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Sample records for chilled water system

  1. An entransy dissipation-based optimization principle for building central chilled water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently developed entransy theory is introduced in this paper to tackle the heat transfer processes in building central chilled water systems so as to improve their energy efficiency. We first divide the irreversible heat transfer processes into four categories: (1) air mixing processes; (2) heat transfer processes between chilled water and air; (3) chilled water mixing processes; and (4) heat transfer processes between chilled water and refrigerant. The formulas of entransy dissipation rates for each irreversible process are derived, and then the total entransy dissipation rate in the whole chilled water systems is obtained, which connects the geometrical structures of each heat exchanger and the operating parameters of each fluid directly to the demands of users and the supply of refrigerating unit. Based on the formula of entransy dissipation rate together with the conditional extremum method in mathematics, two optimization equation groups are deduced theoretically. Simultaneously solving such equation groups will easily find the optimal central chilled water system with the highest energy efficiency. Finally, a simple building central chilled water system with two users is taken as an example to illustrate the applications of the newly proposed optimization principle. -- Highlights: ► A general principle for the optimization of building central chilled water systems is developed based on the entransy theory. ► The total entransy dissipation connects the structural and operating parameters of chilled water systems directly to the users’ demands. ► Two optimization equation groups are derived theoretically for designing the optimal chilled water system with the highest energy efficiency. ► A practical building central chilled water system is optimized to illustrate the applications of the newly proposed optimization principle.

  2. Self-optimizing Control of Cooling Tower for Efficient Operation of Chilled Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E.; Li, Pengfei

    2012-01-01

    The chilled-water systems, mainly consisting of electric chillers and cooling towers, are crucial for the ventilating and air conditioning systems in commercial buildings. Energy efficient operation of such systems is thus important for the energy saving of commercial buildings. This paper presents an extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme for energy efficient operation of the chilled-water system, and presents a Modelica based dynamic simulation model for demonstrating the effectiveness of th...

  3. Thermoeconomic evaluation of air conditioning system with chilled water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new thermoeconomic evaluation methodology has been presented. • The relationship between thermodynamic and economic performances has been revealed. • A key point for thermal storage technology further application is discovered. • A system has been analyzed via the new method and EUD method. - Abstract: As a good load shifting technology for power grid, chilled energy storage has been paid more and more attention, but it always consumes more energy than traditional air conditioning system, and the performance analysis is mostly from the viewpoint of peak-valley power price to get cost saving. The paper presents a thermoeconomic evaluation methodology for the system with chilled energy storage, by which thermodynamic performance influence on cost saving has been revealed. And a system with chilled storage has been analyzed, which can save more than 15% of power cost with no energy consumption increment, and just certain difference between peak and valley power prices can make the technology for good economic application. The results show that difference between peak and valley power prices is not the only factor on economic performance, thermodynamic performance of the storage system is the more important factor, and too big price difference is a barrier for its application, instead of for more cost saving. All of these give a new direction for thermal storage technology application

  4. Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ► This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ► It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ► It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ► It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Vacuum Purge System Chilled Water System Design Description (SYS 47-4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-06-13

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Vacuum Purge System Chilled Water (VPSCHW) system. The discussion that follows is limited to the VPSCHW system and its interfaces with associated systems. The reader's attention is directed to Drawings H-1-82162, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID Vacuum System, and H-1-82224, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Process Chilled Water P&ID. Figure 1-1 shows the location and equipment arrangement for the VPSCHW system. The VPSCHW system provides chilled water to the Vacuum Purge System (VPS). The chilled water provides the ability to condense water from the multi-canister overpack (MCO) outlet gases during the MCO vacuum and purge cycles. By condensing water from the MCO purge gas, the VPS can assist in drying the contents of the MCO.

  6. Targeting and design of chilled water network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Minimum flowrate targeting for chilled water network. • Mixed series/parallel configuration of chilled water-using units. • Integrated cooling and chilled water networks. - Abstract: Chilled water is a common cooling agent used in various industrial, commercial and institutional facilities. In conventional practice, chilled water is distributed via chilled water networks (CHWNs) in parallel configuration to provide required air conditioning and/or equipment cooling in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In this paper, process integration approach based on pinch analysis technique is used to address energy efficiency issues in the CHWN system for grassroots design problem. Graphical and algebraic targeting techniques are developed to identify the minimum chilled water flowrate needed to remove a given amount of heat load from the CHWN. Doing this leads to higher chilled water return temperature and enhanced energy efficiency of the HVAC system. A recent proposed network design technique is extended to synthesize the CHWN in a mixed series/parallel configuration. A novel concept of integrated cooling and chilled water networks (IWN) is also proposed in this work, with its targeting and design techniques presented. Hypothetical examples and an industrial case study are solved to elucidate the proposed approaches

  7. Improving Gas Turbine efficiency by chilled water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The process in a gas turbine plant involves certain losses which can be divided into internal and external losses. In term of internal losses, the main factor is changing the state of working fluid. Since the temperature of atmospheric air may vary within a wide range, its variations can influence strongly the efficiency of gas turbine plants. With growing ambient air temperature, the specific volume of air increases, which can result in a larger work spent for air compression in the compressor. One of the most effective method for increasing the efficiency of gas turbine plants is to raise the gas temperature before the turbine. Since this temperature is the highest temperature in the cycle, this method is applicable for gas turbine plants of any scheme and type. However, there are some limitations on increasing gas temperature. The allowable temperature for reliable operation is between 1000 and 1400 k. However, decreasing ambient air temperature to increase the efficiency of gas turbine plants is easier and at low costs compared to rising gas temperature. As a decrease of 1°C temperature of inlet air increases the power output by 1%. In this paper our objective is improving the efficiency of gas turbine plants by decreasing ambient air temperature. To reach this we use a heat exchanger with different strip fins. The temperature of chilled water is constant on 7C°, but the ambient air temperature is variable between 20 and 36 C°. After designing process some graphs are presented, which give required mass flow rate to reach slightly ambient air temperature.

  8. Georgia Institute of Technology chilled water system evaluation and master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-15

    As the host of the Olympic Village for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, Georgia Tech has experienced a surge in construction activities over the last three years. Over 1.3 million square feet of new buildings have been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. This growth has placed a strain on the Georgia Tech community and challenged the facilities support staff charged with planning and organizing utility services. In concert with Olympic construction, utility planners have worked to ensure long term benefits for Georgia Tech facilities while meeting the short term requirements of the Olympic Games. The concentration of building construction in the northwest quadrant of the campus allowed planners to construct a satellite chilled water plant to serve the needs of this area and provide the opportunity to integrate this section of the campus with the main campus chilled water system. This assessment and master plan, funded in part by the US Department of Energy, has evaluated the chilled water infrastructure at Georgia Tech, identified ongoing problems and made recommendations for long term chilled water infrastructure development and efficiency improvements. The Georgia Tech office of Facilities and RDA Engineering, Inc. have worked together to assemble relevant information and prepare the recommendations contained in this document.

  9. Microbiological evaluation of chicken carcasses in an immersion chilling system with water renewal at 8 and 16 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L C T; Pereira, J G; Spina, T L B; Izidoro, T B; Oliveira, A C; Pinto, J P A N

    2012-05-01

    Since 2004, Brazil has been the leading exporter of chicken. Because of the importance of this sector in the Brazilian economy, food safety must be ensured by control and monitoring of the production stages susceptible to contamination, such as the chilling process. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in microbial levels on chicken carcasses and in chilling water after immersion in a chilling system for 8 and 16 h during commercial processing. An objective of the study was to encourage discussion regarding the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Food Supply regulation that requires chicken processors to completely empty, clean, and disinfect each tank of the chilling system after every 8-h shift. Before and after immersion chilling, carcasses were collected and analyzed for mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Samples of water from the chilling system were also analyzed for residual free chlorine. The results do not support required emptying of the chiller tank after 8 h; these tanks could be emptied after 16 h. The results for all carcasses tested at the 8- and 16-h time points indicated no significant differences in the microbiological indicators evaluated. These data provide both technical and scientific support for discussing changes in federal law regarding the management of immersion chilling water systems used as part of the poultry processing line. PMID:22564950

  10. A thermodynamic evaluation of chilled water central air conditioning systems using artificial intelligence tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Armas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  An analysis of a chilled water central air conditioning system is presented. The object was to calculate main cycle component irreversibility, as well as evaluating this indicator’s sensitivity to operational variations. Artificial neural networks (ANN, genetic algorithms (GA and Matlab tools were used to calculate refrigerant thermodynamic properties during each cycle stage. These tools interacted with equations describing the system’s thermodynamic behaviour. Refrigerant temperature, when released from the compressor, was determined by a hybrid model combining the neural model with a simple genetic algorithm used as optimisation tool; the cycle’s components which were most sensitive to changes in working conditions were identified. It was concluded that the compressor, evaporator and expansion mechanism (in that order represented significant exergy losses reaching 85.62% of total system irreversibility. A very useful tool was thus developed for evaluating these systems

  11. An operational experience with cooling tower water system in chilling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooling towers are popular in industries as a very effective evaporative cooling technology for air conditioning. Supply of chilled water to air conditioning equipments of various plant buildings and cooling tower water to important equipments for heat removal is the purpose of chilling plant at PRPD. The cooling medium used is raw water available at site. Water chemistry is maintained by make-up and blowdown. In this paper, various observations made during plant operation and equipment maintenance are discussed. The issues observed was scaling and algal growth affecting the heat transfer and availability of the equipment. Corrosion related issues were observed to be less significant. Scaling indices were calculated to predict the behavior. (author)

  12. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  13. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  14. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ''Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.'' The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ''generic'' insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency (∼1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations

  15. Performance of a chill ATES system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, K.C.; Song, Y.K.; Schaetzle, W.J. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)] [and others

    1989-03-01

    An aquifer air-conditioning system has been installed to cool the Student Recreation Center on the University of Alabama Campus. This research program encompasses the monitoring of the operation of the aquifer system and provision of emplacements to the system. The monitoring includes establishing the instrumentation, acquiring data, and analyzing the results. The instrumentation allows the measurement of water flow rates and corresponding temperatures, electrical energy input, aquifer temperatures at nineteen monitoring wells, and aquifer levels at six monitoring wells. Recent acquifer performance data indicate that 76% of the chill energy stored was recovered for the period Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 70% for the period Oct/87 - Sep/88. This is a substantial improvement over recoveries of 38% for the 1985 season and 55% for 1986. The overall coefficient of performance was 5.4 for Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 4.6 for Oct/87 - Sep/88. THe system has supplied 100% of the cooling with only about one-half of the energy input required by a conventional system. Some of the increased recovery of chilled water is a result of modifying the production well operation to reduce the regional flow of water toward the northwest. All warm water is withdrawn form the southeast wells, chilled, and injected in northwest wells. The cold water then withdrawn from the cold wells is used for air-conditioning but not reinjected into the aquifer. Additional flow control is provided by pumping (and discarding) water out of a southeast well, although the complete results of this new strategy are as yet unclear.

  16. Converting an ice storage facility to a chilled water system for energy efficiency on a deep level gold mine / Dirk Cornelius Uys

    OpenAIRE

    Uys, Dirk Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    The South African gold mining sector consumes 47% of the mining industry’s electricity. On a deep level gold mine, 20% of the energy is consumed by the refrigeration system. The refrigeration system cools 67 ˚C virgin rock temperatures underground. Underground cooling demand increases significantly with deeper mining activities. Various cooling systems are available for underground cooling. This study focuses on the electricity usage of an ice storage system versus a chilled water system for ...

  17. Chills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chills refers to feeling cold after being in a cold environment. The word can also refer to ... Chills (shivering) may occur at the beginning of an infection. They are most often associated with a ...

  18. Humidification of chilled fruit and vegetables on retail display using an ultrasonic fogging system with water/air ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.; James, S.J. [University of Bristol (United Kingdom). Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre; Corry, J.E.L. [University of Bristol (United Kingdom). Division of Farm Animal Science, Department of Clinical Veterinary Science

    2004-12-01

    The effects of an ultrasonic humidification system were assessed during retail display of unwrapped chilled fruit and vegetable produce. Produce and equipment factors were compared during two consecutive 7-day trials, one with fogging (termed 'wet') and one without (termed 'dry'). No appreciable differences in mean product temperatures were found (4.6 {sup o}C for wet, 4.3 {sup o}C for dry), but there were slight differences in cabinet performance in terms of air temperatures and refrigeration effect. Despite a considerable increase in drainage water from the cabinet (53 l per day for wet, 30 for dry), no change to the cabinet's defrost schedule was required. Humidification reduced weight loss with all products. After 7 days of display the highest reduction, almost 50%, was achieved with mushrooms. Humidification also reduced the rate of deterioration in the appearance of the produce on display. No adverse effects on the microbial quality of samples of produce were found. Slightly higher numbers of airborne microbes were sampled from the air circulating in the cabinet during the wet trial, but there was no significant increase in numbers of microbes landing on settle plates on the display shelves. Numbers of bacteria in the water sterilisation system were low and no Legionella species were isolated from either the wet or the dry trial water samples. (author)

  19. The response of a complex Data Centre chilled water system to an unplanned site-wide power failure and the influence on the Data halls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsimadan, E.; Stec, W.; Howe, M.R. [Cundall LLP, Saffron House, 6-10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The paper describes the modelling and analysis of a 10 MW chilled water distribution system that is used for the cooling of parallel Data halls. During an unplanned site power failure, the Chillers may go offline for some minutes, affecting the temperature and delivery of chilled water to the Data hall cooling units. This may cause the air temperature within the Data halls to rise. The ultimate test of robustness is to ensure that the IT equipment is adequately cooled during this time. This work outlines the key findings from the thermal response of the cooling system to a site power failure. The entire chilled water network that comprised the primary and secondary plant was modelled, including components such as pumps, valves and Chillers. A transient analysis was conducted to predict the rise in water temperature at different locations in the system. Computational fluid dynamics was then adopted to predict the air temperature reaching the IT equipment, therefore confirming the capability of the design to steer clear of effects such as thermal runaway. The findings demonstrate that confidence in the omission of expensive buffer vessels and UPS backed plant could not have been achieved without the advanced transient analysis conducted here. (author)

  20. Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for Both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran;

    2013-01-01

    Simulations were performed to compare a conventional 4-pipe chilled beam system and a 2-pipe chilled beam system. The objective was to establish requirements, possibilities and limitations for a well-functioning 2-pipe chilled beam system for both cooling and heating of office buildings. The...... consumption and hence energy savings in the 2-pipe chilled beam system in comparison with the 4-pipe system. The 2-pipe chilled beam system used high temperature cooling and low temperature heating with a water temperature of 20°C to 23°C, available for free most of the year. The system can thus take...... advantage of renewable energy. The results showed that the energy consumption was 3% less in the 2-pipe chilled beam system in comparison with the conventional 4-pipe system when moving cooled and heated water through the building, transferring the energy to where it is needed. Using free cooling (taking...

  1. Study of a Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran; Afshari, Alireza;

    Active chilled beam systems are used to provide heating and cooling in order to achieve comfortable thermal indoor climate. For heating and cooling applications, an active chilled beam has two water circuits comprising four pipes that supply warm and cold water respectively to the beam coil...... according to the space demand. Lindab Comfort A/S has introduced an active chilled beam system which has just one water circuit (two pipes) that is used for both heating and cooling. The concept is based on high temperature cooling and low temperature heating. In this study the energy saving potential of...... the new two-pipe active chilled beam system is investigated....

  2. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  3. [Effects of chilling stress on antioxidant system and ultrastructure of walnut cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing-hua; Wang, Hong-xia; Zhang, Zhi-hua; Gao, Yi

    2015-05-01

    In order to reveal cold hardiness mechanisms and ascertain suitable cold hardiness biochemical indicators of walnut (Juglans regia) , three walnut cultivars ' Hartley' , 'Jinlong 1' and 'Jinlong 2' with strong to weak tolerance of chilling stress, were used to investigate variations of leaf antioxidant enzyme activity and superoxide anion (O2-·) content in one year-old branches under chilling stress at 1 °C in leaf-expansion period. The mesophyll cells ultrastructure of ' Hartley' and 'Jinlong 2' under chilling stress were also observed by transmission electron microscope. The results showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzyme activities were the strongest and O2-· content was the lowest in chilling-tolerant cultivar ' Hartley' under chilling stress among the three cultivars. The ultrastructure of the mesophyll cells was stable, and chilling injury symptoms of the leaves were not observed. In chilling-sensitive cultivar 'Jinlong 2' , the SOD, POD and catalase enzyme ( CAT) activities decreased sharply, and the O2-· content was kept at a high level under chilling stress. The ultrastructure of the mesophyll cells was injured obviously at 1 °C∟ for 72 hours. Most of chloroplasts were swollen, and grana lamella became thinner and fewer. A number of chloroplasts envelope and plasma membrane were damaged and became indistinct. At the same time, the edges of some of 'Jinlong 2' young leaves became water-soaked. It was concluded that the ultrastructure stability of mesophyll cells under chilling stress was closely related to walnut cold hardiness. SOD, POD enzyme activities and O2-· content in walnut leaves could be used as biochemical indicators of walnut cold hardiness in leaf-expansion period. There might be a correlation between the damage of cell membrane system and reactive oxygen accumulation under chilling stress. PMID:26571647

  4. Design and Modelling of Water Chilling Production System by the Combined Effects of Evaporation and Night Sky Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Y. Taha Al-Zubaydi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and mathematical modelling of thermal radiator panel to be used primarily to measure night sky radiation wet coated surface is presented in this paper. The panel consists of an upper dry surface coated aluminium sheet laminated to an ethylene vinyl acetate foam backing block as an insulation. Water is sprayed onto the surface of the panel so that an evaporative cooling effect is gained in addition to the radiation effect; the surface of a panel then is wetted in order to study and measure the night sky radiation from the panel wet surface. In this case, the measuring water is circulated over the upper face of this panel during night time. Initial TRNSYS simulations for the performance of the system are presented and it is planned to use the panel as calibrated instruments for discriminating between the cooling effects of night sky radiation and evaporation.

  5. Reduction of Chilling Injury and Ultrastructural Damage in Cherry Tomato Fruits After Hot Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; FU Mao-run; ZHAO Yu-ying; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot water treatment in alleviating chilling injury and reducing ultrastructural damage of mature-green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. cerasiform Alef) were investigated. Mature-green cherry tomato fruits were treated in water at 40℃ or 45℃ for 5 rain or 15 rain, and then stored at 5℃ for 19 days followed by ripening at 20℃. Water treatment at 40℃ for 15 rain increased tolerance of cherry tomato fruits to chilling stress, indicating as low outbreak of skin lesion, high color a* value, and low electrolyte leakage. Treated fi'uits showed typical climacteric respiration and developed normal red color with chlorophyll degradation and lyeopene accumulation during ripening, while fruits without treatment failed to develop red color and suffered skin lesion. After 19 days of chilling, heated fruits showed the conversion of chloroplast to ehromoplast with the disappearance of thylakoids. Mitochondria and other cell organelles were not adversely affected in treated fruits. However, ultrastruetures in periearp cells in control fruits severely damaged with extensive disorganization of cytoplasm, swelled chloroplasts, distorted and unstacked thylakoids. Chloroplast was the first and most severely impacted organelle by chilling stress. Hot water treatment (40℃ for 15 min) before storage alleviated chilling injury in cherry tomato fruits. The results suggest that chilling injury is related with the damage of cell structure under chilling stress.

  6. 空调系统冷水泵并联变频优化运行%Optimal operation of parallel variable frequency chilled water pumps in air conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 卢军; 陈明; 胡磊

    2011-01-01

    分析了多台水泵定变组合、大小搭配以及同步变频时的安全性及节能性,计算了冷水泵不同搭配组合的能耗.从水泵效率最高、总能耗最低的角度,提出冷水泵应与机组相对应,且应同步变频调速.%Based on the analysis of the safety and energy efficiency of multiple pumps in the modes of fixed and variable frequency combinations, mixed size and synchronization frequency, calculates the energy consumption of chilled water pumps in the different combinations. From the aspects of the highest efficiency and the minimum energy consumption, proposes that the chilled water pump operation should be correspond with the water chiller units and the pumps should be operated by frequency synchonization.

  7. Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for Both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Afshari, Alireza; Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Simulations were performed to compare a conventional 4-pipe chilled beam system and a 2-pipe chilled beam system. The objective was to establish requirements, possibilities and limitations for a well-functioning 2-pipe chilled beam system for both cooling and heating of office buildings. The building model had a net volume of 3669 m3, (L*B: 25.5m*11.5 m) and net ceiling height of 2.55 m. The building model was assumed to consist of 78 office rooms, 6 meeting rooms and 5 corridors with a 50% o...

  8. 同程布置冷水系统管网水力特性计算机分析%Computer calculation method of hydraulic characteristics of reversed return chilled water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪峰; 刘金平; 陈星龙; 陆继东

    2012-01-01

    以同程布置的冷水系统管网为研究对象,在充分考虑末端支路温度调节阀调节特性的基础上,建立了管网水力计算数学模型,提出了虚拟流量的计算机逻辑算法.以10个AHU支路的同程式管网为例,在所有末端支路水力可调、部分AHU关闭及部分AHU调节失灵3种情况下,分别计算了不同供回水压差下各支路温度调节阀的开度和实际流量,计算结果符合同程式管网的固有特性.%Taking a reverse-return chilled water system as the research object, based on full consideration of the regulating characteristics of temperature regulating valves in terminal branches, establishes a mathematical model of pipe network hydraulic characteristics, and puts forward a computer logic algorithm with virtual flow. Taking a reverse-return pipe network with ten AHU branches as the example, calculates the opening of temperature regulating valves and actual flow in branches respectively in the condition of different supply-return water pressure differences in three kinds of operating conditions of pipe network including all terminal branches being hydraulic adjustable, part AHU closing and part AHU being out of adjustment. The calculation results are in accord with the natural characteristics of reversed return pipe network.

  9. Dynamic modeling of stratification for chilled water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air conditioning of buildings can be costly and energy consuming. Application of thermal energy storage (TES) reduces cost and energy consumption. The efficiency of the overall operation is affected by storage tank sizing design, which affects thermal stratification of water during charging and discharging processes in TES system. In this study, numerical simulation is used to determine the relationship between tank size and good thermal stratification. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD) and inlet Reynolds number (Re) are investigated. The effect of the number of diffuser holes is also studied. For shallow tanks (low HD) simulations, no acceptable thermocline thickness can be seen for all Re experimented. Partial mixing is observed throughout the process. Medium HD tanks simulations show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water can be seen. Finally, deep tanks (high HD) show less acceptable thermocline thickness as compared to that of medium HD tanks. From this study, doubling and halving the number of diffuser holes show no significant effect on the thermocline behavior

  10. Innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system for simultaneous heating and cooling of office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the energy savings potential of an innovative two-pipe system in an active chilled beam application for heating and cooling of office buildings. The characteristic of the system is its ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling by transferring...... heating, cooling and ventilation loads were calculated by the program and an annual energy consumption evaluation of the system was made. Simulation results showed that the innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system used approximately 5% less energy than a conventional four-pipe system....

  11. A comparison of chilled DI water/ozone and CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluids as replacements for photoresist-stripping solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Barton, J.; Taylor, C.M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.; Tiefert, K. [Hewlett-Packard Co., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Part of the Hewlett Packard Components Group`s Product Stewardship program is the ongoing effort to investigate ways to eliminate or reduce as much as possible the use of chemical substances from manufacturing processes. Currently used techniques to remove hard-baked photoresists from semiconductor wafers require the use of inorganic chemicals or organic strippers and associated organic solvents. Environmental, health and safety, as well as cost considerations prompted the search for alternative, more environmentally-benign, and cost-effective solutions. Two promising, emerging technologies were selected for evaluation: the chilled DI water/ozone technique and supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Evaluating chilled DI water/ozone shows this process to be effective for positive photoresist removal, but may not be compatible with all metallization systems. Testing of a closed-loop CO{sub 2}-based supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover, or SCORR, at Los Alamos, on behalf of Hewlett-packard, shows that this treatment process is effective in removing photoresists, and is fully compatible with commonly used metallization systems. In this paper, the authors present details on the testing programs conducted with both the chilled DI H{sub 2}O/ozone and SCORR treatment processes.

  12. Carcass orientation and drip time affect potential surface water carryover for broiler carcasses subjected to a post-chill water dip or spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    To estimate the potential for residual antimicrobial solution carryover, surface water accumulation and loss was measured on post-chill carcasses that were either dipped or sprayed with water. For all experiments, broilers were slaughtered, soft scalded or hard scalded, defeathered, and eviscerated....

  13. The big chill puts the electric system under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written at the occasion of a cold wave in France in February 2012 with a new peak in electricity consumption, the article first analyses the specific meteorological conditions associated with this event, and then outlines that the massive use of electric heating makes the French system particularly sensitive to temperatures, but also that the peak is also due to the massive use of electric domestic appliances at about 7 p.m. He describes how this peak is faced in terms of energy sources and outlines that there was no risk for grid security. He comments the availability of nuclear and hydroelectric energy, and of other energies (oil, coal, gas), and the margin levels. He finally states that costs of a cold wave are predictable and could be mitigated by supporting the installation of energy-saving or non-electric heating systems

  14. Chilling Tendency and Chill of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Fra(s); M. Górny; W. Kapturkiewicz; H. López

    2008-01-01

    An analytical expression is presented for the susceptibility of liquid cast iron to solidify according tothe Fe-C-X metastable system (also known as the chilling tendency of cast iron, CT). The analysis incorpo-rates the nucleation and growth processes associated with the eutectic transformation. The CT is related tothe physicochemical state of the liquid, the eutectic cells in the flake graphite, and the number of nodules innodular cast iron. In particular, the CT can be related to the critical wall thickness, Scr, or the chill width, Wcr,in wedge shaped castings. Finally, this work serves as a guide for understanding the effect of technical fac-tors such as the melt chemistry, the spheroidizing and inoculation practice, and the holding time and tam-perature on the resultant CT and chill of the cast iron. Theoretical calculations of Scr and Wcr compare wellwith experimental data for flake graphite and nodular cast iron.

  15. Reducing a solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s energy consumption by applying real-time occupancy sensors and chilled water storage tanks throughout the summer: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present an innovative occupancy and chilled water storage-based operation mode. • This mode was implemented to the solar-assisted air-conditioning system. • It permits to save 42% of total electrical energy during one cooling period. • It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. • It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study describes an innovative occupancy and chilled-water storage-based operation sequence implemented in a solar-assisted air-conditioning system. The core purpose of this solar-assisted air-conditioning system is to handle the cooling and heating load of the Solar Energy Research Centre (CIESOL), thus minimising its environmental impact. In this study, the cooling mode was investigated with special attention focused on the chilled-water storage circuit. The critical concern is that the solar-assisted air-conditioning system should always operate considering the actual load conditions, not using an abstract maximum load that is predetermined during the system’s design process, which can lead to energy waste during periods of low occupancy. Thus, the fundamental problem is to identify the optimum operation sequence for the solar-assisted air-conditioning system that provides the best energy performance. The significance of this work lies in the demonstration of a new operation strategy that utilises real-time occupancy monitoring and chilled-water storage tanks to improve the efficiency of solar-assisted air-conditioning systems, thereby reducing their electricity consumption. Adopting this strategy resulted in a large energy-saving potential. The results demonstrate that during one cooling period, it is possible to conserve approximately 42% of the total electrical energy consumed by the system prior to the adoption of this operation strategy

  16. Human Response to Personalized Ventilation Combined with Chilled Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Marcol, Bartosz;

    2014-01-01

    , the use of radiant ceiling cooling will provide operative temperature lower than the air temperature and will improve further occupants’ thermal comfort at warm environment. Therefore combining PV with chilled ceiling may be an effective way to provide thermal comfort in rooms at temperature higher...... than the recommended in the standards upper temperature limit of 26°C. In this paper response of 24 human subjects to a PV combined with chilled ceiling system (CCPV) is compared with the response to mixing ventilation combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV). Participants were provided with control of....../return water temperature for chilled ceiling was 15,5/16,8°C at room air temperature of 26°C and 19,5/20,6°C at 28°C. During the experiment the subjects were performing typical office tasks at workstations with computers. Exposure included also increased activity level office work for a period of 25 min. At...

  17. Effect of a natural organic acid-icing system on the microbiological quality of commercially relevant chilled fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuás, Minia; García-Soto, Bibiana; Fuertes-Gamundi, José R.; Aubourg, Santiago P.; Barros-Velázquez, J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural preservative organic acids (ascorbic, citric and lactic acids) were used to prepare a novel organic acid-flake icing system for the chilled preservation of hake (Merluccius merluccius), megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) and angler (Lophius piscatorius). The icing system was prepared with two different concentrations of a commercial acid mixture-formula containing the three organic acids at 800 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (C-800 and C-400 batches, respectively). Aerobic mesophiles, psychrotr...

  18. Monitoring primary response to chilling stress in etiolated Vigna radiata and V. mungo seedlings using thermal hysteresis of water proton NMR relaxation times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal hysteresis of longitudinal relaxation times (T1) of water protons in hypocotyls of etiolated Vigna radiata and V. mungo seedlings was investigated by pulse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Various lengths of chilling exposures during a cool-warm cycle between 20 and 0°C (below 10°C, about 4 h) for the T1 hysteresis measurement did not cause any visible injury symptoms in hypocotyls. However, the profiles of T1 hysteresis varied as a result of different chilling exposures. The sums of the T1 ratio (for detail see Introduction) reflecting T1 prolongation or shortening upon the warming process were a good quantitative index for the extent of T1 hysteresis, and the wide dispersion of this value ranging on the “minus” side (T1 prolongation upon warming) suggested the occurrence of a primary response of cells to chilling stress before obvious visible symptoms occur while the T1 ratio sums on the “plus” side (T1 shortening upon warming) corresponded to a response of serious visible injury. Therefore, the sums of the T1 ratio can be used as a non-destructive diagnostic tool for monitoring the primary event of chilling injury when lacking any visible injury symptoms. The data indicate that the critical temperature for the occurrence of primary response for chilling stress was around 7.5°C for V. radiata and 12.5°C for V. mungo

  19. 超高层建筑空调二次泵水系统运行分析%Study on the Design of Chilled Water System With Primary-secondary Pumps in Super High-rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟

    2014-01-01

    本文主要阐述了超高层建筑空调二次泵水系统的原理、盈亏管的设置及系统的运行控制策略,并给出了实际工程中超高层建筑空调二次泵水系统遇到的常见问题及解决方式,旨在为空调二次泵水系统设计提供参考。%This paper provides main points of the primary-secondary pumps system in super high-rise, the design of the profit and loss tube, and the ways of the primary-secondary pumps system control. This paper also provides several solu-tions of the primary-secondary pumps problems in the project commissioning , in order to provide a reference design of air condition Primary-secondary Pumps system.

  20. Optimización de sistemas centralizados de agua helada en la etapa prematura del diseño comercial // Optimization of chilled water system in premature stage of coommercial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarelis Valdivia‐Nodal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se propone un procedimiento para la optimización de un sistema de climatizacióncentralizada por agua helada en la etapa prematura del diseño comercial, para ello se crea un modelohíbrido que combina herramientas termoeconómicas con técnicas de inteligencia artificial como son lasredes neuronales artificiales y los algoritmos genéticos para minimizar el costo de los productos finales delsistema (agua fría para climatización de locales y agua caliente para calentamiento de agua sanitaria.Con este objetivo se calculan las variables de diseño y de operación que garantizan el mínimo costo totaldel sistema, formado por los costos capitales de cada uno de sus componentes y el costo asociado a laenergía consumidaPalabras claves: termoeconomía, optimización, algoritmos genéticos, sistemas de climatizacióncentralizada.__________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper the procedure of optimization for the conceptual design of a centralized air conditioning chillerwater system is developed, for which a hybrid model is created that combines thermoeconomic tools withartificial intelligence technique such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and Genetic Algorithms (GA forthe optimization of the final products of the system. With this objective the design and operation variablesare calculated that guarantees the minimum total cost of the system, including the capital costs of each ofits components and the cost associated to the energy consumed.Key words: thermoeconomic, optimization, genetic algorithms, chiller.

  1. Effects of chlorine or chlorine dioxide during immersion chilling on recovery of bacteria from broiler carcasses and chiller water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the microbiological impact of immersion chilling broiler carcasses with chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Eviscerated, pre-chill commercial broiler carcasses were cut into left and right halves along the keel bone, and each half was rinsed (HCR) in 100 mL of 0.1% pept...

  2. Preparation and characterization of microparticles of piroxicam by spray drying and spray chilling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, M.; Kini, A.G.; Kulkarni, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations ...

  3. On the Paradox of Chilling Water: Crossover Temperature in the Mpemba Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Andrew; Chen, Monica; Vourgourakis, Yanni; Nassar, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Unlike most of the research on the Mpemba effect which has focused on verifying the observation that warm water freezes faster than cold water, our work quantitatively investigates the rates at which hot and cold water cool and the point at which hot water reaches a lower temperature than cold water under a set of external conditions. Using a vacuum pump to cool samples of water initially at different temperatures, we measured reproducible temperature values at which hot and cold water equili...

  4. Evaluation of the suitability of empirically-based models for predicting energy performance of centrifugal water chillers with variable chilled water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We evaluate the suitability of 11 empirically performance models for centrifugal water chillers. ► The prediction accuracy of each model is based on CV values. ► The evaluation for model suitability is based on five indexes. ► The BQ, MP, SMP, and MDOE-2 models have good prediction accuracy. ► The BQ, MP, and SMP models have the best suitability. - Abstract: This study evaluates the performance prediction ability and model suitability of eleven empirically-based performance models for centrifugal water chillers. Specifically, this study uses over 2000 datasets with a constant or variable chilled water flow rate for fixed or variable speed drive centrifugal liquid chillers. The best regression coefficients for each empirical-based model were obtained using the ordinary least squares (OLSs) method. The model prediction accuracy of each empirical-based model is based on the coefficient of variation of root-mean-square error (CV). The evaluation for model suitability is based on the considerations of prediction ability, the complexity in training datasets, the effort needed to calibrate, the generality of the model, and its ability to physically interpret the model regression coefficients in this study. Results show that among the eleven empirical-based models, the BQ (CV = 0.54%), MP (CV = 0.61%), SMP (CV = 0.70%), and MDOE-2 (CV = 0.63%) models have overall prediction CV values under 1% for all kinds of datasets and achieve extremely good prediction accuracy. Because the MDOE-2 model has a more complicated datasets training process than the BQ, MP, and SMP models, and it has no ability to physically interpret the model regression coefficients, the BQ, MP, and SMP models have the best suitability. The results of this study provide important reference values for selecting empirically-based performance models for energy analysis, optimal operating control, energy efficiency measurement and verification (M and V), and the development of fault

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of chilled water distribution stations for the SPS accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of chilled water distribution stations for the SPS accelerator. Following a market survey carried out among 82 firms in eighteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2742/ST/SPS) was sent on 17 January 2000 to 10 firms and seven consortia in nine Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received ten tenders from five firms and five consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of chilled water distribution stations for the SPS Accelerator, for an amount of 1 775 127 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT) has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT-100%.

  6. Operating characteristics and efficiencies of an active chilled beam terminal unit under variable air volume mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriately designing and maintaining temperature and relative humidity in a given space is essential for active chilled beam systems, where condensation should be strictly prevented. As a consequence, the Total Cooling Output Capacity (TCOC) of an active chilled beam system should be matched with the total cooling load of the applied space, as well as the Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR) of the system with the SHR of the space. From such a perspective, this paper for the first time explored the operating characteristics of a 2-way discharge active chilled beam terminal unit. Based on an experimentally verified model of the unit, a series of realistic simulations were carried out under various primary air volume flow rates and various chilled water volume flow rates. Inherent correlations between the TCOC and SHR were revealed. In the meanwhile, the operating efficiencies of the unit were also measured by an energy saving potential index ε, which is defined as the ratio of chilled water sensible cooling output capacity to the total sensible cooling output capacity. In addition, influences of different primary air and space conditions on the operating characteristics and efficiencies were studied. The results obtained in this study are expected to facilitate a better understanding of the active chilled beam terminal unit, so as to the designs, the operating principles, and the control strategies of active chilled beam systems for an improved indoor thermal environment. - Highlights: • The operating characteristics and efficiencies of an active chilled beam terminal unit were revealed. • The performance indexes were correlated and mutually constrained with a colorful trapezoid. • The sensitivity of the performance indexes to actual primary air and space conditions were evaluated. • Application range of the active chilled beam terminal unit can be enlarged at a low primary air relative humidity

  7. On the Paradox of Chilling Water: Crossover Temperature in the Mpemba Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Andrew; Vourgourakis, Yanni; Nassar, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Unlike most of the research on the Mpemba effect which has focused on verifying the observation that warm water freezes faster than cold water, our work quantitatively investigates the rates at which hot and cold water cool and the point at which hot water reaches a lower temperature than cold water under a set of external conditions. Using a vacuum pump to cool samples of water initially at different temperatures, we measured reproducible temperature values at which hot and cold water equilibrate. We have confirmed that warmer water indeed cools at a faster rate than colder water and that, surprisingly, this trend continues past the point where the temperatures of the two samples are the same. Our results show that when using optimal initial temperature conditions, the crossover temperature is found to be 2.7 oC whereas our other set of initial conditions gave a crossover temperature of -0.07 oC. These data taken together provide a definite quantitative evidence of the Mpemba effect.

  8. Modeling and Test Data Analysis of a Tank Rapid Chill and Fill System for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, Robin; Hedayat, Ali; Holt, Kimberly A.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated .with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept. A spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill, allowing the vent valve to be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept, using a flight size (not flight weight) tank. were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during the summer of 2000. The objectives of the testing were to: 1) demonstrate that a flight size tank could be filled in roughly 5 minutes to accommodate the shuttle ascent window, and 2) demonstrate a no-vent fill of the tank. A total of 12 tests were conducted. Models of the test facility fill and vent systems, as well as the tank, were constructed. The objective of achieving tank fill in 5 minutes was met during the test series. However, liquid began to accumulate in the tank before it was chilled. Since the tank was not chilled until the end of each test, vent valve closure during fill was not possible. Even though the chill and fill process did not occur as expected, reasonable model correlation with the test data was achieved.

  9. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  10. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  11. The impact of reducing mine chilled water supply during periods of low production

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeman, W.; Schutte, A.; Kleingeld, M

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Demand Side Management (DSM) initiative, Eskom partially funds load management and energy efficiency projects. Large industries are therefore willing participants in the Eskom funded electricity savings programme that hold benefits for all parties. One such industry is the mining sector. The refrigeration and pumping systems used in these sectors are two of the major electricity consumers. As part of DSM initiative, an electrical energy savings project was developed and impleme...

  12. Effect of rearing system on body traits and fillet quality of meagre (Argyrosomus regius, Asso 1801 chilled for a short time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate qualitative traits of meagre (Argyrosomus regius from two different rearing systems (land-based tank filled with geothermal water vs offshore sea cage and after short-term storage at chilling temperature (1, 2, or 3 days. Fish originated from the same batch were fed the same diet. Morpho-biometric traits, L*, a*, and b* colour parameters, texture, free water, proximate composition, total lipids, fatty acids, iron, and selenium contents were analyzed in the fillets. Most parameters were affected by rearing system. Compared to tank-reared fish, caged fish were shorter, poorer in visceral fat, and had higher incidence in cavity content and liver, lower incidence in gonads and head. Caged fish also had softer fillets in the epaxial site, which showed a higher tendency towards greenish colour. Caged fish also showed higher lipid content but lower Fe and Se content. Tank-reared fish fillets were more abundant in PUFAn-3, mainly due to DHA (18.54 vs 12.95%; P<0.001 and consequently showed the best healthiness indexes. Minimal changes, mostly involving colour and texture, were detected during the first three days of refrigerated storage. During storage, no significant modification of the parameters investigated could be ascribed to the rearing system

  13. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  14. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo [Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA), Chiapas (Mexico); Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Programa Moscafrut

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  15. Ethylene Production by Chilled Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Y; Adams, D O

    1980-11-01

    Chilling at 2.5 C accelerated the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and C(2)H(4) production in cucumber fruit. Skin tissue contained higher levels of ACC and was more sensitive to chilling than was cortex tissue. Accumulation of ACC in chilled tissue was detected after 1 day of chilling and remained elevated even after C(2)H(4) production started to decline. These data suggest that ACC synthesis is readily stimulated by chilling, whereas the system that converts ACC to C(2)H(4) is vulnerable to chilling injury. Chilling-induced C(2)H(4) production was inhibited by amino-ethoxyvinylglycine, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and cycloheximide. The utilization of methionine for ACC formation and chilling-induced C(2)H(4) biosynthesis was established using l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine. Chilled tissue had a higher capacity to convert l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine to ACC and C(2)H(4) than did nonchilled tissue. PMID:16661538

  16. STUDY OF CYLPEBS CHILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the shock resistance of cast-iron grinding bodies are researched. The models of heat transfer in the process of casting and shock-abrasive wear are presented. Tooling to produce experimental samples of milling bodies chilling(gravity die casting is manufactured, samples of cylpebs are produced.

  17. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  18. Photosynthetic responses to chilling in a chilling-tolerant and chilling-sensitive Miscanthus hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, P C; Sage, R F

    2016-07-01

    Miscanthus is a C4 perennial grass being developed for bioenergy production in temperate regions where chilling events are common. To evaluate chilling effects on Miscanthus, we assessed the processes controlling net CO2 assimilation rate (A) in Miscanthus x giganteus (M161) and a chilling-sensitive Miscanthus hybrid (M115) before and after a chilling treatment of 12/5 °C. The temperature response of A and maximum Rubisco activity in vitro were identical below 20 °C in chilled and unchilled M161, demonstrating Rubisco capacity limits or co-limits A at cooler temperatures. By contrast, A in M115 decreased at all measurement temperatures after growth at 12/5 °C. Rubisco activity in vitro declined in proportion to the reduction in A in chilled M115 plants, indicating Rubisco capacity is responsible in part for the decline in A. Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase activities were also reduced by the chilling treatment when assayed at 28 °C, indicating this enzyme may also contribute to the reduction in A in M115. The maximum extractable activities of PEPCase and NADP-ME remained largely unchanged after chilling. The carboxylation efficiency of the C4 cycle was depressed in both genotypes to a similar extent after chilling. ΦP :ΦCO2 remained unchanged in both genotypes indicating the C3 and C4 cycles decline equivalently upon chilling. PMID:26714623

  19. Higher Chilling-Tolerance of Grafted-Cucumber Seedling Leaves upon Exposure to Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-yong; TIAN Hai-xia; LI Xin-guo; MENG Jing-jing; HE Qi-wei

    2008-01-01

    The roots of figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to low temperature. In this experiment, the root activity and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in the own-rooted and grafted-cucumber plants were studied at chilling temperature (4℃) under low irradiance (100 μmol m-2 s-1 PFD). Compared with dark adaptation seedlings, the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient curve and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both the own-rooted and grafted seedlings decreased, and PS2 and PSl of the own-rooted seedling leaves were more inhibited than that of grafted ones at the end of chilling stress. The reduced triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), which was used to reflect the root activity, kept stable in grafted seedling roots at the end of chilling stress, while it decreased noticeably in the own-rooted seedling roots. These results implied that the root system activity of the grafted seedling roots was higher than that of the own-rooted ones. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in both the grafted seedling roots and leaves than that in own-rooted seedlings at both room temperature and chilling temperature. Upon exposure to chilling stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which reflects the degree of lipid peroxidation, increased markedly in the own-rooted seedling roots and leaves and kept stable in the grafted-cucumber seedlings.

  20. Using a concentrate of phenols obtained from olive vegetation water to preserve chilled food: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are plant metabolites characterised by several interesting bioactive properties such as antioxidant and bactericidal activities. In this study the application of a phenols concentrate (PC from olive vegetation water to two different fresh products – gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata and chicken breast – was described. Products were treated in a bath of PC (22 g/L; chicken breast or sprayed with two different solutions (L1:0.75 and L2:1.5 mg/mL; seabream and then stored under refrigeration conditions. The shelf life was monitored through microbiological analyses – quality index method for seabream and a specific sensory index for raw breast. The secondary products of lipid-peroxidation of the chicken breast were determined using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs test on cooked samples. Multivariate statistical techniques were adopted to investigate the impact of phenols and microbiological data were fitted by DMfit software. In seabream, the levels of PC did not highlight any significant difference on microbiological and sensory features. DMfit models suggested an effect only on H2S producing bacteria with an increased lag phase compared to the control samples (C: 87 h vs L2: 136 h. The results on chicken breast showed that the PC bath clearly modified the growth of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. The phenol dipping was effective in limiting lipid-peroxidation (TBARs after cooking. Treated samples disclosed an increase of shelf life of 2 days. These could be considered as preliminary findings suggesting the use of this concentrate as preservative in some fresh products.

  1. Impact of heat load location and strength on air flow pattern with a passive chilled beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, Risto [Halton Oy, Niittyvillankuja 4, 01510 Vantaa (Finland); Saarinen, Pekka; Koskela, Hannu [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Lemminkaisenkatu 14-18 B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Hole, Alex [Arup, Rob Leslie-Carter, Level 10, 201 Kent Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    A passive chilled beam is a source of natural convection, creating a flow of cold air directly into the occupied zone. Experiments were conducted in a mock-up of an office room to study the air velocities in the occupied spaces. In addition, velocity profiles are registered when underneath heat loads exist and the cool and warm air flows interact. Experimental laboratory study revealed that in the case of the underneath heat gains, even no upward plume was generated and the dummy only acted as a flow obstacle, having a significant effect on the velocity profile. Furthermore, in an actual occupied office environment, the thermal plumes and the supply air diffuser mixed effectively the whole air volume. The maximum air velocity measured was still below 0.25 m/s with the extremely high heat gain of 164 W/m{sup 2}. The results demonstrate that analysis methods were the interaction of convection flow and jet are not taken into account could not accurately describe air movement and draught risk in the occupied room space. (author)

  2. Evaluation of trigeneration system using microturbine, ammonia-water absorption chiller, and a heat recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preter, Felipe C.; Rocha, Marcelo S.; Simoes-Moreira, Jose Roberto [SISEA - Alternative Energy Systems Lab. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. University of Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: felipe.preter@poli.usp.br, msrocha@poli.usp.br, jrsimoes@usp.br; Andreos, Ronaldo [COMGAS - Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: randreos@comgas.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In this work, a CCHP or tri generation system has been projected, mounted, and tested in laboratory, combining a microturbine for power generation, a heat recovery boiler for hot water production, and an ammonia water absorption chiller for chilled water production. The project was motivated by the large practical applications of this kind of energy recovery system in commerce, and industry, and, in general, more than 85% of the energy source is used as power, hot water, and cold water. In the first part, the trigeneration system theoretical model is detailed, and in the second part, experimental results are presented for different operation conditions. (author)

  3. Reestablishment of ion homeostasis during chill-coma recovery in the cricket Gryllus pennsylvanicus

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, Heath A.; Williams, Caroline M.; Staples, James F.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    The time required to recover from cold-induced paralysis (chill-coma) is a common measure of insect cold tolerance used to test central questions in thermal biology and predict the effects of climate change on insect populations. The onset of chill-coma in the fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus, Orthoptera: Gryllidae) is accompanied by a progressive drift of Na+ and water from the hemolymph to the gut, but the physiological mechanisms underlying recovery from chill-coma are not unders...

  4. Welding Using Chilled-Inert-Gas Purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, William F.; Rybicki, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes study of fusion welding using chilled inert gas. Marked improvement shown in welding of aluminum using chilled helium gas. Chilling inert gas produces two additional benefits: 1) creation of ultradense inert atmosphere around welds; 2) chilled gas cools metal more quickly down to temperature at which metals not reactive.

  5. Short and long term effects of root and shoot chilling of ransom soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, R L; Thomas, S A; Kramer, P J

    1983-11-01

    The immediate short term effects on some physiological processes and the long term effects on morphology and reproductive development of root- and shoot-chilled soybeans (Glycine max L. cv Ransom) were studied. Roots or shoots of 16- or 17-day-old plants were chilled at 10 degrees C for one week, and then rewarmed to 25 degrees C. Leaf elongation rate, net CO(2) uptake rate, and stomatal conductance decreased during root or shoot chilling. Root chilling had only temporary effects on water relations, while shoot chilling caused large changes in potentials during chilling. Most processes measured returned to control levels after two days of rewarming. Root-chilled plants harvested 90 days after emergence were similar in morphology and seed weight to controls. Shoot-chilled plants showed a large increase over controls in axillary branch growth, but an early abortion of flowers and a delayed resumption of flowering caused a 78% reduction in seed weight. Root chilling in this study was found to have little or no long term effect on the plants, while shoot chilling caused significant changes in vegetative morphology, and a delay in flowering and subsequent pod filling. PMID:16663300

  6. Sustainable Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems trap storm water but may contaminate groundwater. There is a need to summarize recent trends in sustainable water systems management in a focused document. The aim of this special issue is therefore to disseminate and share scientific findings on novel sustainable water systems addressing recent problems and opportunities. This special issue focuses on the following key topics: climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems; holistic water management; carbon credits; potable water savings; sustainable water technologies; nutrient management; holistic storm water reuse; water and wastewater infrastructure planning; ecological status of watercourses defined by the Water Framework Directive. The combined knowledge output advances the understanding of sustainable water, wastewater and storm water systems in the developed and developing world. The research highlights the need for integrated decision-support frameworks addressing the impact of climate change on local and national water resources management strategies involving all relevant stakeholders at all levels.

  7. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  8. Sustainable Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Miklas Scholz

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems trap storm water but may contaminate groundwater. There is a need to summarize recent trends in sustainable water systems management in a focused document. The aim of this special issue is ...

  9. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...... people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially...... between the tested systems. Chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation working as the only air supplying system may be optimal solution in many buildings....

  10. The integrated effect of DSM on mine chilled water systems / Willem Schoeman

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeman, Willem

    2014-01-01

    The national electricity utility in South Africa, Eskom, is currently under pressure to supply the increasing demand for electricity on a national level. To address this problem in the short term, Eskom partially funds load management and energy efficiency projects. In the meantime, Eskom is also increasing their generation capacity through the erection of new power stations. To finance these capital projects, sharp tariff increases, higher than inflation, are levied, resulting...

  11. Impact of the sampling method and chilling on the Salmonella recovery from pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; De Zutter, Lieven; Berkvens, Dirk; Houf, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Differences in recovery of Salmonella on pig carcasses using non-destructive and destructive sampling methods is not well understood in respect to the chilling processes applied in slaughterhouses. Therefore, in two slaughterhouses, four strains at two different concentrations were inoculated onto pork skin. Inoculated skin samples were sampled before and after chilling with two sampling methods: swabbing and destruction. Both slaughterhouses were visited three times and all tests were performed in triplicate. All samples were analysed using the ISO-method and recovered isolates were confirmed by PFGE. The chilling system (fast or conventional cooling) nor the sampling step (before and after chilling) did not significantly influence the recovery of Salmonella. However, swabbing after chilling leads to an underestimation of the real number of contaminated carcasses. Therefore, destructive sampling is the more designated sampling method after chilling. PMID:27236225

  12. Comparison of microbial load in immersion chilling water and poultry carcasses after 8, 16 and 24 working hours Comparação da carga microbiana em águas de pré-resfriamento e carcaças de frangos, após jornadas de trabalho de 8, 16 e 24 horas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cavani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Poultry processing facilities are known for using a great amount of water, which is mainly used on carcasses chilling stage. In Brazil, meat regulations state that each chiller tank must be emptied, cleaned and sanitized every 8 working hours. The aim of the current study was to assess the microbial load of chiller water used in poultry immersion chilling system after 8, 16 and 24 working hours in order to evaluate the reduction of water changes and chiller sanitization. Conventional physicochemical and microbiological assays were done in water supply samples (n=69 to suppress interferences caused by freshwater addition; pre chilled (n=345 post chilled carcasses (n=345 and chiller water samples of the last stage (n=69. The results showed no significant differences on microbial load samples between the three shifts suggesting that the proposed reduction may be secure and reduces the volume of wastewater that would impact the environment, besides improving the rational use of processing time.As atividades dos estabelecimentos de abate de frangos são conhecidas por utilizarem grandes volumes de água durante seus processos, principalmente no processo de resfriamento das carcaças de frangos. Parte desse volume utilizado se faz necessário, em cumprimento à legislação que determina que cada tanque do sistema de pré-resfriadores contínuos por imersão deve ser completamente esvaziado, limpo e desinfetado no final de cada período de trabalho (oito horas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a carga microbiana das águas do sistema de resfriamento e das carcaças de frango ao final de oito, dezesseis e vinte e quatro horas de trabalho do abatedouro, para possível redução do número de vezes do completo esvaziamento dos tanques do sistema de resfriamento. Foram avaliadas, por meio de métodos convencionais microbiológicos e físico-químicos, amostras da água de abastecimento (n=69, visando a evitar possível interferência nas contagens das

  13. Optimizing the water flow rate in space HVAC systems. New data for the dimensioning of installations; Optimiser le debit d'eau dans les ventilo-convecteurs. Des donnees nouvelles pour dimensionner les installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palenzuela, D.; Cyssau, R.

    2000-09-01

    The temperature increase of the chilled water specified for the heat exchangers of space heating and ventilating systems is in general of 5 deg. C. However, the technical-economical study presented in this document shows that the best economical conditions correspond to a temperature rise of 10 deg. C and a water flow rate divided by 2. (J.S.)

  14. Chilling Out with Colds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? ... body already has the best cold cure — your immune system. The immune system defends your body against illness. ...

  15. Water quality diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a water quality diagnosis system for always monitoring the state of pipeline component materials and equipments in a power plant to previously detect abnormality. That is, it comprises a water quality sensor for measuring conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, metal concentration, metal composition, chemical form and radioactive concentration, and a computer system. The computer system comprises an abnormal event simulation calculation section based on an abnormality prediction model, intelligence data base reflecting experience and knowledge with reference to corrosion and leaching of metals, water quality data base accumulating base data with reference to corrosion of metals and material data with reference to all over the entire systems of the structural components of the plant and a reasoning engine. Then, the condition and the speed of corrosion for all over the system are determined to forecast the normal state by using the water quality data inputted periodically from the water quality sensor. The condition of abnormality is determined based on the intelligence base and the reasoning engine. (I.S.)

  16. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shenghua; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana N; Reighard, Gregory L; Okie, William R; Holland, Doron; Abbott, Albert G

    2010-03-01

    *Chilling requirement, together with heat requirement, determines the bloom date, which has an impact on the climatic distribution of the genotypes of tree species. The molecular basis of floral bud chilling requirement is poorly understood, despite its importance to the adaptation and production of fruit trees. In addition, the genetic nature of heat requirement and the genetic interrelationships among chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date remain unclear. *A peach (Prunus persica) F(2) population of 378 genotypes developed from two genotypes with contrasting chilling requirements was used for linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The floral bud chilling and heat requirements of each genotype were evaluated over 2 yr and the bloom date was scored over 4 yr. *Twenty QTLs with additive effects were identified for three traits, including one major QTL for chilling requirement and two major QTLs for bloom date. The majority of QTLs colocalized with QTLs for other trait(s). In particular, one genomic region of 2 cM, pleiotropic for the three traits, overlapped with the sequenced peach EVG region. *This first report on the QTL mapping of floral bud chilling requirement will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for low chilling requirement cultivars and the map-based cloning of genes controlling chilling requirement. The extensive colocalization of QTLs suggests that there may be one unified temperature sensing and action system regulating chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date together. PMID:20028471

  17. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  18. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...... and chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether PV can be the only ventilation system in the rooms equipped with chilled ceiling. The room air temperature was 26°C in cases with traditional systems and 28°C when PV was used. PV supplied air with...

  19. The Big Chill

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    In just five years the LHC's twenty-seven kilometre ring of superconducting magnets will be brought down to a chily 1.9 Kelvin - some 300 degrees below room temperature - as CERN's new flagship accelerator is commissioned. Validating all the systems that will cool and power the LHC is the job of String 2, a chain of prototype magnets currently being put through its paces in SM18.

  20. 21 CFR 890.5940 - Chilling unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chilling unit. 890.5940 Section 890.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5940 Chilling unit....

  1. Custo-efetividade da produção de refeições coletivas sob o aspecto higiênico-sanitário em sistemas cook-chill e tradicional Cost-effectiveness applied to hygienic-sanitary aspects of collective meals production in cook-chill and traditional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Megumi Kawasaki

    2007-04-01

    potencial de melhoria do desempenho da efetividade na produção de refeições seguras.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost efficiency relationship from two food services from Sao Paulo city that adopt different collective meals production systems (conventional and cook-chill. METHODS: The method employed was based on cost efficiency analysis, using time and temperature criteria established in Brazilian laws as efficiency indicators for safety in hygiene and sanitary aspects of the collective meals production systems. Costs were calculated through the differential direct cost method, using as basis the costs of inputs that were exclusive to each production system. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the differential direct cost from food services that adopted the conventional production system (food service unit1 was R$0.69 per meal, while the cost of food services that adopted the cook-chill production system (food service unit 2 was R$2.66 per meal. In terms of effectiveness, food service unit 1 achieved an accomplishment level of 27.9% in time and temperature criteria, while food service unit 2 achieved an accomplishment level of 68.2%. The most cost-effective alternative was the conventional production system represented by food service unit 1, with a cost-efficiency ratio of 2.484; while food service unit 2 obtained a cost efficiency ratio of 3.907. CONCLUSION: The main transgression causes in food safety criteria detected in both food services were related to procedures that seek improvements in sensory quality and economy instead of safety and there was little relationship between the inherent differences of the adopted production system. Critical stages can be controlled by monitoring food temperature, a low cost procedure with a high potential of improving efficiency performance in the production of safe meals.

  2. Music chills: The eye pupil as a mirror to music's soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeng, Bruno; Eidet, Lise Mette; Sulutvedt, Unni; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated whether music-induced aesthetic "chill" responses, which typically correspond to peak emotional experiences, can be objectively monitored by degree of pupillary dilation. Participants listened to self-chosen songs versus control songs chosen by other participants. The experiment included an active condition where participants made key presses to indicate when experiencing chills and a passive condition (without key presses). Chills were reported more frequently for self-selected songs than control songs. Pupil diameter was concurrently measured by an eye-tracker while participants listened to each of the songs. Pupil size was larger within specific time-windows around the chill events, as monitored by key responses, than in comparison to pupil size observed during 'passive' song listening. In addition, there was a clear relationship between pupil diameter within the chills-related time-windows during both active and passive conditions, thus ruling out the possibility that chills-related pupil dilations were an artifact of making a manual response. These findings strongly suggest that music chills can be visible in the moment-to-moment changes in the size of pupillary responses and that a neuromodulatory role of the central norepinephrine system is thereby implicated in this phenomenon. PMID:27500655

  3. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  4. Human response to individually controlled micro environment generated with localized chilled beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Simon C.; Nygaard, Linette; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2014-01-01

    Indoor environment in a single-office room created by a localised chilled beam with individual control of the primary air flow was studied. Response of 24 human subjects when exposed to the environment generated by the chilled beam was collected via questionnaires under a 2-hour exposure including...... different work tasks at three locations in the room. Response of the subjects to the environment generated with a chilled ceiling combined with mixing air distribution was used for comparison. The air temperature in the room was kept at 26 or 28 °C. Results show no significant difference in the overall and...... local thermal sensation reported by the subjects with the two systems. Both systems were equally acceptable. At 26°C the individual control of the localised chilled beam lead to higher acceptability of the work environment. At 28°C the acceptability decreased with the two systems. It was not acceptable...

  5. Effects of watertable and fertilizer management on susceptibility of tomato fruit to chilling injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 2-year study (1993-1994), 'New Yorker' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown in field lysimeters were subjected to four water table depth (WTD) treatments (0.3, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 m from the soil surface) factorially combined with 5 potassium/calcium fertilization combinations. Mature-green fruit from four replicates of each treatment were stored at 5C for 21 days, and fruit color was monitored with a tristimulus colorimeter. Fruit were subsequently allowed to ripen at 20C for 10 days, at which time chilling injury was assessed on the basis of delayed ripening and area of lesions. Potassium and calcium applied in the field had no effect on chilling tolerance of the fruit. In the drier year (1993), shallower WTD treatments generally yielded fruit that changed color less during chilling and were more chilling-sensitive based on delayed ripening. In the wetter year, differences in color change and chilling tolerance between WTD, if any, were small. Over both years, lesion area varied with WTD, but not in a consistent manner. Based on these results, we suggest that differences in water availability should be considered when studying tomato fruit chilling

  6. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Seed Priming-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Hussain, Hafiz A; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18°C) and normal temperatures (28°C) in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism, and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress. PMID:26904078

  7. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of seed priming-induced chilling tolerance in rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam eHussain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18˚C and normal temperatures (28˚C in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress.

  8. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Rapid cooling of products is of increasing importance for food preservation and for industrial processes. Slurry ice (Binary Ice) is a two-phase cooling fluid consisting of suspended ice crystals in an aqueous solution or mixture. Latent energy contained in the fluid yields rapid cooling which...... is expressed in high cooling velocity. It is, however, difficult to establish cooling curves for every product and process. Using two readings from a cooling process allows the va��to be determined of a constant OCT which expresses the specific cooling velocity and serves to establish cooling curves...... for a given product and process and to compare different cooling fluids and methods. Chilling of hot products in professional cooking kettles immediately after cooking is achieved best by using Binary Ice. The paper gives an equation, which describes the cooling velocity for such kettles and other products...

  9. Improving Chilling Tolerance of Maize Seedlings under Cold Conditions by Spermine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein SAEIDNEJAD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is an important abiotic stress which reduces crops growth and productivity and causes physiological damages to cellular structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the probability of spermine application to improve chilling tolerance of maize under stress conditions. The treatments were included seed priming with spermine (30, 60 and 90 mg/l solutions and normal and stress condition. Seed emergence was improved by spermine priming on both conditions and mean emergence time (MET was also decreased with priming. Shoot and root length was highly reduced under stress conditions, but the treated seeds were improved along with increased spermine concentration. Seedling dry weight was also affected by priming and reduced weight of stressful seedlings was alleviated by spermine priming. Decreased relative water content on seedlings under stress was elevated by the treatments and significantly increased. Electrolyte leakage was also recovered by applied treatments while it was adversely decreased on cold conditions. Antioxidative system was highly responded to spermine application. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity increased on both normal and stress conditions, but a little decrease was observed on seedlings treated with 90 ppm level and under chilling conditions. Catalase activity was also amplified by spermine treatments. Priming had a great effect on ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity on both stressful and normal seedlings and increased it compare with non treated seedlings. It is also important to note that with increasing spermine concentration to 90 ppm, no considerable differences were observed. Thus, 60 ppm concentration could be proposed as the appropriate level of spermine in order to improve chilling tolerance of maize seedlings.

  10. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  11. Automated Water-Purification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow G.; Hames, Peter S.; Menninger, Fredrick J.

    1988-01-01

    Reverse-osmosis system operates and maintains itself with minimal human attention, using programmable controller. In purifier, membranes surround hollow cores through which clean product water flows out of reverse-osmosis unit. No chemical reactions or phase changes involved. Reject water, in which dissolved solids concentrated, emerges from outer membrane material on same side water entered. Flow controls maintain ratio of 50 percent product water and 50 percent reject water. Membranes expected to last from 3 to 15 years.

  12. Suppression of volatile production in tomato fruit exposed to chilling temperature and alleviation of chilling injury by a pre-chilling heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling exposure of tomato fruit to 5 °C for less than 5 days at mature green stage does not cause visual symptom of chilling injury (CI), however, it is unknown whether such conditions would impact flavor quality (internal CI) after ripening, and if a pre-chilling heat treatment could alleviate in...

  13. Modification of Water Circulation in Demineralized Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long lifetime and efficient are expected for demineralized water system. Therefore, water circulation system for demineralized water system was made by modifying water distillation system, include building circulation water system for water efficiency and equipment installation, such as: ion exchanger for demineralized water process, cooling system, water circulation semiautomatic system and Compressor ETC-100 device for automatic cooling machine. This modified system was able to produce demineralized water with conductivity 0,8 – 0,9μs (microsiemen), reduce incrustations in distillation equipment which can longer the lifetime and water saving. (author)

  14. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  16. CFX Analysis of the Heat and Mass Transfer During the Chilling of a Lamb Carcass using a 3D Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, Joseph; Keane, Garrett; O'Flaherty, Micheal

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is a popular red meat which must go through a complex refrigeration process before being served at the dinner table to reduce bacterial growth and retain meat quality. A major disadvantage of chilling is the drip losses which are losses in weight by evaporation of water contained within the meat. The aim of this work is to simulate the conventional chilling process of a lamb carcass using a three dimensional model.

  17. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  18. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  19. Heavy water extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the present invention the tray for extracting liquid effluent from the humidifier section of the process is located in an intermediate position in the section, having a plurality of the trays of the section thereabove, with a balancing flow of heated water being admitted to the section beneath the extraction tray, to maintain substantially uniform loading of the trays in the humidifier section. The water being admitted in heat providing relation to the humidifier is divided into first and second portions, with the first portion admitted at the top of the humidifier section and the second portion substantially equal to the quantity of effluent extracted being admitted to the section beneath the extraction tray so as to maintain balance in the trays. The deuterium content of the gas, in passing through the trays above the extracting tray, is increased. The second water portion of the heater circuit is passed in heat exchanging relation with the effluent, to raise the temperature of the effluent prior to entry into the gas stripping portion of the plant wherein H2S gas is recovered for recycling. (author)

  20. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saue, Triin

    2015-11-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  1. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  2. Chilling rate effects on pork loin tenderness in commercial processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L

    2012-08-01

    The present experiment was conducted to provide a large-scale objective comparison of pork LM tenderness and other meat quality traits among packing plants that differ in stunning method and carcass chilling rate. For each of 2 replicates, pigs were sourced from a single barn of a commercial finishing operation that fed pigs from a single terminal crossbred line. On each day, 3 trucks were loaded, with each of those trucks delivering the pigs to a different plant. Plant A used CO(2) stunning and conventional spray chilling; Plant B used CO(2) stunning and blast chilling; and Plant C used electrical stunning and blast chilling. The boneless, vacuum-packaged loin was obtained from the left side of each carcass (n = 597; 100 · plant(-1) · replicate(-1)). As designed, HCW, LM depth, and LM intramuscular fat percentage did not differ among plants (P > 0.05). By 1.67 h postmortem (1 h after the carcasses exited the harvest floor), the average deep LM temperature was >10°C warmer for Plant A than Plants B and C (32.1°C, 21.6°C, and 19.3°C, for Plants A, B, and C, respectively) and deep LM temperature continued to be >10°C warmer for Plant A until 4.17 h or 6.33 h postmortem than for Plants C and B, respectively. Both plants that used blast chilling produced loins with greater LM slice shear force at 15 d postmortem than did the plant that used conventional spray chilling (P 25 kg) LM slice shear force values was greater for Plant B than Plant A (14.7% vs. 1%; P electrical stunning (P < 0.05). This research shows that differences in chilling systems among pork packing plants can have a strong influence on loin chop tenderness. PMID:22307481

  3. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-zhang; WANG Zheng-xun; XIA Kuai-fei; SUN Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 ℃) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 ℃ could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 ℃ chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion:SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling.

  4. Next Generation HVAC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasuo; Murakami, Yoshiki; Hanada, Yuuichi; Nishimura, Nobutaka; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Itoh, Yasuyuki

    A new HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning) system for buildings is proposed. The key technology for the system is a twin coil air handling unit (AHU) and its advanced control method. One coil is equipped to cool and dehumidify the fresh air intake, and the other coil is for cooling circulated air. The deeply chilled water is necessary only for removing the moisture from the fresh air. The latter coil requires moderately cool water according to the HVAC load. Then 2 kinds of chilled water in terms of temperature should be prepared. The structure helps saving the energy consumption for air-conditioning because the higher chilled water temperature implies the better chiller efficiency (COP: Coefficient of Performance). In addition, an advanced control method that is called an ‘Air-Water cooperation system’ is introduced. The control system mainly focuses on energy savings through changing the temperature of the chilled water and supply air according to the HVAC load and weather conditions. In this paper, we introduce a Next Generation HVAC system with its control system and present evaluation results of the system for the model-building simulator.

  5. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Drinking Water Treatment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about drinking water treatment systems. This fact sheet discusses different types of water treatment systems available to homeowners. It includes a table with water contaminants or problems, possible causes of the problem, and solutions.

  6. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  7. Estimation of chilling requirement and effect of hydrogen cyanamide on budbreak and fruit characteristics of 'superior seedless' table grape cultivated in a mild winter climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chilling requirement and optimum time for hydrogen cyanamide (HC) application were determined for Superior Seedless table grape grown in southern Tunisia, an arid mild winter region. The reliability of five models to predict chilling accumulation for this cultivar was also investigated. In mid-November, current season shoots were excised and subjected to artificial chilling at 7 deg. C for different lengths of time. Each time, half the shoots were treated with a 2% (v/v) aqueous solution of HC, the others were sprayed with distilled water. Thereafter, these shoots were forced to budburst. Rest intensity gradually declined due to chilling accumulation. We estimated that the cultivar needed approx. 440 hours (h) of chilling, or chilling requirement (CR), to overcome endodormancy. During two dormant seasons, estimation of chilling accumulation showed that the Positive Chill Unit model was the most suitable to predict rest completion for Superior Seedless grown under our climatic conditions. Using this model, we found that the variety's CR was not always met by mid-February. In both laboratory and field trials, HC was most effective in enhancing and advancing budbreak if applied when approx. 2/3 of the cultivar's CR were met. Moreover, by this application berry weight and diameter were increased and fruit maturity was advanced. Our study indicated that HC (2%) was effective in advancing budbreak and fruit maturity of Superior Seedless table grape although its effectiveness depended on application date. (author)

  8. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    Full Text Available Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover

  9. Onsite Waste Water Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs have evolved from the pit privies used widely throughout history to installations capable of producing a disinfected effluent that is fit for human consumption. Although achieving such a level of effluent quality is seldom necessary, the ability of onsite systems to remove settles able solids, floatable grease and scum, nutrients, and pathogens. From wastewater discharges defines their importance in protecting human health and environmental resources. In the modern era, the typical onsite system has consisted primarily of a septic tank and a soil absorption field, also known as a subsurface wastewater infiltration system, or SWIS. In this manual, such systems are referred to as conventional systems. Septic tanks remove most settle able and floatable material and function as an anaerobic bioreactor that promotes partial digestion of retained organic matter. Septic tank effluent, which contains significant concentrations of pathogens and nutrients, has traditionally been discharged to soil, sand, or other media absorption fields (SWISs for further treatment through biological processes, adsorption, filtration, and infiltration into underlying soils. Conventional systems work well if they are installed in areas with appropriate soils and hydraulic capacities; designed to treat the incoming waste load to meet public health, ground water, and surface water performance standards; installed properly; and maintained to ensure long-term performance. These criteria, however, are often not met. Only about one-third of the land area in the United States has soils suited for conventional subsurface soil absorption fields. System densities in some areas exceed the capacity of even suitable soils to assimilate wastewater flows and retain and transform their contaminants. In addition, many systems are located too close to ground water or surface waters and others, particularly in rural areas with newly installed public

  10. Assessment on reliability of water quality in water distribution systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍悦滨; 田海; 王龙岩

    2004-01-01

    Water leaving the treatment works is usually of a high quality but its properties change during the transportation stage. Increasing awareness of the quality of the service provided within the water industry today and assessing the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system has become a major significance for decision on system operation based on water quality in distribution networks. Using together a water age model, a chlorine decay model and a model of acceptable maximum water age can assess the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system. First, the nodal water age values in a certain complex distribution system can be calculated by the water age model. Then, the acceptable maximum water age value in the distribution system is obtained based on the chlorine decay model. The nodes at which the water age values are below the maximum value are regarded as reliable nodes. Finally, the reliability index on the percentile weighted by the nodal demands reflects the reliability of the water quality in the distribution system. The approach has been applied in a real water distribution network. The contour plot based on the water age values determines a surface of the reliability of the water quality. At any time, this surface is used to locate high water age but poor reliability areas, which identify parts of the network that may be of poor water quality. As a result, the contour water age provides a valuable aid for a straight insight into the water quality in the distribution system.

  11. Potential energy savings with personalized ventilation coupled with passive chilled beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubenova, Velina S.; Holsøe, Jan W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    distribution used today. The potential of PV for energy saving has been studied little. In this study, the energy saving potential of desk mounted PV in conjunction with either mixing ventilation or a passive chilled beam system is compared to mixing ventilation alone by means of computer simulations. An open...... 20% (and up to 40% when extending the temperature in the room by 2 °C above the upper limit recommended in the standards) compared to mixing ventilation only. When PV was combined with passive chilled beams, the reduction of the supplied air was up to 80%. This ventiltion strategy may lead to energy...

  12. Comparative metabolomic analysis reveals a reactive oxygen species-dominated dynamic model underlying chilling environment adaptation and tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Luo, Wei; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, Yunyuan; Song, Shuhui; Chong, Kang

    2016-09-01

    Cold, a major environmental stress for plants, has been studied intensively for decades. Its response system has been revealed, especially at the transcriptional level. The mechanisms underlying recovery growth and environmental adaptation, however, remain unknown. Taking advantage of a naturally existing system, two subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) with significant divergence in chilling tolerance, we analyzed representative japonica and indica varieties, Nipponbare and 93-11, using comparative metabolomic analysis at six time points covering chilling treatment and recovery. In total, 223 known metabolites were detected. During chilling treatment, significant biochemical changes were centered on antioxidation. During recovery, a wide-ranging chilling response was observed. Large-scale amino acid accumulation occurred, consistent with the appearance of chilling injury. At the mid-treatment stage, the accumulation of antioxidation-related compounds appeared earlier in Nipponbare than in 93-11, consistent with the higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in japonica vs indica varieties. A significant contribution of ROS-mediated gene regulation, rather than the C-repeat binding factor/dehydration-responsive-element binding factor (CBF/DREB) regulon, to the more vigorous transcriptional stress response in Nipponbare was revealed by RNA-seq. Accordingly, during recovery, the induction of stress-tolerant-related metabolites was more active in the chilling-tolerant variety Nipponbare. Senescence-related compounds accumulated only in the chilling-sensitive variety 93-11. Our study uncovers the dynamic metabolic models underlying chilling response and recovery, and reveals a ROS-dominated rice adaptation mechanism to low-temperature environments. PMID:27198693

  13. Thermal conveyance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meador, J.T.

    1978-09-01

    The purpose of the evaluation is to characterize modern technology for long-distance, large-diameter, underground steam and high-temperature water (HTW) transport systems and for hot-water and chilled-water systems that distribute thermal energy within communities. Data on the status of existing systems have been compiled and compared with recommended design factors for fluid flow to aid in parameter selection for assessing performance in transporting and distributing thermal energy.

  14. Rested and stressed farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) chilled in ice or slurry and effects on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digre, Hanne; Erikson, Ulf; Aursand, Ida G; Gallart-Jornet, Lorena; Misimi, Ekrem; Rustad, Turid

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) whether rested harvest of farmed cod was better maintained by chilling with slurry rather than by traditional ice storage, (2) whether chilling with slurry would be a feasible chilling method to assure low core temperatures (≤0 °C) at packing of gutted fish, and (3) the effects of superchilling compared with traditional ice on selected quality parameters of cod during storage. In the experiment, seawater slurry at -2.0 ± 0.3 °C was used. Anesthetized (AQUI-S™), percussion stunned, and stressed cod chilled in slurry were compared. Cod stored on ice were used as reference group. The fish were evaluated at the day of slaughter, and after 7 and 14 d of storage according to handling stress (initial muscle pH, muscle twitches, rigor mortis), core temperatures, quality index method, microbial counts, weight changes, salt and water content, water distribution, pH, adenosine triphosphate-degradation products, K-value, water-holding capacity, fillet color, and texture. Chilling cod in slurry was more rapid than chilling in ice. Prechilling (1 d) of cod in slurry before subsequent ice storage resulted in lower quality 7 d postmortem compared with both ice and continuous slurry storage. The potential advantages of superchilling became more prominent after 14 d with lower microbiological activity, better maintenance of freshness (lower total quality index scores and lower K-values) compared with fish stored on ice. A drawback with slurry-stored fish was that cloudy eyes developed earlier, in addition to weight gain and salt uptake compared to ice-stored fish. Practical Application: Chilling is an essential operation in any fish-processing plant. This manuscript addresses different applications of slurry ice in the processing and storage of Atlantic cod. Cod quality was assessed after 7 and 14 d of iced and superchilled storage. PMID:21535722

  15. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  16. The Water System and Water Chain in Dutch Water and Environmental Legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter Jong

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with Dutch legislation on the water system and water chain. In brief, the water system is the totality of surface water and ground water, which belong together to the natural environment; while the water chain lies in the sphere of public utilities, comprising the pathway from drinking-water supply to wastewater treatment. The water system is regulated in legislation for which the M inistry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management is responsible. The water chain is reg...

  17. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  18. Performance of turbine auxiliaries and service systems at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of the turbine auxiliaries and service systems at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, India are described. Some of the specific problems encountered in connection with the feed water, turbine governing and common services like compressed air, chilled water, water treatment and chlorination systems are outlined. (K.B.)

  19. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  20. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  1. Analisis Kecepatan Bottom Block Terhadap Struktur Mikro Produk Direct Chill Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soejono Tjitro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct chill casting process is used to produce to ingot. To produce to ingot is influenced such as bottom block speed. The objective of this research is to examine to ingot's microstructures. To use to bottom block speed is 57 mm/min and 67 mm/min. The pouring temperature of melt aluminum alloys is 750oC. Water flow rate is constant. Testing specimen is round shape which diameter and length each 70 mm and 400 mm. Microstructures on longitudinal and transversal round is investigated. Generally, microstructures of product of Direct Casting Process is non-uniform dendritic. Grain shape of 67 mm/minute bottom block rate is larger than 57 mm/minute bottom block rate. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Proses Direct Chill Casting digunakan untuk menghasilkan ingot. Proses pembuatan ingot ini dipengaruhi antara lain kecepatan bottom block. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati pengaruh kecepatan bottom block terhadap struktur mikro ingot. Kecepatan bottom block yang digunakan 57 mm/menit dan 67 mm/menit. Temperatur tuang paduan aluminium 750oC. Debit air konstan. Spesimen uji berbentuk round dengan diameter 70 mm dan panjang 400 mm. Struktur mikro yang diamati pada ke arah longitudinal dan transversal round. Struktur mikro yang dihasilkan proses direct chill casting secara umum adalah dendritik yang tidak seragam. Bentuk butir kecepatan bottom block 67 mm/menit lebih besar daripada kecepatan bottom block 57 mm/menit. Kata kunci: direct chill casting, struktur mikro, kecepatan bottom block.

  2. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p

  3. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  4. Mobile surface water filtration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Vatsyayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To design a mobile system for surface water filtrationMethodology: the filtration of surface impurities begins with their retraction to concentrated thickness using non ionising surfactants, then isolation using surface tension property and sedimentation of impurities in process chamber using electrocoagulation. Result:following studies done to determine the rate of spreading of crude oil on water a method for retraction of spread crude oil to concentrated volumes is developed involving addition of non -ionising surfactants in contrast to use of dispersants. Electrocoagulation process involves multiple processes taking place to lead to depositionof impurities such as oil, grease, metals. Studies of experiments conducted reveals parameters necessary for design of electrocoagulation process chamber though a holistic approach towards system designing is still required. Propeller theory is used in determining the required design of propeller and the desired thrust, the overall structure will finally contribute in deciding the choice of propeller.

  5. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman, A; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; J. P. van der Hoek

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According to the Dutch Drinking Water Act the drinking water temperature may not exceed the 25 °C threshold at point-of-use level. This paper provides a mathematical approach to model the heating of drinking...

  6. Propulsion Systems in Water Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Fujisawa

    1995-01-01

    agreement with the field experiment with prototype craft. Measurements are also made for the losses in the intake and the nozzle. The optimization study of the water jet systems is conducted by simulating the change of the nozzle outlet diameter with the variable nozzle arrangement. It is suggested that the nozzle outlet diameter should be decreased as the craft velocity increases to obtain an optimum propulsive efficiency in a wide range of craft velocity.

  7. New age water chillers with water as refrigerant

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    1998-01-01

    Vacuum-process technology producing chilled water needs no refrigerant of the conventional kind, but water from the process itself is used to generate cooling. This eye-catching novelty incorporates many of the considerations about the future of refrigerants: "ozone friendly", no extra demands for safety measures or for skilful operators, no special requirements concerning the installation's components, lower maintenance costs since leakages can be accommodated from the system. Vacuum-process technology may be used not only for production of chilled water but also for Binary Ice - pumpable suspension of minute ice crystals in an aqueous solution. This means that all the advantages related to a latent heat system may become available.

  8. Effects of Exogenous Silicon on the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Chilling-Stressed Cucumber Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiao-jing; LIN Shao-hang; XU Pei-lei; WANG Xiu-juan; BAI Ji-gang

    2009-01-01

    In order to increase vegetable productivity by improving environmental conditions,this article investigates the effects of exogenous silicon on the activities of major antioxidant enzymes and on lipid peroxidation under chilling stress,and it examines whether silicon-induced chilling tolerance is mediated by an increase in antioxidant activity.Cucumis sativus cv.Jinchun 4 was hydroponically cultivated to the two-leaf stage,at which point seedlings were watered with different concentrations of silicon (0,0.1 and 1 mmol L-1) and separately exposed to normal (25/18℃) or chilling (15/8℃) temperatures for six days under low light (100 umol m-2 s-1).Data were collected from the second leaves on the percentage of withering and the levels of endogenous silicon,malondialdehyde (MDA),hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),superoxide radical (O2·-), superoxide dismutase (SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px,EC 1.11.1.9),ascorbate peroxidase (APX,EC 1.11.1.11),monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR,EC 1.6.5.4),glutathione reductase (GR,EC 1.6.4.2),reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA).Compared to normal temperatures,chilling resulted in partially withered leaves and increased MDA content.When 0.1 or 1 mmol L-1 exogenous silicon was combined with chilling.the withering of the cucumber leaves was reduced relative to the original chilling treatment,while the endogenous silicon content was increased,antioxidants such as SOD,GSH-Px,APX,MDHAR,GR,GSH,and AsA were more active,and the levels of H2O2,O2·-,and MDA were lower.We propose that exogenous silicon leads to greater deposition of endogenous silicon and thereby increases antioxidant activities and reduces lipid peroxidation induced by chilling.

  9. WATER SPRAY-CHILLING OF BEEF CARCASSES AND MEAT AGEING ON WEIGHT LOSS, COLOR AND LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM ACCEPTANCE ASPERSÃO DE ÁGUA FRIA NO INÍCIO DO RESFRIAMENTO DE CARCAÇAS BOVINAS E MATURAÇÃO DA CARNE SOBRE O PESO, COR E ACEITAÇÃO DO MÚSCULO LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO EDUARDO DE FELÍCIO

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of spray-chilling in carcasses weight loss, purge loss, color and appearance of aged striploin (m. Longissi-mus lumborum steaks. Two lots of intact male, nearly 12 month old, grain finished cattle, were slaughtered, being 16 of the Montana composite breed, in the first slaughter, and 24 crossbreds (½ Nelore X ½ Simental in the second one. After bleeding, electrical stimulation, skinning and evisceration, the carcasses submitted to one of the two cooling systems: (1 Without spray-chilling (SA; (2 With spray-chilling (CA. Carcasses were weighted before and after cooling. In the boning room steaks of 2.5 cm thick from the striploin were taken, vacuum packaged, and aged for 7, 14, 30 and 60 days. Samples were then removed from the package, placed in an expanded polystyrene trays covered with a PVC film, and exposed in refrigerated displays for 48 hours. CIE Lab color was measured after 24 hours using a hand colorimeter. A visual analysis of the samples was also done for the attributes of color, overall acceptability, and buying option. The spray-chilling was efficient in reducing the weight loss (P<0.05. Effects (P<0.001 of the spray-chilling and aging time on purge loss were observed. The samples from the CA carcasses had higher (P<0.001 purge loss, which had an increase at 30 or more days of aging in this treatment but not in the SA. No effect (P>0.05 of the spray-chilling treatment and aging time was observed on the color visual analysis.

    Key-words:  Beef quality purge loss,  spray-chilling, striploin, vacuum package.

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da aspersão de água gelada, nas primeiras seis horas de resfriamento, nas perdas de peso por evaporação das carcaças e, também, do tempo de maturação em embalagem a vácuo, nas perdas por exsudação da carne, e na cor e aceita

  10. Effects of Chilling Stress on Photosynthetic Rate and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter in Seedlings of Two Rice Cultivars Differing in Cold Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-li; GUO Zhen-fei

    2005-01-01

    A cold-tolerant cultivar, Xiangnuo 1, and a cold-sensitive cultivar, IR50, were used to study the influence of chilling on photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in rice seedlings. The photosynthetic rates declined dramatically during chilling, and decreased by 48.7% and 67.5% in Xiangnuo 1 and IR50 seedlings, respectively, after being subjected to chilling treatment for two days. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that relatively higher qP and qNP in Xiangnuo 1 were maintained to dissipate the redundant excitation energy and protect the reaction centers from chill injury; accordingly, redundant excitation energy accumulated less in the reaction centers, and antenna systems were less injured by chilling in Xiangnuo 1. On the contrary, in IR50, qP and qNP declined rapidly while Ex increased, as the chilling persisted. This result indicated that the reaction centers and antenna systems in IR50 were damaged severely by chilling, which led to the lower photosynthetic rate.

  11. Integrated Quality Assurance of Chilled Food Fish at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marco Thorup; Olsen, Karsten Bæk; Popescu, Valeriu

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the IQAS project is to improve the quality of fresh fish (white fish and flat fish) landed by the Community vessels significantly and to increase the proportion of the fish caught used for food purposes, as well as to improve the on-board working conditions. This will be achieved by......, container labelling and data storage system has been developed to specify the quality of the fish to the buyer at the point of sale by reference to the actual time/temperature history of the fish prior to the sale and to the measurements of length and weight...... specifying and developing safe, efficient, mechanized on-board handling systems enabling the catch to be sorted, gutted, bled, characterized for length and weight, prepared quickly and correctly for rapid chilling and to be stored in appropriate, labelled containers at 0°C until sold. A monitoring, measuring...

  12. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  13. Water management - management actions applied to water resources system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper are presented a general description of water resource systems, a systematisation of the management tasks and the approaches for solution, including a review of methods used for solution of water management tasks and the fundamental postulates in the management. The management of water resources is a synonym for the management actions applied to water resource systems. It is a general term that unites planning and exploitation of the systems. The modern planning assumes separating the water racecourse part from the hydro technical part of the project. The water resource study is concerned with the solution for the resource problem. This means the parameters of the system are determined in parallel with the definition of the water utilisation regime. The hydro-technical part of the project is the design of structures necessary for the water resource solution. (Original)

  14. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van;

    2010-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...... pressure up to 100bars. The results show that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate are formed in the absorber. The heat requirements in the absorber and in the desorber have been studied. The enthalpy calculations show that a heat requirement for the desorber lower than 2GJ/ton CO2...

  15. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J. M;

    2009-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2-10 degrees C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows...... C and pressure up to 100 bars [1]. The results show that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate are formed in the absorber. The energy requirements in the absorber and in the desorber have been studied. The enthalpy calculations show that an energy requirement for the desorber...

  16. Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    Water distribution systems (WDS) worldwide face increasing challenges as population growth strains a limited water supply in many areas. In the United States, existing water infrastructure systems require significant investments to refurbish an aging stock of assets. Much of this investment is required in drinking water transmission and distribution, where a substantial amount of material and economic inputs are lost as a result of pipeline leaks. With growing worldwide concern for reducing e...

  17. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermo economic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller. The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  18. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    The description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam is presented. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller.The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  19. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  20. Simulation Study of Al-1Mn/Al-10Si Circular Clad Ingots Prepared by Direct Chill Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Ying; Wang, Tongmin

    2016-02-01

    A modified direct chill casting process based on Novelis FusionTM Technology co-casting process was used recently to prepare Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots. In the current study, a comprehensive simulation model was developed to investigate the direct chill casting process for preparing the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots, and a parametric study and experimental research of the direct chill casting process was conducted to explore potential success and failure casting conditions. The simulation results revealed the bonding mechanism of the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si interface in the direct chill casting process and identified the effect of certain parameters on casting performance. The results indicated that the effect of casting speed and Al-1Mn casting temperature on the variations of the minimum solid fraction of Al-1Mn at the interface is stronger than that of cooling water flow rate in inner mold, while Al-10Si casting temperature is the weakest of the four casting parameters. The corresponding experimental results verified that Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingot with acceptable metallurgical bonding can be successfully prepared by direct chill casting process under the proper casting parameters. The thickness of diffusion zone is about 40 μm, and the fractured position in tensile test was located in the Al-1Mn alloy side which indicated the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of Al-1Mn alloy.

  1. Effects of chilling on protein synthesis in tomato suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chilling on cell growth, cell viability, protein content and protein composition in suspension cultures of L. esculentum and L. hirsutum was investigated. Cell growth for both species was arrested at 2 degrees C but when cultures were transferred to 25 degree C cell growth resumed. There was no difference in viability between control and chilled cultures of L. esculentum, however, L. hirsutum control cultures exhibited larger amounts of Fluorescein Diacetate induced fluorescence than chilled cultures. 35S-methionine incorporation into proteins was 2.5-2 times higher in L. hirsutum than in L. esculentum. Quantitative and qualitative differences, in 35S-methionine labelled proteins, between chilled and control cultures were observed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Protein content in chilled cultures decreased over time but then increased when cultures were transferred to 25 degrees C

  2. Mechanism of silicon influence on the chill of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work an analytical solution of general validity is used to explain mechanism of the silicon influence on the absolute chill tendency (CT and chill (w of cast iron. It is found that CT can be related to nucleation potential of graphite (Nv, growth parameter (μ of eutectic cells, temperature range (ΔTsc and the pre-eutectic austenite volume fraction (fγ. It has been shown that silicon additions: a impede the growth of graphite eutectic cells, μ, b expands the temperature range ΔTsc, c increases the nucleation potential of graphite Nv, d lowers the pre-eutectic austenite volume fraction, fγ. and in consequence the absolute chilling tendency, CT decreases. The minimum wall thicknesses for chilled castings, or chill widths (w in wedge shaped castings is related to CT and as silcon contents increases, the w value also increases.

  3. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a...... process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze-chilling on the...... quality attributes of cod and rainbow trout portions. Sensory profiling and chemical analyses were used to determine the changes in quality after slow thawing and subsequent chill storage and to find the high-quality shelf life. RESULTS: Cod had a consistent and high sensory quality during the first 6...

  4. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  5. Respiratory Response of Dormant Nectarine Floral Buds on Chilling Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yue; GAO Dong-sheng; LI Ling; CHEN Xiu-de; XU Ai-hong

    2010-01-01

    Changes in main biochemical respiratory pathways in dormant nectarine floral buds were studied with nectarine trees (Prunus persica.var,nectariana cv.Shuguang) in order to determine the function of respiration in dormancy release.Oxygen-electrode system and respiratory inhibitors were used to measure total respiratory rates and rates of respiratory pathways.Results showed that chilling deficiency blocked the transition of respiratory mode,and made buds stay in a state of high level pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and low level tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA).The decline of PPP and activation of TCA occurred synchronously with the release of dormancy.In addition,the inhibition of PPP stimulated a respiration increase related with TCA.It could be concluded that the function of PPP activation in dormancy release might be limited and PPP declination inducing TCA activation might be part of respiration mode transition mechanism during bud sprouting.

  6. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  7. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  8. Safety Problems of Small Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchórzewska-Cieślak Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents issues related to risks associated with the operation of small water supply systems on the background of water consumer safety assessment made on the basis of risk analysis. Definition of water consumer safety loss as a risk associated with the water consumption of poor quality or water lack was proposed. For this purpose, a three-parameter matrix is implemented with the parameters of the probability of a representative accident scenario, the losses of the water consumers and their protection. Risk management, together with the implementation of protective barriers of small water supply system against threats is a fundamental condition for the continued operation of the system.

  9. Control methods of commonly used HVAC water systems%常用空调水系统的控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏夺

    2012-01-01

    介绍了变流量一次泵系统冷水机组定流量方式、变流量一次泵系统冷水机组变流量方式、二次泵变流量系统、免费冷却系统以及水环热泵系统等常见的空调水系统的特点及自动控制方式.%Presents the characteristics and control methods of CWV chillers and VWV chillers of variable primary flow chilled water system, variable secondary pump water system, free cooling system and water loop heat pump system.

  10. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.;

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with 24 subjects were performed to study and compare the human perception of the indoor environment under summer conditions generated by a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation and localised chilled beam. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (4...... simulate direct solar load on the floor (270 W). The total heat load in the room was 56 W/m2. The air temperature around the workstation by the window was kept either 26 or 28 oC. The supplied air by the overhead mixing ventilation and the primary supply air of the localised chilled beam was kept at 13 L....../s and 16 0C. The localised chilled beam was installed over the workstation placed by the simulated window. During the experiment the subjects were delegated control over the primary flow rate supplied by the localised chilled beam. The whole exposure lasted 2 hours with 30 min of acclimatisation before...

  11. A versatile energy management system for large integrated cooling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Gideon Edgar; Liebenberg, Leon; Mathews, Edward Henry; Du Plessis, Johan Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    Large, energy intensive cooling systems are found on deep level mines to supply chilled service water and cool ventilation air to the mine. The need exists for a simple, real-time energy management tool for large, integrated cooling systems. A versatile energy management system was developed for the large cooling systems of deep mines as a typical example of a generic systems-based energy management tool. The system connects to the SCADA systems of mines and features a hierarchica...

  12. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik; Ovesen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached a...... higher level in the hot water distribution system (2.1 d–1 to 2.3 d–1) than in the hot water tank (1.4 d–1 to 2.2 d–1) indicating an important area for surface associated growth. The net growth rate of the suspended bacteria measured in hot water from the top, middle and bottom of the hot water tank, in...... the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water...

  13. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  14. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Javier; Álvarez, Victoria; Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days) related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). A slurry ice (SI) system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI). Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA) formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment a...

  15. Implementing slab solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, S. K.; Shen, C. Q.

    2015-08-01

    Water heating contributes a significant part of energy consumption in typical household. One of the most employed technologies today that helps in reducing the energy consumption of water heating would be conventional solar water heating system. However, this system is expensive and less affordable by most family. The main objective of this project is to design and implement an alternative type of solar water heating system that utilize only passive solar energy which is known as slab solar water heating system. Slab solar water heating system is a system that heat up cold water using the solar radiance from the sun. The unique part of this system is that it does not require any form of electricity in order to operate. Solar radiance is converted into heat energy through convection method and cold water will be heated up by using conduction method [1]. The design of this system is governed by the criteria of low implementation cost and energy saving. Selection of material in the construction of a slab solar water heating system is important as it will directly affect the efficiency and performance of the system. A prototype has been built to realize the idea and it had been proven that this system was able to provide sufficient hot water supply for typical household usage at any given time.

  16. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T; Santos, F. L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; J. M. Reichert; dos Santos, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  17. Reseptioptimointi cook and chill -tuotantotapaan : Case: Kolarin keskuskeittiö

    OpenAIRE

    Pääkkölä, Henna

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli perehtyä cook and chill -tuotantotapaan ja tutkia sen vaikutuksia reseptioptimointiin. Tavoitteena oli selvittää cook and chill -tuotantotavan etuja ja mahdollisia haasteita ammattikeittiön ruokatuotannossa sekä tuottaa aiheesta tietoa suomenkielisiä lukijoita varten. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli myös optimoida Kolarin keskuskeittiön lounasruokalistan lämpimille aterioille cook and chill -tuotantotapaan soveltuvat ruokaohjeet sekä valmistusprosessikuvaukset. T...

  18. ASPECTS OF OPTIMIZATION OF WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. BEILICCI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Water management system include all activities and works which providing the administration of public domain of water, with local / national interest, and qualitative, quantitative and sustainable management of water resources. Hydrotechnical arrangements, consisting of a set of hydraulic structures, produce both a favorable and unfavorable influences on environment. Their different constructive and exploitation solutions exercise a significantly impact on the environment. Therefore the advantages and disadvantages of each solution must be weighed and determined to materialize one or other of them seriously argued.The optimization of water management systems is needed to meet current and future requirements in the field of rational water management in the context of integrated water resources management. Optimization process of complex water management systems includes several components related to environmental protection, technical side and the business side. This paper summarizes the main aspects and possibilities of optimization of existing water management systems and those that are to be achieved.

  19. Water masers in the Kronian system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogrebenko, Sergei V.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Elitzur, Moshe; Cosmovici, Cristiano B.; Avruch, Ian M.; Pluchino, Salvatore; Montebugnoli, Stelio; Salerno, Emma; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Mujunen, Ari; Ritakari, Jouko; Molera, Guifre; Wagner, Jan; Uunila, Minttu; Cimo, Giuseppe; Schilliro, Francesco; Bartolini, Marco; Fernández, J. A.; Lazzaro, D.; Prialnik, D.; Schulz, R.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of water has been considered for a long time as a key condition for life in planetary environments. The Cassini mission discovered water vapour in the Kronian system by detecting absorption of

  20. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilt head sea bream (Sparus aurata) slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubourg, S. P.; Alvarez, V.; Pena, J.

    2010-07-01

    This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days) related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilt head sea bream (Spa rus aurata). A slurry ice (SI) system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI). Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA) formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment and TMA formation. However, lipid damage development was found relatively low, in agreement to the different lipid quality indexes checked (lipid hydrolysis; primary, secondary and tertiary lipid oxidation). No development of rancid odor and no polyunsaturated fatty acid losses were detected. The employment of SI as a slaughtering and chilling strategy was found useful to inhibit quality loss in gilthead seabream resulting in a shelf life increase and a TMA and free fatty acid formation inhibition. (Author)

  1. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  2. SOME ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF CASTINGS IN COATED CHILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of technological process of pouring into coated iron chill is presented. It is shown that the process is very sensitive to the change of technological parameters, is rather complex in regulation and control.

  3. Integrated solar water-heater and solar water cooler performance during winter time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar powered water heater and water cooler is an important contribution for the reduction of fossil fuel consumptions and harmful emissions to the environment. This study aims to harness the available solar potential of Pakistan and provide an option fulfilling the domestic hot and cold water demands during winter and summer seasons respectively. The system was designed for the tap-water temperature of 65 degree C (149 degree F) and the chilled drinking-water temperature of 14 degree C (57 degree F) that are the recommended temperatures by World Health Organization (WHO). The solar water heater serves one of the facilities of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at NED University of Engineering and Technology whereas, the solar water cooler will provide drinking water to approximately 50 people including both faculty and students. A pair of single glazed flat plate solar collector was installed to convert solar radiations to heat. Hot water storage and supply system was carefully designed and fabricated to obtain the designed tap-water temperature. Vapour-absorption refrigeration system was designed to chill drinking water. Intensity of solar radiations falling on the solar collector, water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the solar collectors and the tap water temperature were measured and analyzed at different hours of the day and at different days of the month. The results show that the installed solar collector system has potential to feed hot water of temperatures ranging from 65 degree C (149 degree F) to 70 Degree C (158 degree F), that is the required hot water temperature to operate a vapour absorption chilled water production system. (author)

  4. Extending Shelf Life of Chilled Pork by Combination of Chitosan Coating With Spice Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiufang; KONG Baohua

    2008-01-01

    The effects of spices (cinnamon, rosemary, clove) extracts and chitosan on microbiological growth, drip loss, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh chilled meat stored for 28 days at 4"C were investigated. There were four treatments: control, coated with spices(cimmamon 1.5g·L-1+rosemary 1.5·L-1+colve 1.0 g·L-1),coated with 0.5% chitosan,coated with spices and chitosan.Chitosan coating resulted in significant inhibition of microbial growth (P<0.05), while the lowest microbial counts were obtained in the samples containing both chitosan and spices, indicating a possible synergistic effect. Chitosan and its combinations with spices also showed the most intense antioxidative effect when compared to the controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, chitosan coating could decrease water loss and keep better color of chilled meat. The combined spice extracts and chitosan coating could effectively extend the shelf life of chilled meat.

  5. Manipulation of monoubiquitin improves chilling tolerance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanan; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Qifang; Wang, Guokun; Gong, Jiangfeng; Xu, Ying; Wang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is a multifunctional protein that mainly functions to tag proteins for selective degradation by the 26S proteasome. We cloned an Ub gene TaUb2 from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) previously. To study the function of TaUB2 in chilling stress, sense and antisense Ub transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.), as well as wild type (WT) and vector control β-glucuronidase (T-GUS) plants, were used. Under stress, leaf wilting in sense plants was significantly less than in controls, but more severe in antisense plants. Meanwhile, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in sense plants were greater than controls, but lower in antisense plants during chilling stress and recovery. Less wilting in sense plants resulted from improved water status, which may be related to the accumulation of proline and solute sugar. Furthermore, as indicated by electrolyte leakage, membrane damage under stress was less in sense plants and more severe in antisense plants than controls. Consistent with electrolyte leakage, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was less in sense plants, but more in antisense plants compared to controls. Meanwhile, the less accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the greater antioxidant enzyme activity in sense plants implied the improved antioxidant competence by the overexpression of monoubiquitin gene Ta-Ub2 from wheat. We suggest that overexpressing Ub is a useful strategy to promote chilling tolerance. The improvement of ROS scavenging may be an important mechanism underlying the role of Ub in promoting plants tolerant to chilling stress. PMID:24445300

  6. ChillFish: A Respiration Game for Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate the possibilities of combining breathing exercises and game design. Based on a pilot study with 16 adults, we found that playing ChillFish had a positive effect, helping the participants to reach a rel...

  7. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Project Sunburst is a demonstration system for solar space heating and cooling and solar hot water heating for a 14,400 square foot office building in Richland, Washington. The project is part of the US Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid--liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building to reject surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program has been provided from the beginning of the program and has resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  8. Impact of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling on eye irritation symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Marcol, Bartosz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    , elevated air movement toward face and increased radiant cooling may have impact on the eye symptoms. Twenty four human subjects participated in experiments with PV combined with chilled ceiling system (CCPV) and with mixing ventilation (MV) combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV). In the experiments with PV...... at workstations with computers. Exposure included also a higher activity level office work for a period of 25 min outside computer workstations. The influence of the environment on eye symptoms was assessed by subjective votes and objective measurements. Subjects reported on the eye irritation and the intensity...... of eye dryness 6 times throughout each experiment. Eye tear film samples were taken at the beginning and the end of the exposure. The blinking rate was analysed in the beginning and at the end of exposures. The preliminary results of the analyses reveal that the environment subjects were exposed to had...

  9. ASPECTS OF OPTIMIZATION OF WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    E. BEILICCI; R. BEILICCI

    2013-01-01

    Water management system include all activities and works which providing the administration of public domain of water, with local / national interest, and qualitative, quantitative and sustainable management of water resources. Hydrotechnical arrangements, consisting of a set of hydraulic structures, produce both a favorable and unfavorable influences on environment. Their different constructive and exploitation solutions exercise a significantly impact on the environment. Therefore the advan...

  10. The effect of hot-rolling on chill-cast AI-AI3Ni, chill-cast AI-AI2Cu, and Unidirectionally Solidified AI-AI3Ni Eutectic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, F. S. J.; Cantor, B.

    1986-11-01

    The effect of hot-rolling on the mechanical properties and microstructures of chill-cast Al-Al3Ni, chill-cast Al-Al2Cu, and unidirectionally solidified Al-Al3Ni eutectic alloys has been studied. The chill-cast eutectic alloys were produced by casting into preheated mild steel molds placed on copper chills. This system promoted growth along the length of the ingot and not radially from the mold wall. Cellular microstructures resulted with good alignment of Al3Ni fibers or Al2Cu lamellae within the cells and an interfiber/lamellar spacing of ~ 1 /urn. In contrast, the Al-Al3Ni eutectic alloy was also unidirectionally solidified at a growth rate of 3 x 10-1 m s-1 in a conventional horizontal crystal grower. This produced well-aligned Al3Ni fibers with an interfiber spacing of 1.2 ώm. Both the unidirectionally solidified and chill-cast Al-Al3Ni eutectic alloy can be hot-rolled at 773 K to reductions in area of greater than 95 pct. Deformation was achieved by Al3Ni fiber fracturing followed by separation of the broken fiber fragments in the rolling direction. Additionally, for the chill-cast eutectic the cellular microstructure disappeared and the Al3Ni fibers were homogeneously distributed throughout the matrix, after area reductions of 60 to 70 pct. In both cases, the eutectic microstructure was deformed with a constant volume fraction of Al3Ni/unit volume being maintained during rolling. The chill-cast Al-Al2Cu eutectic alloy can be hot-rolled at 773 K to an area reduction of ~50 pct, after the continuous brittle Al2Cu phase within the cells has been ‘broken up’ by coarsening at high temperature. The variations of room temperature tensile properties for the chill-cast and unidirectionally solidified eutectic alloys were measured as a function of reduction of thickness during hot-rolling and the results were compared with predicted strengths from discontinuous fiber reinforcement theory.

  11. Water masers in the Saturnian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebenko, S. V.; Gurvits, L. I.; Elitzur, M.; Cosmovici, C. B.; Avruch, I. M.; Montebugnoli, S.; Salerno, E.; Pluchino, S.; Maccaferri, G.; Mujunen, A.; Ritakari, J.; Wagner, J.; Molera, G.; Uunila, M.

    2009-02-01

    Context: The presence of water has long been seen as a key condition for life in planetary environments. The Cassini spacecraft discovered water vapour in the Saturnian system by detecting absorption of UV emission from a background star. Investigating other possible manifestations of water is essential, one of which, provided physical conditions are suitable, is maser emission. Aims: We report detection of water maser emission at 22 GHz associated with several Kronian satellites using Earth-based radio telescopes. Methods: We searched for water maser emission in the Saturnian system in an observing campaign using the Metsähovi and Medicina radio telescopes. Spectral data were Doppler-corrected over orbital phase for the Saturnian satellites, yielding detections of water maser emission associated with the moons Hyperion, Titan, Enceladus, and Atlas. Results: The detection of Saturnian water molecules by remote astronomical observation can be combined with in situ spacecraft measurements to harmonise the physical model of the Saturnian system.

  12. Functional systems of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main topics, discussed in the present paper, are: - Principle design of the reactor coolant system - reactor pressure vessel with internals - containment design - residual heat removal and emergency cooling systems - nuclear component cooling systems - emergency feed water systems - plant electric power supply system. (orig./RW)

  13. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  14. Water system models in virtual environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gosar, Leon

    2008-01-01

    The water system elements can not be illustrated with spatial data with constant geometry. A three-dimensional abstraction, through which spatial data on water bodies can be examined, is composed of dynamic structures with complex geometry and topology. A three-dimensional visualisation of surfaces does not suffice to define the meaning of individual elements of space in which water bodies are included. Maps rules for water management contents have been drawn for decades. Due to the developme...

  15. Effects of chilling and ABA on [3H]gibberellin A4 metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with [3H]GA4 (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 1019 becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 260C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free [3H]GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 260C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble [3H] metabolites formed at 260C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA12 aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with [3H]GA4 treatment at 260C, reduced the uptake of [3H] GA4 but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 260C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs)

  16. Defect and Innovation of Water Rights System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Bin

    2008-01-01

    The rare deposition of water resources conflicts with its limitless demand. This determined the existence of the water rights transaction system. The implementation of the water rights transaction system requires clarifying the definition of water re-source fight above all distinctly. At present, it is a kind of common right system arrangement which needs the Chinese government to dispose of water resources. Though a series of management sys-tems guaranteed the government's supply of water resource, it hindered the development of the water market seriously and caused the utilization of water resources to stay in the inefficient or low efficient state for a long time. Thus, we should change the government's leading role in the resource distribution and really rely on the market to carry on the water rights trade and transac-tion. In this way, the water rights could become a kind of private property right relatively, and circulate freely in the market. As a result of this, we should overcome the defects of common right, make its external performance internalized maximally and achieve the optimized water resource disposition and use it more effec-tively.

  17. Solar PV energy for water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides an introduction into understanding the relative merits, characteristics, including economics, of photovoltically powered water pumping systems. Although more than 10,000 photovoltaic pumping systems are known to be operating through out the world, many potential users do not know how to decide weather feasibility assessment, and system procurement so that the reader can made an informed decision about water pumping systems, especially those powered with photovoltaics. (author)

  18. Environmental management of water systems under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Baresel, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Hydrological drainage/river basins constitute highly heterogeneous systems of coupled natural and anthropogenic water and pollutant flows across political, national and international boundaries. These flows need to be appropriately understood, quantified and communicated to stakeholders, in order to appropriately guide environmental water system management. In this thesis, various uncertainties about water and pollutant flows in drainage/river basins and their implications for effective and e...

  19. Water balance in fuel cells systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cell systems are attractive for their high efficiency (i.e., electric power generated per weight/volume of fuel,) and lower emissions. These systems are being developed for applications that include transportation (propulsion and auxiliary), remote stationary, and portable. Where these systems use on-board fuel processing of available fuels, the fuel processor requires high-purity water. For utility applications, this water may be available on-site, but for most applications, the process water must be recovered from the fuel cell system exhaust gas. For such applications, it is critically important that the fuel cell system be a net water-producing device. A variety of environmental conditions (e.g., ambient temperature, pressure), fuel cell system design, and operating conditions determine whether the fuel cell system is water-producing or water-consuming. This paper will review and discuss the conditions that determine the net-water balance of a generic fuel cell system and identify some options that will help meet the water needs of the fuel processor

  20. Solar-powered hot-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    Hot-water system requires no external power except solar energy. System is completely self-controlling. It includes solar-powered pump, solar-thermally and hydrothermally operated valves, and storage tank filled with open-celled foam, to maintain thermal stratification in stored water.

  1. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping; Li Fengjun; Cai Anke; Wei Bokang

    2009-01-01

    The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citroen Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference between them. The results showed that the fracture of the camshaft mainly results from white section in macrostructure and Ledeburite in microstructure; the crack in the fractured camshaft should be recognized to initiate at the boundary of coarser needle-like carbide and matrix, and then propagate through the transverse section. At the same time, the casting defects such as dendritic shrinkage, accumulated inclusion and initiated crack and abnormal external force might stimulate the fracture of camshaft as well. Based on failure analysis, some measures have been employed, and as a result, the fracture of home-made camshafts has been effectively prevented.

  2. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  3. Determination of unidirectional heat transfer coefficient during unsteady-state solidification at metal casting-chill interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) for vertically upward unidirectional solidification of a eutectic Al-Si casting on water cooled copper and steel chills was measured during solidification. A finite difference method (FDM) was used for solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Six computer guided thermocouples were connected with the chill and casting, and the time-temperature data were recorded automatically. The thermocouples were placed, located symmetrically, at 5 mm, 37.5 mm and 75 mm from the interface. As the lateral surfaces are very well heat isolated, the unidirectional solidification process starts vertically upward at the interface surface. The measured time-temperature data files were used by a FDM using an explicit technique. A heat flow computer program has been written to estimate the transient metal-chill IHTC in the IHCP. The experimental and calculated temperatures have shown excellent agreement. The IHTC during vertically upward unidirectional solidification of an Al-Si casting on copper and steel chills have varied between about 19-9.5 kW/m2 K and 6.5-5 kW/m2 K, respectively

  4. Determination of unidirectional heat transfer coefficient during unsteady-state solidification at metal casting-chill interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Haci Mehmet [Gazi Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey)]. E-mail: mesahin@gazi.edu.tr; Kocatepe, Kadir [Gazi Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey); Kayikci, Ramazan [Sakarya Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Sakarya (Turkey); Akar, Neset [Gazi Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey)

    2006-01-15

    In this study, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) for vertically upward unidirectional solidification of a eutectic Al-Si casting on water cooled copper and steel chills was measured during solidification. A finite difference method (FDM) was used for solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Six computer guided thermocouples were connected with the chill and casting, and the time-temperature data were recorded automatically. The thermocouples were placed, located symmetrically, at 5 mm, 37.5 mm and 75 mm from the interface. As the lateral surfaces are very well heat isolated, the unidirectional solidification process starts vertically upward at the interface surface. The measured time-temperature data files were used by a FDM using an explicit technique. A heat flow computer program has been written to estimate the transient metal-chill IHTC in the IHCP. The experimental and calculated temperatures have shown excellent agreement. The IHTC during vertically upward unidirectional solidification of an Al-Si casting on copper and steel chills have varied between about 19-9.5 kW/m{sup 2} K and 6.5-5 kW/m{sup 2} K, respectively.

  5. Climate Change Impact on Evapotranspiration, Heat Stress and Chill Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, R. L.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide concentration scenarios project an increase in CO2 from 372 ppm to between 500 and 950 ppm by the year 2100, and the potential effect on temperature, humidity, and plant responses to environmental factors are complex and concerning. For 2100, mean daily temperature increase projections range from 1.2oC to 6.8oC depending on greenhouse gas emissions. On the bad side, higher temperatures are often associated with increases in evapotranspiration (ET), heat stress, and pest infestations. On the good side, increased temperature is commonly related to less frost damage, faster growth, and higher production in some cases. One misconception is that global warming will increase evapotranspiration and, hence, agricultural water demand. As the oceans and other water bodies warm, evaporation and humidity are likely to increase globally, but higher humidity tends to reduce plant transpiration and hence ET. Higher CO2 concentrations also tend to reduce ET, and, in the end, the increase in ET due to higher temperature is likely to be offset by a decrease in ET due to higher humidity and CO2. With a decrease in daytime evapotranspiration, the canopy temperature is likely to rise relative to the air temperature, and this implies that heat stress could be worse than predicted by increased air temperature. Daily minimum temperatures are generally increasing about twice as fast as maximum temperatures presumably because of the increasing dew point temperatures as more water vapor is added to the atmosphere. This could present a serious problem to meet the chill requirement for fruit and nut crops. Growing seasons, i.e., from the last spring to the first fall frost, are likely to increase, but the crop growth period is likely to shorten due to higher temperature. Thus, spring frost damage is unlikely to change but there should be fewer damaging fall frost events. In this paper, we will present some ideas on the possible impact of climate change on evapotranspiration and

  6. Water turbine system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  7. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  8. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  9. Water turbine system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2011-05-10

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  10. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made

  11. Reactor water level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A BWR type reactor comprises a control valve disposed in a reactor water draining pipelines and undergoing an instruction to control the opening degree, an operation board having a setting device for generating the instruction and a control board for giving the instruction generated by the setting device to the control valve. The instruction is supplied from the setting device to the control valve by way of a control circuit to adjust the opening degree of the control valve thereby controlling the water level in the reactor. In addition, a controller generating an instruction independent of the setting device and a signal transmission channel for signal-transmitting the instruction independent of the control circuit are disposed, to connect the controller electrically to the signal transmission. The signal transmission channel and the control circuit are electrically connected to the control valve switchably with each other. Since instruction can be given to the control valve even at a periodical inspection or modification when the setting device and the control circuit can not be used, the reactor water level can be controlled automatically. Then, operator's working efficiency upon inspection can be improved remarkably. (N.H.)

  12. Improvement of turkey breast meat quality and cooked gel functionality using hot-boning, quarter sectioning, crust-freeze-air-chilling and cold-batter-mincing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Erasmus, M A; Swanson, J C; Hong, H G; Kang, I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rapid carcass chilling on breast meat quality was evaluated using commercial (COMM) and random-bred (RB) turkeys. Immediately after slaughter, 48 turkeys from COMM or RB line were randomly subjected to one of four chilling methods: 1) water-immersion chilling (WIC) of the carcasses at 0°C ice slurry, 2) WIC after temperature abuse (TA) of the carcasses at 40°C for 30 min (TA-WIC), 3) hot-boning, quarter sectioning, and crust-freeze-air-chilling (HB-(1)/4CFAC) of breast fillets at -12°C, and 4) HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets after TA of carcasses (TA-HB-(1)/4CFAC). The TA increased carcass and fillet temperatures by ∼1.3 and ∼4.1°C, respectively, regardless of turkey line, whereas HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets required 28 and 33% of carcass chilling time for COMM and RB, respectively. During chilling, COMM breast pH rapidly reduced from 6.04 to 5.82, resulting in a significantly lower pH than RB after chilling (P 0.05). Significantly higher L* value and cooking yield (P 0.05). Higher values of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were found for RB, no TA, and HB-(1)/4CFAC gels than COMM, TA, and WIC, respectively. These results generally indicated that protein quality and textural properties of turkey fillets were improved, regardless of strains or temperature abuse, using HB-(1)/4CFAC technology. PMID:26527709

  13. Inhibition of chloroplast protein synthesis following light chilling of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we looked at the effects of a high light chill on the pulsed incorporation of 35S methionine into total, stromal, and thylakoid proteins of lightly abraded leaflets of 18-21 day old tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ca. Floramerica) seedlings. Based on gel fluorographic patterns of marker proteins that are indicative of the net rates of chloroplast and cytoplasmic protein synthesis, there appears to be a nearly complete cessation of chloroplastic protein synthesis. No labeling is observed for either the stromal large subunit of Rubisco or the thylakoid-bound alpha and beta subunits of the coupling factor. One notable exception, however, appears to be the 32 kd, D1 protein. Its net synthetic rate remains high despite the inhibition of other chloroplastically synthesized proteins. The small subunit of Rubicso, LHCP-II, as well as several other proteins of known cytoplasmic origin, were still synthesized, albeit, at lower than control rates. Light chilling of chill-insensitive spinach produced a similar, but less dramatic differential behavior between chloroplastic and cytoplasmic protein synthesis. It appears, in chilling-sensitive plants, that chloroplast protein synthesis exhibits a greater sensitivity to low temperature inhibition than does cytoplasmic protein synthesis and that recovery of chloroplast protein synthesis may play an important role in recovery of photosynthetic activity following chilling

  14. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  15. Water delivery in the Early Solar System

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Eggl, Siegfried; Süli, Áron; Sándor, Zsolt; Galiazzo, Mattia; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    As part of the national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitable Worlds' the delivery of water onto terrestrial planets is a key question since water is essential for the development of life as we know it. After summarizing the state of the art we show some first results of the transport of water in the early Solar System for scattered main belt objects. Hereby we investigate the questions whether planetesimals and planetesimal fragments which have gained considerable inclination due to the ...

  16. Corrosion evaluation of service water system materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability and reliability of the service water system is critical for safe operation of a nuclear power plant. Degradation of the system piping and components has forced utilities to re-evaluate the corrosion behavior of current and alternative system materials, to support assessments of the remaining service life of the service water system, selection of replacement materials, implementation of corrosion protection methods and corrosion monitoring programs, and identification of maintenance and operational constraints consistent with the materials used. TU Electric and Stone and Webster developed a service water materials evaluation program for the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Because of the length of exposure and the generic interest in this program by the nuclear power industry, EPRI joined TU to co-sponsor the test program. The program was designed to evaluate the corrosion behavior of current system materials and candidate replacement materials and to determine the operational and design changes which could improve the corrosion performance of the system. Although the test program was designed to be representative of service water system materials and environments targeted to conditions at Comanche Peak, these conditions are typical of and relevant to other fresh water cooled nuclear service water systems. Testing was performed in raw water and water treated with biocide under typical service water operating conditions including continuous flow, intermittent flow, and stagnant conditions. The test program evaluated the 300 Series and 6% molybdenum stainless steels, copper-nickel, titanium, carbon steel, and a formed-in-place nonmetallic pipe lining to determine susceptibility to general, crevice, and microbiologically influenced corrosion and pitting attack. This report presents the results of the test program after 4 years of exposure

  17. The oxidative stability of chilled and frozen pilchards used as feed for captive southern bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitz-Gerald, C.H.; Bremner, Allan

    1998-01-01

    obvious deterioration within two days. Substantial peroxide values were found and oxidised odours and flavours were clearly evident after 4 days' chilled storage. In frozen storage, oxidation occurred after only one month at a temperature of -20°C. This could be delayed if the fish were glazed with water....... Vacuum packaging in a film of low permeability to oxygen was less effective than glazing and is not recommended due to cost. Pilchards in which oxidation had commenced before freezing continued to oxidise in frozen storage irrespective of whether they were glazed or vacuum packed. It was thus thoroughly...

  18. Solar hybrid cooling system for high-tech offices in subtropical climate - Radiant cooling by absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, K.F., E-mail: bssquare@cityu.edu.hk [Building Energy and Environmental Technology Research Unit, School of Energy and Environment and Division of Building Science and Technology, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S. [Building Energy and Environmental Technology Research Unit, School of Energy and Environment and Division of Building Science and Technology, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} A solar hybrid cooling system is proposed for high-tech offices in subtropical climate. {yields} An integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification. {yields} Year-round cooling and energy performances were evaluated through dynamic simulation. {yields} Its annual primary energy consumption was lower than conventional system up to 36.5%. {yields} The passive chilled beams were more energy-efficient than the active chilled beams. - Abstract: A solar hybrid cooling design is proposed for high cooling load demand in hot and humid climate. For the typical building cooling load, the system can handle the zone cooling load (mainly sensible) by radiant cooling with the chilled water from absorption refrigeration, while the ventilation load (largely latent) by desiccant dehumidification. This hybrid system utilizes solar energy for driving the absorption chiller and regenerating the desiccant wheel. Since a high chilled water temperature generated from the absorption chiller is not effective to handle the required latent load, desiccant dehumidification is therefore involved. It is an integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification, which are powered up by solar energy. In this study, the application potential of the solar hybrid cooling system was evaluated for the high-tech offices in the subtropical climate through dynamic simulation. The high-tech offices are featured with relatively high internal sensible heat gains due to the intensive office electric equipment. The key performance indicators included the solar fraction and the primary energy consumption. Comparative study was also carried out for the solar hybrid cooling system using two common types of chilled ceilings, the passive chilled beams and active chilled beams. It was found that the solar hybrid cooling system was technically feasible for the applications of relatively higher cooling load demand. The annual

  19. Solar hybrid cooling system for high-tech offices in subtropical climate - Radiant cooling by absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A solar hybrid cooling system is proposed for high-tech offices in subtropical climate. → An integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification. → Year-round cooling and energy performances were evaluated through dynamic simulation. → Its annual primary energy consumption was lower than conventional system up to 36.5%. → The passive chilled beams were more energy-efficient than the active chilled beams. - Abstract: A solar hybrid cooling design is proposed for high cooling load demand in hot and humid climate. For the typical building cooling load, the system can handle the zone cooling load (mainly sensible) by radiant cooling with the chilled water from absorption refrigeration, while the ventilation load (largely latent) by desiccant dehumidification. This hybrid system utilizes solar energy for driving the absorption chiller and regenerating the desiccant wheel. Since a high chilled water temperature generated from the absorption chiller is not effective to handle the required latent load, desiccant dehumidification is therefore involved. It is an integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification, which are powered up by solar energy. In this study, the application potential of the solar hybrid cooling system was evaluated for the high-tech offices in the subtropical climate through dynamic simulation. The high-tech offices are featured with relatively high internal sensible heat gains due to the intensive office electric equipment. The key performance indicators included the solar fraction and the primary energy consumption. Comparative study was also carried out for the solar hybrid cooling system using two common types of chilled ceilings, the passive chilled beams and active chilled beams. It was found that the solar hybrid cooling system was technically feasible for the applications of relatively higher cooling load demand. The annual primary energy

  20. Investigation on an Open Cycle Water Chiller based on Desiccant Dehumidification

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersen, Sindre

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a novel open cycle desiccant dehumidification system is experimentally studied. The system is installed and operated at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) as part of the Green Energy Laboratory (GEL) initiative. The system uses two-stage desiccant dehumidification as well as regenerative evaporative cooling for chilled water production. The purpose of the thesis is to evaluate the system performance during different ambient and operational conditions. The investigated system...

  1. Case study: the effects of a variable flow energy saving strategy on a deep-mine cooling system

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Gideon Edgar; Liebenberg, Leon; Mathews, Edward Henry

    2013-01-01

    Cooling systems consume up to 25% of the total electricity used on deep level mines. These systems are integrated with the water reticulation system to provide chilled service water to the mine as well as cooling for mine ventilation air. Although there is definite potential for demand-side management on these systems, it is critical that the service delivery be maintained so as not to adversely affect productivity. An energy saving strategy based on variable water flow was developed for the ...

  2. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  3. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling temperatures (Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  4. Application of Silicon Carbide Chills in Controlling the Solidification Process of Casts Made of IN-713C Nickel Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Szeliga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of manufacturing casts made of the IN-713C nickel superalloy using the wax lost investment castingprocess and silicon carbide chills. The authors designed experimental casts, the gating system and selected the chills material. Wax pattern,ceramic shell mould and experimental casts were prepared for the purposes of research. On the basis of the temperature distributionmeasurements, the kinetics of the solidification process was determined in the thickened part of the plate cast. This allowed to establish thequantity of phase transitions which occurred during cast cooling process and the approximate values of liquidus, eutectic, solidus andsolvus temperatures as well as the solidification time and the average value of cast cooling rate. Non-destructive testing and macroscopicanalysis were applied to determine the location and size of shrinkage defects. The authors present the mechanism of solidification andformation of shrinkage defects in casts with and without chills. It was found that the applied chills influence significantly the hot spots andthe remaining part of the cast. Their presence allows to create conditions for solidification of IN-713C nickel superalloy cast withoutshrinkage defects.

  5. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was...

  6. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying facility potable water system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) potable water (PW) system. The PW system provides potable water to the CVDF for supply to sinks, water closets, urinals, showers, custodial service sinks, drinking fountains, the decontamination shower, supply water to the non-PW systems, and makeup water for the de-ionized water system

  8. Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    There are many motivations for choosing renewable energy technologies to provide the necessary energy to power water treatment systems for reuse and desalination. These range from the lack of an existing electricity grid, particularly in remote areas, to securing future energy and water supplies, to purely financial incentives. While many renewable energy technologies exist the two dominant ones used for powering desalination systems are PV modules and wind turbines. While wave...

  9. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees—a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M.

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package (`chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. `Payne') at Davis, California.

  10. Study on hydrodynamics associated with quality of water in water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 顾大明; 赵洪宾; 袁一星

    2002-01-01

    The quality of water in water distribution system may vary with both location and time. Water quality models were used to predict spatial and temporal variation of water quality throughout the water system. Before analyzing the variations of water quality, it is necessary to determine the hydrodynamics in water distribution system. Analytical methods for the flow path from water sources to the observed point and water age of every observed node are proposed. This paper makes a further study on water supply route of multi-sources water supply network system. These studies have been applied to an actual water distribution system.

  11. Amelioration of Chilling Injuries in Watermelon Seedlings by Abscisic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    A greenhouse study, designed in a randomized complete block design with five replications, was carried out at Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA, in the spring of 1997. The objective of the study was to investigate whether abscisic acid (ABA) would mitigate chilling damages in the watermelon, a chilling-sensitive plant. 'Crimson Sweet' [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Matsum. & Nakai.] watermelon seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with a temperature regime of 25ºC (day) and 20ºC...

  12. ChillFish: A Respiration Game for Children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate the...... possibilities of combining breathing exercises and game design. Based on a pilot study with 16 adults, we found that playing ChillFish had a positive effect, helping the participants to reach a relaxed state similar to the one offered by traditional breathing exercises. Further, we analyze the opportunities and...

  13. Quality effect of freeze-chilling in cod and rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    -chilling on the quality of raw fish portions as an example of a meal element. The thawing of frozen products during transport was mimicked by placing cardboard boxes with frozen, vacuum packaged portions of fish in a chilling facility and allowing them to thaw slowly. To mimic possible subsequent chill storage...

  14. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Carter, Donald L.; Schunk, Richard G.; Pruitt, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station Water Recovery System (WRS) is comprised of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. Though the WRS has performed well since operations began in November 2008, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper details efforts to reduce the resupply mass of the WPA Multifiltration Bed, develop improved catalyst for the WPA Catalytic Reactor, evaluate optimum operation of UPA through parametric testing, and improve reliability of the UPA fluids pump and Distillation Assembly.

  15. Effect of Pre-Chilling Duration and Kinetin on Germination of Capers (Capparis Spinosa Var. Spinosa And Capparis Ovata Var. Canescens) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Talip; SÖYLER, Durmuş Ali; ÖZCAN, Sabahattin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine theeffects of pre-chilling and kinetin treatment on germination of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and Capparis ovata var. canescens seeds. Seeds were kept 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks for pre-chilling at +4 ºC. After the prechilling, Seeds were treated with distilled water, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm doses of kinetin and 2000 ppm dose of GA3 which was used as positive control for 24 hours at 22 ºC. The research was conducted with 4 repetitionin in fitler pape...

  16. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  17. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO3- and NO2- as the e- acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities considering a closed loop wastewater

  18. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, A.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Water Resources Center, Lubbock, Texas (United States); Pickering, K. [Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2002-06-15

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NO{sub 2}{sup -} as the e{sup -} acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities

  19. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Inhibition of photosynthesis by chilling in moderate light: a comparison of plants sensitive and insensitive to chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, R A; Raison, J K

    1989-12-01

    Photosynthetic activity, in leaf slices and isolated thylakoids, was examined at 25° C after preincubation of the slices at either 25° C or 4° C at a moderate photon flux density (PFD) of 450 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1), or at 4° C in the dark. The plants used wereSpinacia oleracea L.,Cucumis sativus L. andNerium oleander L. which was acclimated to growth at 20° C or 45° C. The plants were grown at a PFD of 550 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1). Photosynthesis, measured as CO2-dependent O2 evolution, was not inhibited in leaf slices from any plant after preincubation at 25° C at a moderate PFD or at 4° C in the dark. However, exposure to 4° C at a moderate PFD induced an inhibition of CO2-dependent O2 evolution within 1 h inC. sativus, a chilling-sensitive plant, and in 45° C-grownN. oleander. The inhibition in these plants after 5 h reached 80% and 40%, respectively, and was independent of the CO2 concentration but was reduced at O2 concentrations of less than 3%. Methyl-viologen-dependent O2 exchange in leaf slices from these plants was not inhibited. There was no photoxidation of chlorophyll, in isolated thylakoids, or any inhibition of electron transport at photosystem (PS)II, PSI or through both photosystems which would account for the inhibition of photosynthesis. The conditions which inhibit photosynthesis in chilling-sensitive plants do not cause inhibition inS. oleracea, a chilling-insensitive plant, or in 20° C-grownN. oleander. The CO2-dependent photosynthesis, measured at 5° C, was reduced to about 3% of that recorded at 25° C in chilling-sensitive plants but only to about 30% in the chilling-insensitive plants. Methyl-viologen-dependent O2 exchange, measured at 5° C, was greater than 25% of the activity at 25° C in all the plants. The results indicate that the mechanism of the chilling-induced inhibition of photosynthesis does not involve damage to PSII. That inhibition of photosynthesis is observed only in the chilling-sensitive plants indicates it is

  1. Remote decontamination system for contaminated water tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the experience of decontamination works and achievements of construction with remote- handling/unmanned technologies, Obayashi Corporation has developed technologies for the decontamination of contaminated water tanks at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS as an entity to implement with subsidies the 'Validation of technologies for contaminated water management' project in the FY2013 Supplementary Budget. Our remote decontamination system requires no manned operation inside tanks during decontamination work and contributes to exposure reduction. The decontamination performance and system practicality have been confirmed by full-scale demonstration test. This report describes the technology outline of present system and its demonstration test results. (author)

  2. Space Station Freedom regenerative water recovery system configuration selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysa, R.; Edwards, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) must recover water from various waste water sources to reduce 90 day water resupply demands for a four/eight person crew. The water recovery system options considered are summarized together with system configuration merits and demerits, resource advantages and disadvantages, and water quality considerations used to select the SSF water recovery system.

  3. TORR system polishes oily water clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TORR (total oil recovery and remediation) system utilizes a specially patented polymer material, similar to styrofoam, which is used to get rid of non-soluble hydrocarbons from water. An application in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, is described where it was used to recover diesel oil, which had been seeping into the groundwater over a period of 20 years. About 100,000 gallons of heating oil had leached into the water; TORR removed the non-soluble hydrocarbons, while another piece of equipment removed the soluble portions. After treatment the water tested consistently at non-detectable levels and was clean enough to be discharged into the town's sewer system. The system is considered ideal for oil spills clean-up underground, onshore, or the open sea, but it also has many potentially useful applications in industrial and oilfield applications. Water used in steam injection and water floods to produce heavy oil and SAGD applications are some of the obvious ones that come to mind. Cleaning up the huge tailings ponds at the mining and processing of oil sands, and removing diluent from water that is used to thin out bitumen in pipelines so that it can be transported to processing plants, are other promising areas of application. Several field trials to test the effectiveness of the system in these type of applications are scheduled for the summer and fall of 2002

  4. Radon in water aeration system operational performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North East Environmental Products, Inc. is a manufacturer of residential scale aeration systems for removal of radon and volatile organic chemicals from private water supplies. This paper is a review of the operational history of residential scale point of entry (POE) radon aeration systems. Emphasis is placed on the difficulties and solutions encountered in actual installations caused by both mechanical difficulties and water quality parameters. A summary of radon reduction efficiency is presented for wells with radon concentrations from 21,000 to 2,600,000 pCi/L. A discussion of customer concerns and attitudes is presented along with other areas for further technical improvement. Training techniques for dealers and installers are also discussed. An update of the current status of the radon in water industry includes current sales volumes as compared to the potential market and an update on the radon in water MCL standard setting process from an industry perspective

  5. Biologically-Inspired Water Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Sioma

    2013-01-01

    Most propulsion systems of vehicles travelling in the aquatic environment are equipped with propellers.Observations of nature,however,show that the absolute majority of organisms travel through water using wave motion,paddling or using water jet power.Inspired by these observations of nature,an innovative propulsion system working in aquatic environment was developed.This paper presents the design of the water propulsion system.Particular attention was paid to the use of paddling techniques and water jet power.A group of organisms that use those mechanisms to travel through water was selected and analysed.The results of research were used in the design of a propulsion system modelled simultaneously on two methods of movement in the aquatic environment.A method for modelling a propulsion system using a combination of the two solutions and the result were described.A conceptual design and a prototype constructed based on the solution were presented.With respect to the solution developed,studies and analyses of selected parameters of the prototype were described.

  6. Alternative Electrochemical Systems for Ozonation of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Craig C.; Murphy, Oliver J.

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical systems that are especially well suited for the small-scale generation of ozone and ozonated water for local use have been invented. These systems can operate with very little maintenance, and the only inputs needed during operation are electric power and water. Ozonated water produced by these systems can be used in diverse industrial applications: A few examples include sterilization in the brewing industry, general disinfection, and treatment of sewage and recycled water. The basic principle of operation admits of several alternative system configurations. The heart of the system is a stack of electrolytic cells, each containing a proton-exchange membrane (which serves as a solid electrolyte) sandwiched between a catalytic anode and a catalytic cathode. Preferably, the proton-exchange membrane is made of a perfluorinated sulfonic acid polymer. During electrolysis, a mixture of O2 and O3 gases is generated at the anode and H2 is generated at the cathode. Some of the O3 generated at the anode becomes dissolved in the water. The proportion of O3 in the O2/O3 mixture can be maximized by the selection of suitable electrode materials and the use of a high overpotential. Although the proton-exchange membrane conducts protons, it does not conduct electrons. It is also impermeable by gases; consequently, it maintains separation between the O2/O3 mixture evolved at the anode and the H2 evolved at the cathode.

  7. Build-up the new essential service water system (TVD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    n this paper there is description of the service water system reconstruction goals, description of the service water system before reconstruction, and description of the essential service water system in NPP V-1 Jaslovske Bohunice after reconstruction. (author)

  8. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  9. Design software for solar water heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruicheng; Li Zhong; He Tao; Zhange Xinyu; Feng Airong; Sun Zhifeng [Inst. of Air Conditioning, China Academy of Building Research, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    It is introduced that the ''Design Software for Solar Water Heating Systems'' which is the first design software suitable to China's weather condition and product's performance in the paper. The software developed by IAC, CABR independently and has CABR own knowledge property right. There are three databases and four function modules in the software and the capacity of the software is both of system design and system effect analysis. (orig.)

  10. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 166) and determined on April 8, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 22422, April..., 2011 (76 FR 38698). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on November 30, 2011, and all persons who... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record...

  11. Chilling the Messenger: The Impact of Libel on Community Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Elizabeth K.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study used a new attitude and behavioral scale for measuring the chilling effect--an undercurrent of fear with respect to publishing decisions--and to determine the impact, if any, of threatened or actual libel suits on community newspapers. The editors and/or publishers of all 167 newspapers in Kentucky with a circulation of less than 50,000…

  12. Development of a Microbial Time/Temperature Indicator Prototype for Monitoring the Microbiological Quality of Chilled Foods▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vaikousi, Hariklia; Biliaderis, Costas G.; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P.

    2008-01-01

    A time/temperature indicator (TTI) system based on the growth and metabolic activity of a Lactobacillus sakei strain was developed for monitoring food quality throughout the chilled-food chain. In the designed system, an irreversible color change of a chemical chromatic indicator (from red to yellow) progressively occurs due to the pH decline that results from microbial growth and metabolism in a selected medium. The relation of the TTI response (color change) to the growth and metabolic acti...

  13. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in a two story office building at a utilities company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World, is described. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled water. Performance to date has equaled or exceeded design criteria.

  14. Characteristics of Trihalomethanes in Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Xin-yu; ZHENG Shuang-ying; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in an actual water distribution system using the raw water with high bromide ion concentration, the composition and concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) formed by chlorination of the water in the presence of bromide ion were measured in a city water distribution system during one year. The results show that brominated THMs contributed a great part (83%89%) to the index for additive toxicity (ATI) and resulted in the ATI of most of the samples exceeding WHO guideline standard for total THMs (TTHMs), especially during the summer (rainy season). This indicates that the chlorination of water in the presence of bromide ion leaded to high ratios of brominated THMs to TTHMs. However, a visible increase in the concentration of THMs with increasing residence time in the distribution system was not observed. Additionally, based on alternatives analysis, packed tower aeration method is proposed to reduce THMs level of the finished water leaving the treatment plant.

  15. Modelagem do sistema de resfriamento por imersão de carcaças de frangos utilizando redes neurais artificiais = Modeling of the poultry carcass immersion chilling system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Klassen

    2009-04-01

    water cooling time and temperature, and as output variable the temperature of the chicken when exiting the chiller.The results obtained showed that the network with 8 neurons in the input layer and 24 in the hidden layer best represented the investigated system.

  16. Effect of Heat Shock Treatment and Aloe Vera Coating to Chilling Injury Symptom in Tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to determine the effect of length in heat shock and edible coating as pre-storage treatment to Chilling Injury (CI symptom reflected by ion leakage induced and quality properties in tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.. Heat Shock Treatment (HST was conducted at three different levels of length, which were, 20; 40 and 60 min. Edible coating was conducted using aloe vera gel. The result showed that HST and Aloe Vera Coating (AVC were more effective to reduce CI symptom at lower chilling storage. Prolong exposure to heated water may delay climacteric peak. The length of heat shock, AVC treatment and low temperature storage significantly affected the tomato quality parameter but not significantly different for each treatment except weight loss. HST for 20 min at ambient temperature was significantly different to other treatment.

  17. Adapting water accounting for integrated water resource management. The Júcar Water Resource System (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Solera, Abel; Pedro-Monzonís, María

    2014-11-01

    An increase in water demands, exacerbated by climate change and the tightening of environmental requirements, leads to a reduction in available water resources for economic uses. This situation poses challenges for water resource planning and management. Water accounting has emerged as an appropriate tool to improve transparency and control in water management. There are multiple water accounting approaches, but they generally involve a very exhaustive list of accounted concepts. According to our findings in this research, one of the best water accounting methodologies is the Australian Water Accounting Standard. However, its implementation for integrated water resource planning and management purposes calls into questioning the amount of information and level of detail necessary for the users of water accounts. In this paper, we present a different method of applying the Australian Water Accounting Standard in relation to water resource management, which improves its utility. In order to compare the original approach and that proposed here, we present and discuss an application to the Júcar Water Resource System, in eastern Spain.

  18. Chemistry management of generator stator water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemistry management of water cooled turbine generators with hollow copper conductors is very essential to avoid possible re-deposition of released copper oxides on stator windings, which otherwise may cause flow restrictions by partial plugging of copper hollow conductors and impair cooling. The phenomenon which is of more concern is not strictly of corrosion failure, but the consequences caused by the re-deposition of copper oxides that were formed by reaction of copper with oxygen. There were also some Operating experiences (OE) related to Copper oxide fouling in the system resulting shut down/off-line of plants. In Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), the turbine generator stator windings are of Copper material and cooled by demineralized water passing through the hollow conductors. The heated water from the stator is cooled by process water. A part of the stator water is continuously passed through a mixed bed polisher to remove any soluble ionic contaminants to maintain the purity of system water and also maintain copper content as low as possible to avoid possible re-deposition of released copper oxides on stator windings. The chemistry regime employed is neutral water with dissolved oxygen content between 1000-2000 ppb. Chemistry management of Stator water system was reviewed to know its effectiveness. Detailed chemical analyses of the spent resins from the polishing unit were carried out in various campaigns which indicated only part exhaustion of the polishing unit resins and reasonably low levels of copper entrapment in the resins, thus highlighting the effectiveness of the in-practice chemistry regime. (author)

  19. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  20. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  1. AOIPS water resources data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwie, P.

    1977-01-01

    The text and computer-generated displays used to demonstrate the AOIPS (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System) water resources data management system are investigated. The system was developed to assist hydrologists in analyzing the physical processes occurring in watersheds. It was designed to alleviate some of the problems encountered while investigating the complex interrelationships of variables such as land-cover type, topography, precipitation, snow melt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and streamflow rates. The system has an interactive image processing capability and a color video display to display results as they are obtained.

  2. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  3. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE WATER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site water system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  5. Vulnerability of Water Supply Systems to Droughts

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, David S.; Hughes, Trevor C.; James, W. Robert; Jensen, Donald T.; Haws, Frank W.

    1980-01-01

    This summary completion report describes the project work completed in three areas: 1) the development and preliminary testing of drought severity and vulnerability indices, 2) the impacts of Utah's 1977 drought, and 3) an operation comparison of stochastic streamflow models. The drought indices were evaluated for three municipal and three irrigation water supply systems in Utah. It was concluded that a continuous...

  6. LIGHTWEIGHT GREEN ROOF WATER RETENTION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    During Phase I, we have forged numerous necessary partnerships, which will allow us to begin our implementation tests. Working with the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) and Drexel Smart House (DSH) we have 3 to 4 prime test sites for our system. We plan to execute our insta...

  7. Statistical mechanics of the shallow water system

    OpenAIRE

    Chavanis, P. H.; Sommeria, J.

    2000-01-01

    We extend the formalism of the statistical theory developed for the 2D Euler equation to the case of shallow water system. Relaxation equations towards the maximum entropy state are proposed, which provide a parametrization of sub-grid scale eddies in 2D compressible turbulence.

  8. A Water Recovery System Evolved for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Perry, Jay L.; Carter, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    A new water recovery system designed towards fulfillment of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is presented. This water recovery system is an evolution of the current state-of-the-art system. Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing technology to higher levels of optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold: Volatile organic contaminants will be removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase, and vapor compression distillation technology will be used to process the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treatment of the various waste streams by VCD will reduce the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follow, and on the aqueous-phase volatile removal assembly further downstream. Incorporating these advantages will reduce the weight, volume, and power requirements of the system, as well as resupply.

  9. Use of low-dose irradiation to enhance the safety and quality of chilled ready meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for 'cook-chill' ready meals has expanded significantly during the past ten years. This specific category of food has been defined as a catering system based on the full cooking of food followed by fast chilling and storage in controlled temperature conditions (0-3 deg. C) and subsequent thorough re-heating before consumption. Such meals cover a wide range of commodities including meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, pasta and desserts and are used at home by consumers and by the catering industry for use, for example, as hospital meals or meals-on-wheels. These products have a relatively short shelf-life with a recommended maximum shelf-life of 5 days at 0-3 deg. C including the day of cooking. In addition, there are other concerns with regard to microbiological quality, reduced sensory quality and decreased nutritive value. It has been suggested that low-dose irradiation could be used to extend the shelf-life of these products while at the same time reducing the risk of food poisoning. Research carried out at QUB and DARD has readily demonstrated that the safety and shelf-life of chilled ready meals consisting of meat (chicken, beef or pork) and certain vegetables (e.g. broccoli, carrots and roast potatoes) can be enhanced by irradiation doses of 2 or 3 kGy without having a detrimental effect on sensory or nutritional quality. To date, investigations have been limited to such traditional meals with no research being carried out on the more popular ready meals such as lasagna, cottage pies, curries, etc. which have a relatively short shelf-life upon purchase. It is therefore the objective of this work program to investigate the effect of low-dose irradiation (1-5 kGy) on the microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality of these meals and to determine if their overall quality can be enhanced

  10. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance. PMID:26945210

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Chill and Fill Processes for the EDU Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; Leclair, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC), is a Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article, comprises a flight like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen in a space-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with liquid hydrogen as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the liquid hydrogen supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The modeling description and comparison of model predictions with the test data will be presented in the final paper.

  12. Water delivery in the Early Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Süli, Áron; Sándor, Zsolt; Galiazzo, Mattia; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    As part of the national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitable Worlds' the delivery of water onto terrestrial planets is a key question since water is essential for the development of life as we know it. After summarizing the state of the art we show some first results of the transport of water in the early Solar System for scattered main belt objects. Hereby we investigate the questions whether planetesimals and planetesimal fragments which have gained considerable inclination due to the strong dynamical interactions in the main belt region around 2 AU can be efficient water transporting vessels. The Hungaria asteroid group is the best example that such scenarios are realistic. Assuming that the gas giants and the terrestrial planets are already formed, we monitor the collisions of scattered small bodies containing water (in the order of a few percent) with the terrestrial planets. Thus we are able to give a first estimate concerning the respective contribution of such bodies to the actual water content i...

  13. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  14. Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

  15. Experimental study on inclined double solar water distillation system

    OpenAIRE

    Irani, Foad

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this project is to design and test the double inclined solar water distillation system and compare it with a single inclined solar water distillation system under the climate conditions of North Cyprus. In an inclined solar water distillation system, the feeding water falls down on the bare plate through the distribution pipe. The double inclined solar water distillation system has two sections. In the lower section the feeding water falls down on the bare plate, through ...

  16. Biotreatment of red water with fungal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, TenLin S.; Turner, R.J.; Sanville, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Red water generated during the manufacture of trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an environmental concern because it contaminates ground surfaces and groundwaters. Past methods for the management of this hazardous waste stream did not meet pollution compliance or were not cost effective. Biodegradation of TNT by bacteria has been reported, but no conclusive evidence supports its biotransformation to harmless products or its complete mineralization. The lignin peroxidase (ligninase) secreted by the white rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) has been shown to degrade a broad spectrum of organic pollutants. In this study, the efficacy of treating red water with the P. chrysosporium system was investigated.

  17. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  18. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  19. Effect of pre-chilling and environmental factors on breaking seed dormancy and germination of three foxtail species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe AMINI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wet and dry pre-chilling duration, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress and planting depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of three foxtail species (Setaria glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridis was investigated in a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Both wet and dry pre-chilling for 45 days promoted seed germination of S. glauca compared with the control. Pre-chilling was not significantly effective in seed dormancy breaking of S. viridis and S. verticillata. The maximum germination of foxtails (S. verticillata, S. viridis was obtained when seeds were treated with pH 7 buffer solution. Increasing of osmotic and salt stress decreased seed germination of foxtails. Setaria verticillata seed germination was more tolerant than those of S. glauca and S. viridis to high water stress condition. Setaria glauca and S. verticillata seed germination were more tolerant to high salinity stress than S. viridis. Seedling emergence decreased with increasing the burial depth and no germination observed at 8 cm soil depth.

  20. Impact of exogenous GABA treatments on endogenous GABA metabolism in anthurium cut flowers in response to postharvest chilling temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Naderi, Roohangiz; Jannatizadeh, Abbasali; Babalar, Mesbah; Sarcheshmeh, Mohammad Ali Askari; Faradonbe, Mojtaba Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Anthurium flowers are susceptible to chilling injury, and the optimum storage temperature is 12.5-20 °C. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway may alleviate chilling stress in horticultural commodities by providing energy (ATP), reducing molecules (NADH), and minimizing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this experiment, the impact of a preharvest spray treatment with 1 mM GABA and postharvest treatment of 5 mM GABA stem-end dipping on GABA shunt pathway activity of anthurium cut flowers (cv. Sirion) in response to cold storage (4 °C for 21 days) was investigated. GABA treatments resulted in lower glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and higher GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activities in flowers during cold storage, which was associated with lower GABA content and coincided with higher ATP content. GABA treatments also enhanced accumulation of endogenous glycine betaine (GB) in flowers during cold storage, as well as higher spathe relative water content (RWC). These findings suggest that GABA treatments may alleviate chilling injury of anthurium cut flowers by enhancing GABA shunt pathway activity leading to provide sufficient ATP and promoting endogenous GB accumulation. PMID:27135813

  1. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying facility HVAC system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-09-22

    This System Design Description (SDD) addresses the HVAC system for the CVDF. The CVDF HVAC system consists of five subsystems: (1) Administration building HVAC system; (2) Process bay recirculation HVAC system; (3) Process bay local exhaust HVAC and process vent system; (4) Process general supply/exhaust HVAC system; and (5) Reference air system. The HVAC and reference air systems interface with the following systems: the fire protection control system, Monitoring and Control System (MCS), electrical power distribution system (including standby power), compressed air system, Chilled Water (CHW) system, drainage system, and other Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) control systems not addressed in this SDD.

  3. Diagnosing Causes of Water Scarcity in Complex Water Resources Systems and Identifying Risk Management Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Garrote de Marcos, Luis; Ana IGLESIAS; Mediero Orduña, Luis

    2013-01-01

    From the water management perspective, water scarcity is an unacceptable risk of facing water shortages to serve water demands in the near future. Water scarcity may be temporary and related to drought conditions or other accidental situation, or may be permanent and due to deeper causes such as excessive demand growth, lack of infrastructure for water storage or transport, or constraints in water management. Diagnosing the causes of water scarcity in complex water resources systems is a prec...

  4. Control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. tolerance to chilling stress – evaluating the role of ascorbic acid and glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Lukatkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures (1-10 ºC are known to disturb cellular physiology, cause oxidative stress via creating imbalance between generation and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS leading finally to cell and/or plant death. Owing to known significance of low molecular antioxidants - ascorbic acid (AsA and glutathione (GSH in plant stress-tolerance, this work analyzes the role of exogenously applied AsA and GSH in the alleviation of chilling stress (3°C-impact in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Vjaznikowskij 37 plants. Results revealed AsA and GSH concentration dependent metabolism of ROS such as superoxide (O2•‾ and the mitigation of ROS-effects such as lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as membrane permeability (measured as electrolyte leakage in C. sativus leaf discs. AsA concentration (750 µM and GSH (100 µM exhibited maximum reduction in O2•‾ generation, LPO intensity as well as electrolyte leakage, all of these were increased in cold water (3°C and 25°C-treated leaf discs. However, AsA, in particular, had a pronounced antioxidative effect, more expressed in case of leaf discs during chilling (3°C; whereas, at temperature 25°C, some AsA concentrations (such as 50 and 100 mM AsA exhibited a prooxidative effect that requires molecular-genetic studies. Overall, it is inferred that AsA and GSH have high potential for sustainably increasing chilling-resistance in plants.

  5. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  6. Impact of the use of a hybrid turbine inlet air cooling system in arid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Cooling the air entering the compressor section of a gas turbine is a proven method of increasing turbine power output, especially during peak summer demand, and it is increasingly being used in powerplants worldwide. Two turbine inlet air cooling (TIAC) systems are widely used: evaporative cooling and mechanical chilling. In this work, the prospects of using a hybrid turbine inlet air cooling (TIAC) system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of mechanical chilling followed by evaporative cooling. Such a system is capable of achieving a significant reduction in inlet air temperature that satisfies desired power output levels, while consuming less power than conventional mechanical chilling and less water than conventional evaporative cooling, thus combining the benefits of both approaches. Two hybrid system configurations are studied. In the first configuration, the first stage of the system uses water-cooled chillers that are coupled with dry coolers such that the condenser cooling water remains in a closed loop. In the second configuration, the first stage of the system uses water-cooled chillers but with conventional cooling towers. An assessment of the performance and economics of those two configurations is made by comparing them to conventional mechanical chilling and using realistic data. It was found that the TIAC systems are capable of boosting the power output of the gas turbine by 10% or more (of the power output of the ISO conditions). The cost operation analysis shows clearly the hybrid TIAC method with wet cooling has the advantage over the other methods and It would be profitable to install it in the new gas turbine power plants. The figure below shows a comparison of the water consumption for the three different cases. - Highlights: • New hybrid system for the turbine inlet air cooling is studied. • Hybrid system of mechanical chilling followed by evaporative cooling is used. • Hybrid turbine inlet air cooling

  7. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  8. Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water

  9. Research on frequency conversion technology of metro station's ventilation and air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation and air-conditioning system (VAC) is the most energy-saving potential system in the metro. This paper analyzes the passenger traffic, air-conditioning load and station air supply on the initial, recent and long-term phase of metro station. And it proposes that it is necessary to run chilled-water pumps, air handing unit (AHU) fans and back/exhaust fans with frequency conversion technology (FCT). Then it uses the thermodynamic method to analyze the impact of running chilled-water pumps with FCT. The results show that running chilled-water pumps with FCT can reduce the total power consumption of system, although increases chiller energy consumption. Then the temperature and velocity fields of the platform and station hall are simulated by CFD software according to the variable air volume. And the results show that under the condition of running the VAC system with FCT, temperature and velocity fields distribution are both in the comfortable range. Finally, by taking a typical summer day for example, this paper analyzes the energy savings of chilled-water pumps, AHU fans and back/exhaust fans on the initial, recent and long-term phase, and the calculation results show that the respective total energy savings are 1103.4 kWh, 1064.3 kWh and 926.2 kWh, and the respective total power saving ratio is 73.4%, 71.2% and 59.5%. - Highlights: •Use the FCT to reduce energy consumption of metro VAC is necessary and possible. •Analyze the influence of running the chilled-water pumps with FCT. •Results show that variable air volume of station public area is feasible. •Calculations indicate that energy-saving effect of using the FCT is considerable

  10. Piping installation for reactor heavy water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics and main installation steps for the piping of the reactor heavy water loop system were introduced in this paper. According to the system design, equipment accommodation and spot management, main issues with effect on the quality and schedule of pipeline installation were analyzed. Accordingly, some solutions were put forward, which included: work allocation should be made clear in documents; installation preparative such as design checkup and technology communication should be prepared completely; requirements of system cleaning, test items in every experiment, inspection in work and equipment maintenance should be considered in the system design; perfect documents distribution system and stock plan should be built; technology requirements and quality assurance should be claimed in contracts; quality should be controlled by way of external evidence, inspection in manufactory, exterior quality assurance examination, and test during consignment; series of management procedure should be established in detail. (authors)

  11. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  12. Influence of taxol on the response of platelets to chilling.

    OpenAIRE

    White, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Platelets have a characteristic lenslike appearance in circulating blood. In vitro studies have shown that the discoid shape is supported by a circumferential band of microtubules. Early studies demonstrated that chilling caused platelets to lose their disklike form and become irregularly convoluted with multiple pseudopods. The cold-induced shape change was associated with disappearance of the annular band of microtubules. Rewarming caused reassembly of the circumferential bundle and recover...

  13. Karst Water System Investigated by Absolute Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinif, Y.; Meus, P.; van Camp, M.; Kaufmann, O.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Vandiepenbeeck, M.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The highly anisotropic and heterogeneous hydrogeological characteristics of karst aquifers are difficult to characterize and present challenges for modeling of storage capacities. Little is known about the surface and groundwater interconnection, about the connection between the porous formations and the draining cave and conduits, and about the variability of groundwater volume within the system. Usually, an aquifer is considered as a black box, where water fluxes are monitored as input and output. However, water inflow and outflow are highly variable and cannot be measured directly. A recent project, begun in 2006 sought to constrain the water budget in a Belgian karst aquifer and to assess the porosity and water dynamics, combining absolute gravity (AG) measurements and piezometric levels around the Rochefort cave. The advantage of gravity measurements is that they integrate all the subsystems in the karst system. This is not the case with traditional geophysical tools like boring or monitoring wells, which are soundings affected by their near environment and its heterogeneity. The investigated cave results from the meander cutoff system of the Lomme River. The main inputs are swallow holes of the river crossing the limestone massif. The river is canalized and the karst system is partly disconnected from the hydraulic system. In February and March 2006, when the river spilled over its dyke and sank into the most important swallow hole, this resulted in dramatic and nearly instantaneous increases in the piezometric levels in the cave, reaching up to 13 meters. Meanwhile, gravity increased by 50 and 90 nms-2 in February and March, respectively. A first conclusion is that during these sudden floods, the pores and fine fissures were poorly connected with the enlarged fractures, cave, and conduits. With a rise of 13 meters in the water level and a 5% porosity, a gravity change of 250 nms-2 should have been expected. This moderate gravity variation suggests either a

  14. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eFukui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the Dictator Game that an individual’s listening to preferred chill-inducing music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the In-group (IG and the Out-group (OG, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred chill-inducing music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the Dictator Game. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the Dictator Game both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred chill-inducing music promotes altruistic behavior.

  15. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual's listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred "chill-inducing" music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the DG. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep) and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the DG both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music promotes altruistic behavior. PMID:25389411

  16. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  17. Cold Vacuum Drying facility deionized water system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) de-ionized water system. The de-ionized water system is used to provide clean, conditioned water, free from contaminants, chlorides and iron for the CVD Facility. Potable water is supplied to the deionized water system, isolated by a backflow prevention device. After the de-ionization process is complete, via a packaged de-ionization unit, de-ionized water is supplied to the process deionization unit

  18. Radioecological models for inland water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a nuclear accident, radioactivity may either be directly discharged into rivers, lakes and reservoirs or - after the re-mobilisation of dry and wet deposited material by rain events - may result in the contamination of surface water bodies. These so-called aquatic exposure pathways are still missing in the decision support system IMIS/PARK. Therefore, a study was launched to analyse aquatic and radioecological models with respect to their applicability for assessing the radiation exposure of the population. The computer codes should fulfil the following requirements: 1. to quantify the impact of radionuclides in water systems from direct deposition and via runoff, both dependent on time and space, 2. to forecast the activity concentration in water systems (rivers and lakes) and sediment, both dependent on time and space, and 3. to assess the time dependent activity concentration in fish. To that purpose, a literature survey was conducted to collect a list of all relevant computer models potentially suitable for these tasks. In addition, a detailed overview of the key physical process was provided, which should be considered in the models. Based on the three main processes, 9 codes were selected for the runoff from large watersheds, 19 codes for the river transport and 14 for lakes. (orig.)

  19. Water masers in the Kronian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebenko, Sergei V.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Elitzur, Moshe; Cosmovici, Cristiano B.; Avruch, Ian M.; Pluchino, Salvatore; Montebugnoli, Stelio; Salerno, Emma; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Mujunen, Ari; Ritakari, Jouko; Molera, Guifre; Wagner, Jan; Uunila, Minttu; Cimo, Giuseppe; Schilliro, Francesco; Bartolini, Marco

    The presence of water has been considered for a long time as a key condition for life in planetary environments. The Cassini mission discovered water vapour in the Kronian system by detecting absorption of UV emission from a background star (Hansen et al. 2006). Prompted by this discovery, we started an observational campaign for search of another manifestation of the water vapour in the Kronian system, its maser emission at the frequency of 22 GHz (1.35 cm wavelength). Observations with the 32 m Medicina radio telescope (INAF-IRA, Italy) started in 2006 using Mk5A data recording and the JIVE-Huygens software correlator. Later on, an on-line spectrometer was used at Medicina. The 14 m Metsähovi radio telescope (TKK-MRO, Finland) joined the observational campaign in 2008 using a locally developed data capture unit and software spectrometer. More than 300 hours of observations were collected in 2006-2008 campaign with the two radio telescopes. The data were analysed at JIVE using the Doppler tracking technique to compensate the observed spectra for the radial Doppler shift for various bodies in the Kronian system (Pogrebenko et al. 2009). Here we report the observational results for Hyperion, Titan, Enceladus and Atlas, and their physical interpretation. Encouraged by these results we started a campaign of follow up observations including other radio telescopes.

  20. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Deshan Tang; Melissa Pilgrim; Jinan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quanti...

  1. Operator Support System for Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operator Support System for Pressurized Water Reactor (OSSPWR) has been developed under the sponsorship of IAEA from August 1994. The project is being carried out by the Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. The Design concepts of the operator support functions have been established. The prototype systems of OSSPWR has been developed as well. The primary goal of the project is to create an advanced operator support system by applying new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, advanced communication technologies, etc. Recently, the advanced man-machine interface for nuclear power plant operators has been developed. It is connected to the modern computer systems and utilizes new high performance graphic displays. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  2. Electrochemical anomalies of protic ionic liquid - Water systems: A case study using ethylammonium nitrate - Water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Nakama, Kazuya; Hayashi, Ryotaro; Aono, Masami; Takekiyo, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Saihara, Koji; Shimizu, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate protic ionic liquid (pIL)-water mixtures in the temperature range of -35-25 °C. The pIL used in this study was ethylammonium nitrate (EAN). At room temperature, the resonant mode of conductivity was observed in the high frequency region. The anomalous conductivity disappeared once solidification occurred at low temperatures. The kinetic pH of the EAN-water system was investigated at a fixed temperature. Rhythmic pH oscillations in the EAN-H2O mixtures were induced at 70 water mixture are caused in an intermediate state between pIL and bulk water. From the ab initio calculations, it was observed that the dipole moment of the EAN-water complex shows a discrete jump at around 85 mol% H2O. Water-mediated hydrogen bonding network drastically changes at the crossover concentration.

  3. An application of the gas-fired chilling and heating units to domestic houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.; Yang, Y.M.; Chae, J.M.; Bang, H.S.; Kwon, O.B.; Yoo, S.I.; Kim, T.H. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co. (Korea); Lee, T.W.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hwang, I.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, C.D.; Park, S.J. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Following researches and considerations were performed in this study for an efficient application of gas-fired chilling and heating units to the residential buildings. (1) Status of domestic cooling and heating for residential building. (2) Various introduction schemes of outdoor unit. (3) Design exclusive area for the gas appliance and installation of it. (4) Ventilation of exhaust gas and heat. (5) Prepare the installation specifications or standards for gas-fired chilling and heating units. (6) Design technique of plumbing for cooling and heating. (7) Evaluation of unit's capacity considering the thermal load of domestic buildings. (8) Cooling and heating system with the unit. (9) Fundamental test for evaluation of applicability. (10) Actual design and construction of experimental house for an application and a demonstration of the developed gas units. (11) Field test for cooling and heating. (12) Evaluation of economic efficiency. (13) Establish a business potential. (14) Establishment of legal and systematic support, energy rate. (15) Troubleshooting in the course of development and application of the new gas appliance. 41 refs., 214 figs., 52 tabs.

  4. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Seed Priming-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Hussain, Hafiz A.; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most...

  5. Sensitivity Studies of a Low Temperature Low Approach Direct Cooling Tower for Building Radiant Cooling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Finn, Donal; Costelloe, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Recent interest in cooling towers as a mechanism for producing chilled water, together with the evolution of radiant cooling, have prompted a review of evaporative cooling in temperate maritime climates. The thermal efficiency of such systems is a key parameter, as a measure of the degree to which the system has succeeded in exploiting the cooling potential of the ambient air. The feasibility of this concept depends largely however, on achieving low approach water temperatures within an appro...

  6. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-frozen air-chilled turkey breast allows for reduced sodium content in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Medellin-Lopez, M; Singh, P; Sansawat, T; Chin, K B; Kang, I

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate sodium reduction in the protein gels that were prepared with turkey breasts after hot boning (HB), quarter (¼) sectioning, crust-frozen air-chilling (CFAC), and cold temperature mincing. For each of 4 replications, 36 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. One-half of the carcasses were randomly assigned to water immersion chilling for chill boning (CB), whereas the remaining carcasses were immediately HB and quarter-sectioned/crust-frozen air-chilled (HB-¼CFAC) in a freezing room (-12°C, 1.0 m/s). After deboning, CB fillets were conventionally minced, whereas HB-¼CFAC fillets were cold minced up to 27 min with 1 or 2% salt. From the beginning of mincing, the batter temperatures of HB-¼CFAC were lower (P mincing, the batter pH of the HB-¼CFAC (P 0.05) from the pH of CB batters, except for the 1% salt HB-¼CFAC batter after 15 min of mincing. The pattern of pH was not changed when the batters were stored overnight. The protein of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P mincing technologies appear to improve protein functionality and sodium reduction capacity. PMID:25012854

  7. Performance evaluation and modeling of a hybrid cooling system combining a screw water chiller with a ground source heat pump in a building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jongug; Lee, Sunil; Hong, Daehie; Kim, Yongchan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    The performance of a hybrid cooling system that combines a screw water chiller with a ground source heat pump (GSHP) was measured and analyzed at various cooling loads. In addition, the hybrid cooling system in a building was modelled sophisticatedly using EnergyPlus and then validated with the measured data. The coefficient of performance of the GSHP was lower than that of a conventional chiller in the monitored building, but the hybrid cooling system helped to stably provide the required cooling capacity at high-load conditions. The mean bias error and the normalized root-mean squared error of the predicted cooling load of the building were -8% and 12.4%, respectively. The hybrid cooling system was simulated by varying four operating parameters: the operating schedule, chilled water temperature (T{sub CW}), dry-bulb temperature (T{sub DB}), and entering water temperature (T{sub EW}). The T{sub CW} is ascertained as being the most effective control parameter in the hybrid cooling system. (author)

  8. Columbia River system operations - water quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mid-1990, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and Bonneville Power Administration embarked on a Columbia River system operation review (SOR). The goal of the SOR is to establish an updated operation strategy which best recognizes the various river uses as identified through community input. Ninety alternative operations of the Columbia and Snake River systems were proposed by various users. These users included the general public, irrigation and utility districts, as well as local, state and various Federal government agencies involved with specific water resource interests in the Columbia River basin. Ten technical work groups were formed to cover the spectrum of interest and to evaluate the alternative operations. Using simplified tools and risk-based analysis, each work group analyzed and then ranked the alternatives according to the effect on the work group's specific interest. The focus of the water quality technical work group is the impact assessment, on water quality and dissolved gas saturation, of the various operations proposed by special interests (i.e., hydropower, navigation, flood control, irrigation, recreation, cultural resources, wildlife, and anadromous and resident fisheries)

  9. Dual roles for hepatic lectin receptors in the clearance of chilled platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Grewal, Prabhjit K; Wandall, Hans H;

    2009-01-01

    Rapid chilling causes glycoprotein-Ib (GPIb) receptors to cluster on blood platelets. Hepatic macrophage beta(2) integrin binding to beta-N-acetylglucosamine (beta-GlcNAc) residues in the clusters leads to rapid clearance of acutely chilled platelets after transfusion. Although capping the beta......-Morell receptor binding, become increasingly involved in platelet removal. Macrophages rapidly removed a large fraction of transfused platelets independent of their storage conditions. With prolonged platelet chilling, hepatocyte-dependent clearance further diminishes platelet recovery and survival after...... transfusion. Inhibition of chilled platelet clearance by both beta(2) integrin and Ashwell-Morell receptors may afford a potentially simple method for storing platelets in the cold....

  10. Passive systems for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the most original concepts that have been considered in Italy for the back-fitting of the nuclear power plants in order to reduce the probability and the importance of the release to the environment in case of a core melt. With reference either to BWR or PWR, passive concepts have been considered for back-fitting in the following areas: pump seals damage prevention and ECCS passive operation; reactor passive depressurization; molten reactor core passive cooling; metal containment passive water cooling through a water tank located at high level; containment isolation improvement through a sealing system; containment leaks control and limitation of environmental release. In addition some considerations will be made on the protection against external events introduced from the beginning on the PUN design either on building and equipment lay-out either on structure design. (author). 5 figs

  11. Model Predictive Control of Skeboå Water system

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielsson, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a study of model predictive control of water levels and flows in a water system. The water system studied includes five lakes and six dams that are regulated manually by sluice-gates. The water is used in the papermaking process at Holmen Paper Mill in Hallstavik. The aim of this thesis is to find out how to control the water system when all dams are automated and to minimize the discharge of water from the system without risking production stops due to water shortage. To fulfi...

  12. Sodium-water reaction product flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide the subject equipments wherein thermal insulating layers which neither exfoliate nor react by the impact due to high temperature sodium and hydrogen gas and are used for mitigating the thermal impact are provided on the inner surfaces of the emission system equipments, thereby preventing the destruction of the emission system equipments. Constitution: Thermal insulating layers are formed on the inner surfaces of sodium-water reaction product emission system equipments, that is, the inner surface of the emission system pipeline, that of the accommodation vessel and the surface of the cyclone separator, by film treatment, coating or heat resisting coating, and these surfaces are covered with the layers. Each of the layers is made of a material which does not cause a rapid reaction with high temperature sodium or hydrogen gas nor exfoliates and is withstandable for several seconds in which the thermal impact of at least the emission system comes into question, and its thickness is more than one capable of securing the necessary thermal resistance computed by the thermal impact analysis of the emission system. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tilmant; Q. Goor; Pinte, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opp...

  14. SAFETY ASPECTS OF THE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR MEDICAL UTILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Endre Ianosi

    2012-01-01

    To make sustainable the human life, in normal or specific medical situations, it is necessary to have adequate water resources. In medical utilization's of the water (dialysis, perfusable or liquid medication) some special water treatment systems and methods are necessary. These water treatment systems must accomplish some safety requirements. The safety of the patients relied to water treatment systems in medical utilization and the risk's identification are important aspects in this type of...

  15. Improving Potable Water Accessibility And Sustainability Through Efficient Management Of Pipe Water Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Nakabugo, Stella Mirembe

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how to improve potable water accessibility and sustainability through efficient management of pipe water supply system a case study of Uganda, Kampala region. Kampala the capital city of Uganda still faces a challenge to access clean potable water. Water supply coverage is 77.5 % showing at least 22.5 % of the total population has limited access to potable drinking water causing a gap between water supply and water demand. Hypotheses of the paper were that the city's popu...

  16. Analysis on Systematic Water Scarcity Based on Establishment of Water Scarcity Classification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It would be very helpful for making countermeasures against complex water scarcity by analysis on systematic water scarcity.Based on the previous researches on water scarcity classification,a classification system of water scarcity was established according to contributing factors,which comprises three water scarcity categories caused by anthropic factors,natural factors and mixed factors respectively.Accordingly,the concept of systematic water scarcity was proposed,which can be defined as one type of water...

  17. Water quality diagnosis system for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AI diagnose system for the water quality control of a BWR type reactor is divided into a general diagnosing section for generally classifying the water quality conditions of the plant depending on a causal relation between the symptom of the water quality abnormality and its causes, generally diagnosing the position and the cause of the abnormality and ranking the items considered to be the cause, and a detail diagnosing section for a further diagnosis based on the result of the diagnosis in the former section. The general diagnosing section provides a plurality of threshold values showing the extent of the abnormality depending on the cause to the causal relation between the causes and the forecast events previously formed depending on the data of process sensors in the plant. Since the diagnosis for the abnormality and normality is given not only as an ON or OFF mode but also as the extent thereof, it can enter the detailed diagnosis in the most plausible order, based on a plurality of estimated causes, to enable to find the case and take a counter-measure in an early stage. (N.H.)

  18. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems: A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the distribut

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying facility heating, ventilation, and Air Conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This System Design Description (SDD) addresses the HVAC system for the CVDF. The CVDF HVAC system consists of five subsystems: (1) Administration building HVAC system; (2) Process bay recirculation HVAC system; (3) Process bay local exhaust HVAC and process vent system; (4) Process general supply/exhaust HVAC system; and (5) Reference air system. The HVAC and reference air systems interface with the following systems: the fire protection control system, Monitoring and Control System (MCS), electrical power distribution system (including standby power), compressed air system, Chilled Water (CHW) system, drainage system, and other Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) control systems not addressed in this SDD

  20. Effects of Dry Chilling on the Microflora on Beef Carcasses at a Canadian Beef Packing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Youssef, M K; Yang, X

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the course of effects on the microflora on beef carcasses of a commercial dry chilling process in which carcasses were dry chilled for 3 days. Groups of 25 carcasses selected at random were sampled when the chilling process commenced and after the carcasses were chilled for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 67 h for determination of the numbers of aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The temperatures of the surfaces and the thickest part of the hip (deep leg) of carcasses, as well as the ambient air conditions, including air temperature, velocity, and relative humidity (RH), were monitored throughout the chilling process. The chiller was operated at 0°C with an off-coil RH of 88%. The air velocity was 1.65 m/s when the chiller was loaded. The initial RH levels of the air in the vicinity of carcasses varied with the locations of carcasses in the chiller and decreased rapidly during the first hour of chilling. The average times for shoulder surfaces, rump surfaces, and the deep leg of carcasses to reach 7°C were 13.6 ± 3.1, 16.0 ± 2.4 and 32.4 ± 3.2 h, respectively. The numbers of aerobes, coliforms, and E. coli on carcasses before chilling were 5.33 ± 0.42, 1.95 ± 0.77, 1.42 ± 0.78 log CFU/4,000 cm(2), respectively. The number of aerobes on carcasses was reduced by 1 log unit each in the first hour of chilling and in the subsequent 23 h of chilling. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the numbers of aerobes recovered from carcasses after 24 and 67 h of chilling. The total numbers (log CFU/100,000 cm(2)) on carcasses before chilling and after the first hour of chilling were 3.86 and 2.24 for coliforms and 3.30 and 2.04 for E. coli. The subsequent 23 h of chilling reduced the numbers of both groups of organisms by a further log unit. No coliforms or E. coli were recovered after 67 h of chilling. The findings show that the chilling regime investigated in this study resulted in significant reductions of all

  1. Dark-chilling of Seedlings Affects Initiation and Morphology of Broccoli Inflorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta GRABOWSKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The constant supply of broccoli heads for a vegetable market can be kept by the differentiation of sowing time and the age of seedlings. Dark-chilling of young seedlings can also modify the time of transplanting, subsequent plant development, yield and inflorescence quality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of seedling dark-chilling on the inflorescence initiation and the morphological quality of broccoli heads. The experiment was carried out at the University of Agriculture in Krakow (South Poland in the years 2009 and 2010, with broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck medium late cultivar ‘Monaco’ F1. The examined factors were the age of seedlings (4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-week-old and dark-chilling (2°C/2 weeks and non-chilled control. Microscopic analysis of the apex sections was performed to determine the time of the inflorescence differentiation in chilled and non-chilled seedlings of different age. Chosen morphological features of the mature heads were also described as depended on age and chilling of seedlings. The inflorescence initiation was observed between 4 and 6 week of the plant ontogeny. Especially 4-week-old seedlings, chilled by two weeks, were more advanced in the generative development in comparison to non-chilled control. Low temperature applied in the seedling stage did not cause the head buttoning. Inflorescences developed by broccoli planted from 4 and 6-week-old seedlings, both chilled and control, were characterized by the best visual quality, determined by a convex head shape, tight branching angle, small and uniform size and regular form of flower buds. Chilling of oldest, 8- and 10-week-old seedlings negatively affected the inflorescence quality, through planed and spread shape of heads and non-uniform shape of flower buds.

  2. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  3. Safety systems of heavy water reactors and small power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After introductional descriptions of heavy water reactors and natural circulation boiling water reactors the safety philosophy and safety systems like ECCS, residual heat removal, protection systems etc., are described. (RW)

  4. Poster Puzzler Solution: Chill Out | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A winner has emerged in the most recent Poster Puzzler contest! Congratulations are in order for Rose Bradley, secretary III, Cancer Research Technology Program. The current Poster Puzzler image shows the refrigerant condensers for the two story freezers in the Building 1073 repository, which are used to store samples at -20°C. Put simply, the condensers act like the outdoor unit on a home AC system.

  5. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  6. Protection of the selected water reservoirs in water management system Banska Stiavnica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of the selected water reservoirs is provided by the Law of the water (No. 184/ 2002). It is connected with the water quality. The classification of water quality from the selected water basins (V. Richnava, Belianska and Pocuvadlo ) in the water management system Banska Stiavnica was analyzed according to the STN 75 7221. The water quality parameters were sampled from 2003. The water was analyzed according to the base physical-chemical indexes (pH, temperature water, conductivity) and microbiology index (coliforms bacteria, termotolerant-coliforms bacteria, fecal streptococci, psycho-phyllic bacteria). The water from V. Richnava is classified as the III. class water quality, the water from Pocuvadlo as the III. class water quality and the water from Belianska as the III. class water quality. (authors)

  7. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  8. Cost reduction in deep water production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a cost reduction program that Petrobras has conceived for its deep water field. Beginning with the Floating Production Unit, a new concept of FPSO was established where a simple system, designed to long term testing, can be upgraded, on the location, to be the definitive production unit. Regarding to the subsea system, the following projects will be considered. (1) Subsea Manifold: There are two 8-well-diverless manifolds designed for 1,000 meters presently under construction and after a value analysis, a new design was achieved for the next generation. Both projects will be discussed and a cost evaluation will also be provided. (2) Subsea Pipelines: Petrobras has just started a large program aiming to reduce cost on this important item. There are several projects such as hybrid (flexible and rigid) pipes for large diameter in deep water, alternatives laying methods, rigid riser on FPS, new material...etc. The authors intend to provide an overview of each project

  9. Life cycle management of service water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear plants age, more attention must focus on age and time dependent degradation mechanisms such as corrosion, erosion, fatigue, etc. These degradation mechanisms can best be managed by developing a life cycle management plan which integrates past historical data, current conditions and future performance needs. In this paper we present two examples of life cycle management. In the first example, the 20-year maintenance history of a sea water cooling system (cement-lined, cast iron) is reviewed to develop attributes like maintenance cost, spare part inventory, corrosion, and repair data. Based on this information, the future expected damage rate was forecast. The cost of managing the future damage was compared with the cost to replace (in kind and with upgraded materials. A decision optimization scheme was developed to choose the least cost option from: a) Run as-is and repair; b) replace in kind; or c) replace with upgraded material and better design. In the second example, life cycle management techniques were developed for a ceilcote lined steel pipe cooling water system. Screens (fixed and traveling), filters, pumps, motors, valves, and piping were evaluated. (author)

  10. PENGARUH CaCl2 DAN EDIBLE FILM TERHADAP PENGHAMBATAN CHILLING INJURY BUAH NANGKA KUPAS [Effect of CaCl2 and Edible Film on Chilling Injury Inhibition of fresh-cut Jackfruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Banyuro Partha1

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of CaCl2 soaking and edible film coating to delay or inhibit chilling injury of freshly-cut jackfruit has been studied. The onset of chilling injury was monitored based on sadden increase of ethylene emission as measured on-line using CO2-laser driven photoacoustic spectrometer. Freshly cut edible part of ripe jackfruit was used as the research material. The fruit was soaked in 0%, 1%, 1,5%, 2% of CaCl2 for 15 minutes. After rinsing, sample were divided into two parts each for edible coating and control. The edible film was prepared by soaking of the samples for 30 seconds in solution of white bean (Phaseolus lunatus, L. edible coating, which was derived from our previous research. The samples were devided into two parts for destructive and non destructive analysis. Both were then stored at 4oC for 3 days, at which time the normal fruit suffer from chilling injury. For the non-destructive analysis, the samples were individually put in special cuvet and a flow-trough air system was connected to each cuvet for on-line ethylene monitoring. Data of real-time ethylene emission were collected automatically every 120 minutes during the three day cold storage. The other set of samples were put in a plascic bag and stored at 4oC for 3 days period. At the end of cold stored, the samples were let to adjust to room temperature for 1 hr before subjected to respiration rate, reducing sugars, total acidity, and texture analysis. Result indicated that soaking with CaCl2 and edible film coating of freshly-cut jackfruit delayed the on-set of chilling injury as indicated by late increase of ethylene emission. Based on pattern of ethylene emission during the three day storage and their respiration rate, the best treatment to delay chilling injury of fresly-cut jackfruit was soaking in CaCl2 2% in combination with edible film coating.

  11. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  12. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  13. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is...

  14. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J. [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K. [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M. [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  15. Modeling and Analysis of a Horizontal Direct Chill Casting Process

    OpenAIRE

    Garðar Garðarsson 1984

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate bleedouts in Horizontal Direct Chill casting process and to make a complete finite volume model of such process. The casting machine that was investigated and used as a reference for the numerical model, was the HDC casting machine at Alcoa Fjarðaál in Iceland. One of Fjarðaál‘s main production problems are bleedouts in the HDC casting machine and the consequences of recurrent bleedouts is production loss. To analyse the problem, historical data w...

  16. Lifa Air Secure Box method for chilled beam cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälä, Vesa-Jukka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to introduce a chilled beam cleaning method and to develop an improved version for the prototype introduced in 2011. This thesis was commissioned by Lifa Air Ltd. The company itself is specialized in improving Indoor Air Quality and offers a wide range of products meant for ventilation cleaning. The aim for the development work was to fill the requirements and needs set by the company based on the research done, and to construct a working and improv...

  17. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual’s listening to preferred “chill-inducing” music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictato...

  18. Effects of chill casting processes on secondary dendrite arm spacing and densification of Al-Si-Mg alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the resin bonded sand casting process, the effects of chill processes on the secondary dendrite arm spacing(SDAS) and densification of Al-Si-Mg alloy were studied. The influences of the chill thickness and effective distance of chill operating on the SDAS were researched; and the effect of chillheat capacity on SDAS was investigated. The result reveals that,SDAS decreases with increasing the thickness of chill but the effect of chill is finite. The effective distance of chill operating for the chill with different thickness were obtained, and the functional relations among modulus, length of castings and thickness of chill were discussed, and the synthetical network chart of the relation among them was plotted. The relationship between local solidification rate and SDAS was defined by means of quadratic polynomial regression.

  19. Light water reactor piping system damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, based on a detailed evaluation and screening of existing damping data, a set of damping values are recommended for light water reactor piping systems. A multivariate regression model was used to identify the significant physical and response characteristics of piping systems. Although initially several experimental biases were identified that help explain the large variability in the existing data, these were ignored and only physical attributes were considered for the final recommendations. Of these twenty-two initial variables, only six were identified as being important to energy dissipation. Since the existing data is incomplete for certain variables, the identified parameters are not an exhaustive set. A regression analysis can only identify those parameters as significant that have a sufficient number and a wide spectrum of data points. Making several conservation assumptions, the six variable damping prediction equation was reduced to a damping table with two parameters: Response Level and Diameter. Pipe diameter is a convenient simple characteristic to represent system stiffness and hence support/pipe interaction, which tends to be a significant source of energy dissipation in piping systems

  20. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  1. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  2. Variability of micropollutants and microorganisms in water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 齐晶瑶; 王郁萍; 赵洪宾

    2003-01-01

    The variation of water quality in water distribution system was investigated with assimilable organiccarbon (AOC)and trihalomethanes (THMs) used as assessment indexes. Bacterium was identified in water distri-bution. The result showed that there were pathogenic parasites in water distribution system. The variation of AOCis related to chlorine residual and bacterium activity, and AOC concentration decreased first and then increasedwith the extension of water distribution system. The formation of THMs was related to the consumption of chlorineinside the distribution system, and THMs concentration increased with the extension of water pipe line.

  3. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  4. A chilling-resistant agent for seedling raising of early-season rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANLingcheng; SUNLonghua

    1992-01-01

    Our lab experiments in 1986 and 1987 showed that the CR-4, a kind of chilling-sesistant agent, could obviously increase the chilling resistance of rice seedlings. The survival of seedlings was significantly higher than that of the check when located in low temperature. For example, after the seedlings were treated for 2 d at 1-0℃,

  5. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods.......Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  6. Chills in Different Sensory Domains: Frisson Elicited by Acoustical, Visual, Tactile and Gustatory Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Katzur, Bjorn; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmuller, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    "Chills" (frisson manifested as goose bumps or shivers) have been used in an increasing number of studies as indicators of emotions in response to music (e.g., Craig, 2005; Guhn, Hamm, & Zentner, 2007; McCrae, 2007; Panksepp, 1995; Sloboda, 1991). In this study we present evidence that chills can be induced through aural, visual, tactile, and…

  7. Chilling Tolerance and Physiological Parameters as Influenced by Grafting in Watermelon Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-ying; ZHU Zhu-jun; LU Guo-hua; QIAN Qiong-qiu

    2003-01-01

    The influences of different rootstocks on chilling tolerance and physiological parameters in wa-termelon seedlings have been studied. The results showed that grafting improved the chilling tolerance. Com-pared with own-rooted watermelon seedlings, the grafted watermelon seedlings had lower chilling injury index,lower electrolytic leakage (%), lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, higher chlorophyll and proline con-tent, and higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (AsA-POD) and de-hydroascorbate reductase (DR) in the leaves under iow temperature stress. There was a considerable differenceof chilling tolerance among different grafted watermelon seedlings due to the difference of rootstock chillingtolerance. After low temperature treatment, the grafted seedling with higher chilling tolerance had lower elec-trolytic leakage ( %), lower MDA content, higher proline content and higher activities of SOD, AsA-POD andDR in the leaves compared with the grafted seedling with weaker chilling tolerance. From these, we could con-clude that chilling tolerance of watermelon seedlings may be related to higher antioxidative ability and mem-brane stability in the plants. The chilling tolerance of grafted seedling could be properly evaluated by compre-hensive physiological indexes but not a single physiological index.

  8. The Relationships between Rheological Properties and Structural Changes of Chilled Abalone Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; ZHANG Zhaohui; TANG Zhixu; TASHIRO Yuri; OGAWA Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative correlation between theological properties and structural characteristic values of chilled abalone meat was studied. Structural changes were observed, and these values were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Structural changes in the myofibrils and collagen fibrils were the greatest in chilling for 24 h. After chilling for 48 h, similar structures of vertical and cross sections were observed. For chilling from 0h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 of the both section meat decreases gradually with time, but no significant differences were observed after chilling for 48 h.The relaxation time and viscosity of both sections attained the same values for the same chilling time, but increased gradually with increasing chilling time. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the structural characteristic values (Dm, Am,Rvm), and rheological properties (E1,τi,η1) clearly exists. Some logarithmic expressions have been obtained for these negative correlations. These results suggest that the difference in rheological properties between the cross and vertical sections was mainly due to the structural changes of myofibrils and collagen fibrils, and rheological properties are influenced quantitatively by the structural characteristic values for chilling from 0 h to 72 h.

  9. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  10. Improvement of the raw gas drying process in olefin plants using an absorption cooling system driven by quench oil waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The raw gas (RG) in olefin plants is usually dried by triethyleneglycol absorption of the gas humidity. As low temperatures favour the absorption process, a tower cooling water system is conventionally used to reduce the raw gas temperature. However, in this case, the ambient temperature heavily influences the RG temperature, and at very high ambient temperatures, the efficiency of the drying process is too low. The objective of this paper is to propose a new cooling system that recovers part of the waste heat contained in the quench oil to improve the drying process of raw gas in olefin plants. This cooling system consists of a single effect water/LiBr absorption system, which produces chilled water at 10 deg C, and an additional chilled water/raw gas heat exchanger. The cooling water is used in parallel to dissipate heat in the absorption chiller and also as the first stage for cooling the raw gas before the chilled water is used. The technical performance of the new raw gas cooling system is compared with that of the conventional system using a cooling system design for a typical size olefin plant. The proposed system can run the drying process at the required optimised temperature, eliminate the dependence of the process on ambient temperature and use waste heat that would otherwise be dissipated in some form, as it is not useful for other applications inside the plant

  11. Braving the chill of the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first nuclear powered icebreaker - the Lenin - was operated in its first version between 1959 and 1966 by the Murmansk Arctic Shipping Company (MSC). From 1970 the Soviet icebreaker programme was based on a second generation of standardised equipment. Power is from one or two KLT-40 reactors, and other standard equipment includes primary turbines rated at 27.5 MWe, auxiliary turbines rated at 2MWe, main feedpumps, generators and motors. Icebreakers using this basic design and its more recent variants have now been in operation for more than 110 000h -amassing a total of 125 reactor years - and have been built on a production line basis. Operating experience has been good; the power systems have a high reliability with minimal maintenance. The icebreakers have been able to operate continuously for as long as 400 days in the Arctic. Icebreaker availability has averaged 76-79%. Reactor scrams have averaged one event per reactor per year and they have mainly been during startup. No scram has resulted in personnel overexposure. Future developments for the icebreaker fleet are examined in this article. They include a floating nuclear plant based on icebreaker technology and supplying power to remote arctic communities. (author)

  12. Ion and water balance in Gryllus crickets during the first twelve hours of cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marteaux, Lauren E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-06-01

    Insects lose ion and water balance during chilling, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are based on patterns of ion and water balance observed in the later stages of cold exposure (12 or more hours). Here we quantified the distribution of ions and water in the hemolymph, muscle, and gut in adult Gryllus field crickets during the first 12h of cold exposure to test mechanistic hypotheses about why homeostasis is lost in the cold, and how chill-tolerant insects might maintain homeostasis to lower temperatures. Unlike in later chill coma, hemolymph [Na(+)] and Na(+) content in the first few hours of chilling actually increased. Patterns of Na(+) balance suggest that Na(+) migrates from the tissues to the gut lumen via the hemolymph. Imbalance of [K(+)] progressed gradually over 12h and could not explain chill coma onset (a finding consistent with recent studies), nor did it predict survival or injury following 48h of chilling. Gryllus veletis avoided shifts in muscle and hemolymph ion content better than Gryllus pennsylvanicus (which is less chill-tolerant), however neither species defended water, [Na(+)], or [K(+)] balance during the first 12h of chilling. Gryllus veletis better maintained balance of Na(+) content and may therefore have greater tissue resistance to ion leak during cold exposure, which could partially explain faster chill coma recovery for that species. PMID:27039031

  13. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  14. An Inexpensive Radiosonde Chilled Mirror Sensor: An Old Technology With New Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The availability of an inexpensive chilled mirror dewpoint sensor has made improved atmospheric relative humidity measurements accessible. Comparisons between the chilled mirror sensor and routine radiosonde sensors have provided new information on the limitation and reliability of the routine measurements. The chilled mirror has observed detailed moisture profiles at cirrus cloud levels when cirrus was not visible, a feature that routine sensors fail to observe. Comparison measurements between the chilled mirror, the carbon resistive (hygristor) and, the capacitive sensors will be discussed. Measurements from three locations (Wallops Island; Andros Island, Bahamas; and Camborne, UK) will be highlighted. It is conceivable that the chilled mirror sensor, when its capability is fully understood, may be sufficiently reliable to serve as a reference.

  15. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  16. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response...

  17. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immersion chilling during broiler processing can be a site for cross contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as a chill tank antimicrobial but it can be overcome with heavy organic loads associated with the constant supp...

  18. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance. The KW IWTS was designed to treat basin water and maintain basin clarity during fuel retrieval, washing, and packaging activities in the KW Basin. The original design was based on a mission that was limited to handling of KW Basin fuel. The use of the IWTS was extended by the decision to transfer KE fuel to KW to be cleaned and packaged using KW systems. The use was further extended for the packaging of two more Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing legacy fuel and scrap. Planning is now in place to clean and package Knock Out Pot (KOP) Material in MCOs using these same systems. Some washing of KOP material in the Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) is currently being done to remove material that is too small or too large to be included in the KOP Material stream. These plans will require that the IWTS remain operational through a campaign of as many as 30 additional MCOs, and has an estimated completion date in 2012. Recent operation of the IWTS during washing of canisters of KOP Material has been impacted by low pressure readings at the inlet of the P4 Booster Pump. The system provides a low pressure alarm at 10 psig, and low-low pressure interlock at 5 psig. The response to these low readings has been to lower total system flow to between 301 and 315 gpm. In addition, the IWTS operator has been required to operate the system in manual mode and make frequent adjustments to the P4 booster pump speed during PCM washes. The preferred mode of operation is to establish a setpoint of 317 gpm for the P4 pump speed and run IWTS in semi-automatic mode. Based on hydraulic modeling compared to field data presented in this report, the low P4 inlet pressure is attributed to restrictions in the 2-inch KOP inlet hose and in the KOP itself

  19. Technical Communication of Automation Control System in Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Jamil; Rehan Jamil; Rizwan Jamil; Zhao Jinquan; Abdus Samee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents technical communication of automation industry which describes the technical issues of automation control system in operation development, improving management level and high efficiency process in water treatment system. Today's water treatment plants are applied for water conservancy projects, emerged by the technology of automation control system is to ensure safe, continues, high quality water supply to municipal and for multi-purpose usage. Along with automation techno...

  20. Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sumpf

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG, predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion.The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection.These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values. The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder.

  1. Modeling of residual chlorine in water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Water quality within water distribution system may vary with both location and time. Water quality models are used to predict the spatial and temporal variation of water quality throughout water system. A model of residual chlorine decay in water pipe has been developed,given the consumption of chlorine in reactions with chemicals in bulk water, bio-films on pipe wall, in corrosion process, and the mass transport of chlorine from bulk water to pipe wall. Analytical methods of the flow path from water sources to the observed point and the water age of every observed node were proposed. Model is used to predict the decay of residual chlorine in an actual distribution system. Good agreement between calculated and measured values was obtained.

  2. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quantitative representation of the sustainable development state of the water resources compound system. Four cities in China, Beijing, Fuzhou, Urumqi, and Lhasa, were selected as the study areas. The differences in the three types of mechanisms and the water quotient of the water resources compound system of each city in 2013 were compared. The results indicate that the different subsystems that comprise the compound system of a given area have different development mechanisms and resistant mechanisms. There are clear differences in the mechanisms and the water quotients for the water resources compound systems of different regions. Pertinent measures should be taken into account during integrated water resource management to improve the sustainable development status of regional water resources compound systems.

  3. Design and construction of a water treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physico-chemical water treatment system including a clarifier and a cation ion-exchange column of sodium cycle has been designed and constructed to obtain experience in design and technology of these systems. Water hardness is reduced from 500 PPM to zero PPM by reaction of lime with raw water in clarifier and passage of this partially softened water through the cation ion-exchange column for complete softening. The system has the capacity of treating 30,000 liters of water per cycle of operation. Ascending water velocity in the clarifier and volume and concentration of the regenerant and flow rate of water in the cation ion-exchange column have been experimentally determined. The project has enhanced and upgraded ENTEC'S water experts abilities to design and construct water treatment systems at higher industrial scales. (Author)

  4. Water and energy sustainable management in irrigation systems network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan N. Kenov, Helena M. Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity, water quality deterioration and the increasing demand for water and for renewable energy in water systems, require sound planning and management practices supported by computer modeling. Such management practices must ensure the sustainable use of water resources, including the achievement of a good status of water bodies as prescribed by the EU Water Framework Directive. The purpose of this paper is to establish the applicability and limitations of two commercial software products to simulate the operation of a water system based on the Sorraia water project in Portugal. Particular attention was given to two products: (1 AQUATOOL, developed by the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (UPV; and, (2 WEAP developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI. The capabilities of the two models were analyzed focusing on the following aspects: (1 capability to reproduce the operation of a water system; (2 capacity to estimate the system’s reliability to meet water demands; (3 easiness of the modeling process, including entry data requirements and presentation of results; (4 usefulness to support decisions of water authorities. From the modeling activity process it is possible to conclude that: (1 AQUATOOL and WEAP are applicable in planning exercises, for which it is necessary to evaluate possible modifications in existing water systems and to analyze the effectiveness of resource exploitation policies, by taking into account objectives and infrastructure; and, (2 within certain modeling limitations, these software products can be used for water allocation predictions, multi-reservoir modeling, and reliability assessment of water systems.

  5. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  6. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey M.; Lund, Jay R.; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M.; Zagona, Edith A.; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W.; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science. Current systems analysis practice is widespread and addresses the most challenging water issues of our times, including water scarcity and drought, climate change, providing water for food and energy production, decision making amid competing objectives, and bringing economic incentives to bear on water use. The emergence of public recognition and concern for the state of water resources provides an opportune moment for the field to reorient to meet the complex, interdependent, interdisciplinary, and global nature of today's water challenges. At present, water resources systems analysis is limited by low scientific and academic visibility relative to its influence in practice and bridled by localized findings that are difficult to generalize. The evident success of water resource systems analysis in practice (which is set out in this paper) needs in future to be strengthened by substantiating the field as the science of water resources that seeks to predict the water resources variables and outcomes that are important to governments, industries, and the public the world over. Doing so promotes the scientific credibility of the field, provides understanding of the state of water resources and furnishes the basis for predicting the impacts of our water choices.

  7. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  8. Model Predictive Control for Operational Water Management: A Case Study of the Dutch Water System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, X.

    2015-01-01

    Water is needed everywhere to satisfy domestic, agricultural and industrial water demands, to maintain navigation systems, and to preserve healthy and sustainable ecosystems. In order to protect us from floods and to reallocate water resources in a man-made environment, the 'hardware', water-related

  9. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, L.T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  10. A cooling water system copper corrosion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkrabek, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    The plant has four units that have been operating normally for 12--33 years. Two of the units are 70 MW sister units that have copper alloy once-through condensers. The other two units are 350 MW and 500 MW units with copper alloy condensers and cooling towers. No cooling water related tube leaks had been experienced. Until 1993, the only chemicals used were sulfuric acid for pH control of the cooling tower systems and chlorine for biological control. The units were chlorinated for one hour per day per condenser. In early July 1992, their copper grab sample at the plant discharge to the river exceeded the weekly environmental limit. In fact, it was so high that there was a slim chance of coming in under their monthly average copper limit unless something was done quickly. The result of this incident was an extensive study of their plant wastewater and cooling systems. The study revealed that the elevated copper problem had existed sporadically for several years. Initially, copper control was achieved by altering the wastewater treatment processes and cooling tower blowdown flow path. Two extended trials, one with tolyltriazole (TTA) and one with a chemically modified benzotriazole (BZT) were performed. Optimal control of copper corrosion was eventually achieved by the application of a TTA treatment program in which the feed rates are adjusted based on on-line corrosion monitoring measurements. This report documents experiences and results over the past six years.

  11. Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) vessel architecture is linked to chilling and salinity tolerance in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Eric N; Armitage, Anna R; López-Portillo, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the distribution of the black mangrove Avicennia germinans in the Gulf of Mexico has expanded, in part because it can survive the occasional freeze events and high soil salinities characteristic of the area. Vessel architecture may influence mangrove chilling and salinity tolerance. We surveyed populations of A. germinans throughout the Gulf to determine if vessel architecture was linked to field environmental conditions. We measured vessel density, hydraulically weighted vessel diameter, potential conductance capacity, and maximum tensile fracture stress. At each sampling site we recorded mangrove canopy height and soil salinity, and determined average minimum winter temperature from archived weather records. At a subset of sites, we measured carbon fixation rates using a LI-COR 6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System. Populations of A. germinans from cooler areas (Texas and Louisiana) had narrower vessels, likely reducing the risk of freeze-induced embolisms but also decreasing water conductance capacity. Vessels were also narrower in regions with high soil salinity, including Texas, USA and tidal flats in Veracruz, Mexico. Vessel density did not consistently vary with temperature or soil salinity. In abiotically stressful areas, A. germinans had a safe hydraulic architecture with narrower vessels that may increase local survival. This safe architecture appears to come at a substantial physiological cost in terms of reduction in conductance capacity and carbon fixation potential, likely contributing to lower canopy heights. The current distribution of A. germinans in the Gulf is influenced by the complex interplay between temperature, salinity, and vessel architecture. Given the plasticity of A. germinans vessel characters, it is likely that this mangrove species will be able to adapt to a wide range of potential future environmental conditions, and continue its expansion in the Gulf of Mexico in response to near-term climate change

  12. Avicennia germinans (black mangrove vessel architecture is linked to chilling and salinity tolerance in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric N Madrid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, the distribution of the black mangrove Avicennia germinans in the Gulf of Mexico has expanded, in part because it can survive the occasional freeze events and high soil salinities characteristic of the area. Vessel architecture may influence mangrove chilling and salinity tolerance. We surveyed populations of A. germinans throughout the Gulf to determine if vessel architecture was linked to field environmental conditions. We measured vessel density, hydraulically weighted vessel diameter, potential conductance capacity, and maximum tensile fracture stress. At each sampling site we recorded mangrove canopy height and soil salinity, and determined average minimum winter temperature from archived weather records. At a subset of sites, we measured carbon fixation rates using a LI-COR 6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System. Populations of A. germinans from cooler areas (Texas and Louisiana had narrower vessels, likely reducing the risk of freeze-induced embolisms but also decreasing water conductance capacity. Vessels were also narrower in regions with high soil salinity, including Texas, USA and tidal flats in Veracruz, Mexico. Vessel density did not consistently vary with temperature or soil salinity. In abiotically stressful areas, A. germinans had a safe hydraulic architecture with narrower vessels that may increase local survival. This safe architecture appears to come at a substantial physiological cost in terms of reduction in conductance capacity and carbon fixation potential, likely contributing to lower canopy heights. The current distribution of A. germinans in the Gulf is influenced by the complex interplay between temperature, salinity, and vessel architecture. Given the plasticity of A. germinans vessel characters, it is likely that this mangrove species will be able to adapt to a wide range of potential future environmental conditions, and continue its expansion in the Gulf of Mexico in response to near

  13. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  14. Information Theory for Risk-based Water System Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Operational management of water resources needs predictions of future behavior of water systems, to anticipate shortage or excess of water in a timely manner. Because the natural systems that are part of the hydrological cycle are complex, the predictions inevitably are subject to considerable uncer

  15. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  16. 21 CFR 1250.42 - Water systems; constant temperature bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water systems; constant temperature bottles. 1250...; constant temperature bottles. (a) The water system, whether of the pressure or gravity type, shall be... at all times as to prevent contamination of the water. (e) Constant temperature bottles and...

  17. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-freezing air-chilled turkey breast improved meat turnover time and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Lopez, M; Sansawat, T; Strasburg, G; Marks, B P; Kang, I

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the combined effects of turkey hot-boning and cold-batter mincing technology on acceleration of meat turnover and meat quality improvement. For each of 3 replications, 15 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. Three of the eviscerated carcasses were randomly assigned to water-immersion chilling for chill-boning (CB) and the remaining were immediately hot-boned (HB), half of which were used without chilling whereas the remaining were subjected to crust-freezing air chilling (CFAC) in an air-freezing room (1.0 m/s, -12°C) with/without 1/4; sectioning (HB-1/4;CFAC, HB-CFAC). As a result, CB and HB breasts were minced using 1 of 5 treatments: (1) CB and traditional mincing (CB-T), (2) HB and mincing with no chilling (HB-NC), (3) HB and mincing with CO2 (HB-CO2), (4) HB and mincing after CFAC (HB-CFAC), and (5) HB and mincing after quarter sectioning and CFAC (HB-1/4;CFAC). Traditional water-immersion chilling took an average of 5.5 h to reduce the breast temperature to 4°C, whereas HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC took 1.5 and 1 h, respectively. The breast of HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC showed significantly higher pH (6.0-6.1), higher fragmentation index (196-198), and lower R-value (1.0-1.1; P 0.05) in sarcomere length were seen between CB-T and HB-CFAC filets regardless of quarter sectioning. When muscle was minced, the batter pH (5.9) of CB-T was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those (6.1-6.3) of HB-NC, HB-CO2, and HB-1/4;CFAC, with the intermediate pH (6.0) seen for the HB-CFAC. When meat batters were cooked, higher cooking yield (90 - 91%; P < 0.05) was found in HB-CFAC, HB-1/4;CFAC, and HB-CO2, followed by HB-NC (90%) and finally CB-T (86%). Stress values (47-51 kPa) of HB-CFAC gels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CB-T (30 kPa) and HB-NC (36 kPa). A similar trend was found in strain values. PMID:24604866

  18. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  19. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  20. The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a water value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Walsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.

  1. Water Information Management & Analysis System (WIMAS) v 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Water Information Management and Analysis System (WIMAS) is an ArcView based GIS application that allows users to query Kansas water right data maintained by...

  2. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  3. Análisis comparativo de índices bióticos utilizados en la evaluación de la calidad de las aguas en un río mediterráneo de Chile: río Chillán, VIII Región Comparative analysis of biotic indexes used to evaluate water quality in a Mediterranean river of Chile: Chillán River, VIII Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO FIGUEROA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso de macroinvertebrados bentónicos como indicadores biológicos es de larga tradición en los países desarrollados y son incorporados en todas las evaluaciones de calidad ecológica de sistemas fluviales. En América Latina estos estudios son menos frecuentes y las normativas para la protección de los recursos acuáticos recién comienzan a elaborarse, como es el caso de Chile, dejando abierta la posibilidad al uso de criterios biológicos. El presente estudio realiza una adaptación de índices bióticos (IBE, BMWP, IBF y SIGNAL los que son aplicados y comparados en una cuenca mediterránea de Chile, el río Chillan. Los resultados muestran el mismo patrón de comportamiento para todos los índices, definiendo áreas en buen estado y otras fuertemente impactadas desde el punto de vista biológico. Sin embargo, el IBF y el SIGNAL son más sensibles a perturbaciones no detectadas por el IBE y BMWP. Se discute la factibilidad de aplicación y ventajas que ofrece cada uno de los índices, permitiendo hacer una propuesta metodológica para Chile centralDeveloped countries have traditionally used benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators, incorporating them into the environmental quality evaluations of fluvial systems. These studies are less frequent in Latin America, where the environmental protection standards for aquatic resources are just beginning to be elaborated. Thus, in Chile, the use of biocriteria for such studies remains a possibility. This study of the Chilian River (Chile adapts these biotic indexes (IBE, BMWP, IBF, and SIGNAL for their application and comparison in a Mediterranean basin. The results showed the same behavior pattern for all indexes, defining some areas as having good conditions and others, which, from a biological perspective, have been strongly impacted. Specifically, the IBF and SIGNAL indexes are more sensitive to disturbances than the IBE and BMWP. Application feasibility and the advantages of the

  4. Economies of Size in Water Treatment vs. Diseconomies of Dispersion for Small Public Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Schmit, Todd M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines a method to determine the tradeoff between economies of size in water treatment and diseconomies of distribution. Empirical results for New York are used to identify the implications for the rehabilitation and consolidation of rural water systems. -

  5. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Troppe, W. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  6. Simulation of Water Movement through Unsaturated Infiltration- Redistribution System

    OpenAIRE

    T Bunsri; Sivakumar, M.; D Hagare

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the movement of water in a natural unsaturated zone, focusing on infiltration-redistribution system. Infiltration refers to the downward movement of water due to the gravitational force and redistribution defines the upward movement of water due to the capillary rise. Under natural conditions, the movement of water through an infiltrationredistribution depended upon the relations among water content, hydraulic conductivity and tension of soil pore. Various...

  7. An Advanced Microturbine System with Water-Lubricated Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Susumu Nakano; Tadaharu Kishibe; Tomoaki Inoue; Hiroyuki Shiraiwa

    2009-01-01

    A prototype of the next-generation, high-performance microturbine system was developed for laboratory evaluation. Its unique feature is its utilization of water. Water is the lubricant for the bearings in this first reported application of water-lubricated bearings in gas turbines. Bearing losses and limitations under usage conditions were found from component tests done on the bearings and load tests done on the prototype microturbine. The rotor system using the water-lubricated bearings ach...

  8. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2013-01-03

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily desalinated at very low pressures. Thus, a device consumes less energy when recovering water. The apparatus, system and method comprise an immersed forward osmosis cell.

  9. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel optimization procedure for photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • An hourly simulation model is the basis of the optimization procedure. • The effectiveness of the new optimization approach has been tested to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization. To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization. Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor

  10. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  11. Effects of Short-Term Chilling Stress on the Photosystems and Chloroplast Ultrastructure in Sweet Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-guo; BI Yu-ping; ZHAO Shi-jie; MENG Qing-wei; HE Qi-wei; ZOU Qi

    2005-01-01

    By measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, composition of fatty acids, active oxygen species and activities of some antioxidant enzymes, effects of chilling stress (4℃) in the low light (100 μmol m-2 s-1) on chilling-sensitive plants were studied. After 6 h chilling stress (4℃) in the low light, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm) of sweet pepper leaves decreased by 35.6%, and the oxidizable P700 decreased by 60%. However, chilling stress in the dark had no effect on both of them. Unsaturation of fatty acids in thylakoid membrane was accelerated, which might be helpful to stabilize photosynthetic apparatus. Distortion and swelling of grana caused by chilling in the dark probably decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes, which resulted in the accumulation of active oxygen species. On the contrary,photooxidation might be related to the disintegration and unstacking of grana. Chilling stress induced photoinhibition of PSⅡ and PSⅠ, and active oxygen species might be one of the factors causing the decrease of the oxidizable P700. PSⅠseemed to be more sensitive to chilling stress in the low light than PSⅡ.

  12. A chilling sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis with altered steryl-ester metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chilling-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated and subjected to genetic, physiological, and biochemical analysis. The chilling-sensitive nature of the mutant line is due to a single recessive nuclear mutation at a locus designated chs1. In contrast to wild-type plants, which are not adversely affected by low temperatures, the chs1 mutant is killed by several days of exposure to temperatures below 18 degree C. Following exposure to chilling temperatures, the mutant displays two common symptoms of chilling injury - leaf chlorosis and electrolyte leakage. In these respects, the physiological response of the mutant to low temperatures mimics the response observed in some naturally occurring chilling sensitive species. The biochemical basis of chilling sensitivity was explored by examining the pattern of incorporation of 14CO2 into soluble metabolites and lipids in wild-type and mutant plants. The only difference observed between the mutant and wild type was that following low temperature treatment, the mutant accumulated 10-fold more radioactivity in a specific class of neutral lipids which were identified by a variety of criteria to be steryl-esters. The accumulation of radioactivity in the steryl-ester fraction occurs 24 hours before there is any visible evidence of chilling injury

  13. Water System Architectures for Moon and Mars Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Water systems for human bases on the moon and Mars will recycle multiple sources of wastewater. Systems for both the moon and Mars will also store water to support and backup the recycling system. Most water system requirements, such as number of crew, quantity and quality of water supply, presence of gravity, and surface mission duration of 6 or 18 months, will be similar for the moon and Mars. If the water system fails, a crew on the moon can quickly receive spare parts and supplies or return to Earth, but a crew on Mars cannot. A recycling system on the moon can have a reasonable reliability goal, such as only one unrecoverable failure every five years, if there is enough stored water to allow time for attempted repairs and for the crew to return if repair fails. The water system that has been developed and successfully operated on the International Space Station (ISS) could be used on a moon base. To achieve the same high level of crew safety on Mars without an escape option, either the recycling system must have much higher reliability or enough water must be stored to allow the crew to survive the full duration of the Mars surface mission. A three loop water system architecture that separately recycles condensate, wash water, and urine and flush can improve reliability and reduce cost for a Mars base.

  14. Use of Ultraviolet Light for the Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactic Acid Bacteria Species in Recycled Chill Brines

    OpenAIRE

    Gailunas, Karol Marie

    2003-01-01

    Ready-to-eat meat products have been implicated in several foodborne listeriosis outbreaks. Microbial contamination of these products can occur after the product has been thermally processed and is being rapidly chilled using salt brines. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in a model brine chiller system. Two concentrations of brines (7.9%w/w or 13.2%w/w) were inoculated w...

  15. Shelf life of air and modified atmosphere-packaged fresh tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets stored under chilled and superchilled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cyprian, Odoli; Lauzon, Hélène L; Jóhannsson, Ragnar; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún; Arason, Sigurjón; Martinsdóttir, Emilía

    2012-01-01

    Optimal packaging and storage conditions for fresh tilapia fillets were established by evaluating sensory and microbiological changes, as well as monitoring physicochemical properties. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in recirculation aquaculture system was filleted, deskinned, and packaged in air and 50% CO2/50% N2 prior to chilling and superchilling storage at 1°C and −1°C. Sensory analysis of cooked samples revealed a shelf life of 13–15 days for air-packaged fillets during stor...

  16. Distributed information system (water fact sheet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    During 1982-85, the Water Resources Division (WRD) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) installed over 70 large minicomputers in offices across the country to support its mission in the science of hydrology. These computers are connected by a communications network that allows information to be shared among computers in each office. The computers and network together are known as the Distributed Information System (DIS). The computers are accessed through the use of more than 1500 terminals and minicomputers. The WRD has three fundamentally different needs for computing: data management; hydrologic analysis; and administration. Data management accounts for 50% of the computational workload of WRD because hydrologic data are collected in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific trust territories. Hydrologic analysis consists of 40% of the computational workload of WRD. Cost accounting, payroll, personnel records, and planning for WRD programs occupies an estimated 10% of the computer workload. The DIS communications network is shown on a map. (Lantz-PTT)

  17. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and...... economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water...... aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response relationships a range of effects from different drinking water qualities is merged into a holistic...

  18. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  19. "On-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing salicylic acid applied to maize seeds for chilling tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    Full Text Available Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of "on-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm and butylmethacrylate (BMA. Salicylic acid (SA was loaded in the hydrogel as the chilling resistance agent. SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA was used for seed film-coating of two maize varieties, Huang C (HC, chilling-tolerant and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive, to investigate the coated seed germination and seedling growth status under chilling stress. The results showed that the hydrogel obtained a phase transition temperature near 12°C with a NIPAM to MBA weight ratio of 1: 0.1988 (w/w. The temperature of 12°C was considered the "on-off" temperature for chilling-resistant agent release; the SA was released from the hydrogel more rapidly at external temperatures below 12°C than above 12°C. In addition, when seedlings of both maize varieties suffered a short chilling stress (5°C, higher concentrations of SA-loaded hydrogel resulted in increased germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, root length, shoot height, dry weight of roots and shoots and protective enzyme activities and a decreased malondialdehyde content in coated maize seeds compared to single SA treatments. The majority of these physiological and biochemical parameters achieved significant levels compared with the control. Therefore, SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA, a nontoxic thermoresponsive hydrogel, can be used as an effective material for chilling tolerance in film-coated maize seeds.

  20. "On-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing salicylic acid applied to maize seeds for chilling tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yajing; Li, Zhan; He, Fei; Huang, Yutao; Song, Wenjian; Hu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of "on-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate) (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA)) hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA) hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and butylmethacrylate (BMA). Salicylic acid (SA) was loaded in the hydrogel as the chilling resistance agent. SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA) was used for seed film-coating of two maize varieties, Huang C (HC, chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive), to investigate the coated seed germination and seedling growth status under chilling stress. The results showed that the hydrogel obtained a phase transition temperature near 12°C with a NIPAM to MBA weight ratio of 1: 0.1988 (w/w). The temperature of 12°C was considered the "on-off" temperature for chilling-resistant agent release; the SA was released from the hydrogel more rapidly at external temperatures below 12°C than above 12°C. In addition, when seedlings of both maize varieties suffered a short chilling stress (5°C), higher concentrations of SA-loaded hydrogel resulted in increased germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, root length, shoot height, dry weight of roots and shoots and protective enzyme activities and a decreased malondialdehyde content in coated maize seeds compared to single SA treatments. The majority of these physiological and biochemical parameters achieved significant levels compared with the control. Therefore, SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA), a nontoxic thermoresponsive hydrogel, can be used as an effective material for chilling tolerance in film-coated maize seeds. PMID:25807522

  1. Theory and model of water resources complex adaptive allocation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJianshi; WANGZhongjing; WENGWenbin

    2003-01-01

    Complex adaptive system theory is a new and important embranchment of system science,which provides a new thought to research water resources allocation system.Based on the analysis of complexity and complex adaptive mechanism of water resources allocation system,a fire-new analysis model is presented in this paper.With the description of Dynamical mechanism of system,behavior characters of agents and the evalustion method of system status,an integrity research system is built to analyse the evolvement rule of water resources allocation system.And a brief research for the impact of water resources allocation in beneficial regions of the Water Transfer from south to North China Project is conducted.

  2. From natural to bioassisted and biomimetic artificial water channel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboiu, Mihail; Gilles, Arnaud

    2013-12-17

    Within biological systems, natural channels and pores transport metabolites across the cell membranes. Researchers have explored artificial ion-channel architectures as potential mimics of natural ionic conduction. All these synthetic systems have produced an impressive collection of alternative artificial ion-channels. Amazingly, researchers have made far less progress in the area of synthetic water channels. The development of synthetic biomimetic water channels and pores could contribute to a better understanding of the natural function of protein channels and could offer new strategies to generate highly selective, advanced water purification systems. Despite the imaginative work by synthetic chemists to produce sophisticated architectures that confine water clusters, most synthetic water channels have used natural proteins channels as the selectivity components, embedded in the diverse arrays of bioassisted artificial systems. These systems combine natural proteins that present high water conductance states under natural conditions with artificial lipidic or polymeric matrixes. Experimental results have demonstrated that natural biomolecules can be used as bioassisted building blocks for the construction of highly selective water transport through artificial membranes. A next step to further the potential of these systems was the design and construction of simpler compounds that maintain the high conduction activity obtained with natural compounds leading to fully synthetic artificial biomimetic systems. Such studies aim to use constitutional selective artificial superstructures for water/proton transport to select functions similar to the natural structures. Moving to simpler water channel systems offers a chance to better understand mechanistic and structural behaviors and to uncover novel interactive water-channels that might parallel those in biomolecular systems. This Account discusses the incipient development of the first artificial water channels

  3. Water Quality in Selected Small Drinking Water Systems of Missouri Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Small drinking water treatment systems (serving <10,000 population in rural communities frequently encounter multiple challenges in water quality and federal regulatory compliance, especially the disinfection byproduct (DBP regulations, due to source water variations, limited resources, and aging infrastructures. Unlike most studies on the DBP control using synthetic water in laboratory settings, this research aimed to identify the major water quality issues confronting small systems in the state of Missouri (MO, the United States of America (USA. Three small systems were selected based on source water and geographic locations. Water samples were collected quarterly from each major treatment process during the period of May 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed to identify the treatment effectiveness and potential water quality issues in each small system. Results of water quality characterization showed that the major water quality issue in the selected small systems was the low efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (DOC removal, especially the DOC species that are considered as the DBP precursors. Most collected water samples had a higher trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA maximum contaminant limit (MCL (80 μg/L. Based on the analysis of the treatment efficiency in each system, several strategies for water quality improvement were recommended, and a few of which have been implemented in the small systems, leading to improved drinking water quality and compliance with the USEPA DBP regulations. This study would provide a valuable aid to small system operators and local water authority in context of water quality improvement and the regulatory compliance.

  4. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  5. Water Resources System Archetypes: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Persistent Water Resources Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W.; Madani, K.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources modeling, a well-established tool in water resources planning and management practice, facilitates understanding of the physical and socio-economic processes impacting the wellbeing of humans and ecosystems. While watershed models continue to become more holistic, there is a need for appropriate frameworks and tools for integrated conceptualization of problems to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative bases for policy selection. In recent decades, water resources professionals have become increasingly cognizant of important feedback relationships within water resources systems. We contend that a systems thinking paradigm is required to facilitate characterization of the closed-loop nature of these feedbacks. Furthermore, a close look at different water resources issues reveals that, while many water resources problems are essentially very similar in nature, they continuously appear in different geographical locations. In the systems thinking literature, a number of generic system structures known as system archetypes have been identified to describe common patterns of problematic behavior within systems. In this research, we identify some main system archetypes governing water resources systems, demonstrating their benefits for holistic understanding of various classes of persistent water resources problems. Using the eutrophication problem of Lake Allegan, Michigan, as a case study, we illustrate how the diagnostic tools of system dynamics modeling can facilitate identification of problematic feedbacks within water resources systems and provide insights for sustainable development.

  6. Unit process engineering for water quality control and biosecurity in marine water recirculating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-intensity systems that treat and recirculate water must maintain a culture environment that can sustain near optimum fish health and growth at the design carrying capacity. Water recirculating systems that use centralized treatment systems can benefit from the economies of scale to decrease th...

  7. Boiled Water Temperature Measurement System Using PIC Microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    A.T.KARUPPIAH, AZHA. PERIASAMY, P.RAJKUMAR

    2013-01-01

    The measurement system for temperature of boiled water is a critical task in industry. In this paper we designed and implemented a PIC micro controller based boiled water temperature measurement system using PIC 18F452 and national semiconductors LM35 temperature sensor. The designing system is used to measure the tank I boiled water temperature value. If the temperature value reaches the set value high temperature relay board becomes ON to control the solenoid valve. The high temperature of ...

  8. Emergency water supply systems for fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of emergency water acceptable to the NRC staff are described and bases for the design of systems that furnish emergency water to the fuel storage pool, high-level radioactive waste storage, fire protection system, certain process vessels, and any other safety-related equipment or system requiring a supply of water to perform the design safety function, directly or indirectly, are presented. (LK)

  9. Grey water phytodepuration systems integrated in flat green roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Gonzalez, Alberto; Chanampa, Mariana; Bedoya Frutos, Cesar; Neila Gonzalez, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    The research about new grey water reuse systems can not only help to reduce the volume of drinkable water applied in domestic uses, besides allows to diminish the urban wastewater volume to be treated. Because of that, the proposal aims the adjustment of green roof surfaces to new uses, in relation with grey water phytodepuration systems. The main problems of traditional reed bed systems are their large dimensions, their high weight and the roots growth in the substrate subsurface. The...

  10. Analysis and Evaluation Indicator Selection of Chilling Tolerance of Different Cotton Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objectivc] This study aimed to investigate the chilling tolerance of seedlings of different cotton genotypes and screen appropriate indicators for assess- ing chilling tolerance, to establish reliable mathematical evaluation model for chilling tolerance of cotton, thus providing theoretical basis for breeding and promoting new chilling-tolerant cotton germplasms and large-scale evaluation of chilling tolerance of cotton varieties. [Method] Fifteen cotton varieties (lines) were used as experimental materials. The photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence ki- netic parameters, chlorophyll content, relative soluble sugar content, malonaldehyde content, relative proiine content, relative conductivity and other 12 physiological indi- cators of seedling leaves under low temperature treatment (5 ℃, 12 h) and recovery treatment (25 ℃. 24 h) were determined; based on the chilling tolerance coefficient (CTC) of various individual indicators, the comprehensive evaluation of chilling toler- ance was conducled by using principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster anal- ysis and stepwise regression analysis. [Result] The results showed that the 12 indi- vidual physiological indicators could be classified into 7 independent comprehensive components by principal component analysis; 15 cotton varieties (lines) were clus- tered into three categories by using membership function method and hierarchical cluster analysis; the mathematical model for evaluating chilling tolerance of cotton seedlings was established: D =0.275 -0.244Fo1 +0.206Fv/Fm1+0.326g,%-0.056SS + 0.225MDA+O.O38REC (FF=0.995), and the evaluation accuracy of the equation was higher than 94.25%,0. Six identification indicators closely related to chilling tolerance were screened, including Fo,, Fv/Fm1, Seedling leaves of cotton varieties (lines) gs2, SS, MDA, and REC. [Conclusion] with high chilling tolerance are less dam- aged under low temperature stress, and are able to maintain

  11. Cryoprotectants protect medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos from chilling injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Jing; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Wang, Yan-Ping; Fu, Xiang-Wei; Zhu, Shi-En

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of six cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol (Gly), methanol (MeOH), ethylene glycol (EG), 1,2-propylene glycol (PG) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) on the survival of medaka (Oryzias lapites) embryos at low temperatures (0 and -5C). Firstly, the embryos at 8 to 16-cell stages were exposed to different concentrations (1 to 4 mol per L) of DMSO, Gly, MeOH, EG, PG and DMF for 40min at 26C. After removal of the cryoprotectants (CPAs), the embryo survivals were assessed by their development into live fries following 9 day of culture. The results showed that the higher concentration of the CPA, the lower survival of the embryos; and that the toxicity of the six CPAs to medaka embryos is in the order of PG < MeOH = DMSO < Gly < EG < DMF (P < 0.05). Secondly, based on the results obtained above, embryos at 8 to 16-cell stages or other stages were exposed to 2 mol per L of PG, MeOH or DMSO for up to 180 min at 0C and up to 80 min at -5C respectively. The 8 to 16-cell embryos treated with MeOH at low temperatures showed highest survival. Thirdly, when embryos at different stages were treated with 2 mol per L of MeOH at -5C for 60 min, 16-somite stage embryos showed highest survival, followed by 4-somite, neurula, 50 percent epiboly, blastula, 32-cell and 8 to 16-cell embryos. These results demonstrated that PG had the lowest toxicity to medaka embryos among the six permeable CPAs at 26C, whereas MeOH showed highest cryoprotective efficiency under chilling conditions and chilling injury decreased gradually with the development of medaka embryos. PMID:22576114

  12. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  13. Sustainability of community water supply system managed by water user committee : a case study of rural water supply system in Nepal.

    OpenAIRE

    Raut, Kalyani

    2015-01-01

    Many Nepalese rural communities are suffering from lack of safe drinking water. One of the reasons is that approximately one third to one half of all drinking water supply systems fail shortly after the construction. The main purpose of this thesis project was to analyze sustainability of rural water supply project managed by water user committee implemented by DWSS in Dhulikhel, Bhakundebesi, kavre and Panchdhara, Kathmandu. In addition, the thesis also reviewed water supply system and i...

  14. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

  15. Price System for Water Supply and its Economic Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the actual economic circumstances and water price level, the CGE model to simulate the price policy for multiple water sources is modified and expanded. A water price reform plan is proposed to meet water-saving requirements and water resources allocation. The affected scale and scope for implementing the water price policy is evaluated on a quantitative basis. Research results indicate that a reasonable water price system in Tianjin in 2020 should be set up as follows: the comprehensive tap water price stands at 4$/m3, the tap water price for industrial, administrative and business service sectors is 2.4$/m3, and the tap water price for special industry and domestic use are 8.8$/m3 and 1.4$/m3 respectively. The adjusted water price will bring about tangible results to water resources allocation optimization and water conservation. Although most sectors are negatively affected to varying degrees after raising the water price, particularly the lodging and catering sectors, a 100% water price rising will produce only little impact on price index, and sectoral output and employment will not cause economic fluctuations or social instability. Water price adjustments, as long as it is reasonable, will be more positive than negative on the whole. Research outcomes will provide a scientific decision-making basis for formulating the local water price policy.

  16. APPLYING ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES TO SMALL WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a discipline, economics is often misunderstood in the water supply field. Economies-of-scale, i.e., increasing unit costs with decreasing capacity, is a prevailing characteristic of water supply technology, and small utilities that serve fewer than 10,000 persons account for m...

  17. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid...

  18. Privatisation of water systems: Crime against humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus R. Mobie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasises the importance of water resources, which are vital to the sustenance of life. Water is essential for various reasons: for drinking, for personal hygiene, for cooking, for watering crops, for cleaning our homes etc. One can therefore conclude that, without this vital resource, there is no life. It is for this reason that God, giver of life, gave water as a gift – free – both to humanity and to the rest of creation, so that we may all achieve fullness of life. This article challenges the fact that, because of the insistence of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the privatisation of water supplies where the poorest of the poor are unable to pay, these people are cut off from water supplies and are deprived of the right to the fullness of life. The author emphasises that there is no life without water, that water resources are a gift from the creator and should therefore be made accessible to all, rich and poor alike.

  19. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  20. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  1. Innovated feed water distributing system of VVER steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defects in feed water distributing system due to corrosion-erosion effects have been observed at many VVER 440 steam generators (SG). Therefore analysis of defects origin and consequently design development and testing of a new feed water distributing system were performed. System tests in-situ supported by calculations and comparison of measured and calculated data were focused on demonstration of long term reliable operation, definition of water flow and water chemical characteristics at the SG secondary side and their measurements and study of dynamic characteristics needed for the innovated feed water distributing system seismic features approval. The innovated feed water distributing system was installed in the SGs of two VVER units already. (author)

  2. Approach for restructuring of regional water distribution systems against the background of water and energy scarcity. Case study Bribin Water Distribution System, Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingel, P.; Hassel, N.; Nestmann, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Water and River Basin Management

    2012-07-01

    Due to the natural conditions of the karst areas of Java, Indonesia wide spread water distribution systems with great pumping heights are needed to supply the population. Those systems are deficient to a wide extent resulting in intermittent, insufficient and inequitable supply of the consumers. Main reasons are the limited accessible water resources, energy inefficient system concepts and inadequate operation strategies. This paper presents an approach to optimize the existing systems in order to establish an equitable distribution of the limited water resources. The approach comprehends a system restructuring and optimization concept and a system input-oriented distribution strategy. The application is shown for the Bribin Water Distribution System. (orig.)

  3. Seismic Fragility of the LANL Fire Water Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mertz

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a site-wide system fragility assessment. This assessment focuses solely on the performance of the water distribution systems that supply Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR), Weapons Engineering and Tritium Facility (WETF), Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), Waste Characterization, Reduction, Repackaging Facility (WCRRF), and Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP). The analysis methodology is based on the American Lifelines Alliance seismic fragility formulations for water systems. System fragilities are convolved with the 1995 LANL seismic hazards to develop failure frequencies. Acceptance is determined by comparing the failure frequencies to the DOE-1020 Performance Goals. This study concludes that: (1) If a significant number of existing isolation valves in the water distribution system are closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in specific nuclear facilities; (2) Then, the water distribution systems for WETF, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP meet the PC-2 performance goal and the water distribution system for CMR is capable of surviving a 0.06g earthquake. A parametric study of the WETF water distribution system demonstrates that: (1) If a significant number of valves in the water distribution system are NOT closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in WETF; (2) Then, the water distribution system for WETF has an annual probability of failure on the order of 4 x 10{sup -3} that does not meet the PC-2 performance goal. Similar conclusions are expected for CMR, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP. It is important to note that some of the assumptions made in deriving the results should be verified by personnel in the safety-basis office and may need to be incorporated in technical surveillance requirements in the existing authorization basis documentation if credit for availability of fire protection water is taken at the PC-2 level earthquake levels

  4. Seismic Fragility of the LANL Fire Water Distribution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a site-wide system fragility assessment. This assessment focuses solely on the performance of the water distribution systems that supply Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR), Weapons Engineering and Tritium Facility (WETF), Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), Waste Characterization, Reduction, Repackaging Facility (WCRRF), and Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP). The analysis methodology is based on the American Lifelines Alliance seismic fragility formulations for water systems. System fragilities are convolved with the 1995 LANL seismic hazards to develop failure frequencies. Acceptance is determined by comparing the failure frequencies to the DOE-1020 Performance Goals. This study concludes that: (1) If a significant number of existing isolation valves in the water distribution system are closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in specific nuclear facilities; (2) Then, the water distribution systems for WETF, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP meet the PC-2 performance goal and the water distribution system for CMR is capable of surviving a 0.06g earthquake. A parametric study of the WETF water distribution system demonstrates that: (1) If a significant number of valves in the water distribution system are NOT closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in WETF; (2) Then, the water distribution system for WETF has an annual probability of failure on the order of 4 x 10-3 that does not meet the PC-2 performance goal. Similar conclusions are expected for CMR, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP. It is important to note that some of the assumptions made in deriving the results should be verified by personnel in the safety-basis office and may need to be incorporated in technical surveillance requirements in the existing authorization basis documentation if credit for availability of fire protection water is taken at the PC-2 level earthquake levels

  5. SOLAR POWERED WATER COLLECTION, CONTAINMENT, AND SELF REGULATING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, over 40 million pounds of Carbon Dioxide were released annually in an effort to water large planters. In addition, over 364 million gallons of water are used to maintain their health. By implementing a system within the planters that allows for onsite water storage wi...

  6. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  7. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  8. Directional crack propagation of granular water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Nishimoto, Akihiro; Kitsunezaki, So; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Ichio

    2005-05-01

    Pattern dynamics of directional crack propagation phenomena observed in drying process of starch-water mixture is investigated. To visualize the three-dimensional structure of the drying-fracture process two kinds of experiments are performed, i.e., resin solidification planing method and real-time measurement of water content distribution with MR instruments. A cross section with polygonal structure is visualized in both experiments. The depth dependency of cell size is measured. The phenomenological model for water transportation is also discussed. PMID:16089617

  9. System for harvesting water wave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Su, Yanjie; Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-19

    A generator for harvesting energy from water in motion includes a sheet of a hydrophobic material, having a first side and an opposite second side, that is triboelectrically more negative than water. A first electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material. A second electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material and is spaced apart from the first electrode sheet. Movement of the water across the first side induces an electrical potential imbalance between the first electrode sheet and the second electrode sheet.

  10. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  11. Water Treatment Systems Make a Big Splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In the 1960s, NASA's Manned Space Center (now known as Johnson Space Center) and the Garrett Corporation, Air Research Division, conducted a research program to develop a small, lightweight water purifier for the Apollo spacecraft that would require minimal power and would not need to be monitored around-the-clock by astronauts in orbit. The 9-ounce purifier, slightly larger than a cigarette pack and completely chlorine-free, dispensed silver ions into the spacecraft s water supply to successfully kill off bacteria. A NASA Technical Brief released around the time of the research reported that the silver ions did not impart an unpleasant taste to the water. NASA s ingenuity to control microbial contamination in space caught on quickly, opening the doors for safer methods of controlling water pollutants on Earth.

  12. Modeling and analysis of chill and fill processes for the cryogenic storage and transfer engineering development unit tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center, is a cryogenic fluid management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article comprises a flight-like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a test-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with LH2 as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during the summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the LH2 supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The test setup, modeling description, and comparison of model predictions with the test data are presented.

  13. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the...... air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...... desiccant dew-point cooling system, for demonstrating its function and applicability. Simulations are carried out for varying outdoor conditions under constant supply conditions. The results show that the system is independent of external water supply for the majority of simulated conditions. In comparison...

  14. Technical and Economic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System Using Large Temperature Difference in Temperate Regions%温和地区采用大温差空调系统的技术经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段灼伟

    2014-01-01

    Under the climatic condition of temperate regions and the requirement of specific use, The effect of using large temperature difference and conventional temperature difference in air conditioning water system on the operating conditions of fan coil, fresh air and air handling units, water chiller, cooling tower, chilled water pump, cooling water pump and air conditioning heat pump and other equipments were analyzed and compared. It is considered that the optimum temperature difference is 5~12℃for air conditioning cold water, 60~45℃for heat water and 28~36℃for Cooling water, respectively.%在温和地区的气候条件下和特定的使用功能要求下,分析比较了空调水系统采用大温差和常规温差对于风机盘管﹑新风和空气处理机组﹑冷水机组﹑冷冻冷却水泵﹑冷却塔﹑空调热水泵等设备运行工况的影响,认为对本项目最适宜的选择是空调冷水5~12℃、热水60~45℃,冷却水28~36℃。

  15. Lyophilization for Water Recovery III, System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids that remain. Our previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground- based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents results of functional and performance tests.

  16. Development of water based pesticide system

    OpenAIRE

    Slavica Gašić; Dragica Brkić; Ljiljana Radivojević; Anđelka Tomašević

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that emulsifiable concentrates (EC), besides good properties have problem with a high solvent content thus are not environmental friendly and can cause problems for users. The interest in developing oil-in-water emulsions (EW) instead emulsifiable concentrates is increasing due to toxicological problems with solvents. Oil-in-water emulsions can reduce phytotoxicity, ecotoxicity and dermal toxicity, have a higher flash point than EC and are ...

  17. Management of Rural Domestic Water Systems in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Trevor C.

    1980-01-01

    Introduction: There are now more than 400 community type public drinking water systems in Utah. Considerable state and federal assistance is available for construction or renovation of such systems, but once the system is constructed and the consulting engineer leaves, the managers of the smaller systems find themselves quite isolated from sources of professional assistance. The larger systems have a revenue base...

  18. Chilled and post-thawed semen characteristics of buffalo semen diluted in tris extender enriched with date palm pollen grains (TPG)

    OpenAIRE

    Reda I. El-Sheshtawy; Walid S. El-Nattat; Samy I.A. Shalaby; Mohamed I. Shahba; Islam E. Al-Se'dawy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The benefits of dates palm and their pollen grains in the human nourishment system have their consideration and importance in medical and nutritional point of view. The present study aimed to investigate a new perspective for the use of date palm pollen grains (DPPG) aqueous extract or infusion in preservation of chilled and frozen buffalo semen. Methods: Pooled buffalo semen were diluted by Tris-Citrate-Fructose egg yolk (TCFY) diluent (considered as control) and diverse concen...

  19. Chill-Pass: Using Neuro-Physiological Responses to Chill Music to Defeat Coercion Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Wolotsky, Max; Husain, Mohammad; Choe, Elisha

    2016-01-01

    Current alphanumeric and biometric authentication systems cannot withstand situations where a user is coerced into releasing their authentication materials under hostile circumstances. Existing approaches of coercion resistant authentication systems (CRAS) propose authentication factors such as implicit learning tasks, which are non-transferable, but still have the drawback that an attacker can force the victim (causing stress) to perform the task in order to gain unauthorized access. Alterna...

  20. Setup of the GLOWASIS seasonal global water scarcity forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Candogan, N.; Dutra, E.; van Beek, R.; Wisser, D.; Westerhoff, R.

    2011-12-01

    The EU-FP7 project "Global Water Scarcity Information Service" (GLOWASIS) is aimed at pre-validating a GMES Global Service for Water Scarcity Information. This includes improving and piloting our ability to forecast water scarcity at global scale. Here, we present first results of the GLOWASIS seasonal global water scarcity forecasting system. This forecasting system provides seasonal probabilistic forecasts of water scarcity indicators over the whole globe. The system is built within the data and model integration shell Delft-FEWS. The GLOWASIS system integrates reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-ranged Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), ECMWF seasonal probabilistic forecasts, information on water demand and use, the global hydrological model PCRGLOB-WB and user interfacing. The system can provide a forecast each month with a lead time of 6 months with daily time steps. Given the large amounts of data and computation time required to run a full forecast ensemble, the system is set up to run ensembles over multiple cores. A large number of hindcasts are made with the system. These hindcasts are used to demonstrate which water scarcity indicators are useful to forecast at seasonal time scales, where these indicators may provide satisfactory skill and with which lead time they can be meaningfully forecasted. Further investigation will focus on improvement of skill by means of data assimilation of remotely sensed data sources such as soil moisture, snow water equivalent and water levels, and by better parameterisation of the hydrological model

  1. Study of Advanced Oxidation System for Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hygiene water is still a big problem globally as well as energy and food, especially in Indonesia where more than 70 % lived in Java island. One of the efforts in treating hygiene water is to recycle the used water. In this case it is needed clean water technology. Many methods have been done, this paper describes the advanced oxidation technology system based on ozone, titania and plasma discharge. (author)

  2. Deposition of manganese in a drinking water distribution system.

    OpenAIRE

    Sly, L I; M.C. Hodgkinson; Arunpairojana, V

    1990-01-01

    The deposition of manganese in a water distribution system with manganese-related "dirty water" problems was studied over a 1-year period. Four monitoring laboratories with Robbins biofilm sampling devices fitted to the water mains were used to correlate the relationship among manganese deposition, the level of manganese in the water, and the chlorination conditions. Manganese deposition occurred by both chemical and microbial processes. Chemical deposition occurred when Mn(II) not removed du...

  3. Best practices for Sustainable Urban Water Cycle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Makropoulos, Christos; Rozos, Evangelos; Bruaset, Stian; Frijns, Jos; van der Zouwen, Mariëlle

    2014-01-01

    Aging infrastructure, demographic change, water scarcity, pollution, climate change and other megatrends create the need for a transition towards more sustainable urban water cycle services (UWCS) in the cities. This report "Best practices for Sustainable Urban Water Cycle Systems - an overview of and enabling and constraining factors for a transition to sustainable UWCSs" deals with and reviews best practices in the water sector. It is divided in four different themes in UWCS which are: dema...

  4. Calculation method and operation optimization of water supply and distribution systems equipped with water wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Y. Pobereznichenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, there has been proposed a method of hydraulic and feasibility studies for water systems equipped with water wells which allows determining the optimal set of system structures and the most efficient regimes of their joint performance during operation. Some of the most difficult for hydraulic and feasibility calculations are water supply and distribution systems (hereinafter - SPRV, which contain water wells with borehole pumps. When designing new systems, setting up newly built ones and reconstructing the existing systems, it is necessary to choose the optimal set of structures, their optimal sizes and the most efficient regime of their joint performance. Currently, such systems are the most common for the underground water intake, and the complexity of the optimization calculations of their interacting structures joint performance, is accounted for with the need to specify the characteristics of all wells, their mutual interdependence, and the changes of their characteristics during operation.

  5. Neutrino oscillation provides clues to dark matter and signals from the chilled universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The new verification that oscillations exists and neutrinos have mass though not detectible easy provides the first clue to extra dimensions, dark matter, hyperspace and chilled universe acting as a platform below it. (1/2 page)

  6. Aesthetic Chills: Knowledge-Acquisition, Meaning-Making, and Aesthetic Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Felix; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research. PMID:27540366

  7. Process for nondestructively testing with radioactive gas using a chill set sealant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An article surface is nondestructively tested for substantially invisible surface voids by absorbing a radioactive gas thereon. The adsorbed radioactive gas is disproportionately retained on those surfaces presented by the substantially invisible surface voids as compared to the remaining surfaces of the article contacted by the radioactive gas. The radiation released by the radioactive gas remaining adsorbed is used to identify the substantially invisible voids. To immobilize the radioactive gas adjacent or within the surface voids, a sealant composition is provided which is capable of being chill set. The temperatures of the article surface to be tested and the sealant composition are then related so that the article surface is at a temperature below the chill set temperature of the sealant composition and the sealant composition is at a temperature above its chill set temperature. The article portion to be tested is then coated with sealant composition to form a chill set coating thereon of substantially uniform thickness. (U.S.)

  8. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

  9. Mesoscopic Simulation of Aggregates in Surfactant/Oil/Water Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑世领; 蔡政亭; 徐桂英

    2003-01-01

    The aggregates in sodium dedecylsulphate(SDS)/dimethylbenzene/water systems have been investigated using dissipative particles dynamic(DPD) simulation method.Through analyzing three-dimensional structures of aggregates,three simulated results are found.One is the phase separation,which is clearly observed by water density and the aggregates in the simulated cell;another is the water morphology in reverse micelle,which can be found through the isodensity slice of water including bound water,trapped water and bulky water;the third is about the water/oil interface,i.e.,ionic surfactant molecules,SDS,prefer to exist in the interface between water and oil phase at the low concentraion.

  10. Joint optimization of regional water-power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Cardenal, Silvio J.; Mo, Birger; Gjelsvik, Anders; Riegels, Niels D.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Energy and water resources systems are tightly coupled; energy is needed to deliver water and water is needed to extract or produce energy. Growing pressure on these resources has raised concerns about their long-term management and highlights the need to develop integrated solutions. A method for joint optimization of water and electric power systems was developed in order to identify methodologies to assess the broader interactions between water and energy systems. The proposed method is to include water users and power producers into an economic optimization problem that minimizes the cost of power production and maximizes the benefits of water allocation, subject to constraints from the power and hydrological systems. The method was tested on the Iberian Peninsula using simplified models of the seven major river basins and the power market. The optimization problem was successfully solved using stochastic dual dynamic programming. The results showed that current water allocation to hydropower producers in basins with high irrigation productivity, and to irrigation users in basins with high hydropower productivity was sub-optimal. Optimal allocation was achieved by managing reservoirs in very distinct ways, according to the local inflow, storage capacity, hydropower productivity, and irrigation demand and productivity. This highlights the importance of appropriately representing the water users' spatial distribution and marginal benefits and costs when allocating water resources optimally. The method can handle further spatial disaggregation and can be extended to include other aspects of the water-energy nexus.

  11. Effect of heat shock on the chilling sensitivity of trichomes and petioles of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltveit, Mikal E.; Hepler, Peter K.

    2004-05-01

    Chilling at 6 degrees C caused an immediate cessation of protoplasmic streaming in trichomes from African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha), and a slower aggregation of chloroplasts in the cells. Streaming slowly recovered upon warming to 20 degrees C, reaching fairly stable rates after 4, 15, 25 and 35 min for tissue chilled for 2 min and for 2, 14 and 24 h, respectively. The rate of ion leakage from excised petioles into an isotonic 0.2 M mannitol solution increased after 12 h of chilling and reached a maximum after 3 days of chilling. A heat shock at 45 degrees C for 6 min reduced chilling-induced rates of ion leakage from excised 1-cm petiole segments by over 50%, namely to levels near that from non-chilled control tissue. Heat-shock treatments themselves had no effect on the rate of ion leakage from non-chilled petiole segments. Protoplasmic streaming was stopped by 1 min of heat shock at 45 degrees C, but slowly recovered to normal levels after about 30 min Chloroplasts aggregation was prevented by a 1 or 2 min 45 degrees C heat-shock treatment administered 1.5 h before chilling, but heat-shock treatments up to 6 min only slightly delayed the reduction in protoplasmic streaming caused by chilling. Tradescantia virginiana did not exhibit symptoms associated with chilling injury in sensitive species (i.e. cessation of protoplasmic streaming in stamen hairs and increased ion leakage from leaf tissue). PMID:15086815

  12. Bioburden control for Space Station Freedom's Ultrapure Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Donald W.; Rodgers, Elizabeth B.; Obenhuber, Don; Huff, Tim

    1991-01-01

    Bioburden control is one of the challenges for the Ultrapure Water System on Space Station Freedom. Bioburden control must enable the system to deliver water with a low bacterial count as well as maintain biological contamination at a manageable level, to permit continued production of quality water. Ozone has been chosen as the primary means of Bioburden control. Planned tests to determine the effectiveness of ozone on free-floating microbes and biofilms are described.

  13. Cavitation and Bubble Formation in Water Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Julia Ann

    2005-01-01

    Gaseous cavitation is examined from a practical and theoretical standpoint. Classical cavitation experiments which disregard dissolved gas are not directly relevant to natural water systems and require a redefined cavitation inception number which considers dissolved gases. In a pressurized water distribution system, classical cavitation is only expected to occur at extreme negative pressure caused by water hammer or at certain valves. Classical theory does not describe some practical phen...

  14. Sensor Networks for Monitoring and Control of Water Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, Andrew; Allen, M.; Preis, A.; M. Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Water distribution systems present a significant challenge for structural monitoring. They comprise a complex network of pipelines buried underground that are relatively inaccessible. Maintaining the integrity of these networks is vital for providing clean drinking water to the general public. There is a need for in-situ, on-line monitoring of water distribution systems in order to facilitate efficient management and operation. In particular, it is important to detect and localize pipe failur...

  15. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  16. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O. [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S.; Mihalik, M. [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  17. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  18. Status of the Regenerative ECLS Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald Layne

    2010-01-01

    The regenerative Water Recovery System (WRS) has completed its first full year of operation on the International Space Station (ISS). The major assemblies included in this system are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2010, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  19. An Overview of Hybrid Water Supply Systems in the Context of Urban Water Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Mukta Sapkota; Meenakshi Arora; Hector Malano; Magnus Moglia; Ashok Sharma; Biju George; Francis Pamminger

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of the physical impacts of decentralized water supply systems on existing centralized water infrastructures. This paper highlights the combination of centralized and decentralized systems, which is referred to as hybrid water supply systems. The system is hypothesized to generate more sustainable and resilient urban water systems. The basic concept is to use decentralized water supply options such as rainwater tanks, storm water harvesting and localized w...

  20. Survey of green building water systems reveals elevated water age and water quality concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoads, William J.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Widespread adoption of innovative water conservation strategies has potential unintended consequences for aesthetics and public health. A cross-section of green buildings were surveyed and compared to typical conventional buildings in terms of water retention time (i.e., water age), water chemistry, and levels of opportunistic pathogen genetic markers. Water age was estimated to be 2-6.7 months in an off-grid office, an average of 8 days in a Leadership in Environmental Engineering Design cer...

  1. Developing Region-Specific Water Energy Intensity Factors for the U.S. Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.; Kandt, A.; Macknick, J.; Daw, J.; Hunsberger, R.; Tomberlin, G.

    2014-12-01

    Energy use by water and wastewater treatment plants equates to approximately 4% of total energy use in the United States. For many municipal water and wastewater treatment plants, energy costs related to pumping, treating, and transporting water represent a large fraction of total costs. The energy intensity of any given utility is heavily variant dependent on location and regional conditions, but energy requirements are generally expected to increase in many regions due to limits on water resources and regulatory requirements for water quality. Quantifying the energy use associated with our nation's water system - the energy needed to convey, extract, treat and distribute water in a particular location - is an important step in understanding the impact and interconnections of the water system on the energy system, in identifying opportunities for savings, and in improving existing modeling and analytic methods for both energy and water systems. Local topography and other regional conditions can greatly affect how much energy a particular water facility utilizes, which in turn affects its relationship with the broader electricity sector. This research evaluates what previous and current efforts have been undertaken to quantify water energy intensity factors (w-EIFs) on a regional scale, provides first steps for cataloguing resulting datasets and findings, and initiates a methodology for developing regional and localized w-EIFs. Improved regional w-EIFs can facilitate national reductions in energy intensity metrics by highlighting areas where energy savings opportunities could provide the greatest benefit.

  2. Exploring Aesthetic Chill Parameters and their Associations with Demographic, Lifestyle and Personality Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbel, Sabine Hobbel

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the literature on individual differences associated with the experience of Aesthetic Chills, and reports a large questionnaire study, completed by 46 international students. Ordinal logistic regressions confirmed previously reported significant and positive relations between Openness and the frequency of Aesthetic Chills in poetry and music (McCrae 2007; Kunkel, Pramstaller, Grant, & von Georgi, 2008). Prior reported correlations between the frequency of Aesthetic Ch...

  3. The effect of lethal doses of X-rays on chilled and thyroidectomized animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Trujillo, T.T.; Knowlton, N.P. Jr.

    1949-04-19

    The chilling of animals has been shown to offer some protection from the lethal effects of radiation. An effort has been made to extend the study of the effects of chilling on the lethal effects of x radiation and to determine whether or not the lowering of the basal metabolic rate by thyroidectomy will give similar protection. Five experiments were carried out using mice and rats as the experimental animals.

  4. Developmental stages of cultivated strawberry flowers in relation to chilling sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza, Maria Teresa; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors affecting flower development may limit the yields of fruiting crops worldwide. In temperate regions, chilling temperatures during flower development can compromise fruit production, but their negative effects vary depending on the differing susceptibilities of each developmental stage. The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa Duch.) is widely grown worldwide but financial returns are influenced by sudden shifts to chilling temperatures occurring during the cropping ...

  5. Dorsoventral variations in dark chilling effects on photosynthesis and stomatal function in Paspalum dilatatum leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Soares-Cordeiro, Ana Sofia; Driscoll, Simon P.; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Foyer, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of dark chilling on the leaf-side-specific regulation of photosynthesis were characterized in the C4 grass Paspalum dilatatum. CO2- and light-response curves for photosynthesis and associated parameters were measured on whole leaves and on each leaf side independently under adaxial and abaxial illumination before and after plants were exposed to dark chilling for one or two consecutive nights. The stomata closed on the adaxial sides of the leaves under abaxial illumination and no ...

  6. Effect of LaCI3 on the chilling tolerance of rice seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIMeiru; LIUHongxian; WANGYirou

    1997-01-01

    The rice variety Tesanai 2 is susceptible to chilling. Exposure of the seedlings grown at 28±1℃ and under a photo flux density(PFD) of 30 μmol/m2s to 1℃ and under a PFD of 150μmol/m2s for 2 d caused a physiological disorder called chilling injury which reduced the survival rate to 50%.

  7. Water Quality Benefits of Constructed Wetlands Integrated Within Agricultural Water Recycling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands have been integrated within innovative agricultural water recycling systems, and these systems are now being evaluated at three demonstration sites located in the northwest Ohio portion of the Maumee River Basin (Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert Counties). The water recycling syst...

  8. Hot water surface pasteurisation of lamb carcasses: microbial effects and cost-benefit considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Sigrun J; Wahlgren, Magnus; Røtterud, Ole-Johan; Nesbakken, Truls

    2011-03-15

    Although hot water pasteurisation of carcasses is accepted as a general intervention in USA, this is not the case in Europe. The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the microbiological effects of hot water pasteurisation of lamb carcasses, both after slaughtering and dressing and following subsequent chilling and storage; (ii) to discuss hot water pasteurisation from a public health and cost-benefit perspective; (iii) to discuss the benefits of hot water pasteurisation compared with use of separate meat processing streams for high-risk carcasses; (iv) to evaluate the use of recycled hot water in a hygienic context and in relation to EU regulations; and (v) to consider the technological and sensory aspects of hot water pasteurisation of lamb carcasses. Samples were collected from 420 naturally contaminated lamb carcasses, with 50% of the carcasses (n=210) subject to hot water pasteurisation at 82 °C for 8s immediately after slaughter. Surface swab samples from 4500 cm² areas on carcasses were collected at slaughter, after chilling for 24 h, and after chilling for five days. The microbial analyses included Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and aerobic plate count (APC). A resuscitation step using Tryptone Soya Agar was included in the microbiological analyses. Hot water pasteurisation significantly reduced the levels of E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, B. cereus and APC (all Pgaps regarding hot water pasteurisation and indicate that replacing the expensive system of separate processing of high-risk carcasses with hot water surface pasteurisation should be considered as a serious option. PMID:21356564

  9. Water quality keeping system for reactor primary coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampled water at the exit of a condensate desalting tower taken out from a sampling pipe of an inline specimen sampling system is analyzed and evaluated by an organic impurity analyzer as to ions formed therein in a reactor pressure vessel. For example, when an aromatic sulfonic acid as main effluents from cation resins is present, it is converted to sulfuric acid then applied with quantitative analysis and electroconductivity measurement. These measured values are cross checked with calculation values from an equivalent ionic conductivity, further, a reactor water conductivity and a reactor water sulfuric acid concentration are forecast by introducing values such as of the reactor water flow rate, condensate flow rate, reactor water cleanup system flow rate and reactor water cleanup system removing rate. When the forecast value does not satisfy a standard reactor water quality control value, an exit valve is closed automatically by a system control/driving device and an inlet valve is opened, to isolate the condensate desalting tower. In such a system, presence of organic impurities can be forecast based on the water quality monitor of a condensate system before the organic impurities are charged into the reactor core to change the water quality of primary coolants. (I.S.)

  10. Crew Exploration Vehicle Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George; Peterson, Laurie J.; Vega, Leticia M.

    2010-01-01

    A stored water system on the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) will supply the crew with potable water for: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain the quality of the water, transferred from the orbiter to the International Space Station, stored in contingency water containers. In the CEV water system, a depletion of the ionic silver biocide is expected due to ionic silver-plating onto the surfaces of materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for long-term missions that do not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point-of-use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform the testing that will help alleviate concerns related to the CEV water system.

  11. LARGO hot water system thermal performance test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The thermal performance tests and results on the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions is presented. Some objectives of these evaluations are to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of energy delivered to the household as contributed by solar power supplied to operate the system and auxiliary power to maintain tank temperature at proper level, overall system efficiency and to determine temperature distribution within the tank. The Solar Hot Water system is termed a Dump-type because of the draining system for freeze protection. The solar collector is a single glazed flat plate. An 82-gallon domestic water heater is provided as the energy storage vessel. Water is circulated through the collector and water heater by a 5.3 GPM capacity pump, and control of the pump motor is achieved by a differential temperature controller.

  12. Development of Water Based Pesticide System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Gašić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that emulsifiable concentrates (EC, besides good properties have problemwith a high solvent content thus are not environmental friendly and can cause problemsfor users. The interest in developing oil-in-water emulsions (EW instead emulsifiableconcentrates is increasing due to toxicological problems with solvents. Oil-in-water emulsionscan reduce phytotoxicity, ecotoxicity and dermal toxicity, have a higher flash pointthan EC and are safer in transport and storage; also EW are more compatible with waterbased SC formulations for blends of active ingredients. Plant protection often includes theuse of some pyretroides as active ingredients, for example Cypermethrin, alone or combinedwith Chlorpyrifos. It is a very old product which is formulated as EC formulation. Inthis study oil-in-water emulsion (EW was developed with the same active ingredients. TheEW formulation was tested and the results show that it was stable and therefore could beused in plant protection.

  13. Data mining based sensor fault diagnosis and validation for building air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy based on the data mining (DM) method is developed to detect and diagnose sensor faults based on the past running performance data in heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, combining a rough set approach and an artificial neural network (ANN). The reduced information is used to develop classification rules and train the neural network to infer appropriate parameters. The differences between measured thermodynamic states and predicted states obtained from models for normal performance (residuals) are used as performance indices for sensor fault detection and diagnosis. Real test results from a real HVAC system show that only the temperature and humidity measurements of many air handling units (AHU) can work very well as the measurements to distinguish simultaneous temperature sensor faults of the supply chilled water (SCW) and return chilled water (RCW)

  14. Improving chill control in iron powder treated slightly hypereutectic grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed that in eutectic to slightly hypereutectic grey irons (CE = 4.3%-4.5% the presence of austenite dendrites provides an opportunity to improve the cast iron properties, as a high number of eutectic cells are “reinforced” by austenite dendrites. An iron powder addition proved to be important by promoting dendritic austenite in hypereutectic irons, but was accompanied by adverse effect on the characteristics of potential nuclei for graphite. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the solidification pattern of these irons. Chill wedges with different cooling moduli (CM = 0.11 – 0.43 cm were poured in resin bonded sand and metal moulds. Relative clear / mottled / total chill measurement criteria were applied. Iron powder additions led to a higher chill tendency, while single inoculation showed the strongest graphitizing effect. The various double treatments show an intermediate position, but the inoculant added after iron powder appears to be the most effective in reducing base iron chill tendency, for all cooling moduli and chill evaluation parameters. This performance reflects the improved properties of (Mn,XS polygonal compounds as nucleation sites for graphite, especially in resin bonded sand mould castings. Both austenite and graphite nucleation benefit from a double addition of iron powder + inoculant, with positive effect on the final structure and chill tendency.

  15. Calculation of the radiation dose from an upset condition in the off-gas system for a boiling water power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made which considered the upset conditions to result in a rupture of the delay line or charcoal adsorber portions of the radioactive off-gas treatment system for a boiling water power reactor. Radiation dose calculations were made for an individual at a 300-meter boundary fence. The doses calculated were the whole body immersion dose and the thyroid, bone and lung doses due to inhalation. The relationship between the various operating and upset parameters of the off-gas system and the radiation doses were investigated. A semi-infinite cloud model with a ground level release was assumed. For a delay line rupture, the calculated gamma immersion dose varies from a high of 9 rad for a break at the condenser to a low of 0.2 rad for a break at the maximum end of a 300-minute delay line. The thyroid dose from inhalation of radioiodine was calculated to vary from 3 to 6 millirem for a delay line rupture and to be 0.6 rem for a charcoal bed rupture. The highest gamma immersion dose from a charcoal adsorber bed rupture was calculated to be 1.5 rad for the low flow rate condition with either an ambient or chilled bed system. Curves have been constructed which show the variation of the calculated doses with the various input parameters. (U.S.)

  16. An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ooshaksaraie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CWQM- developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic was introduced. CWQM to be used for water quality monitoring during construction activities was designed based on the legal process in Malaysia. Results: According to the water quality monitoring regulation enacted in Malaysia, construction activities require mandatory water quality monitoring plans duly approved by Department of Environment before staring activities. CWQM primarily aims to provide educational and support system for water quality monitoring engineers and decision-makers during construction activities. It displays water quality monitoring plan in report form, water sampling location in GIS format and water quality monitoring data in graph. Conclusion: When the use of CWQM in construction water quality monitoring becomes widespread, it is highly possible that it will be benefited in terms of having more accurate and objective decisions on construction projects which are mainly focused on reducing the stormwater pollution.

  17. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  18. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  19. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site's 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410

  20. Characteristics of cooling water fouling in a heat exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the efficiency of the physical water treatment method in preventing and controlling fouling accumulation on heat transfer surfaces in a laboratory heat exchange system with tap and artificial water. To investigate the fouling characteristics, an experimental test facility with a plate type heat exchange system was newly built, where cooling and hot water moved in opposite directions forming a counter-flow heat exchanger. The obtained fouling resistances were used to analyze the effects of the physical water treatment on fouling mitigation. Furthermore, the surface tension and pH values of water were also measured. This study compared the fouling characteristics of cooling water in the heat exchange system with and without the mitigation methods for various inlet velocities. In the presence of the electrode devices with a velocity of 0.5m/s, the fouling resistance was reduced by 79% compared to that in the absence of electrode devices

  1. Joint optimization of regional water-power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Mo, Birger; Gjelsvik, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    joint optimization of water and electric power systems was developed in order to identify methodologies to assess the broader interactions between water and energy systems. The proposed method is to include water users and power producers into an economic optimization problem that minimizes the cost of...... power production and maximizes the benefits of water allocation, subject to constraints from the power and hydrological systems. The method was tested on the Iberian Peninsula using simplified models of the seven major river basins and the power market. The optimization problem was successfully solved...... very distinct ways, according to the local inflow, storage capacity, hydropower productivity, and irrigation demand and productivity. This highlights the importance of appropriately representing the water users' spatial distribution and marginal benefits and costs when allocating water resources...

  2. Ejector system for TPP and NPP service water supply as a method for improving the water quality in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ejector system for service water supply developed for large condenser electric power plants is considered. The system is characterized by stable operation under all modes. It decreases the waste water temperature difference from 8-10 deg C up to 2-2.5 deg C. The conslusion on applicability of the ejector system at NPPs is made on the basis of the obtained study results related to its influence on ecology

  3. Microbiological quality of drinking water in public and municipal drinking water supply systems in Osijek-Baranja County, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Habuda-Stanić, Mirna; Santo, Vera; Sikora, Magdalena; Benkotić, Snježana

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological and chemical quality of drinking water primarily results from water origin and type of applied water treatment. Since the drinking water is one of the mean way through which many infectious agents can be transmitted to humans causing waterborne diseases, constant monitoring of drinking water quality in water supply systems is needed. This study investigates the microbiological quality of drinking water in twenty five public and municipal water supply systems in the area of Osi...

  4. Regional Water System Vulnerabilities and Strengths for Unavoidable Climate Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Palaniappan, M.; Christian-Smith, J.; Cooley, H.

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of options are available to help water systems prepare and adapt for unavoidable climate impacts, but these options vary depending on region, climatic conditions, economic status, and technical infrastructure in place. Drawing on case studies from the United States, India, and elsewhere, and from both urban and agricultural water systems, risks to water supply and quality are evaluated and summarized and categories of responses to help improve the effectiveness of adaptation policies are reviewed. Among the issues to be discussed are characteristics unique to developing country cities, such as the predominance of informal actors in the water sector. The formal, or government sector, which often exclusively manages water access and distribution in developed country cities, is only one among many players in the water sector in developing country cities. Informal access to water includes direct access by individuals through private groundwater systems, private water markets using vendors or sales of bottled water, and rainwater harvesting systems on individual homes. In this environment, with already existing pressures on water availability and use, the impacts of climate change on water will be strongly felt. This complicates planning for water supply and demand and risks increasing already prevalent water insecurity, especially for urban poor. In wealthier countries, any planning for water-related climate impacts tends to take the form of "business as usual" responses, such as efforts to expand supply with new infrastructure, manage demand through conservation programs, or simply put off addressing the problem to the next generation of managers and users. These approaches can be effective, but also risk missing unusual, non-linear, or threshold impacts. Examples of more informed and innovative efforts to substantively address climate change risks will be presented.

  5. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  6. Total energy consumption of water chiller and pump under different supply water temperatures%不同供水温度下冷水机组与水泵的总能耗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2013-01-01

    给出了风机盘管空调冷水系统中冷水机组与水泵能耗的计算模型,计算了不同冷水供水温度下的系统总能耗.在文中计算条件下,水泵扬程为15~33.2m时,冷水供水温度7℃、供回水温差5℃情况下,系统能耗最小;水泵扬程为33.2~40m时,冷水供水温度6℃、供回水温差6.17℃情况下,系统能耗最小.%Establishes the calculation models of energy consumption of the water chiller and pump in fan-coil unit air coditioning chilled water system, and calculates the total energy consumption under different supply water temperatures. Under the calculation condition of this article, when the head of water pump is between 15 m and 33.2 m, and the chilled water supply temperature is 7 ℃ and the supply-return water temperature difference is 5 ℃ , the system energy consumption is the lowest; when the head of water pump is between 33.2 m and 40 m, and the chilled water supply temperature is 6 ℃ and the supply-return water temperature difference is 6.17 ℃ , the system energy consumption is the minimum.

  7. Design and installation package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains the design and installation procedure for the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's solar hot water system. Included are the system performance specifications, system design drawings, hazard analysis and other information necessary to evaluate the design and instal the system.

  8. The requirements to reliability of water supply systems in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgiyevich

    Full Text Available The recommendations for the development of additional regulatory requirements to reliability of water supply systems in Vietnam are offered. In current construction rules for design, the reliability of water supply systems of water facilities is not standardized. Water systems are classified into three categories, for which the conditions for performing functions in the process of water supply for consumers are formulated. It is not provided to assess the quality of these functions quantitatively. Adoption of design decisions without quantitative assessment of their quality is violating a systematic approach in carrying out construction and design works, which has formed in the global practice. As a result of the research of water supply facilities’ reliability in Vietnam and Russia, the reliability of the existing water supply facilities has been estimated. On the basis of mathematical methods for assessing the reliability of technical objects, the methods for assessing the reliability of water supply facilities and their systems has been justified and systematized. If there is lack of reliability and security requirements to the object of capital construction for design documentation development or such requirements are not established, the development and approval in the prescribed manner of special specifications should precede the documentation development. It is proposed to systematize the statistical data gathering on the reliability of the equipment and facilities of water supply systems by uniform rules. Any designed objects of water supply must have a quantitative estimate of the level of reliability. The outlined methods for assessing the reliability of water supply facilities and systems can be used in the formation of regulatory requirements for reliability in the design of water supply facilities in Vietnam.

  9. An analysis of water data systems to inform the Open Water Data Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, David L.; Read, Emily Kara; Lucido, Jessica M.; Slawecki, Tad; Young, Dwane

    2016-01-01

    Improving access to data and fostering open exchange of water information is foundational to solving water resources issues. In this vein, the Department of the Interior's Assistant Secretary for Water and Science put forward the charge to undertake an Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) that would prioritize and accelerate work toward better water data infrastructure. The goal of the OWDI is to build out the Open Water Web (OWW). We therefore considered the OWW in terms of four conceptual functions: water data cataloging, water data as a service, enriching water data, and community for water data. To describe the current state of the OWW and identify areas needing improvement, we conducted an analysis of existing systems using a standard model for describing distributed systems and their business requirements. Our analysis considered three OWDI-focused use cases—flooding, drought, and contaminant transport—and then examined the landscape of other existing applications that support the Open Water Web. The analysis, which includes a discussion of observed successful practices of cataloging, serving, enriching, and building community around water resources data, demonstrates that we have made significant progress toward the needed infrastructure, although challenges remain. The further development of the OWW can be greatly informed by the interpretation and findings of our analysis.

  10. Economic Efficiency and Investment Timing for Dual Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Robert; Hughes, Trevor C.; Narayanan, Rangesan

    1987-10-01

    A general methodology to evaluate the economic feasibility of dual water systems is presented. In a first step, a static analysis (evaluation at a single point in time) is developed. The analysis requires the evaluation of consumers' and producer's surpluses from water use and the capital cost of the dual (outdoor) system. The analysis is then extended to a dynamic approach where the water demand increases with time (as a result of a population increase) and where the dual system is allowed to expand. The model determines whether construction of a dual system represents a net benefit, and if so, what is the best time to initiate the system (corresponding to maximization of social welfare). Conditions under which an analytic solution is possible are discussed and results of an application are summarized (including sensitivity to different parameters). The analysis allows identification of key parameters influencing attractiveness of dual water systems.

  11. Method of Distinguishing Hydrologic Drought for Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to design water supply system to adjust runoff. Thus it will not meet the practical needs if only the hydrologic drought in natural basin is studied. In practice the natural water balance and water deficits must be researched, i. e., the adjusting effects of the water supply system such as a reservoir should be considered, and the drought event be distinguished according to the special system. The problem of drought identification under adjusted runoff was investigated in this study. By considering water transfer during different periods, a method to distinguish hydrologic drought for the water supply system was developed, and a standard drought severity index SWDSI was proposed. The method has been applied in Pan Jiakou water supply system in China. From 1953 to 1997, a total of 14 hydrologic droughts were identified in the water supply system, among which there were 3 severe droughts, 6 moderate droughts and 5 light droughts. The results are in good agreement with the historic drought records.

  12. Seafood and Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia M. van Ruth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is an important food source for many. Consumers should be entitled to an informed choice, and there is growing concern about correct composition labeling of seafood. Due to its high price, it has been shown to be vulnerable to adulteration. In the present study, we focus on moisture levels in seafood. Moisture and crude protein contents of chilled and frozen cod, pangasius, salmon, shrimp and tilapia purchased from various retail outlets in the Netherlands were examined by reference methods and the values of which were compared with the reported data from other studies in literature. Significant differences in proximate composition were determined for different species and between chilled and frozen products of the same species. Pangasius products showed the highest moisture contents in general (86.3 g/100 g, and shrimp products revealed the largest differences between chilled and frozen products. Comparison with literature values and good manufacturing practice (GMP standards exposed that, generally, chilled pangasius, frozen pangasius and frozen shrimp products presented considerably higher moisture and lower crude protein/nitrogen contents than those found in other studies. From the GMP standards, extraneous water was estimated on average at 26 g/100 g chilled pangasius product, and 25 and 34 g/100 g product for frozen shrimp and pangasius products, respectively.

  13. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Pourakbar; Mohammad Mosaferi; Saeed Lak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP), have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified an...

  14. Automated Water Supply System and Water Theft Identification Using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Anubha Panchal,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world rapid growing urban residential areas, to avoid scarcity of water problems and requirements of consumers, therefore it is supposed to supply adequate water distribution networks are managed automatically. Along with this another problem in the water supply system is that public is using suction pumps to suck the water directly from the home street pipeline. The best way to improve the automation and monitoring architectures which contain a supervision and control system for the real time installation, programmable logic controllers with basic functions communication systems, standard interfaces or dedicated ones with proximity sensors, electrical drive elements, measuring devices, etc. In this project it is proposed to develop the PLC & SCADA based water monitoring and theft prevention. Control System is further coupled to SCADA unit .This paper focuses particularly to a control system for controlling and monitoring within a Water Distribution System. Process automation system based upon utilization of an industrial PLC and PC systems including all the network components represents the best way to improve the water distribution technological process.

  15. Asellus aquaticus and other invertebrates in drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine

    Campylobacter jejuni. Invertebrates enter drinking water systems through various routes e.g. through deficiencies in e.g. tanks, pipes, valves and fittings due to bursts or maintenance works. Some invertebrates pass treatment processes from ground water or surface water supplies while other routes may include......Few if any drinking water distribution systems worldwide are completely free of invertebrate animals and presumably it has been that way since the very first distribution system was constructed. Invertebrates visible to the naked eye cause consumer complaints and are considered a sign of bad...... hygiene. Whereas invertebrates in drinking water are known to host parasites in tropical countries they are largely regarded an aesthetical problem in temperate countries. Publications on invertebrate distribution in Danish systems have been completely absent and while reports from various countries have...

  16. Ground Source Heat Pump Hot Water System Performance Testing and Research of New Inpatient Building of Qinzhou a Hospital%某医院住院楼地源热泵热水系统性能测试与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊; 刘景升; 胡映宁; 汤宏群

    2012-01-01

    简单介绍了某医疗建筑的能耗情况和医院的工程概况,并对本医院的供热水系统——地源热泵系统的运行情况进行测试和性能研究,包括对机组冷冻水的进/出温度的测试、土壤换热器吸热效率的测试、机组的能效测试等,并分析冷冻水的进/出温度、流量及其他因素对系统能耗产生影响情况,并得出系统冷冻水流量在4.3 ~4.8 kg/s范围内为最佳流量段,此时土壤换热器的吸热效率较高,土壤换热器单位管长换热量在35.5W/m左右,机组的能效比值达4.0及以上,系统的能效比达3.7及以上;最后对本系统进行了节能计算及效益分析,可看出此系统节能效益非常可观.%The energy situation of medical building and project profile of this medical hospital was described, and operation and performance of ground source heat pump hot water system was studied, including the chilled water inlet / outlet temperature tests, endothermic efficiency of soil heat exchanger tests,units of energy efficiency tests and so on, and analysis of chilled water inlet/ outlet temperature,flow, inlet and outlet water temperature difference or other factors impact on energy consumption situation, reached that the system chilled water flow rate within 4.3~4.8 kg / s as best of the flow section, at this point the soil heat exchanger absorbs heat is more efficient,heat exchange of per pipe length is around 35.5W/m, unit EER value reach 4.0 and a-bove, system EER reach 3. 7 and above;finally, on the basis of calculation results , an analysis on energy saving potential and benefit analysis is carried out , and so see that energy efficiency of this system is very impressive.

  17. Temperature control system for water-perfused suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengelmann, G. L.; Mckeag, M.; Rowell, L. B.

    1977-01-01

    A system used to control skin temperature in human subjects wearing water-perfused garments is described. It supplies 8 l/min at 10 psi with water temperature controlled within plus or minus 0.1 C. Temperature control is facilitated by a low circulating thermal mass and a fast responding heater based on a commercially available quartz heat lamp. The system is open so that hot or cold water can be added from the building mains to produce rates of change of water temperature exceeding 5 C/min. These capabilities allow semiautomatic control of skin temperature within plus or minus 0.1 C of desired wave forms.

  18. Evaluation of water distribution system monitoring using stochastic dynamic modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Philip Edward James

    1992-01-01

    A stochastic dynamic constituent transport model was developed, capable of simulating the operation of a water distribution system containing pumps and storage tanks, and subject to random demands and contaminant inputs. Long term operation of a hypothetical small town water supply system containing one pump station and one storage tank was simulated while the system was subjected to external contaminant inputs. Repeated simulations were made under different regimes of exter...

  19. Robust Control of Urban Industrial Water Mismatching Uncertain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Kebai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban industrial water system parameter fluctuation producing uncertainty may not occur in a control input channel, can be applied mismatching uncertain system to describe. Based on Lyapunov direct method and linear matrix inequality, design the urban industrial water mismatching uncertain system feedback stabilization robust control scheme. Avoid the defects that the feedback stabilization control method based on the matrix Riccati equation need to preset equation parameters, easier to solve and can reduce the conservative.

  20. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  1. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  2. Application of Integrated Control of Linked Water and Waste Water Systems in the Hoeksche Waard

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenen, A.; van Heeringen, K.-J.; Mol, B.

    2012-04-01

    Presented is a project in which an experimental integrated automatic control system for sewer systems and open water is developed for a rural region in The Netherlands, containing five municipalities and one water board. The goal of the project is to improve the water quality through increased cooperation between the authorities. The most effective method for realizing the water quality goals is to reduce the number of sewer spills, and to position the spills on locations less sensitive to sewer spills. In the project, three main methods are used to reduce the number of sewer spills: The first method involves optimizing the use of the available storage in the sewer system; the control of the pumps aim at keeping the filling rates of the sewer subsystems equal. A second method entails increasing the inflow of the Waste Water Treatment Plants during heavy rainfall events without disturbing the treatment process. The third method is about controlling the system in such a way that spills occur at less sensitive locations, thus avoiding spills in ecologically valuable waterbodies. All these methods require an extensive sensor network and centrally real-time controlled systems (RTC). An extensive study of the waste water chain constitutes the basis for the deployment of the automatic central control. The project has resulted so far in an extensive knowledge on the functioning of the waste water systems and an increased cooperation between water authorities. Preliminary results on the central control indicate that the number and volume of spills have decreased.

  3. The upside-down water collection system of Syntrichia caninervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Pitt, William G; Zhang, Yuanming; Wu, Nan; Tao, Ye; Truscott, Tadd T

    2016-01-01

    Desert plants possess highly evolved water conservation and transport systems, from the root structures that maximize absorption of scarce ground water(1-5), to the minimization of leaf surface area(6) to enhance water retention. Recent attention has focused on leaf structures that are adapted to collect water and promote nucleation from humid air(7-9). Syntrichia caninervis Mitt. (Pottiaceae) is one of the most abundant desert mosses in the world and thrives in an extreme environment with multiple but limited water resources (such as dew, fog, snow and rain), yet the mechanisms for water collection and transport have never been completely revealed. S. caninervis has a unique adaptation: it uses a tiny hair (awn) on the end of each leaf to collect water, in addition to that collected by the leaves themselves. Here we show that the unique multiscale structures of the hair are equipped to collect and transport water in four modes: nucleation of water droplets and films on the leaf hair from humid atmospheres; collection of fog droplets on leaf hairs; collection of splash water from raindrops; and transportation of the acquired water to the leaf itself. Fluid nucleation is accomplished in nanostructures, whereas fog droplets are gathered in areas where a high density of small barbs are present and then quickly transported to the leaf at the base of the hair. Our observations reveal nature's optimization of water collection by coupling relevant multiscale physical plant structures with multiscale sources of water. PMID:27302768

  4. The prediction of mineral solubilities in natural waters: A chemical equilibrium model for the NaKCaMgClSO 4H 2O system at temperatures below 25°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ronald J.; Møller, Nancy; Weare, John H.

    1990-03-01

    A low temperature thermochemical model for the system NaKCaMgClSO 4H 2O is presented. Aqueous species and standard chemical potentials of solid-solution reactions are modeled from published data for binary and ternary solutions. The temperature range below 25°C (to near -60°C) is emphasized, although the model parameters are fitted to merge smoothly with those of higher temperature models at temperatures between 25 and 100°C. Binary and ternary specific ion interaction terms vary independently with temperature and are modeled using freezing point depression and mineral solubility measurements. The standard chemical potential of the ice-water reaction is fitted independent of the model (from vapor pressure and free energy data). Remaining standard chemical potentials of solidsolution reactions are fitted along with the specific ion interaction terms. Model predictions are tested against published data for minerals formed and brine compositions obtained by chilling seawater to the eutectic (about -54°C). The model predicts the sequence of solid phases observed to precipitate from chilled seawater (mice-mirabilite-hydrohalite-sylvite-MgCl 2 · 12H 2Oantarcticite). For all but mirabilite model temperatures are within the uncertainty of the measured temperature. The compositions of brines predicted by the model also closely follow the observed compositions. The model allows accurate predictions of the freezing points of simple and complex solutions in the system. Low temperature phase equilibria and mineral solubilities may also be predicted. The model may be used to determine the composition of brines in fluid inclusions in the multicomponent system based on low temperature phase equilibria.

  5. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter V.L. Hunt; Rogers, Christopher D. F.

    2014-01-01

    The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be...

  6. Water strategies for Swedish sustainable urban planning : A comparison between certification systems and urban water research

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöholm, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development is gaining more focus than ever, and sustainable urban water management is increasingly being incorporated in urban planning worldwide. Internationally, certification systems for sustainable urban planning have gained popularity, and a Swedish version of the British certification system BREEAM Communities is on its way. In this degree project the technical water related aspects of the certification system BREEAMCommunities are analyzed and compared with the correspondi...

  7. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA

  8. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  9. Urban water transactions: the search of a comprehensive framework for interactions between water and urban systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Hector; Domínguez, Efraín

    2013-04-01

    United Nations global demographic prospects show that from 1950 to 2050, the number of people living in cities will increase from 0.7 to 6.3 billion, which represents a 9 times fold in 100 years. In contrast, human population as a whole doesn't show the same trends of the urban subset. For instance, rural population is in some regions almost stalled or reducing at small rates, with an average growth rate 50% less than the urban population. This progressive change in global population structure, with more people living mostly in urban areas, already places urban settlements as the main node driving the interaction of human population and other earth systems, at local, regional and global scales. This population dynamics is a major source of concern, mainly because the need to comprehensively understand the two apparent contradictory faces of the urbanization phenomena: Despite cities tend to perform more efficiently in terms of mass and energy requirements as function of population size, the agglomeration process in cities typically implies an increase of overall throughput of mass and energy over time. Thus, a central question is to understand how the apparent per capita energy and material flows minimization occurring in cities can propagate its effects towards other geosystems in future population scenarios. The magnitude of scaled (temporal and spatial) effects is crucial to determine if limits of supporting systems capacity is or will be exceeded for a system of cities, or if otherwise is within steady limits. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework aims for the study of the above question from the perspective of water. Typically between 50 and 70% of mass throughput in urban areas is water, however, that figure doesn't account for other teleconnected flows, such as energy production (hydropower facilities) and food production (virtual water), etc. Therefore, a comprehensive view of actual dependence of urban areas and water faces - in the view of the

  10. Running Club Warm Up Staves Off Winter's Chill

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Not deterred by winter's chill, over 900 runners met at the CERN Prévesin site for Escalade training. Think the sudden cold snap is a reason to stay indoors? Think again! The CERN running club has just recently had the honour of holding the November 11th Escalade training session, and with over 900 runners present at the Prévessin site it was clear that the chilly temperatures were no barrier whatsoever. The story behind Escalade training starts back in 1977 when a group of running enthusiasts from the Stade Genève club decided to organize a running race in the Old Town in conjunction with the Escalade festivities. They were told that no normal people would think of organizing a running race in the month of December, but fortunately they ignored the advice! From the initial 50 or so runners, these Escalade races have grown into an institution and now attract upwards of 15,000 people of all ages from 5 to over 80 each year. And with over 30% of each year's runners participat...

  11. Start of the big chill for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The cooling of Sector 7-8 of the LHC, the first to undergo the process, is under way to the 1.9 K necessary for superconductivity. During the night of 14 to 15 March, an important milestone was reached when the entire sector was cooled to 4.5 K, the temperature of liquid helium. The two graphs above show the progression of cooling in Sector 7-8. The first gives the status of the sector on Tuesday 6 March at 4:00 pm, the second on Wednesday 7 March at 10:00 am. Each square represents a magnet.It's the start of the big chill for the LHC. Since the middle of January, the teams from the Accelerator Cryogenics group have been working to cool down the first sector of the machine. Three kilometres of magnets between Point 7 (Ferney-Voltaire) and Point 8 (Prévessin) are to be cooled to 1.9 Kelvin (-271°C), colder than outer space. The first step in the process was to cool the sector to 80 K. Following mechanical and electrical integrity tests at this temperature, it was then further cooled to 20 K for additional e...

  12. Impact of emerging clean vehicle system on water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Clean vehicles may increase US water consumption up to 2810 billion gallons/year. • Large-scale clean vehicle adoption could lead to severe regional water stress. • Fuel choice for clean vehicle is crucial in minimizing regional water stress. • Regional optimization illustrated the importance of regional consideration. - Abstract: While clean vehicles (i.e., vehicles powered by alternative fuels other than fossil fuels) offer great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from gasoline-based vehicles, the associated impact on water resources has not yet been fully assessed. This research provides a systematic evaluation of the impact of a fully implemented clean vehicle system on national and state-level water demand and water stress. On the national level, based on existing policies, transitioning the current gasoline-based transportation into one with clean vehicles will increase national annual water consumption by 1950–2810 billion gallons of water, depending on the market penetration of electric vehicles. On the state level, variances of water efficiency in producing different fuels are significant. The fuel choice for clean vehicle development is especially crucial for minimizing water stress increase in states with already high water stress, high travel demands, and significant variations in water efficiency in producing different alternative fuels. Current development of clean vehicle infrastructure, however, has not reflected these state-level variations. This study takes an optimization approach to further evaluate impacts on state-level water stress from a fully implemented clean vehicle system and identified potential roles (fuel producer or consumer) states may play in real world clean vehicle development scenario. With an objective of minimizing overall water stress impact, our optimization model aims to provide an analytical framework to better assess impacts on state-level water

  13. TFT-LCD工厂冷热源系统设计与节能%Saving Energy Design of Heat Resource System in TFT-LCD Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计玉帮; 廖国期

    2011-01-01

    结合TFT-LCD产业的生产特点,着重阐述了TFT-LCD工厂冷热源系统设计中冷冻水供应中低温系统分开设置、冷冻水及冷却水采用大温差、冷水机组热回收、压缩空气机组压缩热回收、自由冷却等节能措施,并且分析了各种节能措施的节能效果。%According to the character of TFT-LCD industry, separating low temperature chilled water supply system and middle temperature chilled water supply system, adopting more temperature difference of chilled water and cooling water, adopting heat recovery chiller, reclaiming heat from cooling water of air compressor, free cooling, and etc. are all applied in heat resource system design of TFT-LCD factory, and saving results are given for each saving measure in this paper.

  14. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

  15. Modeling, control and optimization of water systems systems engineering methods for control and decision making tasks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides essential background knowledge on the development of model-based real-world solutions in the field of control and decision making for water systems. It presents system engineering methods for modelling surface water and groundwater resources as well as water transportation systems (rivers, channels and pipelines). The models in turn provide information on both the water quantity (flow rates, water levels) of surface water and groundwater and on water quality. In addition, methods for modelling and predicting water demand are described. Sample applications of the models are presented, such as a water allocation decision support system for semi-arid regions, a multiple-criteria control model for run-of-river hydropower plants, and a supply network simulation for public services.

  16. Optimization of water conveyance systems for nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report develops a mathematical model for the conceptual design of water supply systems for nuclear energy centers based on a classical optimization analysis under inequality constraints and an embedded enumeration scheme. A hypothetical nuclear energy center in New Jersey is used for illustrative computations and sensitivity analysis to major design variables. The optimization criterion is the minimization of present worth over the lifespan of the center, and encompasses all major components of the cooling, water conveyance and heat dissipation systems. Analysis of the trade-off between electric transmission and water conveyance, and comparisons of cooling system modes are also included

  17. An Advanced Microturbine System with Water-Lubricated Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Nakano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of the next-generation, high-performance microturbine system was developed for laboratory evaluation. Its unique feature is its utilization of water. Water is the lubricant for the bearings in this first reported application of water-lubricated bearings in gas turbines. Bearing losses and limitations under usage conditions were found from component tests done on the bearings and load tests done on the prototype microturbine. The rotor system using the water-lubricated bearings achieved stable rotating conditions at a rated rotational speed of 51,000 rpm. An electrical output of 135 kW with an efficiency of more than 33% was obtained. Water was also utilized to improve electrical output and efficiency through water atomizing inlet air cooling (WAC and a humid air turbine (HAT. The operation test results for the WAC and HAT revealed the WAC and HAT operations had significant effects on both electrical output and electrical efficiency.

  18. Dishwashing water recycling system and related water quality standards for military use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jared; Verbyla, Matthew E; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Randall, Andrew A; Amundsen, Ted J; Zastrow, Dustin J

    2015-10-01

    As the demand for reliable and safe water supplies increases, both water quality and available quantity are being challenged by population growth and climate change. Greywater reuse is becoming a common practice worldwide; however, in remote locations of limited water supply, such as those encountered in military installations, it is desirable to expand its classification to include dishwashing water to maximize the conservation of fresh water. Given that no standards for dishwashing greywater reuse by the military are currently available, the current study determined a specific set of water quality standards for dishwater recycling systems for U.S. military field operations. A tentative water reuse standard for dishwashing water was developed based on federal and state regulations and guidelines for non-potable water, and the developed standard was cross-evaluated by monitoring water quality data from a full-scale dishwashing water recycling system using an innovative electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration process. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was also performed based on exposure scenarios derived from literature data. As a result, a specific set of dishwashing water reuse standards for field analysis (simple, but accurate) was finalized as follows: turbidity (<1 NTU), Escherichia coli (<50 cfu mL(-1)), and pH (6-9). UV254 was recommended as a surrogate for organic contaminants (e.g., BOD5), but requires further calibration steps for validation. The developed specific water standard is the first for dishwashing water reuse and will be expected to ensure that water quality is safe for field operations, but not so stringent that design complexity, cost, and operational and maintenance requirements will not be feasible for field use. In addition the parameters can be monitored using simple equipment in a field setting with only modest training requirements and real-time or rapid sample turn-around. This standard may prove useful in future development

  19. Computer Model to Estimate Reliability Engineering for Air Conditioning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability engineering is used to predict the performance and optimize design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. Air conditioning systems are expose to a number of failures. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely can be due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or air conditioning system. Forecasting for system failure rates are very important for maintenance. This paper focused on the reliability of the air conditioning systems. Statistical distributions that were commonly applied in reliability settings: the standard (2 parameter) Weibull and Gamma distributions. After distributions parameters had been estimated, reliability estimations and predictions were used for evaluations. To evaluate good operating condition in a building, the reliability of the air conditioning system that supplies conditioned air to the several The company's departments. This air conditioning system is divided into two, namely the main chilled water system and the ten air handling systems that serves the ten departments. In a chilled-water system the air conditioner cools water down to 40-45 degree F (4-7 degree C). The chilled water is distributed throughout the building in a piping system and connected to air condition cooling units wherever needed. Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided reliability software, this is due to the Weibull and Gamma distributions indicated that the reliability for the systems equal to 86.012% and 77.7% respectively. A comparison between the two important families of distribution functions, namely, the Weibull and Gamma families was studied. It was found that Weibull method performed for decision making.

  20. Effects of lactic acid and commercial chilling processes on survival of Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Campylobacter coli in pork variety meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Amanda M; Miller, Rhonda K; Castillo, Alejandro; Griffin, Davey B; Hardin, Margaret D

    2012-09-01

    Current industry chilling practices with and without the application of 2% L-lactic acid were compared for their effectiveness at reducing levels of Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Campylobacter coli on pork variety meats. Pork variety meats (livers, intestines, hearts, and stomachs) were inoculated individually with one of the three pathogens and subjected to five different treatment combinations that included one or more of the following: water wash (25°C), lactic acid spray (2%, 40 to 50°C), chilling (4°C), and freezing (-15°C). Samples were analyzed before treatment, after each treatment step, and after 2, 4, and 6 months of frozen storage. Results showed that when a lactic acid spray was used in combination with water spray, immediate reductions were approximately 0.5 log CFU per sample of Salmonella, 0.8 log CFU per sample of Y. enterocolitica, and 1.1 log CFU per sample of C. coli. Chilling, both alone and in combination with spray treatments, had little effect on pathogens, while freezing resulted in additional 0.5-log CFU per sample reductions in levels of Salmonella and Y. enterocolitica, and an additional 1.0-log CFU per sample reduction in levels of C. coli. While reductions of at least 1 log CFU per sample were observed on variety meats treated with only a water wash and subsequently frozen, samples treated with lactic acid had greater additional reductions than those treated with only a water spray throughout frozen storage. The results of this study suggest that the use of lactic acid as a decontamination intervention, when used in combination with good manufacturing practices during processing, causes significant reductions in levels of Salmonella, Y. enterocolitica, and C. coli on pork variety meats. PMID:22947465