12. Krabbe disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Krabbe disease. Some people have had a bone marrow transplant in the early stages of the disease, but ... counseling is recommended for people with a family history of Krabbe disease who are considering having children. ...

  13. Stargardt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Congenital Amaurosis Macular Degeneration Retinitis Pigmentosa Stargardt Disease Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & ... for retinal degenerative diseases like retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Usher syndrome and macular degeneration . Back to top What ...

  14. Reportable diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notifiable diseases ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Last updated May 4, 2015. Available at: wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss . Accessed September 9, 2015.

  15. Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory ... small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease is unknown. It may be due to an ...

  16. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wilson disease. Health care providers do not use brain imaging tests to diagnose Wilson disease, though certain findings ... testing. [ Top ] Clinical Trials The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other ...

  17. Farber's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Farber's Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Ceramidase Deficiency Table of Contents ( ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Farber's Disease? Farber’s disease, also known as Farber's lipogranulomatosis, describes ...

  18. Sandhoff Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. Sandhoff disease is a severe form of Tay-Sachs disease, the incidence of which had been particularly ... gene therapy seen in an animal model of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases for use in humans. NIH ...

  19. Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung disease Have a weak immune system Legionnaires' disease is serious and can be life-threatening. However, most people recover with antibiotic treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  20. Ribbing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukkada Philson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc.

  1. Celiac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hero Brokalaki; Nikolaos Fotos

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is a small intestine disease caused by the immunological response to gluten, a component of wheat, rye and barley. The worldwide prevalence of celiac disease ranges between 0.2% and 2.2 %. The clinical features of celiac disease includes diarrhea, steatorrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain and weight loss. The asymptomatic type of celiac disease is characterized by soft or normally shaped stool, weakness, lassitude and moderate weight loss. In children, celiac disease usually aris...

  2. Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Playfer, J R

    1997-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common disabling disease of old age. The diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease is based on clinical signs and has poor sensitivity, with about 25% of patients confidently diagnosed as having the disease actually having other conditions such as multi-system atrophy and other parkinsonism-plus syndromes. Benign essential tremor and arteriosclerotic pseudo-parkinsonism can easily be confused with Parkinson's disease. The cause of Parkinson's disease remains unknown...

  3. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli): origin, distribution, and its economical value

    OpenAIRE

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-01-01

    Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense). ...

  4. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli: origin, distribution, and its economical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense. Capsicum has significantly economical value, for example as spices, vitamine, traditionaly medicine, and as an ornamental plant.

  5. Pneumatic Conveying System For Chilli Handling: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Mahure; P. G. Mehar; S. R. Ikhar; A. V. Vanalkar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:In the industries where bulk material is to be transferred from one place in the process plant to the other, material handling systems are required. Various types of conveyors are available in the market having their own characteristic features. But in the industries where very high mass flow rates are required, pneumatic conveying system can be very useful. Various other conveyors are also present but some occupy a lot of space in the plant whereas some cannot give such high mass fl...

  6. Newcastle disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND), referred to as Exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the U. S., is an acute viral disease of domestic poultry and many other bird species and a recognized worldwide problem. Occurrence of END is due to an infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and is a ...

  7. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  8. Whipple's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Whipple Disease Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is Whipple disease? Whipple disease is a rare bacterial infection ...

  9. [Prion diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoĭda, N I; Zavalishin, I A

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are a family of progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by prions. There are four human prion diseases: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal insomnia and Kuru. They can arise in three different ways: acquired, familial or sporadic. We review clinical presentations, pathophysiology, morphological picture, diagnostic procedures and available treatment options of prion diseases. PMID:23235426

  10. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  11. Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, M L

    1989-01-01

    Lyme disease, caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the illness: early disease includes erthyma migrans, early disseminated disease includes multiple erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies and carditis; late disease is primarily arthritis. The symptoms and signs of infection resolve in the vast majority of patients after appropriate treatment with antimicr...

  12. Classification of chilli sauces: Multivariate pattern recognition using selected GCMS retention time peaks of chilli sauces samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a preliminary work on the possibility of separating classes of chili sauces based on taste or customer preferences, organic compounds from different kinds of chili sauces of various brands were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/ MS). It was found that these organic compounds do form a basis for separation of different types of sauces. The similarity and dissimilarity of chromatograms due to the organic composition of the chili sauces were explored by multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Both CA and PCA results exhibit four linearly separable classes, namely general sauces, hot sauces, sauces with benzoic acid and sauces with garlic. It was concluded that by using chosen retention peaks in the chromatograms of various sauce samples as multivariate features, CA and PCA can be successfully used to reveal the natural clusters existing in chili sauces according to their organic composition. (author)

  13. The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene confers broad-spectrum disease resistance in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Katchen Julliany P; Brunings, Asha; Peres, Natalia A; Mou, Zhonglin; Folta, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    Although strawberry is an economically important fruit crop worldwide, production of strawberry is limited by its susceptibility to a wide range of pathogens and the lack of major commercial cultivars with high levels of resistance to multiple pathogens. The objective of this study is to ectopically express the Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene (AtNPR1) in the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca L. and to test transgenic plants for disease resistance. AtNPR1 is a key positive regulator of the long-lasting broad-spectrum resistance known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and has been shown to confer resistance to a number of pathogens when overexpressed in Arabidopsis or ectopically expressed in several crop species. We show that ectopic expression of AtNPR1 in strawberry increases resistance to anthracnose, powdery mildew, and angular leaf spot, which are caused by different fungal or bacterial pathogens. The increased resistance is related to the relative expression levels of AtNPR1 in the transgenic plants. In contrast to Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtNPR1, which grow normally and do not constitutively express defense genes, the strawberry transgenic plants are shorter than non-transformed controls, and most of them fail to produce runners and fruits. Consistently, most of the transgenic lines constitutively express the defense gene FvPR5, suggesting that the SAR activation mechanisms in strawberry and Arabidopsis are different. Nevertheless, our results indicate that overexpression of AtNPR1 holds the potential for generation of broad-spectrum disease resistance in strawberry. PMID:25812515

  14. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  15. Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  16. Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  18. Raynaud's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  19. Addison Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  20. Gaucher Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder in which you do not have enough of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. ... It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...

  1. Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  2. Meniere's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. It can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ... together over several days. Some people with Meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is ...

  3. Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myocarditis Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pericarditis Peripheral Vascular Disease Rheumatic Fever Sick Sinus Syndrome Silent Ischemia Stroke Sudden Cardiac Arrest Vulnerable Plaque Valve Disease | Share Related terms: heart valves, valve insufficiency, valve regurgitation, valve stenosis, valvular ...

  4. Fifth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and mouth ...

  5. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fibrosis Research Identifies Key Hurdle in Quest for Cystic Fibrosis Treatment More Research News Clinical Trials Clinical trials offer ... people and opportunities to help researchers find better treatments in the ... Fibrosis Graves' Disease Hashimoto's Disease Human Growth Hormone and ...

  6. Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some examples of CAM are herbal products, chiropractic , acupuncture , and hypnosis . If you have an autoimmune disease, ... Toll-Free: 877-226-4267 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, HHS Phone: ...

  7. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Among US Adults, examines the relationship between consuming too much added sugar and the risk of heart disease death. When it Comes to Blood Pressure, Make Control ...

  8. Huntington disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington chorea ... Huntington disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4. The defect causes a part of ... 10 to 28 times. But in persons with Huntington disease, it is repeated 36 to 120 times. ...

  9. Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... descriptions of some of the more common autoinflammatory diseases. The Immune System Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) Neonatal Onset Multisystem ... and monocytes to destroy harmful substances. In autoinflammatory diseases, this innate immune system causes inflammation for unknown reasons. It reacts, ...

  10. Legionnaire disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Legionnaire disease is an infection of the lungs and airways. It is caused by Legionella bacteria. Causes The bacteria that cause Legionnaire disease have ...

  11. Addison disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or fungal infections Hemorrhage into the adrenal glands Tumors Risk factors for the autoimmune type of Addison disease include other autoimmune diseases : Swelling (inflammation) of the thyroid gland that often results in reduced thyroid function ( chronic ...

  12. Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabling JavaScript. Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Lyme Disease Lyme ... research with the major goals of developing better means of diagnosing, treating, and preventing the disease. To accomplish ...

  13. Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease early before it causes damage to the intestine. But because it's easy to confuse the symptoms with other intestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease , or lactose intolerance , teens with ...

  14. Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  15. Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are otherwise healthy. But for some people fifth disease cause serious health complications. People with weakened immune systems caused ... transplants, or HIV infection are at risk for serious complications from fifth disease. It can cause chronic anemia that requires medical ...

  16. Menetrier's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a weakened immune system, CMV can cause serious disease, such as retinitis, which can lead to blindness. ... weakened immune system in order to prevent a serious disease from developing as a result of CMV. Antiviral ...

  17. Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common name for one of the several illnesses caused by Legionnaires' disease bacteria (LDB). Legionnaires' disease is an infection of the ... Legion Convention in Philadelphia. L. pneumophila had undoubtedly caused previous ... disease bacteria (LDB). L. pneumophila is a gram-negative rod ...

  18. Autoinflammatory Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a review article on the autoinflammatory diseases, narrating its historical origin and describing the protein and molecular structure of the Inflammasome, the current classification of the autoinflammatory diseases and a description of the immuno genetics and clinical characteristics more important of every disease.

  19. Paddlefish Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durborow, R.M.; Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomáš

    Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015 - (Mims, S.; Shelton, W.), s. 227-265 ISBN 9780813810584 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : brown blood disease * immunity * interferon regulatory factor * paddlefish diseases * Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  20. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know what causes some brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely depending on the specific problem. In some cases, damage is permanent. In other cases, treatments such as surgery, medicines, or physical therapy can correct the source of the problem or ...

  1. Rendimiento y reacción a enfermedades de genotipos de frijol en condiciones de temporal y humedad residual Yield and reaction to diseases of bean genotypes under rainfed conditions and residual moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hugo Tosquy-Valle

    2012-07-01

    Medellín de Bravo and San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, with residual moisture. 11 varieties and five lines were evaluated, in lattice design 4x4 with four replications. In field, the reaction was quantified to the common mosaic virus, angular leaf spot, rust and anthracnose, with a scale of 1 to 9 of CIAT and grain yield in kilograms per hectare. An analy sis of variance was performed for each disease, which were correlated with grain yield, as well as combined analysis of genotypes yield for moisture condition and, overall analysis of all tested environments. For the separation of means DMS at 0.05 was applied. Negro Papaloapan yielded 1 753 kg ha-1 in rainfed and, 1 3 3 3 kg ha-1 with residual moisture; both average yields were statistically higherthan the other genotypes. The incidence of anthracnose (r= -0516* in the first condition and, angularleaf spot (r= -0528 * in the second one, significantly reducing its yield. Negro Papaloapan was the mostproductive in both conditions, and showed resistance to common mosaic, angular leaf spot and, anthracnose tolerance.

  2. Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ozdemir, Davut; İnce, Nevin

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Humans are infected by a tick bite to the skin. This disease is a non-contagious infectious disease. It has been known since the 19th century. LD has a worldwide distribution. It is endemic in Europe, North and South America. There are case reports since 1990 in Turkey. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the disease. Lyme disease is classified into three stages: early localized dise...

  3. Glomerular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Shelly L

    2011-08-01

    Glomerular diseases are a leading cause of chronic kidney disease in dogs but seem to be less common in cats. Glomerular diseases are diverse, and a renal biopsy is needed to determine the specific glomerular disease that is present in any animal. Familial glomerulopathies occur in many breeds of dogs. However, most dogs with glomerular disease have acquired glomerular injury that is either immune-complex mediated or due to systemic factors, both of which are believed to be the result of a disease process elsewhere in the body (i.e., neoplastic, infectious, and noninfectious inflammatory disorders). A thorough clinical evaluation is indicated in all dogs suspected of having glomerular disease and should include an extensive evaluation for potential predisposing disorders. Nonspecific management of dogs with glomerular disease can be divided into 3 major categories: (1) treatment of potential predisposing disorders, (2) management of proteinuria, and (3) management of uremia and other complications of glomerular disease and chronic kidney disease. Specific management of specific glomerular diseases has not been fully studied in dogs. However, it may be reasonable to consider immunosuppressive therapy in dogs that have developed a form of glomerulonephritis secondary to a steroid-responsive disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus) or have immune-mediated lesions that have been documented in renal biopsy specimens. Appropriate patient monitoring during therapy is important for maximizing patient care. The prognosis for dogs and cats with glomerular disease is variable and probably dependent on a combination of factors. The purpose of this article is to discuss the general diagnosis and management of dogs with glomerular disease. PMID:21782143

  4. Avaliação da incidência de antracnose, do desempenho e estado nutricional de variedades de mangueira, para cultivo orgânico, na região centro-norte do Estado de São Paulo Evaluation of anthracnose incidence, development and nutritional status of mango trees varieties for organic cultivation in north center region of São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Altafin Galli

    2009-09-01

    , provavelmente, sofreu toxicidade ao excesso de manganês, ocasionando diminuição em seu desenvolvimento.The consumer's profile change, allied to the risk of toxic substances contamination, is inducing the search for ecological alternatives of fruits production. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the anthracnose incidence, the development and nutritional status of mango varieties organically cultivated in Pindorama, SP. Seventeen mango varieties were used. The experiment was designed in completely randomized blocks, with 17 treatments (varieties and six replications. The anthracnose severity in leaves was evaluated by a diagrammatic scale, with grades attributed to the symptoms. The growth and development (plant height, stem and crown perimeter and the nutritional state indicated by leaf analysis were used for evaluation of the varietal behavior. The varieties Bourbon, Rocha and Rosa could be considered very susceptible to anthracnose and IAC 111, Alfa, Beta and Parvin were resistant; the mango varieties presented the same growth pattern; the largest plant heights corresponded to the largest diameters of the stem and crown; the Parvin variety presented the best performance among the varieties in relation to the anthracnose resistance, height and diameter of the stem and crown, and could be recommended for organic cultivation. The Omega and Alfa varieties also presented good development and could be indicated for that cultivation, at least in that initial phase; Surpresa and Rosa varieties did not present good field development in relation to the others, and should not be recommended for the organic cultivation, mainly the variety Rosa, which is quite susceptible to anthracnose. The concentrations of N, P and K were higher in the vegetative phase of the plants, when compared to the low concentration of Ca; there was lack of Boron in all the studied varieties; Rosa variety probably suffered toxicity to the excess of manganese, causing decrease in its development.

  5. Determination of Efficacy of Metalaxyl Seed Treatment Fungicide on Incidence of Sorghum Diseases and Its Cost-Benefit in Borno State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard, B. I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is an economically valued food and cash crop in of Nigeria. In 2001 and 2002 cropping seasons, field experiments were conducted in a split-pot using randomized complete block design to determine the efficacy of Metalaxyl fungicide and it cost-benefit on incidence of sorghum diseases in Borno State at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of crop protection, University of Maiduguri. Six sorghum genotypes which include BES, ICSV 111, ICSV 400, Warwarbashi, Paul-Biya and Ex-Mali were used. The seeds were treated with 2.5g a.i/kg of Metalaxyi, plus control before sowing. Results showed that plants grown from the untreated seeds significantly had the highest mean anthracnose incidence of 33.6% and 33.9%, sooty stripe mean incidence of 42.1% and 38.6% in 2001 and 2002, and a higher covered smut mean incidence of 10.7% in 2002 respectively. Long smut incidence and grain yield were not significant among treated and untreated seeds in 2001 and 2002. Treated plants had an increased yield of 0.28% and 28.9% more than the untreated in 2001 and 2002 respectively. Treated Ex-Mali and untreated Paul-Biya, Ex-Mali recorded higher cost-benefit ratio and net profit in monetary valued. The physiological attributes of each sorghum genotypes can dictate their choice for local uses as well.

  6. Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hero Brokalaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a small intestine disease caused by the immunological response to gluten, a component of wheat, rye and barley. The worldwide prevalence of celiac disease ranges between 0.2% and 2.2 %. The clinical features of celiac disease includes diarrhea, steatorrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain and weight loss. The asymptomatic type of celiac disease is characterized by soft or normally shaped stool, weakness, lassitude and moderate weight loss. In children, celiac disease usually arises between the first and the third year of age, with diarrhea, flatulence and low weight. The malabsorption in small intestine causes many extaintestinal manifestations, such us anemia, bone abnormalities, hemorrhage and neuropathy. Celiac disease is diagnosed by histological examination of tissue samples taken by duodenum due gastroscopy and by the detection of certain antibodies in blood (anti-GL-IgG, anti-GL-IgA, ΕΜΑ-IgA και anti-tTg-IgA. The only therapeutic approach to celiac disease is a gluten-free diet and, if it is necessary, the administration of iron, folic acid, calcium and vitamins (K, B12. The prognosis of celiac disease is excellent, if there is an early diagnosis and the patient keeps for life a gluten free diet.

  7. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a multysystemic autoimmune disease induced by gluten in wheat, barley and rye. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, high prevalence (1%, widely heterogeneous expression and frequent association with other autoimmune diseases, selective deficit of IgA and Down, Turner and Williams syndrome. The basis of the disease and the key finding in its diagnostics is symptomatic or asymptomatic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa which resolves by gluten-free diet. Therefore, the basis of the treatment involves elimination diet, so that the disorder, if timely recognized and adequately treated, also characterizes excellent prognosis.

  8. [Moyamoya disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, R G; Isayeva, Yu N; Gorobets, E A; Tokareva, N V; Esin, O R

    2016-01-01

    Moya-moya is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by the progressive occlusion of cerebral vessels with partial switching off the circle of Willis and arteries that feed it. The article provides a review of literature, modern diagnostic criteria and a description of a single clinical case. The onset of the disease in this patient was characterized by headache and speech disorders.An analysis of speech disorders showed that they were systemic. They were registered at all language levels (phonetic, lexical,morphological, syntactic). A long diagnostic search may be explained by clinical manifestations that are atypical for other cerebrovascular diseases and by the rarity of the disease. PMID:27386589

  9. Coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Peter H R; Jabri, Bana

    2003-08-01

    Coeliac disease is a genetically-determined chronic inflammatory intestinal disease induced by an environmental precipitant, gluten. Patients with the disease might have mainly non-gastrointestinal symptoms, and as a result patients present to various medical practitioners. Epidemiological studies have shown that coeliac disease is very common and affects about one in 250 people. The disease is associated with an increased rate of osteoporosis, infertility, autoimmune diseases, and malignant disease, especially lymphomas. The mechanism of the intestinal immune-mediated response is not completely clear, but involves an HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 restricted T-cell immune reaction in the lamina propria as well as an immune reaction in the intestinal epithelium. An important component of the disease is the intraepithelial lymphocyte that might become clonally expanded in refractory sprue and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. Study of the mechanism of the immune response in coeliac disease could provide insight into the mechanism of inflammatory and autoimmune responses and lead to innovations in treatment. PMID:12907013

  10. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtmeier Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1:270 in Finland to 1:5000 in North America. Since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. Furthermore, severe inflammation of the small bowel can be present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis should be made early since celiac disease causes growth retardation in untreated children and atypical symptoms like infertility or neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy with jejunal biopsy. In addition, tissue-transglutaminase antibodies are important to confirm the diagnosis since there are other diseases which can mimic celiac disease. The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown but is thought to be primarily immune mediated (tissue-transglutaminase autoantigen; often the disease is inherited. Management consists in life long withdrawal of dietary gluten, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement. However, complete normalization of histology can take years.

  11. Effect of fungicides on the reaction of sorghum hybrids to disease in Burleson County, Texas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of fungicides to control anthracnose and grain mold on sorghum hybrids was conducted during the 2011 growing season. Three fungicides Headline, Quilt Xcel, and Topguard were used. Fungicides were applied on 30 May to the middle two rows with a CO2 backpack sprayer, at 30 psi in a spray vol...

  12. Hartnup disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerajani Hemangi

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of Hartnup disease is presented - the patient being an 11 year old school girl suffering from a typically pellagroid rash in the absence of any other signs of malnutrition. No accompanying neurological or psychiatric features are seen, but electro-encephalography revealed abnormal baseline activity. Investigations and management are detailed and the literature on Hartnup disease reviewed.

  13. Hartnup disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jerajani Hemangi; Amladi Sangeeta; Kohli Malavika; Parekh Roopali

    1994-01-01

    A rare case of Hartnup disease is presented - the patient being an 11 year old school girl suffering from a typically pellagroid rash in the absence of any other signs of malnutrition. No accompanying neurological or psychiatric features are seen, but electro-encephalography revealed abnormal baseline activity. Investigations and management are detailed and the literature on Hartnup disease reviewed.

  14. Alexander Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alexander disease is a progressive and often fatal disease. The destruction of white matter is accompanied by the formation of Rosenthal fibers, which are abnormal clumps of protein that accumulate in non-neuronal cells ... are sometimes found in other disorders, but not in the same amount or area ...

  15. Facioscapulohumeral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padberg, George Waltherus Adrianus Maria

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss several aspects of facioscapulohumeral disease, also called "autosomal dominant facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy" or "Landouzy-Dejerine type of muscular dystrophy" or "Landouzy-Dejerine' s disease" . We consider this disorder well defined and recognizabl

  16. Tickborne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye rash similar to that found in Lyme disease, which is caused by bacteria transmitted by the deer tick. Although researchers know that the lone star tick transmits the infectious agent that causes STARI, they ... both bacterial diseases. Babesiosis is caused by parasites carried by deer ...

  17. Whipple's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Complete blood count ( CBC ) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to check for the bacteria that cause the disease Small bowel biopsy Upper GI endoscopy (viewing the intestines with a flexible, lighted tube in a process called enteroscopy ) This disease may ...

  18. Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... simply be displayed as a subtle area of pink or red skin rather than the classic bull's-eye rash. Overview Lyme disease is the result of infection with the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. The disease is transmitted by infected ticks that also feed on mice and deer. The tick can be found attached ...

  19. Barlow's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sozen, Yunus V.; Tozun, Remzi; Berkman, Mahmut; Akalin, Yilmaz; Kara, Ayhan Nedim

    2004-01-01

    Scurvy that is so rare nowadays is clinically and radiologically very well defined. Two cases brought to our clinic in 1979 and 1980 are presented because ths disease process was so far advanced and because the clinical ond especsally radiological manifesations of the disease were so typical. The radiological and clinical characteristics of scurvy are elucidated because of these two cases.

  20. Parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foundations of roentgenological semiotics of parasitic diseases of lungs, w hich are of the greatest practical value, are presented. Roentgenological pictu res of the following parasitic diseases: hydatid and alveolar echinococcosis, pa ragonimiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiasis, bilharziasis (Schistosomias is) of lungs, are considered

  1. Whipple's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... she sends a report to the gastroenterologist for review. Read more in Upper GI Endoscopy at www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov. How is Whipple disease treated? The health care provider prescribes antibiotics to destroy the T. whipplei bacteria and treat Whipple disease. Health care providers choose ...

  2. Pneumococcal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 adults age 65 years and older. Pneumococcal disease can cause serious illness and lifelong complications. Pneumococcal meningitis can cause hearing loss, seizures, blindness, and paralysis. Serious heart problems are ... its worst forms, pneumococcal disease kills one in every four to five people ...

  3. Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karjoo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy is characterized by intestinal mucosal damage and malabsorption from dietary intake of wheat, rye or barley. Symptoms may appear with introduction of cereal in the first 3 years of life. A second peak in symptoms occurs in adults during the third or forth decade and even as late as eight decade of life. The prevalence of this disease is approximately 1 in 250 adults. The disease is more prevalent in Ireland as high as 1 in 120 adults. The disorder occurs in Arab, Hispanics, Israeli Jews, Iranian and European but is rare in Chinese and African American. To have celiac disease the patient should have the celiac disease genetic markers as HLA DQ 2 and HLA DQ 8. Patient with celiac disease may have 95 per cent for DQ 2 and the rest is by DQ 8. Someone may have the genetic marker and never develops the disease. In general 50 percent with markers may develop celiac disease. To develop the disease the gene needs to become activated. This may happen with a viral or bacterial infection, a surgery, delivery, accident, or psychological stress. After activation of gene cause the tight junction to opens with the release of Zonulin This results in passage of gluten through the tight junction and formation of multiple antibodies and autoimmune disease. This also allows entrance of other proteins and development of multiple food allergies. As a result is shortening, flattening of intestinal villi resulting in food, vitamins and minerals malabsorption.

  4. Investigation on Main Oat Diseases and Pests in Northwest Area of Hebei Province%冀西北地区燕麦主要病虫害调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁军海; 曹丽霞; 赵世锋; 张凤英; 张发

    2015-01-01

    The main oat diseases and pests in Zhangjiakou city were investigated during 2011 and 2013.The results suggested that:the most serious disease was drought,the next was covered smut (Ustilago segetum var.hordei (Pers.)Rabenh),and thirdly,Drechslera leaf spot (Drechslera avena-cea (Eidam)Shoemaker),anthracnose (Glomerella graminicola Polltis),stem rust (Puccinia grami-nis f.sp.avenae)and red-leaf disease caused by barley yellow dwarf virus;the major pests were aphid;seed soaking or dressing and crop rotation were the main method to cure oat covered smut,and the rest diseases and pests were not worth curing in most cases.The occurrence regularity of meadow moth (Lox-ostege sticticalis Linnaeus),wheat cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Wollenweber),and stem rust were discussed especially in this paper.%2011-2013年对张家口市燕麦主要病虫害进行了调查。结果表明:张家口市燕麦主要病害是旱灾,其次是坚黑穗病,再次是叶斑病、炭疽病、秆锈病和红叶病;主要虫害是蚜虫。坚黑穗病主要通过药剂拌(浸)种和轮作防治,其它病虫害一般不防治。对草地螟、小麦禾谷孢囊线虫和秆锈病的发生规律进行了探讨。

  5. Wilson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Amirian

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available The reported case is a 9-year old female who was presented with following clinical signs and symptoms: Excessive salivation, difficulty in speaking and writing, deteriorating school performance, spasticity, dysarthria, dysphagia, tremor of the wrists and shoulders. The initial impression was Wilson's disease. Increased copper in the urine after 24 hour treatment with D-penicillamine, low serum copper level and low ceruloplasmin and presence of kayser-fleischer rings in ophthalmologic slit lamp examination confirmed the diagnosis of Wilson's disease and treatment with D-penicillamine was started. It is important to keep Wilson's disease in mind in evaluating patients with presentation similar to that of this patient. Wilson's disease is a recessively inherited defect of copper metabolism. In 70-805 of cases, the presenting clinical manifestations are hepatic or neurological. kayser-fleischer ring is present in 75% of children who present with hepatic symptoms and in all children with neurological changes. The histologic appearance of liver biopsy in Wilson's disease is not pathognomonic. The early diagnosis and treatment of Wilson's disease is extremely important, as effective therapy is available. D-penicillamine is the most effective drug in treating Wilson's disease.

  6. Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2012-02-03

    Crohn\\'s disease is a disorder mediated by T lymphocytes which arises in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of a breakdown in the regulatory constraints on mucosal immune responses to enteric bacteria. Regulation of immune reactivity to enteric antigens has improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of Crohn\\'s disease, and has expanded therapeutic options for patients with this disorder. Disease heterogeneity is probable, with various underlying defects associated with a similar pathophysiological outcome. Although most conventional drug treatments are directed at modification of host response, therapeutic manipulation of the enteric flora is becoming a realistic option.

  7. Investigation of Main Categories of Disease and Insect Pest for Chaenomeles sinensis in Baihe County of Shanxi Province%陕西白河县光皮木瓜主要病虫害发生种类调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 龚小松; 沈大刚; 吴辰

    2011-01-01

    通过对陕西省白河县光皮木瓜主要病虫害发生种类进行调查和室内鉴定.采取踏查和标准地调查相结合的方式进行调查.结果表明,白河县光皮木瓜主要虫害有梨小食心虫、桃蛀螟、桃小食心虫、桃蚜;主要病害有褐腐病、炭疽病、叶斑病.%The investigation and the indoor identification of main categories of disease and insect pest for Chaenomeles sinensis were conducted in Baihe County of Shanxi Province. The investigation method combined reconnaissance survey with sample plot investigation. The results indicated that the main insect pests for Chaenomeles sinensis in Baihe County were 'Grapholitha molesta, Dichocrocis punctiferalis, Carposina nipponensis and Myzus persicae; the main diseases for Chaenomeles sinensis in Baihe County were brown rot disease, anthracnose and leaf spot.

  8. Effect of the calcium, boron and sulphur in pre harvest applications over the severity of anthracnose(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and the fruit's quality of two papaya's varieties in Perez Zeledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research established the effect of the calcium, boron and sulphur in pre harvest applications over the severity of anthracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and the fruit's quality of two papaya's varieties, one creole and a hibrido in Perez Zeledon. The treatments were the folloguings: oxide of calcium plus dolomite, oxide of calcium plus boric acid plus dolomite, boric acid plus sulphate of potassium and dolomite, boric acid less dolomite and witness. The utilized sources were nitrate of calcium, boric acid and sulphate of potassium. The evaluations were realized both in the rainy season like in the dry season. There were evaluated: severity of anthracnosis, weight of the fruits, total soluble solids, shell's hardness, and stability of the flesh. The experimental design utilized was a complete block at random. There were got that the applications of oxide of calcium and boric acid less dolomite decreased the severity of the disease in the papaya's fruits, while that the boric acid plus sulphate tend to increase the disease. The treatment of boric acid plus sulphate decreased the weight of the fruits both in the rainy and dry season. Besides this treatment decreased the hardness of the shell, while that the treatments with boron increased that. Also the treatments with boric acid plus dolomite and boric acid less dolomite, increased the levels of total soluble solids in the papaya's fruits in the two varieties. Finally; the treatments: oxide of calcium plus boric acid and boric acid plus sulphate decreased the stability of the flesh in both varieties and both evaluated seasons, while the treatment with oxide of calcium increased the stability of the flesh in the hibrido during the dry season. (Author)

  9. Identification and molecular characterization of a new recombinant begomovirus and associated betasatellite DNA infecting Capsicum annuum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Bhavin S; Chahwala, Fenisha D; Rathod, Sangeeta; Singh, Achuit K

    2016-05-01

    Capsicum annuum (Chilli) is a perennial herbaceous plant that is cultivated as an annual crop throughout the world, including India. Chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) is a major biotic constraint, causing major losses in chilli production. During 2014, leaf samples of chilli plants displaying leaf curl disease were collected from the Ahmedabad district of Gujarat, India. These samples were used to isolate, clone and sequence viral genomic DNA and an associated betasatellite DNA molecule. Sequence analysis showed 90.4 % nucleotide sequence identity to the previously reported chilli leaf curl virus-[India:Guntur:2009] (ChiLCV-[IN:Gun:09]. As per ICTV nomenclature rules, ChiLCV-Ahm represents a new species of begomovirus, and we therefore propose the name chilli leaf curl Ahmedabad virus-[India:Ahmedabad:2014] (ChiLCAV-[IN:Ahm:14]). The associated betasatellite DNA showed a maximum of 93.5 % nucleotide sequence identity to a previously reported tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite and may be named tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite-[India:Ahmedabad:Chilli:2014]. PMID:26831933

  10. 基于最优二叉树支持向量机的蜜柚叶部病害识别%Recognition of honey pomelo leaf diseases based on optimal binary tree support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 孔繁涛; 李哲敏; 吴建寨; 陈威; 王盛威; 朱孟帅

    2014-01-01

    为了提高蜜柚叶部中晚期病害的识别准确率,确保蜜柚叶部病害对症施药与病害防治的效果,该文提出了一种基于最优二叉树支持向量机(support vector machine,SVM)的蜜柚叶部病害识别方法,该方法首先将蜜柚叶部病害图像转换为B分量、2G-R-B分量、(G+R+B)/3分量以及YIQ颜色模型中的Q分量的4个灰度图像,再利用5尺度8方向的Gabor小波分别与4个分量灰度图像进行卷积运算,获得5个尺度下不同方向的幅值均值作为病害的特征向量,并结合提出的最优二叉树支持向量机病害识别模型,对黄斑病、炭疽病、疮痂病、煤烟病等4种蜜柚叶部病害进行分类识别。通过交叉验证的方法进行分类识别测试,结果表明:黄斑病、炭疽病、疮痂病、煤烟病识别准确率分别为90%、96.66%、93.33%、96.66%,平均识别率达到94.16%,并将该方法与BP神经网络、一对一SVM与一对多SVM进行比较,试验结果表明该方法可有效识别4种蜜柚叶部病害,在训练时间和识别精度上都优于其他3种方法。该方法可为蜜柚病害准确识别与防治提供有效的技术支持。%Honey pomelo, one of the most important fruits in China, always suffers a variety of diseases during the whole process of planting, such as maculopathy, anthracnose, scab and dark mildew, which seriously affects the fruit quality and yield. The accurate recognition of honey pomelo leaf diseases is the premise of the treatment of honey pomelo diseases, and the precision directly affects the efficiency in controlling diseases. However, most of the current researches on disease recognition aimed at the global information of the study objects, but ignored the disease’s local feature extraction in multi-scale and multi-direction; in addition, the present researches generally used the method of“one to one”or“one to many”when building many types of support vector machine (SVM

  11. Mitochondrial Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your body tissues. If you have a metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are small structures that produce energy in ...

  12. Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect control with insecticides and houses that are less likely to have high insect populations will help control the spread of the disease. Blood banks in Central and South America screen donors for ...

  13. Pompe Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weakness progressing to respiratory weakness and death from respiratory failure after a course lasting several years. The heart ... the age of one year from either cardiorespiratory failure or respiratory infection. For individuals with late onset Pompe disease, ...

  14. Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senile dementia - Alzheimer type (SDAT); SDAT; Dementia - Alzheimer ... The exact cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) is not known. Research shows that certain changes in the brain lead to AD. You are more likely ...

  15. Menetrier's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... campuses in Maryland and Arizona Research Resources Protocols, repositories, mouse models, plasmids, and more Technology Advancement & Transfer ... through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, ...

  16. Gaucher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme replacement therapy is available. A bone marrow transplant may be needed in severe cases. ... is recommended for prospective parents with a family history of Gaucher disease. Testing can determine if parents ...

  17. Leishmaniasis Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease Ulcerative skin lesion, ... border, on a Guatemalan patient who has cutaneous leishmaniasis. (Credit: B. Arana, MERTU, Guatemala) Marked splenomegaly (enlargement/ ...

  18. Legionnaires disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the history of legionnaires disease, its formation and occurrence, air conditioning systems and cooling towers where legionella has been shown to exist, and precautions in the mining environment. 4 figs.

  19. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...

  20. Sever's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results from physical activities and sports that involve running and jumping, especially those that take place on hard surfaces, such as track, basketball, soccer, and gymnastics. Sever's disease also can result from ...

  1. Graves' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid disease may be sensitive to harmful side effects from iodine. Taking iodine drops or eating foods containing large amounts of iodine—such as seaweed, dulse, or kelp—may cause or worsen hyperthyroidism. ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about 5 to 10 percent of people with Parkinson's have "early-onset" disease which begins before the age of 50. Early-onset forms of Parkinson's are often inherited, though not always, and some ...

  3. Pick disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legal advice early in the course of the disorder. Advance care directive , power of attorney, and other legal actions can make it easier to make decisions regarding the care of the person with Pick disease.

  4. Hashimoto's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disease that keeps your body from absorbing vitamin B12 and making enough healthy red blood cells Lupus — ... or more tests. Sometimes, routine screening of thyroid function reveals a mildly underactive thyroid in a person ...

  5. Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senile dementia - Alzheimer type (SDAT); SDAT; Dementia - Alzheimer ... The exact cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) is not known. Research shows that certain changes in the brain lead to AD. You are more ...

  6. Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most cases, people only take this medication for short periods of time since it can increase the chance of developing megacolon. Bowel Rest Sometimes Crohn's disease symptoms are severe and a person may need to ...

  7. Behcet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25 years and access publications (since 1985) and patents resulting from NIH funding. PubMed is a free ... http://www.nidcr.nih.gov National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Website: http://www. ...

  8. Extrapyramidal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008119 Therapeutic effect of neuropeptide PACAP27 on Parkinson′s disease in mice. WANG Gang(王刚), et al.Dept Neurol & Neurol Instit, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Med Sch, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Neurol 2007;40(12):837-841. Objective To investigate the effects of different doses of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the functional and morphological outcome in a mice model of Parkinson′s disease (PD) re

  9. Celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmeier, Wolfgang; Caspary, Wolfgang F

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for cli...

  10. Celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmeier Wolfgang; Caspary Wolfgang F

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalenc...

  11. Extrapyramidal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010380 Evaluation non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and its influence on ability of daily living. WANG Rongfei(王荣飞),et al. Dept Neurol,1st Hosp,Guangzhou Med Coll,Guangzhou 510000. Chin J Neurol 2010;43(4):273-276. Objective To evaluate the non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD),and its influence on ability of daily living (ADL) in PD

  12. HIV and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions HIV & Rheumatic Diseases HIV and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Rheumatic diseases related ... knows he or she has HIV. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  13. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary heart disease ...

  14. Learning about Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page. Learning About Crohn's Disease What is Crohn's disease? What are the symptoms ... disease Additional Resources for Crohn's Disease What is Crohn's disease? Crohn's disease, an idiopathic (of unknown cause), chronic ...

  15. Uji Efektifitas Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma sp. Dan Gliocladium sp. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Rima Yunisa

    2015-01-01

    Rima Yunisa Nasution. 2014. Effectiveness test on antagonist fungi Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium Sp. to control fusarium disease (Fusarium oxysporum F.sp capsici) for chilli crop (Capsicum Annuum L.) at screen house. Supervised by Lahmuddin Lubis and Hassanuddin. The goal of the research is to examine antagonist fungi Trichoderma and Gliocladium virens towards F. Oxysporum that lead the fusarium disease for chilli crop at screen house. The research was conducted at Plant Dise...

  16. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  17. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they have a history of: Abnormal cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease (coronary artery disease) High blood pressure ( hypertension ) Kidney disease involving hemodialysis Smoking Stroke ( cerebrovascular disease )

  18. Celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Jensen, Michael Dam; Reimer, Maria Christina;

    2015-01-01

    This national clinical guideline approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology describes the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease (CD) in adults. CD is a chronic immunemediated enteropathy of the small intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing proteins......, which are found in wheat, rye, and barley. The disease prevalence is 0.5-1.0%, but CD remains under-diagnosed. The diagnosis relies on the demonstration of lymphocyte infiltration, crypt hyperplasia, and villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies. Serology, malabsorption, biochemical markers, and...... small intestinal mucosa and absorption. Adherence to a GFD usually requires dietary advice from a clinical dietician. The monitoring of antibody levels and malabsorption markers is crucial during follow-up and allows for early treatment of disease complications. Important complications include...

  19. Myocardial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930497 Ectopic expression and the significanceof HLA—class II antigens in the myocardium ofpatients with dilated cardiomyopathy.LI Yunyou(李运友),et al.lst Affili Hosp,Nanjing MedCoil,Nanjing,210029.Chin J Cardiol 1993;21(1):15—16.Expression of HLA—class II antigens(DQ,DP)in the myocardium of patients with differentheart diseases and normal controls was studiedwith indirect immunofluorescence(IIF).Thepositive rates in different groups were observedas follows:dilated cardiomyopathy(DCM,12/13,+++),rheumatic heart disease(2/4,++),congenital heart diseases(1/14,+),left a-trial myxoma(0/1)and normal controls(1/8,

  20. Hansen's disease: a vanishing disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinésio Talhari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction, implementation, successes and failures of multidrug therapy (MDT in all Hansen's disease endemic countries are discussed in this paper. The high efficacy of leprosy treatment with MDT and the global reduction of prevalence led the World Health Organization, in 1991, to establish the goal of elimination of Hansen's disease (less than 1 patient per 10,000 inhabitants to be accomplished by the year 2000. Brazil, Nepal and East Timor are among the few countries that didn't reach the elimination goal by the year 2000 or even 2005. The implications of these aspects are highlighted in this paper. Current data from endemic and previously endemic countries that carry a regular leprosy control programme show that the important fall in prevalence was not followed by the reduction of the incidence. This means that transmission of Mycobacterium leprae is still an issue. It is reasonable to conclude that we are still far from the most important goal of Hansen's disease control: the interruption of transmission and reduction of incidence. It is necessary to emphasize to health managers the need of keeping Hansen's disease control activities to better develop control programmes in the future. The recent international proposal to interrupt the transmission of leprosy by the year 2020 seems to unrealistic and it is discussed in this paper. The possibility of epidemiological impact related to the human immunodeficiency virus/Hansen's disease coinfection is also considered.

  1. Meniere's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feel better when they awaken. How can I reduce the frequency of Ménière’s disease episodes? Avoid stress and excess salt ingestion, caffeine, smoking, and alcohol. Get regular sleep and eat properly. Remain physically active, but avoid ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second most common disorder of this type after Alzheimer's disease. It progresses slowly as small clusters of ... vitamin D deficiency in the development of Parkinson's. Vitamin D, which can enter ... K, Richards MB, Meng C, Priestley B, Fernandez HH, Cambi F, Umbach DM, Blair A, ...

  3. Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; Law, Ian; Jønch, Aia;

    2011-01-01

    In this open-label pilot study, the authors evaluated the effect of memantine on the distribution of brain glucose metabolism in four Huntington's disease (HD) patients as determined by serial 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose [F(18)]FDG-PET scans over a period of 3-4 months (90-129 days, with one patient...

  4. Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to probe the cause and progression of such circuit defects in HD. Scientists are also using stem cells to study disease mechanisms and test potential therapeutic drugs. The NINDS-funded PREDICT-HD study seeks to identify biomarkers (biological changes that can be used to predict, diagnose, ...

  5. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2.1 Viral disease2004002 M gene sequence analyses on Guangdong SARS CoV isolates. ZHOU Huiqiong (周惠琼), et al. Dis Contr & Prev Center, Guangdong Prov, Guangzhou 510300. Chin J Microbiol Immunol 2003; 23 (12) : 923 -925.Objective:To analyze the variation of M gene by sequenc-

  6. Extraphyramidal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009250 Effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on depression in patients with parkinson’s disease. WANG Xuelian(王学廉),et al.Dept Neurosurg,Tangdu Hosp,4th Milit Med Univ,Xi’an,710038.Chin J Nerv Ment Dis,2009;35(2):88-92.

  7. Neurologic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain, spinal cord, and nerves make up the nervous system. Together they control all the workings of the body. When something goes wrong ... develops, such as spina bifida Degenerative diseases, where nerve cells are ... to the spinal cord and brain Seizure disorders, such as epilepsy ...

  8. Prionic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Q-C Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are neurodegenerative illnesses due to the accumulation of small infectious pathogens containing protein but apparently lacking nucleic acid, which have long incubation periods and progress inexorably once clinical symptoms appear. Prions are uniquely resistant to a number of normal decontaminating procedures. The prionopathies [Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD and its variants, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS syndrome and fatal familial insomnia (FFI] result from accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein in the brains of normal animals on both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The accumulation of this protein or fragments of it in neurons leads to apoptosis and cell death. There is a strong link between mutations in the gene encoding the normal prion protein in humans (PRNP - located on the short arm of chromosome 20 – and forms of prion disease with a familial predisposition (familial CJD, GSS, FFI. Clinically a prionopathy should be suspected in any case of a fast progressing dementia with ataxia, myoclonus, or in individuals with pathological insomnia associated with dysautonomia. Magnetic resonance imaging, identification of the 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, tonsil biopsy and genetic studies have been used for in vivo diagnosis circumventing the need of brain biopsy. Histopathology, however, remains the only conclusive method to reach a confident diagnosis. Unfortunately, despite numerous treatment efforts, prionopathies remain short-lasting and fatal diseases.

  9. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... salts such as zinc acetate (Galzin), blocks the digestive tract’s absorption of copper from food. Although most people ... Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Established in 1980, the ... digestive diseases to people with digestive disorders and to ...

  10. Infectious Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010400 The genetic characterization of VP1 region of Coxsackie virus A10 isolated from hand, foot and mouth disease cases in Shandong Province of China.YANG He(杨赫), et al.Instit Epidemiol & Health Statistic, Sch Public Health, Shandong Univ, Jinan 250012.Chin J Infect Dis

  11. Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to worms that can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies can lead to Giardia infections. Cats can transmit toxoplasmosis, which is dangerous for pregnant women. Others, like malaria, are common in other parts ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/research/parkinsonsweb/index.htm NIH Patient Recruitment for Parkinson's Disease Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical ... 800-655-2273 Fax: 408-734-8522 Parkinson's Resource Organization ... Health and Human Services, Education, May 22, 2002. September 1999 Parkinson's ...

  13. Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... embarrassing (like bad breath) to the serious — like pain and tooth loss (which is both embarrassing and serious!). What ... also feed the acids that eat into your tooth enamel. If you have braces, ... certain medicines increase the risk of gum disease. Running yourself ...

  14. Celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, E; Assiri, A; Guandalini, S

    2013-10-01

    Celiac disease, with a prevalence around 1% of the general population, is the most common genetically-induced food intolerance in the world. Triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, this enteropathy may appear at any age, and is characterized by a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms. Among them, gastrointestinal presentations include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or failure to thrive in children; but extra-intestinal manifestations are also common, and actually appear to be on the rise. They include a large variety of ailments, such as dermatitis Herpetiformis, anemia, short stature, osteoporosis, arthritis, neurologic problems, unexplained elevation of transaminases, and even female infertility. For the clinician interested in oral diseases, celiac disease can lead to delayed tooth eruption, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent oral aphthae. Diagnosing celiac disease requires therefore a high degree of suspicion followed by a very sensitive screening test: serum levels of the autoantibody anti-tissue transglutaminase. A positive subject will then be confirmed by an intestinal biopsy, and will then be put on a strict gluten-free diet, that in most cases will bring a marked improvement of symptoms. Newer forms of treatment which in the future will probably be available to the non-responsive patients are currently being actively pursued. PMID:23496382

  15. Celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Jensen, Michael Dam; Reimer, Maria Christina;

    2015-01-01

    small intestinal mucosa and absorption. Adherence to a GFD usually requires dietary advice from a clinical dietician. The monitoring of antibody levels and malabsorption markers is crucial during follow-up and allows for early treatment of disease complications. Important complications include...

  16. Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  17. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2.1 Viral disease2003263 Isolation, identification and sequence analyses of dengue virus type 2 strain GD19/2001. REN Rui-wen(任瑞文), et al. Milit Med Instit Guangzhou Milit District, Guangzhou 510507. Chin J Epidemiol 2003; 24 (4):288-290. Objective:To identify the virus isolated from patients

  18. Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-01-01

    -derived therapy in people with Parkinson's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to September 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from...

  19. Leigh's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impairment of respiratory and kidney function. In Leigh’s disease, genetic mutations in mitochondrial DNA interfere with the energy sources that run cells in an area of the brain that plays a role in motor movements. The primary function of mitochondria is to convert the energy in glucose and ...

  20. Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by finding certified gluten-free foods. For instance, gluten-free oats are now available for people with celiac disease. The best approach is to read labels , but here are a few foods to steer clear of until you ... packaged rice mixes lunchmeats sausages instant cocoa ...

  1. The Main Diseases and Control Measures of Panax notoginseng(Burk) F. H. Chen in Wuzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Yinghui; Liu; Zhuowu; Qiu; Weihua; Tan; Xinxing; Li; Jinfeng

    2014-01-01

    The main symptoms of root rot,anthracnose,blight and damping-off of Panax notoginseng( Burk) F. H. Chen are introduced in the paper,and the corresponding control measures are elaborated from the aspects of agricultural management measures,seed disinfection,seedbed treatment and chemical control.

  2. Celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune disorder,induced by the intake of gluten proteins present in wheat, barley and rye. Contrary to common belief,this disorder is a protean systemic disease, rather than merely a pure digestive alteration. CD is closely associated with genes that code HLA-Ⅱ antigens, mainly of DQ2 and DQ8 classes. Previously, it was considered to be a rare childhood disorder, but is actually considered a frequent condition, present at any age, which may have multiple complications. Tissue transglutaminase-2(tTG), appears to be an important component of this disease, both, in its pathogenesis and diagnosis. Active CD is characterized by intestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms, villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia, and strongly positive tTG auto-antibodies. The duodenal biopsy is considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosis, but its practice has significant limitations in its interpretation, especially in adults. Occasionally, it results in a false-negative because of patchy mucosal changes and the presence of mucosal villous atrophy is often more severe in the proximal jejunum, usually not reached by endoscopic biopsies. CD is associated with increased rates of several diseases, such as iron deficiency anemia, osteoporosis, dermatitis herpetiformis,several neurologic and endocrine diseases, persistent chronic hypertransami-nasemia of unknown origin,various types of cancer and other autoimmune disorders.Treatment of CD dictates a strict, life-long gluten-free diet, which results in remission for most individuals,although its effect on some associated extraintestinal manifestations remains to be established.

  3. Reação às doenças e produtividade de onze cultivares de maracujá-azedo cultivadas sem agrotóxicos Reaction to diseases and yield of eleven cultivars of sour-passion fruit cultivated with no pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação às doenças e a produtividade de 11 cultivares de maracujazeiro, nos primeiros seis meses de colheita no Distrito Federal. Para evitar herbicidas, utilizou-se sobre o tubo gotejador, uma lona de polietileno preta com 1,20 m em largura ao longo das fileiras. O híbrido EC-RFM (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa x P. edulis foi o mais produtivo e o menos suscetível à virose do endurecimento do fruto (PWV, à antracnose e à septoriose do fruto. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à verrugose e à bacteriose no fruto. Houve pouca variabilidade entre as cultivares para resistência às doenças.The objective of this work was to evaluate the reaction to diseases and the yield of eleven sour-passion fruit cultivars during the first six months of harvesting in the Federal District, Brazil. Weeds were controlled using a polyethylene black cloth (mulching with 1.20 m large on the tape of dripping irrigation along the planting line. The hybrid EC-RFM (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa x P. edulis had the best yield and it was less susceptible to woodiness virus (PWV, fruit-anthracnose and septoriose. All cultivars were susceptible to fruit-scab and bacterial spot. All cultivars evaluated presented low genetic variability to disease resistance.

  4. Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930445 A report on investigation of an outbreakof legionnaires’disease in a hotel in Beijing.DENG Changying(邓长英),et al.Beijing ArmedForce General Hosp,Beijing,100027.Chin J Epi-demiol 1993;14(2):78—79.During the period from February to March,1992,an outbreak of upper respiratory infection(influenza—like syndrome)took place in a hotelin Beijing.An epidemiological investigation andbacteriological examination were carried out inthis hotel.The results showed that it was anoutbreak of Legionnaires’disease caused by Le-gionella pneumophila serogroup 10(Lpl0).Theincidence was 13.51%(5/37).This is the firstreport on Lp10 infection in China.

  5. Peyronie disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyronie disease, or Induratio Penis Plastica, is characterized by the presence of one or more fibrous plaques at the albuginea penis, on the cavernous bodies or on the intercavernous septum. First of all, Induratio Penis Plastica ethiology is described, and its clincs and therapy. Past imaging methods are then considered (i.e. conventional radiology, cavernosography, CT and US). The authors report on their 4-year (1983-1987) experience with US in 62 males. Various different probes were employed, especially small-part 7.5 MHz probes. The results are similar to those reported in international literature. The use of high frequency probes allow the evaluation of local hypoechoic lesions even in the early phase of the disease, thus helping make therapy more effective

  6. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  7. Morgellons disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John

    2008-01-01

    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients. PMID:18318880

  8. "Chronic Lyme Disease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area "Chronic Lyme Disease" What is "chronic Lyme disease?" Lyme disease is an infection caused by ... J Med 357:1422-30, 2008). How is Lyme disease treated? For early Lyme disease, a short ...

  9. Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (SCD) Email this page Print this page Sickle cell disease (SCD) Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a disease of the hemoglobin. ... and form a sickle or a cresent. Tweet Sickle cell disease (SCD) Symptoms of SCD How transplant can ...

  10. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary heart ...

  11. Fungal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930031 Experimental studies on lung lesionsof rabbits caused by streptomyces thermohy-groscopicus.LIU Fang(刘仿),et al.Dept Mi-crobiol,Hubei Med Coll,Xianning Branch,437100.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(4):207—208.Imitating the natural way of infection ofFarmer’s lung disease,we succeeded in inducingChina Medical Abstracts(Internal Medicine)

  12. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    4.1 Viral disease2003021 Analysis on the epidemiologic features of Dengue fever in Guangdong province, 1990 - 2000. LUO Huiming(罗会明), et al. Dis Contr & Prev Center Guangdong Prov, Guangzhou 510300. Chin J Epi-demiol 2002;23(6):427-430.Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of Dengue fever in Guangdong province in 1990 - 2000, and to develop the strategy for

  13. Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolters, E C; Calne, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease there is degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra, with consequent depletion of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The triad of tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia is the clinical hallmark. Drugs currently used for palliative therapy fall into three categories: anticholinergic agents, dopamine precursors (levodopa combined with extracerebral decarboxylase inhibitors) and artificial dopamine agonists. It has been argued, on theoretical grounds, that some drugs slow the ...

  14. Infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system infections represents a group of life-threatening diseases that present a formidable challenge to physicians. Despite the development of effective antimicrobial agents and modern surgical techniques, significant mortality and morbidity with CNS infections persist. Since the introduction of computed tomography, there is evidence of a marked decrease in mortality among patients with brain abscesses, although the morbidity has not changed significantly. CT correlation with pathology of the various CNS infections may aid in earlier diagnosis and bring about further disease in morbidity and mortality. Infections reach the brain or meninges mainly by two routes: (1) hematogenous dissemination from a distant infective focus to the meninges, corticomedullary junction, and choroid plexus; (2) direct extension by bony erosion for an adjacent focus of suppuration (otitis, mastoidits, sinusitis), by transmission along anaostomotic veins from the face, scalp, and orbits, and by transmission along cranial nerves following neurosurgery or traumatic craniocerebral wounds. Certain external factors serve to enhance the risk of intracranial infections, such as radiation; immunosuppressive or steroid therapy; cyanotic congenital heart disease; systemic illness such as diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or cirrhosis; leukemia, lymphoma, or agammaglobulinemia; severe body stress; midline bony fusion defects; surgical or traumatic craniocerebral injury; and pulmonary or other systemic infections

  15. Ação e caracterização química de óleos essenciais no manejo da antracnose do maracujá Chemical characterization and action of essential oils in the management of anthracnose on passion fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernandes Aquino

    2012-12-01

    the anthracnose control [Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.] associated with maturity stage of yellow passion fruit. Three experiments were evaluated, where it was tested the pathogenicity of six fungi isolates in a randomized design with six replicates, other with the same design in 2x2 factorial design (conidial suspension and mycelial discs and fruit (green and ripe, with six replicates. In treatment with fruits, we used a completely randomized in a factorial 5x3+1, five concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 μL mL-1 and three medicinal plant species, and tebuconazole, with five replicates. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. All isolates were pathogenic. Ripe fruits had larger lesions when inoculated with conidial suspension. The oil of C. citratus provided the small diameter of the lesions on the fruit until the 6 μL mL-1 concentration. At the concentration of 8 μL mL-1 all oils inhibited the fungal growth. Thymol (30.24%, citral (77.74% and eugenol (92.89% were major components in L. sidoides, C. citratus and O. gratissimum, respectively.

  16. Seleção de linhagens de feijoeiro com tipo de grão carioca e com os alelos co-4 e co-5 de resistência à antracnose Selection of common bean strains with carioca grain type, and with the alleles co-4 and co-5 for anthracnose resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Keller Marcondes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, identificar linhagens de feijão que reúnam, além da resistência à antracnose, alta produtividade de grãos do tipo carioca e resistência à mancha angular. Foram utilizadas 194 linhagens F5:6 extraídas de sete famílias segregantes, selecionadas do cruzamento entre os genitores H147 e B1. A linhagem H147 possui grãos tipo carioca, portadora do alelo Co-5, que confere resistência a várias raças de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. A linhagem B1 também possui grãos tipo carioca e é portadora do alelo Co-4, que confere resistência a outro grupo de raças do mesmo patógeno. As linhagens foram avaliadas na safra das águas 2005/2006, em Lavras, com a cultivar Talismã e H147 como testemunhas, com base na produtividade e tipo de grãos. Foram selecionadas 99 linhagens, as quais foram avaliadas na safra da seca/2006, juntamente com a testemunha Talismã, com base na produtividade, tipo de grão e resistência à mancha angular. Dessas 99 linhagens, foram selecionadas 24, as quais foram avaliadas na safra de inverno/2006 em Lavras e Lambari, com base no tipo de grão e produtividade. Essas 24 linhagens foram inoculadas com a raça 321 de C. lindemuthianum, que quebra a resistência conferida pelo alelo Co-4, mas não o Co-5. Para verificar a presença do alelo Co4 foi utilizado um marcador SCAR que amplifica um fragmento de 950 pb por meio do primer SAS 13. Foi possível identificar 14 linhagens que possuem a pirâmide de alelos Co-4/Co-5 e entre elas, quatro destacaram-se em todos os caracteres avaliados.The objective of the research was to identify bean strains that possess at the same time resistance to anthracnose, high grain yield of Carioca grain type and resistance to angular leaf spot. 194 strains F5:6 were taken from seven segregating families derived from the cross H147 x B1. The H147 line has Carioca grain type and Co-5 resistance allele to several races of C. lindemuthianum. The B1 line also has the

  17. Morphological and pathological characterisation of Colletotrichum sp. as casual agent of anthracnose in Dioscorea sp. Caracterización morfológica y patogénica de Colletotrichum sp. como agente causal de la antracnosis en ñame Dioscorea sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Herrera Javier Darío

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum dematium strains were isolated from yam plants in the Sucre depart-ment. Macro- and microscopic descriptions were made, finding that the predominant colour for the colonies was light purple. Sporulation was higher than 58,000 conidia/ml for most colonies. Growth rate lay within a range of 4 to 5mm/day. C. gloeosporioide isolate conidial morphology revealed a cylindrical spore having one rounded end whilst the other was acute shaped. Conidia length and width averaged between 7-8 micras and 3-4 micras, respectively. C. dematium colonies, however, were characterised by being grey and having radial growth. The fálcate and fusiform conidia tapered at the acute apex. They had a length and width of 16-18 micras and 3-4 micras, respectively. C. gloeosporioides colonies showed different macroscopic morphology but similar microscopic characteristics. Vegeta-tive compatibility was evaluated amongst different geographical isolates resulting in 90% compatibility. A patho-genic assay was done for evaluating isolate virulence on tolerant and susceptible cultivars. The isolates showed great variability regarding their virulence. The Colletotrichum isolate collection represents a tool for use in molecular characterisation and evaluating yam germplasm tolerance to this pathogen. Keywords: Colletotrichum, yam, anthracnose, phytopathology.Cepas de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y Colletotrichum dematium fueron aisladas de plantas de ñame en el departa­mento de Sucre. Se realizó una descripción macro y microscópica encontrándose que el color predominante de la colonia fue lila. La esporulación fue mayor a 58.000 conidias /ml para la mayoría de las colonias. La rata de creci­miento tuvo un rango entre 4 -7 mm / día. Las conidias de los aislados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides son cilíndri­cas con un extremo redondeado y el otro agudo y un tamaño que varía entre 7-8 micras y 3-4 micras de ancho. As

  18. Huntington's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Branka

    2009-01-01

    Die Huntington''sche Krankheit (Huntington''s disease, HD) ist eine tödliche neurodegenerative Erkrankung mit einem extensiven Verlust von Neuronen im Striatum. Die Ursache für HD ist eine genetische Mutation, bei der eine CAG-Wiederholungssequenz verlängert wird. Im resultierenden Protein, das Huntingtin (htt) genannt wurde, diese Mutation führt zur Missfaltung und Aggregation von htt. Ich habe untersucht ob die Bildung von htt-Aggregaten die Transkription von Genen dass sie von HD-asso...

  19. Infectious Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2.1 Viral disease 2006009 Correlation analysis of type A influenza virus genetic variation characteristic with survival selective pressure ZHOU xiao -ming(周晓明 ) ,et al. Sch Pub Health,Fudan Univ. Shanghai 200032. China J Infect Dis 2005;23(4) :221 -224 Objective:To study the relationship betweer. type A influenza virus genetic variation with survival selective pressure to find possible vaccine conserved antigen target. Methods:Seven strains of same HA (Hemagglutinin) serotype, regional and isolation time closely related type A influenza virus were selected with full HA gene coding sequence , Blast2 program was used to calculate the param-

  20. [Renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is. PMID:27603894

  1. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  2. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk factors. ...

  3. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:May 20,2016 View an animation of ... call 9-1-1. Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease Major risk factors that can't be changed ...

  4. Buerger's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Buerger's disease, angiographic findings are not pathognomonic, but in most cases they are diagnostic. We reviewed peripheral angiography of 36 cases of Buerger's disease who were suspected clinically during the period from Jan. 1979 to Dec. 1984. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of the cases were 34 males and 2 females (17:1) and most common in 4th decade. Eighty-six percents of the patients were smokers. 2. Chief complaints on admission were ulceration, pain at rest, coldness, and discoloration. 3. The anterior tibial artery was affected most commonly (88%) and posterior tibial (76%), perineal (68%), popliteal (22%), and femoral artery (15%) in order.4. The angiographic findings were 1) In all cases, there was absence of arteriosclerotic lesions and showed smooth vessel walls in non-affected arteries. 2) Direct corkscrew type collaterals were found in 2% of the lesions, and indirect type collaterals in 81%. The tree-root or spider's leg type collaterals were also found in 74%. 3) Standing-wave patterns were found in 30% which affected above the popliteal artery. 4) Early venous drainage was found in 16% of the lesions.

  5. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  6. [Morton's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-12-01

    Morton's disease refers to neuralgia at the web space of the toes with a pseudo-neuroma. It commonly occurs in the third web space of the foot in middle-aged and older women. The pseudo-neuroma is thought to be a secondary change after entrapment or repeated microtrauma. Patients complain of forefoot pain while walking. Typically, symptoms are caused by tight high-heeled shoes. The physical examination includes palpation of the web spaces and Mulder's test. Weight bearing foot radiographs are used to evaluate the deformity of the foot, especially at metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. MRI is useful for differential diagnosis of pseudo-neuroma, MTP joint arthritis, and interdigital bursitis. Conservative treatments are shoe modification, use of orthotic insoles, and injection of corticosteroids and local anesthesia. The injections are useful not only for the treatment but also for diagnosis of Morton's disease. If the local injection is not temporally effective, surgical treatment is not indicated. If the conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is indicated. The most common surgery is excision of the pseudo-neuroma. The surgery is usually performed using a dorsal approach. PMID:25475032

  7. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Browse Related Terms Progression of Liver Disease , Family History of Liver Disease , Liver Wellness , Liver Failure , Liver Biopsy Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > The Progression ...

  8. Diseases of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different forms of skull diseases viz. inflammatory diseases, skull tumors, primary and secondary bone tumors, are considered. Roentgenograms in some above-mentioned diseases are presented and analysed

  9. Lupinus mutabilis in Ecuador with special emphasis on anthracnose resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconi, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Tailoring Food Sciences to Endogenous Patterns of  Local Food Supply for Future Nutrition (TELFUN) project aimed to support people to choose their own way of producing, processing, and consuming local foods that fit best in their local conditions. The central research question was: how do t

  10. [Pancreatic Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöfl, Rainer

    2016-06-22

    The author presents his personal choice of practical relevant papers of pancreatic diseases from 2014 to 2015. Nutritional factors and hypertriglycidemia are discussed as causes of acute pancreatitis. Tools to avoid post-ERCP(endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) pancreatitis are described and the natural course of fluid collections and pseudocysts is demonstrated. The value of secretin-MRCP(magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is illustrated. Data help to choose the minimally effective prednisolone dose in autoimmune pancreatitis. The increased prevalence of fractures in patients with chronic pancreatitis highlights the necessity of screening for bone density loss. The association of vitamin D intake with pancreatic cancer is described. The probability of cancer in IPNM is shown and innovative surgical concepts to reduce the loss of pancreatic function are presented. Finally neoadjuvant concepts for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are highlighted. PMID:27329710

  11. Antifungal Activity of Copper Sulphate Against Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides

    OpenAIRE

    Oziengbe E.O; Osazee J.O

    2012-01-01

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gleosporioides is the most important post harvest disease of mango. The effect of various concentrations of copper sulphate on the mycelium growth and conidia germination of Colletotrichumgloeosporioides the causal agent of anthracnose disease of mango fruits was studied under in vitro conditions. Copper sulphate at 0.8mg/l gave significantly reduction of C. gloeosporioides growth and conidia germination by 78.2% and 66.3% respectively while 0....

  12. Disease Outbreak News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease Outbreak News (DONs) Latest DONs 26 August 2016 Middle East ... Disease outbreaks by country RSS feeds Disease outbreak news Announcement: WHO to change the way it reports ...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Fact Sheet The Genetics of Disease ...

  14. About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment How is Alzheimer's disease treated? What ... being researched? What are clinical trials? How is Alzheimer's disease treated? Alzheimer's disease is complex, and it ...

  15. Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease › Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease It is estimated that up to 20% of ... continuing to ingest gluten. Causes of Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease Continuing Gluten Ingestion The most common reason for ...

  16. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often do not consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  17. Learning about Your Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your disease Email this page Print this page Learning about your disease Learn more about common diseases ... may be a treatment option for you. Tweet Learning about your disease Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Acute ...

  18. Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Mad Cow Disease Print A ... likely are people to get it? What Is Mad Cow Disease? Mad cow disease is an incurable, fatal brain ...

  19. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  20. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  1. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... percent, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  2. Lyme Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lyme Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Lyme Disease Print A ... Pacific Northwest, and the northern Midwest states. About Lyme Disease Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium ...

  3. Mitral Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tricuspid Valve Disease Cardiac Rhythm Disturbances Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Heart abnormalities that are ... Transplantation End-stage Lung Disease Adult Lung Transplantation Pediatric Lung ... Aortic Aneurysm Mitral Valve Disease Overview The mitral valve is ...

  4. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  5. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF POTENTIAL BIOCONTROL AGENTS AGAINST COLLECTOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES CAUSING MANGO ANTHRACNOSE AGAINST COLLECTOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES CAUSING MANGO ANTHRACNOSE

    OpenAIRE

    NAGALAKSHMI DEVAMMA M; J. Patricia Rajkumari; P. Suvarnalatha Devi

    2014-01-01

    The antagonistic potential biocontrol agents was evaluated against the isolate PTR6 since it was found to be highly virulent based on the results obtained in pathogenic variability test. The antagonistic effect of native microflora was assessed based on their ability to inhibit the pathogen growth in dual culture technique. Among the 21 bacterial biocontrol agents, the antagonist BP6 and BL5 completely (100%) inhibited growth of the pathogen. Among the 21Trichoderma biocontrol...

  6. Influência das variáveis ambientais no progresso da antracnose do feijoeiro e eficiência de tiofanato metílico + clorotalonil no controle da doença Influence of the environmental variables in the progress of anthracnose of bean and efficiency of thiophanate methyl + chlorothalonil in the control of the disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alvanir Garcia; Paulo Estevão de Souza; Edson Ampélio Pozza; Florisvalda da Silva Santos

    2007-01-01

    Em Minas Gerais a antracnose destaca-se como uma das principais doenças foliares do feijoeiro comum, pela sua ocorrência em diversas épocas de plantio e redução na produção. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a ocorrência, o progresso da doença e a eficiência do controle químico da antracnose. Foram avaliadas parcelas com e sem tratamento fungicida (Tiofanato metílico + Clorotalonil, 240 + 600g i.a./ha) em cinco épocas de avaliação da doença em 24 plantios da cultivar carioca, de 04/96 à 03/97. ...

  7. Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first r...

  8. Osler's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osler's disease, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes and often in organs, such as the lungs, liver and brain (arteriovenous malformations AVM). Various types are known. Patients may present with epistaxis. Teleangiectasia can be identified by visual inspection during physical examination of the skin or oral cavity or by endoscopy. Diagnosis is made after clinical examination and genetic testing based on the Curacao criteria. Modern imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become more important as they can depict the AVMs. Pulmonary AVMs can be depicted in CT imaging even without the use of a contrast agent while other locations including the central nervous system (CNS) usually require administration of contrast agents. Knowledge of possible clinical manifestations in various organs, possible complications and typical radiological presentation is mandatory to enable adequate therapy of these patients. Interventional procedures are becoming increasingly more important in the treatment of HHT patients. (orig.)

  9. Alzheimer disease: An interactome of many diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji S Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer Disease (AD is an outcome as well as source of many diseases. Alzheimer is linked with many other diseases like Diabetes type 2, cholesterolemia, hypertension and many more. But how each of these diseases affecting other is still unknown to scientific community. Signaling Pathways of one disease is interlinked with other disease. But to what extent healthy brain is affected when any signaling in human body is disturbed is the question that matters. There is a need of Pathway analysis, Protein-Protein interaction (PPI and the conserved interactome study in AD and linked diseases. It will be helpful in finding the potent drug or vaccine target in conscious manner. In the present research the Protein-Protein interaction of all the proteins involved in Alzheimer Disease is analyzed using ViSANT and osprey tools and pathway analysis further reveals the significant genes/proteins linking AD with other diseases.

  10. Postharvest diseases and physicochemical characteristics of mango / Doenças e características físicas e químicas pós-colheita em manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Ravasi Stefano Simionato

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify and to quantify the postharvest diseases and to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of mango fruits cvs. Haden, Tommy Atkins, Palmer and Keitt, submitted or not to the treatment with the fungicide carbendazim. The fruits had been harvested in a commercial orchard in President Prudente-SP, individualized and kept in a humid chamber for 24h, remaining eight days at 25±2ºC and 70-80% RH. The incidence of diseases, the firmness and the loss of mass were evaluated periodically, during nine days. Before and to the end of the storage, the fruits had been characterized to titratable acidity and soluble solids content. There was high occurrence of rots in the four mango cultivars. Anthracnose was the most frequent disease, with practically 100% of incidence in the fruits. The Lasiodiplodia stem-end rot had greater incidence in cv. Tommy Atkins (68%, followed for the Haden (36%. The treatment with carbendazim presented changeable efficiency in the control of the rots, in function of mango cultivar. This treatment is recommended for the control of the stem-end in cvs. Haden and Palmer and also to reduce the severity of anthracnose in cvs. Haden and Keitt. The fungicide application did not influence soluble solids and titratable acidity content and ratio of mango cultivars, except in Palmer that presented minor ratio when treated with fungicide. The ethefon application did not influence the ripening process of mango cv. Haden.O presente trabalho objetivou identificar e quantificar as doenças pós-colheita e avaliar as características físicas e químicas de frutos de manga cultivares Haden, Tommy Atkins, Palmer e Keitt submetidos, ou não, ao tratamento com o fungicida carbendazim. Os frutos foram colhidos em um pomar comercial em Presidente Prudente-SP, individualizados e submetidos a 24h de câmara úmida, permanecendo por mais oito dias a 25±2ºC e 70-80% de UR. A incidência de doenças, a

  11. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Background Information > Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Using computers to prepare ... Content Area Predicting the potential spread of an infectious disease requires much more than simply connecting cities on ...

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Alzheimer's Disease Medications Fact Sheet Treatment for Mild to ...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Alzheimer's Disease Research Centers The National Institute on Aging ... Repository for Alzheimer's Disease ADC Directory Arizona Arizona Alzheimer’s Disease Center/Sun Health Research Institute Eric Reiman, ...

  14. Understanding Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Alzheimer's Disease: What You Need to Know Introduction Many ...

  15. About Alzheimer's Disease: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Symptoms Early signs and symptoms Mild Alzheimer's ... more about other early signs of Alzheimer's » Mild Alzheimer's disease As the disease progresses, people experience greater ...

  16. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Celiac Disease Many kids have sensitivities to certain foods, and ... protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Pediatric Celiac Disease If your child has celiac disease, consuming gluten ...

  17. Cyanotic heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001104.htm Cyanotic heart disease ... heart disease refers to a group of many different heart defects that are present at birth (congenital). They result in a low blood oxygen level. ...

  18. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular heartbeats, called ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  19. Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Alan ... hormone. Why does hypothyroidism increase your risk for heart disease? Both thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) are related ...

  20. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...